WorldWideScience

Sample records for major acidic sea

  1. Evaporation of boric acid from sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gast, J A; Thompson, T G

    1959-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that the boron-chlorinity ratios of rain waters are many times greater than the boron-chlorinity ratio of sea water. The presence of boron in the atmosphere has been attributed to sea spray, volcanic activity, accumulation in dust, evaporation from plants, and industrial pollution. In this paper data are presented to demonstrate that boric acid in sea water has a vapor pressure at ordinary temperatures of the sea and, when sea water evaporates, boric acid occurs in the condensate of the water vapor. It is postulated that, while some of the boron in the atmosphere can be attributed to the sources mentioned above, most of the boric acid results from evaporation from the sea.

  2. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1... Table 1 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are... 168 02.0W Ogchul I.1 53 00.0N 168 24.0W Sea Lion Rocks. (Amak) 1 55 28.0N 163 12.0W Ugamak I.1 54 14...

  3. Characteristics of humic and fulvic acids in Arabian Sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from some of the shelf, slope and offshore sediments of the Arabian Sea were studied. The molecular weight, functional groups, elemental composition and infrared spectra were examined. Humic substances, dominated...

  4. Physiological performance and thermal tolerance of major Red Sea macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Weinzierl, Michael S.

    2017-12-01

    As anthropogenically-forced ocean temperatures continue to rise, the physiological response of marine macrophytes becomes exceedingly relevant. The Red Sea is a semi-isolated sea- the warmest in the world (SST up to 34°C) - already exhibiting signs of rapid warming rates exceeding those of other tropical oceans. This will have profound effects on the physiology of marine organisms, specifically marine macrophytes, which have direct influence on the dynamic carbonate system of the Red Sea. The aim of this paper is to define the physiological capability and thermal optima and limits of six ecologically important Red Sea macrophytes- ranging from seagrasses to calcifying and non-calcifying algae- and to describe the effects of increasing thermal stress on the performance and limits of each macrophyte in terms of activation energy. Of the species considered, Halophila stipulacae, Halimeda optunia, Halimeda monile and Padina pavonica thrive in thermal extremes and may be more successful in future Red Sea warming scenarios. Specifically, Halimeda opuntia increased productivity and calcification rates up to 38°C, making it the most thermally resilient macrophyte. Halophila stipulacae is the most productive seagrass, and hence has the greatest positive effect on Omega saturation state and offers chemical buffer capacity to future ocean acidification.

  5. Organic carbon source and salinity shape sediment bacterial composition in two China marginal seas and their major tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zou, Li; Lu, Xinxin; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2018-08-15

    Marginal sea sediments receive organic substrates of different origins, but whether and to what extent sediment microbial communities are reflective of the different sources of organic substrates remain unclear. To address these questions, sediment samples were collected in two connected China marginal seas, i.e., Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, and their two major tributaries (Yellow River and Liao River). Sediment bacterial community composition (BCC) was examined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. In addition, physicochemical variables that describe environmental conditions and sediment features were measured. Our results revealed that BCCs changed with salinity and organic carbon (OC) content. Members of Gaiellaceae and Comamonadaceae showed a rapid decrease as salinity and phytoplankton-derived OC increased, while Piscirickettsiaceae and Desulfobulbaceae exhibited an opposite distribution pattern. Differences of riverine vs. marginal sea sediment BCCs could be mostly explained by salinity. However, within the marginal seas, sediment BCC variations were mainly explained by OC-related variables, including terrestrial-derived fatty acids (Terr_FA), phytoplankton-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (Phyto_PUFA), stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C), and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). In addition to environmental variables, network analysis suggested that interactions among individual bacterial taxa might be important in shaping sediment BCCs in the studied areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bottom-Up Determination of Air-Sea Momentum Exchange Under a Major Tropical Cyclone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarosz, Ewa; Mitchell, Douglas A; Wang, David W; Teague, William J

    2007-01-01

    .... Using current observations recorded during a major tropical cyclone, we have estimated this momentum transfer from the ocean side of the air-sea interface, and we discuss it in terms of the drag coefficient...

  7. Stability of stearic acid monolayers on artificial sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A.M.; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation and stability of stearic acid (SA) based films on aqueous sub-phases via Langmuir trough and imaging ellipsometry experiments. The aqueous phase was based on Artificial Sea Water (ASW), a multicomponent salt solution with a total molarity of 0.53. The composition of this

  8. On the importance of Major Baltic Inflows for oxygenation of the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Radtke, Hagen; Seifert, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    In December 2014, the third strongest salt water inflow into the Baltic Sea occurred since 1880. It was assumed that the inflow would turn the entire bottom water of the Baltic Sea from anoxic into oxic conditions for an extended period. However, already in late 2015, the central Eastern Baltic Sea had turned back into anoxic conditions. This rapid oxygen decline was in fact surprising since a weaker inflow in 2003 ventilated the Baltic Sea for a longer period of time. With the aid of an ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea, the two inflows in 2003 and 2014 were analyzed in detail. Although the 2014 inflow event was twice as strong as the 2003 inflow event, oxygen transport continued after the latter one, supplying about the same amount of oxygen again. In addition to the major inflow event, a series of smaller inflows in 2003 supplied the extra oxygen transport. Therefore, the strength of a major inflow event alone cannot be used to predict the oxygenation impact. Instead, it is necessary to consider smaller events, in particular those occurring just before and after a major inflow event, as well. An element tagging method showed that the share of oxygen imported across the Danish Straits on the total oxygen arriving at the central Eastern Baltic Sea is between 10% and 20%. Therefore, the oxygen concentration of the inflowing water seems to be of less importance for the oxygenation effect on the central Baltic Sea due to the strong dilution effect.

  9. Use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent bleeding after major surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipema, Heather J; Tanzi, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the literature describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid for prevention of postoperative bleeding after major surgical procedures. Literature was retrieved through MEDLINE (1946-September 2011) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-September 2011) using the terms tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid, antifibrinolytic, topical, and surgical. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All identified articles in English were evaluated. Clinical trials, case reports, and meta-analyses describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent postoperative bleeding were included. A total of 16 publications in the setting of major surgical procedures were included; the majority of data were for tranexamic acid. For cardiac surgery, 4 trials used solutions containing tranexamic acid (1-2.5 g in 100-250 mL of 0.9% NaCl), and 1 trial assessed a solution containing aminocaproic acid (24 g in 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl). These solutions were poured into the chest cavity before sternotomy closure. For orthopedic procedures, all of the data were for topical irrigation solutions containing tranexamic acid (500 mg-3 g in 50-100 mL of 0.9% NaCl) or for intraarticular injections of tranexamic acid (250 mg to 2 g in 20-50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride, with or without carbazochrome sodium sulfate). Overall, use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid reduced postoperative blood loss; however, few studies reported a significant reduction in the number of packed red blood cell transfusions or units given, intensive care unit stay, or length of hospitalization. Topical application of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid to decrease postsurgical bleeding after major surgical procedures is a promising strategy. Further data are needed regarding the safety of this hemostatic approach.

  10. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  11. Uric acid in major depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Catherine N; Bot, Mariska; Scheffer, Peter G; Snieder, Harold; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-01-01

    Uric acid has neuroprotective effects, owing to its antioxidant properties. Lowered antioxidant capacity, causing increased oxidative stress, may be involved in affective disorders and might be altered by antidepressants. This study investigated the association of plasma uric acid, the greatest contributor to blood antioxidant capacity, with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Data were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including patients with current (N = 1648), remitted (N = 609) MDD and/or anxiety disorders (of which N = 710 antidepressant users) and 618 controls. Diagnoses were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Symptom severity was assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Fear Questionnaire. Uric acid was measured in plasma. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle variables. Plasma uric acid adjusted mean levels were lower in current MDD and/or anxiety disorder(s) (289μmol/l) compared to remitted disorders (298μmol/l, p uric acid. Limitations include the lack of data on dietary intake which could be a potential confounding factor. From these cross-sectional findings, the association between uric acid and psychopathology cannot be inferred to be causal. This large scale study finds plasma uric acid levels are lower in current, but not remitted, MDD and/or anxiety disorders, according to a dose-response gradient. This suggests the involvement of decreased antioxidant status in affective disorders, and points to their potential as an avenue for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to RSIVD in Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Eitaro; Tanizawa, Shiho; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Nakayama, Kei; Ohta, Kohei; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Takagi, Motohiro

    2017-12-01

    Red sea bream iridoviral disease (RSIVD) is a major viral disease in red sea bream farming in Japan. Previously, we identified one candidate male individual of red sea bream that was significantly associated with convalescent individuals after RSIVD. The purpose of this study is to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to the RSIVD-resistant trait for future marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two test families were developed using the candidate male in 2014 (Fam-2014) and 2015 (Fam-2015). These test families were challenged with RSIV, and phenotypes were evaluated. Then, de novo genome sequences of red sea bream were obtained through next-generation sequencing, and microsatellite markers were searched and selected for linkage map construction. One immune-related gene, MHC class IIβ, was also used for linkage map construction. Of the microsatellite markers searched, 148 and 197 were mapped on 23 and 27 linkage groups in the female and male linkage maps, respectively, covering approximately 65% of genomes in both sexes. One QTL linked to an RSIVD-resistant trait was found in linkage group 2 of the candidate male in Fam-2014, and the phenotypic variance of the QTL was 31.1%. The QTL was closely linked to MHC class IIβ. Moreover, the QTL observed in Fam-2014 was also significantly linked to an RSIVD-resistant trait in the candidate male of Fam-2015. Our results suggest that the RSIVD-resistant trait in the candidate male was controlled by one major QTL closely linked to the MHC class IIβ gene and could be useful for MAS of red sea bream.

  13. Susceptibility of central Red Sea corals during a major bleaching event

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-04

    A major coral bleaching event occurred in the central Red Sea near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, in the summer of 2010, when the region experienced up to 10-11 degree heating weeks. We documented the susceptibility of various coral taxa to bleaching at eight reefs during the peak of this thermal stress. Oculinids and agaricids were most susceptible to bleaching, with up to 100 and 80 % of colonies of these families, respectively, bleaching at some reefs. In contrast, some families, such as mussids, pocilloporids, and pectinids showed low levels of bleaching (<20 % on average). We resurveyed the reefs 7 months later to estimate subsequent mortality. Mortality was highly variable among taxa, with some taxa showing evidence of full recovery and some (e. g., acroporids) apparently suffering nearly complete mortality. The unequal mortality among families resulted in significant change in community composition following the bleaching. Significant factors in the likelihood of coral bleaching during this event were depth of the reef and distance of the reef from shore. Shallow reefs and inshore reefs had a higher prevalence of bleaching. This bleaching event shows that Red Sea reefs are subject to the same increasing pressures that reefs face worldwide. This study provides a quantitative, genus-level assessment of the vulnerability of various coral groups from within the Red Sea to bleaching and estimates subsequent mortality. As such, it can provide valuable insights into the future for reef communities in the Red Sea. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from North Atlantic and tropical seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Vincent J T; Helsper, Johannes P F G; de Visser, Willem; van Keulen, Herman; Brandenburg, Willem A

    2011-06-22

    In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. The fatty acid (FA) composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum) and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans) was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM), while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6) and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3), the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6) FA: (n-3) FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3), while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) was detected.

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen Herman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C

  16. Interspecies differences in the accumulation of tributyltin and its metabolites under dietary exposure in sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus, and red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Seiichi; Murakami, Masayo; Kokushi, Emiko; Koyama, Jiro

    2011-02-01

    Interspecies differences in the accumulation of dietary tributyltin (TBT) between sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus, and red sea bream, Pagrus major, were studied. Although TBTs in both species reached steady-state condition in low-concentration group (L-group, 200 ng/g nominal concentration) by 1 week, it increased up to the end of exposure in high-concentration group (H-group, 3000 ng/g nominal concentration). In H-group, the accumulation rate of TBT in sea perch from 1 to 2 weeks was much higher than in red sea bream, which were 2.4-fold for sea perch and 1.7-fold for red sea bream, although TBT concentrations were similar between sea perch and red sea bream in L-group. Furthermore, in the H-group, the concentrations of TBT at 1 and 2 weeks were about 1.3- and 1.9-fold, respectively, higher in the sea perch than in the red sea bream. On the other hand, DBT residue in red sea bream was about 1.4-fold higher in sea perch for the L-group but concentrations were similar in both fishes for the H-group. These results suggest that red sea bream could metabolize faster the TBT to DBT than sea perch. This study also reveals that fish probably could absorb TBT through the food chain. The uptake of TBT by fish should be regarded in the real environment, because TBT concentration in seawater has been decreasing and now already at significantly low level. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Uric acid in major depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, Catherine N.; Bot, Mariska; Scheffer, Peter G.; Snieder, Harold; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Uric acid has neuroprotective effects, owing to its antioxidant properties. Lowered antioxidant capacity, causing increased oxidative stress, may be involved in affective disorders and might be altered by antidepressants. This study investigated the association of plasma uric acid, the

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    OpenAIRE

    van Ginneken, Vincent JT; Helsper, Johannes PFG; de Visser, Willem; van Keulen, Herman; Brandenburg, Willem A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA) composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum) and two from tropical seas (...

  19. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauwe, B.; Middelburg, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment cores from six stations in the eastern North Sea were analyzed for protein amino acids, the nonprotein amino acids beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid and the hexosamines galactosamine and glucosamine, and bulk parameters (organic carbon, nitrogen, total hydrolyzable amino acids and

  20. Valproic acid monotherapy in pregnancy and major congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jentink, Janneke; Loane, Maria A; Dolk, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The use of valproic acid in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of spina bifida, but data on the risks of other congenital malformations are limited.......The use of valproic acid in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of spina bifida, but data on the risks of other congenital malformations are limited....

  1. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  2. Hopanoid-producing bacteria in the Red Sea include the major marine nitrite-oxidizers

    KAUST Repository

    Kharbush, Jenan J

    2018-04-10

    Hopanoids, including the extended side chain-containing bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), are bacterial lipids found abundantly in the geological record and across Earth\\'s surface environments. However, the physiological roles of this biomarker remain uncertain, limiting interpretation of their presence in current and past environments. Recent work investigating the diversity and distribution of hopanoid producers in the marine environment implicated low-oxygen regions as important loci of hopanoid production, and data from marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) suggested that the dominant hopanoid producers in these environments are nitrite-utilizing organisms, revealing a potential connection between hopanoid production and the marine nitrogen cycle. Here we use metagenomic data from the Red Sea to investigate the ecology of hopanoid producers in an environmental setting that is biogeochemically distinct from those investigated previously. The distributions of hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation genes in the Red Sea are closely correlated, and the majority of hopanoid producers are taxonomically affiliated with the major marine nitrite oxidizers, Nitrospinae and Nitrospirae. These results suggest that the relationship between hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation is conserved across varying biogeochemical conditions in dark ocean microbial ecosystems.

  3. Hopanoid-producing bacteria in the Red Sea include the major marine nitrite-oxidizers

    KAUST Repository

    Kharbush, Jenan J; Thompson, Luke R; Haroon, Mohamed; Knight, Rob; Aluwihare, Lihini I

    2018-01-01

    Hopanoids, including the extended side chain-containing bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), are bacterial lipids found abundantly in the geological record and across Earth's surface environments. However, the physiological roles of this biomarker remain uncertain, limiting interpretation of their presence in current and past environments. Recent work investigating the diversity and distribution of hopanoid producers in the marine environment implicated low-oxygen regions as important loci of hopanoid production, and data from marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) suggested that the dominant hopanoid producers in these environments are nitrite-utilizing organisms, revealing a potential connection between hopanoid production and the marine nitrogen cycle. Here we use metagenomic data from the Red Sea to investigate the ecology of hopanoid producers in an environmental setting that is biogeochemically distinct from those investigated previously. The distributions of hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation genes in the Red Sea are closely correlated, and the majority of hopanoid producers are taxonomically affiliated with the major marine nitrite oxidizers, Nitrospinae and Nitrospirae. These results suggest that the relationship between hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation is conserved across varying biogeochemical conditions in dark ocean microbial ecosystems.

  4. Valproic Acid Monotherapy in Pregnancy and Major Congenital Malformations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, J.; Loane, M.A.; Dolk, H.; Barisic, I.; Garne, E.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.; Morris, Joan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The use of valproic acid in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of spina bifida, but data on the risks of other congenital malformations are limited. Methods: We first combined data from eight published cohort studies (1565 pregnancies in which the women

  5. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an Acid Mine Drainage affected estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asta, Maria P.; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixing of acid riverine water with alkaline seawater was studied in an estuary. • Combination of data and geochemical tools allowed modeling the water mixing. • The main geochemical processes were identified and for the first time quantified. • Water chemistry is the result of mixing, dissolution-precipitation and sorption. • Main reactions: gypsum and calcite dissolution and Al and Fe solids precipitation. - Abstract: This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion–ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH) 3 ); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn)

  6. Worldwide Analysis of Sedimentary DNA Reveals Major Gaps in Taxonomic Knowledge of Deep-Sea Benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinniger, Frédéric; Pawlowski, Jan; Harii, Saki

    2016-01-01

    in 39 deep-sea sediment samples from bathyal and abyssal depths worldwide. The eDNA dataset was dominated by meiobenthic taxa and we identified all animal phyla commonly found in the deep-sea benthos; yet, the diversity within these phyla remains largely unknown. The large numbers of taxonomically...... for pure and applied deep-sea environmental research but also emphasizes the necessity to integrate such new approaches with traditional morphology-based examination of deep-sea organisms....

  7. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an acid mine drainage affected estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Maria P; Calleja, Maria Ll; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F

    2015-02-15

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion-ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Sweetman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea encompasses the largest ecosystems on Earth. Although poorly known, deep seafloor ecosystems provide services that are vitally important to the entire ocean and biosphere. Rising atmospheric greenhouse gases are bringing about significant changes in the environmental properties of the ocean realm in terms of water column oxygenation, temperature, pH and food supply, with concomitant impacts on deep-sea ecosystems. Projections suggest that abyssal (3000–6000 m ocean temperatures could increase by 1°C over the next 84 years, while abyssal seafloor habitats under areas of deep-water formation may experience reductions in water column oxygen concentrations by as much as 0.03 mL L–1 by 2100. Bathyal depths (200–3000 m worldwide will undergo the most significant reductions in pH in all oceans by the year 2100 (0.29 to 0.37 pH units. O2 concentrations will also decline in the bathyal NE Pacific and Southern Oceans, with losses up to 3.7% or more, especially at intermediate depths. Another important environmental parameter, the flux of particulate organic matter to the seafloor, is likely to decline significantly in most oceans, most notably in the abyssal and bathyal Indian Ocean where it is predicted to decrease by 40–55% by the end of the century. Unfortunately, how these major changes will affect deep-seafloor ecosystems is, in some cases, very poorly understood. In this paper, we provide a detailed overview of the impacts of these changing environmental parameters on deep-seafloor ecosystems that will most likely be seen by 2100 in continental margin, abyssal and polar settings. We also consider how these changes may combine with other anthropogenic stressors (e.g., fishing, mineral mining, oil and gas extraction to further impact deep-seafloor ecosystems and discuss the possible societal implications.

  9. In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja S. Zabka

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

  10. Structure and functioning of the acid-base system in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliński, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Szymczycha, Beata; Stokowski, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    The marine acid-base system is relatively well understood for oceanic waters. Its structure and functioning is less obvious for the coastal and shelf seas due to a number of regionally specific anomalies. In this review article we collect and integrate existing knowledge of the acid-base system in the Baltic Sea. Hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics of the Baltic Sea, as manifested in horizontal and vertical salinity gradients, permanent stratification of the water column, eutrophication, high organic-matter concentrations and high anthropogenic pressure, make the acid-base system complex. In this study, we summarize the general knowledge of the marine acid-base system as well as describe the peculiarities identified and reported for the Baltic Sea specifically. In this context we discuss issues such as dissociation constants in brackish water, different chemical alkalinity models including contributions by organic acid-base systems, long-term changes in total alkalinity, anomalies of borate alkalinity, and the acid-base effects of biomass production and mineralization. Finally, we identify research gaps and specify limitations concerning the Baltic Sea acid-base system.

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P red sea bream aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Responses of garlic bulbs to gamma irradiation. Changes in major amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parolo, Maria E.; Orioli, Gustavo A.; Croci, Clara A.

    1997-01-01

    Studies were conducted to provide information about the amino acids composition of garlic bulbs cv Colorado and to determinate the effect of a dose of 60 Gy of gamma rays on the behavior of the major free amino acids in relation to sprout growth radioinhibition. TLC and HPLC were used for identification and quantification of free amino acids. Eighteen free amino acids were identified in both parts of garlic bulbs: alanine, glycine, proline, methionine, serine, phenylalanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, threonine, cystine, cysteine, leucine + isoleucine and asparagine. In the inner sprout the major amino acids founded were: glutamine, glutamic acid, threonine, asparagine, cystine, cysteine and methionine; in the storage leaf also arginine was also predominant. In general concentration of amino acids appeared to less affected by irradiation in the storage leaf that in the inner sprout. An increase in the short time post-irradiation in glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine, theorine and methionine was observed. Sprout grouth radioinhibition was evident about 70 days after treatment and was preceded by a decrease in the major amino acids except methionine. It appears that concentration of same major amino acidscan be used as monitors of radioinhibition process in inner sprout of garlic. (author). 15 refs., 8 figs

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Visser, de W.; Keulen, van H.; Brandenburg, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background - In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods - The fatty acid (FA) composition in lipids from seven sea

  14. Is arsenobetaine the major arsenic compound in the liver of birds marine mammals, and sea turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, R.; Kunito, T.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    Concentrations of total arsenic and individual arsenic compounds were determined in the livers of birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles by using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) and high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS). Marine mammals feeding on cephalopods and crustaceans accumulated higher arsenic concentrations than the species feeding on fishes. No significant age and gender differences in arsenic concentrations were observed for most of the species of marine mammals. Elevated total arsenic concentrations were found in livers of black-footed albatross and loggerhead turtles and these values were comparable to those of lower trophic marine animals. Arsenobetaine was the major arsenical in the livers of most of the species examined. Particularly, in seabirds, mean proportions of arsenobetaine was more than90% of total extractable arsenic In contast, arsenobetaine was a minor constituent in dugong. The compositions of arsenic compounds were different among the species examined. These results might be due to the differences in the metabolic capacity among species and/or the different compositions of arsenic compounds in their preys.

  15. Euphotic zone bacterioplankton sources major sedimentary bacteriohopanepolyols in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Seifert, Richard; Kasten, Sabine; Bahlmann, Enno; Michaelis, Walter

    2009-02-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are lipid constituents of many bacterial groups. Geohopanoids, the diagenetic products, are therefore ubiquitous in organic matter of the geosphere. To examine the potential of BHPs as environmental markers in marine sediments, we investigated a Holocene sediment core from the Black Sea. The concentrations of BHPs mirror the environmental shift from a well-mixed lake to a stratified marine environment by a strong and gradual increase from low values (˜30 μg g -1 TOC) in the oldest sediments to ˜170 μg g -1 TOC in sediments representing the onset of a permanently anoxic water body at about 7500 years before present (BP). This increase in BHP concentrations was most likely caused by a strong increase in bacterioplanktonic paleoproductivity brought about by several ingressions of Mediterranean Sea waters at the end of the lacustrine stage (˜9500 years BP). δ 15N values coevally decreasing with increasing BHP concentrations may indicate a shift from a phosphorus- to a nitrogen-limited setting supporting growth of N 2-fixing, BHP-producing bacteria. In sediments of the last ˜3000 years BHP concentrations have remained relatively stable at about 50 μg g -1 TOC. The distributions of major BHPs did not change significantly during the shift from lacustrine (or oligohaline) to marine conditions. Tetrafunctionalized BHPs prevailed throughout the entire sediment core, with the common bacteriohopanetetrol and 35-aminobacteriohopanetriol and the rare 35-aminobacteriohopenetriol, so far only known from a purple non-sulfur α-proteobacterium, being the main components. Other BHPs specific to cyanobacteria and pelagic methanotrophic bacteria were also found but only in much smaller amounts. Our results demonstrate that BHPs from microorganisms living in deeper biogeochemical zones of marine water columns are underrepresented or even absent in the sediment compared to the BHPs of bacteria present in the euphotic zone. Obviously, the assemblage of

  16. Status and trends of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic fish stocks in the North Sea: thirty- year overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serchuk, F.M.; Kirkegaard, E.; Daan, N.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the status of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic stocks in the North Sea over the past 30 years are reviewed. Synopses are presented on trends in catches, fishing mortality, spawning-stock biomass, and recruitment for eight stocks (cod, haddock, whitting, saithe, plaice, sole,

  17. On the record of Red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel,1843 (Osteichthyes: Sparidae in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Dulcic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of red seabream Pagrus major, 44.9 cm total length, was caught in the eastern middle Adriatic (Island Molat, Cape Bonaster by long-line hook at a depth of about 20 m on a hard rocky bottom on 25 September 2004. It is the first record of this species in the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean area.

  18. Status and trends of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic fish stocks in the North Sea : Thirty-year overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serchuk, F.M.; Kirkegaard, Eskild; Daan, N.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the status of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic stocks in the North Sea over the past 30 years are reviewed. Synopses are presented on trends in catches, fishing mortality, spawning-stock biomass, and recruitment for eight stocks (cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole......, herring, and mackerel), together with an evaluation of the current state of these resources and the most resent management advice provided by the ICES Advisory, Committee on Fishery Management. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea...

  19. Can Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss during Major Cardiac Surgery? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Frances; Wahed, Amer; Gregoric, Igor; Kar, Biswajit; Dasgupta, Amitava; Tint, Hlaing

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in preventing intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery. Out of initial 81 patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (both coronary artery bypass and valve repair procedures) at our teaching hospital, sixty-seven patients were selected for this study. We compared estimated blood loss, decrease in percent hemoglobin and hematocrit following surgery between two groups of patients (none of them received any blood product during surgery), one group receiving no tranexamic acid (n=17) and another group receiving tranexamic acid (n=25). In the second study, we combined these patients with patients receiving modest amounts of blood products (1-2 unit) and compared these parameters between two groups of patients (25 patients received no tranexamic acid, 42 patients received tranexamic acid). In patients who received no blood product during surgery, those who received no tranexamic acid showed statistically significant (independent t-test two tailed at p tranexamic acid (mean: 987.2 mL, SD: 459.9, n=25). We observed similar results when the patients receiving no blood products and patients receiving modest amount of blood products were combined based on the use of tranexamic acid or not. No statistically significant difference was observed in percent reduced hemoglobin or hematocrit following surgery in any group of patients. We conclude that intraoperative antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid does not reduce intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery which contradicts popular belief. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  20. Plasma Nervonic Acid Is a Potential Biomarker for Major Depressive Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Yuki; Kasahara, Takaoki; Nakamura, Takemichi; Hattori, Kotaro; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Tani, Munehide; Kuroda, Kenji; Yoshida, Sumiko; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Inoue, Koki; Kato, Tadafumi

    2018-03-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are urgently needed, because none are currently available. We performed a comprehensive metabolome analysis of plasma samples from drug-free patients with major depressive disorder (n=9), bipolar disorder (n=6), schizophrenia (n=17), and matched healthy controls (n=19) (cohort 1) using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A significant effect of diagnosis was found for 2 metabolites: nervonic acid and cortisone, with nervonic acid being the most significantly altered. The reproducibility of the results and effects of psychotropic medication on nervonic acid were verified in cohort 2, an independent sample set of medicated patients [major depressive disorder (n=45), bipolar disorder (n=71), schizophrenia (n=115)], and controls (n=90) using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The increased levels of nervonic acid in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls and patients with bipolar disorder in cohort 1 were replicated in the independent sample set (cohort 2). In cohort 2, plasma nervonic acid levels were also increased in the patients with major depressive disorder compared with the patients with schizophrenia. In cohort 2, nervonic acid levels were increased in the depressive state in patients with major depressive disorder compared with the levels in the remission state in patients with major depressive disorder and the depressive state in patients with bipolar disorder. These results suggested that plasma nervonic acid is a good candidate biomarker for the depressive state of major depressive disorder. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  1. The major tectonic boundaries of the Northern Red Sea rift, Egypt derived from geophysical data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salah; Pamukçu, Oya; Brimich, Ladislav

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we have attempted to map the plate boundary between Arabia and Africa at the Northern Red Sea rift region including the Suez rift, Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform and southeastern Mediterranean region by using gravity data analysis. In the boundary analysis method which was used; low-pass filtered gravity anomalies of the Northern Red Sea rift region were computed. Different crustal types and thicknesses, sediment thicknesses and different heat flow anomalies were evaluated. According to the results, there are six subzones (crustal blocks) separated from each other by tectonic plate boundaries and/or lineaments. It seems that these tectonic boundaries reveal complex structural lineaments, which are mostly influenced by a predominant set of NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending lineaments bordering the Red Sea and Suez rift regions. On the other side, the E-W and N-S to NNE-SSW trended lineaments bordering the South-eastern Mediterranean, Northern Sinai and Aqaba-Dead Sea transform regions, respectively. The analysis of the low pass filtered Bouguer anomaly maps reveals that the positive regional anomaly over both the Red Sea rift and South-eastern Mediterranean basin subzones are considered to be caused by the high density of the oceanic crust and/or the anomalous upper mantle structures beneath these regions whereas, the broad medium anomalies along the western half of Central Sinai with the Suez rift and the Eastern Desert subzones are attributed to low-density sediments of the Suez rift and/or the thick upper continental crustal thickness below these zones. There are observable negative anomalies over the Northern Arabia subzone, particularly in the areas covered by Cenozoic volcanics. These negative anomalies may be attributed to both the low densities of the surface volcanics and/or to a very thick upper continental crust. On the contrary, the negative anomaly which belongs to the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform zone is due to crustal thickening

  2. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  3. Biotic and environmental stress induces nitration and changes in structure and function of the sea urchin major yolk protein toposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Ferraro, Giarita; Maffioli, Elisa; Marasco, Daniela; Merlino, Antonello; Zingone, Adriana; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Palumbo, Anna

    2018-03-15

    The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome. Here, we characterize through wide-ranging biochemical and structural analyses the nitrated toposome of sea urchins exposed to the bloom, and subsequently detoxified. The increased number of nitrated tyrosines in toposome of sea urchins collected during algal bloom induced structural changes and improvement of the Ca 2+ -binding affinity of the protein. After 3 months' detoxification, ovatoxin was undetectable, and the number of nitric oxide-modified tyrosines was reduced. However, the nitration of specific residues was irreversible and occurred also in embryos treated with metals, used as a proxy of environmental pollutants. The structural and functional changes of toposome caused by nitration under adverse environmental conditions may be related to the defective development of sea urchins' progeny.

  4. PIXE analysis of otoliths from reared red sea bream, pagrus major (temminck et schlegl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru

    1993-01-01

    PIXE analysis was applied to estimate mineral concentration in red sea bream otoliths without cutting or polishing. Detected elements include Sr, Fe, Mn and Zn, which are commonly found in the otoliths in marine fishes. Strontium-Calcium concentration ratio is calculated by means of combined X-ray yields. The ratio doesn't indicate clear correlaion with mean reared seawater temperature. It is caused by the diffraction error induced by rough topographies of the otoliths surface. (author)

  5. Properties of spores of Bacillus subtilis strains which lack the major small, acid-soluble protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, R.H.; Setlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains containing a deletion in the gene coding for the major small, acid-soluble, spore protein (SASP-gamma) grew and sporulated, and their spores initiated germination normally, but outgrowth of SASP-gamma- spores was significantly slower than that of wild-type spores. The absence of SASP-gamma had no effect on spore protoplast density or spore resistance to heat or radiation. Consequently, SASP-gamma has a different function in spores than do the other major small, acid-soluble proteins

  6. Sea water strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the cretaceous-tertiary boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in sea water at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the sea water strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  7. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  8. Investigation of trophic ecology in Newfoundland cold-water deep-sea corals using lipid class and fatty acid analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Flora; Hamoutene, Dounia; Hayes, Vonda E. Wareham; Edinger, Evan N.; Parrish, Christopher C.

    2018-03-01

    The trophic behavior of some deep-sea Newfoundland cold-water corals was explored using fatty acid (FA) and lipid profiles. No significant effect of geographic location and/or depth was identified in lipid or FA composition. However, differences were detected between and within taxon groups in hexa- or octocoral subclasses. Phospholipids constituted the main lipid class in all groups except black-thorny corals which had less structural lipids likely due to their morphology (stiff axes) and slower growth rates. Within each subclass, major differences in the identity of dominant FAs were detected at the order level, whereas differences between species and taxon groups of the same order were mainly driven by a variation in proportions of the dominant FA. Soft corals and gorgonians (Order Alcyonacea) were close in composition and are likely relying on phytodetritus resulting from algae, macrophytes and/or foraminifera, while sea pens (Order Pennatulacea) seem to consume more diatoms and/or herbivorous zooplankton with the exception of Pennatula sp. In the hexacoral subclass, black-thorny corals ( Stauropathes arctica) differed significantly from the stony-cup corals ( Flabellum alabastrum); S. arctica was seemingly more carnivorous (zooplankton markers) than F. alabastrum, which appears omnivorous (phyto- and zooplankton markers). Our results suggest that deep-sea corals are not as opportunistic as expected but have some selective feeding associated with taxonomy.

  9. Major consequences of an intense dense shelf water cascading event on deep-sea benthic trophic conditions and meiofaunal biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pusceddu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous submarine canyons around the world are preferential conduits for episodic dense shelf water cascading (DSWC, which quickly modifies physical and chemical ambient conditions while transporting large amounts of material towards the base of slope and basin. Observations conducted during the last 20 yr in the Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus canyons (Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea report several intense DSWC events. The effects of DSWC on deep-sea ecosystems are almost unknown. To investigate the effects of these episodic events, we analysed changes in the meiofaunal biodiversity inside and outside the canyon. Sediment samples were collected at depths varying from ca. 1000 to > 2100 m in May 2004 (before a major event, April 2005 (during a major cascading event and in October 2005, August 2006, April 2008 and April 2009 (after a major event. We report here that the late winter–early spring 2005 cascading led to a reduction of the organic matter contents in canyon floor sediments down to 1800 m depth, whereas surface sediments at about 2200 m depth showed an increase. Our findings suggest that the nutritional material removed from the shallower continental shelf, canyon floor and flanks, and also the adjacent open slope was rapidly transported to the deep margin. During the cascading event the meiofaunal abundance and biodiversity in the studied deep-sea sediments were significantly lower than after the event. Benthic assemblages during the cascading were significantly different from those in all other sampling periods in both the canyon and deep margin. After only six months from the cessation of the cascading, benthic assemblages in the impacted sediments were again similar to those observed in other sampling periods, thus illustrating a quick recovery. Since the present climate change is expected to increase the intensity and frequency of these episodic events, we anticipate that they will increasingly affect benthic bathyal

  10. Fatty acids in female’s gonads of the Red Sea fish Rhabdosargus sarba during the spawning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaila Qari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the fatty acids profiles in female fish, Rhabdosargus sarba (R. sarba from the Red Sea during the spawning season. Methods: Monthly individual R. sarba were obtained from Bangalah market in Jeddah, Red Sea and transported to the laboratory in ice aquarium. The total length, standard length and weight were measured, fishes were dissected. Ovaries were removed, weighed and 10 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to 10 g of the ovary in a conical flask and immersed in boiling water until the sample was dissolved and the fat was seen to collect on the surface. The conical was cooled and the fat was extracted by shaking with 30 mL of diethyl ether. The extract was bowled after allowing the layers to separate into a weighed flask. The extraction was repeated three times more and distilled off the solvent then the fat dried at 100 °C, cooled and weighed. Then 50 mg of lipid was put in a tube, 5 mL of methanolic sulphuric acid was added and 2 mL of benzene, the tube well closed and placed in water bath at 90 °C for an hour and a half. After cooling, 8 mL water and 5 mL petroleum were added and shaked strongly and the ethereal layer was separated in a dry tube, evaporated to dryness. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by using a Hewlett Packard (HP 6890 chromatography, a split/splitless injector and flame ionization detector. Results: In female R. sarba, a total of 29 fatty acids were detected in ovaries throughout the spawning season. The main fatty acid group in total lipid was saturated fatty acid (SFA, 28.9%, followed by 23.5% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and 12.9% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. The dominant SFA were palmitic and stearic, the major MUFA were palmitoleic and oleic, and the major PUFA were C18:2 and C22:2. During spawning stages, there were no significant differences in total SFA, MUFA and PUFA. The highest value of SFA was in late spawning (36.78%. However, the highest value

  11. Shipboard measurements of nitrogen dioxide, nitrous acid, nitric acid and ozone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Smolík, Jiří; Eleftheriadis, K.; Bryant, C.; Colbeck, I.; Lazaridis, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2008), s. 117-125 ISSN 1567-7230 Grant - others:5th FP Commission of the EC(XE) EVK2-CT-1999-0052 SUB-AERO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : reactive nitrogen species * ozone * Eastern Mediterranean Sea Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  12. Biochemical and fatty acid composition of Arca noae (Bivalvia: Arcidae from the Mali Ston Bay, Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. DUPCIC RADIC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and fatty acid composition of the bivalve Arca noae were investigated in the Mali Ston Bay in relation to environmental conditions. Sampling was carried out monthly, from December 2001 to November 2002. Wet shellfish meat consists on average of 77.61% water and 22.39% dry matter, while dry shellfish meat consists on average of 89.04% organic and 10.96% inorganic matter. PCA analysis identified temperature, nitrate, silicate, MICRO, Chl a and salinity as the most important environmental factors influencing biochemical composition of A. noae. An increase of dry weight content of A. noae was observed during the spring when both the sea temperature and food supply increased rapidly. Contents of protein (54.39-62.06% of dry weight, carbohydrate (4.13-8.07% of dry weight and lipid (3.46-8.58% of dry weight varied significantly during the year. Protein and lipid level reached the maximum value in June. The fatty acid profiles of total lipids extracted from A. noae showed high level of unsaturation (UNS/SAT 1.9-3.4. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA represented the majority of total fatty acids (40.3-59.9% of total fatty acids and the most abundant were eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acid. n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio value varied between 2.1 and 5.0 and was the highest during the spring (April to June. Due to their low lipid and high percentages of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids A. noae can be evaluated as a quality seafood product. The most suitable period of the year for its consumption is in the spring when it reaches its highest nutritional values.

  13. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Amino acid stable isotope applications to deep-sea corals: A molecular geochemistry approach to reconstructing past ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, K.; McCarthy, M. D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Sherwood, O.; Williams, B.; Larsen, T.; Glynn, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change is predicted to alter ocean productivity, food web dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, and the efficacy of the biological pump. Proteinaceous deep-sea corals act as "living sediment traps," providing long-term, high-resolution records of exported surface ocean production and a window into past changes in ocean condition as a historical context for potential future changes. Here, we present recent work developing the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis of individual amino acids to proteinaceous deep-sea corals to reconstruct past changes in phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemical cycling. We present new calibrations for molecular isotope comparisons between metabolically active coral polyp tissue and bioarchival proteinaceous skeleton. We then applied these techniques to deep-sea corals from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) to reconstruct centennial to millennial time scale changes in phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemical cycling as a function of regional climate change. This work suggests that the NPSG has undergone multiple major phytoplankton regime shifts over the last millennium between prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton communities and associated sources of nitrogen fueling production. The most recent regime, which started around the end of the Little Ice Age and the onset of the Industrial era, is unprecedented in the last 1000 years and resulted in a 30-50% increase in diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribution to export production and an associated 17-27% increase in N2-fixation in the NPSG over last century. By offering the first direct phylogenetic context for long-term shifts in isotopic records of exported particulate organic matter, our data represent a major step forward in understanding the evolution of marine plankton community dynamics, food web architecture, biogeochemical cycling, and the climate feedback loops through the biological pump.

  15. Growth, fatty acid profile in major lipid classes and lipid fluidity of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei SK-02 As a function of growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodchoey, Kanokwan; Verduyn, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Aurantiochytrium mangrovei Sk-02 was grown in a medium containing glucose (40 g/l), yeast extract (10 g/L) and sea salts (15 g/L) at temperatures ranging from 12 to 35°C. The fastest growth (µmax= 0.15 h(-1)) and highest fatty acid content of 415 mg/g-dry cell weight were found in the cells grown at 30°C. However, the cells grown at 12°C showed the highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (48.6% of total fatty acid). The percentage of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) decreased with an increase in the growth temperature, whereas, palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and DPA (C22:5n6) increased with an increase in the growth temperature. The composition of the major lipid class (%w/w) was slightly affected by the growth temperature. The fluidity of the organelle membrane or intracellular lipid (by DPH measurement) decreased with an increase in the growth temperatures, while the plasma membrane fluidity (by TMA-DPH measurement) could still maintain its fluidity in a wide range of temperatures (15 - 37°C). Furthermore, the distribution of DHA was found to be higher (36 - 54%) in phospholipid (PL) as compared to neutral lipid (NL) (20 - 41%).

  16. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DDT exposure of zebrafish embryos enhances seizure susceptibility: relationship to fetal p,p'-DDE burden and domoic acid exposure of California sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeken, Jessica A; Ramsdell, John S

    2009-01-01

    California sea lions have a large body burden of organochlorine pesticides, and over the last decade they have also been subject to domoic acid poisoning. Domoic acid poisoning, previously recognized in adult animals, is now viewed as a major cause of prenatal mortality. The appearance of a chronic juvenile domoic acid disease in the sea lions, characterized by behavioral abnormalities and epilepsy, is consistent with early life poisoning and may be potentiated by organochlorine burden. We investigated the interactive effect of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) on neurodevelopment using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model for seizure behavior to examine the susceptibility to domoic acid-induced seizures after completion of neurodevelopment. Embryos were exposed (6-30 hr postfertilization) to either o,p'-DDT or p,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) during neurodevelopment via a 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide solution. These larval (7 days postfertilization) fish were then exposed to either the seizure-inducing drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was monitored and analyzed for changes using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Embryonic exposure to DDTs enhanced PTZ seizures and caused distinct and increased seizure behaviors to domoic acid, most notably a type of head-shaking behavior. These studies demonstrate that embryonic exposure to DDTs leads to asymptomatic animals at completion of neurodevelopment with greater sensitivity to domoic acid-induced seizures. The body burden levels of p,p'-DDE are close to the range recently found in fetal California sea lions and suggest a potential interactive effect of p,p'-DDE embryonic poisoning and domoic acid toxicity.

  18. Badlands as a major source of petrogenic particulate Organic Carbon and sediments to the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copard, Y.; Eyrolle-Boyer, F.; Radakovitch, O.; Poirel, A.; Raimbault, P.; Gairoard, S.; Di-Giovanni, C.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers feed the marine environments both in term of sediments and nutrients and consequently, the characterization of their nature, sources and changes over a different spatial and time ranges is a critical for many scientific (e.g. biogeochemical cycles, contaminants transfer, geomorphology, ecology) and societal issues (e.g. food security, catastrophic floods). Specifically, continental sources showing some high erosion rates deserve to be studied since their fingerprint can be significant for the rivers fluxes. These included some sedimentary rocks (e.g. marls) forming badlands and containing a significant amount of petrogenic particulate organic carbon (pPOC) for which its contribution to the Rivers still remains evasive. Our study focuses on the Mediterranean area considered as very sensitive to the Global Change and particularly the Gulf of Lion mainly fed by the Rhône River, one of the major conveyors of sediments to this Sea. Based on radiocarbon data performed on a set of riverine samples and time series analyses from monitoring stations from French CZOs, we (i) update the POC flux of the Rhône River, (ii) determine the pPOC content and flux in suspended sediments and (iii) estimate the badlands contribution from the Durance catchment (a major tributary of the Rhône River) to the pPOC flux and to sediment discharge. Sediment discharge by the Rhône River to the Sea is 6.5 ± 4.3 Tg yr-1 (period 1990-2014) , its POC discharge reaches 0.145 ± 0.095 Tg yr-1 (period 2007-2014) while pPOC (0.44 wt. %) contributes to 30 % of this POC flux. Despite their insignificant surfaces (0.2 %) regarding the Rhône catchment area, badlands presently in erosion from the Durance catchment provide respectively, 16, 5 and 20 % of the pPOC, POC and sediment fluxes to the Rhône River. Consequently, badlands can be considered as a major source of sediments and pPOC for the NW Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that river-dominated ocean margins, such as the Rhône River, with

  19. Source/process apportionment of major and trace elements in sinking particles in the Sargasso sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Conte, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental composition of the particle flux at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) time-series site off Bermuda was measured from January 2002 to March 2005. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba and Pb) in sediment trap material from 500, 1500 and 3200 m depths were quantified using fusion-HR-ICPMS. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to elucidate sources, elemental associations and processes that affect geochemical behavior in the water column. Results provide evidence for intense elemental cycling between the sinking flux material and the dissolved and suspended pools within mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters. Biological processing and remineralization rapidly deplete the sinking flux material in organic matter and associated elements (N, P, Cd, Zn) between 500 and 1500 m depth. Suspended particle aggregation, authigenic mineral precipitation, and chemical scavenging enriches the flux material in lithogenic minerals, barite and redox sensitive elements (Mn, Co, V, Fe). A large increase in the flux of lithogenic elements is observed with depth and confirms that the northeast Sargasso is a significant sink for advected continental materials, likely supplied via Gulf Stream circulation. PMF resolved major sources that contribute to sinking flux at all depths (carbonate, high-Mg carbonate, opal, organic matter, lithogenic material, and barite) as well as additional depth-specific elemental associations that contribute about half of the compositional variability in the flux. PMF solutions indicate close geochemical associations of barite-opal, Cd-P, Zn-Co, Zn-Pb and redox sensitive elements in the sinking flux material at 500 m depth. Major reorganizations of element associations occur as labile carrier phases break down and elements redistribute among new carrier phases deeper in the water column. Factor scores show strong covariation and similar temporal phasing among the three trap depths and indicate a tight

  20. Formulation, evaluation and bioactive potential of Xylaria primorskensis terpenoid nanoparticles from its major compound xylaranic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Mohd; Patel, Mitesh; Reddy, Mandadi Narsimha; Alshammari, Eyad

    2018-01-29

    In recent years, fungi have been shown to produce a plethora of new bioactive secondary metabolites of interest, as new lead structures for medicinal and other pharmacological applications. The present investigation was carried out to study the pharmacological properties of a potent and major bioactive compound: xylaranic acid, which was obtained from Xylaria primorskensis (X. primorskensis) terpenoids in terms of antibacterial activity, antioxidant potential against DPPH & H 2 O 2 radicals and anticancer activity against human lung cancer cells. Due to terpenoid nature, low water solubility and wretched bioavailability, its pharmacological use is limited. To overcome these drawbacks, a novel xylaranic acid silver nanoparticle system (AgNPs) is developed. In addition to improving its solubility and bioavailability, other advantageous pharmacological properties has been evaluated. Furthermore, enhanced anticancer activity of xylaranic acid and its AgNPs due to induced apoptosis were also confirmed by determining the expression levels of apoptosis regulatory genes p53, bcl-2 and caspase-3 via qRT PCR method. This is the first study developing the novel xylaranic acid silver nanoparticle system and enlightening its therapeutic significance with its improved physico-chemical properties and augmented bioactive potential.

  1. Allochthonous Carbon--a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Rowe, O F; Paczkowska, J; Legrand, C; Andersson, A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60% of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2%. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60%. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  2. ANXIETY IN MAJOR DEPRESSION AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FREE GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M.; Ellis, Steven P.; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B.; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Methods and Materials Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Results Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Conclusions Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. PMID:24865448

  3. Anxiety in major depression and cerebrospinal fluid free gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M; Ellis, Steven P; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2014-10-01

    Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nucleic acid metabolism in sea urchin embryos and its alteration after x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.

    1974-01-01

    Nucleic acid metabolism observed during embryogenesis of the sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) and its alteration after x irradiation were studied on both qualitative and quantitative bases. MAK chromatographic analysis has revealed that the stage-dependent synthesis of RNA occurred during embryogenesis: some RNA families were observed specifically for early cleavage stage, not being observed at stages later than gastrulation. Further, they were modified by irradiation pari passu with delay and inhibition of cleavage. These results were discussed in comparison with our previous results on normal and regenerating rat liver

  5. Identification of major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid formed in aqueous solutions and in pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    of polymeric species by oxidative self-coupling of 5-ASA moieties. These results indicate that the degradation of 5-ASA follows the same mechanism as observed for the autooxidation of 4-aminophenol and 1,4-phenylenediamine. Some of the identified degradation products were found in 5-ASA......The formation of four major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in buffered solutions at pH 7.0 was demonstrated by gradient HPLC analysis. The isolation and structural elucidation of the resulting degradation products showed that the degradation of 5-ASA led to the formation...

  6. Synthesis and stability study of a new major metabolite of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ida Nymann; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Tortzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    ¿-Hydroxybutanoic acid (GHB) is used as a date-rape drug, which renders the victims unconscious and defenceless. Intoxications are very difficult to detect for forensic scientists due to rapid metabolism to endogenous levels of GHB. We recently discovered a new major metabolite, 2, of GHB (1......, we have assessed the stability of GHB glucuronide 2 by mimicking the natural pH range for urine, which is of importance in the development of new analytical methods. Using NMR we show that GHB glucuronide 2 is highly stable towards aqueous hydrolysis within the pH range normally observed for urine...

  7. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway.

  8. Adjunctive low-dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for major depression: An open-label pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deidre J; Sarris, Jerome; Dowling, Nathan; O'Connor, Manjula; Ng, Chee H

    2018-04-01

    Whilst the majority of evidence supports the adjunctive use of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in improving mood, to date no study exists using low-dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone as an adjunctive treatment in patients with mild to moderate major depressive disorder (MDD). A naturalistic 8-week open-label pilot trial of low-dose DHA, (260 mg or 520 mg/day) in 28 patients with MDD who were non-responsive to medication or psychotherapy, with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score of greater than 17, was conducted. Primary outcomes of depression, clinical severity, and daytime sleepiness were measured. After 8 weeks, 54% of patients had a ≥50% reduction on the HAM-D, and 45% were in remission (HAM-D ≤ 7). The eta-squared statistic (0.59) indicated a large effect size for the reduction of depression (equivalent to Cohen's d of 2.4). However confidence in this effect size is tempered due to the lack of a placebo. The mean score for the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale was significantly improved by 1.28 points (P depression.

  9. Mycosporine-like amino acids are multifunctional molecules in sea hares and their marine community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, Cynthia E.; Kamio, Michiya; Nguyen, Linh; Germann, Markus W.; Derby, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    Molecules of keystone significance are relatively rare, yet mediate a variety of interactions between organisms. They influence the distribution and abundance of species, the transfer of energy across multiple trophic levels, and thus they play significant roles in structuring ecosystems. Despite their potential importance in facilitating our understanding of ecological systems, only three molecules thus far have been proposed as molecules of keystone significance: saxitoxin and dimethyl sulfide in marine communities and tetrodotoxin in riparian communities. In the course of studying the neuroecology of chemical defenses, we identified three mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs)—N-ethanol palythine (= asterina-330), N-isopropanol palythine (= aplysiapalythine A), and N-ethyl palythine (= aplysiapalythine B)—as intraspecific alarm cues for sea hares (Aplysia californica). These alarm cues are released in the ink secretion of sea hares and cause avoidance behaviors in neighboring conspecifics. Further, we show that these three bioactive MAAs, two [aplysiapalythine A (APA) and -B (APB)] being previously unknown molecules, are present in the algal diet of sea hares and are concentrated in their defensive secretion as well as in their skin. MAAs are known to be produced by algae, fungi, and cyanobacteria and are acquired by many aquatic animals through trophic interactions. MAAs are widely used as sunscreens, among other uses, but sea hares modify their function to serve a previously undocumented role, as intraspecific chemical cues. Our findings highlight the multifunctionality of MAAs and their role in ecological connectivity, suggesting that they may function as molecules of keystone significance in marine ecosystems. PMID:21709250

  10. Identification of rosmarinic acid as the major active constituent in Cordia americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, F; Schmidt, C; Göttert, M; Fronza, M; Schattel, V; Heinzmann, B; Werz, O; Flores, E M M; Merfort, I; Laufer, S

    2010-04-21

    Preparation from leaves of Cordia americana have been widely used in traditional medicine in South Brazil to treat wounds and various inflammations. The objective of this work was to identify the effective compounds in the ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Cordia americana, which is used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as anti-inflammatory and wound healing remedy. Isolation and structure elucidation techniques were performed in order to identify the compounds of Cordia americana and HPLC analysis was used for the quantification. The major constituent and the ethanolic extract were investigated for inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase, p38alpha MAPK, TNFalpha release and NF-kappaB as well as in the fibroblast scratch assay. Rosmarinic acid (1) was identified as the major compound with an amount of 8.44% in the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cordia americana. The ethanolic extract as well as (1) exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase (IC(50)=0.69 and 0.97microg/mL, resp., IC50 of BWA4C as reference: 0.3microM) and p38alpha (IC50=3.25 and 1.16microg/mL, resp., IC50 of SB203580 as reference: 0.046microM) and moderate inhibitory effects on TNFalpha release. Slight effects were observed in the fibroblast scratch assay. This study increases our knowledge on the effective compound in Cordia americana and supports its use in traditional medicine. We demonstrated for the first time pharmacological effects of Cordia americana and we provide evidences for a crucial role of rosmarinic acid as the major key player. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectroscopic studies of humic acids from subsurface sediment samples collected across the Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. SAKELLARIADOU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural humic acids are biogenic, structurally complex and heterogeneous, refractory, acidic, yellow-to black-coloured organic polyelectrolytes of relatively high molecular weight. They occur in all soils, sediments, fresh waters, and seawaters. Humic acids represent the largest portion of nonliving soil organic matter. In the present paper, humic substances were isolated from marine subsurface sediment samples collected across the Aegean sea (in Greece and especially from a marine area extending northwards of the Samothraki plateau towards the north-eastern part of the island of Crete. In a following step, humic preparations were studied using infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy (emission, excitation and synchronous-scan excitation spectra were obtained. The infrared spectra suggested functional chemical groups such as as OH-, C-H aliphatic, C=C, C=O/COO-, salts of carboxylic acids, and also, in some cases, silicate anions or C-O from alcohols, esters and ethers. Fluorescence emission, excitation and synchronous scan excitation provided some valuable information concerning a probable origin (marine and/or terrestrial for the isolated humics.

  12. Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Abu-Salah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from samples collected from the Red Sea. Relying on the fluorescence of BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazasindacene and growth performance, four promising candidates were identified and the total lipid content and fatty acid profile was assessed for biofuels production. Selected isolates were classified as chlorophytes, belonging to three different genera: Picochlorum, Nannochloris and Desmochloris. The lipid contents were assessed microscopically by means of BODIPY 505/515-associated fluorescence to detect intracellular lipid bodies, which revealed several lipid drops in all selected strains. This result was confirmed by lipid gravimetric determination, which demonstrated that all strains under study presented inner cell lipid contents ranging from 20% to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters profile of all strains seems ideal for biodiesel production due to a low degree of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters and high amount of palmitic and oleic acids.

  13. Fat characteristics and fatty acid profile of sea cucumbers (Holothuria Scabra obtained from the coasts of the Bushehr province -Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jadavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea cucumbers are belonging to echinoderms and one of the important members of the food chain in temperate ecosystems and tropical coral reefs. The medicinal and nutritional uses of these invertebrates are primordial and are important as ecological, biological and economic properties. Holothuria Scabra, as one of the most valuable commercial species of sea cucumber in the world, is the dominant species in many Persian Gulf coasts such as the Bushehr province coasts. Conspicuous characteristics such as the use of inexpensive foods in their culture, the rather rapid, easy and low cost growth and reproduction, the possibility of culture with other fish, reduce the organic substrate in pools, the broad tolerance in water factors changes such as salinity and temperature it has selected them to culture.It seems they are containing the significant amounts of nutrients, especially appreciated fatty acids. Therefore, the aims of the current study are determination of total fat content, quality and quantity evaluations of some physicochemical parameters such as acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, and refractive index (RI as well as, identify the profile of fatty acids in the fat. Materials & Methods: In this study, after collecting the 36 samples of sea cucumbers from the coasts of the bushehr province, sample preparation, and extraction of fat, their fatty acids profile were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Results: The peroxide and the acid values were 0.62±0.0435 and 0.7553±0.0034. The optical refractive index of the oil was 1467 at 26°C, and total fat was also 2%. Among 19 identified fatty acids obtained from the GC analysis of Holothuria Scabra oil, fatty acids: heneicosanoic acid, linoleic acid, palimitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, and Meristic acid, with respectively amounts of 40.81%, 27.5%, 15.24%, 4.73%, 4.46% and 2.38% had the highest values, and other fatty acids were negligible

  14. Photochemical addition of amino acids and peptides to homopolyribonucleotides of the major DNA bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetlar, M.D.; Hom, K.; Carbone, J.; Moy, D.; Steady, E.; Watanabe, M.

    1984-01-01

    The photochemical quantum yields for addition of glycine and the L-amino acids commonly occurring in proteins to polyadenylic acid, polycytidylic acid, polyguanylic acid and polyribothymidylic acid have been determined in deoxygenated phosphate buffer using a fluorescamine assay technique. Polyadenylic acid was reactive with eleven of the twenty amino acids tested, with phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamine, lysine and asparagine having the highest quantum yields. Polyguanylic acid reacted with sixteen amino acids; phenylalanine, arginine, cysteine, tyrosine, and lysine displayed the largest quantum yields. Polycytidylic acid showed reactivity with fifteen amino acids with lysine, phenylalanine, cysteine, tyrosine and arginine having the greatest quantum yields. Polyribothymidylic acid, reactive with fifteen of nineteen amino acids surveyed, showed the highest quantum yields for cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, lysine and asparagine. None of the polynucleotides were reactive with aspartic acid or glutamic acid. The quantum yields for photoaddition of eighteen dipeptides of the form gycyl X (X being an amino acid), and of L-alanyl-L-tryptophan, L-seryl-L-seryl-L-serine, L-threonyl-L-threonyl-L-threonine, L-cystine-bis-glycine, and Nsup(α)-acetyllysine to polyadenylic acid, polycytidylic acid and polyguanylic acid were measured. All were found to add photochemically to each of these polymers. Polyribothymidylic acid, tested with eleven peptides and with Nsup(α)-acetyllysine, was found to be reactive with all. (author)

  15. Door-to-door survey of major neurological disorders (project in Al Quseir City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tallawy HN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy NA El Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Nabil A Metwally,2 Esam A El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed A Sayed,3 Ahmed A Waris,1 Yaser Hamed,2 Islam Shaaban,2 Mohamed A Hamed,1 Mahmoud Raafat Kandil11Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, EgyptAbstract: A door-to-door survey, including every household, was conducted for all inhabitants of Al Quseir City (33,283, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt by three specialists of neurology as well as nine senior staff members of neurology and 15 female social workers to assess the epidemiology of major neurological disorders. Over six phases, from July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, screening of all eligible people in the population was carried out, by which case ascertainment of all major neurological disorders included in the study was done according to the accepted definitions and diagnostic criteria of the World Health Organization. The order of frequency of prevalence of the studied neurological disorders was dementia (3.83% for those aged > 60 years, migraine (2.8% for those aged > 8 years, stroke (6.2/1000 for those aged > 20 years, epilepsy (5.5/1000, Parkinson’s disease (452.1/100,000 for those aged > 40 years, cerebral palsy (3.6/1000 among children 37 years, chorea (21.03/100,000, athetosis (15/100,000, and multiple sclerosis (13.74/100,000. The incidence rates of stroke, epilepsy, and Bell’s palsy were 181/100,000, 48/100,000, and 98.9/100,000 per year, respectively.Keywords: prevalence, incidence, neurological disorders

  16. Synthesis and stability study of a new major metabolite of γ-hydroxybutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nymann Petersen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available γ-Hydroxybutanoic acid (GHB is used as a date-rape drug, which renders the victims unconscious and defenceless. Intoxications are very difficult to detect for forensic scientists due to rapid metabolism to endogenous levels of GHB. We recently discovered a new major metabolite, 2, of GHB (1 that could potentially extend the analytical detection window for GHB intoxications. Herein we disclose synthetic procedures based on a Koenigs–Knorr glucuronidation approach that provides GHB glucuronide 2 and a deuterium-labelled analogue d4-2 of high purity suitable for analytical chemistry. In addition, we have assessed the stability of GHB glucuronide 2 by mimicking the natural pH range for urine, which is of importance in the development of new analytical methods. Using NMR we show that GHB glucuronide 2 is highly stable towards aqueous hydrolysis within the pH range normally observed for urine even at elevated temperature.

  17. Phosphatidic acid is a major phospholipid class in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ian Sofian; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Liu, Yu-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chen; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are the crucial components of biological membranes and signal transduction. Among different tissues, flower phospholipids are one of the least characterized features of plant lipidome. Here, we report that floral reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana contain high levels of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known lipid second messenger. By using floral homeotic mutants enriched with specific floral organs, lipidomics study showed increased levels of PA species in ap3-3 mutant with enriched pistils. Accompanied gene expression study for 7 diacylglycerol kinases and 11 PA phosphatases revealed distinct floral organ specificity, suggesting an active phosphorylation/dephosphorylation between PA and diacylglycerol in flowers. Our results suggest that PA is a major phospholipid class in floral reproductive organs of A. thaliana.

  18. Plasma non-esterified docosahexaenoic acid is the major pool supplying the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lin, Lauren E; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin; Thies, Frank; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-10-29

    Despite being critical for normal brain function, the pools that supply docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain are not agreed upon. Using multiple kinetic models in free-living adult rats, we first demonstrate that DHA uptake from the plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool predicts brain uptake of DHA upon oral administration, which enters the plasma NEFA pool as well as multiple plasma esterified pools. The rate of DHA loss by the brain is similar to the uptake from the plasma NEFA pool. Furthermore, upon acute iv administration, although more radiolabeled lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-DHA enters the brain than NEFA-DHA, this is due to the longer plasma half-life and exposure to the brain. Direct comparison of the uptake rate of LPC-DHA and NEFA-DHA demonstrates that uptake of NEFA-DHA into the brain is 10-fold greater than LPC-DHA. In conclusion, plasma NEFA-DHA is the major plasma pool supplying the brain.

  19. The effect of aprotinin, tranexamic acid, and aminocaproic acid on blood loss and use of blood products in major pediatric surgery : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Esther S.; van de Pol, Alma C.; Schouten, Anton N. J.; Turner, Nigel M.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.

    Objective: Aprotinin reduces the blood loss and transfusion of blood products in children undergoing major surgery. Aprotinin has been associated with severe side effects in adults, and tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid have been found to be safer alternatives in adults. This systematic review

  20. Features and application of amino acid oil gelatinizer for controlling oil spills on the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Hiroyuki

    1987-10-01

    Diffusion of oil spills is prevented and the oil can be easily recovered if it is solidified. Features and application of gelling agent for amino acid series oil are introduced. The gelatinizer for amino acid is made of amino acid derivative with solvent added thereto so that oil can be gelatinized by mere spraying of the agent over oil spills. The agent can be intermixed with oil because it floats on the sea. Oil spill is gelatinized instantly and diffusion of the oils is prevented. The oil can easily be recovered with a fishing net and the like. The influence of oil spills to living aquatic resources is greatly lessened, and the gel is safe for workers. It can gelatinize everything except alcohol. Gelatinization has the depressor effect for volatization and is effective for the prevention of fire. The gelatized oil can be burnt up although it contains 10-20 % of water. Oil film on the water can be completely controlled when the agent is sprayed over it. It contributes to the purification of nature since it is readily decomposed. (1 fig, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  1. Thermodynamic versus non-equilibrium stability of palmitic acid monolayers in calcium-enriched sea spray aerosol proxy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen Rudd, Bethany A; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2018-04-16

    Of the major cations in seawater (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), Ca2+ is found to be the most enriched in fine sea spray aerosols (SSA). In this work, we investigate the binding of Ca2+ to the carboxylic acid headgroup of palmitic acid (PA), a marine-abundant fatty acid, and the impact such binding has on the stability of PA monolayers in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. A range of Ca2+ conditions from 10 μM to 300 mM was utilized to represent the relative concentration of Ca2+ in high and low relative humidity aerosol environments. The CO2- stretching modes of PA detected by surface-sensitive infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) reveal ionic binding motifs of the Ca2+ ion to the carboxylate group with varying degrees of hydration. Surface tensiometry was used to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium spreading pressure (ESP) of PA on the various aqueous CaCl2 subphases. Up to concentrations of 1 mM Ca2+, each system reached equilibrium, and Ca2+:PA surface complexation gave rise to a lower energy state revealed by elevated surface pressures relative to water. We show that PA films are not thermodynamically stable at marine aerosol-relevant Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+] ≥ 10 mM). IRRAS and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface presence of PA on high concentration Ca2+ aqueous subphases. Non-equilibrium relaxation (NER) experiments were also conducted and monitored by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to determine the effect of the Ca2+ ions on PA stability. At high surface pressures, the relaxation mechanisms of PA varied among the systems and were dependent on Ca2+ concentration.

  2. Brevianamides and Mycophenolic Acid Derivatives from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Penicillium brevicompactum DFFSCS025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinya Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Four new compounds (1–4, including two brevianamides and two mycochromenic acid derivatives along with six known compounds were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium brevicompactum DFFSCS025. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by quantum chemical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra. Compound 9 showed moderate cytotoxicity against human colon cancer HCT116 cell line with IC50 value of 15.6 μM. In addition, 3 and 5 had significant antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larval settlement with EC50 values of 13.7 and 22.6 μM, respectively. The NMR data of 6, 8, and 9 were assigned for the first time.

  3. Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins and (Echinodermata)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Pita , Inés; García , Francisco J.; Pita , María-Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 ...

  4. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Arctic sea ice a major determinant in Mandt's black guillemot movement and distribution during non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoky, G.J.; Douglas, David C.; Stenhouse, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mandt's black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) is one of the few seabirds associated in all seasons with Arctic sea ice, a habitat that is changing rapidly. Recent decreases in summer ice have reduced breeding success and colony size of this species in Arctic Alaska. Little is known about the species' movements and distribution during the nine month non-breeding period (September–May), when changes in sea ice extent and composition are also occurring and predicted to continue. To examine bird movements and the seasonal role of sea ice to non-breeding Mandt's black guillemots, we deployed and recovered (n = 45) geolocators on individuals at a breeding colony in Arctic Alaska during 2011–2015. Black guillemots moved north to the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas immediately after breeding, moved south to the Bering Sea during freeze-up in December, and wintered in the Bering Sea January–April. Most birds occupied the MIZ in regions averaging 30–60% sea ice concentration, with little seasonal variation. Birds regularly roosted on ice in all seasons averaging 5 h d−1, primarily at night. By using the MIZ, with its roosting opportunities and associated prey, black guillemots can remain in the Arctic during winter when littoral waters are completely covered by ice.

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid treatment in major benign uterine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsoee, Märta F; Settnes, Annette; Ottesen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of tranexamic acid (TA) treatment as bleeding prophylaxis in major uterine surgery is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antihemorrhagic effect of prophylactic TA treatment in major benign uterine surgery. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science...

  7. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs).

  8. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs).

  9. Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

    2012-06-01

    The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series.

  10. Investigation of UHPLC/travelling-wave ion mobility/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast profiling of fatty acids in the high Arctic sea surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Farshid Mashayekhy; Leck, Caroline; Ilag, Leopold L; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2018-03-09

    Fatty acids are enriched in the ocean surface microlayer (SML) and have as a consequence been detected worldwide in sea spray aerosols. In searching for a relationship between the properties of the atmospheric aerosol and its ability to form cloud condensation nuclei and to promote cloud droplet formation over remote marine areas, the role of surface active fatty acids sourced from the SML is of interest to be investigated. Here is presented a fast method for profiling of major fatty acids in SML samples collected in the high Arctic (89 °N, 1 °W) in the summer of 2001. UHPLC/travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS)/time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for profiling was evaluated and compared with UHPLC/TOFMS. No sample preparation, except evaporation and centrifugation, was necessary to perform prior to the analysis. TOFMS data on accurate mass, isotopic ratios and fragmentation patterns enabled identification of the fatty acids. The TWIMS dimension added to the selectivity by extensive reduction of the noise level and the entire UHPLC/TWIMS/TOFMS method provided a fast profiling of the acids, ranging from C 8 to C 24 . Hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids were shown to yield the highest signals among the fatty acids detected in a high Arctic SML sample, followed by the unsaturated octadecenoic and octadecadienoic acids. The predominance of signal from even-numbered carbon chains indicates a mainly biogenic origin of the detected fatty acids. This study presents a fast alternative method for screening and profiling of fatty acids, which has the advantage of not requiring any complicated sample preparation thus limiting the loss of analytes. Almost no manual handling, together with the very small sample volumes needed, is certainly beneficial for the determination of trace amounts and should open up the field of applications to also include atmospheric aerosol and fog. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. The Content of Fat and Polyenoic Acids in the Major Food Sources of the Arctic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, V. K. S.; Clausen, Jytte Lene; Egsgaard, Helge

    1980-01-01

    In relation to the apparently low incidence of coronary heart diseases in Arctic populations the fatty acid pattern of muscle and fat tissue of the Arctic seal, birds and mammals were compared with the fatty acid pattern of the corresponding tissues of domestic animals normally used as meat sources...... in western countries. The triglyceride content of muscle samples was also estimated. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system was used for localizing the position of double bonds in the unsaturated acids, by means of their pyrrolidides. The fat tissue from the seal was the main source of polyenoic acids......, tri- and pentaenoic acids in the diet of the Arctic hunter. Those acids were derived metabolically from linolenic acid. In contrast polyenoic acids, linoleic acid and its derivatives in the nonarctic diet, were mainly supplied from muscle of nonruminant animals and from sources of vegetable origin...

  12. Genetic diversity and connectivity remain high in eelgrass Zostera marina populations in the Wadden Sea, despite major impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferber, Steven; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in the 1930s, eelgrass meadows declined throughout the Wadden Sea, leaving populations susceptible to extinction through patchiness, low density and isolation. Additional anthropogenic impacts have altered current regimes, nutrients and turbidity-all of which affect eelgrass. Recent

  13. Method for the routine quantitative gas chromatographic analysis of major free fatty acids in butter and cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, A H; Lindsay, R C

    1980-07-01

    A rapid quantiative method was developed for routine analysis of the major, even carbon-numbered free fatty acids in butter and cream. Free fatty acids were isolated directly from intact samples by a modified silicic acid-potassium hydroxide arrestant column and were separated by gas chromatography with a 1.8 m x 2 mm inner diameter glass column packed with 10% neopentyl glycol adipate on 80/100 Chromosorb W. Purified, formic acid-saturated carrier gas was required for minimal peak tailing and extended column life. The accuracy and reproducibility of the mmethod was established through quantitative recovery studies of free fatty acid mixtures, free fatty acids added to butter, and replicate analysis of butter and cream samples.

  14. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions ( 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  15. Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Li, Zhenxing; Yuan, Fangzhou; Lin, Hong; Pavase, Tushar Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. All added antioxidants at 1 g kg -1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca 2+ -ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had a significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Fate of parabens and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in aquifer materials columns during step experiments with fresh and sea waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortiz, C. M.; Boluda-Botella, N.; Prats-Rico, D.; Sentana-Gadea, I.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal areas submitted to seawater intrusion and with discharges from urban and industrial wastewaters, municipal landfill leachates, rivers, recreational waters and other sources are sensitive to be polluted with parabens. Understanding the fate of these compounds in environmental studies, it requires previously the knowledge of the reactive processes in controlled conditions. In this research, laboratory columns experiments were carried out with a group of parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben) and their main degradation compound (4-hydroxybenzoic acid) to study mainly the dynamic sorption processes in different aquifer materials (100% sand and heterogeneous: 81% sand, 9% silt and 10% clay) and with fresh and sea waters, the end members of seawater intrusions. To the column hydrodynamic characterization, tracer assays with increase and decrease of salinity were performed, to obtain the mean residence time of each column and other transport parameters which allow us to compare parabens' sorption in different conditions. The results of the adsorption and desorption of parabens in the sand column demonstrated be fast and simultaneous, with a short delay and without influence of the water salinity. Very different results were found in the column experiments with heterogeneous material, where the presence of clay and organic matter increase the time of adsorption/desorption as the length of the alkyl chain paraben increased, according with their hydrophobicity. It should be noted that despite the quick desorption of the major quantities of parabens, the elution of their trace concentrations was very slow (for the seawater, the buthylparaben required a dimensionless time of 800). Planning the restoration of a coastal aquifer with freshwater, and in the conditions of the studied sand column experiment, it will need a dimensionless time of 160. However, it is necessary to take into account that the studied parabens and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid are

  17. Acidity enhances the effectiveness of active chemical defensive secretions of sea hares, Aplysia californica, against spiny lobsters, Panulirus interruptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Yaldiz, Seymanur; Vu, Luan; Derby, Charles D

    2007-12-01

    Sea hares such as Aplysia californica, gastropod molluscs lacking a protective shell, can release a purple cloud of chemicals when vigorously attacked by predators. This active chemical defense is composed of two glandular secretions, ink and opaline, both of which contain an array of compounds. This secretion defends sea hares against predators such as California spiny lobsters Panulirus interruptus via multiple mechanisms, one of which is phagomimicry, in which secretions containing feeding chemicals attract and distract predators toward the secretion and away from the sea hare. We show here that ink and opaline are highly acidic, both having a pH of approximately 5. We examined if the acidity of ink and opaline affects their phagomimetic properties. We tested behavioral and electrophysiological responses of chemoreceptor neurons in the olfactory and gustatory organs of P. interruptus, to ink and opaline of A. californica within their natural range of pH values, from approximately 5 to 8. Both behavioral and electrophysiological responses to ink and opaline were enhanced at low pH, and low pH alone accounted for most of this effect. Our data suggest that acidity enhances the phagomimetic chemical defense of sea hares.

  18. Biogeochemistry of Dimethylsulfide, Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, and Acrylic Acid in the Changjiang Estuary and the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Li, Pei-Feng; Liu, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Zhu, Mao-Xu

    2017-12-01

    The distributions of dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and acrylic acid (AA) were investigated in the Changjiang Estuary during winter (dry season) and summer (wet season) 2014 and in the East China Sea (ECS) during summer 2015. The rates of dissolved DMSP (DMSPd) degradation with DMS and AA production, DMS degradation, and AA degradation in the ECS were also studied. Significant seasonal variations in DMS(P) and AA concentrations were observed in the Changjiang Estuary with higher values during the wet season than during the dry season. The maximum ratio of AA/chlorophyll a (Chl a) occurred at the mouth of the Changjiang Estuary due to the combined effects of production from DMSP and terrestrial inputs from the Changjiang Estuary. The distributions of DMS(P) and AA in the ECS were dramatically influenced by the Kuroshio Current and the upwelling caused by the Taiwan Warm Current. The ratios of DMS(P)/Chl a and AA/Chl a exhibited similar patterns in the surface seawater of the ECS, which indicated that phytoplankton species and biomass might play important roles in controlling the distributions of DMS(P) and AA. In vertical profiles, high values of AA emerged in the upper water column and bottom seawater of the Changjiang Estuary. Meanwhile, the maxima of DMS(P) and AA generally appeared in the surface or euphotic layer, whereas their minima arose in the bottom seawater of the ECS. The degradation rates of DMSPd, DMS, and AA in the inshore waters were higher than those in the open sea.

  19. Methyl phosphate formation as a major degradation mode of direct methanol fuel cells with phosphoric acid based electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid doped polymer membranes are widely used as electrolytes in hydrogen based fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Such electrolytes have been explored for direct oxidation of methanol to further increase the versatility of the systems, however......, with demonstrated lifetimes of only a few days to weeks. In this work the methyl phosphate formation from the acid and methanol is identified and proposed to be a major mechanism for the cell degradation. Proton conductivity and fuel cell durability tests validate the mechanism at high methanol contents....

  20. Effects of processing on proximate and fatty acid compositions of six commercial sea cucumber species of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanthan, G; Kumara, P A D A; de Croos, M D S T; Prasada, D V P; Dissanayake, D C T

    2018-05-01

    Processing and its impacts on proximate composition and fatty acid profile of six sea cucumber species; Bohadschia marmorata, Stichopus chloronotus, Holothuria spinifera, Thelenota anax, Holothuria scabra and Bohadschia sp. 1 collected from the northwest coast of Sri Lanka were analyzed. Sea cucumbers are processed into bêche - de - mer by both domestic and industrial level processors following the similar steps of cleaning, evisceration, first boiling, salting, second boiling and drying. However, domestically processed bêche - de - mer always reported a higher percentage of moisture, crude ash, crude fat and lower percentage of crude protein than industrially processed products. Although processing resulted in a significant reduction of total SFA and MUFA in fresh individuals of most of these species, total PUFA increased significantly in processed individuals excluding Bohadschia species. Palmitic acid was found to be the most dominant fatty acid in all these species followed by eicosapentaenoic acid, which showed a significant increase in processed products, except Bohadschia sp. 1. Total MUFA were higher than total SFA in all sea cucumber species having exceptions in Bohadchia sp.1 and fresh S. chloronotus. These findings will make a significant contribution to fill the gaps in existing information as no any previous information is available for species like H. spinifera and S. chloronotus .

  1. Effect of the squid viscera hydrolysate on growth performance and digestion in the red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Fumitaka; Ohta, Takashi; Iwai, Toshiharu; Ido, Atsushi; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The improvement in feed efficiency is one of the most important subjects in fish culture. The development of feed, in terms of good intake, high growth performance, and high feed efficiency is needed. Squid viscera are one of the candidates for alternative material in improving feed efficiency in fish culture. In the present study, we described the dietary effect of the squid viscera hydrolysate (SVH) on the growth performance of the red sea bream. The addition of SVH to feed caused significant increases in feed intake, fork length, and body weight and produced a marked improvement in feed conversion after 4 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, the results of this feeding revealed that low dietary levels of SVH promote growth performance in the red sea bream. We physiologically analyzed digestion and appetite in fish fed diet containing SVH. SVH promoted the activity of hepatic trypsin and lipase, gene expression of stomach pepsin, hepatic lipase, and pyloric caeca trypsin, thereby improving the nutrient availability in red sea bream. Moreover, the mRNA expression of appetite regulating factor, such as brain NPY and stomach ghrelin was significantly improved by dietary SVH. Our current results indicate that dietary SVH as alternative material produced excellent effects on growth performance, which is dependent on the promoting effect on digestion and appetite in red sea bream.

  2. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  3. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC) extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA) to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG) level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME) and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH) were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c) were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver. PMID:22569330

  4. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.

  5. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  6. Fatty acids in six small pelagic fish species and their crustacean prey from the mindanao sea, southern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metillo, Ephrime Bicoy; Aspiras-Eya, Anna Arlene

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in human health and useful in the analysis of the marine food web, however information on tropical pelagic organisms is scarce. Six zooplanktivorous small pelagic fish species (Decapterus kurroides, Decapterus macarellus, Selar crumenophthalmus, Sardinella lemuru, Spratilloides gracilis and Stolephorus insularis) and four of their zooplanktonic crustacean prey [three sergestoid species (Acetes erythraeus, Acetes intermedius and Lucifer penicillifer) and one calanoid copepod (Acartia erythraea)] were collected from the Mindanao Sea, and their fatty acids were profiled. The resulting profiles revealed 17 fatty acids that were specific to certain species and 9 {myristic acid [C14:0], palmitic acid [C16:0], stearic acid [C18:0]; palmitoleic acid [C16:1], oleic acid [C18:1n9c], linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], linolenic acid [C18:3n3], eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [C20:5n3] and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [C22:6n3]} that were common to all species. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of fatty acids indicate a high similarity in profiles in all species, but separate fish and zooplankton clusters were obtained. Mackerel species (D. macarellus, D. kurroides and S. crumenophthalmus) had concentrations of total n-3 fatty acids that match those of their Acetes prey. The copepod A. erythraea and the sergestoid L. penicillifer exhibited the lowest values of the EPA:DHA ratio, which was most likely due to their phytoplanktivorous feeding habits, but the occurrence of the highest values of the ratio in Acetes suggests the inclusion of plant detritus in their diet. DHA values appear to affirm the trophic link among copepod, Lucifer, Acetes and mackerel species.

  7. Determination of major boswellic acids in plasma by high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbeth, Kathleen; Meins, Juergen; Kirste, Simon; Momm, Felix; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2011-12-15

    Until now, dexamethasone is the medication of choice to reduce peritumoral edema associated with primary and secondary brain tumors. Because of the severe side effects accompanying such a treatment the interest in alternative agents that may be co-administered with glucocorticoids and help to reduce the required dose is constantly increasing. Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts (BSE), which have been designated an orphan drug status by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 2002 for the treatment of peritumoral edema, may represent a promising supplemental herbal remedy. However, clinical studies on the effect of BSE on brain edema as well as analyzes of serum levels are very scarce. Based on that background a prospective, placebo controlled, and double blind clinical pilot trial was conducted on 14 patients applying for the first time a high dose of 4200 mg BSE per day and 13 patients receiving placebo. For monitoring the serum levels of all major boswellic acids (BAs) a highly sensitive HPLC-MS method has been developed that allows the determination of KBA and AKBA from 5.0 ng/ml to 3000 ng/ml and of αBA, βBA, AαBA and AβBA from 0.5 ng/ml to 12,000 ng/ml. It is the first validated method that covers such a wide concentration range, which makes it suitable to be used as standard method in clinical trials as it compensates for the great pharmacokinetic variability in the plasma levels of BAs observed in clinical practice. Average steady concentrations (ng/ml) in the range of 6.4-247.5 for KBA, 0-15.5 for AKBA, 36.7-4830.1 for αBA, 87.0-11948.5 for βBA, 73.4-2985.8 for AαBA and 131.4-6131.3 for AβBA were determined in the verum group. The here quantified steady state levels suggest βBA to be a possible candidate for the anti-inflammatory and anti-edemateous effects of BSE. In general, the serum level analysis underlines the promising clinical results of BSE on cerebral edema. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover

  9. Epigenetic regulation of the ELOVL6 gene is associated with a major QTL effect on fatty acid composition in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corominas, J.; Marchesi, J.A.; Puig-Oliveras, A.; Revilla, M.; Estelle, J.; Alves, E.; Folch, J.M.; Ballester, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In previous studies on an Iberian x Landrace cross, we have provided evidence that supported the porcine ELOVL6 gene as the major causative gene of the QTL on pig chromosome 8 for palmitic and palmitoleic acid contents in muscle and backfat. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

  10. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Maekawa, Motoko; Toyota, Tomoko; Dean, Brian; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2015-06-30

    Postmortem brain studies have shown abnormal levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid, in the frontal cortex (particularly the orbitofrontal cortex) of patients with depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder. However, the results from regions in the frontal cortex other than the orbitofrontal cortex are inconsistent. In this study we investigated whether patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder have abnormalities in PUFA levels in the prefrontal cortex [Brodmann area (BA) 8]. In postmortem studies, fatty acids in the phospholipids of the prefrontal cortex (BA8) were evaluated by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or major depressive disorder (n=15) and compared with unaffected controls (n=15). In contrast to previous studies, we found no significant differences in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the prefrontal cortex (BA8) between patients and controls. Subanalysis by sex also showed no significant differences. No significant differences were found in any individual fatty acids between suicide and non-suicide cases. These psychiatric disorders might be characterized by very specific fatty acid compositions in certain areas of the brain, and BA8 might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Starvation beneficially influences the liver physiology and nutrient metabolism in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Shimizu, Sonoko; Urasaki, Shintaro; Matsubara, Takahiro; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Ohta, Kohei

    2015-11-01

    Dietary compromises, especially food restrictions, possess species-specific effects on the health status and infection control in several organisms, including fish. To understand the starvation-mediated physiological responses in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream, especially in the liver, we performed a 20-day starvation experiment using 4 treatment (2 fed and 2 starved) groups, namely, fed-placebo, starved-placebo, fed-infected, and starved-infected, wherein bacterial exposure was done on the 11th day. In the present study, the starved groups showed reduced hepatosomatic index and drastic depletion in glycogen storage and vacuole formation. The fed-infected fish showed significant (Pred sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification, Characterization, and Mapping of a Novel SNP Associated with Body Color Transparency in Juvenile Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Eitaro; Noguchi, Daiki; Nakayama, Kei; Takagi, Motohiro

    2018-03-23

    We previously reported a body color deformity in juvenile red sea bream, which shows transparency in the juvenile stage because of delayed chromatophore development compared with normal individuals, and this finding suggested a genetic cause based on parentage assessments. To conduct marker-assisted selection to eliminate broodstock inheriting the causative gene, developing DNA markers associated with the phenotype was needed. We first conducted SNP mining based on AFLP analysis using bulked-DNA from normal and transparent individuals. One SNP was identified from a transparent-specific AFLP fragment, which significantly associated with transparent individuals. Two alleles (A/G) were observed in this locus, and the genotype G/G was dominantly observed in the transparent groups (97.1%) collected from several production lots produced from different broodstock populations. A few normal individuals inherited the G/G genotype (5.0%), but the A/A and A/G genotypes were dominantly observed in the normal groups. The homologs region of the SNP was searched using a medaka genome database, and intron 12 of the Nell2a gene (located on chromosome 6 of the medaka genome) was highly matched. We also mapped the red sea bream Nell2a gene on the previously developed linkage maps, and this gene was mapped on a male linkage group, LG4-M. The newly found SNP was useful in eliminating broodstock possessing the causative gene of the body color transparency observed in juvenile stage of red sea bream.

  13. Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Simultaneous Determination of Ursodiol and its Major Metabolites, Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and Glycoursodeoxycholic Acid in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method is described for the quantification of ursodiol and its major metabolites glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA in human plasma using single internal standard (Ursodeoxycholic Acid d4. Solid phase extraction was performed and chromatographic separation of 5µL injected sample was achieved using Waters Xterra, 5µm column with a mobile phase comprised of methanol and 5 mM ammonium formate with 0.1 % acetic acid ( 70 : 30, v/v . The mass spectrometer was used in negative ion mode and multiple reactions monitoring using electro spray ionization mode as an interface. The method was fully validated and the calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 25.9 to 15300.1 ng/mL for ursodiol, 2.7 to 1587.5ng/mLfor tauroursodeoxycholicacid and 25.4 to 15040.9 ng/mL for glycoursodeoxycholic acid. The method was sensitive and specific, with the lower limit of quantification of 25.9, 2.7 and 25.4 ng/ml for ursodiol, tauroursodeoxycholic acid and glycoursodeoxycholic acid respectively. The present method includes a simple and rapid sample preparation with shorter analysis run time and less flow rate compared to previously reported methods. The method was applied successfully for a bioequivalence study in healthy subjects.

  14. Maternal and fetal Acid-base chemistry: a major determinant of perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omo-Aghoja, L

    2014-01-01

    Very small changes in pH may significantly affect the function of various fetal organ systems, such as the central nervous system, and the cardiovascular system with associated fetal distress and poor Apgar score. Review of existing data on maternal-fetal acid-base balance in pregnancy highlight the factors that are associated with derangements of the acid-base status and the impact of the derangements on fetal outcome. Extensive search of electronic databases and manual search of journals for relevant literature on maternal and fetal acid chemistry, clinical studies and case studies were undertaken. There is a substantial reduction in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in pregnancy. Adequate buffering prevents significant changes in maternal arterial pH. Normal fetal metabolism results in the production of acids which are buffered to maintain extracellular pH within a critical range. Fetal hypoxia can occur when maternal oxygenation is compromised, maternal perfusion of the placenta is reduced, or delivery of oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus is impeded. When adequate fetal oxygenation does not occur, metabolisms proceed along with an anaerobic pathway with production of organic acids, such as lactic acid. Accumulation of lactic acid can deplete the buffer system and result in metabolic acidosis with associated low fetal pH, fetal distress and poor Apgar score. There is a significant reduction in pCO2 in pregnancy. This change, however, does not result in a corresponding significant reduction in maternal arterial pH, because of adequate buffering. Very small changes in pH may cause significant derangement in fetal function and outcome.

  15. Potential role of sea spray generation in the atmospheric transport of perfluorocarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Eva; Ellis, David A

    2010-08-01

    The observed environmental concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its conjugate base (PFO) in remote regions such as the Arctic have been primarily ascribed to the atmospheric transport and degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and to direct PFO transport in ocean currents. These mechanisms are each capable of only partially explaining observations. Transport within marine aerosols has been proposed and may explain transport over short distances but will contribute little over longer distances. However, PFO(A) has been shown to have a very short half-life in aqueous aerosols and thus sea spray was proposed as a mechanism for the generation of PFOA in the gas phase from PFO in a water body. Using the observed PFO concentrations in oceans of the Northern Hemisphere and estimated spray generation rates, this mechanism is shown to have the potential for contributing large amounts of PFOA to the atmosphere and may therefore contribute significantly to the concentrations observed in remote locations. Specifically, the rate of PFOA release into the gas phase from oceans in the Northern Hemisphere is calculated to be potentially comparable to global stack emissions to the atmosphere. The subsequent potential for atmospheric degradation of PFOA and its global warming potential are considered. Observed isomeric ratios and predicted atmospheric concentrations due to FTOH degradation are used to elucidate the likely relative importance of transport pathways. It is concluded that gas phase PFOA released from oceans may help to explain observed concentrations in remote regions. The model calculations performed in the present study strongly suggest that oceanic aerosol and gas phase field monitoring is of vital importance to obtain a complete understanding of the global dissemination of PFCAs. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  16. Maternal and Fetal Acid-Base Chemistry: A Major Determinant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Very small changes in pH may significantly affect the function of various fetal organ systems, such ... and fetal acid chemistry, clinical studies and case studies were undertaken. There is a .... the challenges of diagnosis and treatment of fetal hypoxia. Maternal ...... Blumenthal I. Cerebral palsy – Medicolegal aspects. J R Soc.

  17. Maternal and Fetal Acid-Base Chemistry: A Major Determinant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very small changes in pH may significantly affect the function of various fetal organ systems, such as the central nervous system, and the cardiovascular system with associated fetal distress and poor Apgar score. Review of existing data on maternal-fetal acid-base balance in pregnancy highlight the factors that are ...

  18. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  19. Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

    2009-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt.

  20. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaomi Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. RESULTS: Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  1. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-02-22

    In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  2. Membrane omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency as a preventable risk factor for comorbid coronary heart disease in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of modafinil acid and estimation of the metabolic conversion of modafinil into modafinil acid in 5 major ethnic groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-hua; Guo, Tao; Deng, Chen-hui; Guan, Zheng; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2012-11-01

    To describe the population pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil acid and to compare the extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid in 5 major ethnic groups (Han, Mongolian, Korean, Uygur, and Hui) of China. In a multi-center, open-label, single dose clinical trial, 49 healthy volunteers from the 5 ethnic groups received 200 mg of modafinil orally. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation of modafinil and modafinil acid were drawn before and at different time after the administration. Systematic population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling for modafinil acid was conducted, integrating with our previous PopPK model for modafinil. The influence of ethnicity, gender, height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) was estimated. The extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid, expressed as the relative conversion fraction, was estimated and compared among the 5 ethnic groups. When combined with the PopPK model of modafinil, the concentration of modafinil acid versus time profile was best described with a one-compartment model. The typical clearance and volume of distribution for modafinil acid were 4.94 (l/h) and 2.73 (l), respectively. The Korean group had 25% higher clearance, and the Uygur and Hui groups had 12% higher clearance than the Han group. The median for the relative conversion fraction was 0.53 for Koreans, and 0.24 for the other 4 ethnicities. Ethnicity has significant influence on the clearance of modafinil acid. When patients in the 5 ethnic groups are administered drugs or prodrugs catalyzed by esterases and/or amidases, the variability in the extent of drug metabolism should be considered.

  4. Effects of Large-Scale Releases on the Genetic Structure of Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) Populations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Gonzalez, Enrique; Aritaki, Masato; Knutsen, Halvor; Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale hatchery releases are carried out for many marine fish species worldwide; nevertheless, the long-term effects of this practice on the genetic structure of natural populations remains unclear. The lack of knowledge is especially evident when independent stock enhancement programs are conducted simultaneously on the same species at different geographical locations, as occurs with red sea bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) in Japan. In this study, we examined the putative effects of intensive offspring releases on the genetic structure of red sea bream populations along the Japanese archipelago by genotyping 848 fish at fifteen microsatellite loci. Our results suggests weak but consistent patterns of genetic divergence (F(ST) = 0.002, p Red sea bream in Japan appeared spatially structured with several patches of distinct allelic composition, which corresponded to areas receiving an important influx of fish of hatchery origin, either released intentionally or from unintentional escapees from aquaculture operations. In addition to impacts upon local populations inhabiting semi-enclosed embayments, large-scale releases (either intentionally or from unintentional escapes) appeared also to have perturbed genetic structure in open areas. Hence, results of the present study suggest that independent large-scale marine stock enhancement programs conducted simultaneously on one species at different geographical locations may compromise native genetic structure and lead to patchy patterns in population genetic structure.

  5. Profiling of major fatty acids in different raw and roasted sesame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids profile of five sesame cultivars including Branching Naz, Darab, Karaj, Dezful and Black sesame and the effect of time and temperature roasting procedure. The seeds oil content varied from 43±0.28 to 47±0.41% with the average content of 44.4±1.87%. Darab and Black ...

  6. The Amino Acid Composition of Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus Segnis, Forskal, 1775 from The North Eastern Mediterranean Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Artar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to detect the content of amino acid in female and male specimens of blue swimming crab (Portunus segnis obtained from (including 12 male crab and also 12 female crab North Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Turkey. The protein was identified as 17.63% and 18.13% for female and male crab respevtively. Totally 9 essential amino acids were recorded in the present study. Lysine and leucine constituted the highest essential amino acid (EAA concentrations in P. segnis. This species was found to be in good score in terms of the level of EAA and the EAA/Non-EAA ratios when compared with other economical crab species.

  7. Determination of major elements in annual tree rings by acid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belacy, N.; Abou EL-Nour, F.; Simpson, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    A method utilizing acid extraction of Na, K, Ca and Mg from the wood of annual growth rings of egyptian trees was executed. The method was applied on a Morus Alba tree located at Nile delta, northern of egypt. The acid extraction method includes the use of dilute nitric acid to extract the elements of the wood. The wood was soaked for one hour with continuous stirring at room temperature. Element contents of both leachant and ash of the extracted wood dissolved in 2N HNO 3 , were then estimated using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The method was optimized and led to an accurate determination of the elements in the wood of the examined tree rings. The results showed a difference in the level of these elements along the annual rings of the examined tree. The data obtained in this work can help in understanding the correlation between the concentration of these elements in the annual growth rings of the egyptian trees and the expected changes in the salinity of water of irrigation before and after the high dam project

  8. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna Krystyna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S.; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  9. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2016-01-04

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  10. Amino acid specificity of fibers of the facial/trigeminal complex innervating the maxillary barbel in the Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, John; Shimohara, Mami; Marui, Takayuki; Kohbara, Jun; Harada, Shuitsu; Kiyohara, Sadao

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicus, possesses taste and solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) located on the external body surface that detect specific water-soluble substances. Here, we identify two major fiber types of the facial/trigeminal complex that transmit amino acid information to the medulla. Both single and few fiber preparations respond to amino acid stimulation in the 0.1 μM to mM range. One fiber type responds best to glycine and l-alanine (i.e. Gly/Ala fibers) whereas the other fiber type is best stimulated by l-proline and glycine betaine (hereafter referred to only as betaine) (i.e. Pro/Bet fibers). We demonstrate that betaine, which does not alter the pH of the seawater and therefore does not activate the animals' highly sensitive pH sensors (Caprio et al., Science 344:1154-1156, 2014), is sufficient to elicit appetitive food search behavior. We further show that the amino acid specificity of fibers of the facial/trigeminal complex in P. japonicus is different from that in Ariopsis felis (Michel and Caprio, J. Neurophysiol. 66:247-260, 1991; Michel et al., J. Comp. Physiol. A. 172:129-138, 1993), a representative member of the only other family (Ariidae) of extant marine catfishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid profile of millet bran wine and the synergistic interaction between major polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoXuan; Sha, XiaoHong; Rahman, Ebeydulla; Wang, Yong; Ji, BaoPing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Millet bran, the by-product of millet processing industry, contains an abundance of phytochemicals, especially polyphenols. The main objective of this study was brewing antioxidant wine from millet bran, as well as the nutritional evaluation. The total polyphenol content of wine samples was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results showed that millet bran wine (MBW) contained as much as six times of total polyphenols compared with millet wine (MW), and performed considerably stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assays. More than sixfold of total amino acids (AA) were found in MBW than in MW. Moreover, the indispensable AA and functional AA were also abundant in MBW. The major polyphenol compounds in MBW were identified using HPLC, including vanillic acid, syringic acid (SA), p -coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA). They exhibited synergism in the antioxidant assays, especially the combinations of SA and CA, SA and FA. This study not only provides evidence for MBW as a nutraceutical with antioxidant activity, but also opens new avenues in the area of making comprehensive utilization of agricultural by-products.

  12. Nucleic acid toolkit: Potential diagnosis and treatment of major infectious diseases endemic in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Millroy, L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS and TB are among the major infectious diseases and defining public health problems in developing countries. This book aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and also provide an understanding of the pathology of these diseases. It also...

  13. Acid-Base disorders as predictors of early outcomes in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In resource limited settings these methods may not be sufficient to detect occult tissue hypoxia and the accompanying metabolic derangements. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out at a level I urban Trauma centre; Accident and Emergency unit. Major trauma patients were consecutively recruited into the ...

  14. Shifting patterns of nitrogen excretion and amino acid catabolism capacity during the life cycle of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Claude, Jaime F; Cockshutt, Amanda; Holmes, John A; Wang, Yuxiang S; Youson, John H; Walsh, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    The jawless fish, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), spends part of its life as a burrow-dwelling, suspension-feeding larva (ammocoete) before undergoing a metamorphosis into a free swimming, parasitic juvenile that feeds on the blood of fishes. We predicted that animals in this juvenile, parasitic stage have a great capacity for catabolizing amino acids when large quantities of protein-rich blood are ingested. The sixfold to 20-fold greater ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) in postmetamorphic (nonfeeding) and parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes suggested that basal rates of amino acid catabolism increased following metamorphosis. This was likely due to a greater basal amino acid catabolizing capacity in which there was a sixfold higher hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes. Immunoblotting also revealed that GDH quantity was 10-fold and threefold greater in parasitic lampreys than in ammocoetes and upstream migrant lampreys, respectively. Higher hepatic alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the parasitic lampreys also suggested an enhanced amino acid catabolizing capacity in this life stage. In contrast to parasitic lampreys, the twofold larger free amino acid pool in the muscle of upstream migrant lampreys confirmed that this period of natural starvation is accompanied by a prominent proteolysis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III was detected at low levels in the liver of parasitic and upstream migrant lampreys, but there was no evidence of extrahepatic (muscle, intestine) urea production via the ornithine urea cycle. However, detection of arginase activity and high concentrations of arginine in the liver at all life stages examined infers that arginine hydrolysis is an important source of urea. We conclude that metamorphosis is accompanied by a metabolic reorganization that increases the capacity of parasitic sea lampreys to catabolize intermittently large amino acid loads arising

  15. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of patients with major depression disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rising number of studies have raised questions regarding the association of mental illness in a particular mood disorders such as depression with low intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Given all the side-effects that traditional antidepressants put patients at risk for, omega-3 is certainly a better alternative that might improve depressive symptoms and patient′s compliance to treatment by removing the stigma of psychiatric drugs. This study critically reviewed 12 relevant studies from PubMed published between 1992 - 2013 in order to determine whether omega-3 supplements or diet rich in fish were likely to show affectivity in reducing depressive symptoms. Most of the studies showed clear association between omega-3 and reduced depressive symptoms. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 and high fish consumption in reducing depression. Omega-3 fatty acids have also shown to be safe when used during pregnancy to prevent postpartum depression. Although some studies showed mixed results of positive findings, the use of omega-3 supplements could not be an absolute substitute of antidepressants due to limitation in their studies. Minority of the studies reviewed did not correlate omega-3 with the improvement of depressive symptoms for many reasons such as the healthy life-style of subjects, etc. Given the fact that depression has various causes, this puts the testing of omega-3 in a lot of bias due to several variables such as dose, formula, period administered as well as the candidates′ state of health. Further research is definitely warranted on a larger sample size with close follow-up using proper assessment tools. Omega-3 has shown to have minimal or no side-effects at all, which makes it important for mental health professional to at least ensure that patients diagnosed with depression have adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids whether by supplementation or in their daily diet.

  16. The role of domoic acid in abortion and premature parturition of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on San Miguel Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tracey; Zabka, Tanja S; Delong, Robert L; Wheeler, Elizabeth A; Ylitalo, Gina; Bargu, Sibel; Silver, Mary; Leighfield, Tod; Van Dolah, Frances; Langlois, Gregg; Sidor, Inga; Dunn, J Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M D

    2009-01-01

    Domoic acid is a glutaminergic neurotoxin produced by marine algae such as Pseudo-nitzschia australis. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) ingest the toxin when foraging on planktivorous fish. Adult females comprise 60% of stranded animals admitted for rehabilitation due to acute domoic acid toxicosis and commonly suffer from reproductive failure, including abortions and premature live births. Domoic acid has been shown to cross the placenta exposing the fetus to the toxin. To determine whether domoic acid was playing a role in reproductive failure in sea lion rookeries, 67 aborted and live-born premature pups were sampled on San Miguel Island in 2005 and 2006 to investigate the causes for reproductive failure. Analyses included domoic acid, contaminant and infectious disease testing, and histologic examination. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. were present both in the environment and in sea lion feces, and domoic acid was detected in the sea lion feces and in 17% of pup samples tested. Histopathologic findings included systemic and localized inflammation and bacterial infections of amniotic origin, placental abruption, and brain edema. The primary lesion in five animals with measurable domoic acid concentrations was brain edema, a common finding and, in some cases, the only lesion observed in aborted premature pups born to domoic acid-intoxicated females in rehabilitation. Blubber organochlorine concentrations were lower than those measured previously in premature sea lion pups collected in the 1970s. While the etiology of abortion and premature parturition was varied in this study, these results suggest that domoic acid contributes to reproductive failure on California sea lion rookeries.

  17. Acid-Base and Plasma Biochemical Changes Using Crystalloid Fluids in Stranded Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Quintana, María Del Pino; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and effects on acid-base and electrolyte status of several crystalloid fluids in 57 stranded juvenile loggerhead turtles. Within a rehabilitation program four different crystalloid fluids were administered (0.9% Na Cl solution; 5% dextrose + 0.9% Na Cl solutions 1:1; 0.9% Na Cl + lactated Ringer's solutions 1:1; lactated Ringer's solution). Crystalloid fluids were intracoelomically administered during three days (20 ml/kg/day). Animals were sampled at three different moments: Upon admission for evaluating the type of acid-base or biochemical disorder, post-fluid therapy treatment for controlling the evolution of the disorder, and post-recovery period for obtaining the baseline values for rehabilitated loggerhead turtles. Each sample was analyzed with a portable electronic blood analyzer for pH, pO2, pCO2, lactate, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and BUN concentration. Admission and post-fluid therapy treatment values were compared with those obtained for each turtle immediately before release. The highest percentage of acid-base recovery and electrolyte balance was observed in turtles treated with mixed saline-lactated Ringer's solution (63.6%), followed by turtles treated with physiological saline solution (55%), lactated Ringer's solution (33.3%), and dextrose-saline solutions (10%). Most turtles treated with lactated Ringer's solution had lower lactate concentrations compared with their initial values; however, 66.6% of turtles treated with lactated Ringer's solution had metabolic alkalosis after therapy. Significant higher concentrations of glucose were detected after saline-dextrose administration compared with all the remaining fluids. This is the first study evaluating the effects of several crystalloid fluids on the acid-base status and plasma biochemical values in stranded loggerhead sea turtles. Reference convalescent venous blood gas, acid-base, and plasma biochemical values, useful for veterinary

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in major depressive episodes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Lin, Chih-Ying; Lin, Pan-Yen; Shih, Yin-Hua; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Ho, Ming; Yang, Hui-Ting; Huang, Shih-Yi; Gałecki, Piotr; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2018-01-03

    Prenatal depression (PND) is a common psychiatric disorder in pregnant women and leads to psychosocial dysfunction, high suicidal rate, and adverse childcare. Patients with PND have omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 or n-3 PUFAs) deficits, which might link to chronic low-grade inflammatory process and the pathophysiological mechanisms of depression. In this case-control study, we examined the levels of PUFAs and inflammatory cytokines in PND. Blood samples were obtained and analyzed from 16 healthy controls and 17 depressed cases (PND group) diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Independent sample t-test and correlation analysis were performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) logistics correlation analysis. PND group had significantly lower levels of total n-3 (p=0.026), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p=0.020) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) (p=0.019) but a higher omega-6 (n-6)/n-3 PUFAs ratio (p=0.007) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (p=0.016) level. Moreover, the duration of current PND episodes were also significantly correlated with DHA, EPA, n-3 PUFAs, n-6/n-3 ratio and TNF-α. In terms of PUFAs and cytokine levels, only DHA was inversely correlated with TNF-α. PND is significantly associated with lower DHA, EPA, and total n-3 PUFAs levels and an increased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio, while the duration of PND is associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs, including DHA and EPA. The correlation of PUFAs levels with depression and TNF-α level grant further investigation into the inflammatory process underlying PND, mediated by PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Churl Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was a small pen trial in which we investigated comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat. A total of 108 male broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control, 1% sea urchin shell powder, and 1% feed additives with 3 replicates of 12 chicks per pen in a completely randomized design for 28 days. The following parameters have been investigated: proximate composition (DM, CP, EE, and ash, physicochemical properties (pH, TBARS, cooking loss and DPPH radical scavenging, meat color and fatty acid profiles. No remarkable effects between treatment and storage day were observed for proximate composition, physicochemical properties, meat color and fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, diets with 1% sea urchin shell powder have the ability to increase DPPH radical scavenging and unsaturated fatty acid, indicating an opportunity for partial diet substitution in comparison with 1% feed additives.

  20. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem corpus callosum of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, K; Maekawa, M; Toyota, T; Dean, B; Hamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, T

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and psychiatric disorders have thus far focused mainly on analyzing gray matter, rather than white matter, in the postmortem brain. In this study, we investigated whether PUFA levels showed abnormalities in the corpus callosum, the largest area of white matter, in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder. Fatty acids in the phospholipids of the postmortem corpus callosum were evaluated by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or major depressive disorder (n=15) and compared with unaffected controls (n=15). In contrast to some previous studies, no significant differences were found in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the corpus callosum between patients and controls. A subanalysis by sex gave the same results. No significant differences were found in any PUFAs between suicide completers and non-suicide cases regardless of psychiatric disorder diagnosis. Patients with psychiatric disorders did not exhibit n-3 PUFAs deficits in the postmortem corpus callosum relative to the unaffected controls, and the corpus callosum might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism. This area of research is still at an early stage and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Major depression is associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Julien, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are intrinsic cell membrane components and closely involved in neurotransmission and receptor function. Lower omega-3 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), increases in cardiac events in CAD patients, and depression. We sought to examine relationships between depression and serum levels of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in patients recovering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We carried out a case-control study of serum PUFA levels and current major depression in 54 age- and sex-matched pairs approximately 2 months following ACS. Depressed patients had significantly lower concentrations of total omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and higher ratios of arachidonic acid (AA) to DHA, AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and n-3 to n-6 than controls. There were no baseline differences in any potential risk or protective factors for depression. Results are consistent with previous reports in depressed patients without CAD, and with literature concerning omega-3 levels and risk of CAD events. Dietary, genetic, and hormonal factors may all play a role in both depression and CAD. Both prospective studies and randomized trials are needed to help clarify the interrelationships.

  2. Full scale evaluation of combined sewer overflows disinfection using performic acid in a sea-outfall pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Flagstad, Rasmus; Sonne Munch, Ebbe

    2015-01-01

    methods are known and each has problems. This work evaluated for the first time the full-scale disinfection using performic acid by the removal of the two currently regulated indicator bacteria for bathing water quality, E. coli and Enterococcus. Experiments were performed at a sewage bypass through a sea......-outfall pipe with a minimum hydraulic retention time of 24 min. The disinfection efficiency in the field was measured by analyzing samples taken before and after the treatment. Samples were also treated with performic acid in the laboratory to measure the disinfection effectiveness and kinetic of degradation...... of performic acid. Doses of 1-8 ppm of performic acid achieved 1.0-3.5 log removal of E coli and 1.0-2.44 log removal of Enterococcus in the field, but were somewhat higher in laboratory conditions at 1.69-4.38 and 1.0-4.27 log units, respectively. Studies of the degradation of performic acid in collected real...

  3. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease: Acting separately or synergistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Shieh, Chu-Hsin; Wu, Yi-Shyuan; Kalueff, Allan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may improve or prevent some psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in both experimental and clinical studies. As important membrane components, these PUFAs benefit brain health by modulating neuroimmune and apoptotic pathways, changing membrane function and/or competing with n-6 PUFAs, the precursors of inflammatory mediators. However, the exact role of each fatty acid in neuroimmune modulation and neurogenesis, the interaction between EPA and DHA, and the best EPA:DHA ratios for improving brain disorders, remain unclear. It is also unknown whether EPA, as a DHA precursor, acts directly or via DHA. Here, we discuss recent evidence of EPA and DHA effects in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease, as well as their potential synergistic action on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neurotrophic processes in the brain. We further analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which EPA, DHA or their combination may benefit these diseases. We also outline the limitations of current studies and suggest new genetic models and novel approaches to overcome these limitations. Finally, we summarize future strategies for translational research in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Kyu [Department of Marine Science, College of Natural Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon, 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: jeoh@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1} for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}; PFOA: 1500 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  5. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg −1 bw d −1 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg −1 bw d −1 ; PFOA: 1500 ng kg −1 bw d −1 ). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  6. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of fatty acids purified from the internal organ of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T H; Kim, S M

    2015-04-01

    α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of the various solvent fractions (n-hexane, CHCl3 , EtOAc, BuOH, and water) of sea cucumber internal organ were investigated. 1,3-Dipalmitolein (1) and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (2) with potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were purified from the n-hexane fraction of sea cucumber internal organ. IC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 4.45 and 14.87 μM against Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase. These compounds mildly inhibited rat-intestinal α-glucosidase. In addition, both compounds showed a mixed competitive inhibition against S. cerevisiae α-glucosidase and were very stable at pH 2 up to 60 min. The KI values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.48 and 1.24 μM, respectively. Therefore, the internal organ of sea cucumber might be a potential new source of α-glucosidase inhibitors suitably used for prevention of obesity and diabetes mellitus. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. A novel varanic acid epimer--(24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid--is a major biliary bile acid in two varanid lizards and the Gila monster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagey, Lee R; Ogawa, Shoujiro; Kato, Narimi; Satoh née Okihara, Rika; Une, Mizuho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    A key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway by which C(24) bile acids are formed from cholesterol has long been considered to be varanic acid, (24ξ,25ξ)-3α,7α,12α-24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid. The (24R,25R)-epimer of this tetrahydroxy bile acid, in the form of its taurine N-acyl amidate, was thought to be the major biliary bile acid in lizards of the family Varanidae. We report here that a major biliary bile acid of three lizard species - the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), Gray's monitor (Varanus olivaceus), and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) - is a novel epimer of varanic acid. The epimer was shown to be (24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid (present in bile as its taurine conjugate). The structure was established by mass spectroscopy and by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, as well as by synthesis of the compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microenvironment acidity as a major determinant of tumor chemoresistance: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sophie; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Azzarito, Tommaso; Rauch, Cyril; Fais, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Despite the major progresses in biomedical research and the development of novel therapeutics and treatment strategies, cancer is still among the dominant causes of death worldwide. One of the crucial challenges in the clinical management of cancer is primary (intrinsic) and secondary (acquired) resistance to both conventional and targeted chemotherapeutics. Multiple mechanisms have been identifiedthat underlie intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance: these include impaired drug uptake, increased drug efflux, deletion of receptors, altered drug metabolism, quantitative and qualitative alterations in drug targets, increased DNA damage repair and various mechanisms of anti-apoptosis. The fast efflux of anticancer drugs mediated by multidrug efflux pumps and the partial or complete reversibility of chemoresistance combined with the absence of genetic mutations suggests a multifactorial process. However, a growing body of recent evidence suggests that chemoresistance is often triggered by the highly acidic microenvironment of tumors. The vast majority of drugs, including conventional chemotherapeutics and more recent biological agents, are weak bases that are quickly protonated and neutralized in acidic environments, such as the extracellular microenvironment and the acidic organelles of tumor cells. It is therefore essential to develop new strategies to overcome the entrapment and neutralization of weak base drugs. One such strategy is the use of proton pump inhibitors which can enhance tumor chemosensitivity by increasing the pH of the tumor microenvironment. Recent clinical trials in animals with spontaneous tumors have indicated that patient alkalization is capable of reversing acquired chemoresistance in a large percentage of tumors that are refractory to chemotherapy. Of particular interest was the benefit of alkalization for patients undergoing metronomic regimens which are becoming more widely used in veterinary medicine. Overall, these results provide

  9. Majority of cellular fatty acid acylated proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.A.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    The BC 2 Hl muscle cell line was previously reported to contain a broad array of fatty acid acylated proteins. Palmitate was shown to be attached to membrane proteins posttranslationally through thiol ester linkages, whereas myristate was attached cotranslationally, or within seconds thereafter, to soluble and membrane-bound proteins through amide linkages. The temporal and subcellular differences between palmitate and myristate acylation suggested that these two classes of acyl proteins might follow different intracellular pathways to distinct subcellular membrane systems or organelles. In this study, the authors examined the subcellular localization of the major fatty acylated proteins in BC 4 Hl cells. Palmitate-containing proteins were localized to the plasma membrane, but only a subset of myristate-containing proteins was localized to this membrane fraction. The majority of acyl proteins were nonglycosylated and resistant to digestion with extracellular proteases, suggesting that they were not exposed to the external surface of the plasma membrane. Many proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins face the cytoplasm. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled with [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 3 H]myristate revealed that individual proteins were modified by only one of the two fatty acids and did not undergo both N-linked myristylation and ester-linked palmitylation. Together, these results suggest that the majority of cellular acyl proteins are routed to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, and they raise the possibility that fatty acid acylation may play a role in intracellular sorting of nontransmembranous, nonglycosylated membrane proteins

  10. Effects of dietary administration of guanosine monophosphate on the growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-10-01

    The present study explored the dietary administration effects of guanosine monophosphate (GMP) on growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (GMP-0.1), 0.2% (GMP-0.2), 0.4% (GMP-0.4) and 0.8% (GMP-0.8) purified GMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The obtained results clearly indicated that, growth performance of red sea bream enhanced by dietary GMP supplementation compared to control and significantly higher final weight was found in fish fed diet group GMP-0.4. Specific growth rate (SGR) and percent weight gain (%WG) also significantly higher in diet group GMP-0.4 in compared to control and it was not differed (P > 0.05) with diet group GMP-0.8. Feed intake significantly increased with the supplementation of GMP. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) also improved (P  0.05) by GMP supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with GMP supplementation. In terms of oxidative stress GMP-0.2 showed best condition with low oxidative stress and high antioxidant level. Moreover, the fish fed GMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream, which is also in line with the most of the growth performance and health parameters of the fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of organic fertilizer, humic acid and sea weed extract on wheat production in pothowar region of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, S.; Anjum, A.S.; Kasana, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) crop production was evaluated under organic conditions during the year 2008-09 and 2009-2010 at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research council (PARC) Islamabad. The study includes four treatments with four replications. The treatments includes; (1) Organic fertilizer 625 Kg ha/sup -1/, (2) Organic fertilizer 625 and Humic Acid 10 Kg ha/sup -1/ (3) Humic Acid and Sea weed extract 625 ml ha/sup -1/ and (4) Control. Organic amendments were incorporated during land preparation and seaweed extract as foliar spray. The basal dose of organic fertilizer and humic acid (granule) were added at the time of sowing of wheat during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.Humic acid solution 1% and sea weed extract were applied as foliar spray at 6 inches of wheat crop. The second foliar spray was done at tillering while third and forth sprays at heading and milking stage respectively. The crop conditions, color, shoot length and spike and yield parameters were recorded at different stages of the organic fertilizer application. The soils and crops managed organically are sustainable. Similarly, biological and chemical properties of soil also improved significantly. The compost enriched with different organic waste increased all physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil as well as yield of the crop. The wheat crop morphological and agronomical parameters also increase significantly. Moreover, nutrients supply and other soil properties like pH, CEC, ECe and plant nutrients including microbial community structure influence positively. (author)

  12. Impacts of Thermal Treatments on Major and Minor Allergens of Sea Snail, Cerithidea obtusa (Obtuse Horn Shell)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmilah Misnan; Norazlin Salahudin Abd Aziz; Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir; Faizal Bakhtiar; Noormalin Abdullah; Shahnaz Murad

    2016-01-01

    Snail is one of the worst causes of food allergy. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major and minor allergens of the local marine snail (Cerithidea obtusa) and subsequently to investigate the impacts of heat treatment on the IgE-binding activity of snail allergens. Proteins from raw and heat-treated snails (boiled, roasted and fried) were extracted and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoblotting of all extracts were then...

  13. Analysis of Causes of Major Environmental Issues Occurring on Sea Coastlines of the Peter the Great Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikov, S. Yu; Dulepov, V. I.; Maiorov, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    The geoecological assessment of any territory or aquatic area is based on the evaluation of the natural resource potential, conditions and factors influencing its development as well as the analysis of major environmental issues that characterize the current regional state. The monitoring of water ecosystems under the conditions of anthropogenic impact on coastal areas is of significant importance within the study of the conservation and restoration of biodiversity, in the assessment of the dynamics of various environmental factors and their effects on ecosystems and on the bioresources management planning.

  14. Study on impact of habitat degradation on proximate composition and amino acid profile of Indian major carps from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is aimed to study an impact of habitat degradation on proximate composition and amino acid (AAs profile of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala collected from polluted, non-polluted area (upstream and a commercial fish farm. The amino acid profile was estimated by the amino acid analyzer. C. catla collected from the polluted environment had highest lipid, protein and ash contents (12.04 ± 0.01, 13.45 ± 0.01 and 0.93 ± 0.03%, respectively. The high protein content (14.73 ± 0.01 and 14.12 ± 0. 01% was recorded in C. catla procured from non-polluted (upstream wild habitat of River Chenab and controlled commercial fish farm. Farmed fish species showed comparatively higher moisture contents followed by upstream and polluted area fishes. C. mrigala showed significant differences in amino acid and proximate composition collected from a polluted site of the river Chenab. C. catla collected from non-polluted site of the river showed an excellent nutrient profile, followed by L. rohita (wild and farmed and C. mrigala (polluted area, respectively. All fishes from the polluted areas of the River Chenab indicated a significant decrease in the concentration of some AAs when compared to farmed and wild (upstream major carps. Omitting of some important AAs was also observed in the meat of fish harvested from polluted habitat of this river. C. mrigala and L. rohita exhibited a significant increase in the concentration of some of non-essential amino acids such as cysteine in their meat. The results indicated that wild fish (upstream and farmed fish species had highest protein contents and amino acid profile and hence appeared to be the best for human consumption. The proximate composition and AAs profiles of fish harvested from the polluted area of the river clearly indicated that efforts shall be made for the restoration of habitat to continue the requirement of high quality fish meat at a low cost to the

  15. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and major fatty acid groups of lamb M. longissimus lumborum using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Schmidt, Heinar; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-12-01

    A hand held Raman spectroscopic device was used to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) levels and the major fatty acid (FA) groups of fresh intact ovine M. longissimus lumborum (LL). IMF levels were determined using the Soxhlet method, while FA analysis was conducted using a rapid (KOH in water, methanol and sulphuric acid in water) extraction procedure. IMF levels and FA values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against each other using linear regression. The results indicate that there is potential to predict PUFA (R(2)=0.93) and MUFA (R(2)=0.54) as well as SFA values that had been adjusted for IMF content (R(2)=0.54). However, this potential was significantly reduced when correlations between predicted and observed values were determined by cross validation (R(2)cv=0.21-0.00). Overall, the prediction of major FA groups using Raman spectra was more precise (relative reductions in error of 0.3-40.8%) compared to the null models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality enhancement in the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4°C by chitosan coating incorporated with citric acid or licorice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Chen, Shengjun; Liu, Guangming; Yang, Qiuming

    2014-11-01

    The preserving effects of chitosan, chitosan and citric acid, chitosan and licorice extract on fresh Japanese sea bass fillets stored at 4 °C for 12 days were studied. Results showed that citric acid or licorice extract can enhance the preserving function of chitosan significantly by retarding lipid oxidation and inhibiting microbial growth as reflected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total plate count, respectively. Both total volatile basic nitrogen values and sensory scores indicated chitosan and citric acid or licorice extract can significantly reduce the quality loss and extend the shelf life of Japanese sea bass fish fillets during refrigerated storage. Citric acid or licorice extract with chitosan could thus be applied in the seafood industry to enhance quality of fish fillets as natural preservatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, a Major Fatty Acid from Royal Jelly, Inhibits VEGF-Induced Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Izuta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is reported to be a potent pro-angiogenic factor that plays a pivotal role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Royal jelly (RJ is a honeybee product containing various proteins, sugars, lipids, vitamins and free amino acids. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10HDA, a major fatty acid component of RJ, is known to have various pharmacological effects; its antitumor activity being especially noteworthy. However, the mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. We examined the effect of 10HDA on VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Our findings showed that, 10HDA at 20 µM or more significantly inhibited such proliferation, migration and tube formation. Similarly, 10 µM GM6001, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, prevented VEGF-induced migration and tube formation. These findings indicate that 10HDA exerts an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced angiogenesis, partly by inhibiting both cell proliferation and migration. Further experiments will be needed to clarify the detailed mechanism.

  18. Biogeochemical Regeneration of a Nodule Mining Disturbance Site: Trace Metals, DOC and Amino Acids in Deep-Sea Sediments and Pore Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A. L. Paul

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interest in deep-sea mineral resources, such as polymetallic nodules, calls for environmental research about possible impacts of mineral exploitation on the deep-sea ecosystem. So far, little geochemical comparisons of deep-sea sediments before and after mining induced disturbances have been made, and thus long-term environmental effects of deep-sea mining are unknown. Here we present geochemical data from sediment cores from an experimental disturbance area at 4,100 m water depth in the Peru Basin. The site was revisited in 2015, 26 years after a disturbance experiment mimicking nodule mining was carried out and compared to sites outside the experimental zone which served as a pre-disturbance reference. We investigated if signs of the disturbance are still visible in the solid phase and the pore water after 26 years or if pre-disturbance conditions have been re-established. Additionally, a new disturbance was created during the cruise and sampled 5 weeks later to compare short- and longer-term impacts. The particulate fraction and pore water were analyzed for major and trace elements to study element distribution and processes in the surface sediment. Pore water and bottom water samples were also analyzed for oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved amino acids, to examine organic matter degradation processes. The study area of about 11 km2 was found to be naturally more heterogeneous than expected, requiring an analysis of spatial variability before the disturbed and undisturbed sites can be compared. The disturbed sites exhibit various disturbance features: some surface sediments were mixed through, others had the top layer removed and some had additional material deposited on top. Pore water constituents have largely regained pre-disturbance gradients after 26 years. The solid phase, however, shows clear differences between disturbed and undisturbed sites in the top 20 cm so that the impact is still visible in the

  19. Study on impact of habitat degradation on proximate composition and amino acid profile of Indian major carps from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Bilal; Sultana, Tayyaba; Sultana, Salma; Ahmed, Z; Mahboob, Shahid

    2018-05-01

    This investigation is aimed to study an impact of habitat degradation on proximate composition and amino acid (AAs) profile of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala collected from polluted, non-polluted area (upstream) and a commercial fish farm. The amino acid profile was estimated by the amino acid analyzer. C. catla collected from the polluted environment had highest lipid, protein and ash contents (12.04 ± 0.01, 13.45 ± 0.01 and 0.93 ± 0.03%, respectively). The high protein content (14.73 ± 0.01 and 14.12 ± 0. 01%) was recorded in C. catla procured from non-polluted (upstream) wild habitat of River Chenab and controlled commercial fish farm. Farmed fish species showed comparatively higher moisture contents followed by upstream and polluted area fishes. C. mrigala showed significant differences in amino acid and proximate composition collected from a polluted site of the river Chenab. C. catla collected from non-polluted site of the river showed an excellent nutrient profile, followed by L. rohita (wild and farmed) and C. mrigala (polluted area), respectively. All fishes from the polluted areas of the River Chenab indicated a significant decrease in the concentration of some AAs when compared to farmed and wild (upstream) major carps. Omitting of some important AAs was also observed in the meat of fish harvested from polluted habitat of this river. C. mrigala and L. rohita exhibited a significant increase in the concentration of some of non-essential amino acids such as cysteine in their meat. The results indicated that wild fish (upstream) and farmed fish species had highest protein contents and amino acid profile and hence appeared to be the best for human consumption. The proximate composition and AAs profiles of fish harvested from the polluted area of the river clearly indicated that efforts shall be made for the restoration of habitat to continue the requirement of high quality fish meat at a low cost to the human

  20. Fluxes of amino acids and hexosamines to the deep Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.; Honjo, S.

    (Karl and Knauer, 1984; Lee et al., 1988; Michaels et al., 1990). The samples were, therefore carefully sieved into less than 1 mm and greater than 1 mm fractions. Swimmers (mainly pteropods, and some copepods) were primarily found in the greater... in the western and eastern Arabian Sea, where a strong horizontal gradient of primary productivity prevails (Krey, 1973; Brock et al., 1991). Current-metre studies carried out during the first year of deployment have revealed that current speeds are highest...

  1. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Carvalho Jr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  2. Emission of nitrous acid from soil and biological soil crusts as a major source of atmospheric HONO on Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, Hannah; Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Kuhn, Uwe; Leifke, Anna-Lena; Weber, Bettina; Su, Hang; Lelieveld, Jos; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-04-01

    Elucidation of the sources and atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO) is highly relevant, as HONO is an important precursor of OH radicals. Up to 30% of the OH budget are formed by photolysis of HONO, whereas major fractions of HONO measured in the field derive from yet unidentified sources. Heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to HONO on a variety of surfaces (soot, humic acid aerosol) is assumed to be a major HONO source (Stemmler et al., 2007, Ammann et al., 1998). In rural regions, however, NO2 concentrations were found to be too low to explain observed HONO concentrations, as e.g., in the case of a recent field study on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus (Meusel et al., 2016). In this study a good correlation between missing sources of HONO and nitrogen oxide (NO) was found indicating a common origin of both reactive nitrogen compounds. Simultaneous emission of HONO and NO from soil was reported earlier (Oswald et al., 2013), and enhanced emission rates were found when soil was covered by biological soil crusts in arid and semi-arid ecosystems (Weber et al., 2015). In the present study we measured HONO and NO emissions of 43 soil and soil crust samples from Cyprus during full wetting and drying cycles under controlled laboratory conditions by means of a dynamic chamber system. The observed range of HONO and NO emissions was in agreement with earlier studies, but unlike the study of Weber et al. (2015), we found highest emission from bare soil, followed by soil covered by light and dark cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts. Emission rates correlated well with the nitrite and nitrate contents of soil and biological soil crust samples, and higher nutrient contents of bare soil samples, as compared to the previous biological soil crust study, explain the higher bare soil emissions. Integrating the emission rates of bare soil and the different types of biological soil crusts, based on their local relative abundance, the calculated

  3. Organic carbon and humic acids in sediments of the Arabian Sea and factors governing their distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids are enriched on the slope compared to the inner and outer shelf. While upwelling, primary productivity and redox conditions at the bottom are known to influence organic matter accumulation in sediments, bacterial population and sediment texture...

  4. Determination of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid in commercial tea and coffee samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić-Letić Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tea and coffee are one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world due to their beneficial health effects which are largely associated with their phenolic compounds composition, including chlorogenic acid. The main aim of this study was to determine 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid, in various commercial tea and coffee samples present at the Serbian market. Methods. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for determination of 5-CQA in plant extracts was applied to determine the content of this active compound in commercial tea and coffee samples. Mobile phase was aqueous 1.5% acetic acid - methanol (80:20, v/v with the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Run time was 15 min and column temperature 25°C. The detection was performed at 240 nm. Results. The HPLC method was modified and revalidated. The 5-CQA content varied depending on the type of tea (white, green, black tea and mate and the processing technology. Green tea had the highest 5-CQA content (16 mg/100 mL among the analyzed tea samples. The content of 5-CQA in coffee samples ranged 0-36.20 mg/g of coffee and 0-46.98 mg/100 mL of beverage, showing that the content varied depending on the type of coffee, coffee processing technology and the formulation. Conclusion. The modified and revalidated HPLC method showed a good accuracy, repeatability, selectivity and robustness. The highest amount of 5-CQA was determined in green tea in comparison to white, black and mate tea because the increased oxidation level decreases the amount of 5-CQA. The obtained results for commercial coffee samples indicated that the formulation was the most important factor determining the amount of 5-CQA. It can be concluded that plant material selection, processing conditions and formulation have great influence on the amount of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA in the final tea and coffee products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI

  5. Determination of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid in commercial tea and coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevena, Grujić-Letić; Branislava, Rakić; Emilia, Sefer; Dusica, Rakić; Ivan, Nedeljković; Nebojsa, Kladar; Biljana, Božin

    2015-11-01

    Tea and coffee are one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world due to their beneficial health effects which are largely associated with their phenolic compounds composition, including chlorogenic acid. The main aim of this study was to determine 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid, in various commercial tea and coffee samples present at the Serbian market. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of 5-CQA in plant extracts was applied to determine the content of this active compound in commercial tea and coffee samples. Mobile phase was aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (80:20, v/v) with the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Run time was 15 min and column temperature 25°C. The detection was performed at 240 nm. The HPLC method was modified and revalidated. The 5-CQA content varied depending on the type of tea (white, green, black tea and mate) and the processing technology. Green tea had the highest 5-CQA content (16 mg/100 mL) among the analyzed tea samples. The content of 5-CQA in coffee samples ranged 0-36.20 mg/g of coffee and 0-46.98 mg/100 mL of beverage, showing that the content varied depending on the type of coffee, coffee processing technology and the formulation. The modified and revalidated HPLC method showed a good accuracy, repeatability, selectivity and robustness. The highest amount of 5-CQA was determined in green tea in comparison to white, black and mate tea because the increased oxidation level decreases the amount of 5-CQA. The obtained results for commercial coffee samples indicated that the formulation was the most important factor determining the amount of 5-CQA. It can be concluded that plant material selection, processing conditions and formulation have great influence on the amount of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) in the final tea and coffee products.

  6. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida’s Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Anne P.; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R.

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida’s Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  7. Dietary Cerebroside from Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus): Absorption and Effects on Skin Barrier and Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Ishida, Marina; Aida, Kazuhiko; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Jin; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-09-21

    Sphingolipids from marine sources have attracted more attention recently because of their distinctive structures and expected functions. In this study, the content and components of cerebroside from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were analyzed. The absorption of cerebroside from S. japonicus was investigated with an in vivo lipid absorption assay. The result revealed that S. japonicus is a rich source of cerebroside that contained considerable amounts of odd carbon chain sphingoid bases. The cumulative recoveries of d17:1- and d19:2-containing cerebrosides were 0.31 ± 0.16 and 0.32 ± 0.10%, respectively, for 24 h after administration. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work that shows sphingolipids from a marine source could be absorbed in vivo and incorporated into ceramides. In addition, dietary supplementation with sea cucumber cerebroside to hairless mouse improved the skin barrier function and increased short-chain fatty acids in cecal contents, which have shown beneficial effects on the host.

  8. Perfluoroalkylated acids in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) near a fluorochemical plant in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, Thimo; Lopez-Antia, Ana; D'Hollander, Wendy; Prinsen, Els; Eens, Marcel; Bervoets, Lieven

    2017-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around the world, including birds. Although bird eggs have often been used to determine and monitor PFAAs levels in the marine environment, this has rarely been done in the terrestrial environment. In the present study we examined the concentrations and composition profile of 12 PFAAs (4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) collected at a fluorochemical plant and in three other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (from 1 to 70 km), in Antwerp, Belgium. The PFSA concentrations measured at the site of the fluorochemical plant were among the highest ever reported in eggs with median concentrations of 10380 ng/g (extrapolated), 99.3 ng/g and 47.7 ng/g for PFOS, PFHxS and PFDS respectively. Furthermore, the median concentration of 19.8 ng/g for PFOA was also among the highest ever reported in bird eggs. Although these concentrations decreased sharply with distance from the fluorochemical plant, levels found in the adjacent sites were still high compared to what has been reported in literature. Moreover, based on what is known in literature, it is likely that these concentrations may cause toxicological effects. PFOS was the dominant contributor to the PFSA and PFAAs (63.4-97.6%) profile at each site, whereas for PFCAs this was PFOA at the plant site and the nearest locations (41.0-52.8%) but PFDoA (37.7%) at the farthest location. Although there is some evidence that PFAAs concentrations close to the plant site are decreasing in comparison with earlier measurements, which may be due to the phase out of PFOS, more research is necessary to understand the extent of the toxicological effects in the vicinity of this PFAAs hotspot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron donation characteristics and interplays of major volatile fatty acids from anaerobically fermented organic matters in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jiamiao; Hao, Xiaoxuan; Gu, Zaoli; Xia, Siqing

    2018-02-23

    Anaerobic fermentation liquid of waste organic matters (WOMs) is rich in volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which can be treated with bioelectrochemical systems for both electrical energy recovery and organics removal. In this work, four major VFAs in the fermented WOMs supernatant were selected to examine their electron donation characteristics for power output and their complicated interplays in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Results indicated a priority sequence of acetate, propionate, n-butyrate and i-valerate when served as the sole electron donor for electricity generation. The MFC solely fed with acetate showed the highest coulombic efficiency and power density, and the longest period for electricity production. When two of the VFAs were added with equal proportion, both acids contributed positively to electricity generation, while the selective or competitive use of substrates by diverse microorganisms behaved as an antagonism effect to prolong the degradation time of each VFA. When acetate and propionate, the preferable substrates for electricity generation, were mixed in various proportions, their large concentration difference led to improved electrical performance but decreased organic removal rate.

  10. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Taufiq; Smith, Ewan St. John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction

  11. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Taufiq, E-mail: mtur2@cam.ac.uk; Smith, Ewan St. John

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction.

  12. Abnormal fatty acid pattern in the superior temporal gyrus distinguishes bipolar disorder from major depression and schizophrenia and resembles multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of the postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG), a cortical region implicated in emotional processing, from normal controls (n=15) and patients with bipolar disorder (BD, n=15), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=15), and schizophrenia (SZ, n=15). For comparative purposes, STG fatty acid composition was determined in a separate cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, n=15) and normal controls (n=15). Compared with controls, patients with BD, but not MDD or SZ, exhibited abnormal elevations in the saturated fatty acids (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and reductions in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (18:1n-9). The total MUFA/SFA and 18:1/18:0 ratios were lower in the STG of BD patients and were inversely correlated with total PUFA composition. MS patients exhibited a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities similar to that observed in BD patients including elevated PUFA and a lower 18:1/18:0 ratio. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BD patients exhibit a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities in the STG that is not observed in MDD and SZ patients and closely resembles MS patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Downward flux of particulate fatty acids in the Central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reemtsma, T.; Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.; Brockmann, U.H.

    of their enzy- matic apparatus and their physiological needs, fatty acids have been included in the search for biomarkers, either by direct analysis of geological samples (Leo and Parker, 1966; Cooper and Blumer, 1968; Volkman and Johns, 1977) and marine... of fatty acids caused by drying at 40 °C and storage, we analysed two sediment-trap samples from another sam- pling location, which were treated in two ways: (1) dried and stored as de- scribed above or (2) immediately frozen after the addition of 10 ml...

  14. Inside versus Outside: Ion Redistribution in Nitric Acid Reacted Sea Spray Aerosol Particles as Determined by Single Particle Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, A. P.; Guasco, T.; Ryder, O. S.; Baltrusaitis, J.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Collins, D. B.; Ruppel, M. J.; Bertram, T. H.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles were generated under real-world conditions using natural seawater and a unique ocean-atmosphere facility equipped with actual breaking waves or a marine aerosol reference tank (MART) that replicates those conditions. The SSA particles were exposed to nitric acid in situ in a flow tube and the well-known chloride displacement and nitrate formation reaction was observed. However, as discussed here, little is known about how this anion displacement reaction affects the distribution of cations and other chemical constituents within and phase state of individual SSA particles. Single particle analysis of individual SSA particles shows that cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) within individual particles undergo a spatial redistribution after heterogeneous reaction with nitric acid, along with a more concentrated layer of organic matter at the surface of the particle. These data suggest that specific ion and aerosol pH effects play an important role in aerosol particle structure in ways that have not been previously recognized. The ordering of organic coatings can impact trace gas uptake, and subsequently impact trace gas budgets of O3 and NOx.

  15. Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates the lethal effect of phenanthrene but not the bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary taurine on the hepatic metabolic profiles of red sea bream (Pagrus major) and on phenanthrene (a polyaromatic hydrocarbon) toxicity and bioaccumulation. The fish were fed a diet supplemented with 0% (TAU0%), 0.5% (TAU0.5%), or 5% (TAU5%) taurine for 40-55d and subjected to phenanthrene acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected the hepatic metabolic profiles of fish, which indicated a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55d and were then exposed to 0-893µg/L phenanthrene for 96h. Tolerance to phenanthrene was significantly improved by 0.5% of taurine inclusion in feed relative to TAU0%, but not by 5.0% inclusion. Reduced glutathione in the liver, which acts as an oxygen-free radical scavenger, was associated with a reduction in the toxicity of phenanthrene. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40d and were thereafter chronically exposed to 20µg/L phenanthrene for 13d followed by depuration for 3d. The activity of hepatic biomarker, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, was increased by phenanthrene exposure in the taurine inclusion groups. However, phenanthrene concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0% tended to be higher than those of fish fed TAU0% and TAU0.5% during the exposure period. These results indicate that 0.5% of taurine inclusion in feed plays an important role in the alleviation of phenanthrene toxicity but not bioaccumulation. Furthermore, larger amount of taurine inclusion (TAU5%) did not show marked beneficial effects against phenanthrene exposure. This study provides insight about a major concern of environmental contaminants into aquatic environment and can be effectively used for improvement of aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and quantification of major chlorogenic acids in three major instant coffee brands and their potential effects on H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptosis in PC-12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee is a most consumed drink worldwide. In this paper, from three commercially available instant coffees, major chlorogenic acids were isolated and quantified using HPLC and NMR spectroscopic methods. Also, their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were determined using DPPH-radical sca...

  17. A major upgrade of the sediment echosounder ATLAS PARASOUND and the digital acquisition software ParaDigMA for high-resolution sea floor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerriets, A.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Zwanzig, C.; Bruns, R.

    2003-04-01

    The combination of the ATLAS PARASOUND sediment echosounder, designed by ATLAS Hydrographic, and the digital recording software package ParaDigMA (commercially available as ATLAS PARASTORE-3) for online digitisation, preprocessing and visualisation of recorded seismograms has proven to be a reliable system for high-resolution acoustic sea floor studies. During 10 years of successful operation aboard several research vessels, including R/V Meteor, R/V Sonne and R/V Polarstern, the system has been only slightly modified. Based on this experience, today's PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has accomplished the step from DOS towards Windows platform and network capability. In cooperation of ATLAS Hydrographic and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bremen a major upgrade of the PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has been developed that adds significant functionality for surveys of sediment structures and sea floor morphology. The innovations primarily concern the control section of the ATLAS PARASOUND echosounder and the ParaDigMA user front end. The previous analogue PARASOUND control terminal has been replaced by a small real time control PC responsible for the control of the echosounder as well as for the continuous digitisation of the data. The control PC communicates via standard network protocols metadata and data with client applications that can display and store the acquired data on different computers on the network. The new network capabilities of the system overcome former limitations and admit a high flexibility with respect to numbers and locations of operator and recording/display PCs. The system now offers a simultaneous parallel registration of the 2.5-5.5kHz parametric signal and the 18kHz NBS signal. This feature in combination with the recording of complete soundings including the entire water column provides the basis for evolving scientific research topics e. g. gas venting. The ParaDigMA recording software now operates on Windows platforms which

  18. Selective Serotonergic (SSRI) Versus Noradrenergic (SNRI) Reuptake Inhibitors with and without Acetylsalicylic Acid in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Lepiece, Brice; Dubois, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Antidepressant medication efficacy remains a major research challenge. Here, we explored four questions: whether noradrenergic antidepressants are more effective than serotonergic antidepressants; whether the addition of 100 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) changes antidepressant efficacy; whether the long-term efficacy differs depending on the antidepressant and the addition of ASA; and whether serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are clinically informative. In a two-year study, forty people with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to groups that received an SSRI (escitalopram) or an SNRI (duloxetine), each group received concomitant ASA (100 mg) or a placebo. Sociodemographic data were recorded and patients under went regular assessments with the Hamilton depression scale (HDS) and clinical global impression (CGI) scale. Serum levels of BDNF were measured four times per year. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the two antidepressants or between antidepressant treatment with and without ASA. However, subgroup comparisons revealed that the duloxetine + ASA (DASA) subgroup showed a more rapid improvement in HDS score as early as 2 months (t=-3.114, p=0.01), in CGI score at 5 months (t=-2.119, p=0.05), and a better remission rate (χ 2 =6.296, p 0.012) than the escitalopram + placebo (EP) subgroup. Serum BDNF before treatment was also higher in the DASA subgroup than in the EP subgroup (t=3.713; p=0.002). This suggest two hypotheses: either a noradrenergic agent combined with ASA is more effective in treating depression than a serotonergic agent alone, or the level of serum BDNF before treatment is a precursor marker of the response to antidepressants. Further research is needed to test these hypotheses.

  19. Ashwagandha leaf derived withanone protects normal human cells against the toxicity of methoxyacetic acid, a major industrial metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyandoko, Didik; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2011-05-04

    The present day lifestyle heavily depends on industrial chemicals in the form of agriculture, cosmetics, textiles and medical products. Since the toxicity of the industrial chemicals has been a concern to human health, the need for alternative non-toxic natural products or adjuvants that serve as antidotes are in high demand. We have investigated the effects of Ayurvedic herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaf extract on methoxyacetic acid (MAA) induced toxicity. MAA is a major metabolite of ester phthalates that are commonly used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer reagents. We report that the MAA cause premature senescence of normal human cells by mechanisms that involve ROS generation, DNA and mitochondrial damage. Withanone protects cells from MAA-induced toxicity by suppressing the ROS levels, DNA and mitochondrial damage, and induction of cell defense signaling pathways including Nrf2 and proteasomal degradation. These findings warrant further basic and clinical studies that may promote the use of withanone as a health adjuvant in a variety of consumer products where the toxicity has been a concern because of the use of ester phthalates.

  20. Ashwagandha leaf derived withanone protects normal human cells against the toxicity of methoxyacetic acid, a major industrial metabolite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Priyandoko

    Full Text Available The present day lifestyle heavily depends on industrial chemicals in the form of agriculture, cosmetics, textiles and medical products. Since the toxicity of the industrial chemicals has been a concern to human health, the need for alternative non-toxic natural products or adjuvants that serve as antidotes are in high demand. We have investigated the effects of Ayurvedic herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera leaf extract on methoxyacetic acid (MAA induced toxicity. MAA is a major metabolite of ester phthalates that are commonly used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer reagents. We report that the MAA cause premature senescence of normal human cells by mechanisms that involve ROS generation, DNA and mitochondrial damage. Withanone protects cells from MAA-induced toxicity by suppressing the ROS levels, DNA and mitochondrial damage, and induction of cell defense signaling pathways including Nrf2 and proteasomal degradation. These findings warrant further basic and clinical studies that may promote the use of withanone as a health adjuvant in a variety of consumer products where the toxicity has been a concern because of the use of ester phthalates.

  1. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on the kinetics of the major hydrophobic bile acids in health and in chronic cholestatic liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Spengler, U.; Zwiebel, F. M.; PAULETZKI, J.; Fischer, S.; Paumgartner, G.

    1992-01-01

    Beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in chronic cholestatic liver diseases have been attributed to displacement of hydrophobic bile acids from the endogenous bile acid pool. To test this hypothesis, we determined pool sizes, fractional turnover rates, synthesis/input rates and serum levels of

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on the activity of the major hepatic enzymes implicated in bile acid biosynthesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, M.; Scanff, P.; Grison, St.; Gourmelon, P.; Aigueperse, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the days following high-dose radiation exposure, damage to small intestinal mucosa is aggravated by changes in the bile acid pool reaching the gut. Intestinal bile acid malabsorption, as described classically, may be associated with altered hepatic bile acid biosynthesis, which was the objective of this work. The activity of the main rate-limiting enzymes implicated in the bile acid biosynthesis were evaluated in the days following an 8-Gy γ Co 60 total body irradiation of rats, with concomitant determination of biliary bile acid profiles and intestinal bile acid content. Modifications of biliary bile acid profiles, observed as early as the first post-irradiation day, were most marked at the third and fourth day, and resulted in an increased hydrophobicity index. In parallel, the intestinal bile acids' content was enhanced and hepatic enzymatic activities leading to bile acids were changed. A marked increase of sterol 12-hydroxylase and decrease of oxy-sterol 7-hydroxylase activity was observed at day 3, whereas both cholesterol 7-hydroxylase and oxy-sterol 7-hydroxylase activities were decreased at day 4 after irradiation. These results show, for the first time, radiation-induced modifications of hepatic enzymatic activities implicated in bile acid biosynthesis and suggest that they are mainly a consequence of radiation-altered intestinal absorption, which induces a physiological response of the entero-hepatic bile acid recirculation. (authors)

  3. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic metabolism and alleviation of cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ito, Mana; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to unravel the mechanism of the beneficial action of taurine on marine teleost fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major), by analyzing the hepatic metabolism. Moreover, the ameliorative effects of the nutrient against cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation were further evaluated. The fish were fed a diet containing 0 % (TAU0 %), 0.5 % (TAU0.5 %), or 5.0 % (TAU5.0 %) taurine for 40-55 days (d) and subjected to cadmium acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected growth and the hepatic metabolic profiles of the fish, including a remarkable increase in myo-inositol, aspartate, and ß-alanine in the TAU0 % group, which indicates a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55 d and were then exposed to different dose of cadmium ranging from 0 to 5.6 mg/L for 96 h. Fish fed taurine had a higher tolerance to cadmium than those not fed taurine. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40 d and then were chronically exposed to 0.2 mg/L of cadmium for 28 d followed by depuration for 21 d. Cadmium concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0 % were significantly lower than those of fish fed TAU0 % for the first 7 d of exposure and the first 7 d of elimination. Our findings suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial role played by taurine and that the inclusion of taurine in fish aquaculture feed may reduce cadmium contamination of fish intended for human consumption.

  4. Growth effect on liver fatty acid composition of damselfishes genus Abudefduf collected in coral reef habitats of the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand feeding ecology, habitat use and migration of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in damselfish species Abudefduf bengalensis and A. sexfasciatus collected in the Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged from 49.5% to 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 47.4% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 3.1% to 6.0%. Palmitic acid (16:0) was the most common in SAFA, oleic acid (C18:1ω9c) was the dominant in MUFA and linolenic acid (C18:3n3) showed the highest proportion in PUFA. Fatty acid concentrations, especially in SAFA and MUFA, could be related to physiological condition, sexual development, and recent feeding events. The diet shift revealed by the fatty acid composition suggests changes in habitat use and migration scale in coral reef environment of genus Abudefduf.

  5. Variation in fatty acid composition of the bigeye snapper Lutjanus lutjanus collected in coral reef habitats of the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand trophic ecology, habitat use and migration of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition and levels were examined in the bigeye snapper Lutjanus lutjanus collected in the Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged from 55.0% to 66.5%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 30.7% to 40.2% while the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 4.8%. Palmitic acid (16:0) was the most common in SAFA, oleic acid (C18:1ω9c) was the dominant in MUFA and linolenic acid (C18:3n3) showed the highest value in PUFA. Fatty acid concentrations, especially in SAFA and MUFA, increased with fish growth, suggesting diet and habitat shifts during the fish life history. Most of the fish had more than 1 of EPA: DHA ratio, which suggested that diets of L. lutjanus tended to be higher trophic organisms such as zooplankton and crustacean in coral ecosystem. The diet shift revealed by the composition and levels of the fatty acid profile revealed potential pattern in the habitat use and migration scale in coral reef environment of L. lutjanus.

  6. Spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 acidity during autumn in marine and coastal area of Bohai Sea, China, based on two-site contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Yufen; Han, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Du, Xiang; Xu, Hong; Feng, Yinchang; Han, Suqin

    2018-04-01

    In-situ pH of atmospheric particulate, defined as the pH value of aqueous phase in ambient aerosol, has been reported to have significant influence on the formation progress of secondary aerosol, especially through the heterogeneous pathway. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected in the marine and costal area of Bohai Sea from September 8th to October 8th in 2013, with daytime and nighttime separated. Eight water-soluble ions including SO42 -, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Ca2 +, Na+ and Mg2 + were analyzed by ion chromatography. The in-situ pH of PM2.5 was estimated using Aerosol Inorganics Model II, with meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity) and basic chemical composition data (concentrations of water-soluble ions) serving as input. Five indicators were conjunctively applied to describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 acidity over Bohai Sea during autumn. As a result, strong acidity was found in both marine and coastal area. Marine area had a stronger acidity under a more NH4+-deficiency and humid condition. And the difference of PM2.5 acidity between daytime and nighttime was more obvious in coastal area than that in marine area, with stronger acidity observed during the daytime. Local SO2 emission was identified as an important factor influencing the diurnal variation of aerosol acidity. Meanwhile, sulfurous species were identified as a mixture of NH4HSO4 and H2SO4 in marine area while a mixture of NH4HSO4 and (NH4)2SO4 in the coastal area. Analysis in the impact of aerosol acidity on nitrate formation has indicated that heterogeneous pathways were important in nitrate formation in coastal area of Bohai Sea as well as the homogeneous pathways.

  7. Stable isotope tracking of endangered sea turtles: validation with satellite telemetry and δ15N analysis of amino acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Seminoff

    Full Text Available Effective conservation strategies for highly migratory species must incorporate information about long-distance movements and locations of high-use foraging areas. However, the inherent challenges of directly monitoring these factors call for creative research approaches and innovative application of existing tools. Highly migratory marine species, such as marine turtles, regularly travel hundreds or thousands of kilometers between breeding and feeding areas, but identification of migratory routes and habitat use patterns remains elusive. Here we use satellite telemetry in combination with compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids to confirm that insights from bulk tissue stable isotope analysis can reveal divergent migratory strategies and within-population segregation of foraging groups of critically endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea across the Pacific Ocean. Among the 78 turtles studied, we found a distinct dichotomy in δ(15N values of bulk skin, with distinct "low δ(15N" and "high δ(15N" groups. δ(15N analysis of amino acids confirmed that this disparity resulted from isotopic differences at the base of the food chain and not from differences in trophic position between the two groups. Satellite tracking of 13 individuals indicated that their bulk skin δ(15N value was linked to the particular foraging region of each turtle. These findings confirm that prevailing marine isoscapes of foraging areas can be reflected in the isotopic compositions of marine turtle body tissues sampled at nesting beaches. We use a Bayesian mixture model to show that between 82 and 100% of the 78 skin-sampled turtles could be assigned with confidence to either the eastern Pacific or western Pacific, with 33 to 66% of all turtles foraging in the eastern Pacific. Our forensic approach validates the use of stable isotopes to depict leatherback turtle movements over broad spatial ranges and is timely for establishing wise conservation

  8. Stable isotope tracking of endangered sea turtles: validation with satellite telemetry and δ15N analysis of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Benson, Scott R; Arthur, Karen E; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Dutton, Peter H; Tapilatu, Ricardo F; Popp, Brian N

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation strategies for highly migratory species must incorporate information about long-distance movements and locations of high-use foraging areas. However, the inherent challenges of directly monitoring these factors call for creative research approaches and innovative application of existing tools. Highly migratory marine species, such as marine turtles, regularly travel hundreds or thousands of kilometers between breeding and feeding areas, but identification of migratory routes and habitat use patterns remains elusive. Here we use satellite telemetry in combination with compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids to confirm that insights from bulk tissue stable isotope analysis can reveal divergent migratory strategies and within-population segregation of foraging groups of critically endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) across the Pacific Ocean. Among the 78 turtles studied, we found a distinct dichotomy in δ(15)N values of bulk skin, with distinct "low δ(15)N" and "high δ(15)N" groups. δ(15)N analysis of amino acids confirmed that this disparity resulted from isotopic differences at the base of the food chain and not from differences in trophic position between the two groups. Satellite tracking of 13 individuals indicated that their bulk skin δ(15)N value was linked to the particular foraging region of each turtle. These findings confirm that prevailing marine isoscapes of foraging areas can be reflected in the isotopic compositions of marine turtle body tissues sampled at nesting beaches. We use a Bayesian mixture model to show that between 82 and 100% of the 78 skin-sampled turtles could be assigned with confidence to either the eastern Pacific or western Pacific, with 33 to 66% of all turtles foraging in the eastern Pacific. Our forensic approach validates the use of stable isotopes to depict leatherback turtle movements over broad spatial ranges and is timely for establishing wise conservation efforts in

  9. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) structure and function: Insights from spider, snake and sea anemone venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofori-Armstrong, Ben; Rash, Lachlan D

    2017-12-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated cation channels that are expressed in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. As proton-gated channels, they have been implicated in many pathophysiological conditions where pH is perturbed. Venom derived compounds represent the most potent and selective modulators of ASICs described to date, and thus have been invaluable as pharmacological tools to study ASIC structure, function, and biological roles. There are now ten ASIC modulators described from animal venoms, with those from snakes and spiders favouring ASIC1, while the sea anemones preferentially target ASIC3. Some modulators, such as the prototypical ASIC1 modulator PcTx1 have been studied in great detail, while some of the newer members of the club remain largely unstudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge on venom derived ASIC modulators, with a particular focus on their molecular interaction with ASICs, what they have taught us about channel structure, and what they might still reveal about ASIC function and pathophysiological roles. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and properties of the acid site-specific endonuclease from mature eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibirtsev, Yu.T.; Konechnyi, A.A.; Rasskazov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    An acid site-specific endonuclease has been detected in mature sea urchin eggs and cells of embryos at early stages of differentiation. Fractionation with ammonium sulfate, followed by chromatography on columns with DEAE, phosphocellulose, and hydroxyapatite resulted in an 18,000-fold purification. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined at ∼ 29,000, the optimum pH 5.5. The activity of the enzyme does not depend on divalent metal ions, EDTA, ATP, and tRNA, but it is modulated to a substantial degree by NaCl. The maximum rate of cleavage of the DNA supercoil (form I) is observed at 100 mM NaCl. Increasing the NaCl concentration to 350 mM only slightly lowers the rate of cleavage of form I, yielding form II, but entirely suppresses the accumulation of form III. Restriction analysis of the products of enzymatic hydrolysis of Co1E1 and pBR322 DNA showed that at the early stages of hydrolysis the enzyme exhibits pronounced specificity for definite sites, the number of which is 12 for Co1 E1 DNA and 8 sites for pBR322 DNA

  11. Fatty acid and phospholipid syntheses are prerequisites for the cell cycle of Symbiodinium and their endosymbiosis within sea anemones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsueh Wang

    Full Text Available Lipids are a source of metabolic energy, as well as essential components of cellular membranes. Although they have been shown to be key players in the regulation of cell proliferation in various eukaryotes, including microalgae, their role in the cell cycle of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium endosymbioses remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the effects of a lipid synthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, on the cell cycle of both cultured Symbiodinium (clade B and those engaged in an endosymbiotic association with the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. In the former, cerulenin exposure was found to inhibit free fatty acid (FFA synthesis, as it does in other organisms. Additionally, while it also significantly inhibited the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, it did not affect the production of sterol ester (SE or phosphatidylcholine (PC. Interestingly, cerulenin also significantly retarded cell division by arresting the cell cycles at the G0/G1 phase. Cerulenin-treated Symbiodinium were found to be taken up by anemone hosts at a significantly depressed quantity in comparison with control Symbiodinium. Furthermore, the uptake of cerulenin-treated Symbiodinium in host tentacles occurred much more slowly than in untreated controls. These results indicate that FFA and PE may play critical roles in the recognition, proliferation, and ultimately the success of endosymbiosis with anemones.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus Reveals Apolipoprotein E as a Candidate Biomarker of Chronic Domoic Acid Toxicosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Neely

    Full Text Available Domoic acid toxicosis (DAT in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus is caused by exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid and has been linked to massive stranding events and mortality. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs in addition to the presence of domoic acid in body fluids. Chronic DAT further is characterized by reoccurring seizures progressing to status epilepticus. Diagnosis of chronic DAT is often slow and problematic, and minimally invasive tests for DAT have been the focus of numerous recent biomarker studies. The goal of this study was to retrospectively profile plasma proteins in a population of sea lions with chronic DAT and those without DAT using two dimensional gel electrophoresis to discover whether individual, multiple, or combinations of protein and clinical data could be utilized to identify sea lions with DAT. Using a training set of 32 sea lion sera, 20 proteins and their isoforms were identified that were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05. Interestingly, 11 apolipoprotein E (ApoE charge forms were decreased in DAT samples, indicating that ApoE charge form distributions may be important in the progression of DAT. In order to develop a classifier of chronic DAT, an independent blinded test set of 20 sea lions, seven with chronic DAT, was used to validate models utilizing ApoE charge forms and eosinophil counts. The resulting support vector machine had high sensitivity (85.7% with 92.3% negative predictive value and high specificity (92.3% with 85.7% positive predictive value. These results suggest that ApoE and eosinophil counts along with machine learning can perform as a robust and accurate tool to diagnose chronic DAT. Although this analysis is specifically focused on blood biomarkers and routine clinical data, the results demonstrate promise for future studies combining additional variables in multidimensional space to create robust classifiers.

  13. Could the acid-base status of Antarctic sea urchins indicate a better-than-expected resilience to near-future ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; De Ridder, Chantal; David, Bruno; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration alters the chemistry of the oceans towards more acidic conditions. Polar oceans are particularly affected due to their low temperature, low carbonate content and mixing patterns, for instance upwellings. Calcifying organisms are expected to be highly impacted by the decrease in the oceans' pH and carbonate ions concentration. In particular, sea urchins, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are hypothesized to be at risk due to their high-magnesium calcite skeleton. However, tolerance to ocean acidification in metazoans is first linked to acid-base regulation capacities of the extracellular fluids. No information on this is available to date for Antarctic echinoderms and inference from temperate and tropical studies needs support. In this study, we investigated the acid-base status of 9 species of sea urchins (3 cidaroids, 2 regular euechinoids and 4 irregular echinoids). It appears that Antarctic regular euechinoids seem equipped with similar acid-base regulation systems as tropical and temperate regular euechinoids but could rely on more passive ion transfer systems, minimizing energy requirements. Cidaroids have an acid-base status similar to that of tropical cidaroids. Therefore Antarctic cidaroids will most probably not be affected by decreasing seawater pH, the pH drop linked to ocean acidification being negligible in comparison of the naturally low pH of the coelomic fluid. Irregular echinoids might not suffer from reduced seawater pH if acidosis of the coelomic fluid pH does not occur but more data on their acid-base regulation are needed. Combining these results with the resilience of Antarctic sea urchin larvae strongly suggests that these organisms might not be the expected victims of ocean acidification. However, data on the impact of other global stressors such as temperature and of the combination of the different stressors needs to be acquired to assess the sensitivity of these organisms to global

  14. Transfer of fatty acids from the 1-position of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine to the major outer membrane lipoprotein of E coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackowski, S.; Rock, C.O.

    1986-01-01

    The fatty acids esterified to Braun's lipoprotein are derived from the phospholipid pool in E. coli. Mutants lacking acyl-CoA synthetase activity (fadD) incorporated extracellular fatty acids specifically into the 1-position of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). This pathway was blocked by chloramphenicol and was depressed by preventing the acylation of the amino terminus of the lipoprotein with globomycin. Transfer of fatty acids to lipoprotein was investigated in fadD mutants harboring hybrid plasmids containing either the lipoprotein gene or a lipoprotein-β-lactamase gene fusion under control of the lactose promoter. Labeling of the 1-position of the PtdEtn pool prior to induction of lipoprotein biosynthesis resulted in the transfer of fatty acids from PtdEtn to the lipoproteins. Induction of lipoprotein synthesis in the presence of exogenous [1- 14 C]palmitate increased the amount of radioactivity entering the PtdEtn pool and efficiently labeled lipoprotein acyl moieties. Lipoprotein fatty acids derived from the 1-position of PtdEtn were resistant to hydroxylamine hydrolysis, and globomycin reduced the incorporation of exogenous [1- 14 C]palmitic acid into lipoproteins by 80% suggesting that the fatty acid is attached to the amino terminus. These data illustrate the metabolic relationship between turnover of fatty acids in the 1-position of PtdEtn and the maturation of the major outer membrane lipoprotein

  15. Tissue and size-related changes in the fatty acid and stable isotope signatures of the deep sea grenadier fish Coryphaenoides armatus from the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sharples, Caroline J.; Webster, Lynda; Walsham, Pamela; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Cousins, Nicola J.

    2013-12-01

    Coryphaenoides armatus is a cosmopolitan deep-sea fish that plays a major role in the ecology of abyssal ecosystems. We investigated the trophic ecology and physiology of this species by determining the δ13C, δ15N and fatty acid signatures of muscle, liver and ovary tissues of individuals collected from ∼2700 m to the north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, NE Atlantic. Fatty acid and δ13C data both suggested that C. armatus shows an ontogenetic dietary shift, with the relative contributions of benthic and pelagic prey decreasing and increasing respectively as the animals grow. They also indicated that dietary overlap between animals living to the north and south of the CGFZ increases as they grow, suggesting that larger animals forage over greater distances and are not hindered by the presence of the CGFZ. Comparison of tissue-specific fatty acid signatures with previously published data suggests compositional homeostasis of the fatty acids 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) in the muscle, and 18:1(n-9) in the liver tissues. We ascribe this primarily to strict physiological requirements for these compounds, rather than simply to their abundance in the diet. We pose several speculative mechanisms to explain the observed trends in tissue-specific δ13C and δ15N values, illustrating some of the numerous processes that can influence the isotopic signatures of bulk tissues.

  16. Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in Pacific cods from coastal areas in northern Japan: A major source of human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yukiko; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Harada, Kouji H.; Koizumi, Akio; Kimura, Osamu; Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) contamination of edible fish muscle from Japanese coastal waters. The concentrations of PFCAs with 8–14 carbon atoms (C8–C14) in Pacific cods in Hokkaido, Japan were 51 (median: pg/g-wet weight) for C8, 93 for C9, 99 for C10, 746 for C11, 416 for C12, 404 for C13, and 93 for C14. The levels of C9–C14 PFCAs in fish were strongly correlated to each other, but not to C8 and the other chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, indicating that C9–C14 PFCAs have a different emission source and/or bioaccumulation mechanism. The relative ratios between estimated PFCAs intake through fish consumption and the reported total dietary exposure of PFCAs were less than 1 for C8 to C9, but were more than 1 for C10 to C14. This result strongly suggests that fish consumption is a significant source of human dietary exposure to C10–C14 PFCAs. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were detected in edible cod fish from Japanese coastal waters. • The levels of long-chain PFCAs in fish were independent from those of C8 and other POPs. • Long chain PFCAs intake through fish and the reported total dietary exposure were comparable. • Sea fish such as Pacific cod may be a significant human dietary source of long-chain PFCAs. - Sea fish are a significant source of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids for the Japanese population

  17. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of acid deposition in Guangzhou, South China: Comparison with precipitation in other major Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Deyin; Xu Yigang; Peng Pingan; Zhang Huihuang; Lan Jiangbo

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of understanding the origin of acid rains in South China, we analyzed rainwaters collected from Guangzhou, China, between March 2005 and February 2006. The pH of rainwater collected during the monitoring period varied from 4.22 to 5.87; acid rain represented about 94% of total precipitation during this period. The rainwater was characterized by high concentrations of SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , and NH 4 + . SO 4 2- and NO 3 - , the main precursors of acid rain, were related to the combustion of coal and fertilizer use/traffic emissions, respectively. Ca 2+ and NH 4 + act as neutralizers of acid, accounting for the decoupling between high SO 4 2- concentrations and relatively high pH in the Guangzhou precipitation. The acid rain in Guangzhou is most pronounced during spring and summer. A comparison with acid precipitation in other Chinese cities reveals a decreasing neutralization capacity from north to south, probably related to the role and origin of alkaline bases in precipitation. - A north-to-south decreasing trend in the neutralization capacity of precipitation in China

  18. Determination of rare earth, major and trace elements in authigenic fraction of Andaman Sea (Northeastern Indian Ocean) sediments by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; You, C.-F.; Nath, B.N.; SijinKumar, A.V.

    Downcore variation of rare earth elements (REEs) in the authigenic Fe-Mn oxides of a sediment core (covering a record of last approx. 40 kyr) from the Andaman Sea, a part of the Indian Ocean shows distinctive positive Ce and Eu anomalies...

  19. Effects of the 2014 major Baltic inflow on methane and nitrous oxide dynamics in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    In late 2014, a large, oxygen-rich salt water inflow entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in deep water oxygen concentrations. We studied the effects of the inflow on the concentration patterns of two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide, during the following year (2015...

  20. Characterization of natural variation in North American Atlantic Salmon populations (Salmonidae: Salmo salar) at a locus with a major effect on sea age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, Henrik; Côté, Guillaume; Hernandez, Cécilia; Normandeau, Eric; Boivin-Delisle, Damien; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-08-01

    Age at maturity is a key life-history trait of most organisms. In anadromous salmonid fishes such as Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar ), age at sexual maturity is associated with sea age, the number of years spent at sea before the spawning migration. For the first time, we investigated the presence of two nonsynonymous vgll3 polymorphisms in North American Atlantic Salmon populations that relate to sea age in European salmon and quantified the natural variation at these and two additional candidate SNPs from two other genes. A targeted resequencing assay was developed and 1,505 returning adult individuals of size-inferred sea age and sex from four populations were genotyped. Across three of four populations sampled in Québec, Canada, the late-maturing component (MSW) of the population of a given sex exhibited higher proportions of SNP genotypes 54Thr vgll3 and 323Lys vgll3 compared to early-maturing fish (1SW), for example, 85% versus 53% of females from Trinité River carried 323Lys vgll3 ( n MSW  = 205 vs. n 1SW  = 30; p 66%) to be female. In summary, two nonsynonymous vgll3 polymorphisms were confirmed in North American populations of Atlantic Salmon and our results suggest that variation at those loci correlates with sea age and sex. Our results also suggest that this correlation varies among populations. Future work would benefit from a more balanced sampling and from adding data on juvenile riverine life stages to contrast our data.

  1. A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colorimetric determinations of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three water samples collected during June to October 1982 from the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin were originally analyzed by simultaneous multielement direct-current plasma (DCP) atomic-emission spectrometry, flame atomic-absorption spectrometry, graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (thallium only), ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry.Determinations were made for the following metallic and semi-metallic constituents: AI, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe(11), Fe(total), Li, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Sb, Se, Si, Na, Sr, TI, V, and Zn. These samples were re-analyzed later by simultaneous multielement inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic-emission spectrometry and Zeeman-corrected GFAAS to determine the concentrations of many of the same constituents with improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The result of this analysis has been the generation of comparative concentration values for a significant subset of the solute constituents. Many of the more recently determined values replace less-than-detection values for the trace metals; others constitute duplicate analyses for the major constituents. The multiple determinations have yielded a more complete, accurate, and precise set of analytical data. They also have resulted in an opportunity to compare the performance of the plasma-emission instruments operated in their respective simultaneous multielement modes. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for Na and K and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for As because of their lower detection limit and relative freedom from interelement spectral effects. Colorimetric determination using ferrozine as the color agent was judged most accurate, precise, and sensitive for Fe. Cadmium, lead, and vanadium concentrations were too low in this set of samples to enable a determination of whether ICP or DCP is a more suitable technique. Of

  2. Abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of the postmortem entorhinal cortex of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2013-11-30

    Previous studies of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex have shown abnormalities in levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). We have previously measured PUFA levels in the postmortem hippocampus from patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and control subjects; however, we found no significant differences between the groups except for small changes in n-6 PUFAs. Furthermore, our study of the postmortem amygdala showed no significant differences in major PUFAs in individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or MDD in comparison with controls. In the present study, we investigated whether there were any changes in PUFAs in the entorhinal cortexes of patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or MDD (n=15) compared with unaffected controls (n=15) matched for characteristics including age and sex. In contrast to previous studies of the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus, we found no significant differences in major PUFAs. However, we found a 34.3% decrease in docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (22:5n-3) in patients with MDD and an 8.7% decrease in docosatetraenoic acid (22:4n-6) in those with schizophrenia, compared with controls. Changes in PUFAs in patients with these psychiatric disorders may be specific to certain brain regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients...... with major depression, we tested whether (a) omega- 3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) leads to increased serum BDNF levels and (b) whether changes in BDNF levels are associated with corresponding changes in depression. METHODS: Patients received 1 g/day E-EPA (n = 13) or placebo (n = 12) for 12 weeks...

  4. Zebrafish seizure model identifies p,p -DDE as the dominant contaminant of fetal California sea lions that accounts for synergistic activity with domoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeken, Jessica A; Ramsdell, John S

    2010-04-01

    Fetal poisoning of California sea lions (CSLs; Zalophus californianus) has been associated with exposure to the algal toxin domoic acid. These same sea lions accumulate a mixture of persistent environmental contaminants including pesticides and industrial products such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Developmental exposure to the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its stable metabolite 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (p,p -DDE) has been shown to enhance domoic acid-induced seizures in zebrafish; however, the contribution of other co-occurring contaminants is unknown. We formulated a mixture of contaminants to include PCBs, PBDEs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and chlordane at levels matching those reported for fetal CSL blubber to determine the impact of co-occurring persistent contaminants with p,p -DDE on chemically induced seizures in zebrafish as a model for the CSLs. Embryos were exposed (6-30 hr postfertilization) to p,p -DDE in the presence or absence of a defined contaminant mixture prior to neurodevelopment via either bath exposure or embryo yolk sac microinjection. After brain maturation (7 days postfertilization), fish were exposed to a chemical convulsant, either pentylenetetrazole or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was then monitored and analyzed for changes, using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Induced seizure behavior did not differ significantly between subjects with embryonic exposure to a contaminant mixture and those exposed to p,p -DDE only. These studies demonstrate that p,p -DDE--in the absence of PCBs, HCH, chlordane, and PBDEs that co-occur in fetal sea lions--accounts for the synergistic activity that leads to greater sensitivity to domoic acid seizures.

  5. Comparison of phenolic acid profiles and anti-inflammatory effects of two major species of blueberries in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) contain high levels of polyphenols. Among them, phenolic acids (PAs) have been recently suggested as a group of important bioactive compounds. Highbush BB (Vaccinium corymbosum) and lowbush “wild" BB (Vaccinium angustifolium) are two predominant species in North America. The first o...

  6. Intestinal absorption and distribution of 14C-palmitic acid in an young Indian freshwater major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, G.M.; Chakrabarti, P.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of absorption and distribution of radioactive lipids in the various regions of the intestine and hepatopancreas of young Labeo rohita (Ham.) was investigated after feeding with small-sized earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), preinjected with 14 C-Palmitic acid. Dietary free fatty acids were mainly absorbed in the various regions (anterior, middle and posterior) of the intestine-the absorption capacity, however, varying greatly from region to region. The absorption of free fatty acids through the luminal brush border of the various regions of the intestine started at 24 hr of post-feeding (h.p.f.) with labelled diet and recorded its peak during 32 +- 2 h.p.f. However, middle intestine was found to be more active for such absorption than the other two regions (anterior and posterior). Incorporation of labelled Palmitic acid in the columnar epithelial cells and its subsequent transportation in the hepatic tissues, via lymphatic systems took place with in a short interval after absorption. However, absorption was completed within 40 h.p.f. when deposition of radioactive lipids was found to be maximum in the columnar epithelial cells of the various regions of the intestine and hepatic tissues. (author)

  7. Impacts of 21st century sea-level rise on a Danish major city - an assessment based on fine-resolution digital topography and a new flooding algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Bøcher, Peter Klith; Svenning, J.-C.

    2009-01-01

    by future sea-level rise to Aarhus. Under the A2 and A1FI (IPCC) climate scenarios we show that relatively large residential areas in the northern part of the city as well as areas around the river running through the city are likely to become flooded in the event of extreme, but realistic weather events......This study examines the potential impact of 21st century sea-level rise on Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, emphasizing the economic risk to the city's real estate. Furthermore, it assesses which possible adaptation measures that can be taken to prevent flooding in areas particularly...... to those produced in this study will become an important tool for a climate-change-integrated planning of future city development as well as for the development of evacuation plans....

  8. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric investigation of n-alkanes and carboxylic acids in bottom sediments of the northern Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzhegaliev, Akimgali; Zhumagaliev, Sagat; Kenzhegalieva, Dina; Orazbayev, Batyr

    2018-03-01

    Prior to the start of experimental oil production in the Kashagan field (northern part of the Caspian Sea), n-alkanes and carboxylic acids contained in samples obtained from bottom sediments in the area of artificial island "D" were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of 10 n-alkanes (composed of C10-C13, C15-C20) and 11 carboxylic acids (composed of C6-C12, C14-C16) were identified and measured. Concentrations of individual alkanes and carboxylic acids in bottom sediments of the various samples varied between 0.001 ÷ 0.88 μg/g and 0.001 ÷ 1.94 μg/g, respectively. Mass spectra, in particular the M+ molecular ion peak and the most intense peaks of fragment ions, are given. The present study illustrates the stability of molecular ions to electronic ionisation and the main fragment ions to the total ion current and shows that the initial fragmentation of alkanes implies radical cleavage of C2H5 rather than CH3. All aliphatic monocarboxylic acids studied were characterised by McLafferty rearrangement leading to the formation of F4 cation-radical with m/z 60 and F3 cation-radical with m/z 88 in the case of ethylhexanoic acid. The formation of oxonium ions presents another important aspect of acid fragmentation. Using mass numbers of oxonium ions and rearrangement ions allows determination of the substitution character in α- and β- C atoms. The essence of our approach is to estimate the infiltration of hydrocarbon fluids from the enclosing formation into sea water, comprising an analysis of derivatives of organic compounds in bottom sediments. Thus, concentrations of derived organic molecules can serve as a basis for estimates of the depth at which hydrocarbon fluids leak, i.e., to serve as an auxiliary technique in the search for hydrocarbon deposits and to repair well leaks.

  10. Of the major phenolic acids formed during human microbial fermentation of tea, citrus, and soy flavonoid supplements, only 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid has antiproliferative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, K.; Xu, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Venema, K.; Liu, Y.; Niu, Y.; Lu, J.; Bensoussan, L.; Seeram, N.P.; Heber, D.; Henning, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to

  11. Simultaneous quantification of the major bile acids in artificial Calculus bovis by high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization and its application in quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Xiong, Jing; Sun, Dongmei; Liu, Wei; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuangcheng; Lin, Ruichao

    2015-08-01

    An accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with ultralviolet detection and precolumn derivatization was developed for the simultaneous quantification of the major bile acids in Artificial Calculus bovis, including cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid. The extraction, derivatization, chromatographic separation, and detection parameters were fully optimized. The samples were extracted with methanol by ultrasonic extraction. Then, 2-bromine-4'-nitroacetophenone and 18-crown ether-6 were used for derivatization. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm) at a column temperature of 30°C and liquid flow rate of 1.0 mL/min using water and methanol as the mobile phase with a gradient elution. The detection wavelength was 263 nm. The method was extensively validated by evaluating the linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9980), recovery (94.24-98.91%), limits of detection (0.25-0.31 ng) and limits of quantification (0.83-1.02 ng). Seventeen samples were analyzed using the developed and validated method. Then, the amounts of bile acids were analyzed by hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the chemometric analysis showed that the contents of these compounds reflect the intrinsic quality of artificial Calculus bovis, and two compounds (hyodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) were the most important markers for quality evaluating. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Novel, major 2α- and 2β-hydroxy bile alcohols and bile acids in the bile of Arapaima gigas, a large South American river fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato née Okihara, Rika; Saito, Tetsuya; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nakane, Naoya; Namegawa, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Shoutaro; Omura, Kaoru; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Raines, Jan; Hagey, Lee R; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Bile alcohols and bile acids from gallbladder bile of the Arapaima gigas, a large South American freshwater fish, were isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the major isolated compounds were determined by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. The novel bile salts identified were six variants of 2-hydroxy bile acids and bile alcohols in the 5α- and 5β-series, with 29% of all compounds having hydroxylation at C-2. Three C27 bile alcohols were present (as ester sulfates): (24ξ,25ξ)-5α-cholestan-2α,3α,7α,12α,24,26-hexol; (25ξ)-5β-cholestan-2β,3α,7α,12α,26,27-hexol, and (25ξ)-5α-cholestan-2α,3α,7α,12α,26,27-hexol. A single C27 bile acid was identified: (25ξ)-2α,3α,7α,12α-tetrahydroxy-5α-cholestan-26-oic acid, present as its taurine conjugate. Two novel C24 bile acids were identified: the 2α-hydroxy derivative of allochenodeoxycholic acid and the 2β-hydroxy derivative of cholic acid, both occurring as taurine conjugates. These studies extend previous work in establishing the natural occurrence of novel 2α- and 2β-hydroxy-C24 and C27 bile acids as well as C27 bile alcohols in both the normal (5β) as well as the (5α) "allo" A/B-ring juncture. The bile salt profile of A. gigas appears to be unique among vertebrates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Palgae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calibrating amino acid δ13C and δ15N offsets between polyp and protein skeleton to develop proteinaceous deep-sea corals as paleoceanographic archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelton W.; Williams, Branwen; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Glynn, Danielle S.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotopes of amino acids (CSI-AA) from proteinaceous deep-sea coral skeletons have the potential to improve paleoreconstructions of plankton community composition, and our understanding of the trophic dynamics and biogeochemical cycling of sinking organic matter in the Ocean. However, the assumption that the molecular isotopic values preserved in protein skeletal material reflect those of the living coral polyps has never been directly investigated in proteinaceous deep-sea corals. We examined CSI-AA from three genera of proteinaceous deep-sea corals from three oceanographically distinct regions of the North Pacific: Primnoa from the Gulf of Alaska, Isidella from the Central California Margin, and Kulamanamana from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. We found minimal offsets in the δ13C values of both essential and non-essential AAs, and in the δ15N values of source AAs, between paired samples of polyp tissue and protein skeleton. Using an essential AA δ13C fingerprinting approach, we show that estimates of the relative contribution of eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the sinking organic matter supporting deep-sea corals are the same when calculated from polyp tissue or recently deposited skeletal tissue. The δ15N values of trophic AAs in skeletal tissue, on the other hand, were consistently 3-4‰ lower than polyp tissue for all three genera. We hypothesize that this offset reflects a partitioning of nitrogen flux through isotopic branch points in the synthesis of polyp (fast turnover tissue) and skeleton (slow, unidirectional incorporation). This offset indicates an underestimation, albeit correctable, of approximately half a trophic position from gorgonin protein-based deep-sea coral skeleton. Together, our observations open the door for applying many of the rapidly evolving CSI-AA based tools developed for metabolically active tissues in modern systems to archival coral tissues in a paleoceanographic context.

  15. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA f...

  16. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  17. Increased formic acid excretion and the development of kidney toxicity in rats following chronic dosing with trichloroethanol, a major metabolite of trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Trevor; Dow, Jacky; Foster, John

    2003-01-01

    The chronic toxicity of trichloroethanol, a major metabolite of trichloroethylene, has been assessed in male Fischer rats (60 per group) given trichloroethanol in drinking water at concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 g/l for 52 weeks. The rats excreted large amounts of formic acid in urine reaching a maximum after 12 weeks (∼65 mg/24 h at 1 g/l) and thereafter declining to reach an apparent steady state at 40 weeks (15-20 mg/24 h). Urine from treated rats was more acidic throughout the study and urinary methylmalonic acid and plasma N-methyltetrahydrofolate concentrations were increased, indicating an acidosis, vitamin B12 deficiency and impaired folate metabolism, respectively. The rats treated with trichloroethanol developed kidney damage over the duration of the study which was characterised by increased urinary NAG activity, protein excretion (from 4 weeks), increased basophilia, protein accumulation and tubular damage (from 12 to 40 weeks), increased cell replication (at week 28) and evidence in some rats of focal proliferation of abnormal tubules at 52 weeks. It was concluded that trichloroethanol, the major metabolite of trichloroethylene, induced nephrotoxicity in rats as a result of formic acid excretion and acidosis

  18. Total lipid in the broodstock diet did not affect fatty acid composition and quality of eggs of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Navas

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether an increase in the quantity of lipids ingested by sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax broodstock could improve egg quality, three year-old sea bass were fed three different diets: a natural diet (Control group, and two artificial diets containing 10% or 17% of total lipids. In two consecutive reproductive seasons, the spawning results, the lipid classes and the fatty acid composition of the eggs were studied. No differences in the absolute content of lipids or in the percentage of different lipid classes were observed between the eggs from the three groups. Both experimental groups fed with the artificial diets produced eggs of poor quality, with low percentages of buoyancy and hatching. Those observed in the eggs from the Control Group were significantly higher (p> 0.01 than those of the experimental groups. The higher hatching rate of the eggs from the Control Group was associated with higher DHA:EPA and AA:EPA ratios. The data obtained showed that the fatty acid composition of the eggs was affected by the fatty acid composition of the diets but not by the total quantity of lipids administered to the broodstock.

  19. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P  0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impacts of 21st century sea-level rise on a Danish major city - an assessment based on fine-resolution digital topography and a new flooding algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Boecher, Peder Klith; Moelhave, Thomas; Arge, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the potential impact of 21st century sea-level rise on Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, emphasizing the economic risk to the city's real estate. Furthermore, it assesses which possible adaptation measures that can be taken to prevent flooding in areas particularly at risk from flooding. We combine a new national Digital Elevation Model in very fine resolution (∼2 meter), a new highly computationally efficient flooding algorithm that accurately models the influence of barriers, and geospatial data on real-estate values to assess the economic real-estate risk posed by future sea-level rise to Aarhus. Under the A2 and A1FI (IPCC) climate scenarios we show that relatively large residential areas in the northern part of the city as well as areas around the river running through the city are likely to become flooded in the event of extreme, but realistic weather events. In addition, most of the large Aarhus harbour would also risk flooding. As much of the area at risk represent high-value real estate, it seems clear that proactive measures other than simple abandonment should be taken in order to avoid heavy economic losses. Among the different possibilities for dealing with an increased sea level, the strategic placement of flood-gates at key potential water-inflow routes and the construction or elevation of existing dikes seems to be the most convenient, most socially acceptable, and maybe also the cheapest solution. Finally, we suggest that high-detail flooding models similar to those produced in this study will become an important tool for a climate-change-integrated planning of future city development as well as for the development of evacuation plans.

  1. Impacts of 21st century sea-level rise on a Danish major city - an assessment based on fine-resolution digital topography and a new flooding algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Svenning, Jens-Christian [Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Boecher, Peder Klith [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University (Denmark); Moelhave, Thomas; Arge, Lars, E-mail: jesper.moeslund@biology.au.d [MADALGO - Center for Massive Data Algorithmics, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the potential impact of 21st century sea-level rise on Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, emphasizing the economic risk to the city's real estate. Furthermore, it assesses which possible adaptation measures that can be taken to prevent flooding in areas particularly at risk from flooding. We combine a new national Digital Elevation Model in very fine resolution ({approx}2 meter), a new highly computationally efficient flooding algorithm that accurately models the influence of barriers, and geospatial data on real-estate values to assess the economic real-estate risk posed by future sea-level rise to Aarhus. Under the A2 and A1FI (IPCC) climate scenarios we show that relatively large residential areas in the northern part of the city as well as areas around the river running through the city are likely to become flooded in the event of extreme, but realistic weather events. In addition, most of the large Aarhus harbour would also risk flooding. As much of the area at risk represent high-value real estate, it seems clear that proactive measures other than simple abandonment should be taken in order to avoid heavy economic losses. Among the different possibilities for dealing with an increased sea level, the strategic placement of flood-gates at key potential water-inflow routes and the construction or elevation of existing dikes seems to be the most convenient, most socially acceptable, and maybe also the cheapest solution. Finally, we suggest that high-detail flooding models similar to those produced in this study will become an important tool for a climate-change-integrated planning of future city development as well as for the development of evacuation plans.

  2. Effect of pretreatment severity on accumulation of major degradation products from dilute acid pretreated corn stover and subsequent inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2012-09-01

    The concept of reaction severity, which combines residence time and temperature, is often used in the pulp and paper and biorefining industries. The influence of corn stover pretreatment severity on yield of sugar and major degradation products and subsequent effects on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was investigated. The pretreatment residence time and temperature, combined into the severity factor (Log R(o)), were varied with constant acid concentration. With increasing severity, increasing concentrations of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) coincided with decreasing yields of oligosaccharides. With further increase in severity factor, the concentrations of furans decreased, while the formation of formic acid and lactic acid increased. For example, from severity 3.87 to 4.32, xylose decreased from 6.39 to 5.26 mg/mL, while furfural increased from 1.04 to 1.33 mg/mL; as the severity was further increased to 4.42, furfural diminished to 1.23 mg/mL as formate rose from 0.62 to 1.83 mg/mL. The effects of dilute acid hydrolyzate, acetic acid, and lignin, in particular, on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with a rapid microassay method. The microplate method gave considerable time and cost savings compared to the traditional assay protocol, and it is applicable to a broad range of lignocellulosic substrates.

  3. Age-related changes of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the anterior cingulate cortex of individuals with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Sarah M; Runyan, Caroline A; Leonard, Sherry; Reddy, Ravinder D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Yao, Jeffrey K

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence finds a relative deficiency of peripheral membrane fatty acids in persons with affective disorders such as unipolar and bipolar depression. Here we sought to investigate whether postmortem brain fatty acids within the anterior cingulate cortex (BA-24) varied according to the presence of major depression at the time of death. Using capillary gas chromatography we measured fatty acids in a depressed group (n=12), and in a control group without lifetime history of psychiatric diagnosis (n=14). Compared to the control group, the depressed group showed significantly lower concentrations of numerous saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids including both the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Additionally, significant correlations between age at death and precursor (or metabolites) in the n-3 fatty acid pathway were demonstrated in the depressed group but not in control subjects. In the n-6 fatty acid family, the ratio of 20:3(n-6)/18:2(n-6) was higher in patients than in control groups, whereas the ratio of 20:4(n-6)/20:3(n-6) was relatively decreased in patients. Lastly, a significant negative correlation between age and the ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 22:6(n-3) was found in patients, but not in controls. Taken together, decreases in 22:6(n-3) may be caused, at least in part, by the diminished formation of 20:5(n-3), which is derived from 20:4(n-3) through a Delta5 desaturase reaction. The present findings from postmortem brain tissue raise the possibility that an increased ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 22:6(n-3) may provide us with a biomarker for depression. Future research should further investigate these relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Structural stability of Amandin, a major allergen from almond (Prunus dulcis), and its acidic and basic polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albillos, Silvia M; Menhart, Nicholas; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2009-06-10

    Information relating to the resistance of food allergens to thermal and/or chemical denaturation is critical if a reduction in protein allergenicity is to be achieved through food-processing means. This study examined the changes in the secondary structure of an almond allergen, amandin, and its acidic and basic polypeptides as a result of thermal and chemical denaturation. Amandin ( approximately 370 kDa) was purified by cryoprecipitation followed by gel filtration chromatography and subjected to thermal (13-96 degrees C) and chemical (urea and dithiothreitol) treatments. Changes in the secondary structure of the protein were followed using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The secondary structure of the hexameric amandin did not undergo remarkable changes at temperatures up to 90 degrees C, although protein aggregation was observed. In the presence of a reducing agent, irreversible denaturation occurred with the following experimental values: T(m) = 72.53 degrees C (transition temperature), DeltaH = 87.40 kcal/mol (unfolding enthalpy), and C(p) = 2.48 kcal/(mol degrees C) (heat capacity). The concentration of urea needed to achieve 50% denaturation was 2.59 M, and the Gibbs free energy of chemical denaturation was calculated to be DeltaG = 3.82 kcal/mol. The basic and acidic polypeptides of amandin had lower thermal stabilities than the multimeric protein.

  5. FAT/CD36: a major regulator of neuronal fatty acid sensing and energy homeostasis in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose; Musatov, Serguei; Magnan, Christophe; Levin, Barry E

    2013-08-01

    Hypothalamic "metabolic-sensing" neurons sense glucose and fatty acids (FAs) and play an integral role in the regulation of glucose, energy homeostasis, and the development of obesity and diabetes. Using pharmacologic agents, we previously found that ~50% of these neurons responded to oleic acid (OA) by using the FA translocator/receptor FAT/CD36 (CD36). For further elucidation of the role of CD36 in neuronal FA sensing, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) CD36 was depleted using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing CD36 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in rats. Whereas their neuronal glucosensing was unaffected by CD36 depletion, the percent of neurons that responded to OA was decreased specifically in glucosensing neurons. A similar effect was seen in total-body CD36-knockout mice. Next, weanling rats were injected in the VMH with CD36 AAV shRNA. Despite significant VMH CD36 depletion, there was no effect on food intake, body weight gain, or total carcass adiposity on chow or 45% fat diets. However, VMH CD36-depleted rats did have increased plasma leptin and subcutaneous fat deposition and markedly abnormal glucose tolerance. These results demonstrate that CD36 is a critical factor in both VMH neuronal FA sensing and the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis.

  6. Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2016-06-21

    The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish.

  7. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich (Annonaceae and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Woode

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE and xylopic acid (XA, in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests, thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests, and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg -1 , p.o. and XA (10-100 mg kg -1 , p.o. inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory, thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg -1 , i.p. and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg -1 , i.p., used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid.

  8. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in sea water by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Fujishima, Hironori; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2012-01-04

    The chelating agent EDTA is widely used, and as a result is showing up widely in the aquatic environment. Here we describe a preconcentration procedure for measuring EDTA concentration in sea water samples by HPLC. The procedure consists of forming an Fe(III) complex followed by solid-phase extraction using an activated carbon cartridge. After the preconcentration, EDTA was quantified by HPLC with ultraviolet detection (260 nm). The enrichment permitted the determination of EDTA at concentrations as low as 1 nM. Good recoveries were obtained for both brackish and full-strength sea water with high repeatability (RSD<6%). The method was applied to sea water samples taken from near the mouth of the Oyabe River in Japan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in the levels of major sulfur metabolites and free amino acids in pea cotyledons recovering from sulfur deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnicol, P.K.; Randall, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in levels of sulfur metabolites and free amino acids were followed in cotyledons of sulfur-deficient, developing pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) for 24 hours after resupply of sulfate, during which time the legumin mRNA levels returned almost to normal. Two recovery situations were studied: cultured seeds, with sulfate added to the medium, and seeds attached to the intact plant, with sulfate added to the roots. In both situations the levels of cysteine, glutathione, and methionine rose rapidly, glutathione exhibiting an initial lag. In attached but not cultured seeds methionine markedly overshot the level normally found in sulfur-sufficient seeds. In the cultured seed S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), but not S-methylmethionine, showed a sustained rise; in the attached seed the changes were slight. The composition of the free amino acid pool did not change substantially in either recovery situation. In the cultured seed the large rise in AdoMet level occurred equally in nonrecovering seeds. It was accompanied by 6-fold and 10-fold increases in γ-aminobutyrate and alanine, respectively. These effects are attributed to wounding resulting from excision of the seed. 35 S-labeling experiments showed that there was no significant accumulation of label in unidentified sulfur-containing amino compounds in either recovery situation. It was concluded from these results and those of other workers that, at the present level of knowledge, the most probable candidate for a signal compound, eliciting recovery of legumin mRNA level in response to sulfur-feeding, is cysteine

  10. Major involvement of Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6/SMVT) in uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid by human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yasuo; Ito, Katsuaki; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6/SMVT) and its contribution to the supply of biotin and pantothenic acid to the human brain via the blood-brain barrier. DNA microarray and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that SLC5A6 is expressed in microvessels of human brain. The absolute expression levels of SLC5A6 protein in isolated human and monkey brain microvessels were 1.19 and 0.597 fmol/μg protein, respectively, as determined by a quantitative targeted absolute proteomics technique. Using an antibody-free method established by Kubo et al. (2015), we found that SLC5A6 was preferentially localized at the luminal membrane of brain capillary endothelium. Knock-down analysis using SLC5A6 siRNA showed that SLC5A6 accounts for 88.7% and 98.6% of total [(3) H]biotin and [(3) H]pantothenic acid uptakes, respectively, by human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. SLC5A6-mediated transport in hCMEC/D3 was markedly inhibited not only by biotin and pantothenic acid, but also by prostaglandin E2, lipoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, indomethacin, ketoprofen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenylbutazone, and flurbiprofen. This study is the first to confirm expression of SLC5A6 in human brain microvessels and to provide evidence that SLC5A6 is a major contributor to luminal uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid at the human blood-brain barrier. In humans, it was unclear (not concluded) about what transport system at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for the brain uptakes of two vitamins, biotin and pantothenic acid, which are necessary for brain proper function. This study clarified for the first time that the solute carrier 5A6/Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter SLC5A6/SMVT is responsible for the supplies of biotin and pantothenic acid into brain across the BBB in humans. DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PGE2, prostaglandin E2. © 2015

  11. Characterization of major ripening events during softening in grape: turgor, sugar accumulation, abscisic acid metabolism, colour development, and their relationship with growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, Simone D; Gambetta, Gregory A; Wada, Hiroshi; Krasnow, Mark N; Cramer, Grant R; Peterlunger, Enrico; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Distribution and composition of dissolved amino acids in surface water of northern South China Sea%南海北部表层海水中溶解氨基酸的分布与组成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏清艳; 杨桂朋; 高先池; 陈岩; 庞博

    2011-01-01

    The Concentrations of total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) .dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) .dissolved combined ami-no acids ( DCAA) .chlorophyll a and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface water of the northern South China Sea were determined in winter of 2009. The concentrations of THAA were higher in the coastal waters and lower in the open sea,though there were also some high values in the slope area. The distribution of DFAA did not exhibit regular pattern, but the concentrations of DFAA were usually high in the slope area. The major constituents of THAA in the study area were glycine, serine, glutamic acid, alanine and aspar-tic acid , accounting for 67.03 % of THAA. Basically, DFAA and DCAA have the same major constituents as THAA. The correlation matrix of individual amino acids at all stations in the surface water showed that there were five pairs of individual amino acids have the significant positive correlation between each other in THAA, nine pairs in DFAA and six pairs in DCAA. The correlation was not found between the dissolved amino acids and environmental factors such as chlorophyll a and DOC.%测定了2009年冬季南海北部表层海水中总水解氨基酸( THAA)、溶解游离氨基酸(DFAA)、溶解结合态氨基酸(DCAA)及叶绿素a、溶解有机碳(DOC)的浓度.调查海区THAA浓度的分布总体呈现近岸高、远岸低的特点,并且在陆坡处出现高值;DFAA浓度分布规律性则较差,但是在陆坡处也出现高值;DCAA周转速度较慢,是THAA浓度变化的主要控制因素(R=0.9935,n =48,P<0.0001).冬季南海北部表层海水THAA主要由甘氨酸、丝氨酸、谷氨酸、丙氨酸和天门冬氨酸构成,它们占THAA的67.03%,DFAA、DCAA中的主要成分与THAA基本相同.个体氨基酸间的相关性矩阵分析显示THAA中有5对个体氨基酸间存在显著性正相关,DFAA、DCAA中分别有9对及6对个体氨基酸之间存在显著性正相关.溶解氨基酸与环境因子如叶绿素a和DOC之间均没有相关性.

  13. Systematic variations of 87Sr/56Sr ratios, Sr compositions, selected major-oxide concentrations, and mineral abundances in piston cores from the Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boger, P.D.; Boger, J.L.; Faure, G.

    1980-01-01

    A mixing model is presented which relates the concentrations of Sr to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and concentrations of other elements contained in a mixture of two components. The model is applied to the measured 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, Sr, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 and SiO 2 concentrations of the detrital fractions of sediment from three piston cores representing different depositional environments in the Red Sea. The sediment is shown to be a mixture of two components derived from old sialic rocks and young volcanic rocks of the surrounding land masses. One of the cores contained a third component which is identified as authigenic Fe 2 O 3 . Removal of this contaminant is shown to return the system to its original detrital constituents. (Auth.)

  14. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  15. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Oguri, Sachiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spinach samples (0.5 g) were digested with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The decomposed samples were dissolved in a 1 M ( = mol dm -3 ) HNO 3 solution containing internal standard elements (Ge, In, and Re, 10 ppb each), and were subjected to multielement analyses by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. As a result, about 40 elements were successfully determined over a wide concentration range from % to ppb level. Spinach samples grown in different production areas were also analyzed in order to understand the influences of the environmental conditions on growth. Among the major and minor elements, the values of the coefficient of variance (CV) for B, Mg, P, and K were < 20%, and those for Ca, Na, Al, and Mn were higher than 50%. On the other hand, the values of CV for trace and ultratrace elements were significantly high. Furthermore, the present analytical method was also applied to the determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in various vegetable samples (23 species in 11 families); the similarities and differences of the elemental distributions in vegetables were found in the experimental results. (author)

  16. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokura, Akiko; Oguri, Sachiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spinach samples (0.5 g) were digested with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The decomposed samples were dissolved in a 1 M ( = mol dm{sup -3}) HNO{sub 3} solution containing internal standard elements (Ge, In, and Re, 10 ppb each), and were subjected to multielement analyses by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. As a result, about 40 elements were successfully determined over a wide concentration range from % to ppb level. Spinach samples grown in different production areas were also analyzed in order to understand the influences of the environmental conditions on growth. Among the major and minor elements, the values of the coefficient of variance (CV) for B, Mg, P, and K were < 20%, and those for Ca, Na, Al, and Mn were higher than 50%. On the other hand, the values of CV for trace and ultratrace elements were significantly high. Furthermore, the present analytical method was also applied to the determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in various vegetable samples (23 species in 11 families); the similarities and differences of the elemental distributions in vegetables were found in the experimental results. (author)

  17. Transcriptome profiling and physiological studies reveal a major role for aromatic amino acids in mercury stress tolerance in rice seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-An Chen

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants.

  18. Transcriptome profiling and physiological studies reveal a major role for aromatic amino acids in mercury stress tolerance in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-An; Chi, Wen-Chang; Trinh, Ngoc Nam; Huang, Li-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Teng; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp) and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Early Enteral Nutrition After Major Rectal Surgery: A Possible Role for Conditionally Essential Amino Acids? Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Barneveld, Kevin W Y; Smeets, Boudewijn J J; Heesakkers, Fanny F B M; Bosmans, Joanna W A M; Luyer, Misha D; Wasowicz, Dareczka; Bakker, Jaap A; Roos, Arnout N; Rutten, Harm J T; Bouvy, Nicole D; Boelens, Petra G

    2016-06-01

    To investigate direct postoperative outcome and plasma amino acid concentrations in a study comparing early enteral nutrition versus early parenteral nutrition after major rectal surgery. Previously, it was shown that a low plasma glutamine concentration represents poor prognosis in ICU patients. A preplanned substudy of a previous prospective, randomized, open-label, single-centre study, comparing early enteral nutrition versus early parenteral nutrition in patients at high risk of postoperative ileus after surgery for locally advanced or locally recurrent rectal cancer. Early enteral nutrition reduced postoperative ileus, anastomotic leakage, and hospital stay. Tertiary referral centre for locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer. A total of 123 patients with locally advanced or recurrent rectal carcinoma requiring major rectal surgery. Patients were randomized (ALEA web-based external randomization) preoperatively into two groups: early enteral nutrition (early enteral nutrition, intervention) by nasojejunal tube (n = 61) or early parenteral nutrition (early parenteral nutrition, control) by jugular vein catheter (n = 62). Eight hours after the surgical procedure artificial nutrition was started in hemodynamically stable patients, stimulating oral intake in both groups. Blood samples were collected to measure plasma glutamine, citrulline, and arginine concentrations using a validated ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Baseline concentrations were comparable for both groups. Directly after rectal surgery, a decrease in plasma amino acids was observed. Plasma glutamine concentrations were higher in the parenteral group than in the enteral group on postoperative day 1 (p = 0.027) and day 5 (p = 0.008). Arginine concentrations were also significantly increased in the parenteral group at day 1 (p < 0.001) and day 5 (p = 0.001). Lower plasma glutamine and arginine concentrations were measured in the enteral group, whereas a

  20. Lactic acid bacteria from Sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter from sheep's milk: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Boudjerda, J.; Leghouchi, E.; Karam, N. E.

    2009-07-01

    Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep's milk in Jijel (East of Algeria). These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactic ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exo polysaccharide. (Author) 42 refs.

  1. Reversed electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 is the major acid loader during recovery from cytosolic alkalosis in mouse cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Naoshin, Zinnia; Thyssen, Anne; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-08-15

    The regulation of H(+) i from cytosolic alkalosis has generally been attributed to the activity of Cl(-) -coupled acid loaders/base extruders in most cell types, including brain cells. The present study demonstrates that outwardly-directed sodium bicarbonate cotransport via electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) mediates the major fraction of H(+) i regulation from cytosolic alkalosis in mouse cortical astrocytes. Cl(-) -coupled acid-loading transporters play only a minor role in the regulation of H(+) i from alkalosis in mouse cortical astrocytes. NBCe1-mediated H(+) i regulation from alkalosis was dominant, with the support of intracellular carbonic anhydrase II, even when the intra- and extracellular [HCO3 (-) ] was very low (sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) and for carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform II. An acute cytosolic alkalosis was induced by the removal of either CO2 /HCO3 (-) or butyric acid, and the subsequent acid loading was analysed by monitoring changes in cytosolic H(+) or Na(+) using ion-sensitive fluorescent dyes. We have identified that NBCe1 reverses during alkalosis and contributes more than 70% to the rate of recovery from alkalosis by extruding Na(+) and HCO3 (-) . After CA inhibition or in CAII-knockout (KO) cells, the rate of recovery was reduced by 40%, and even by 70% in the nominal absence of CO2 /HCO3 (-) . Increasing the extracellular K(+) concentration modulated the rate of acid loading in wild-type cells, but not in NBCe1-KO cells. Removing chloride had only a minor effect on the recovery from alkalosis. Reversal of NBCe1 by reducing pH/[HCO3 (-) ] was demonstrated in astrocytes and in Xenopus oocytes, in which human NBCe1 was heterologously expressed. The results obtained suggest that reversed NBCe1, supported by CAII activity, plays a major role in acid-loading cortical astrocytes to support recovery from cytosolic alkalosis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  2. Proteome-based systems biology analysis of the diabetic mouse aorta reveals major changes in fatty acid biosynthesis as potential hallmark in diabetes mellitus-associated vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husi, Holger; Van Agtmael, Tom; Mullen, William; Bahlmann, Ferdinand H; Schanstra, Joost P; Vlahou, Antonia; Delles, Christian; Perco, Paul; Mischak, Harald

    2014-04-01

    Macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus are a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Currently, studies only partially described the molecular pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus-associated effects on vasculature. However, better understanding of systemic effects is essential in unraveling key molecular events in the vascular tissue responsible for disease onset and progression. Our overall aim was to get an all-encompassing view of diabetes mellitus-induced key molecular changes in the vasculature. An integrative proteomic and bioinformatics analysis of data from aortic vessels in the low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model (10 animals) was performed. We observed pronounced dysregulation of molecules involved in myogenesis, vascularization, hypertension, hypertrophy (associated with thickening of the aortic wall), and a substantial reduction of fatty acid storage. A novel finding is the pronounced downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk3β) and upregulation of molecules linked to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (eg, aspartate aminotransferase [Got2] and hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase [Adhfe1]). In addition, pathways involving primary alcohols and amino acid breakdown are altered, potentially leading to ketone-body production. A number of these findings were validated immunohistochemically. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that in this diabetic model, there is an overproduction of ketone-bodies within the vessels using an alternative tricarboxylic acid cycle-associated pathway, ultimately leading to the development of atherosclerosis. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in animals leads to a reduction of fatty acid biosynthesis and an upregulation of an alternative ketone-body formation pathway. This working hypothesis could form the basis for the development of novel therapeutic intervention and disease management approaches.

  3. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Stefania; Bagagli, Giorgia; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Brazzale, Daniele; Castorina, Giulia; Simoni, Laura; Tonelli, Chiara; Guella, Graziano; Engelen, Kristof; Galbiati, Massimo; Moser, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA) is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes) characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes), underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2), a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2-independent manner. This

  4. Major regulatory factors in the evolution of development: the roles of goosecoid and Msx in the evolution of the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keen A; Andrews, Mary E; Rudolf Turner, F; Raff, Rudolf A

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factors Gsc and Msx are expressed in the oral ectoderm of the indirect-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata. Their patterns of expression are highly modified in the direct developer Heliocidaris erythrogramma, which lacks an oral ectoderm. We here test the hypothesis that they are large effect genes responsible for the loss of the oral ectoderm module in the direct-developing larva of H. erythrogramma as well as for the restoration of an overt oral ectoderm in H.e. xH.t. hybrids. We undertook misexpression/overexpression and knockdown assays in the two species and in hybrids by mRNA injection. The results indicate that dramatic changes of function of these transcription factors has occurred. One of these genes, Gsc, has the ability when misexpressed to partially restore oral ectoderm in H. erythrogramma. On the other hand, Msx has lost any oral function and instead has a role in mesoderm proliferation and patterning. In addition, we found that the H. tuberculataGsc is up regulated in H.e. xH.t. hybrids, showing a preferential use of the indirect developing parental gene in the development of the hybrid. We suggest that Gsc qualifies as a gene of large evolutionary effect and is partially responsible for the evolution of direct development of H. erythrogramma. We discuss these results in light of modularity and genetic networks in development, as well as in their implications for the rapid evolution of large morphological changes in development.

  5. Effects of the 2014 major Baltic inflow on methane and nitrous oxide dynamics in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar; Rehder, Gregor; Werner, Jan; Hietanen, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    In late 2014, a large, oxygen-rich salt water inflow entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in deep water oxygen concentrations. We studied the effects of the inflow on the concentration patterns of two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide, during the following year (2015) in the water column of the Gotland Basin. In the eastern basin, methane which had previously accumulated in the deep waters was largely removed during the year. Here, volume-weighted mean concentration below 70 m decreased from 108 nM in March to 16.3 nM over a period of 141 days (0.65 nM d-1), predominantly due to oxidation (up to 79 %) following turbulent mixing with the oxygen-rich inflow. In contrast nitrous oxide, which was previously absent from deep waters, accumulated in deep waters due to enhanced nitrification following the inflow. Volume-weighted mean concentration of nitrous oxide below 70 m increased from 11.8 nM in March to 24.4 nM in 141 days (0.09 nM d-1). A transient extreme accumulation of nitrous oxide (877 nM) was observed in the deep waters of the Eastern Gotland Basin towards the end of 2015, when deep waters turned anoxic again, sedimentary denitrification was induced and methane was reintroduced to the bottom waters. The Western Gotland Basin gas biogeochemistry was not affected by the inflow.

  6. Optimization of sample preparation and chromatography for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian-Wen; Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Ze-Ming; Zhang, Jing

    2018-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous pollutants present in various environmental media, including marine sediments. A method was proposed for the determination of 17 target PFAA analytes in marine sediment samples (n = 49) collected from the Yangtze Estuary and East China Sea. The proposed method involves the use of an optimized pretreatment procedure and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method relied on extraction cycles using methanol followed by concentration, filtration, and small volume injection to UHPLC-MS/MS. The recovery, time efficiency, and detection limit of the proposed method are improved relative to those of traditional methods. Limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.045 ng/g, and spike recoveries to sediment ranged from 90% to 110% with suitable precisions (1.7%-14.6%). PFAAs were widely present in the samples, and ΣPFAAs ranged from 0.67 ng/g dw to 36.75 ng/g dw. Results indicated that terrigenous input strongly influences PFAA distribution in sediments from the study areas. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were identified as the dominant perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkylsulfonate (PFSA) in sediment samples from the Yangtze Estuary and the East China Sea. Preliminary environmental risk assessment indicated that PFOS may pose a higher environmental risk than PFOA. Furthermore, risk quotient values indicated that PFOS poses a significant risk to the aquatic ecosystem of the study areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sources and sinks of branched tetraether lipids and bacteriohopanepolyols in a major river system (Yenisei River – Kara Sea) : Implications for their application as geochemical tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and predicting climate variability is a major scientific challenge, especially as climate-induced environmental change will impact on human society. In order to constrain the magnitude of this impact, models to predict future climates are increasingly complex, and partly based on what

  8. Sources and sinks of branched tetraether lipids and bacteriohopanepolyols in a major river system (Yenisei River – Kara Sea: Implications for their application as geochemical tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and predicting climate variability is a major scientific challenge, especiallyas climate-induced environmental change will impact on human society. In order to constrainthe magnitude of this impact, models to predict future climates are increasingly complex, andpartly based on what is

  9. Long-Term Trends in the Prevalence of Cancer and Other Major Diseases Among Flatfish in the Southeastern North Sea as Indicators of Changing Ecosystem Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Jol, J.G.; Pieters, J.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and discusses spatial and temporal patterns in the prevalence of major skin diseases (lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, ulcers), intestinal parasite Glugea sp., and liver cancer in dab (Limanda limanda) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Dutch section of the

  10. Relative stability of major types of beta-turns as a function of amino acid composition: a study based on Ab initio energetic and natural abundance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Jákli, Imre; McAllister, Michael A; Csizmadia, Imre G

    2003-06-06

    Folding properties of small globular proteins are determined by their amino acid sequence (primary structure). This holds both for local (secondary structure) and for global conformational features of linear polypeptides and proteins composed from natural amino acid derivatives. It thus provides the rational basis of structure prediction algorithms. The shortest secondary structure element, the beta-turn, most typically adopts either a type I or a type II form, depending on the amino acid composition. Herein we investigate the sequence-dependent folding stability of both major types of beta-turns using simple dipeptide models (-Xxx-Yyy-). Gas-phase ab initio properties of 16 carefully selected and suitably protected dipeptide models (for example Val-Ser, Ala-Gly, Ser-Ser) were studied. For each backbone fold most probable side-chain conformers were considered. Fully optimized 321G RHF molecular structures were employed in medium level [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//RHF/3-21G] energy calculations to estimate relative populations of the different backbone conformers. Our results show that the preference for beta-turn forms as calculated by quantum mechanics and observed in Xray determined proteins correlates significantly.

  11. Codon and amino acid usage in two major human pathogens of genus Bartonella--optimization between replicational-transcriptional selection, translational control and cost minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sabyasachi; Paul, Sandip; Chatterjee, Sanjib; Dutta, Chitra

    2005-01-01

    Intra-genomic variation in synonymous codon and amino acid usage in two human pathogens Bartonella henselae and B. quintana has been carried out through multivariate analysis. Asymmetric mutational bias, coupled with replicational-transcriptional selection, has been identified as the prime selection force behind synonymous codon selection--a characteristic of the genus Bartonella, not exhibited by any other alpha-proteobacterial genome. Distinct codon usage patterns and low synonymous divergence values between orthologous sequences of highly expressed genes from the two Bartonella species indicate that there exists a residual intra-strand synonymous codon bias in the highly expressed genes, possibly operating at the level of translation. In the case of amino acid usage, the mean hydropathy level and aromaticity are the major sources of variation, both having nearly equal impact, while strand-specific mutational pressure and gene expressivity strongly influence the inter-strand variations. In both species under study, the highly expressed gene products tend not to contain heavy and/or aromatic residues, following the cost-minimization hypothesis in spite of their intracellular lifestyle. The codon and amino acid usage in these two human pathogens are, therefore, consequences of a complex balance between replicational-transcriptional selection, translational control, protein hydropathy and cost minimization.

  12. Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin Play a Major Role in the In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of Morus alba Leaf Extract on Type II Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi, Attila; Martins, Ana; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Seres, Adrienn; Zupkó, István

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the white mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) are used worldwide in traditional medicine as anti-diabetics. Various constituents of mulberry leaves, such as iminosugars (i.e. 1-deoxynojirimicin), flavonoids and related compounds, polysaccharides, glycopeptides and ecdysteroids, have been reported to exert anti-diabetic activity, but knowledge about their contribution to the overall activity is limited. The objective of the present work was to determine the in vivo anti-diabetic activity of an extract of mulberry leaves (MA), and to examine to what extent three major constituents, chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin, might contribute to the observed activity. Quantities of the three constituents of interest in the extract were determined by using HPLC-DAD. Activity was determined by using a type II diabetic rat model. After 11 days of per os administration of 250 or 750 mg/kg of MA or the corresponding amounts of each individual compound, a dose dependent decrease of non-fasting blood glucose levels were found for MA, chlorogenic acid and rutin, but not for isoquercitrin. Based on our results, chlorogenic acid and rutin might account for as much as half the observed anti-diabetic activity of MA, hence they can be considered as excellent markers for the quality control of mulberry products. PMID:23185641

  13. [Peculiarities of the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte plasma membranes of the Black Sea fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkin, Iu A; Silkina, E N; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2012-01-01

    The phospholipid and the fatty acid composition of the main phospholipids families of erythrocyte plasma membranes was studied in two species of cartilaginous fish: the common thrasher (Raja clavata L.) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) and three bony fish species: the scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus L.), the smarida (Spicara flexuosa Raf.), and the horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev). It was shown that in the studied fish, 70.0-80.0 % of all membrane phospholipids were composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylserine, monophosphoinositide, and sphingomyelin were minor components whose content in the erythrocyte membrane fluctuated from 3.0 % to 13.0 %. The fatty acid phospholipids composition was represented by a large specter of acids. From saturated acids, basic for plasma membranes are palmitic (C16: 0) and stearic (C18: 0) acids. From unsaturated acids, the larger part belong to mono-, tetra-, penta-, and hexaenoic acids in fish phospholipids. The calculation of the double bond index and of the unsaturation coefficient showed difference in the deformation ability of erythrocyte membranes of the studied fish.

  14. How to eliminate the formation of chlorogenic acids artefacts during plants analysis? Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) in the HPLC analysis of chlorogenic acids and their native derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota; Typek, Rafał; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2015-09-01

    The analytical procedures for determining plant constituents involve the application of sample preparation methods to fully isolate and/or pre-concentrate the analyzed substances. High-temperature liquid extraction is still applied most frequently for this purpose. The present paper shows that high-temperature extraction cannot be applied for the analysis of chlorogenic acids (CQAs) and their derivatives in plants as it causes the CQAs transformation leading to erroneous quantitative estimations of these compounds. Experiments performed on different plants (black elder, hawthorn, nettle, yerba maté, St John's wort and green coffee) demonstrate that the most appropriate method for the estimation of CQAs/CQAs derivatives is sea sand disruption method (SSDM) because it does not induce any transformation and/or degradation processes in the analyzed substances. Owing to the SSDM method application we found that the investigated plants, besides four main CQAs, contain sixteen CQAs derivatives, among them three quinic acids. The application of SSDM in plant analysis not only allows to establish a true concentration of individual CQAs in the examined plants but also to determine which chlorogenic acids derivatives are native plant components and what is their concentration level. What is even more important, the application of SSDM in plant analysis allows to eliminate errors that may arise or might have arisen in the study of chlorogenic acids and their derivatives in plant metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sea cucumber and blue mussel: new sources of phospholipid enriched omega-3 fatty acids with a potential role in 3T3-L1 adipocyte metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Hitesh; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2014-12-01

    Omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), namely docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are known to reduce the risk of insulin resistance and ameliorate obesity-associated disorders. DHA and EPA structured in the phospholipid form possess superior biological effects compared to the triglyceride form available in fish oil. In this study, we have found that sea cucumber (SC) and blue mussel (BM) from Newfoundland and Labrador are rich sources of n-3 PUFA structured in the phospholipid form. Treatment with SC and BM methanolic extracts (250 and 100 μg mL(-1), respectively) significantly (p triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, along with an increase in the mRNA expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (37 and 39%, respectively) and adiponectin (57 and 56%, respectively) compared with control cells (p triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells as opposed to an increase in triglyceride accumulation at lower concentrations. This was due to inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and SREBP-1 mRNA expression compared to control cells (p triglyceride accumulation at higher concentrations is not due to breakdown and release of fat. This is the first report to show that SC and BM are new sources of phospholipid bonded n-3 PUFA, with the potential to target insulin resistance and obesity.

  16. Preparation of polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates from the liver oil of dogfish (Squalus acanthias from the Black Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanova, K.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the liver oil from the Black Sea dogfish Squalus acanthias, as well as its seasonal variations were determined. A scheme for concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the dogfish liver oil by urea complexation was proposed. From 360g of free fatty acids a 48g concentrate was obtained, containing 7,8% C20:4, 16,4% C20:5. 9,2% C22:5 and 49,7% C22:6.

    Se ha determinado la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de hígado de cazón (Squalus acanthias del Mar Negro, así como sus variaciones estacionales. Se propone un esquema para la concentración de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de aceite de hígado de cazón mediante complexión de urea. A partir de 360g de ácidos grasos libres se obtuvo un concentrado de 48g, que contenía 7,8% C20:4, 16,4% C20:5, 9,2% C22:5 y 49,7% C22:6.

  17. Contributions of molecular size, charge distribution, and specific amino acids to the iron-binding capacity of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) ovum hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na; Cui, Pengbo; Jin, Ziqi; Wu, Haitao; Wang, Yixing; Lin, Songyi

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the contributions of molecular size, charge distribution and specific amino acids to the iron-binding capacity of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) ovum hydrolysates (SCOHs), and further explored their iron-binding sites. It was demonstrated that enzyme type and degree of hydrolysis (DH) significantly influenced the iron-binding capacity of the SCOHs. The SCOHs produced by alcalase at a DH of 25.9% possessed the highest iron-binding capacity at 92.1%. As the hydrolysis time increased, the molecular size of the SCOHs decreased, the negative charges increased, and the hydrophilic amino acids were exposed to the surface, facilitating iron binding. Furthermore, the Fourier transform infrared spectra, combined with amino acid composition analysis, revealed that iron bound to the SCOHs primarily through interactions with carboxyl oxygen of Asp, guanidine nitrogen of Arg or nitrogen atoms in imidazole group of His. The formed SCOHs-iron complexes exhibited a fold and crystal structure with spherical particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Olfactory sensitivity of Pacific Lampreys to lamprey bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Craig; Sorensen, Peter W.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Seelye, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata are in decline throughout much of their historical range in the Columbia River basin. In support of restoration efforts, we tested whether larval and adult lamprey bile acids serve as migratory and spawning pheromones in adult Pacific lampreys, as they do in sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. The olfactory sensitivity of adult Pacific lampreys to lamprey bile acids was measured by electro-olfactogram recording from the time of their capture in the spring until their spawning in June of the following year. As controls, we tested L-arginine and a non-lamprey bile acid, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLS). Migrating adult Pacific lampreys were highly sensitive to petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone) and 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey sex pheromone) when first captured. This sensitivity persisted throughout their long migratory and overwinter holding period before declining to nearly unmeasurable levels by the time of spawning. The absolute magnitudes of adult Pacific lamprey responses to lamprey bile acids were smaller than those of the sea lamprey, and unlike the sea lamprey, the Pacific lamprey did not appear to detect TLS. No sexual dimorphism was noted in olfactory sensitivity. Thus, Pacific lampreys are broadly similar to sea lampreys in showing sensitivity to the major lamprey bile acids but apparently differ in having a longer period of sensitivity to those acids. The potential utility of bile acid-like pheromones in the restoration of Pacific lampreys warrants their further investigation in this species.

  19. Total- and monomethyl-mercury and major ions in coastal California fog water: Results from two years of sampling on land and at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Weiss-Penzias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine fog water samples were collected over two summers (2014–2015 with active strand collectors (CASCC at eight coastal sites from Humboldt to Monterey counties in California, USA, and on four ocean cruises along the California coastline in order to investigate mercury (Hg cycling at the ocean-atmosphere-land interface. The mean concentration of monomethylmercury (MMHg in fog water across terrestrial sites for both years was 1.6 ± 1.9 ng L-1 (<0.01–10.4 ng L-1, N = 149, which corresponds to 5.7% (2.0–10.8% of total Hg (HgT in fog. Rain water samples from three sites had mean MMHg concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.12 ng L-1 (N = 5 corresponding to 1.4% of HgT. Fog water samples collected at sea had MMHg concentrations of 0.08 ± 0.15 ng L-1 (N = 14 corresponding to 0.4% of HgT. Significantly higher MMHg concentrations in fog were observed at terrestrial sites next to the ocean relative to a site 40 kilometers inland, and the mean difference was 1.6 ng L-1. Using a rate constant for photo-demethylation of MMHg of -0.022 h-1 based on previous demethylation experiments and a coastal-inland fog transport time of 12 hours, a mean difference of only 0.5 ng L-1 of MMHg was predicted between coastal and inland sites, indicating other unknown source and/or sink pathways are important for MMHg in fog. Fog water deposition to a standard passive 1.00 m2 fog collector at six terrestrial sites averaged 0.10 ± 0.07 L m-2 d-1, which was ∼2% of typical rainwater deposition in this area. Mean air-surface fog water fluxes of MMHg and HgT were then calculated to be 34 ± 40 ng m-2 y-1 and 546 ± 581 ng m-2 y-1, respectively. These correspond to 33% and 13% of the rain fluxes, respectively.

  20. Modern sedimentary facies, depositional environments, and major controlling processes on an arid siliciclastic coast, Al qahmah, SE Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, Abdullah I.; Yang, Wan

    2018-04-01

    The facies and environments along the arid siliciclastic coast of Red Sea in Al Qahmah, Saudi Arabia are studied to establish a depositional model for interpretation of ancient rocks deposited in rift settings. Field and petrographic studies of 151 sediment samples in an area of 20 km2 define seven main facies types: beach, washover fan, tidal channel, dune, sabkha, delta, and wadi (seasonal stream). The wadi and delta facies are composed of poorly to moderately well-sorted, gravelly, medium-to-fine sands. Delta-front sands are redistributed by southward longshore currents to form a beach. Beach facies is composed of well-to-moderately sorted fine sands with minor gravels, which contain high concentrations of magnetite, ilmenite, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, epidote, titanite, and apatite grains, indicating strong winnowing. Crabs and other burrowers destroy primary sedimentary structures and mix sediments in foreshore and backshore of the beaches. Wind and storm surge rework foreshore and backshore sediments to form washover fans. Sabkha facies occurs extensively in supratidal depressions behind beach, are flooded by rainstorms and spring tide, and capped by a 5-cm-thick crust composed of interlaminated halite, quartz, albite, minor gypsum and biotite, and rarely calcium carbonate. Halite occurs as thin sheets and gypsum as nodules with a chicken-wire structure. Clastic fraction in sabkha sediments ranges from coarse silt to coarse sand with moderate sorting, and is transported by currents and wind. Tidal inlets and tidal creeks assume abandoned wadis and are filled by muddy sand. Sand dunes and sand sheets are 1-7 m high and widely distributed due to variable wind directions. Fine-grained dune sands are moderately well sorted, whereas sheet sands are coarser and poorly sorted due to vegetation baffling. Most eolian sands are sourced from beach deposits. This suite of complex riverine, wave, tidal, wind, chemical, and biological processes form the facies mosaic

  1. Benefit-risk trade-offs in retrospect: how major stakeholders perceive the decision-making process in the Barents Sea oil field development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renn, Ortwin; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Øien, Knut

    2013-01-01

    review of the decision-making process seen through the lenses of the major stakeholders involved in this process. The research design used qualitative methods of empirical research including stakeholder interviews during a five-day period in 2011 in Northern Norway. Results showed that the siting process...... additional benefits to the communities which would then be fairly distributed among the beneficiaries have been disappointed. We review the reasons behind these results as well as formulate recommendations regarding potential improvements to the risk-benefit communication process in addition to future siting...

  2. Identification of human cytochrome P450 and UGT enzymes involved in the metabolism of ferulic acid, a major bioactive component in traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Lin; Tan, Yan; Yang, Hai-Ying; Lu, Chuang; Gao, Yue; Li, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an active component of herbal medicines. One of the best documented activities of FA is its antioxidant property. Moreover, FA exerts antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the metabolic pathways of FA in humans remain unclear. To identify whether human CYP or UGT enzymes are involved in the metabolism of FA, reaction phenotyping of FA was conducted using major CYP-selective chemical inhibitors together with individual CYP and UGT Supersomes. The CYP- and/or UGT-mediated metabolism kinetics were examined simultaneously or individually. Relative activity factor and total normalized rate approaches were used to assess the relative contributions of each major human CYPs towards the FA metabolism. Incubations of FA with human liver microsomes (HLM) displayed NADPH- and UDPGA-dependent metabolism with multiple CYP and UGT isoforms involved. CYPs and UGTs contributed equally to the metabolism of FA in HLM. Although CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 appeared to be the major contributors in the CYP-mediated clearance, their contributions to the overall clearance are still minor (medicines because multiple phase I and phase II enzymes are involved in its metabolism. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced eicosapentaenoic acid production by a new deep-sea marine bacterium Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Zhang

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are products of secondary metabolism, essential for growth and important for human health. Although there are numerous reports of bacterial production of omega-3 fatty acids, less information is available on the biotechnological production of these compounds from bacteria. The production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3 by a new species of marine bacteria Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T was investigated under different fermentation conditions. This strain produced a high percentage (up to 26% of total fatty acids and high yields (mg / g of biomass of EPA at or below the optimal growth temperature. At higher growth temperatures these values decreased greatly. The amount of EPA produced was affected by the carbon source, which also influenced fatty acid composition. This strain required Na+ for growth and EPA synthesis and cells harvested at late exponential or early stationary phase had a higher EPA content. Both the highest amounts (20 mg g-1 and highest percent EPA content (18% occurred with growth on L-proline and (NH42SO4. The addition of cerulenin further enhanced EPA production to 30 mg g-1. Chemical mutagenesis using NTG allowed the isolation of mutants with improved levels of EPA content (from 9.7 to 15.8 mg g-1 when grown at 15°C. Thus, the yields of EPA could be substantially enhanced without the need for recombinant DNA technology, often a commercial requirement for food supplement manufacture.

  4. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  5. NOAA Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry Sea Level Rise Products: Global and regional sea level time series and trend maps for the major ocean basins and marginal seas, based on measurements from satellite radar altimeters, from 1992-12-17 to 2017-08-11 (NCEI Accession 0125535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains global and regional mean sea level time series and trend maps calculated on a continual basis since December 1992 by Laboratory for...

  6. Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; Assies, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS: In the VU University Medical Center, we conducted a 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group intervention study of E-EPA (1g/day) versus placebo in 25 diabetes patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder, who were already using antidepressant medication......BACKGROUND: Depression is common in individuals with diabetes. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of omega-3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) as adjuvant to antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression in adults with diabetes mellitus....... The primary outcome was severity of depressive symptoms, assessed by the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) at baseline and 12-week follow-up at two-weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12-week follow-up to determine EPA levels in erythrocyte membranes. Data were...

  7. The catalytic chain of human complement subcomponent C1r. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major cyanogen bromide-cleavage fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlaud, G J; Gagnon, J; Porter, R R

    1982-01-01

    1. The a- and b-chains of reduced and alkylated human complement subcomponent C1r were separated by high-pressure gel-permeation chromatography and isolated in good yield and in pure form. 2. CNBr cleavage of C1r b-chain yielded eight major peptides, which were purified by gel filtration and high-pressure reversed-phase chromatography. As determined from the sum of their amino acid compositions, these peptides accounted for a minimum molecular weight of 28 000, close to the value 29 100 calculated from the whole b-chain. 3. N-Terminal sequence determinations of C1r b-chain and its CNBr-cleavage peptides allowed the identification of about two-thirds of the amino acids of C1r b-chain. From our results, and on the basis of homology with other serine proteinases, an alignment of the eight CNBr-cleavage peptides from C1r b-chain is proposed. 4. The residues forming the 'charge-relay' system of the active site of serine proteinases (His-57, Asp-102 and Ser-195 in the chymotrypsinogen numbering) are found in the corresponding regions of C1r b-chain, and the amino acid sequence around these residues has been determined. 5. The N-terminal sequence of C1r b-chain has been extended to residue 60 and reveals that C1r b-chain lacks the 'histidine loop', a disulphide bond that is present in all other known serine proteinases.

  8. Fatty acid profiles of great tit ( Parus major) eggs differ between urban and rural habitats, but not between coniferous and deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Andersson, Martin N.; Wang, Hong-Lei; Salmón, Pablo; Watson, Hannah; Burdge, Graham C.; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Early-life nutrition is an important determinant of both short- and long-term performance and fitness. The avian embryo develops within an enclosed package of nutrients, of which fatty acids (FA) are essential for many aspects of development. The FA composition of yolk depends on maternal nutrition and condition prior to egg formation, which may be affected by the external environment. To test if maternal environment affects yolk FA composition, we investigated whether the FA composition of great tit ( Parus major) egg yolks differed between urban and rural habitats, and between deciduous and coniferous habitats. The results reveal differences in FA composition between eggs laid in urban and rural habitats, but not between eggs from the coniferous and deciduous habitats. To a large extent, this difference likely reflects dietary differences associated with urban habitats rather than dominating vegetation type. Specifically, urban yolks contained lower proportions of both ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), which are important for chick development. We also found a positive association between the proportion of saturated fatty acids and laying date, and a negative association between the proportion of ω-6 PUFA and clutch size. Given that urbanization is expanding rapidly, future studies should investigate whether factors such as anthropogenic food in the urban environment underlie these differences and whether they impair chick development.

  9. Air-sea exchange studies at the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kunz, G.J.; Veefkind, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The North Sea can be considered as a local 'inner' sea in which many processes are quite different from these over the open ocean. The surrounding land has a major influence, being the source for man-made aerosols and gases, whereas the North Sea acts as a sink for these. At the same time the North

  10. Combination therapy of hyaluronic acid mesotherapic injections and sclerotherapy for treatment of lower leg telangiectasia without major venous insufficiency: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Rottigni, Valentina; Torricelli, Federica; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2014-04-01

    Telangiectasia is the dilation of dermal capillaries mainly due to hypertension and vein insufficiency. Treatments of choice for this condition are sclerotherapy with foam liquid or intradermal fiber optic laser energy delivery. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a new therapeutic approach consisting in the use of polymerized hyaluronic acid mesotherapic injections following sclerotherapy in the areas of the skin affected by telangiectasia in patients without major vein insufficiency. A total of 20 women, aged between 19 and 64 years, affected by recurrent lower leg telangiectasia, were included in this study. Patients were preliminarily submitted to echo color Doppler sonography to rule out severe saphenofemoral valve and lower limb major vein insufficiency. All patients underwent 3 sessions a month of polidocanol 1% capillary injections for 2 months. This was followed by 0.1 ml cross-linked hyaluronic acid introduction in the polidocanol 1% needle track. A total of 50 mesotherapic injections (0.05 ml each) were performed on the skin surface where an ice pack was previously applied for 4 to 5 minutes. A follow-up visit was performed at 3 months. The results, based on photographic examination, were rated as follows: poor improvement (0%-50%), good improvement (51%-75%), and very good improvement (76%-100%). The side effects of the clinical procedure, in terms of pain, itching, paresthesia, ecchymosis, and relapse of telangiectasia over the treated skin surface, as well as a persisting pigmentation in the injection spots and induced benefits related to leg heaviness and comfort, were recorded. In total, 6 patients displayed a slight venous insufficiency, 3 patients displayed patent venous insufficiency, and 11 patients did not show any venous insufficiency. Before treatment, itching was present in 18 out of 20 patients, paresthesia in 15 out of 20 patients, ecchymosis in 16 out of 20 patients, and leg heaviness in 15 out of 20 patients. At the 3

  11. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Grunebaum, Michael F; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n = 48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n = 39; HV, n = 33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chitinase mRNA levels by quantitative PCR using the single standard DNA: acidic mammalian chitinase is a major transcript in the mouse stomach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Ohno

    Full Text Available Chitinases hydrolyze the β-1-4 glycosidic bonds of chitin, a major structural component of fungi, crustaceans and insects. Although mammals do not produce chitin or its synthase, they express two active chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1 and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase. These mammalian chitinases have attracted considerable attention due to their increased expression in individuals with a number of pathological conditions, including Gaucher disease, Alzheimer's disease and asthma. However, the contribution of these enzymes to the pathophysiology of these diseases remains to be determined. The quantification of the Chit1 and AMCase mRNA levels and the comparison of those levels with the levels of well-known reference genes can generate useful and biomedically relevant information. In the beginning, we established a quantitative real-time PCR system that uses standard DNA produced by ligating the cDNA fragments of the target genes. This system enabled us to quantify and compare the expression levels of the chitinases and the reference genes on the same scale. We found that AMCase mRNA is synthesized at extraordinarily high levels in the mouse stomach. The level of this mRNA in the mouse stomach was 7- to 10-fold higher than the levels of the housekeeping genes and was comparable to that the level of the mRNA for pepsinogen C (progastricsin, a major component of the gastric mucosa. Thus, AMCase mRNA is a major transcript in mouse stomach, suggesting that AMCase functions as a digestive enzyme that breaks down polymeric chitin and as part of the host defense against chitin-containing pathogens in the gastric contents. Our methodology is applicable to the quantification of mRNAs for multiple genes across multiple specimens using the same scale.

  13. Abundance and distribution of fatty acids within the walls of an active deep-sea sulfide chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Zhou, Huaiyang; Peng, Xiaotong; Fu, Meiyan; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yao, Huiqiang

    2011-04-01

    Abundance and distribution of total fatty acids (TFAs) were examined along the physicochemical gradient within an active hydrothermal chimney collected from the Main Endeavour segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Approximately 27 fatty acids are identified with a chain-length ranging from C12 to C22. From the exterior to the interior of the chimney walls, the total concentrations of TFAs (∑ TFAs) show a trend of evident decrease. The observed compositions of TFAs are rich in bacterial biomarkers especially monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and minor branched and cyclopropyl FAs. On the basis of the species-specific FAs and bacterial 16SrRNA gene analysis (Li et al., unpublished data), sulfur-based metabolism appears to be the essential metabolic process in the chimney. Furthermore, the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are identified as a basic component of microbial communities at the exterior of the hydrothermal chimney, and its proportion shows an inward decrease while the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have an inverse distribution.

  14. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science

    2008-09-15

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  15. Distribution and origin of major and trace elements (particularly REE, U and Th) into labile and residual phases in an acid soil profile (Vosges Mountains, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D.; Probst, A.; Stille, P.

    2003-04-01

    Physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals lead to soil formation and allow the removal of chemical elements from these systems to ground- or surface waters. But most of the time the determination of element concentrations in soils is not sufficient to estimate whether they are being accumulated or what is their ability to be released in the environment. Thus, the distribution and chemical binding for a given element is very important because it determines its mobility and potential bioavailability throughout a soil profile. Heavy metals and REE (Rare Earth Elements) are particularly of environmental concern because of their potential toxicity. For most of them, their chemical form strongly depends on the evolution of physico-chemical parameters like pH or redox conditions that will induce adsorption-desorption, complexation or co-precipitation phenomena in the material. The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution of several major and trace elements (especially REE, Th and U) in an acidic forested podzolic soil profile from the Vosges Mountains (France). To achieve this goal we use a 7 step sequential extraction procedure that allows determining precisely the origin and the behaviour of particular elements in the environment (Leleyter et al., 1999). In addition we performed leaching experiments using very dilute acetic and hydrochloric acid in order to establish the origin of REE in this soil. The results of the sequential extraction indicate that most of the metals, Th and U are mainly bound to Fe oxides. Organic matter appears also to be a great carrier of P, Ca, Fe and REE even if its content is very low in the deep horizons of the soil. Moreover, we show that in each soil horizon, middle REE (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) are more labile than light REE (LREE). Leaching experiments using dilute acid solution further suggest that in the shallowest horizons REE largely derive from atmospheric deposition whereas at greater depth, weathering

  16. Biological profiling of prospective antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: Associations with (neuro)inflammation, fatty acid metabolism, and amygdala-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocking, R J T; Nap, T S; Westerink, A M; Assies, J; Vaz, F M; Koeter, M W J; Ruhé, H G; Schene, A H

    2017-05-01

    A better understanding of factors underlying antidepressant non-response may improve the prediction of which patients will respond to what treatment. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with alterations in fatty acid metabolism, (neuro)inflammation and amygdala-reactivity. However, their mutual relations, and the extent to which they are associated with prospective antidepressant-response, remain unknown. To test (I) alterations in (neuro)inflammation and its associations with fatty acid metabolism and amygdala-reactivity in MDD-patients compared to controls, and (II) whether these alterations are associated with prospective paroxetine response. We compared 70 unmedicated MDD-patients with 51 matched healthy controls at baseline, regarding erythrocyte membrane omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA), inflammation [serum (high-sensitivity) C-reactive protein (CRP)], and in a subgroup amygdala-reactivity to emotional faces using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (N=42). Subsequently, we treated patients with 12 weeks paroxetine, and repeated baseline measures after 6 and 12 weeks to compare non-responders, early-responders (response at 6 weeks), and late-responders (response at 12 weeks). Compared to controls, MDD-patients showed higher CRP (p=0.016) and AA (p=0.019) after adjustment for confounders at baseline. AA and CRP were mutually correlated (p=0.043). In addition, patients showed a more negative relation between AA and left amygdala-reactivity (p=0.014). Moreover, AA and CRP were associated with antidepressant-response: early responders showed lower AA (p=0.018) and higher CRP-concentrations (p=0.008) than non-responders throughout the study. Higher observed CRP and AA, their mutual association, and relation with amygdala-reactivity, are corroborative with a role for (neuro)inflammation in MDD. In addition, observed associations of these factors with prospective antidepressant-response suggest a potential role as biomarkers. Future studies in

  17. Reproductive biology of black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii, threadfin porgy Evynnis cardinalis and red pargo Pagrus major in the northern South China Sea with consideration of fishery status and management needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C S W; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y

    2017-07-01

    The reproductive biology of three commercially significant seabream species (family: Sparidae) Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Evynnis cardinalis and Pagrus major, taken from Hong Kong and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) waters, were investigated for their sexual patterns, spawning seasons, length at maturity and exploitation in relation to their conservation and management status. Histological analysis showed E. cardinalis and P. major to be functionally gonochoristic, the latter having a bisexual juvenile stage and being a rudimentary hermaphrodite. Acanthopagrus schlegelii is a protandric hermaphrodite. Standard length (L S ) at 50% sex change for A. schlegelii is 291 mm. L S at 50% female maturity for E. cardinalis and P. major are 117 and 332 mm, respectively. For all three species, the spawning period falls between November and March. The study highlights geographical differences in reproductive biology among the species and a paucity of fishery or other population-related data. While heavy fishing pressure, life-history characteristics and absence of effective management throughout the geographic ranges of these species make them susceptible to overfishing, they nonetheless appear to be generally more resilient than many other taxa that comprise the multi-species fisheries of the region, possibly due to their relatively rapid sexual maturation and spatial movement patterns. Overall, however, little is known of the biology, fishing history and current fishery status of sparids in general in the northern SCS and the current study is one of the first to examine such aspects of this family in the region and to consider appropriate management options. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrop, Gareth D; Wang, Lijie; Blackburn, Gavin J; Zhang, Tong; Zheng, Liang; Watson, David G; Coombs, Graham H

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T. foetus.

  19. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Westrop

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T

  20. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS, indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  1. Alteration in certain enzymological parameters of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to short- and long-term exposure of clofibric acid and diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Manoharan; Ramesh, Mathan; Petkam, Rakpong

    2013-12-01

    The extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine may enter the aquatic environment and pose a serious threat to non-target aquatic organisms like fish. In this study, Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala was exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 μg L⁻¹) of most commonly used pharmaceutical drugs clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) to evaluate its impacts on certain enzymological parameters during short- and long-term exposures. During short-term (96 h) exposure period, plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and gill Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity were significantly altered at all concentrations of both the CA- and DCF-treated fish. In long-term exposure (35 days), gill Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity was found to be significantly increased at all concentration of CA and DCF exposures throughout the study period (except at the end of 7th day in 10 and 100 µg L⁻¹) . However, a biphasic trend was observed in plasma GOT and GPT activity when compared to the control groups. In both short- and long-term exposure, a significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) changes were observed in all enzymological parameters of fish C. mrigala exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. The alterations of these enzymological parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of pharmaceutical toxicity in aquatic environment and organisms.

  2. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C

    2014-01-01

    -reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.......001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD......Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts...

  3. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  4. Identification of the roles of individual amino acid residues of the helix E of the major antenna of photosystem II (LHCII) by alanine scanning mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chunhong

    2014-10-01

    The functions of the helix E (W97-F105), an amphiphilic lumenal 310 helix of the major antenna of photosystem II (LHCII), are still unidentified. To elucidate the roles of individual amino acid residue of the helix E, alanine scanning mutagenesis has been performed to mutate every residue of this domain to alanine. The influence of every alanine substitution on the structure and function of LHCII has been investigated biochemically and spectroscopically. The results show that all mutations have little impact on the pigment binding and configuration. However, many mutants presented decreased thermo- or photo-stability compared with the wild type, highlighting the significance of this helix to the stability of LHCII. The most critical residue for stability is W97. The mutant W97A yielded very fragile trimeric pigment protein complexes. The structural analysis revealed that the hydrogen bonding and aromatic interactions between W97, F195, F194 and a water molecule contributed greatly to the stability of LHCII. Moreover, Q103A and F105A have been identified to be able to reinforce the tendency of aggregation in vitro. The structural analysis suggested that the enhancement in aggregation formation for Q103A and F105A might be attributed to the changing hydrophobicity of the region. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  6. Silicic acid enrichment of subantarctic surface water from continental inputs along the Patagonian archipelago interior sea (41-56°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rodrigo; Silva, Nelson; Reid, Brian; Frangopulos, Máximo

    2014-12-01

    We estimated Si∗, the surplus or deficit of orthosilicic acid (DSi) relative to nitrate available for diatom growth, in the Chilean Patagonian Archipelago Interior Sea (PAIS). Si∗ and salinity were negatively correlated in the PAIS because of the mixing of high nitrate, low DSi subantarctic surface water and high DSi, low nitrate continental freshwater runoff. Both the slope and the intercept of this relationship decreased from northern to southern Patagonia, which was likely a consequence of reduced DSi inputs from several overlapping hydrological, biological and geological drivers along this gradient. In general, lower freshwater DSi concentrations were expected below 46°S, and a lower total DSi load was expected from reduced runoff below 51°S. The north-south decreasing DSi concentration trend may be linked to dilutions from a higher proportion of runoff in latitudes with higher precipitation rates (45-53°S), the transition to more resistant granitic rocks and glacial melt-water from the Northern and Southern Patagonia Ice Fields (46-51°S) and a reduced density of volcanoes active during the Holocene (48-56°S). The intensification of a southward DSi deficit may be a forcing factor involved in the reported southward reductions in plankton biomass and a more frequent occurrence of non-diatom blooms in southern PAIS.

  7. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  8. What California sea lions exposed to domoic acid might teach us about autism: lessons for predictive and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Garet Paul

    2017-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia . Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures. They can also share a commonality in brain anatomy and function, particularly the balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. The current article is relevant to predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine for three reasons. First, shellfish consumption may be a risk factor for ASD and the regulatory limit for DA should be adjusted to prevent this possibility. Human contributions to increased algal production of DA in coastal waters should be identified and reduced. Second, evaluations of sentinel species wild and free-roaming in the environment, though typically outside the purview of biomedical research, should be much more fully employed to gain insights to risk factors for human disease. To better identify and prevent disease, biomedical researchers should study wild populations. Third, studies of DA exposure highlight the possibility that glutamate additives to processed foods may also have deleterious impacts on human brain development and behavior.

  9. Spatial variation of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in Egyptian Mediterranean Sea lagoon sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Alaa M; El-Zokm, Gehan M; Okbah, Mohamed A

    2014-06-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, the immobilizing effect of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) on trace metals is a principal control on availability and associated toxicity of metals to aquatic biota, which reduces metal bioavailability and toxicity by binding and immobilizing metals as insoluble sulfides. Spatial variation pattern of AVS, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and sediment characteristics were studied for the first time in surface sediment samples (0-20 cm) from 43 locations in Egyptian northern delta lagoons (Manzalah, Burullus, and Maryut) as predictors of the bioavailability of some divalent metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni) in sediments as well as indicators of metal toxicity in anaerobic sediments. The results indicated that the ∑SEM (Cu + Zn + Cd + Pb + Ni) values in sediments of lagoon Burullus had higher concentrations than those of Maryut and Manzalah. In contrast, AVS concentrations were considerably higher in lagoons Manzalah and Maryut and seemed to be consistent with the increase in organic matter than lagoon Burullus. Generally, the average concentrations of the SEM in all lagoons were in the order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The ratios of ∑SEM/AVS were less than 1 at all the sampling stations except at one station in lagoon Maryut as well as four stations located in lagoon Burullus (∑SEM/AVS > 1), which suggests that the metals have toxicity potential in these sediments. Therefore, SEM concentrations probably are better indicators of the metal bioavailability in sediments than the conventional total metal concentrations.

  10. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California/Nevada; October, 1981 to October, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    1985-01-01

    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. As part of a pollution abatement project of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water quality data for the basin during 1981-82. During this period a comprehensive sampling survey was completed to provide information on trace metal attenuation during downstream transport and to provide data for interpreting geochemical processes. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Additional quality control was obtained by comparing measured to calculated conductance, comparing measured to calculated Eh (from Fe-2 +/Fe-3+ determinations), charge balance calculations and mass balance calculations for conservative constituents at confluence points. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, T1, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd , Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these

  11. Sodium salt medium-chain fatty acids and Bacillus-based probiotic strategies to improve growth and intestinal health of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Simó-Mirabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata, a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3 were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1 with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain, rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2 or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3. The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3 induced anti

  12. Toxicological effects of clofibric acid and diclofenac on plasma thyroid hormones of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala during short and long-term exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Manoharan; Hur, Jang-Hyun; Arul, Narayanasamy; Ramesh, Mathan

    2014-11-01

    In the present investigation, the toxicity of most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment namely clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) was investigated in an Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala. Fingerlings of C. mrigala were exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100μgL(-1)) of CA and DCF for a period of 96h (short term) and 35 days (long term). The toxic effects of CA and DCF on thyroid hormones (THs) such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were evaluated. During the short and long-term exposure period TSH level was found to be decreased at all concentrations of CA (except at the end of 14(th) day in 1 and 10μgL(-l) and 21(st) day in 1μgL(-l)) whereas in DCF exposed fish TSH level was found to be increased when compared to control groups. T4 level was found to be decreased at 1 and 100μgL(-l) of CA exposure at the end of 96h. However, T4 level was decreased at all concentrations of CA and DCF during long-term (35 days) exposure period. Fish exposed to all concentrations of CA and DCF had lower level of T3 in both the treatments. These results suggest that both CA and DCF drugs induced significant changes (P<0.01 and P<0.05) on thyroid hormonal levels of C. mrigala. The alterations of these hormonal levels can be used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of allergic immune responses by mucosal application of recombinant lactic acid bacteria producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Repa, A; Wild, C; Pollak, A; Pot, B; Breiteneder, H; Wiedermann, U; Mercenier, A

    2006-07-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are able to modulate the host immune system and clinical trials have demonstrated that specific strains have the capacity to reduce allergic symptoms. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the potential of recombinant LAB producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 for mucosal vaccination against birch pollen allergy. Recombinant Bet v 1-producing Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis strains were constructed. Their immunogenicity was compared with purified Bet v 1 by subcutaneous immunization of mice. Intranasal application of the live recombinant strains was performed to test their immunomodulatory potency in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy. Bet v 1 produced by the LAB was recognized by monoclonal anti-Bet v 1 and IgE antibodies from birch pollen-allergic patients. Systemic immunization with the recombinant strains induced significantly lower IgG1/IgG2a ratios compared with purified Bet v 1. Intranasal pretreatment led to reduced allergen-specific IgE vs enhanced IgG2a levels and reduced interleukin (IL)-5 production of splenocytes in vitro, indicating a shift towards non-allergic T-helper-1 (Th1) responses. Airway inflammation, i.e. eosinophils and IL-5 in lung lavages, was reduced using either Bet v 1-producing or control strains. Allergen-specific secretory IgA responses were enhanced in lungs and intestines after pretreatment with only the Bet v 1-producing strains. Mucosal vaccination with live recombinant LAB, leading to a shift towards non-allergic immune responses along with enhanced allergen-specific mucosal IgA levels offers a promising approach to prevent systemic and local allergic immune responses.

  14. Construction and immunological evaluation of truncated hepatitis B core particles carrying HBsAg amino acids 119–152 in the major immunodominant region (MIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changbai Road 155, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China); Guo, Minzhuo [Beijing Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Beureau, Tianshuiyuan Lane 6, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100026 (China); Qiu, Feng; Jia, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xuexin; Meng, Qingling [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changbai Road 155, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China); Bi, Shengli, E-mail: shengli_bi@163.com [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changbai Road 155, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •The conformational HBV neutralization antigen domain was successfully displayed on the surface of truncated HBc particles. •Appropriate dialysis procedures to support the renaturing environment for the protein refolding. •Efficient purification procedures to obtain high purity and icosahedral particles of mosaic HBV antigen. •Strong immune responses not only including neutralization antibody response but also Th1 cell response were induced in mice. -- Abstract: Hepatitis B capsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli can reassemble into icosahedral particles, which could strongly enhance the immunogenicity of foreign epitopes, especially those inserted into its major immunodominant region. Herein, we inserted the entire ‘α’ antigenic determinant amino acids (aa) 119–152 of HBsAg into the truncated HBc (aa 1–144), between Asp{sup 78} and Pro{sup 79}. Prokaryotic expression showed that the mosaic HBc was mainly in the form of inclusion bodies. After denaturation with urea, it was dialyzed progressively for protein renaturation. We observed that before and after renaturation, mosaic HBc was antigenic as determined by HBsAg ELISA and a lot of viruslike particles were observed after renaturation. Thus, we further purified the mosaic viruslike particles by (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} precipitation, DEAE chromatography, and Sepharose 4FF chromatography. Negative staining electron microscopy demonstrated the morphology of the viruslike particles. Immunization of Balb/c mice with mosaic particles induced the production of anti-HBs antibody and Th1 cell immune response supported by ELISPOT and CD4/CD8 proportions assay. In conclusion, we constructed mosaic hepatitis core particles displaying the entire ‘α’ antigenic determinant on the surface and laid a foundation for researching therapeutic hepatits B vaccines.

  15. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013

  16. One-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids into renewable aromatic hydrocarbons over Ni/HZSM-5: insights into the major reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shiyou; Lv, Pengmei; Wang, Jiayan; Fu, Junying; Fan, Pei; Yang, Lingmei; Yang, Gaixiu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-25

    For high caloricity and stability in bio-aviation fuels, a certain content of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs, 8-25 wt%) is crucial. Fatty acids, obtained from waste or inedible oils, are a renewable and economic feedstock for AHC production. Considerable amounts of AHCs, up to 64.61 wt%, were produced through the one-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids over Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts. Hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and aromatization constituted the principal AHC formation processes. At a lower temperature, fatty acids were first hydrosaturated and then hydrodeoxygenated at metal sites to form long-chain hydrocarbons. Alternatively, the unsaturated fatty acids could be directly deoxygenated at acid sites without first being saturated. The long-chain hydrocarbons were cracked into gases such as ethane, propane, and C 6 -C 8 olefins over the catalysts' Brønsted acid sites; these underwent Diels-Alder reactions on the catalysts' Lewis acid sites to form AHCs. C 6 -C 8 olefins were determined as critical intermediates for AHC formation. As the Ni content in the catalyst increased, the Brønsted-acid site density was reduced due to coverage by the metal nanoparticles. Good performance was achieved with a loading of 10 wt% Ni, where the Ni nanoparticles exhibited a polyhedral morphology which exposed more active sites for aromatization.

  17. Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabachnikoff, V

    1912-01-23

    The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.

  18. Caffeic acid and quercetin exert caspases-independent apoptotic effects on Leishmania major promastigotes, and reactivate the death of infected phagocytes derived from BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia Belkhelfa-Slimani

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The leishmanicidal effect of caffeic acid and quercetin on promastigotes and amastigotes, as well as reactivation of infected phagocytes apoptosis, suggested a potential therapeutic role against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  19. Multielement Determination of Major-to Ultratrace Elements in a Cabbage, Spinach, and the Japanese Radish by ICP-AES After Acid Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    畑山, 友紀; 奴田原, 杏奈; 藤井, 和美; 西島, 基弘; ハタヤマ, ユキ; ヌタハラ, アンナ; フジイ, カズミ; ニシジマ, モトヒロ; Yuki, Hatayama; anna, Nutahara; Kazumi, Fujii; Motohiro, Nishijima

    2011-01-01

    A multi-element determination in a cabbage, spinach, and the Japanese radish was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP). We investigated whether there was a difference in content according to the part of the vegetables. The dried vegetables (0.5g) were digested with nitric acid and with hydrogen peroxide acid in a resolution device As a result, about 9 elements were successfully determined. The values of the coefficient of variance for part interval by ea...

  20. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian; Yu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production-NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)-were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. A Simple Method for Measuring Carbon-13 Fatty Acid Enrichment in the Major Lipid Classes of Microalgae Using GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahee Doomun, Sheik Nadeem; Loke, Stella; O’Callaghan, Sean; Callahan, Damien L.

    2016-01-01

    A simple method for tracing carbon fixation and lipid synthesis in microalgae was developed using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and negative ion chemical ionisation gas chromatography mass spectrometry (NCI-GC-MS). NCI-GC-MS is an extremely sensitive technique that can produce an unfragmented molecular ion making this technique particularly useful for stable isotope enrichment studies. Derivatisation of fatty acids using pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) allows the coupling of the high separation efficiency of GC and the measurement of unfragmented molecular ions for each of the fatty acids by single quadrupole MS. The key is that isotope spectra can be measured without interference from co-eluting fatty acids or other molecules. Pre-fractionation of lipid extracts by SPE allows the measurement of 13C isotope incorporation into the three main lipid classes (phospholipids, glycolipids, neutral lipids) in microalgae thus allowing the study of complex lipid biochemistry using relatively straightforward analytical technology. The high selectivity of GC is necessary as it allows the collection of mass spectra for individual fatty acids, including cis/trans isomers, of the PFB-derivatised fatty acids. The combination of solid-phase extraction and GC-MS enables the accurate determination of 13C incorporation into each lipid pool. Three solvent extraction protocols that are commonly used in lipidomics were also evaluated and are described here with regard to extraction efficiencies for lipid analysis in microalgae. PMID:27845718

  2. Aminoácidos livres majoritários no suco de caju: variação ao longo da safra Major free amino acids in cashew apple juice: behaviour during the harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ELISABETH BARROS DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o conhecimento dos aminoácidos livres majoritários presentes no suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L., estudou-se o seu comportamento ao longo da safra de 1995, no período de agosto a novembro, no clone de cajueiro-anão precoce, CCP 09, com aptidão para a produção de suco. O suco foi obtido de cajus cultivados no município de Pio IX, Estado do Piauí, Brasil. Os frutos foram colhidos em intervalos de 21 dias, perfazendo cinco amostragens. Os aminoácidos foram determinados utilizando-se um auto-analisador de aminoácidos. Preliminarmente, foram feitos ensaios para conhecer o espectro total dos aminoácidos livres presentes no suco; destes, foram escolhidos os oito majoritários, sobre os quais está baseado o estudo. Os aminoácidos majoritários encontrados, na ordem decrescente, foram: alanina, serina, fenilalnina, leucina, ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, prolina e tirosinaThe major free amino acids in cashew apple juice were studied during the crop season August to November 1995. The cashew apples were obtained from the clone CCP 09 cultivated in the county of Pio IX, state of Piauí-Brazil. Analysis were carried out in five samples harvested at twenty-one days intervals by using an amino acid analyser. The amino acids present in the juice were preliminary evaluated. Only the major eight ones were selected. The major amino acids detected, in decreasing order were: alanine, serine, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline and tyrosine.

  3. Recycling rate of bile acids in the enterohepatic recirculation as a major determinant of whole body 75SeHCAT retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, A Michael; Walters, Julian R F

    2013-10-01

    Measurement of the whole body retention of orally administered (75)SeHCAT is used to investigate patients with unexplained diarrhoea. Retention values of recycling rate of bile acids. Increased recycling has been largely ignored as a cause of BAD, but, as shown in this study, can readily result in excess bile acids reaching the colon even when ileal absorption efficiency is normal (i.e. 95-97 %). There needs to be a re-evaluation of the causes of BAD in patients without a history of previous intestinal resection or evidence of ileal pathology, such as Crohn's disease.

  4. Mercury Analysis of Acid- and Alkaline-Reduced Biological Samples: Identification of meta-Cinnabar as the Major Biotransformed Compound in Algae†

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, David; Budd, Kenneth; Lefebvre, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    The biotransformation of HgII in pH-controlled and aerated algal cultures was investigated. Previous researchers have observed losses in Hg detection in vitro with the addition of cysteine under acid reduction conditions in the presence of SnCl2. They proposed that this was the effect of Hg-thiol complexing. The present study found that cysteine-Hg, protein and nonprotein thiol chelates, and nucleoside chelates of Hg were all fully detectable under acid reduction conditions without previous d...

  5. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids in the coastal Arabian Sea sediments: whereas amino acids content of fulvic acids was lower than that of humic acids in the coastal sediments of Bay of Bengal. Slope sedimentary humic acids were relatively enriched in amino acids as compared...

  6. Gene expression profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cytokines in Leishmania major-infected macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells treated with gallic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radtke, O.A.; Kiderlen, A.F.; Kayser, Oliver; Kolodziej, H

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gallic acid on the gene expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma were investigated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The experiments were performed

  7. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  8. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  9. Two Major Bile Acids in the Hornbills, (24R,25S)-3α,7α,24-Trihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oyl Taurine and Its 12α-Hydroxy Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Rika; Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Tetsuya; Zhou, Biao; Omura, Kaoru; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hagey, Lee R; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Two major bile acids were isolated from the gallbladder bile of two hornbill species from the Bucerotidae family of the avian order Bucerotiformes Buceros bicornis (great hornbill) and Penelopides panini (Visayan tarictic hornbill). Their structures were determined to be 3α,7α,24-dihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid and its 12α-hydroxy derivative, 3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid (varanic acid, VA), both present in bile as their corresponding taurine amidates. The four diastereomers of varanic acid were synthesized and their assigned structures were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. VA and its 12-deoxy derivative were found to have a (24R,25S)-configuration. 13 additional hornbill species were also analyzed by HPLC and showed similar bile acid patterns to B. bicornis and P. panini. The previous stereochemical assignment for (24R,25S)-VA isolated from the bile of varanid lizards and the Gila monster should now be revised to the (24S,25S)-configuration.

  10. The Lower Danube River-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea: A pivotal area of major interest for the past, present and future of its fish fauna--A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bănăduc, Doru; Rey, Sonia; Trichkova, Teodora; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Curtean-Bănăduc, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The complex Danube-Black Sea geoecosystem, created by a unique combination of integrated biotopes and biocoenoses related forces and counter-forces in time and space, forms a rich "ichthyosystem". The equilibrium among the fish species captured in the Danube Delta reveals its structural and functional roles in the connectivity of the Danube and Black Sea. The key role of the delta is evidenced by the fact that 57.26% of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea fish species use two or three of the subsystems in terms of habitats. Therefore, this convergence area can be considered to be a dynamic and rich "ichthyosystem", with three subsystems. All three evolved interdependently, which permits their flexibility and adaptation in an interdependent way. The habitat heterogeneity, native economic and conservation priority fish species of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea have decreased significantly, and there are no indications that this trend will be halted soon. The Danube "sub-ichtyosystem" seems to be more directly affected than the others. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea "ichthyosystem" exhibits a significant level of flexibility, resilience and adaptation over geological time, but has become much more sensitive to environmental perturbations due to the last century of human impact. This "ichthyosystem" is affected by non-native fish species. The study area represents an interdependent ecological net, without which the specific "ichthyosystem" formed over geological time will disappear. The studied ecological net fish fauna is an accurate indicator of various human pressures. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea geoecosystem, in which the Danube Delta provides the pivotal habitat element, is the matrix for a unique "ichthyosystem." However, human impacts decrease its resilience and can induce its extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemometrics-assisted Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Two Co-administered Drugs of Major Interaction, Methotrexate and Aspirin, in Human Urine Following Acid-induced Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Hadir M; Ragab, Marwa A A; El-Kimary, Eman I

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mostly along with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most common of which is aspirin or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Since NSAIDs impair MTX clearance and increase its toxicity, it was necessary to develop a simple and reliable method for the monitoring of MTX levels in urine samples, when coadministered with ASA. The method was based on the spectrofluorimetric measurement of the acid-induced hydrolysis product of MTX, 4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroic acid (AMP), along with the strongly fluorescent salicylic acid (SA), a product of acid-induced hydrolysis of aspirin and its metabolites in urine. The overlapping emission spectra were resolved using the derivative method (D method). In addition, the corresponding derivative emission spectra were convoluted using discrete Fourier functions, 8-points sin xi polynomials, (D/FF method) for better elimination of interferences. Validation of the developed methods was carried out according to the ICH guidelines. Moreover, the data obtained using derivative and convoluted derivative spectra were treated using the non-parametric Theil's method (NP), compared with the least-squares parametric regression method (LSP). The results treated with Theil's method were more accurate and precise compared with LSP since the former is less affected by the outliers. This work offers the potential of both derivative and convolution using discrete Fourier functions in addition to the effectiveness of using the NP regression analysis of data. The high sensitivity obtained by the proposed methods was promising for measuring low concentration levels of the two drugs in urine samples. These methods were efficiently used to measure the drugs in human urine samples following their co-administration.

  12. Mercury analysis of acid- and alkaline-reduced biological samples: identification of meta-cinnabar as the major biotransformed compound in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Budd, Kenneth; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2006-01-01

    The biotransformation of Hg(II) in pH-controlled and aerated algal cultures was investigated. Previous researchers have observed losses in Hg detection in vitro with the addition of cysteine under acid reduction conditions in the presence of SnCl2. They proposed that this was the effect of Hg-thiol complexing. The present study found that cysteine-Hg, protein and nonprotein thiol chelates, and nucleoside chelates of Hg were all fully detectable under acid reduction conditions without previous digestion. Furthermore, organic (R-Hg) mercury compounds could not be detected under either the acid or alkaline reduction conditions, and only beta-HgS was detected under alkaline and not under acid SnCl2 reduction conditions. The blue-green alga Limnothrix planctonica biotransformed the bulk of Hg(II) applied as HgCl2 into a form with the analytical properties of beta-HgS. Similar results were obtained for the eukaryotic alga Selenastrum minutum. No evidence for the synthesis of organomercurials such as CH3Hg+ was obtained from analysis of either airstream or biomass samples under the aerobic conditions of the study. An analytical procedure that involved both acid and alkaline reduction was developed. It provides the first selective method for the determination of beta-HgS in biological samples. Under aerobic conditions, Hg(II) is biotransformed mainly into beta-HgS (meta-cinnabar), and this occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae. This has important implications with respect to identification of mercury species and cycling in aquatic habitats.

  13. Mercury Analysis of Acid- and Alkaline-Reduced Biological Samples: Identification of meta-Cinnabar as the Major Biotransformed Compound in Algae†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Budd, Kenneth; Lefebvre, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    The biotransformation of HgII in pH-controlled and aerated algal cultures was investigated. Previous researchers have observed losses in Hg detection in vitro with the addition of cysteine under acid reduction conditions in the presence of SnCl2. They proposed that this was the effect of Hg-thiol complexing. The present study found that cysteine-Hg, protein and nonprotein thiol chelates, and nucleoside chelates of Hg were all fully detectable under acid reduction conditions without previous digestion. Furthermore, organic (R-Hg) mercury compounds could not be detected under either the acid or alkaline reduction conditions, and only β-HgS was detected under alkaline and not under acid SnCl2 reduction conditions. The blue-green alga Limnothrix planctonica biotransformed the bulk of HgII applied as HgCl2 into a form with the analytical properties of β-HgS. Similar results were obtained for the eukaryotic alga Selenastrum minutum. No evidence for the synthesis of organomercurials such as CH3Hg+ was obtained from analysis of either airstream or biomass samples under the aerobic conditions of the study. An analytical procedure that involved both acid and alkaline reduction was developed. It provides the first selective method for the determination of β-HgS in biological samples. Under aerobic conditions, HgII is biotransformed mainly into β-HgS (meta-cinnabar), and this occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae. This has important implications with respect to identification of mercury species and cycling in aquatic habitats. PMID:16391065

  14. Distribution of major sugars, acids, and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabir, A.; Kafkas, E.; Tangolar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The juices of five grapevine cultivars cultivated in a typical Mediterranean climate were analyzed for sugars, organic acids, and phenols at four distinct stages of berry development. When the unripe berries were almost in full size, the glucose and fructose contents, based on HPLC detection, ranged from 13.3 to 30.7 g L{sup -}1 and from 8.3 to 23.7 g L{sup -}1 for Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat of Hamburg, respectively. At this stage, tartaric acid concentration was between 10.3 (Italia) and 12.3 g L{sup -}1 (Muscat of Alexandria), while the level of total phenols was low. Up to veraison, there were slight reductions in organic acids, while sugar content increased slightly. However, dramatic changes in all genotypes were apparent after veraison. Slight reductions were determined in the glucose and fructose levels of Italia prior to final analysis, possibly indicating this cultivars sensitivity to late harvest. In the final analysis, glucose and fructose content varied from 86.4 (Italia) to 107.0 g L-1 (Muscat of Hamburg), and from 73.1 (Italia) to 94.1 g L{sup -}1 (Alphonse Lavallee), respectively. Tartaric acid content of ripe berries was between 3.8 (Alphonse Lavallee) and 5.2 g L{sup -}1 (Isabella) with a mean value of 4.6 g L{sup -}1, and phenol content of mature berries ranged from 2253 to 2847 mg L{sup -}1. This study provides valuable information for further understanding the sugar, acid and total phenol changes that occur in some grape cultivars during berry maturation. Therefore, these results will be useful for future research on the biochemistry of the grape berry. (Author) 22 refs.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the lower atmosphere and surface waters of the Chinese Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Tang, Jianhui; Mi, Lijie; Tian, Chongguo; Zhong, Guangcai; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Shaorui; Li, Qilu; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong; Sun, Hongwen

    2017-12-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in the forms of neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the gas phase of air and ionic perfluoroalkyl substances in the dissolved phase of surface water, were investigated during a sampling campaign in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary in May 2012. In the gas phase, the concentrations of neutral ∑PFASs were within the range of 76-551pg/m 3 . Higher concentrations were observed in the South Yellow Sea. 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the predominant compound as it accounted for 92%-95% of neutral ∑PFASs in all air samples. Air mass backward trajectory analysis indicated that neutral ∑PFASs came mainly from the coast of the Yellow Sea, including the Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces of China, and the coastal region of South Korea. The fluxes of gas phase dry deposition were simulated for neutral PFASs, and neutral ∑PFASs fluxes varied from 0.37 to 2.3pg/m 2 /s. In the dissolved phase of the surface water, concentrations of ionic ∑PFASs ranged from 1.6 to 118ng/L, with the Bohai Sea exhibiting higher concentrations than both the Yellow Sea and the Yangtze River estuary. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound accounting for 51%-90% of the ionic ∑PFAS concentrations. Releases from industrial and domestic activities as well as the semiclosed geographical conditions increased the level of ionic ∑PFASs in the Bohai Sea. The spatial distributions of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were different significantly. The Laizhou Bay was the major source region of PFCAs and the Yangtze River estuary was the major source of PFSAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  17. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  18. Sea Dragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... In preparation for these changes, the Navy is exploring new command and control relationships, and the Marine Corps established Sea Dragon to experiment with emerging technologies, operational...

  19. Synthesis of deuterium labeled perillyl alcohol and dual C-13 and deuterium labeled perillic acid, major metabolites of d-limonene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haitao; Chan, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    Dual C-13 and deuterium labeled perillic acid, [(1,1-dideuterio-1- 13 C-2-methyl)ethenyl]-1-cyclohexene -1-carboxylic acid (6) and deuterated perillyl alcohol, [(2,2-dideuterio-1-methyl)ethenyl]-1-deuteriohydroxymethyl-1-cyclo -hexene (9) were synthesized from commercially available (4S)-(-)-perillaidehyde (1). Compound 1 was first protected with ethylene glycol to yield the ethylene ketal followed by oxidation with OsO 4 /NalO 4 to cleave the terminal double bond to afford the key intermediate ketone, 4-acetyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde ethylene ketal (3). 3 was then converted to the labeled perillyl aldehyde by Wittig reaction with prepared Ph 3 P 13 CD 3 l or Ph 3 PCD 3 l. Followed by deprotection to give the labeled perillaldehydes, [(2,2-dideuterio-2- 13 C-1-methyl)ethenyl] -1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde-1-carboxaldehyde (5) or [(2,2-dideuterio-1-methyl)ethenyl] -1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (8). 5 was further oxidized by freshly prepared Ag 2 O to give the desired compound 6. 8 was reduced by LiAID 4 to afford the desired compound 9. The same synthetic procedure may be adopted to synthesize the radioactive isotope labeled perillic acid and perilly alcohol. (author)

  20. Visible-light-assisted SLCs template synthesis of sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites with high electrocatalytic activity for methane oxidation in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li

    2018-03-01

    Sea anemone-like palladium (Pd)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites were synthesized via visible-light-assisted swollen liquid crystals (SLCs) template method. The resulting samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The electrocatalytic properties of Pd/PANI nanocomposites modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) for methane oxidation were investigated by cycle voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. Those dispersed sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites had an average diameter of 320 nm. The obtained Pd nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 45 nm were uniformly distributed in PANI matrix. Sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxidation of methane (CH4).

  1. Adaptive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation in two native Baltic Sea fishes (perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca) with comparisons to an introduced and disease susceptible population in Australia (P. fluviatilis): assessing the risk of disease epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulks, L K; Östman, Ö

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation and structure in two percid species, perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca, in a unique brackish ecosystem, the Baltic Sea. In addition, to assess the importance of MHC diversity to disease susceptibility in these populations, comparisons were made to an introduced, disease susceptible, P. fluviatilis population in Australia. Eighty-three MHC class II B exon 2 variants were amplified: 71 variants from 92 P. fluviatilis samples, and 12 variants from 82 S. lucioperca samples. Microsatellite and MHC data revealed strong spatial genetic structure in S. lucioperca, but not P. fluviatilis, across the Baltic Sea. Both microsatellite and MHC data showed higher levels of genetic diversity in P. fluviatilis from the Baltic Sea compared to Australia, which may have facilitated the spread of an endemic virus, EHNV in the Australian population. The relatively high levels of genetic variation in the Baltic Sea populations, together with spatial genetic structure, however, suggest that there currently seems to be little risk of disease epidemics in this system. To ensure this remains the case in the face of ongoing environmental changes, fisheries and habitat disturbance, the conservation of local-scale genetic variation is recommended. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Khan, Tanweer M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited. Here, we examine the phylogeny, phenotypic characteristics, and influence of gut environmental factors on growth of F. prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy subjects. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the cultured strains were representative of F. prausnitzii sequences detected by direct analysis of fecal DNA and separated the available isolates into two phylogroups. Most F. prausnitzii strains tested grew well under anaerobic conditions on apple pectin. Furthermore, F. prausnitzii strains competed successfully in coculture with two other abundant pectin-utilizing species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Eubacterium eligens, with apple pectin as substrate, suggesting that this species makes a contribution to pectin fermentation in the colon. Many F. prausnitzii isolates were able to utilize uronic acids for growth, an ability previously thought to be confined to Bacteroides spp. among human colonic anaerobes. Most strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating an ability to utilize host-derived substrates. All strains tested were bile sensitive, showing at least 80% growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 μg/ml bile salts, while inhibition at mildly acidic pH was strain dependent. These attributes help to explain the abundance of F. prausnitzii in the colonic community but also suggest factors in the gut environment that may limit its distribution.

  3. Rapid extraction of uranium from sea water using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and humic acid coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, Pallavi, E-mail: psinghal@barc.gov.in [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jha, Sanjay K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pandey, Shailaja P. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Neogy, Suman [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Uranium extraction using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and HA coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs has been demonstrated. • Result indicates uranium extraction from both water and sea water matrix. • With increase in HA coating uranium extraction increases. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/HA 1 is the best material among synthesized one for uranium extraction. - Abstract: Uranium is one of the most toxic elements present in the environment and a number of methods have been developed for its extraction. Herein we have demonstrated a new method using magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used for uranium extraction from water and sea water matrix. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and humic acid (HA) coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs with different amount of HA coating were synthesized and uranium sorption from water and sea water matrix was demonstrated. It was observed that sorption increases with increase in amount of HA coating. NPs settlement in presence of magnetic field was monitored where only bare Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/HA 1 NPs settles while no settlement was observed for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/HA 2 and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/HA 3 NPs. Considering both sorption and particle separation from the matrix Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/HA 1 NPs are the best among synthesized ones with maximum sorption capacity of 10.5 mg of U/g of NPs. The results presented here reveal the exceptional potential of magnetic NPs and functionalized magnetic NPs for environmental remediation of uranium and to extract uranium from sea water on which to the best of our knowledge no report is available till now.

  4. Heat coma temperature, relative contents of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and reproductive maturation in the oceanic sea skaters Halobates micans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takenaka, S.; Katagiri, C.; Košťál, Vladimír; Harada, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2014), s. 633-637 ISSN 1226-8615 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : oceanic sea skaters * saturated/unsaturated lipids * reproductive maturation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226861514000752

  5. The simultaneous identification of metoprolol and its major acidic and basic metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Feng; Cooper, S.F. [Universite du Quebec, Pointe-Claire (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method was developed to confirm and identify metoprolol and its metabolites by double derivatization with S-(-)menthyl chloroformate [(-)-MCF] and N-methyl(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide) (MSTFA). This is the first report, which describes the simultaneous identification of metoprolol, its one major acidc and other basic metabolites in human urine based on solid-phase extraction with C{sub 18} reversed-phase cartridges. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Expression and mutagenesis of the sea anemone toxin Av2 reveals key amino acid residues important for activity on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Karbat, Izhar; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2006-07-25

    Type I sea anemone toxins are highly potent modulators of voltage-gated Na-channels (Na(v)s) and compete with the structurally dissimilar scorpion alpha-toxins on binding to receptor site-3. Although these features provide two structurally different probes for studying receptor site-3 and channel fast inactivation, the bioactive surface of sea anemone toxins has not been fully resolved. We established an efficient expression system for Av2 (known as ATX II), a highly insecticidal sea anemone toxin from Anemonia viridis (previously named A. sulcata), and mutagenized it throughout. Each toxin mutant was analyzed in toxicity and binding assays as well as by circular dichroism spectroscopy to discern the effects derived from structural perturbation from those related to bioactivity. Six residues were found to constitute the anti-insect bioactive surface of Av2 (Val-2, Leu-5, Asn-16, Leu-18, and Ile-41). Further analysis of nine Av2 mutants on the human heart channel Na(v)1.5 expressed in Xenopus oocytes indicated that the bioactive surfaces toward insects and mammals practically coincide but differ from the bioactive surface of a structurally similar sea anemone toxin, Anthopleurin B, from Anthopleura xanthogrammica. Hence, our results not only demonstrate clear differences in the bioactive surfaces of Av2 and scorpion alpha-toxins but also indicate that despite the general conservation in structure and importance of the Arg-14 loop and its flanking residues Gly-10 and Gly-20 for function, the surface of interaction between different sea anemone toxins and Na(v)s varies.

  7. Effects of reduced dietary energy and amino acid density on Pectoralis major myopathies in broiler chickens at 36 and 49 days of age1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloche, K J; Fancher, B I; Emmerson, D A; Bilgili, S F; Dozier, W A

    2018-05-01

    Two experiments (Exp) were conducted to determine if reductions in the incidence and severity of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) may be obtained by reducing dietary nutrient density. In each Exp, Yield Plus × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were placed into 63 pens (22 birds/pen). All birds received an identical prestarter diet until 7 d of age, after which time each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 7 dietary treatments (TRT) for the starter (8 to 14 d), grower (15 to 24 d), finisher 1 (Exp 1: 26 to 35 d; Exp 2: 26 to 42 d), and withdrawal (Exp 2: 43 to 48 d) phases: 1) 100% of primary breeder recommendations for digestible amino acid and metabolizable energy density throughout Exp; 2) 95% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 3) 95% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 4) 95% of TRT 1 throughout Exp; 5) 90% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 6) 90% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 7) 90% of TRT 1 throughout Exp. At 36 d (Exp 1) and 49 d (Exp 2), 18 birds per pen were processed and evaluated for WS and WB. In Exp 1, reduced dietary density in the starter phase (TRT 2 and TRT 5) resulted in increased (P ≤ 0.05) incidences of severe WB (32.9% and 34.7%) relative to TRT 1 (18.2%). In Exp 2, broilers assigned to TRT 7 had reduced (P 36.5%; WS: 64.5%). In both Exp, plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing scores for WB and WS. Reducing dietary nutrient density from 8 to 14 d may exacerbate fillet myopathies in broilers reared to 35 d of age. Although reducing dietary energy and amino acid density to 90% of recommendations from 1 to 48 d reduced the severity of myopathies, these reductions occurred with compromises in live performance. Altogether, these results indicated that concurrent manipulation of dietary amino acid and energy density is not a viable practical solution for breast myopathies.

  8. Protective Effects of Tormentic Acid, a Major Component of Suspension Cultures of Eriobotrya japonica Cells, on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An acetaminophen (APAP overdose can cause hepatotoxicity and lead to fatal liver damage. The hepatoprotective effects of tormentic acid (TA on acetaminophen (APAP-induced liver damage were investigated in mice. TA was intraperitoneally (i.p. administered for six days prior to APAP administration. Pretreatment with TA prevented the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (T-Bil, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, and liver lipid peroxide levels in APAP-treated mice and markedly reduced APAP-induced histological alterations in liver tissues. Additionally, TA attenuated the APAP-induced production of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β, and IL-6. Furthermore, the Western blot analysis showed that TA blocked the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, as well as the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs activation in APAP-injured liver tissues. TA also retained the superoxidase dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT in the liver. These results suggest that the hepatoprotective effects of TA may be related to its anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation. Antioxidative properties were also observed, as shown by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 induction in the liver, and decreases in lipid peroxides and ROS. Therefore, TA may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the prevention of APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

  9. Direct injection ion chromatography for the control of chlorinated drinking water: simultaneous estimation of nine haloacetic acids and quantitation of bromate, chlorite and chlorate along with the major inorganic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Villanova, Rafael J; Raposo Funcia, César; Oliveira Dantas Leite, M Vilani; Toruño Fonseca, Ivania M; Espinosa Nieto, Miguel; Espuelas India, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Most methods for the analysis of haloacetic acids published in recent years are based on ion chromatography with direct injection, employing a gradient elution with potassium hydroxide (KOH). This work reports the exploration of an alternative eluent, a buffer of sodium carbonate/sodium hydrogen carbonate, aimed at the simultaneous analysis of nine haloacetic acids along with bromate, chlorite and chlorate. The alternative of both a less alkaline eluent and a lower temperature of operation may prevent the partial decomposition of some of the haloacetic acids during the analytical process, especially the more vulnerable brominated ones. Gradient elution at temperature of 7 °C yielded the best results, with an acceptable separation of 17 analytes (which includes the major natural inorganic anions) and a good linearity. Precision ranges from 0.3 to 23.4 (% V.C.), and detection limits are within units of μg L⁻¹, except for tribromoacetic acid - somewhat high in comparison with those of the official methods. Nonetheless, with the basic instrumentation setup herein described, this method may be suitable for monitoring when the drinking water treatments are to be optimized. This is especially interesting for small communities or for developing/developed countries in which regulations on disinfection by-products others than trihalomethanes are being addressed.

  10. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  11. Ileal Digesta Nondietary Substrates from Cannulated Pigs Are Major Contributors to In Vitro Human Hindgut Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    It has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. However, SCFAs in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material. We aimed to predict the relative contributions of dietary and nondietary substrates in the production of SCFAs with the use of a human fecal inoculum for diets containing kiwifruit as a model fiber. Terminal ileal digesta were collected from ileal-cannulated male pigs [n = 7; mean ± SD: 41.4 ± 2.98 kg body weight] adapted (44-d feeding) to diets containing either 25 g/kg dry matter (DM) of kiwifruit fiber (KFf) (25 KFf) or 50 g/kg DM of KFf (50 KFf) and then again after receiving a fiber-free diet (n = 14) for a further 7 d. Pigs were used as a model for adult humans for digestion in the upper digestive tract (mouth to the terminal ileum). The ileal digesta (either unfractionated or fractionated into crude mucin and microbial fractions) were fermented in vitro for 24 h with the use of a fresh human fecal inoculum to predict SCFA production in the human hindgut. SCFAs of nondietary origin were the main source (65%) of total SCFAs predicted to be produced in the human hindgut. The contribution of SCFAs from KFf was only 26% of the total SCFAs, and that from total dietary material was 35%. The higher contribution of nondietary material to total predicted SCFA production was observed at both dietary fiber concentrations. Predicted SCFA intake from dietary fiber was 76 and 105 mmol/kg diet DM intake for the diets containing 25 KFf and 50 KFf, respectively, and from the nondietary substrates it was 178 and 280 mmol/kg diet DM intake, respectively. A considerable proportion of the SCFAs produced in the human hindgut seems to be derived from the fermentation of nondietary substrates. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Allergen analysis of sea urchin roe using sera from five patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Kondo, Yasuto; Inuo, Chisato; Nakajima, Yoichi; Tsuge, Ikuya; Doi, Satoru; Yanagihara, Shigeto; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Urisu, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchin roe can cause anaphylactic reactions the first time they are consumed; therefore, careful clinical attention should be paid to their effects. However, no previous study has examined the allergens in sea urchin roe using sera from more than one patient. We attempted to identify sea urchin allergens using sera from 5 patients with sea urchin allergies. We enrolled 5 patients with relevant medical histories, positive results on a skin prick test and/or a food challenge test, and high levels of sea urchin-specific IgE in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We performed SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, immunoblot inhibition, and N-terminal amino acid sequence detection. Ten protein bands ranging from 18 to 170 kDa were detected in more than 2 patients' sera. In immunoblotting, the protein band for the 170-kDa major yolk protein was recognized by 4 of the 5 sera. Furthermore, the reaction between IgE and the protein band for egg cortical vesicle protein (18 kDa) was inhibited by the addition of salmon roe extract. Major yolk protein was confirmed to be one of the main allergens in sea urchin roe. In addition, egg cortical vesicle protein (18 kDa) was demonstrated to be an important protein for cross-reactivity with salmon roe. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Interaction effects of dietary supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and β-glucan on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-07-01

    Both heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) and β-glucan (BG) play important roles in growth performance, feed utilization and health status of fish. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary HK-LP and BG on growth performance, digestibility, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between HK-LP and BG on final body weight, total plasma protein, glucose, serum bactericidal activity (BA), total serum protein, serum alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity, protein and dry matter digestibility coefficients (P 0.05). Interestingly, fish fed with both HK-LP at (0.025 and 0.1%) in combination with BG at (0 and 0.1%) showed higher oxidative stress resistance. Under the experimental conditions, dietary HK-LP and BG had a significant interaction on enhancing the growth, digestibility and immune responses of red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooling-water chlorination: the kinetics of chlorine, bromine, and ammonia in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.D.; Inman, G.W. Jr.; Trofe, T.W.

    1982-11-01

    The major inorganic reaction pathways for the chlorination of saline waters were measured by a variety of techniques including: (1) amperometric titration, (2) amperometric membrane covered electrode, (3) uv spectrophotometry, (4) conventional kinetics methods for slow reactions, and (5) stopped-flow kinetics measurements with a microcomputer data acquisition system. The major reactions studied were: (1) the competitive reactions of ammonia and bromide ion with hypochlorous acid, (2) bromide oxidation by hypochlorous acid, (3) monochloramine formation in sea water, (4) monobromamine formation and subsequent disproportionation to form dibromamine, and (5) monochloramine oxidation of bromide to form bromochloramine. Reaction rates were determined in sodium chloride and sea water as a function of reactant concentration, pH, salinity, and ammonia concentration. Rate constants and corresponding rate laws and mechanisms were developed for each reaction

  15. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Three Fatty Acids from Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10-HDAA, and sebacic acid (SEA are the three major fatty acids in royal jelly (RJ. Previous studies have revealed several pharmacological activities of 10-H2DA and 10-HDAA, although the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms by which SEA acts are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated and compared the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of these RJ fatty acids in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and SEA had potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the release of the major inflammatory-mediators, nitric oxide, and interleukin-10, and only SEA decreased TNF-α production. Several key inflammatory genes have also been modulated by these RJ fatty acids, with 10-H2DA showing distinct modulating effects as compared to the other two FAs. Furthermore, we found that these three FAs regulated several proteins involved in MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings provide additional references for using RJ against inflammatory diseases.

  16. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  17. Changing Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  18. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  19. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  20. The application of compound-specific isotope analysis of fatty acids for traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in the coastal areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xufeng; Li, Ying; Wang, Haixia

    2017-11-01

    Geographical origin traceability is an important issue for controlling the quality of seafood and safeguarding the interest of consumers. In the present study, a new method of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acids was established to evaluate its applicability in establishing the origin traceability of Apostichopus japonicus in the coastal areas of China. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to distinguish between the origins of A. japonicus. The results show that the stable carbon isotope compositions of fatty acids of A. japonicus significantly differ in terms of both season and origin. They also indicate that the stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids could effectively discriminate between the origins of A. japonicus, except for between Changhai Island and Zhangzi Island in the spring of 2016 because of geographical proximity or the similarity of food sources. The fatty acids that have the highest contribution to identifying the geographical origins of A. japonicus are C22:6n-3, C16:1n-7, C20:5n-3, C18:0 and C23:1n-9, when considering the fatty acid contents, the stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids and the results of the PCA and DA. We conclude that CSIA of fatty acids, combined with multivariate statistical analysis such as PCA and DA, may be an effective tool for establishing the traceability of A. japonicus in the coastal areas of China. The relevant conclusions of the present study provide a new method for determining the traceability of seafood or other food products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  2. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  3. The use of amino acid indices for assessing organic matter quality and microbial abundance in deep-sea Antarctic sediments of IODP Expedition 318

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Stephanie A; Mills, Christopher T.; Mandernack, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    The Adélie Basin, located offshore of the Wilkes Land margin, experiences unusually high sedimentation rates (~ 2 cm yr− 1) for the Antarctic coast. This study sought to compare depthwise changes in organic matter (OM) quantity and quality with changes in microbial biomass with depth at this high-deposition site and an offshore continental margin site. Sediments from both sites were collected during the International Ocean Drilling (IODP) Program Expedition 318. Viable microbial biomass was estimated from concentrations of bacterial-derived phospholipid fatty acids, while OM quality was assessed using four different amino acid degradation proxies. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) measured from the continental margin suggest an oligotrophic environment, with THAA concentrations representing only 2% of total organic carbon with relative proportions of non-protein amino acids β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid as high as 40%. In contrast, THAA concentrations from the near-shore Adélie Basin represent 40%–60% of total organic carbon. Concentrations of β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid were often below the detection limit and suggest that the OM of the basin as labile. DI values in surface sediments at the Adélie and margin sites were measured to be + 0.78 and − 0.76, reflecting labile and more recalcitrant OM, respectively. Greater DI values in deeper and more anoxic portions of both cores correlated positively with increased relative concentrations of phenylalanine plus tyrosine and may represent a change of redox conditions, rather than OM quality. This suggests that DI values calculated along chemical profiles should be interpreted with caution. THAA concentrations, the percentage of organic carbon (CAA%) and total nitrogen (NAA%) represented by amino acids at both sites demonstrated a significant positive correlation with bacterial abundance estimates. These data suggest that the selective degradation of amino acids, as

  4. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  5. Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A/B (MICA/B) expression in tumor tissue and serum of pancreatic cancer: Role of uric acid accumulation in gemcitabine-induced MICA/B expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiulong; Rao, Geetha S; Groh, Veronika; Spies, Thomas; Gattuso, Paolo; Kaufman, Howard L; Plate, Janet; Prinz, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B) are two stress-inducible ligands that bind the immunoreceptor NKG2D and play an important role in mediating the cyotoxicity of NK and T cells. In this study, we sought to study MICA/B expression in pancreatic cancer and to determine whether and how genotoxic drugs such as gemcitabine can affect MICA/B expression and natural killer cytotoxity. Seven pancreatic cancer cell lines were analyzed for MICA/B expression by flow cytometry and for their sensitivity to NK-92 cell killing by a 51 Cr release assay. MICA/B expression in tumor tissues and sera of pancreatic cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and ELISA, respectively. Two MICA/B-positive cell lines were sensitive to the cytotoxic activity of NK-92 cells. Other two MICA/B-positive cell lines and three MICA/B-negative cell lines were resistant to NK-92 cell killing. MICA/B expression was positive in 17 of 25 (68%) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas but not in normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Serum MICA/B levels were significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinomas but did not correlate with the stage of pancreatic cancer and patient survival. Gemcitabine therapy led to increased serum MICA levels in 6 of 10 patients with detectable serum MICA. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase that converts xanthine to uric acid, blocked uric acid production, MICA/B expression, and sensitivity to NK-92 cell killing toward a PANC-1 cancer cell line exposed to radiation and two genotoxic drugs, gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. The levels of MICA/B expression in serum and tissue of pancreatic cancer are elevated. DNA damage-induced MICA/B expression is mediated through increased uric acid production

  6. Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A/B (MICA/B expression in tumor tissue and serum of pancreatic cancer: Role of uric acid accumulation in gemcitabine-induced MICA/B expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Howard L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B are two stress-inducible ligands that bind the immunoreceptor NKG2D and play an important role in mediating the cyotoxicity of NK and T cells. In this study, we sought to study MICA/B expression in pancreatic cancer and to determine whether and how genotoxic drugs such as gemcitabine can affect MICA/B expression and natural killer cytotoxity. Methods Seven pancreatic cancer cell lines were analyzed for MICA/B expression by flow cytometry and for their sensitivity to NK-92 cell killing by a 51Cr release assay. MICA/B expression in tumor tissues and sera of pancreatic cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining (IHC and ELISA, respectively. Results Two MICA/B-positive cell lines were sensitive to the cytotoxic activity of NK-92 cells. Other two MICA/B-positive cell lines and three MICA/B-negative cell lines were resistant to NK-92 cell killing. MICA/B expression was positive in 17 of 25 (68% pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas but not in normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Serum MICA/B levels were significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinomas but did not correlate with the stage of pancreatic cancer and patient survival. Gemcitabine therapy led to increased serum MICA levels in 6 of 10 patients with detectable serum MICA. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase that converts xanthine to uric acid, blocked uric acid production, MICA/B expression, and sensitivity to NK-92 cell killing toward a PANC-1 cancer cell line exposed to radiation and two genotoxic drugs, gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. Conclusions The levels of MICA/B expression in serum and tissue of pancreatic cancer are elevated. DNA damage-induced MICA/B expression is mediated through increased uric acid production.

  7. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  8. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  9. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocua held in the culture collection of Department of Zootechnical Sciences and Food Ispection (SIA and submitted to antagonistic activity using the spot on lawn and the agar well diffusion assay. Lactococcus lactis sub. lactis Sa31 was able to produce bacteriocin in agar and different broth medium. The bacteriocin man31 showed sensitivity to trypsin, pronase E and papain, inactivation at temperatures ≥ 100°C, bactericidal mode of action and antilisterial act, rapidly. The bacteriocin man31 caused a reduction of L. monocytogenes ½ c growth about log10 > 3 UFC/ml, when was applied on indicator strain at 20,480 AU/ml concentration, in vitro.

  10. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  11. Gymnaster koraiensis and its major components, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and gymnasterkoreayne B, reduce oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or acetaminophen in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Jho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of Gymnaster koraiensisagainst oxidative stress-induced hepatic cell damage. We usedtwo different cytotoxicity models, i.e., the administration oftert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP and acetaminophen, in HepG2cells to evaluate the protective effects of G. koraiensis. The ethylacetate (EA fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound,3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DCQA, exerted protective effectsin the t-BHP-induced liver cytotoxicity model. The EA fractionand DCQA ameliorated t-BHP-induced reductions in GSHlevels and exhibited free radical scavenging activity. The EAfraction and DCQA also significantly reduced t-BHP-inducedDNA damage in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the hexane fractionof G. koraiensis and its major compound, gymnasterkoreayne B(GKB, exerted strong hepatoprotection in the acetaminopheninducedcytotoxicity model. CYP 3A4 enzyme activity wasstrongly inhibited by the extract, hexane fraction, and GKB. Thehexane fraction and GKB ameliorated acetaminophen-inducedreductions in GSH levels and protected against cell death. [BMBReports 2013; 46(10: 513-518

  12. An Investigation of the Radiative Effects and Climate Feedbacks of Sea Ice Sources of Sea Salt Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, H. M.; Alexander, B.; Bitz, C. M.; Jaegle, L.; Burrows, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    In polar regions, sea ice is a major source of sea salt aerosol through lofting of saline frost flowers or blowing saline snow from the sea ice surface. Under continued climate warming, an ice-free Arctic in summer with only first-year, more saline sea ice in winter is likely. Previous work has focused on climate impacts in summer from increasing open ocean sea salt aerosol emissions following complete sea ice loss in the Arctic, with conflicting results suggesting no net radiative effect or a negative climate feedback resulting from a strong first aerosol indirect effect. However, the radiative forcing from changes to the sea ice sources of sea salt aerosol in a future, warmer climate has not previously been explored. Understanding how sea ice loss affects the Arctic climate system requires investigating both open-ocean and sea ice sources of sea-salt aerosol and their potential interactions. Here, we implement a blowing snow source of sea salt aerosol into the Community Earth System Model (CESM) dynamically coupled to the latest version of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE5). Snow salinity is a key parameter affecting blowing snow sea salt emissions and previous work has assumed constant regional snow salinity over sea ice. We develop a parameterization for dynamic snow salinity in the sea ice model and examine how its spatial and temporal variability impacts the production of sea salt from blowing snow. We evaluate and constrain the snow salinity parameterization using available observations. Present-day coupled CESM-CICE5 simulations of sea salt aerosol concentrations including sea ice sources are evaluated against in situ and satellite (CALIOP) observations in polar regions. We then quantify the present-day radiative forcing from the addition of blowing snow sea salt aerosol with respect to aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. The relative contributions of sea ice vs. open ocean sources of sea salt aerosol to radiative forcing in polar regions is

  13. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  14. Analysis of Organic Anionic Surfactants in Fine and Coarse Fractions of Freshly Emitted Sea Spray Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Richard E.; Laskina, Olga; Jayarathne, Thilina; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Lin, Peng; Sultana, Camile M.; Lee, Christopher; Moore, Kathryn A.; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Prather, Kimberly; Grassian, Vicki H.; Stone, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    The inclusion of organic compounds in freshly emitted sea spray aerosol (SSA) has been shown to be size-dependent, with an increasing organic fraction in smaller particles. Defining the molecular composition of sea spray aerosol has proven challenging, due to the mix of continental and background particles even in remote marine environments. Here we have used electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode to identify organic compounds in nascent sea spray collected throughout a 25-day mesocosm experiment. Over 280 organic compounds from ten major homologous series were identified. These compounds were operationally defined as molecules containing a hydrophobic alkyl chain with a hydrophilic head group making them surface active. The most abundant class of molecules detected were saturated (C8–C24) and unsaturated (C12–C22) fatty acids. Fatty acid derivatives (including saturated oxo-fatty acids (C5–C18) and saturated hydroxy-fatty acids (C5–C18) were also identified. Interestingly, anthropogenic influences on SSA from the seawater were observed in the form of sulfate (C2–C7, C12–C17) and sulfonate (C16–C22) species. During the mesocosm, the distributions of molecules within each homologous series were observed to respond to variations among the levels of phytoplankton and bacteria in the seawater, indicating an important role of biological processes in determining the composition of SSA.

  15. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  16. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  17. The content of some selected metabolites of Hypnea valentiae (Turner Montagne from the Red Sea coast of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Abdel Rahim Osman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate some selected metabolic constituents of Hypnea valentiae (Turner Montagne collected from the Red Sea coast of Sudan to evaluate the economic potential of the alga. Methods: Healthy thalli of the alga under investigation were collected, thoroughly cleaned, air dried and milled. Authentic analytical methods were used to determine moisture, ash, protein lipid and carrageenan contents. Fatty acids profile was revealed with gas chromatography instrumentation. Testing of phytochemical groups of compounds was based on the development of colouration and precipitation upon addition of certain chemical reagents to the extracts. Results: The ash content of the alga [(40.3 ± 0.2% of dry weight] was comparatively the highest among the parameters tested. The protein, lipid, and carrageenan constituted (9.30 ± 0.70%, (6.50 ± 0.34%, and (33.70 ± 0.01%, respectively of the alga dry matter. Hypnea valentiae (Turner Montagne from Sudan Red Sea coast composed of 12 fatty acids, 8 of which were unsaturated fatty acids and 4 were saturated fatty acids. The major unsaturated fatty acids in the alga was the trans-isomer of linoleic acid and linolelaidic acid (36.32% followed by palmitoleic acid (13.64%. The major saturated fatty acids was the heptadecanoic acid amounting to 19.10% of the total fatty acids. Phytochemically the alga contained alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins. Conclusions: This alga may represent a promising source of functional food and therapeutic metabolites. Further investigation and critical evaluation of the bioactivity of the phytochemical compounds is required to assure the therapeutic potential of this alga.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  19. Major ions in spitsbergen snow samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semb, A.; Braekkan, R.; Joranger, E.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical analysis of Spitsbergen snow cores sampled in spring 1983, reveals a spatial pattern consistent with orographic deposition of major anthropogenic pollutants with air movements from southeast towards northwest. The highest concentrations of pollutant species were found at an altitude of 700 metres above sea level, and are higher than for any other recorded snow samples from the Arctic

  20. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions... Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions. Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (a) Alaska rookeries, haulouts, and associated areas. In Alaska, all major Steller sea lion rookeries identified in Table 1 and...

  1. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  2. Mineralogy and Acid-Extractable Geochemistry from the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field, Norwegian Sea at 74 degrees N (South Knipovich Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, F. J.; Fonseca, R.; Dias, S.; Cruz, I.; Carvalho, C.; Relvas, J. M.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Loki’s Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008 during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF; see Pedersen et al., 2010, AGU Fall Meeting, Session OS26). Fresh volcanic glasses analyzed by EPMA are basalts. The vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320 C fluid, at the top of a very large sulfide mound (estimated diameter 200 m). Mineralogy: The main sulfide assemblage in chimneys consists of sphalerite (Sp), pyrite (Py) and pyrrhotite, with lesser chalcopyrite (Ccp). Sulphide-poor selected samples collected at the base of chimneys are mostly composed of anhydrite (Anh), gypsum and talc (Tlc). Association of quartz, anhydrite, gypsum and barite were also found in some of the samples. The sulphide-poor samples from the base of the chimneys denote seawater interaction with the hydrothermal fluid and consequent decrease in temperature, precipitating sulfates. Sphalerite compositions are Zn(0.61-0.70)Fe(0.39-0.30)S. The variations in Fe content are consistent with those of hot, reduced hydrothermal fluids. The observed sulfide assemblage is consistent with the temperature of 320C measured in Loki’s Castle vents. Compositional zonation in sphalerites suggests different pulses of activity of the hydrothermal system, with higher contents of Zn in the center of the crystals. Geochemistry: Here we report preliminary data part of a major analytical task of sequential extraction of metals from sediments in the vicinity of Loki’s Castle, in an attempt to detect correlations with microbial populations and/or subseafloor mineralized intervals. The abundances of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co in sediments were determined by aqua regia extraction on subsamples from 7 gravity cores. Several anomalous intervals were sampled, in which Cu<707ppm, Ni shows many weak peaks (<50ppm), Cr shows 6 peaks (<121ppm), Zn shows 4 well

  3. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  4. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  5. Sea Urchin Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    In the sea urchin morphogenesis follows extensive molecular specification. The specification controls the many morphogenetic events and these, in turn, precede patterning steps that establish the larval body plan. To understand how the embryo is built it was necessary to understand those series of molecular steps. Here an example of the historical sequence of those discoveries is presented as it unfolded over the last 50 years, the years during which major progress in understanding development of many animals and plants was documented by CTDB. In sea urchin development a rich series of experimental studies first established many of the phenomenological components of skeletal morphogenesis and patterning without knowledge of the molecular components. The many discoveries of transcription factors, signals, and structural proteins that contribute to the shape of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin larva then followed as molecular tools became available. A number of transcription factors and signals were discovered that were necessary for specification, morphogenesis, and patterning. Perturbation of the transcription factors and signals provided the means for assembling models of the gene regulatory networks used for specification and controlled the subsequent morphogenetic events. The earlier experimental information informed perturbation experiments that asked how patterning worked. As a consequence it was learned that ectoderm provides a series of patterning signals to the skeletogenic cells and as a consequence the skeletogenic cells secrete a highly patterned skeleton based on their ability to genotypically decode the localized reception of several signals. We still do not understand the complexity of the signals received by the skeletogenic cells, nor do we understand in detail how the genotypic information shapes the secreted skeletal biomineral, but the current knowledge at least outlines the sequence of events and provides a useful template for future

  6. Acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in surface sediments of the southwestern coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea: concentrations, spatial distributions and the indication of heavy metal pollution status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu

    2013-11-15

    Surface sediments were collected from the coastal waters of southwestern Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects with during summer and autumn 2012. The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) were measured to assess the sediment quality. The results showed that not all sediments with [SEM]-[AVS]>0 were capable of causing toxicity because the organic carbon is also an important metal-binding phase in sediments. Suppose the sediments had not been disturbed and the criteria of US Environmental Protection Agency had been followed, heavy metals in this area had no adverse biological effects in both seasons except for few riverine samples. The major ingredient of SEM was Zn, whereas the contribution of Cd - the most toxic metal studied - to SEM was <1%. The distributions of AVS and SEM in riverine sediments were more easily affected by anthropogenic activity compared with those in marine sediments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  8. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  9. Sea Quarks in the Proton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimer Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton is a composite particle in which the binding force is responsible for the majority of its mass. To understand this structure, the distributions and origins of the quark-antiquark pairs produced by the strong force must be measured. The SeaQuest collaboration is using the Drell-Yan process to elucidate antiquark distributions in the proton and to study their modification when the proton is held within a nucleus.

  10. Time-resolved spectral studies of blue-green fluorescence of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. Var. Scolymus) leaves: identification of chlorogenic acid as one of the major fluorophores and age-mediated changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fermín; Cartelat, Aurélie; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Moya, Ismael; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2005-12-14

    Synchrotron radiation and the time-correlated single-photon counting technique were used to investigate the spectral and time-resolved characteristics of blue-green fluorescence (BGF) of artichoke leaves. Leaves emitted BGF under ultraviolet (UV) excitation; the abaxial side was much more fluorescent than the adaxial side, and in both cases, the youngest leaves were much more fluorescent than the oldest ones. The BGF of artichoke leaves was dominated by the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids. A decrease in the percentage of BGF attributable to the very short kinetic component (from 42 to 20%), in the shape of the BGF excitation spectra, and chlorogenic acid concentrations indicate that there is a loss of hydroxycinnamic acid with leaf age. Studies on excitation, emission, and synchronized fluorescence spectra of leaves and trichomes and chlorogenic acid contents indicate that chlorogenic acid is one of the main blue-green fluorophores in artichoke leaves. Results of the present study indicate that 20-42% (i.e., the very short kinetic component) of the overall BGF is emitted by chlorogenic acid. Time-resolved BGF measurements could be a means to extract information on chlorogenic acid fluorescence from the overall leaf BGF.

  11. Metabolite Profiling of Red Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Ortega, Jovhana Alejandra

    2016-12-01

    Looking at the metabolite profile of an organism provides insights into the metabolomic state of a cell and hence also into pathways employed. Little is known about the metabolites produced by corals and their algal symbionts. In particular, corals from the central Red Sea are understudied, but interesting study objects, as they live in one of the warmest and most saline environments and can provide clues as to the adjustment of corals to environmental change. In this study, we applied gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC–MS) metabolite profiling to analyze the metabolic profile of four coral species and their associated symbionts: Fungia granulosa, Acropora hemprichii, Porites lutea, and Pocillopora verrucosa. We identified and quantified 102 compounds among primary and secondary metabolites across all samples. F. granulosa and its symbiont showed a total of 59 metabolites which were similar to the 51 displayed by P. verrucosa. P. lutea and A. hemprichii both harbored 40 compounds in conjunction with their respective isolated algae. Comparing across species, 28 metabolites were exclusively present in algae, while 38 were exclusive to corals. A principal component and cluster analyses revealed that metabolite profiles clustered between corals and algae, but each species harbored a distinct catalog of metabolites. The major classes of compounds were carbohydrates and amino acids. Taken together, this study provides a first description of metabolites of Red Sea corals and their associated symbionts. As expected, the metabolites of coral hosts differ from their algal symbionts, but each host and algal species harbor a unique set of metabolites. This corroborates that host-symbiont species pairs display a fine-tuned complementary metabolism that provide insights into the specific nature of the symbiosis. Our analysis also revealed aquatic pollutants, which suggests that metabolite profiling might be used for monitoring pollution levels and assessing

  12. Flooded! An Investigation of Sea-Level Rise in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    Explore how melting ice sheets affect global sea levels. Sea-level rise (SLR) is a rise in the water level of the Earth's oceans. There are two major kinds of ice in the polar regions: sea ice and land ice. Land ice contributes to SLR and sea ice does not. This article explores the characteristics of sea ice and land ice and provides some hands-on…

  13. Sesavirus: prototype of a new parvovirus genus in feces of a sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Gia; Gulland, Frances; Simeone, Claire; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2015-02-01

    We describe the nearly complete genome of a highly divergent parvovirus, we tentatively name Sesavirus, from the feces of a California sea lion pup (Zalophus californianus) suffering from malnutrition and pneumonia. The 5,049-base-long genome contained two major ORFs encoding a 553-aa nonstructural protein and a 965-aa structural protein which shared closest amino acid identities of 25 and 28 %, respectively, with members of the copiparvovirus genus known to infect pigs and cows. Given the low degree of similarity, Sesavirus might be considered as prototype for a new genus with a proposed name of Marinoparvovirus in the subfamily Parvovirinae.

  14. Distribution and sources of dissolved black carbon in surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Motohiro; Ajioka, Taku; Yamashita, Youhei

    2017-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon, also called black carbon (BC), is an important component in the global carbon cycle. BC produced by biomass burning or fossil fuel combustion is transported to oceans by the atmosphere or rivers. However, environmental dynamics (i.e., major sources and sinks) of BC in marine environments have not been well documented. In this study, dissolved BC (DBC) collected from surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, and the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific were analyzed using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. The DBC concentration and the ratio of B5CA and B6CA to all BPCAs (an index of the DBC condensation degree) ranged from 4.8 to 15.5 µg-C L-1 and from 0.20 to 0.43, respectively, in surface waters of the Chukchi/Bering Seas and the North Pacific Ocean. The concentration and condensation degree of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas were higher and more variable than those in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which implies that the major factors controlling DBC distribution were different in these marine provinces. In the Chukchi/Bering Seas, the DBC concentration was negatively correlated to salinity but positively correlated to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) quantity and total dissolved lignin phenol concentration estimated by CDOM parameters. These correlations indicated that the possible major source of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas was Arctic rivers. However, in the North Pacific, where riverine inputs are negligible for most sampling sites, DBC was possibly derived from the atmosphere. Although spectral slopes of CDOM at 275-295 nm (an index of the photodegradation degree of CDOM) differed widely between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, the concentration and condensation degrees of DBC were similar between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which suggests that photodegradation was not the only major factor controlling DBC distribution. Therefore, DBC distributions of the

  15. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  16. Regulatory heterochronies and loose temporal scaling between sea star and sea urchin regulatory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, Tsvia; Hinman, Veronica; Ben-Tabou-De-Leon, Smadar

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans. We generated high resolution temporal profiles of 17 mesodermally-, endodermally- and ectodermally-expressed regulatory genes in the sea star, Patiria miniata, and compared these to their orthologs in the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. We found that the maternal to zygotic transition is delayed in the sea star compared to the sea urchin, in agreement with the longer cleavage stage in the sea star. Interestingly, the order of gene activation shows the highest variation in the relatively diverged mesodermal circuit, while the correlations of expression dynamics are the highest in the strongly conserved endodermal circuit. We detected loose scaling of the developmental rates of these species and observed interspecies heterochronies within all studied regulatory circuits. Thus, after 500 million years of parallel evolution, mild heterochronies between the species are frequently observed and the tight temporal scaling observed for closely related species no longer holds.

  17. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  18. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  19. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  20. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  1. Sea-level and deep-sea-temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, E J; Foster, G L; Grant, K M; Marino, G; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

    2014-04-24

    Ice volume (and hence sea level) and deep-sea temperature are key measures of global climate change. Sea level has been documented using several independent methods over the past 0.5 million years (Myr). Older periods, however, lack such independent validation; all existing records are related to deep-sea oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) data that are influenced by processes unrelated to sea level. For deep-sea temperature, only one continuous high-resolution (Mg/Ca-based) record exists, with related sea-level estimates, spanning the past 1.5 Myr. Here we present a novel sea-level reconstruction, with associated estimates of deep-sea temperature, which independently validates the previous 0-1.5 Myr reconstruction and extends it back to 5.3 Myr ago. We find that deep-sea temperature and sea level generally decreased through time, but distinctly out of synchrony, which is remarkable given the importance of ice-albedo feedbacks on the radiative forcing of climate. In particular, we observe a large temporal offset during the onset of Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, between a marked cooling step at 2.73 Myr ago and the first major glaciation at 2.15 Myr ago. Last, we tentatively infer that ice sheets may have grown largest during glacials with more modest reductions in deep-sea temperature.

  2. Global ship accidents and ocean swell-related sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2017-11-01

    With the increased frequency of shipping activities, navigation safety has become a major concern, especially when economic losses, human casualties and environmental issues are considered. As a contributing factor, the sea state plays a significant role in shipping safety. However, the types of dangerous sea states that trigger serious shipping accidents are not well understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the sea state characteristics during ship accidents that occurred in poor weather or heavy seas based on a 10-year ship accident dataset. Sea state parameters of a numerical wave model, i.e., significant wave height, mean wave period and mean wave direction, were analyzed for the selected ship accident cases. The results indicated that complex sea states with the co-occurrence of wind sea and swell conditions represent threats to sailing vessels, especially when these conditions include similar wave periods and oblique wave directions.

  3. Global ship accidents and ocean swell-related sea states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increased frequency of shipping activities, navigation safety has become a major concern, especially when economic losses, human casualties and environmental issues are considered. As a contributing factor, the sea state plays a significant role in shipping safety. However, the types of dangerous sea states that trigger serious shipping accidents are not well understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the sea state characteristics during ship accidents that occurred in poor weather or heavy seas based on a 10-year ship accident dataset. Sea state parameters of a numerical wave model, i.e., significant wave height, mean wave period and mean wave direction, were analyzed for the selected ship accident cases. The results indicated that complex sea states with the co-occurrence of wind sea and swell conditions represent threats to sailing vessels, especially when these conditions include similar wave periods and oblique wave directions.

  4. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  5. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 10 5 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  6. Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus : A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; Assies, J.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Diamant, M.; Snoek, F. J.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression is common in individuals with diabetes. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of omega-3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) as adjuvant to antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression in adults with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Sea spray aerosol fluxes in the Baltic Sea region: Comparison of the WAM model with measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Kosecki, Szymon; Petelski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Sea spray aerosol flux is an important element of sub-regional climate modeling. The majority of works related to this topic concentrate on open ocean research rather than on smaller, inland seas, e.g., the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, where major inflows of oceanic waters are rare. Furthermore, surface waves in the Baltic Sea have a relatively shorter lifespan in comparison with oceanic waves. Therefore, emission of sea spray aerosol may differ greatly from what is known from oceanic research and should be investigated. This article presents a comparison of sea spray aerosol measurements carried out on-board the s/y Oceania research ship with data calculated in accordance to the WAM model. The measurements were conducted in the southern region of the Baltic Sea during four scientific cruises. The gradient method was used to determinate aerosol fluxes. The fluxes were calculated for particles of diameter in range of 0.5-47 μm. The correlation between wind speed measured and simulated has a good agreement (correlation in range of 0.8). The comparison encompasses three different sea spray generation models. First, function proposed by Massel (2006) which is based only on wave parameters, such as significant wave height and peak frequency. Second, Callaghan (2013) which is based on Gong (2003) model (wind speed relation), and a thorough experimental analysis of whitecaps. Third, Petelski et al. (2014) which is based on in-situ gradient measurements with the function dependent on wind speed. The two first models which based on whitecaps analysis are insufficient. Moreover, the research shows strong relation between aerosol emission and wind speed history.

  8. A Functional, Genome-wide Evaluation of Liposensitive Yeast Identifies the “ARE2 Required for Viability” (ARV1) Gene Product as a Major Component of Eukaryotic Fatty Acid Resistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Liu, Ying; Moon, James; Schneider, Kerry; Henneberry, Annette; Billheimer, Jeff; Millar, John S.; Marchadier, Dawn; Valasek, Mark A.; Joblin-Mills, Aidan; Gulati, Sonia; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Repa, Joyce J.; Rader, Dan; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic subcellular accumulation of lipids predisposes several human metabolic syndromes, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of neurodegeneration. To identify pathways that prevent lipid-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide fatty acid sensitivity screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 167 yeast mutants as sensitive to 0.5 mm palmitoleate, 45% of which define pathways that were conserved in humans. 63 lesions also impacted the status of the lipid droplet; however, this was not correlated to the degree of fatty acid sensitivity. The most liposensitive yeast strain arose due to deletion of the “ARE2 required for viability” (ARV1) gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, potential lipid transporter that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Down-regulation of mammalian ARV1 in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells or HEK293 cells resulted in decreased neutral lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid sensitivity, and lipoapoptosis. Conversely, elevated expression of human ARV1 in HEK293 cells or mouse liver significantly increased triglyceride mass and lipid droplet number. The ARV1-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of DGAT1, a triglyceride synthesis gene, and the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Furthermore, ARV1 was identified as a transcriptional of the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key regulator of lipid homeostasis whose transcriptional targets include DGAT1 and CD36. These results implicate ARV1 as a protective factor in lipotoxic diseases due to modulation of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, a lipotoxicity-based genetic screen in a model microorganism has identified 75 human genes that may play key roles in neutral lipid metabolism and disease. PMID:24273168

  9. A functional, genome-wide evaluation of liposensitive yeast identifies the "ARE2 required for viability" (ARV1) gene product as a major component of eukaryotic fatty acid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Garbarino, Jeanne; Liu, Ying; Moon, James; Schneider, Kerry; Henneberry, Annette; Billheimer, Jeff; Millar, John S; Marchadier, Dawn; Valasek, Mark A; Joblin-Mills, Aidan; Gulati, Sonia; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Repa, Joyce J; Rader, Dan; Sturley, Stephen L

    2014-02-14

    The toxic subcellular accumulation of lipids predisposes several human metabolic syndromes, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of neurodegeneration. To identify pathways that prevent lipid-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide fatty acid sensitivity screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 167 yeast mutants as sensitive to 0.5 mm palmitoleate, 45% of which define pathways that were conserved in humans. 63 lesions also impacted the status of the lipid droplet; however, this was not correlated to the degree of fatty acid sensitivity. The most liposensitive yeast strain arose due to deletion of the "ARE2 required for viability" (ARV1) gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, potential lipid transporter that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Down-regulation of mammalian ARV1 in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells or HEK293 cells resulted in decreased neutral lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid sensitivity, and lipoapoptosis. Conversely, elevated expression of human ARV1 in HEK293 cells or mouse liver significantly increased triglyceride mass and lipid droplet number. The ARV1-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of DGAT1, a triglyceride synthesis gene, and the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Furthermore, ARV1 was identified as a transcriptional of the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key regulator of lipid homeostasis whose transcriptional targets include DGAT1 and CD36. These results implicate ARV1 as a protective factor in lipotoxic diseases due to modulation of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, a lipotoxicity-based genetic screen in a model microorganism has identified 75 human genes that may play key roles in neutral lipid metabolism and disease.

  10. Effect of long-term oral administration of an immunostimulant diet on innate immunity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, M; Archetti, L; Amadori, M; Marino, G

    2000-12-01

    Immunostimulants represent a modern and promising tool in aquaculture, enhancing the resistance of cultured fish to disease and stress. This study investigated the effect of a combination of dietary glucans, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on the innate immune response of cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). After 5 weeks of adaptation on a commercial diet containing 100 p.p.m. ascorbic acid and 200 p.p.m. alpha-tocopherol, sea bass were switched to a diet supplemented with 2% beta-1.3/beta-1.6 glucans and ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol at 500 p.p.m. The supplemented diet was given at 2% of body weight per day over a 2-week period, every 3 months. Plasma lysozyme concentration, content and distribution of major plasma proteins and complement activity were measured prior to feeding the supplemented diet and after 40 weeks. Alternative pathways of complement activation and lysozyme activity were both significantly enhanced in fish fed on glucans and elevated doses of vitamins. No significant differences were observed in protein content or in albumin/globulin ratio. Compared to lysozyme activity, which showed marked individual variation, complement-mediated haemolytic activity has been shown to be a more reliable indicator of sea bass immunocompetence. Further studies are in progress to clarify the effect of each dietary component on the innate immune response and disease resistance.

  11. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  12. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  13. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    detection and localisation of point-source bioluminescence at ecologically meaningful distances. At all depths, the eyes of animals active on and over the nutrient-rich sea floor are generally larger than the eyes of pelagic species. In fishes, the retinal ganglion cells are also frequently arranged in a horizontal visual streak, an adaptation for viewing the wide flat horizon of the sea floor, and all animals living there. These and many other aspects of light and vision in the deep sea are reviewed in support of the following conclusion: it is not only the intensity of light at different depths, but also its distribution in space, which has been a major force in the evolution of deep-sea vision.

  14. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  15. Radiation analysis in the major areas of marine fisheries research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, A.V.S.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation analysis has been a proven technique to solve, relatively easily and quickly, some of the pressing problems in marine fisheries to the utmost satisfaction. Major areas of marine fisheries research - namely, the determination of sea water characteristics, the productivity studies, the pollution effects, the population dynamics and the preservation of sea foods - wherein the radiation treatment is fully helpful are discussed in detail. The problems encountered in the marine fisheries in India in this context are also outlined. (author)

  16. Extraction, Identification and Biological Activities of Saponins in Sea Cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Rafat Afifi; Elbandy, Mohamed; Lawrence, Andrew; Paget, Tim; Rae-Rho, Jung; Binnaser, Yaser S; Ali, Imran

    2018-01-01

    Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produces a diversity of biologically important natural compounds that are not present in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt. The structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR (1H, 13C, TOCSY, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY) experiments and acid hydrolysis. The crude and purified fractions was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. Partially purified fraction, mainly containing compounds 1 and 2, was screened for its antifungal activity against three clinical isolates of Candida albicans (Candida 580 (1), Candida 581(2) and Candida MEO47228. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major and toxicity on colon cell-line were also evaluated. Two lanostane type sulfated triterpene monoglycosides were isolated from the Holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt. Holothurin A (1) and echinoside A (2) triterpene saponins were separated by reversed phase semi-preparative HPLC. LC50 values (µg/mL); calculated for the fraction containing saponins 1 and 2 as major constituents; against Candida albicans, Leishmania major and colon cell-line were 10, 20 and 0.50, respectively. Consequently, this study demonstrated the potential use of sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei not only as appreciated functional food or nutraceuticals but also as the source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical products with antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties

  17. Biologically-Oriented Processes in the Coastal Sea Ice Zone of the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, I. A.

    2002-12-01

    The annual advance and retreat of sea ice is a major physical determinant of spatial and temporal changes in the structure and function of marine coastal biological communities. Sea ice biological data obtained in the tidal zone of Kandalaksha Gulf (White Sea) during 1996-2001 period will be presented. Previous observations in this area were mainly conducted during the ice-free summer season. However, there is little information on the ice-covered winter season (6-7 months duration), and, especially, on the sea-ice biology in the coastal zone within tidal regimes. During the January-May period time-series observations were conducted on transects along shorelines with coastal and fast ice. Trends in the annual extent of sea ice showed significant impacts on ice-associated biological communities. Three types of sea ice impact on kelps, balanoides, littorinas and amphipods are distinguished: (i) positive, when sea ice protects these populations from grinding (ii) negative, when ice grinds both fauna and flora, and (iii) a combined effect, when fast ice protects, but anchored ice grinds plant and animals. To understand the full spectrum of ecological problems caused by pollution on the coastal zone, as well as the problems of sea ice melting caused by global warming, an integrated, long-term study of the physical, chemical, and biological processes is needed.

  18. Estimating the effective nitrogen import: An example for the North Sea-Baltic Sea boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, H.; Maar, M.

    2016-10-01

    Semienclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea are prone to eutrophication problems. If local nutrient abatement measures are taken to tackle these problems, their success may be limited if a strong nutrient exchange with the adjacent waters exists. The quantification of this exchange is therefore essential to estimate its impact on the ecosystem status. At the example of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, we illustrate that neither gross transports nor net transports of nutrients have a strong informative value in this context. Instead, we define an "effective import" as the import of nutrients which have not been inside the Baltic Sea before and estimate it in an ecological model with a nutrient-tagging technique. This effective import of bioreactive nitrogen from the Skagerrak to the Kattegat amounts to 103 kt/yr; from Kattegat to Belt Sea it is 54 kt/yr. The nitrogen exchange is therefore 30% stronger than other estimates, e.g., based on import in the deep water, suggest. An isolated view on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in terms of eutrophication, as it is practiced in management today, is therefore questionable. Nitrogen imported from the North Sea typically spreads eastward up to the Bornholm Basin but can be transported into the deep waters of the Gotland Basin during Major Baltic Inflows in a significant amount.

  19. The Wadden Sea region: towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazelmans, J.G.A.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  20. The Wadden Sea Region : Towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, Pavel; Bazelmans, Jos; van Dijk, Jouke; Herman, Peter M. J.; van Oijen, Tim; Pejrup, Morten; Reise, Karsten; Speelman, Hessel; Wolff, Wim J.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  1. The Wadden Sea Region: Towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Bazelmans, J.; Dijk, van J.; Hermans, P.; Oijen, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  2. Microbial biogeography of the North Sea during summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, J.; Martínez Martínez, J.; Slagter, H.A.; Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Micro-organisms are vital for the functioning of all food webs and are the major drivers of the global biogeochemical cycles. The microbial community compositions and physicochemical conditions of the different water masses in the North Sea, a biologically productive sea on the northwestern European

  3. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  4. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  5. Evaluating model simulations of 20th century sea-level rise. Part 1: global mean sea-level change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Meyssignac, B.; Agosta, C.; Champollion, N.; Church, J.A.; Fettweis, X.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; Marzeion, B.; Melet, A.; Palmer, M.D.; Richter, K.; Roberts, C.D.; Spada, G.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level change is one of the major consequences of climate change and is projected to affect coastal communities around the world. Here, global mean sea level (GMSL) change estimated by 12 climate models from phase 5 of the World Climate Research Programme’s Climate Model Intercomparison Project

  6. Thermodynamic Forecasts of the Mediterranean Sea Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GOYET

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic CO2 is a major driver of the present ocean acidification. This latter is threatening the marine ecosystems and has been identified as a major environmental and economic menace. This study aims to forecast from the thermodynamic equations, the acidification variation (ΔpH of the Mediterranean waters over the next few decades and beyond this century. In order to do so, we calculated and fitted the theoretical values based upon the initial conditions from data of the 2013 MedSeA cruise. These estimates have been performed both for the Western and for the Eastern basins based upon their respective physical (temperature and salinity and chemical (total alkalinity and total inorganic carbon properties. The results allow us to point out four tipping points, including one when the Mediterranean Sea waters would become acid (pH<7. In order to provide an associated time scale to the theoretical results, we used two of the IPCC (2007 atmospheric CO2 scenarios. Under the most optimistic scenario of the “Special Report: Emissions Scenarios” (SRES of the IPCC (2007, the results indicate that in 2100, pH may decrease down to 0.245 in the Western basin and down to 0.242 in the Eastern basin (compared to the pre-industrial pH. Whereas for the most pessimistic SRES scenario of the IPCC (2007, the results for the year 2100, forecast a pH decrease down to 0.462 and 0.457, for the Western and for the Eastern basins, respectively. Acidification, which increased unprecedentedly in recent years, will rise almost similarly in both Mediterranean basins only well after the end of this century. These results further confirm that both basins may become undersaturated (< 1 with respect to calcite and aragonite (at the base of the mixed layer depth, only in the far future (in a few centuries.

  7. Geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, O. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Marine Geology Unit of the Department of Earth Sciences organized the second Marine Geology symposium at Aarhus University, 7-8 October 1993. The intention was to bring together people working especially with the geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak. Approximately 60 people from different Danish and Norwegian institutions attended the symposium. 28 oral presentations were given and 2 posters presented. A large range of geological topics was covered, embracing biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural geology. The majority of the presentations dealt with Quaternary geology and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy, but also Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy was treated. Studies from the major part of the Danish sector were presented, spanning from Bornholm to the central North Sea, and further into the Norwegian North Sea sector. (au)

  8. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  9. Past and future changes in extreme sea levels and waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lawe, J.A.; Woodworth, P.L.; Knutson, T.; McDonald, R.E.; Mclnnes, K.L.; Woth, K.; Von Storch, H.; Wolf, J.; Swail, V.; Bernier, N.B.; Gulev, S.; Horsburgh, K.J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Hunter, J.R.; Weisse, R.

    of Extreme Sea Level 11.3.1 An Introduction to Storms Both mid-latitude and tropical storms are associated with extremes of sea level. Storm surges are generated by low atmospheric pressure and intense winds over the ocean. The latter also cause high wave... timescales, extremes and mean-sea-level change are both major factors in determining coastal evolution including the development of coastal ecosystems. It will be seen below that, although it is difficult to determine how mean sea level has changed...

  10. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper......As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper...

  11. Studies on carbon dioxide system in central Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    significantly with depth Bicarbonate ion is quantitatively the major component of the carbon dioxide system The observed vertical distributions are discussed in terms of biological and geochemical processes in the sea...

  12. Thermal Limits and Thresholds of Red Sea Biota

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    tropical systems. This has major consequences for organisms that may already find themselves at their thermal limits. The aim of this project was to define the thermal limits and thresholds of certain Red Sea species. Firstly, to better understand

  13. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COASTAL FLORA OF THE AZOV SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V. P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative indicators of the coastal flora of the Azov Sea are presented. Geographical features of the flora of the region have been analyzed. The major endemic complexes of the flora being investigated are described.

  14. Revealing Holobiont Structure and Function of Three Red Sea Deep-Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea corals have long been regarded as cold-water coral; however a reevaluation of their habitat limitations has been suggested after the discovery of deep-sea coral in the Red Sea where temperatures exceed 20˚C. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals at these temperatures, the work in this PhD employed a holotranscriptomic approach, looking at coral animal host and bacterial symbiont gene expression in Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus sp. sampled from the deep Red Sea. Bacterial community composition was analyzed via amplicon-based 16S surveys and cultured bacterial strains were subjected to bioprospecting in order to gauge the pharmaceutical potential of coralassociated microbes. Coral host transcriptome data suggest that coral can employ mitochondrial hypometabolism, anaerobic glycolysis, and surface cilia to enhance mass transport rates to manage the low oxygen and highly oligotrophic Red Sea waters. In the microbial community associated with these corals, ribokinases and retron-type reverse transcriptases are abundantly expressed. In its first application to deep-sea coral associated microbial communities, 16S-based next-generation sequencing found that a single operational taxonomic unit can comprise the majority of sequence reads and that a large number of low abundance populations are present, which cannot be visualized with first generation sequencing. Bioactivity testing of selected bacterial isolates was surveyed over 100 cytological parameters with high content screening, covering several major organelles and key proteins involved in a variety of signaling cascades. Some of these cytological profiles were similar to those of several reference pharmacologically active compounds, which suggest that the bacteria isolates produce compounds with similar mechanisms of action as the reference compounds. The sum of this work offers several mechanisms by which Red Sea deep-sea corals cope with environmental

  15. Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margolin, A.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hansell, D.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the deep Black Sea are ~2.5 times higher than found in the globalocean. The two major external sources of DOC are rivers and the Sea of Marmara, a transit point for waters from theMediterranean Sea. In addition, expansive phytoplankton blooms

  16. Sea-level changes on multiple spatial scales: estimates and contributing processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederikse, T.

    2018-01-01

    Being one of the major consequences of anthropogenic climate change, sea level rise forms a threat for many coastal areas and their inhabitants. Because all processes that cause sea-level changes have a spatially-varying fingerprint, local sea-level changes deviate substantially from the global

  17. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  18. An overview of sea otter studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; DeGange, Anthony R.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    injury to the sea otter population was readily demonstrable, but also because of concerns about long-term damages. The scope of the postspill studies to assess oil-related damages to sea otters was extensive: From 1989 through 1993, more than $3,000,000 was spent, and more than 20 scientists were involved in a comprehensive research program. The studies were predominantly directed at sea otter populations in PWS.Damages to sea otters generally can be classified as either acute, defined as spill-related deaths occurring during the spill, or chronic, defined as longer term lethal or sublethal oil-related injuries. Studies of acute damages focused on estimating the total initial loss of sea otters. Characterization of the pathologies associated with exposure to oil was a secondary goal of studies of acute effects. Chronic or longer term damages may have resulted from sublethal initial exposure or continued exposure to hydrocarbons persisting in the environment. Studies of chronic effects included evaluating abundance and distribution, survival and reproduction rates, foraging behavior, and pathological, physiological, and toxicological changes in the years following the spill.The objective of this chapter is to review the studies conducted on sea otters in response to the EVOS and to synthesize the major findings of those studies relative to injury to the sea otter population associated with exposure to oil. We also provide recommendations for research to improve our understanding of the effects of future oil spills on Sea otter populations.

  19. Studies with solid chlorine chemical for chlorination of sea water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, N.; Kumaraswamy, P.; Santhanam, V.S.; Jeena, P.; Hari Krishna, K.; Rajendran, D.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorination is one of the conventional methods to control biofouling of condenser cooling water systems using either river water, reservoir water or sea water. However, there are many safety concerns associated with handling, storage and application of gaseous chlorine. Studies were carried out with suitable alternative chlorine chemical compounds which do not involve majority of these concerns but meet the functional requirement of gas chlorine. Trichloroisocyanuric Acid (TCCA) is one of the suitable alternatives to Gas chlorine. TCCA is a chlorine stabilized compound, stabilized with Cyanuric acid, thus similar to Gas Chlorine in its functions except that it is available in solid form. Release of chlorine is a gradual process in TCCA unlike Gaseous chlorine. Field studies with TCCA indicated gradual and near uniform release rate of chlorine, for longer duration with the requisite free residual chlorine levels (FRC). Thus, use of TCCA could be considered as a suitable alternative for gas chlorine for regular chlorination requirements. (author)

  20. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; Mackenzie, Brian R; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-09-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  1. The Hamburg sea-ice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoessel, A.; Owens, W.B.

    1992-10-01

    The general purpose of the model is to simulate sea ice dynamically as well as thermodynamically. Pure sea-ice models are generally highly dependent on the specified atmospheric and oceanic forcing, especially on the winds and the vertical oceanic heat flux. In order to reduce these dependencies, the sea-ice [SI] model was extended to optionally include a prognostic oceanic mixed layer [OML], a diagnostic atmospheric surface layer [ASL] and/or a diagnostic atmospheric boundary layer [ABL], thus shifting the forcing levels further away from the surface (i.e. from the sea ice) and simultaneously providing a modification of the forcing considering boundary-layer adjustments to the instantaneous sea-ice conditions given by the SI model. A further major extension of the model is the (optional) employment of a prognostic snow layer. The special application characterising the present code was sea-ice simulation in the Southern Ocean, employing a spherical, circumpolar grid with a resolution of 2.5 in latitude and 5 in longitude, extending from 50 S to 80 S and using a daily time step. (orig.)

  2. Black Sea Traffic and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Urucu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

  3. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. Structure of Living Soil Cover of the White Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseev Dmitriy Sergeevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The living soil of the Dry Sea gulf's coast in the South-East part of the White Sea's Dvina Bay is practically a blind spot. The bay is a unique water body in respect of plant communities. The majority of halophytes typical for the White Sea coast grows here. There are differences between plant communities of the East and West shores of the Dry Sea gulf. The East coast has developed communities with domination of Phragmites australis, the West coast is occupied by communities of psammophytonis levees with a predominance of Leymus arenarius. For the first time ever, the article provides a classification of halophytic vegetation of the gulf's marshes, which highlighted the prodromus containing ten associations, consisting of seven formations of the type grass vegetation, many of which are rare. The research results can be used to develop environmental protection measures during the construction of a deep sea port in the Dry Sea gulf.

  5. The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S.; Gasol, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterra- nean Sea. However, our estimates of marine...

  6. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  7. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  8. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...

  9. Environmental studies of the Arabian Sea using remote sensing, GIS and GPS techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saxena, A.

    Fig 4. Principle of Radar altimetry 17 Fig 5. Block diagram of ArcGIS platform 20 CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION CHAPTER II TOOL FOR STUDY Fig 6. Seasonal Variation of Sea Surface Temperature 24 Fig 7. Seasonal... from any major rivers, the excessive evaporation over precipitation (E-P) as well as proximity to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf makes the surface salinity of Arabian Sea high, in excess of 36psu (practical salinity unit). Motivation Arabian Sea...

  10. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...

  11. Temporal and spatial variations of oceanic pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in th Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the seasonal and inter annual variations of oceanic CO 2 uptake in the Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea, the partial pressure of CO 2 in the surface ocean (pCO 2 sea ) was measured in all seasons between 1992 and 2001. We derived monthly varying relationships between pCO 2 sea and sea surface temperature (SST) and combined them with the SST data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to determine pCO 2 sea and air-sea CO 2 flux in these seas. The pCO 2 sea values were normalized to the year 1995 by assuming that pCO 2 sea increased at the same growth rate (1.5 μatm/yr) of the pCO 2 in the air (pCO 2 air ) between 1992 and 2001. In 1995, the annual net air-sea CO 2 fluxes were evaluated to be 52 ± 20 gC/m 2 /yr in the Greenland Sea and 46 ± 18 gC/m 2 /yr in the Barents Sea. The CO 2 flux into the ocean reached its maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The wind speed and (delta)pCO 2 (=pCO 2 air -pCO 2 sea ) exerted a greater influence on the seasonal variation than the sea ice coverage. The annual CO 2 uptake examined in this study (70-80 deg N, 20 deg W-40 deg E) was estimated to be 0.050 ± 0.020 GtC/yr in 1995. The inter annual variation in the annual CO 2 uptake was found to be positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) via wind strength but negatively correlated with (delta)pCO 2 and the sea ice coverage. The present results indicate that the variability in wind speed and sea ice coverage play a major role, while that in (delta)pCO 2 plays a minor role, in determining the interannual variation of CO 2 uptake in this area

  12. Recovery of uranium resources from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1980-01-01

    After the oil crisis in 1973, the development of atomic energy has become important as substitute energy, and the stable acquisition of uranium resources is indispensable, in order to promote smoothly the use of atomic energy. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has engaged actively in the project ''The survey on the technical development of the system for recovering uranium and others from sea water'' since 1974. 80% of the uranium resources in the world is distributed in USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Niger, and in near future, the price of uranium ores may be raised. Japan must promote powerfully the development of foreign uranium resources, but also it is very important to get domestic uranium by efficiently recovering the uranium dissolved in sea water, the amount of which was estimated at 4 billion tons, and its practical use is expected in 1990s. The uranium concentration in sea water is about 3 g in 1000 t sea water. The processes of separation and recovery are as follows: (1) adsorption of uranium to titanic acid powder adsorbent by bringing sea water in contact with it, (2) dissolving the collected uranium with ammonium carbonate, the desorption agent, (3) concentration of uranium solution by ion exchange method or ion flotation method to 2800 ppm. The outline of the model plant is explained. (Kako, I.)

  13. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  14. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  15. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  16. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  17. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  19. Identification and Validation of Plasma Biomarkers in California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    clinical studies to proceed. Several studies have suggested that domoic acid causes temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, rats, and sea lions. Temporal ...neatly into expression profiles of temporal lobe epilepsy and may be specific to excitotoxic injury in sea lions or denote some novel mechanistic... lobe epilepsy is partially characterized by a widening of the dentate gyrus granular cell layer known as granular cell dispersion (GCD). However, in

  20. Nutritional components of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morakot Sroyraya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holothuria scabrais one of the most commercially important species found in the Pacific region. The sea cucumber extracts have been widely reported to have beneficial health effects.The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional compositions of H. scabra, and compare its important nutritional contents with that of other species.Methods:The sea cucumbers were dissected, sliced into small pieces,and then freeze-dried. The nutritional compositions, including proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids,collagen, GABA, Vitamin A, C, and E of the whole body and body wall of H. scabra,were analyzed.Results:H. scabra contained a high quantity of protein (22.50% in whole body and 55.18% in body wall and very low lipids (1.55% in whole body and 1.02% in body wall. The three most abundant amino acids found in both the whole body and body wall were glycine, glutamic acid, and proline. The main fatty acids found in the whole body were stearic acid and nervonic acid, and in the body wall were arachidonic acid and stearic acid. The whole body and body wall also contained high levels of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and collagen, in addition to moderate amounts of vitamin E and low amounts of GABA and vitamin C.Conclusions:The sea cucumber, H. scabra, contained high quantity of protein and very low lipid. It containedhigh essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, nervonic and arachidonic acids, and collagen, which also contained GABA, vitamin C, and vitamin E.

  1. Organic Matter Contents and Paleoproductivity Variation Within Late Pleistocene Japan Sea/East Sea Sediments: Results from IODP Expedition 346

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. D.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Inorganic and organic matter concentrations as well as the stable isotopes of nitrogen and organic carbon are presented for continuous sedimentary sequences collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 346 in the Japan Sea/East Sea in 2013. During major glacioeustatic sea level changes, the paleoceanographic conditions within the Japan Sea/East Sea widely vary due to the shallow, narrow straights connecting the sea to surrounding waters limiting an influx of oceanic currents. During glacial sea level low-stands the sea can be nearly isolated, creating a highly-stratified water column and hypoxic to anoxic bottom water conditions. Meanwhile during sea level high-stands, the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) flows into the sea bringing warmer, nutrient-rich inputs, leading to vertical mixing and oxic conditions. This study aims to better understand the role of orbital cycling within the organic matter and stable isotope contents of these Late Pleistocene sediments. A total of 192 samples were analyzed each for %CaCO3, %TOC, δ13C, %N, and δ15N from two Expedition 346 sampling sites (U1426 and U1427) during the last 430,000 years and statistical analyses were completed using wavelet and time series analyses. Carbonate concentration ranges from 0-44.3%, total organic carbon 0.2 to 6.4%, δ13C -25.8 to -19.6‰, %N 0.04 to 0.4%, and δ15N 3.8 to 13.1‰. These results are well correlated with b* color values of the sediment and generally show increased productivity during interglacial periods, likely through increased vertical mixing and deepwater ventilation, when compared to glacial periods within the Japan Sea/East Sea when the sea may be partially isolated.

  2. Fin whales and microplastics: The Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Cortez scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Coppola, Daniele; Guerranti, Cristiana; Caliani, Ilaria; Minutoli, Roberta; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Rubegni, Fabrizio; Panigada, Simone; Bérubé, Martine; Urbán Ramírez, Jorge; Panti, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The impact that microplastics have on baleen whales is a question that remains largely unexplored. This study examined the interaction between free-ranging fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and microplastics by comparing populations living in two semi-enclosed basins, the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California, Mexico). The results indicate that a considerable abundance of microplastics and plastic additives exists in the neustonic samples from Pelagos Sanctuary of the Mediterranean Sea, and that pelagic areas containing high densities of microplastics overlap with whale feeding grounds, suggesting that whales are exposed to microplastics during foraging; this was confirmed by the observation of a temporal increase in toxicological stress in whales. Given the abundance of microplastics in the Mediterranean environment, along with the high concentrations of Persistent Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) chemicals, plastic additives and biomarker responses detected in the biopsies of Mediterranean whales as compared to those in whales inhabiting the Sea of Cortez, we believe that exposure to microplastics because of direct ingestion and consumption of contaminated prey poses a major threat to the health of fin whales in the Mediterranean Sea. - Highlights: • Microplastics and phthalates were higher in the Mediterranean Sea than in the Sea of Cortez. • The overlap between the whale feeding areas and high microplastic density shows the risk of interaction. • Data suggest an increasing risk of chemical transfer from microplastic to whales during the foraging. • Mediterranean whales are exposed to higher ecotoxicological threat of than Sea of Cortez whales. - This study identified temporal and regional ecotoxicological variations in free-ranging fin whales inhabiting two seas different characterized by different microplastic abundance.

  3. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  4. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  5. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  6. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2017-08-09

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea\\'s thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  7. Environmental pollution of the Black Sea: A search for answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, V.; Osvath, I.; Froehlich, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea region governments have initiated a regional approach to the management and protection of the marine environment supported by research at national and international levels. Environmental problems in the Black Sea are serious. The Sea's shallow, mixed surface waters receive river discharges which are heavily loaded with nutrients containing nitrogen and phosphorus and contaminated with industrial and mining wastes. In addition, coastal industries appear to discharge wastes directly into the sea with little or no treatment. Thus the water quality of the life-supporting surface layer has seriously deteriorated. Eutrophication (an enrichment in nutrients) presently prevails in many parts of the Black Sea. It has dramatically changed the marine food chain, thus contributing to the demise of the Black Sea fishery and, especially in the northwestern region, to its diminished amenity value. Other factors also are at work, including changes in the hydrological balance, overfishing, and chemical pollution. Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, riparian countries further identified radioactive pollution as having a high priority. This article looks at major aspects of the state of the Black Sea's environment, and outlines the potential of, and first results derived from, the use of isotope tracers in Black Sea studies. It further discusses IAEA initiatives to join concerted international actions directed towards rehabilitation of the Black Sea environment. 1 fig., 3 tabs, 2 maps

  8. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  9. Sensitivity to deliberate sea salt seeding of marine clouds – observations and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alterskjær

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea salt seeding of marine clouds to increase their albedo is a proposed technique to counteract or slow global warming. In this study, we first investigate the susceptibility of marine clouds to sea salt injections, using observational data of cloud droplet number concentration, cloud optical depth, and liquid cloud fraction from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instruments on board the Aqua and Terra satellites. We then compare the derived susceptibility function to a corresponding estimate from the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM. Results compare well between simulations and observations, showing that stratocumulus regions off the west coast of the major continents along with large regions over the Pacific and the Indian Oceans are susceptible. At low and mid latitudes the signal is dominated by the cloud fraction.

    We then carry out geo-engineering experiments with a uniform increase over ocean of 10−9 kg m−2 s−1 in emissions of sea salt particles with a dry modal radius of 0.13 μm, an emission strength and areal coverage much greater than proposed in earlier studies. The increased sea salt concentrations and the resulting change in marine cloud properties lead to a globally averaged forcing of −4.8 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere, more than cancelling the forcing associated with a doubling of CO2 concentrations. The forcing is large in areas found to be sensitive by using the susceptibility function, confirming its usefulness as an indicator of where to inject sea salt for maximum effect.

    Results also show that the effectiveness of sea salt seeding is reduced because the injected sea salt provides a large surface area for water vapor and gaseous sulphuric acid to condense on, thereby lowering the maximum supersaturation and suppressing the formation and lifetime of sulphate particles. In some areas, our simulations show an

  10. Structural Uncertainty in Antarctic sea ice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    The inability of the vast majority of historical climate model simulations to reproduce the observed increase in Antarctic sea ice has motivated many studies about the quality of the observational record, the role of natural variability versus forced changes, and the possibility of missing or inadequate forcings in the models (such as freshwater discharge from thinning ice shelves or an inadequate magnitude of stratospheric ozone depletion). In this presentation I will highlight another source of uncertainty that has received comparatively little attention: Structural uncertainty, that is, the systematic uncertainty in simulated sea ice trends that arises from model physics and mean-state biases. Using two large ensembles of experiments from the Community Earth System Model (CESM), I will show that the model is predisposed towards producing negative Antarctic sea ice trends during 1979-present, and that this outcome is not simply because the model's decadal variability is out-of-synch with that in nature. In the "Tropical Pacific Pacemaker" ensemble, in which observed tropical Pacific SST anomalies are prescribed, the model produces very realistic atmospheric circulation trends over the Southern Ocean, yet the sea ice trend is negative in every ensemble member. However, if the ensemble-mean trend (commonly interpreted as the forced response) is removed, some ensemble members show a sea ice increase that is very similar to the observed. While this results does confirm the important role of natural variability, it also suggests a strong bias in the forced response. I will discuss the reasons for this systematic bias and explore possible remedies. This an important problem to solve because projections of 21st -Century changes in the Antarctic climate system (including ice sheet surface mass balance changes and related changes in the sea level budget) have a strong dependence on the mean state of and changes in the Antarctic sea ice cover. This problem is not unique to

  11. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    / thalasoterapy. Black Sea ecosystem restoration - Certainties and Uncertainties: Pressure on the Danube and other rivers has decreased, chemical discharges have decreased obviously, and yet there appear phenomena of water flowering - "red waters", hypoxia is still present at times and there is mass mortality of fish and other benthic organisms. Why? Signs of recovery should be considered cautiously and uncertainties may be resolved only in a longer time by increasing our scientific efforts. The results of the EU FP7 Project PERSEUS led to the identification of three important issues that should be resolved in order to achieve good environmental status: • Applying an adaptive management to increase the resilience of the ecosystems and to diminish the vulnerability of biodiversity; • Necessity of participative approach by stakeholders; • Identifying and obtaining adequate financial support for new R-D-I projects. Who are the actors in addressing and implementing the actions? • Academic educational and research institutions for adequate working condition; • More specialists trained for taxonomic groups; • Reasonable diversity of coordinating specialists, capable team leaders / satisfactory work packages; • Attracting NGO members towards nature conservation issues; • Resonable stakeholders committed to environmental issues. Studying the results of researches carried out by GeoEcoMar on the Romanian Black Sea coast in recent years, the author concluded that the major problems hampering progress towards a good ecosystem in NW Bent Black Sea are: • lack of diversity in the fields of research, both in theoretical and applied realms; • structural and functional consequences of ecological pressures and the disordered state of the ecosystems in the periods of paroxysmal eutrophication / pollution at the end of the 20th Century; • scarcity of data and knowledge on the Social-Economic System; • high costs of the new marine technology used directly in the sea and

  12. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  13. Energy from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruberti, M.

    2000-01-01

    The devices to obtain energy from sea exploiting thermal gradient and wave motion are numerous and efficient. Costs are at present prohibitive in our country and the utilization cannot be possible [it

  14. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  15. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  16. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are the things ideally required for locating industries also. The mega-cities .... waste water released into coastal seas raises the ambient temperature causing .... Problems of ozone holes and greenhouse gases were, perhaps, beyond ...

  17. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  18. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    in the first two shallow seas are driven by surface densification following evaporation that in the latter is largely influenced by freshwater discharge from Irrawaddy and inflows across the Andaman Ridge from east Bay of Bengal. Biological productivity...

  19. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  20. Major planning enquiries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  1. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  2. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  3. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  4. The first genomic and proteomic characterization of a deep-sea sulfate reducer: insights into the piezophilic lifestyle of Desulfovibrio piezophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pradel

    Full Text Available Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30(T is a piezophilic anaerobe that was isolated from wood falls in the Mediterranean deep-sea. D. piezophilus represents a unique model for studying the adaptation of sulfate-reducing bacteria to hydrostatic pressure. Here, we report the 3.6 Mbp genome sequence of this piezophilic bacterium. An analysis of the genome revealed the presence of seven genomic islands as well as gene clusters that are most likely linked to life at a high hydrostatic pressure. Comparative genomics and differential proteomics identified the transport of solutes and amino acids as well as amino acid metabolism as major cellular processes for the adaptation of this bacterium to hydrostatic pressure. In addition, the proteome profiles showed that the abundance of key enzymes that are involved in sulfate reduction was dependent on hydrostatic pressure. A comparative analysis of orthologs from the non-piezophilic marine bacterium D. salexigens and D. piezophilus identified aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, asparagine, serine and tyrosine as the amino acids preferentially replaced by arginine, histidine, alanine and threonine in the piezophilic strain. This work reveals the adaptation strategies developed by a sulfate reducer to a deep-sea lifestyle.

  5. South China Sea Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    Tanderup, Kasper Buch; Grinderslev, Emil Juhler; Tønnesen-Højbjerg, Asser Laurits Svend

    2017-01-01

    China is rising rapidly in terms of economics, military spending, sphere of influence and claims to in their view former territory. This paper has aimed to discuss the latter through analysis of the present dispute concerning islands and maritime territory in the South China Sea. The Chinese have become increasingly assertive in their claims formulated through a U-shaped line entailing most of the area within the South China Sea. The claims are contested by Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia...

  6. Sedimentation rate in Ariake Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Nishio, Souma; Honza, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    rate by 210 Pb(22 y) and 137 Cs(30 y). The depth profiles of the Sta.2 which is about 10 km away form the mouth of the Chikugo river showed almost constant 210 Pb concentration at upper several cm and subsequent decrease in concentration in deeper layers down to 24 cm. The sedimentation rate of 0.11 g/cm 2 /y was obtained by the decline of excess 210 Pb, yielding 0.24 cm/y sedimentation rate at the sediment surface. Another core at Sta. 4 which is south west of the Sta. 2 showed very slow sedimentation rate. The 137 Cs supplied by atmospheric nuclear tests was detected down to 34 cm at Sta. 2, the year calculated for 34 cm depth using the 210 Pb sedimentation rate was older than 1954 for the initiation of 137 Cs contamination by nuclear tests. The 137 Cs profile at Sta. 4 showed very slow sedimentation rate as observed for 210 Pb, suggesting necessity of thinner sectioning the core. There are several rivers are flowing into the Ariake sea and the Chikugo river is one of the major rivers. The Sta. 2 would be affected mostly by the Chikugo river and thus would record historical change of the environmental condition related to the Chikugo river. Anti-clockwise current is flowing in inner area of the Ariake sea, which would bring suspended materials supplied from the Chikugo river to the west of the Ariake sea. Larger materials would be accumulated at closer area to the mouth of the Chikugo river and less would be transported to the West. The slower accumulation rate at Sta. 4 than Sta. 2 is reasonable considering the situation mentioned above. The model calculation on 137 Cs and 210 Pb distribution for Sta. 2 suggests that assumption of a constant mixing at upper layers for 210 Pb and 137 Cs gives inconsistency with the observed distribution, 137 Cs was observed at deeper depth that estimated from 210 Pb sedimentation rate. The inventory of 137 Cs at Sta. 2 decay corrected to 2003 was 17.8% of total deposition at ground surface and 2.8% at Sta. 4, this would be related to

  7. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  8. Sea salt and pollution inputs over the continental United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.-H.

    1992-01-01

    The average deposition rate of sea salt chloride over the world continents is about 10 meq m -2 yr -1 . Only about 14±1% of chloride in the pollution-corrected world average river is contributed by sea salt aerosols and the rest from the dissolution of evaporites. The significant increase of the ion concentrations in the Mississippi river from the year 1905 to 1987 was caused by anthropogenic inputs such as fossil fuel burning, common salt consumption, and dissolution of carbonate and silicate rocks by acids derived from acid precipitation. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  10. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.

  11. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi; Kuwahara, Takashi; Narita, Masanao

    2014-01-01

    Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction. PMID:24633249

  12. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  13. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  14. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  15. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  16. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  17. Improved measurements of mean sea surface velocity in the Nordic Seas from synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergeland Hansen, Morten; Johnsen, Harald; Engen, Geir; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even

    2017-04-01

    The warm and saline surface Atlantic Water (AW) flowing into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland ridge transports heat into the Arctic, maintaining the ice-free oceans and regulating sea-ice extent. The AW influences the region's relatively mild climate and is the northern branch of the global thermohaline overturning circulation. Heat loss in the Norwegian Sea is key for both heat transport and deep water formation. In general, the ocean currents in the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic Ocean is a complex system of topographically steered barotropic and baroclinic currents of which the wind stress and its variability is a driver of major importance. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Doppler centroid shift has been demonstrated to contain geophysical information about sea surface wind, waves and current at an accuracy of 5 Hz and pixel spacing of 3.5 - 9 × 8 km2. This corresponds to a horizontal surface velocity of about 20 cm/s at 35° incidence angle. The ESA Prodex ISAR project aims to implement new and improved SAR Doppler shift processing routines to enable reprocessing of the wide swath acquisitions available from the Envisat ASAR archive (2002-2012) at higher resolution and better accuracy than previously obtained, allowing combined use with Sentinel-1 and Radarsat-2 retrievals to build timeseries of the sea surface velocity in the Nordic Seas. Estimation of the geophysical Doppler shift from new SAR Doppler centroid shift retrievals will be demonstrated, addressing key issues relating to geometric (satellite orbit and attitude) and electronic (antenna mis-pointing) contributions and corrections. Geophysical Doppler shift retrievals from one month of data in January 2010 and the inverted surface velocity in the Nordic Seas are then addressed and compared to other direct and indirect estimates of the upper ocean current, in particular those obtained in the ESA GlobCurrent project.

  18. Temporal variability in SeaWiFS derived apparent optical properties in European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantrepotte, V.; Mélin, F.

    2010-02-01

    The 10-year record of ocean color data provided by the SeaWiFS mission is an important asset for monitoring and research activities conducted on the optically complex European seas. This study makes use of the SeaWiFS data set of normalized water leaving radiances LWN to study the major characteristics of temporal variability associated with optical properties across the entire European domain. Specifically, the time series of LWN and associated band ratios are decomposed into terms representing a fixed seasonal cycle, irregular variations and trends, and the contribution of these components to the total variance is described for the various basins. The diversity of the European waters is fully reflected by the range of results varying with regions and wavelengths. Generally, the Mediterranean and Baltic seas appear as two end-members with, respectively, high and low contributions of the seasonal component to the total variance. The existence of linear trends affecting the satellite products is also explored for each basin. By focusing the analysis on LWN and band ratios, the validity of the results is not limited by the varying levels of uncertainty that characterize derived products such as the concentration of chlorophyll a in optically complex waters. Statistically significant, and in some cases large, trends are detected in the Atlantic Ocean west of the European western shelf, the central North Sea, the English Channel, the Black Sea, the northern Adriatic, and various regions of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern Baltic Sea, revealing changes in the concentrations of optically significant constituents in these regions.

  19. Legacy of the Sea Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Ian

    1997-01-01

    In February 1996, an oil tanker, the Sea Empress, ran aground in high seas in Milford Haven in the United Kingdom. Over the course of a few days, 72,000 tonnes of crude oil and 360 tonnes of heavy fuel oil leaked from the ship into a maritime and coastal area of designated scientific importance and environmental sensitivity. The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW), who are responsible for nature conservation in the area, carried out immediate surveys of the coverage of oil on the coastline. The data was fed into the CCW's geographic information system (GIS) which also holds other spill-related and environmental information. The GIS provided an ideal storage and retrieval system to enable CCW rapidly to produce high quality maps of the affected area and accurately pinpoint the protected sites involved. In summer 1996, CCW carried out a second, more detailed survey. By this time the tides and mechanical recovery had dispersed all the major concentrations of oil. A thorough comparison of the two surveys will be carried out in order to assess and catalogue the removal of the oil by natural processes and the effectiveness of the shoreline treatment. (UK)

  20. Quaternary evolution of the North Sea and the English Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbard, P.L.; Cohen, K.M.

    The island of Britain is surrounded by a ‘moat’ of water, of which the English Channel and the North Sea are two major components. This talk described some major events that occurred to shape these seaways and, in particular, the evidence preserved on the Channel seabed. Here a system of valleys

  1. Major to ultra trace elements in rainfall collected in suburban Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tadashi; Iwashita, Masato; Iijima, Satoe; Shintani, Megumi; Takaku, Yuichi

    Major to ultra trace elements such as rare earth elements (REEs), platinum group elements (PGEs) in 20 rainfall events from suburban Tokyo were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anion species were also determined by an ion chromatography (IC). The concentrations of PGEs were so low that only Pt was detected in some rainfall events. Enrichment factors (EFs), refer to soil and sea salt components, were calculated for the measured elements (with Al and Na as references). Be, (Na), Mg, (Al), Si, Cl, K, Fe, Rb, Sr, REEs (except La, Gd), Ta, and U were mostly originated from natural materials (soil and sea salt). For Li, B, Ca, Mn, Sr, Ba, and Cs, the contribution of natural materials was significant. EFs for Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Cd, Pb, Bi, Ag, Te, Au, Pt, SO 4-S and NO 3-N exceeded 100 indicating non-crustal, non-sea salt origin, presumably anthropogenic; however, contribution of volcanic gases could not be excluded for As, Se, Te and Bi. Pt seemed to be uniformly distributed worldwide and a catalyst for automobile emission control may be the main source. Au also showed uniform distribution. On the other hand, EFs for Zr, Nb, Hf and Th were less than unity. Probably these elements resided in acid resistant refractory fine minerals that did not decompose with acid treatment, and did not evaporate and ionize in the ICP. An alternative explanation is that the concentration of these elements was lower in the soil of the sampling area than the average crust. In the crust normalized REE pattern plot, La, Eu and Gd showed clear positive anomalies. La and Gd could have anthropogenic components. A possible source of La and Gd is cracking catalyst for petrol refining, but this source does not fully explain the anomaly. The source of Gd may also be Gd-DTPA (Gadolinium (III) diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid) used for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents. The Eu origin may be soil with higher concentration than the crust average.

  2. Characterization of the lipid fraction of wild sea urchin from the Sardinian Sea (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Addis, Pierantonio

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of Spatangus purpureus, Echinus melo, Sphaerechinus granularis, and Paracentrotus lividus, sea urchins, has been studied. Sea urchins were collected at different depth along Sardinia coast in the Mediterranean sea, and their gonad was measured, separated, and analyzed for FA composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 53 FAs were detected, 16 saturated (SFA), 10 monounsaturated (MUFA), 9 polyunsaturated (PUFA), and 13 highly unsaturated (HUFA). Moreover, 5 furan FAs (FFAs) were revealed for the first time in sea urchin. The HUFA and PUFA classes were the most represented accounting for almost 80% of total FAs. Among these compounds, C20:4 n6 (19.64, 20.52, 23.37, and 8.48 mg/g, respectively) and C22:6 n3 (19.68, 20.05, 3.83, and 1.78 mg/g, respectively) were the most abundant. The results of principal component analysis indicated that the sea urchin samples could be clearly discriminated with respect to their FAs composition. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  4. Temporally delineated sources of major chemical species in high Arctic snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Macdonald

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of aerosol from lower latitudes to the high Ar