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Sample records for maize grain yield

  1. Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes

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    Chitra Bahadur Kunwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.

  2. Combining abilities of silage maize grain yield

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    Živanović Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters of maize grain yield: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids superior-parent heterosis and general and special combining abilities. According to obtained results of the two-year study, it can be concluded that variability of this trait is significantly affected by a genotype, year and their interaction. As expected, hybrids had higher average grain yields than inbreds due to the depression of this trait that occurs in inbreds during inbreeding. The highest average value of heterosis for gain yield was detected in the hybrid ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 (123.0% and 178.1% in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The estimation of combining abilities was done on the basis of diallel hybrids after the method established by Griffing, 1956 (method II, mathematical model I. The analysis of variance of combining ability for grain yield indicated highly significant values of GCA and SCA for the observed trait in both study years. Grain yield inheritance was more affected by non-additive genes (dominance and epistasis as indicated by the GCA to SCA ratio that was smaller than unity. The inbreds ZPLB401 and ZPLB406 had high GCA effects, while the hybrid combinations ZPLB40Î x ZPLB402, ZPLB401 x ZPLB403, ZPLB401 x ZPLB405, ZPLB402 x ZPLB406, ZPLB403 x ZPLB406, ZPLB404 x ZPLB406, ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 had high SCA effects in both study years. These hybrid combinations include one parent with high GCA effects and other with low GCA effects. Furthermore, there are combinations ZPLB402 x ZPLB405, ZPLB403 x ZPLB405 and ZPLB404 x ZPLB405 with significant SCA effects that include parents with low GCA effects. This is probably the result of the additive type (additive x additive of interaction between parents.

  3. [Effects of applying selenium on selenium allocation, grain yield, and grain quality of two maize cultivars].

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    Hao, Yu-Bo; Liu, Hua-Lin; Ci, Xiao-Ke; An, Hong-Ming; Shu-Ting, Dong; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2012-02-01

    A pot experiment with conventional maize cultivar ZD958 and glutinous maize cultivar JN218 was conducted to study the effects of applying different concentrations (0, 10, 25 and 50 mg x kg(-1)) of selenium (Se) on the Se allocation in plant organs, grain yield, and its quality. At low concentrations (x kg(-1)), Se stimulated maize growth, and increased biomass accumulation and grain yield significantly. At high concentrations (> 25 mg x kg(-1)), Se inhibited maize growth, and decreased dry mass accumulation, grain yield, and its quality. The Se concentration in plant organs was in the order of root > leaf > stalk > sheath. The Se concentrations in plant organs had a positive correlation with the Se concentration in soil. Comparing with ZD958, JN218 could accumulate more Se in natural low-Se environment, but enrich lesser Se in the environment with 10 mg x kg(-1) of Se. Taking the Se accumulation amount in grain and aboveground vegetative organs as the standard for evaluation, JN218 was more available planted on natural low-Se (0.25 mg x kg(-1)) soil or high-Se (25 mg x kg(-1)) soil, while ZD958 was appropriate planted on Se-rich (10 mg x kg(-1)) soil or Se-polluted (50 mg x kg(-1)) soil.

  4. Agronomic Characters, Yield Components and Grain Yield Evaluation of 11 New Hybrid Maize Prospective Genotypes

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    Budi Setyawan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second important commodity after rice in Indonesia. As of  2015, more than 3 million tons of maize grain still need to be imported. It is caused by productivity of maize which remains low due to the lowness proportion of hybrid maize seed. In addition to a single cross, threeway cross seed is still necessary as alternatives for farmers rather than open pollinated cultivar ones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grain yield of 11 prospective genotypes utilizing BISI 18 and Sukmaraga as control cultivars. Randomized block design (RBD with three replications was adopted. The study was carried out in the dry season 2015. The result of this study showed that at 95% confidence level (a=0.05, prospective genotype SSUSX48274 performed significantly better than BISI 18 and Sukmaraga, while others yielded significantly better than Sukmaraga, but equal to BISI 18. All new prospective genotypes could be included in the  multilocation trial in order to release superior varieties.

  5. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

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    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  6. Planting geometry and plant population affect dryland maize grain yield and harvest index

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    Water for dryland grain production in the Texas panhandle is limited. Agronomic practices such as reduction in plant population or change in sowing time may help increase maize (Zea mays L.) yield potential. Tiller formation under dryland conditions leads to more vegetative growth and reduced yield....

  7. RESPONSIVENESS OF OBAATANPA MAIZE GRAIN YIELD AND BIOMASS TO SOIL, WEATHER AND CROP GENETIC VARIATIONS

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    Atakora K. Williams

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of crop growth simulations models such as those incorporated into Decision Support System for Agro technology Transfer (DSSAT are useful tools for assessing the impacts of crop productivity under various management systems. Maize growth model of DSSAT is Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES -Maize. To predict maize grain yield and biomass using CERES-maize under Guinea savanna agro ecological conditions with different weather scenarios, data on maize growth, yield and development as well as data on soil and weather was collected from field on-station experiment conducted during the 2010 growing season at Kpalesawgu, Tamale-Ghana. Twenty on-farm experiments were also conducted in the Tolon-Kunbungu and Tamale Metropolitan districts in Northern Ghana to determine the responsiveness of maize grain yield and biomass to soil, weather and crop genetic variations. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. Data on phenology, grain yield and biomass from the field experiment were used for model validation and simulations. Validation results showed good agreement between predicted and measured yields with a Normalized Random Square mean Error (NRSME value of 0.181. Results of these sensitivity analysis results showed that the DSSAT model is highly sensitive to changes in weather variables such as daily maximum and minimum temperatures as well as solar radiation, however, the model was found to be least sensitive to rainfall.  The model also found to be sensitive to crop genetic and soil variations. Model predictions of the responsiveness of the yield and biomass to changes in soil, weather and crop genetic coefficients were found to be good with an r2 values between 0.95 to 0.99 except when predicting maize grain yield using changes in minimum

  8. Use of optical sensor for in-season nitrogen management and grain yield prediction in maize

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    Bandhu Raj Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture technologies have developed optical sensors which can determine plant’s normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI.To evaluate the relationship between maize grain yield and early season NDVI readings, an experiment was conducted at farm land of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan during winter season of 2012. Eight different levels of N 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were applied for hybrid maize RML 32 × RML 17 to study grain yield response and NDVI measurement. Periodic NDVI was measured at 10 days interval from 55 days after sowing (DAS to 115 DAS by using Green seeker hand held crop sensor. Periodic NDVI measurement taken at a range of growing degree days (GDD was critical for predicting grain yield potential. Poor exponential relationship existed between NDVI from early reading measured before 208 GDD (55 DAS and grain yield. At the 261GDD (65DAS a strong relationship (R2 = 0.70 was achieved between NDVI and grain yield. Later sensor measurements after 571 GDD (95DAS failed to distinguish variation in green biomass as a result of canopy closure. N level had significantly influenced on NDVI reading, measured grain yield, calculated in season estimated yield (INSEY, predicted yield with added N (YPN, response index (RI and grain N demand. Measuring NDVI reading by GDD (261–571 GDD allow a practical window of opportunity for side dress N applications. This study showed that yield potential in maize could be accurately predicted in season with NDVI measured with the Green Seeker crop sensor.

  9. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and harvest time on summer maize grain yield and its quality].

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    Zhang, Xue-lin; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Ya-li; Yang, Qing-hua; Li, Chao-hai

    2010-10-01

    In order to approach the optimal nitrogen fertilization rate and suitable harvest time for the high grain yield and quality of summer maize in Huanghe-Haihe Area, a field experiment with five nitrogen fertilization rates (0, 113, 181, 249, and 375 kg N x hm(-2)) and two harvest time (S1: September 23, conventional harvest time for local farmers, and S2: September 29, 6 days delayed) was conducted. The results showed that the kernel number, grain yield, and 1000-grain mass increased with nitrogen fertilization rate, but the differences were not significant. With increasing nitrogen fertilization rate, the protein and lysine contents of the grains increased, while the starch content decreased. After 6 days delayed for harvest, the grain yield, 1000-grain mass, and the starch and lysine contents of the grains increased, but the protein and crude fat contents decreased. Based on the yield level, the optimal nitrogen fertilization rate for the summer maize in Huanghe-Haihe Area was 113-180 kg N x hm(-2), and the suitable harvest time was from September 29 to October 5.

  10. Correlation And Path Analysis Of Grain Yield Components In Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L. Hybrids

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    Muneeb Munawar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to investigate the genotypic and phenotypic association among grain yield components and their direct and indirect effects on yield. Correlation studies revealed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic relationship of grain yield with cob position, rows per cob and grains per row. Cob height, number of grains per row, stem diameter and cob girth had high positive direct effects on grain yield. Cob position had high negative direct effect on yield. These result depicted that cob position, no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per cob may be used as reliable criteria for improving grain yield. Heritability and genetic advance estimates described the genetic attributes of the traits under study. All the traits except no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row had non additive type of gene action with high heritability and low genetic advance. The exploitation of these traits would be effective in hybrid maize breeding. No. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row showed both additive and non additive type of gene action with environmental influence due to high environmental variance. These traits can be utilized effectively through selection in varietal development.

  11. Increased grain yield with improved photosynthetic characters in modern maize parental lines

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    LI Cong-feng; TAO Zhi-qiang; LIU Peng; ZHANG Ji-wang; ZHUANG Ke-zhang; DONG Shu-ting; ZHAO Ming

    2015-01-01

    The grain yield of maize has increased continuously in past decades, largely through hybrid innovation, cultivation tech-nology, and in particular, recent genetic improvements in photosynthesis. Elite inbred lines are crucial for innovating new germplasm. Here, we analyzed variations in grain yield and a series of eco-physiological photosynthetic traits after anthesis in sixteen parental lines of maize (Zea mays L.) released during three different eras (1960s, 1980s, 2000s). We found that grain yield and biomass signiifcantly increased in the 2000s than those in the 1980s and 1960s. Leaf area, chlorophyl , and soluble protein content slowly decreased, and maintained a higher net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and improved stomatal conductance (Gs) after anthesis in the 2000s. In addition, the parental lines in the 2000s obtained higher actual photo-chemistry efifciency (ФPSI ) and the maximum PSII photochemistry efifciency (Fv/Fm), which largely improved light partition-ing and chlorophyl lfuorescence characteristic, including higher photochemical and photosystem II (PSII) reaction center activity, lower thermal energy dissipation in antenna proteins. Meanwhile, more lamel ae per granum within chloroplasts were observed in the parental lines of the 2000s, with a clear and complete chloroplast membrane, which wil greatly help to improve photosynthetic capacity and energy efifciency of ear leaf in maize parental lines. It is concluded that grain yield increase in modern maize parental lines is mainly attributed to the improved chloroplast structure and more light energy catched for the photochemical reaction, thus having a better stay-green characteristic and stronger photosynthetic capac-ity after anthesis. Our direct physiological evaluation of these inbred lines provides important information for the further development of promising maize cultivars.

  12. Increased grain yield with improved photosynthetic characters in modern maize parental lines

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    LI Cong-feng[1; TAO Zhi-qiang[1; LIU Peng[2; ZHANG Ji-wang[2; ZHUANG Ke-zhang[3; DONG Shu-ting[2; ZHAO Ming[1

    2015-01-01

    The grain yield of maize has increased continuously in past decades, largely through hybrid innovation, cultivation tech- nology, and in particular, recent genetic improvements in photosynthesis. Elite inbred lines are crucial for innovating new germplasm. Here, we analyzed variations in grain yield and a series of eco-physiological photosynthetic traits after anthesis in sixteen parental lines of maize (Zea mays L.) released during three different eras (1960s, 1980s, 2000s). We found that grain yield and biomass significantly increased in the 2000s than those in the 1980s and 1960s. Leaf area, chlorophyll, and soluble protein content slowly decreased, and maintained a higher net photosynthesis rate (Po) and improved stomatal conductance (Gs) after anthesis in the 2000s. In addition, the parental lines in the 2000s obtained higher actual photo- chemistry efficiency (Ps,) and the maximum PSII photochemistry efficiency (FJFm), which largely improved light partition- ing and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristic, including higher photochemical and photosystem II (PSII) reaction center activity, lower thermal energy dissipation in antenna proteins. Meanwhile, more lamellae per granum within chloroplasts were observed in the parental lines of the 2000s, with a clear and complete chloroplast membrane, which will greatly help to improve photosynthetic capacity and energy efficiency of ear leaf in maize parental lines. It is concluded that grain yield increase in modern maize parental lines is mainly attributed to the improved chloroplast structure and more light energy catched for the photochemical reaction, thus having a better stay-green characteristic and stronger photosynthetic capac- ity after anthesis. Our direct physiological evaluation of these inbred lines provides important information for the further development of promising maize cultivars.

  13. [Effects of organic fertilizer application rate on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize].

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    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Liang, Lian-You; Ding, Rui-Xia; Wang, Min; Li, Han

    2012-02-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted at the Heyang Research Station in Weibei dryland to study the effects of organic fertilizer application rate on the leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize. Comparing with applying chemical fertilizer, applying organic fertilizer increased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, but decreased the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration at each growth stage of maize significantly. With the increasing application rate of organic fertilizer, the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance at each growth stage of maize had a gradual increase, while the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration had a gradual decrease. The leaf photosynthesis of maize at each growth stage was controlled by non-stomatal factors, and the application of organic fertilizer reduced the non-stomatal limitation on the photosynthesis performance significantly. The 4-year application of organic fertilizer improved soil nutrient status, and soil nutrients were no longer the main factors limiting the leaf photosynthetic rate and grain yield of maize.

  14. Dissecting Maize Productivity: Ideotypes Associated with Grain Yield under Drought Stress and Well-watered Conditions

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    Jill E.Cairns; Ciro Sanchez; Mateo Vargas; Raziel Ordo(n)ez; Jose Luis Araus

    2012-01-01

    To increase maize (Zea mays L.) yields in drought-prone environments and offset predicted maize yield losses under future climates,the development of improved breeding pipelines using a multi-disciplinary approach is essential.Elucidating key growth processes will provide opportunities to improve drought breeding progress through the identification of key phenotypic traits,ideotypes,and donors.In this study,we tested a large set of tropical and subtropical maize inbreds and single cross hybrids under reproductive stage drought stress and well-watered conditions.Patterns of biomass production,senescence,and plant water status were measured throughout the crop cycle.Under drought stress,early biomass production prior to anthesis was important for inbred yield,while delayed senescence was important for hybrid yield.Under well-watered conditions,the ability to maintain a high biomass throughout the growing cycle was crucial for inbred yield,while a stay-green pattern was important for hybrid yield.While new quantitative phenotyping tools such as spectral reflectance (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index,NDVI) allowed for the characterization of growth and senescence patterns as well as yield,qualitative measurements of canopy senescence were also found to be associated with grain yield.

  15. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

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    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  16. Field establishment and grain yield of maize affected by hydro-priming of differentially aged seeds

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    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize seeds (cv. SC-AR68 with a 100% germination was kept as control, and two other sub-samples were artificially deteriorated at 40 °C for 2 and 3 days, reducing normal germination to 98% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, three seed lots of maize with different levels of vigor were provided. Each seed lot was then divided into four sub-samples, one unprimed and the other three lots were primed in distilled water at 15 °C for 7, 14 and 21 hours, and then dried back to initial moisture content (about 20% at a room temperature of 20–22 °C for 24 hours. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Although germination percentage of seed lots was not significantly affected by hydro-priming, germination rate and seedling dry weight were considerably enhanced as a result of seed priming. Hydro-priming for 21 hours enhanced seedling emergence rate of all seed lots with different levels of vigor. This hydro-priming duration also increased grain yield of maize by about 32%, although this superiority was not statistically significant. This advantage in grain yield of plants from primed seeds was related with rapid germination and seedling growth and early emergence in the field.

  17. INFLUENCE OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF (Zea mays L. MAIZE GRAIN

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    Monika Marković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three years’ research (from 2010 to 2012, conducted on a trial field of the Institute of Agriculture in Osijek, is a part of a long stationary experiment. The objective of the research was the impact of irrigation (main factor, A, nitrogen fertilization (second factor, B, and the genotype (third factor, C on the grain yield and the quality of maize hybrids (Zea mays L. The irrigation scheduling was the main factor where A1 treatment was the control, rain-fed plot. In A2 treatment the soil water content was 60-100% of the field water capacity (FWC, while in the A3 treatment the soil water content was 80 to 100% FWC. Nitrogen fertilization as a sub factor, consisted of the three levels where B1 was the control treatment (0 kg N ha-1. In B2 treatment 100 kg N ha-1 was added, while in B3 treatment 200 kg N ha-1. Fall application (1/3 of all nitrogen was in the form of UREA. The same amount of nitrogen was applied in the pre-sowing period. During the vegetation period, two side dressings with CAN were carried out. The first side dressing (1/6 of nitrogen was done by cultivating the maize in 6-8 leaves phase, while the second one in 8 to 10 leaves phase (1/6 of nitrogen. Four maize hybrids (FAO 500 and 600 were used in the research, C1=OSSK596, C2=OSSK617, C3=OSSK602 and C4=OSSK552. The maize was irrigated by a traveling sprinkler system. The moment of irrigation was set by measuring soil moisture with the Watermark sensor (gypsum block. During the period of the research the weather conditions significantly varied, especially concerning the amount of precipitation. The year 2010 stands out as extremely wet (rainy, when a natural disaster of flood was proclaimed, due to high amount of precipitation, which had an influence on the results of the research. Analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in yield in all three years of the research. Grain yield was higher as amount of irrigation water was higher, with an exception of

  18. Components of genetic variability and heritability of grain yield of silage maize

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    Sečanski Mile D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters for the grain yield of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and components of genetic variability and heritability on the basis of the diallel set. The two-year four-replicate trial was set up according to the randomized complete-block design at Zemun Polje. It was determined that a genotype, year and their interaction significantly affected variability of this trait. The highest. i.e. the lowest grain yield, on the average for both investigation years. was recorded in the silage maize inbred lines ZPLB402 and ZPLB405. respectively. The analysis of components of genetic variance for grain yield shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variance, while a positive component F and the frequency of dominant (u and recessive (v genes for this observed trait point to prevalence of dominant genes over recessive ones. Furthermore. this is confirmed by the ratio of dominant to recessive genes in parental genotypes for grain yield (Kd/Kr> 1 that is greater than unity in both years of investigation. The estimated value of the average degree of dominance (H1/D1/2 exceeds unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation. Results of Vr/Vr regression analysis indicate superdominance in inheritance of grain yield. Moreover. a registered presence of non-allelic interaction points out to the need to study effects of epistasis, as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high values of broad-sense heritability for grain yield in both investigation years (98.71%, i.e. 97.19% in 1997, i.e. 1998, respectively. and low values of narrow-sense heritability (11.9% in 1997 and 12.2% in 1998.

  19. Effect of Seed Distribution and Population on Maize (Zea mays L. Grain Yield

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    Bee Khim Chim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize planting is normally accomplished by hand in the developing world where two or more seeds are placed per hill with a heterogeneous plant spacing and density. To understand the interaction between seed distribution and distance between hills, experiments were established in 2012 and 2013 at Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB and Efaw Agronomy Research Stations, near Stillwater, OK. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications and 9 treatments and a factorial treatment structure of 1, 2, and 3 seeds per hill using interrow spacing of 0.16, 0.32, and 0.48 m. Data for normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR, grain yield, and grain N uptake were collected. Results showed that, on average, NDVI and IPAR increased with number of seeds per hill and decreased with increasing plant spacing. In three of four site-years, planting 1 or 2 seeds per hill, 0.16 m apart, increased grain yield and N uptake. Over sites, planting 1 seed, every 0.16 m, increased yields by an average of 1.15 Mg ha−1 (range: 0.33 to 2.46 Mg ha−1 when compared to the farmer practice of placing 2 to 3 seeds per hill, every 0.48 m.

  20. Effect of subsoil tillage depth on nutrient accumulation, root distribution, and grain yield in spring maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongguang; Cai; Wei; Ma; Xiuzhi; Zhang; Jieqing; Ping; Xiaogong; Yan; Jianzhao; Liu; Jingchao; Yuan; Lichun; Wang; Jun; Ren

    2014-01-01

    A four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of subsoiling depth on root morphology, nitrogen(N), phosphorus(P), and potassium(K) uptake, and grain yield of spring maize. The results indicated that subsoil tillage promoted root development,increased nutrient accumulation, and increased yield. Compared with conventional soil management(CK), root length, root surface area, and root dry weight at 0–80 cm soil depth under subsoil tillage to 30 cm(T1) and subsoil tillage to 50 cm(T2) were significantly increased, especially the proportions of roots in deeper soil. Root length, surface area, and dry weight differed significantly among three treatments in the order of T2 > T1 > CK at the12-leaf and early filling stages. The range of variation of root diameter in different soil layers in T2 treatment was the smallest, suggesting that roots were more likely to grow downwards with deeper subsoil tillage in soil. The accumulation of N, P, and K in subsoil tillage treatment was significantly increased, but the proportions of kernel and straw were different. In a comparison of T1 with T2, the grain accumulated more N and P, while K accumulation in kernel and straw varied in different years. Grain yield and biomass were increased by 12.8% and 14.6% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment. Although no significant differences between different subsoil tillage depths were observed for nutrient accumulation and grain yield, lodging resistance of plants was significantly improved in subsoil tillage to 50 cm, a characteristic that favors a high and stable yield under extreme environments.

  1. Effect of subsoil tillage depth on nutrient accumulation, root distribution, and grain yield in spring maize

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    Hongguang Cai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of subsoiling depth on root morphology, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K uptake, and grain yield of spring maize. The results indicated that subsoil tillage promoted root development, increased nutrient accumulation, and increased yield. Compared with conventional soil management (CK, root length, root surface area, and root dry weight at 0–80 cm soil depth under subsoil tillage to 30 cm (T1 and subsoil tillage to 50 cm (T2 were significantly increased, especially the proportions of roots in deeper soil. Root length, surface area, and dry weight differed significantly among three treatments in the order of T2 > T1 > CK at the 12-leaf and early filling stages. The range of variation of root diameter in different soil layers in T2 treatment was the smallest, suggesting that roots were more likely to grow downwards with deeper subsoil tillage in soil. The accumulation of N, P, and K in subsoil tillage treatment was significantly increased, but the proportions of kernel and straw were different. In a comparison of T1 with T2, the grain accumulated more N and P, while K accumulation in kernel and straw varied in different years. Grain yield and biomass were increased by 12.8% and 14.6% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment. Although no significant differences between different subsoil tillage depths were observed for nutrient accumulation and grain yield, lodging resistance of plants was significantly improved in subsoil tillage to 50 cm, a characteristic that favors a high and stable yield under extreme environments.

  2. Effects of Liquid Organic Fertilizer on Time of Tasselling, Time of Silking and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays

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    Enujeke, E. C. and Ojeifo, I. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from August to December in 2005 and repeated between March and July, 2006 to evaluate the response of maize (Zea mays to liquid organic fertilizer. The study was conducted using a split plot fitted into randomized complete block design. Liquid organic fertilizer was diluted at the rate of 60 ml of the product to 15 litres of water and applied to maize foliage, topsoil, foliage and topsoil at the rates of 5l/ha, 10l/ha, 151/ha, l8l/ha, 201/ha and 251/ha. The result obtained indicated a positive influence of liquid organic fertilizer on time of tasselling, time of silking and grain yield of maize. Liquid organic fertilizer significantly reduced the times of tasselling and silking, and increased grain yield of maize. Based on this study, it is recommended that 151/ha of liquid organic fertilizer which produced 5.6tha’ in 2005 and 6.1tha’ of dry grain yield 2006 be applied on the topsoil of maize plant with a view to maximally exploit the great economic potentials of the crop.

  3. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization and root separation on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms].

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    Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Huang, Guo-Qin; Bian, Xin-Min; Zhao, Qi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment with root separation was conducted to study the effects of root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms under different nitrogen fertilization levels (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1)). Root interaction and nitrogen fertilization had positive effects on the plant height, leaf length and width, and leaf chlorophyll content of maize. Less difference was observed in the root dry mass of maize at maturing stage between the treatments root separation and no root separation. However, as compared with root separation, no root separation under the nitrogen fertilization levels 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1) increased the biomass per maize plant by 8.8%, 6.3%, 3.6%, and 0.7%, and the economic yield per maize plant by 17.7%, 10.0%, 8.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. No root separation increased the quantity of rhizosphere fungi and azotobacteria significantly, as compared with root separation. With increasing nitrogen fertilization level, the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes presented an increasing trend, while that of rhizosphere azotobacteria decreased after an initial increase. The root-shoot ratio of maize at maturing stage was significantly negatively correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes, but less correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere azotobacteria. It was suggested that the root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system could improve the plant growth of maize and increase the maize yield and rhizosphere microbial quantity, but the effect would be decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level.

  4. Radiation use efficiency, biomass production, and grain yield in two maize hybrids differing in drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought tolerant (DT) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids have potential to increase yield under drought conditions. However, little information is known about the physiological determinations of yield in DT hybrids. Our objective was to assess radiation use efficiency (RUE), biomass production, and yield ...

  5. Identification of QTL for maize grain yield and kernel-related traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONG YANG; LEI ZHANG; AIMIN JIA; TINGZHAO RONG

    2016-06-01

    Grain yield (GY) is one of the most important and complex quantitative traits in maize (Zea maysL.) breeding practice.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GY and three kernel-related traits were detected in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs).One hundred and seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 168 insertion/deletion polymorphism markers (Indels) were usedto genotype RILs. Eight QTLs were found to be associated with four yield-related traits: GY, 100-kernel weight (HKW),10-kernel length (KL), and 10-kernel length width (KW). Each QTL explained between 5.96 (qKL2-1) and 13.05 (qKL1-1)per cent of the phenotypic variance. Notably, one common QTL, located at the marker interval betweenbnlg1893andchr2-236477(chromosomal bin 2.09) simultaneously controlled GY and HKW; another common QTL, at bin 2.03 was simulta-neously responsible for HKW and KW. Of the QTLs identified, only one pair of significant epistatic interaction involved inchromosomal region at bin 2.03 was detected for HKW; no significant QTL ×environment interactions were observed. Theseresults provide the common QTLs and for marker-assisted breeding

  6. Effects of shading on spike differentiation and grain yield formation of summer maize in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiyan; Camberato, James J.; Jin, Libin; Zhang, Jiwang

    2015-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on tassel and ear development and yield formation of three summer maize hybrids Zhenjie 2 (ZJ2), Denghai 605 (DH605), and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958). The ambient sunlight treatment was used as control (CK) and shading treatments (40 % of ambient sunlight) were applied at different growth stages from silking stage (R1) to physiological maturity stage (R6) (treatment S1), from the sixth extended leaf stage (V6) to R1 (treatment S2) and from seeding to R6 (treatment S3). Shading had no significant effect on the time from seeding to shoot emergence (VE); however, subsequent growth and development were delayed with shading beyond this point. The differentiation time of both tassel and ear delayed, and female spike (tassel) floret differentiation, sexual organ formation time, and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) were lengthened. After shading, the total number of floret, silk, and fertilization floret reduced significantly; the number of abortive seeds increased, and the total setting percentage among different treatments showed that CK>S2>S1>S3; and the total setting percentages in S1, S2, and S3 of ZD958 were 44, 72, and 15 % respectively. The total floret number of tassel primordium differentiation, fertility rate, and seed setting rate of florets in S3 treatment was the minimum; kernels per ear decreased seriously and single ear setting percentage was only 16 %; although floret degeneration number of S2 during ear differentiation stages increased and floret fertility rate reduced than that of CK, fertilization flower seed production increased and abortive seed decreased after canceling shading. Aborted kernel of S1 increased and kernel dry weight reduced, resulting in a significant decrease of kernel number per ear and kernel weight, and the grain abortive rate of 40-62 %. In conclusion, shading changed the growth and development process and caused infertility of tassel and ear; tassel branches decreased

  7. Modiifed fertilization management of summer maize (Zea mays L.) in northern China improves grain yield and efifciency of nitrogen use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yi; ZHAO Jie; LIU Zhen-xiang; HUO Zhi-jin; LIU Peng; DONG Shu-ting; ZHANG Ji-wang; ZHAO Bin

    2015-01-01

    Improving the yield of maize grain per unit area is needed to meet the growing demand for it in China, where the availability of fertile land is very limited. Modiifed fertilization management and planting density are efifcient methods for increasing crop yield. Field experiments were designed to investigate the inlfuence of modiifed fertilization management and planting density on grain yield and nitrogen use efifciency of the popular maize variety Zhengdan 958, in four treatments including local farmer’s practice (FP), high-yielding and high efifciency cultivation (HH), super high-yielding cultivation (SH), and the control (CK). Trials were conducted in three locations of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in northern China. Compared with FP, SH was clearly able to promote N absorption and dry matter accumulation in post-anthesis, and achieve high yield and N use efifciency by increasing planting density and postponing the supplementary application of fertilizers. However, with an increase in planting density, the demand of N increased along with grain yield. Due to the input of too much N fertilizer, the efifciency of N use in SH was low. Applying less total N, ameliorating cultivation and cropping management practices should be considered as priority strategies to augment production potential and ifnal y achieve synchronization between high yield and high N efifciency in fertile soils. However, in situations where soil fertility is low, achieving high yield and high N use efifciency in maize wil likely depend on increased planting density and appropriate application of supplementary fertilizers postpone to the grain-ifl ing stage.

  8. [Impacts of drought stress on the growth and development and grain yield of spring maize in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui-Peng; Che, Yu-Sheng; Zhu, Yong-Ning; Liang, Tao; Feng, Rui; Yu, Wen-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Shu

    2012-11-01

    Taking spring maize variety Danyu-39 as test object, an experiment was conducted in a large-scale agricultural water controlling experimental field to study the impacts of drought stress at three key growth stages, i. e. , 3-leaf-jointing, jointing-silking, and silking-milk ripe, on the growth and development and grain yield of spring maize in Northeast China. Two treatments were installed, including moderate drought stress (MS) and re-watering to suitable water (CK). Compared with CK, the MS at 3-leaf-jointing stage postponed the whole growth period of Danyu-39 by 13 d, and the plant height and leaf area at jointing stage were decreased by 29.8% and 41.2%, respectively. After re-watering, the plant height and grain yield recovered obviously, and the differences in ear characteristics and final yield were insignificant. The MS at jointing-silking stage shortened the whole growth period by 7 d, the plant height and leaf area at silking stage were decreased by 18.6% and 14.1%, respectively, the ear length, grain number per ear, ear dry mass, and grain mass per ear decreased by 6.9%, 19.1%, 28.1%, and 29.4%, respectively, and the blank stem rate increased by 13.3%. When the maize suffered from moderate drought stress at silking-milk ripe stage, the whole growth period was shortened by 15 d, the plant height and leaf area at milk ripe stage were decreased by 2.3% and 37.3%, respectively, the ear length, grain number per ear, ear dry mass, and grain mass per ear decreased by 9.2%, 24.1%, 30.8%, and 27.9%, respectively, and the blank stem rate increased by 24.5%. After re-watering at the latter two stages, the recovery of plant height was little, and the grain yield decreased significantly.

  9. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  10. EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELDS AND ITS WATER CONTENT AT HARVESTING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The results of three-year studies devoted to the effect of pre-sowing seeds treatment with growth regulators on grain yielding and pre-sowing water content in grain are submitted. The object of studies was the ROSS-140CB and Obsky-140CB corn hybrids. A day before sowing the seeds were treated with the following growth regulators: Lignogumat AM, Gumi-20, Mival-Agro, Krezatsin, Novosil, Immunocitovit, Phytosporin and Ribav-Extra. The total amount of the treatment solution used was 10-20 l per o...

  11. Effects of Controlled-Release Urea on Grain Yield of Spring Maize, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Balance

    OpenAIRE

    JI Jing-hong; Li, Yu-Ying; Liu, Shuang-Quan; TONG Yu-xin; REN Gui-lin; Li, Jie; Liu,Ying; ZHANG Ming-yi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of mixing controlled-released urea (CRU) (release period of resin coated urea is 90 days) and urea (U) on maize yield, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen balance were studied by 4 plot experiments (site:Shuangcheng, Binxian, Harbin and Zhaoyuan) in two years (from year 2011 to 2012) to clarify the effect of controlled release urea on spring maize and soil nitrogen balance. Results were as follow:Spring maize yield and nitrogen absorption were increased with the increasing nitrog...

  12. Changes in Grain Yield of Rice and Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Paddy Fields after Application of Organic Fertilizers Made from Maize Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yi-hu; GU Dao-jian; LIU Li-jun; WANG Zhi-qin; ZHANG Hao; YANG Jian-chang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China, to study the effects of organic fertilizers made from maize straw on rice grain yield and the emission of greenhouse gases. Four organic fertilizer treatments were as follows:maize straw (MS), compost made from maize straw (MC), methane-generating maize residue (MR), and black carbon made from maize straw (BC). These organic fertilizers were applied separately to paddy fields before rice transplanting. No organic fertilizer was applied to the control (CK). The effects of each organic fertilizer on rice grain yield and emission of greenhouse gases were investigated under two conditions, namely, no nitrogen (N) application (0N) and site-specific N management (SSNM). Rice grain yields were significantly higher in the MS, MC and MR treatments than those in CK under either 0N or SSNM. The MS treatment resulted in the highest grain yield and agronomic N use efficiency. However, no significant difference was observed for these parameters between the BC treatment and CK. The changes in the emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), or nitrous oxide (N2O) from the fields were similar among all organic fertilizer treatments during the entire rice growing season. The application of each organic fertilizer significantly increased the emission of each greenhouse gas (except N2O emission in the BC treatment) and global warming potential (GWP). Emissions of all the greenhouse gases and GWP increased under the same organic fertilizer treatment in the presence of N fertilizer, whereas GWP per unit grain yield decreased. The results indicate that the application of organic fertilizer (MS, MC or MR) could increase grain yield, but also could enhance the emissions of greenhouse gases from paddy fields. High grain yield and environmental efficiency could be achieved by applying SSNM with MR.

  13. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Ivanovic, M.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bocanski J., Z. Sreckov, A. Nastasic, M. Ivanovic, I.Djalovic and M. Vukosavljev (2010): Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.) - Genetika, Vol 42, No. 1, 169- 176. Utilization of heterosis requires the study of

  14. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Kong-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF.

  15. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    combination of deeper deployment of roots and resource (water and N) availability was realized where the soil was prone to leaching. The correlation between the depletion of resources and distribution of patchy roots endorsed the SS tillage practice. It resulted in significantly greater post-silking biomass and grain yield compared to the RT and NT treatments, for summer maize on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain.

  16. Stability Performance of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Phenotyped Kernel Minerals Concentration and Grain Yield in Maize in Different Agro-Climatic Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, Mallana Gowdra; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Hossain, Firoz; Bhat, Jayant S; Jha, Shailendra K; Rathore, Abhishek; Agrawal, Pawan Kumar; Pattanayak, Arunava; Reddy, Sokka S; Gularia, Satish Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru; Manjaiah, Kanchikeri Math; Gupta, Hari Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ~25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India. Phenotyping of kernels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed considerable variability for kernel minerals concentration (iron: 18.88 to 47.65 mg kg(-1); zinc: 5.41 to 30.85 mg kg(-1); manganese: 3.30 to 17.73 mg kg(-1); copper: 0.53 to 5.48 mg kg(-1)) and grain yield (826.6 to 5413 kg ha(-1)). Significant positive correlation was observed between kernel iron and zinc within (r = 0.37 to r = 0.52, p kernel minerals concentration and grain yield. Most of the variation was contributed by genotype main effect for kernel iron (39.6%), manganese (41.34%) and copper (41.12%), and environment main effects for both kernel zinc (40.5%) and grain yield (37.0%). Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot identified several mega environments for kernel minerals and grain yield. Comparison of stability parameters revealed AMMI stability value (ASV) as the better representative of the AMMI stability parameters. Dynamic stability parameter GGE distance (GGED) showed strong and positive correlation with both mean kernel concentrations and grain yield. Inbreds (CM-501, SKV-775, HUZM-185) identified from the present investigation will be useful in

  17. Stability Performance of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Phenotyped Kernel Minerals Concentration and Grain Yield in Maize in Different Agro-Climatic Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna

    Full Text Available Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ~25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India. Phenotyping of kernels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed considerable variability for kernel minerals concentration (iron: 18.88 to 47.65 mg kg(-1; zinc: 5.41 to 30.85 mg kg(-1; manganese: 3.30 to 17.73 mg kg(-1; copper: 0.53 to 5.48 mg kg(-1 and grain yield (826.6 to 5413 kg ha(-1. Significant positive correlation was observed between kernel iron and zinc within (r = 0.37 to r = 0.52, p < 0.05 and across locations (r = 0.44, p < 0.01. Variance components of the additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI model showed significant genotype and genotype × environment interaction for kernel minerals concentration and grain yield. Most of the variation was contributed by genotype main effect for kernel iron (39.6%, manganese (41.34% and copper (41.12%, and environment main effects for both kernel zinc (40.5% and grain yield (37.0%. Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE biplot identified several mega environments for kernel minerals and grain yield. Comparison of stability parameters revealed AMMI stability value (ASV as the better representative of the AMMI stability parameters. Dynamic stability

  18. Potassium Management for Improving Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Moisture Stress Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah; Iqbal, Asif; Irfanullah; Hidayat, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) fertilizer management is beneficial for improving growth, yield and yield components of field crops under moisture stress condition in semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam) to foliar and soil applied K during summer 2013 and 2014. The experiments were carried out at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Northwest Pakistan under limited irrigation (moisture stress) condition. It was concluded from the results that application of foliar K at the rate of 1–3% and foliar Zn at the rate of 0.1–0.2% was more beneficial in terms of better growth, higher yield and yield components of maize under moisture stress condition. Early spray (vegetative stage) resulted in better growth and higher yield than late spray (reproductive stage). Soil K treated plots (rest) plots performed better than control (K not applied) in terms of improved growth, higher yield and yield components of maize crop. The results further demonstrated that increasing the rate of soil applied K up to 90 kg P ha−1 in two equal splits (50% each at sowing and knee height) improve growth and maize productivity under semiarid climates. PMID:27694964

  19. Potassium Management for Improving Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Moisture Stress Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah; Iqbal, Asif; Irfanullah; Hidayat, Zeeshan

    2016-10-03

    Potassium (K) fertilizer management is beneficial for improving growth, yield and yield components of field crops under moisture stress condition in semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam) to foliar and soil applied K during summer 2013 and 2014. The experiments were carried out at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Northwest Pakistan under limited irrigation (moisture stress) condition. It was concluded from the results that application of foliar K at the rate of 1-3% and foliar Zn at the rate of 0.1-0.2% was more beneficial in terms of better growth, higher yield and yield components of maize under moisture stress condition. Early spray (vegetative stage) resulted in better growth and higher yield than late spray (reproductive stage). Soil K treated plots (rest) plots performed better than control (K not applied) in terms of improved growth, higher yield and yield components of maize crop. The results further demonstrated that increasing the rate of soil applied K up to 90 kg P ha(-1) in two equal splits (50% each at sowing and knee height) improve growth and maize productivity under semiarid climates.

  20. Integrated application of February Orchid (Orychophragmus violaceus) as green manure with chemical fertilizer for improving grain yield and reducing nitrogen losses in spring maize system in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jin-shun; CAO Wei-dong; XIONG Jing; ZENG Nao-hua; GAO Song-juan; Shimizu Katsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of more efifcient management systems is crucial to achieving high grain yields with high nitrogen use efifciency (NUE). February Orchid-spring maize rotation system is a newly established planting system with the beneifts of ground cover and potential wind erosion in northern China. A ifeld experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with reduction of chemical fertilizers (INTEGRATED) on spring maize yield, N uptake, ammonium volatilization, and soil residual mineral N in northern China. Compared to farmers’ traditional fertilization (CON), integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with 30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizers (INTEGRATED) increased maize grain yield and biomass by 9.9 and 10.2%, respectively. The 0–100 cm soil residual Nmin at harvest was decreased by 58.5% and thus nitrogen use efifciency was increased signiifcantly by 26.7%. The nitrogen balance calculation further demonstrated that the INTEGRATED approach performed better than CON with lower apparent nitrogen loss (decreased by 48.9%) which evidenced by the ammonium volatilization of top-dressing fertilizer was decreased by 31.1%, the Nmin movement to the deeper soil layers was reduced, and the apparent nitrogen leaching loss nearly equal to 0 under the INTEGRATED treatment. Therefore, in northern China, integrated application of green manure and chemical fertilizers is an efifcient management approach for improving maize yields and NUE simultaneously.

  1. Effects of Controlled-Release Urea on Grain Yield of Spring Maize, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JI Jing-hong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mixing controlled-released urea (CRU (release period of resin coated urea is 90 days and urea (U on maize yield, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen balance were studied by 4 plot experiments (site:Shuangcheng, Binxian, Harbin and Zhaoyuan in two years (from year 2011 to 2012 to clarify the effect of controlled release urea on spring maize and soil nitrogen balance. Results were as follow:Spring maize yield and nitrogen absorption were increased with the increasing nitrogen fertilizer. Compared with applying urea treatment, applying CRU could increase yield, nitrogen absorption, nitrogen use efficiency, agriculture efficiency of nitrogen and nitrogen contribution rate. Under the same amount of nitrogen (100%, 75%, 50%, compared with 100% U as basic fertilizer treatment, maize yield of 100% CRU treatment increased 391, 427, 291 kg·hm-2, nitrogen use efficiency increased by 5.9%,4.9% and 5.1%, agriculture efficiency of nitrogen increased 2.0, 2.6, 2.6 kg·kg-1, and nitrogen contribution rate increased 2.7%, 3.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The value of maize yield, nitrogen absorption, nitrogen use efficiency and agriculture efficiency of nitrogen between the treatment four (40% urea as basic fertilizer+60% urea as topdressing and treatment five (40% urea plus 60% controlled release urea as basic fertilizer were similar. Apparent profit and loss of nitrogen decreased with the increase of nitrogen nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen apparent loss by applying 100% controlled release urea was reduced of 15.0 kg·hm-2 than applying 100% U treatment;Nitrogen apparent loss amount was decreased of 23.9 kg·hm-2 under treatment five. The method of mixing 40% urea and 60% controlled release urea should be applied in maize production in Heilongjiang Province.

  2. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions. PMID:27329934

  3. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions.

  4. Metabolite Profiles of Maize Leaves in Drought, Heat, and Combined Stress Field Trials Reveal the Relationship between Metabolism and Grain Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Toshihiro; Witt, Sandra; Lisec, Jan; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Yousfi, Salima; Araus, Jose Luis; Cairns, Jill E; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-12-01

    The development of abiotic stress-resistant cultivars is of premium importance for the agriculture of developing countries. Further progress in maize (Zea mays) performance under stresses is expected by combining marker-assisted breeding with metabolite markers. In order to dissect metabolic responses and to identify promising metabolite marker candidates, metabolite profiles of maize leaves were analyzed and compared with grain yield in field trials. Plants were grown under well-watered conditions (control) or exposed to drought, heat, and both stresses simultaneously. Trials were conducted in 2010 and 2011 using 10 tropical hybrids selected to exhibit diverse abiotic stress tolerance. Drought stress evoked the accumulation of many amino acids, including isoleucine, valine, threonine, and 4-aminobutanoate, which has been commonly reported in both field and greenhouse experiments in many plant species. Two photorespiratory amino acids, glycine and serine, and myoinositol also accumulated under drought. The combination of drought and heat evoked relatively few specific responses, and most of the metabolic changes were predictable from the sum of the responses to individual stresses. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between levels of glycine and myoinositol and grain yield under drought. Levels of myoinositol in control conditions were also related to grain yield under drought. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models very well explained the variation of grain yield via the combination of several metabolites. These results indicate the importance of photorespiration and raffinose family oligosaccharide metabolism in grain yield under drought and suggest single or multiple metabolites as potential metabolic markers for the breeding of abiotic stress-tolerant maize.

  5. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  6. YIELD OF ENERGY AND PROTEIN FROM GRAIN MAIZE HYBRIDS USING AGROTECHNICAL SYSTEM, OPTIMAL FOR THE CONDITIONS IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANYA DELIBALTOVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The yields of metabolizable energy for ducks and protein, so as the multiplication effect by different varieties of maize have been investigated. For the conditions in the Plovdiv region the hybrid PR35P12 had the highest yield of crude protein - 1368 kg/ha, and metabolizable energy – AME- 171,5 GJ/ha and TME – 181,3 GJ/ha. The highest multiplication effect (protein yield/crude protein applied by seed material – showed hybrid PR35P12 - +403.3.

  7. 玉米高产品种籽粒灌浆特性研究%Study on Grain Filling Characteristics of High-Yielding Maize Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋平; 郭新平; 韩成卫; 王惠芳; 孔晓民

    2015-01-01

    以郑单958为对照,对3个高产玉米品种籽粒灌浆特性进行研究,并运用Logistic生长模型拟合籽粒灌浆过程(R2>0.99),结果表明:迪卡517、登海605和金海5号较郑单958(CK)达到灌浆峰值后的灌浆速率下降相对较慢;籽粒灌浆速率和干物质积累量在籽粒生长各阶段均存在品种间差异,3个高产品种的最大灌浆速率、灌浆速率最大时生长量和平均灌浆速率均明显高于郑单958,而灌浆活跃期各品种表现与之接近。籽粒灌浆速率的提高,尤其是快增期灌浆速率高,利于缩短后期库容建成时间,促进籽粒快速灌浆,从而能进一步发挥品种增产潜力。%In this experiment, the grain filling characteristics of three high -yielding maize cultivars were studied with ZD958 as control.The Logistic growth equation was used for the fitting of grain filling process(R2 >0.99).The results showed that the grain filling process of the four cultivars showed a single peak curve consistently.Compared to ZD958, the grain filling rate of DK517, DH605 and JH5 decreased more slowly after the peak.The grain filling rate and dry matter accumulation were different in different grain growth period between different cultivars.The maximum and average grain filling rate and the grain weight at the stage with the maximum grain filling rate were all higher than those of ZD958;but in the active grain filling period, the performance of the three cultivars were same with that of ZD958.Therefore, enhancing the grain filling rate, especially in the rapidly increasing phase of grain weight, could accelerate the whole grain filling progress to shorten the duration of late grain filling,and maybe contribute to reaching a higher yield potential of maize hybrids.

  8. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiaofei Liu; Yu Chen; Weiwei Li; Yang Liu; Juan Han; Xiaoxia Wen; Yuncheng Liao

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and...

  9. Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avat Shekoofa

    Full Text Available Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

  10. Soil water extraction, water use, and grain yield by drought tolerant maize on the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticipated water shortages pose a challenge to the sustainability of maize (Zea mays L.) production on the Texas High Plains. Adoption of drought tolerant (DT) hybrids is a critical management strategy for maize production under water limited conditions. However, limited information is available co...

  11. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G;

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other diets...

  12. Identification of QTLs for root characteristics in maize grown in hydroponics and analysis of their overlap with QTLs for grain yield in the field at two water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Landi, Pierangelo; Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Salvi, Silvio; Conti, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the overlap among quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in maize for seminal root traits measured in hydroponics with QTLs for grain yield under well-watered (GY-WW) and water-stressed (GY-WS) field conditions as well as for a drought tolerance index (DTI) computed as GY-WS/GY-WW. In hydroponics, 11, 7, 9, and 10 QTLs were identified for primary root length (R1L), primary root diameter (R1D), primary root weight (R1W), and for the weight of the adventitious seminal roots (R2W), respectively. In the field, 7, 8, and 9 QTLs were identified for GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, respectively. Despite the weak correlation of root traits in hydroponics with GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, a noticeable overlap between the corresponding QTLs was observed. QTLs for R2W most frequently and consistently overlapped with QTLs for GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. At four QTL regions, an increase in R2W was positively associated with GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. A 10 cM interval on chromosome 1 between PGAMCTA205 and php20644 showed the strongest effect on R1L, R1D, R2W, GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI. These results indicate the feasibility of using hydroponics in maize to identify QTL regions controlling root traits at an early growth stage and also influencing GY in the field. A comparative analysis of the QTL regions herein identified with those described in previous studies investigating root traits in different maize populations revealed a number of QTLs in common.

  13. Tillage and straw mulching impacts on grain yield and water use efficiency of spring maize in Northern Huang–Huai–Hai Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang; Tao; Congfeng; Li; Jingjing; Li; Zaisong; Ding; Jie; Xu; Xuefang; Sun; Peilu; Zhou; Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A two-year field experiment(2012–2013) was conducted to investigate the effects of two tillage methods and five maize straw mulching patterns on the yield, water consumption,and water use efficiency(WUE) of spring maize(Zea mays L.) in the northern Huang–Huai–Hai valley of China. Compared to rotary tillage, subsoil tillage resulted in decreases in water consumption by 6.3–7.8% and increases in maize yield by 644.5–673.9 kg ha-1, soil water content by 2.9–3.0%, and WUE by 12.7–15.2%. Chopped straw mulching led to higher yield,soil water content, and WUE as well as lower water consumption than prostrate whole straw mulching. Mulching with 50% chopped straw had the largest positive effects on maize yield, soil water content, and WUE among the five mulching treatments. Tillage had greater influence on maize yield than straw mulching, whereas straw mulching had greater influence on soil water content, water consumption, and WUE than tillage. These results suggest that 50% chopped straw mulching with subsoil tillage is beneficial in spring maize production aiming at high yield and high WUE in the Huang–Huai–Hai valley.

  14. Tillage and straw mulching impacts on grain yield and water use efficiency of spring maize in Northern Huang-Huai-Hai Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Tao; Congfeng Li; Jingjing Li; Zaisong Ding; Jie Xu; Xuefang Sun; Peilu Zhou; Ming Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A two-year field experiment (2012–2013) was conducted to investigate the effects of two tillage methods and five maize straw mulching patterns on the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize (Zea mays L.) in the northern Huang–Huai–Hai valley of China. Compared to rotary tillage, subsoil tillage resulted in decreases in water consumption by 6.3–7.8% and increases in maize yield by 644.5–673.9 kg ha−1, soil water content by 2.9–3.0%, and WUE by 12.7–15.2%. Chopped straw mulching led to higher yield, soil water content, and WUE as well as lower water consumption than prostrate whole straw mulching. Mulching with 50%chopped straw had the largest positive effects on maize yield, soil water content, and WUE among the five mulching treatments. Tillage had greater influence on maize yield than straw mulching, whereas straw mulching had greater influence on soil water content, water consumption, and WUE than tillage. These results suggest that 50%chopped straw mulching with subsoil tillage is beneficial in spring maize production aiming at high yield and high WUE in the Huang–Huai–Hai valley.

  15. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  16. Effect of Seed treatment, Panchagavya application, Growth and yield of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Shubha, S.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of seed treatment,Panchagavya application and organic farming systems on growth and yield of Maize. grain yield of maize varied significantly due to different organic farming systems, seed treatment and panchagavya spray.Maximum grain yield of 19.3 q per ha was recorded in organic farming system II and minimum maize grain yield was recorded in system I (17.1q/ha).The grain yield of 19.6 q per ha and 16.90 q per ha was recorded with panchagavya(3...

  17. The variations in maize grain composition induced by different environments

    OpenAIRE

    Dragičević Vesna D.; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana D.; Babić Vojka B.; Filipović Milomir R.; Čamdžija Zoran F.; Kovačević Dragan R.

    2014-01-01

    Nine maize hybrids were grown with the aim to determine variations in chemical composition of the grain. Analyzed hybrids were grown in split-plot experimental design with tree replications in Sremska Mitrovica and Zemun Polje, during the summer of 2010 and 2011. Grain yield, protein, starch, oil, as well as, antioxidants like phytate, soluble phenolics and free sulfhydryl groups (PSH) were analyzed. Unfavorable meteorological conditions affected not only g...

  18. Climate Change and Maize Yield in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output from six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10-20% by the end of the 21st century.

  19. Economic efficiency of the maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

  20. Effects of different zinc fertilization methods on yield and grain Zn concentration of maize and wheat%锌肥施用方式对小麦、玉米产量和籽粒锌含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敦一; 庞丽丽; 张伟; 李忠祥; 王孝忠; 于福同; 邹春琴

    2014-01-01

    以“郑单958”和“先玉335”玉米品种,“良星99”小麦品种为试验材料,在田间试验条件下研究了土施和叶面喷施锌肥对小麦、玉米产量和籽粒锌含量的影响。结果表明:在华北石灰性土壤上,土施和叶面喷施锌肥并没有显著提高玉米产量,小麦产量有一定程度增加;土施以及叶面喷施锌肥均显著提高小麦、玉米籽粒锌含量,叶面喷施锌肥的效果更好,并且小麦籽粒锌含量增加幅度显著高于玉米。土施和叶面喷施均能显著降低小麦、玉米籽粒磷锌摩尔比,增加籽粒锌的生物有效性,叶面喷施的效果更好。因此,单独叶面喷施锌肥或与土施相结合是提高小麦、玉米籽粒锌含量的有效措施,是保障人体锌营养健康的重要途径之一。%In order to investigate the effects of different zinc ( Zn) fertilization methods on the yield and grain Zn concentration of maize and winter wheat, four field trials were conducted on the calcareous soil with maize cultivars as“Zhengdan 958” and“Xianyu 335” and winter wheat cultivar as“Liangxing 99”. The results showed that both soil and foliar application of Zn fer-tilizer did not increase maize yield significantly while did slightly enhance winter wheat yield. However, both soil and foliar application of Zn fertilizers could significantly raise Zn concentration in grains of maize and winter wheat for all cultivars, and foliar Zn application method exerted better effect than soil Zn application method on Zn enrichment of maize and wheat grains. The grain Zn concentration of winter wheat was higher than that of maize independent of Zn fertilization methods. Both foliar and soil application of Zn fertilizer could significantly decrease the P/Zn molar ratio in grains which could be reliable indicator on the adaptability of grain Zn concentration. These results suggested that foliar Zn application alone or combined with soil Zn

  1. Effects of different tillage measures on formation of grain and forage maize yield%不同耕作措施对粮饲兼用玉米产量形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立健; 李玲玲; 谢军红; 李婧

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments of different tillage (conventional tillage,no tillage,rotary tillage,subsoi-ling)were studied for all film double furrow sowing and water use of forming technology of grain and for-age maize yield from 2012 to 2013 in Longzhong Semiarid Hilly and gully region of Loess Plateau.The re-sults show that subsoiling tillage and rotary tillage of leaf area index under conventional tillage and no till-age was similar,increased 27.12%~40.24%,photosynthetic potential and dynamic changes of leaf area in-dex were basically the same.The amount of dry matter accumulation were rotary tillage,subsoiling and no tillage,conventional tillage > in each growth period,rotary tillage and deep tillage tillage double spike rate,ear diameter,1 000 grain weight were higher than conventional tillage and no tillage.Two years aver-age biological yield,economic yield and straw yield rotary tillage and deep tillage treatment were higher, and higher water use efficiency.Therefore,deep tillage and rotary tillage by increasing the leaf area index increased leaf photosynthetic potential,thus increased the dry matter accumulation in maize,and enhanced double spike rate,source organ photosynthates to grain transfer,promoted the ear growth,ultimately bene-ficial to grain and forage maize grain yield and biological yield and water use to improve the efficiency of the water.Deep tillage and rotary tillage is suitable for areas of the film double furrow sowing technology un-der ideal grain and forage maize cultivation of soil and water loss in the Loess Plateau .%2012~2013年在陇中黄土高原半干旱丘陵沟壑区采用大田试验研究了不同耕作措施(传统耕作、免耕、旋耕、深松耕)对全膜双垄沟播技术下粮饲兼用玉米产量形成及水分利用的影响.结果表明:深松耕与旋耕下叶面积指数相近,较传统耕作与免耕提高27.12%~40.24%,光合势动态变化与叶面积指数基本一致;各生育时期干物质积累量都表现

  2. Effects of Sowing Date and Interplanting Patterns on Carboxylase Activity and Grain Yield of Summer Maize%播期与接茬方式对夏玉米羧化酶活性及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党红凯; 李瑞奇; 李雁鸣; 李晓爽; 孟建

    2015-01-01

    旨为明确播期和接茬方式对夏玉米羧化酶活性及产量的影响,同时为确定夏玉米与小麦的适宜接茬方式和播种期提供研究依据。2008,2009年进行了4个播期的夏玉米田间试验,6月1,6,11日为“三密一稀”种植的麦田中套种,6月16日为15 cm等行距小麦收获后平播,分别用S06-01、S06-06、S06-11、S06-16表示。生育期间测定羧化酶活性。结果表明,随播期推迟,夏玉米基部第1~4叶的RuBPCase 和PEPCase 活性增强,PEPC/RuBPC 比值减小。棒3叶PEPCase活性随生育进程呈单峰变化,播期早的叶片展开虽早,PEPCase活性高峰出现也早,但后期下降幅度也较大,以致不同处理棒3叶生育期间PEPCase活性的平均值差异并不显著。随播期推迟,棒3叶同叶位叶片光合势与叶源量有减小的趋势,玉米成穗数有增加趋势。千粒质量变化与灌浆期温度密切相关而与播期关系不大,最终产量以S06-16处理较高。处理间经济系数也以S06-16最高或较高,说明产量形成不仅与光合物质生产能力有关,还与光合物质有效转运相关。综上可见,夏玉米平播既保证与套种相同或较高的产量,又便于小麦玉米生产的全程机械化,是较适宜的接茬方式。但为避开集中平播后的浇水高峰,在不早于小麦收获前9 d(6月6日以后)套播,可为夏收夏种期间的农事操作提供较为充足的时间。%In order to clarify the effect of sowing date and interplanting pattern on carboxylase activity and grain yield of summer maize and to provide research support for decision-making on interplanting pattern and sowing date,field experiments were conducted in the years 2008 and 2009.The experiment included four treatments of maize sowing dates,June 1,6,11 seeded inter-rows of previous wheat ,and June 16 directly-seeded after wheat har-vest,and the four treatments were expressed in S06-01,S06-06,S06

  3. The variations in maize grain composition induced by different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine maize hybrids were grown with the aim to determine variations in chemical composition of the grain. Analyzed hybrids were grown in split-plot experimental design with tree replications in Sremska Mitrovica and Zemun Polje, during the summer of 2010 and 2011. Grain yield, protein, starch, oil, as well as, antioxidants like phytate, soluble phenolics and free sulfhydryl groups (PSH were analyzed. Unfavorable meteorological conditions affected not only grain yield, but its chemical composition too, by decreasing starch, phenolics and PSH and increasing protein, oil and phytate concentrations. Hybrids from the FAO 600 maturity group achieved higher grain yield during unfavourable conditions, with higher starch and phytate contents and decreased levels of PSH and phenolics. Hybrids from the FAO 500 maturity group were much more stable in respect of protein and oil contents, irrespective to year and location. The grain yield did not have the same source of variations as the factors which determine nutritional quality, an exception being oil content, which decreased with the increase in the grain yield. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31068

  4. Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium Nutrition on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism at Late Growing Stage and Grain Yield Formation in Spring Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Study on the relationship between grain yield formation and metabolism of carbon and nitrogen as influenced by N and K nutrition level during maturation was carried out through field experiments and biochemistry analyses. The results confirmed that it was necessary to maintain a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves and abundant N supplies for root at late growing stages. The soluble protein content, RuBPC and PEPC activities in leaves, harvest index(HI) and harvest index of nitrogen (HIN)increased obviously with appropriate N and K application rate, which accelerated C and N translocation from vegetative parts to grain, enhanced photosynthetic capacity of leaves and abundant(but not excessive)N supply for root during late growing period.

  5. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE AND YIELD UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL Sabagh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the adaptability of maize hybrids under water deficit condition by measuring of stomatal conductance with the corresponding yield of maize hybrids. Seven maize hybrids were grown at two different irrigation regimes (well water and deficit water conditions at the agricultural research area of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey. The results of study indicated that at drought stress (deficit water remarkably influenced maize yield. The hybrid Sancia produced maximum grain yield under water deficient condition while 71May69 hybrid achieved the higher yield under wellwatered condition. Stomatal conductance was strongly correlated with grain yield in this study and higher stomatal conductance indicates higher grain yield, higher stomatal conductance at 7 days after pollination helps to increase grain yield. A positive and significant correlation between grain yield and stomatal conductance was observed at 7th and 21st days after anthesis (DAA. Moderately high stomatal conductance under stress condition helps to produce the highest grain yield. Based on the results, stomatal conductance can be used as selection criterion to identify the drought stress genotypes in maize under Mediterranean condition.

  6. A meta-analysis of long-term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.; Corbeels, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Rufino, M.C.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation agriculture involves reduced tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations to enhance soil fertility and to supply food from a dwindling land resource. Recently, conservation agriculture has been promoted in Southern Africa, mainly for maize-based farming systems. However, maize yiel

  7. The effect of drip irrigation and drip fertigation on N2O and NO emissions, water saving and grain yields in a maize field in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mu, Yujing; Zhou, Yizhen; Zhang, Chenglong; Liu, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    N2O and NO emissions, the water usage and grain yields of a maize field in the North China Plain (NCP) under traditional flood irrigation, drip irrigation and drip fertigation were compared. With respect to the flood irrigation treatment, N2O emissions were reduced by 13.8% in the drip irrigation treatment and 7.7% in the drip fertigation treatment. NO emissions were reduced to 16.7% in the drip irrigation treatment but increased by 21.7% in the drip fertigation treatment. The molar ratios of NO/N2O within 2days after each fertilization event were evidently greater from the drip fertigation treatment than from the flood irrigation treatment, indicating that nitrification was more intensive in the drip fertigation treatment than in the treatment of flood irrigation. Compared with the flood irrigation treatment, evident increase of the maize yields in the drip irrigation treatment (28%) and the drip fertigation treatment (3.7%) were found. Although the drip fertigation treatment could evidently increase NO emission, the 40% water reduction in drip fertigation is of great importance for the sustainable development of agriculture in the NCP where water resources are extremely limited. To mitigate NO emissions from agricultural fields in the NCP with drip fertigation, the addition of a nitrification inhibitor combined with N or nitrate fertilizer was recommended.

  8. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting grain yield and its components of maize both in single-and two-locus levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianbing; TANG Hua; HUANG Yiqin; ZHENG Yonglian; SUBHASH Chander; LI Jiansheng

    2006-01-01

    By adding thirty-one markers in the previous linkage map, a new genetic linkage map containing 205 markers was constructed, spanning a total of 2305.4 cM with an average interval of 11.2 cM. The genotypic errors in the whole genome were detected by the statistical method and removed manually. The precision of the linkage map was improved significantly. Main and epistatic QTL were detected by R/qtl, and main QTL were confirmed and refined by multiple interval mapping (MIM). Finally, MIM detected seven QTL for rows number, and five QTL for each grain yield, kernels per row and 100-kernel weight. The contribution to genetic variations of QTL varied from 35.3% for grain yield to 61.5% for rows number. Only kernels per row exhibited significant epistatic interactions between QTL. Twenty-four epistatic QTL were detected which distributed on almost all the ten chromosomes. About two-third epistatic QTL were observed between main QTL and another locus, which had no significant effects. These results indicate rather clearly that there are a number of QTL affecting trait expressions, not directly but indirectly through interactions with other loci. Thus, epistatic QTL effects may play a crucial role, if not more important than main QTL effects, in the genetic variation for the measured traits in present study.

  9. Rendimento de grãos de híbridos de milho em duas densidades de plantas com e sem a retirada dos perfilhos Grain yield of maize hybrids at two plant densities with and without tillers removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2009-04-01

    seasons. Three hybrids were tested: AS 1560, Penta and P30F53. Each hybrid was evaluated at the densities of 4 and 7pl m-2, keeping tillers until harvest or removing them when the crop had nine expanded leaves. The percentage of plants with tillers at four growth stages, grain yield and yield components were assessed. Hybrids P30F53 and AS 1560 produced more tillers than Penta at the density of 4pl m-2. Tillers destiny did not affect grain yield during the first growing season. In 2006/2007 tiller maintenance promoted higher grain yield than tiller removal for all hybrids at the lower plant density. The results of this work showed that tiller removal does not enhance maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, they demonstrated that tiller maintenance may increase grain yield when maize is grown under low plant densities.

  10. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plantas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas

  11. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  12. Identification of QTL-s for drought tolerance in maize, II: Yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield is the primary trait of interest in maize breeding programs. Worldwide, drought is the most pervasive limitation to the achievement of yield potential in maize. Drought tolerance of maize has been considerably improved through conventional breeding. Traditional breeding methods have numerous limitations, so development of new molecular genetics techniques could help in elucidation of genetic basis of drought tolerance .In order to map QTLs underlying yield and yield components under drought 116 F3 families of DTP79xB73 cross were evaluated in the field trials. Phenotypic correlations calculated using Pearson’s coefficients were high and significant. QTL detection was performed using composite interval mapping option in WinQTL Cartographer v 2.5. Over all nine traits 45 QTLs were detected: five for grain yield per plant and 40 for eight yield components. These QTLs were distributed on all chromosomes except on chromosome 9. Percent of phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 27.46 to 95.85%. Different types of gene action were found for the QTLs identified for analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

  13. Growth and yield of maize in purple nutsedge interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Valadão Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed evaluates the influence of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus on the agronomic performance of maize. We conducted a field experiment at Viçosa, MG, in completely randomized design experimental with three replications. The treatments consisted of the interaction of maize with nine nutsedge densities (0, 10, 30, 50, 90, 110, 130, 160 and 260 plants m-2. In the flowering culture was made the measurement of plant height, the insertion of the corn ears and the total dry matter of corn plants. At harvest were determined ear weight, grain yield and 100-grain weight adjusted to 13% moisture. Higher density of nutsedge increased plant height and the insertion of the first corn ear. We also observed a reduction in total dry matter accumulation, ear weight, 100-grain weight and grain yield in all densities evaluate. Nutsedge control, even at low densities is necessary because the presence of this plant promotes negative effect on growth and development of corn with a direct consequences on crop productivity.

  14. Crop management systems and maize grain yield under narrow row spacing Sistemas de manejo e produtividade de grãos de milho sob espaçamento entrelinhas reduzido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércio Luiz Strieder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in row spacing provides a more uniform distribution among plants that can increase grain yield. The benefits of narrow row spacing can depend on the plant architecture and on the kind of crop management system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of narrow row spacing on the grain yield of maize hybrids growing under different management systems. Six experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 growing seasons. Each experiment corresponded to a crop management system. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (0.8 and 0.4 m, two hybrids (Penta and Flash and two plant densities, which varied with the crop management system and growing season. Besides plant density, the crop management systems differed in the quantities of fertilizers applied at sowing, side-dress and use of irrigation. A complete randomized block design was used in each experiment, in a 2 × 2 × 2 treatment factorial scheme with four replications. The increases in grain yield with narrow row spacing were small, ranging from zero to 14%. They depended on the growing season and were manifested only with yields higher than 10 t ha-1, regardless of the hybrid. The number of grains per area was the component that best explained the response of grain to narrow row spacing, regardless of plant density, hybrid and crop management system. Narrow row spacing is a worth management strategy to enhance maize grain yield when high input cropping systems are used.A redução do espaçamento entrelinhas melhora a distribuição entre plantas na área e pode incrementar a produtividade de grãos. Os benefícios da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas podem depender da arquitetura de planta e do sistema de manejo empregado. A pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas na produtividade de grãos de híbridos de milho cultivados em diferentes sistemas de manejo

  15. Manejo agronómico para incrementar el rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos tardíos de maíz Agronomic management to increase grain and forage yield in full season maize hybrids

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    Alfonso Peña Ramos

    Full Text Available El manejo agronómico del maíz tiene impacto sobre el rendimiento de grano y la producción y calidad del forraje. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de dos dosis de nitrógeno y tres densidades de población sobre el rendimiento de grano y materia seca, así como la calidad del forraje de maíces híbridos tardíos. El experimento se estableció en mayo de 2003 en Aguascalientes, México. El diseño fue bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, donde las parcelas de mayor a menor fueron: niveles de N, 180 y 240 kg ha-1; densidades de población, 60 000, 80 000 y 100 000 plantas ha-1 y los híbridos H-376 y Lobo. Las variables cuantificadas fueron: rendimiento de grano por hectárea y por planta; para el forraje se determinó, producción de materia seca total, contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca y se estimó producción de leche por tonelada de materia seca y por hectárea. La dosis 240-90-00 incrementó el rendimiento y la materia seca total en 1.3 y 3.3 t ha-1, respectivamente. El aumento en densidad de población de 80 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incrementó el rendimiento en 1 t ha-1 y el aumento de 60 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incremento la materia seca total en 3.2 t ha-1. El H-376 obtuvo el mayor rendimiento de materia seca total con 21.7 t ha-1 y los mayores contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido y menor digestibilidad in vitro; sin embargo, Lobo produjo 216 kg de leche t-1 y 3.5 t de leche ha-1 más que H-376.The agronomic management of maize impacts grain yield and production and quality of forage. The objective was to determine the effects of two nitrogen levels and three plant stands upon grain yield and dry matter production, also on the forage quality of full season maize hybrids. The experiment was established on May 2003 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The experimental design was a completely random with split-split plots, in large plots N levels

  16. Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

  17. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION OF MAIZE ON PROTEIN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO FEMENTABILITY OF GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D BABNIK

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen fertilization of maize on fermentability of maize grain in the rumen was studied by means of in vitro method based on the measurement of gas produced during the incubation of samples with rumen liquor. Gas production was recorded continuously up to 72 h incubation time and cumulative gas production was described by the Gompertz equation Y=A*exp(-exp(-d*(t-tm. Seven treatments, one of them unfertilized and others fertilized with 100 to 250 kg N ha–1, were compared. Grain yield and concentration of crude protein (CP in grain increased linearly with nitrogen fertilization. Grain yield increased for 25 kg dry matter (DM ha–1 and CP concentration for 0.13 g kg–1 DM per each additional kg of N. Concentration of CP in grain, which varied from 83 to 115 g kg–1 DM, was closely related to the dynamics of gas production. The maximal gas production rate (MPR was negatively related to CP concentration in the grain (R2 = 0.53; p < 0.10 and the time of MPR (tm was positively related to the amount of added N (R2 = 0.74; p < 0.05 and concentration of CP in the grain (R2 = 0.88; p < 0.01. It is likely that intensive N fertilization of maize limits ruminal digestion of maize starch. Due to the shift of starch digestion from the rumen to lower gastrointestinal tract better utilization of energy can be expected in maize grain of extensively fertilized maize than in the grain of maize, in which supply of N is sub-optimal.

  18. Fungal Diversity of Maize (Zea Mays L. Grains

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    Gulbis Kaspars

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is becoming more and more important crop for dairy farming as forage and as substrate for biogas production. The mycotoxin producing fungi can spoil feed, reduce cattle productivity and cause health problems. The aim of this research was to study the mycoflora of maize grains in order to clarify the fungal composition and verify the presence of potential mycotoxin producing fungi. The grain samples were collected from different maize hybrid performance trial in Research and Study farm “Vecauce” of Latvia University of Agriculture in 2014. The fungi from 14 genera were isolated from surface sterilized grains. The most abundant were Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium spp. Mycotoxin producing fungi are present in maize grain mycoflora, and there is a risk that maize production can contain mycotoxins.

  19. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio L e Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Baby corn (BC consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to produce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the first ear as BC. Corn cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to the following treatments, in a random block design with ten replicates (52 plants per plot: BC harvesting; green ear harvesting (grain moisture content between 60 and 70%; mature ear harvesting; BC harvesting and harvesting of other ears as green or mature ears. Marketable green ears yield or grain yield produced without removing the first inflorescence were superior to the green ears yield or grain yield produced after removal of the first inflorescence harvested as baby corn. Harvesting only the first ear as baby corn, and then harvesting green ears or the mature ears, provided lower baby corn yields than that obtained by harvesting all ears as baby corn. Economically, the best net revenues would be obtained by exploring the crop for the production of green ears, green ears + baby corn, baby corn, baby corn + grain, and grain, in this order.O minimilho (MM é a espiga do milho colhida dois a três dias após a emergência dos estilo-estigmas. O MM é rentável e propicia diversificação da produção, agregação de valor e ampliação de renda. A remoção da primeira inflorescência feminina induz o milho a produzir outras. Isso possibilita a produção de várias espigas de MM ou, alternativamente, MM (colhendo-se a primeira espiga e espigas verdes ou grãos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, após a colheita da primeira espiga como MM. A cultivar AG

  20. Long-term Effects of Early Life Maize Yield on Maize Productivity and Efficiency in Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    The paper assesses the effects of maize yields just prior to birth (in utero), in the first and the second years of life on adult life productivity and efficiency of maize farmers born between 1984 and 1995 in rural Malawi. To ensure that early life maize yields are not confounded by omitted local chacteristics, they are transformed into relative maize yields by using a cumulative gamma distribution. I find that maize yield just prior to birth significantly increases maize output in a farmer'...

  1. Relationship of soil physical quality parameters and maize yield in a Brazilian Oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson C Bergamin; Antonio C. T. Vitorino; SOUZA, FABIO R. de; Luciano R Venturoso; Luara P.P Bergamin; Campos, Milton C. C.

    2015-01-01

    In Brazilian agriculture, maize (Tea mays L.) is prominent because of its magnitude of grain production. However, soil compaction changes negatively the soil physical attributes, limiting the crop growth. This study aimed to evaluate physical attributes of a clayey Oxisol (Rhodic Hapludox) under no-tillage, and the relationships between these attributes with maize yield in the Midwest region of Brazil. Besides this, indicators of soil physical quality when subjected to levels of compaction we...

  2. Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L.) based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria) sole, pea (Pisum sativum L.) sole, lin...

  3. Association of secondary traits with yield in maize F 1 's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Nardino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective was to identify phenotypic and genotypic associations, and cause-and-effect relations of secondary components on primary components to establish criteria in the indirect selection process for maize. Partial diallel crosses were conducted in Clevelândia. F1's were evaluated in five environments. For the purpose of increasing the yield of corn grain, breeders should seek to reduce the characters distance from the last node to the first branch of the tassel, tassel length and number of branches. The indirect selection for distance from the last node to the first branch of the tassel would be effective to increase the grain yield. The selection for smaller leaf angle, larger stem diameter and thousand grain weight are favorable for increasing grain yield in maize.

  4. The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kisić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1 and wheat (5.48 t ha-1 were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

  5. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J. [Department of Theoretical Production Ecology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Diepen, C.A. [DLO the Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined. Subsequent analyses were made using climate change scenarios with and without the direct effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The impact of crop management in a changed climate was also assessed. The various climate change scenarios used appear to yield considerably different changes in yield, both for each location and for the EU as a whole. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs.

  6. Assessment of factors influencing the biomethane yield of maize silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Sinnaeve, Georges; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    A large set of maize silage samples was produced to assess the major traits influencing the biomethane production of this crop. The biomass yield, the volatile solids contents and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare (average=7266m(3)ha(-1)). The most influential factor controlling the biomethane yield was the cropping environment. The biomass yield had more impact than the anaerobic digestibility. Nevertheless, the anaerobic digestibility of maize silages was negatively affected by high VS content in mature maize. Late maturing maize varieties produced high biomass yield with high digestibility resulting in high biomethane yield per hectare. The BMP was predicted with good accuracy using solely the VS content.

  7. Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeveson da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1 sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012. O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN, de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex.The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1 on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012. The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprinkler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was

  8. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  9. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  10. 河北低平原区冬小麦夏玉米产量提升的理论与技术研究%Research on exploiting wheat-maize grain yield theory and technology in the eastern low plain of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵立威; 罗建美; 尹工超; 刘树勋

    2016-01-01

    效果。因此,通过适宜的品种选择与适期的生育期搭配、种植方式调整、适时深松打破犁底层的耕作措施、速效肥与有机肥合理施用等栽培和管理技术,可实现冬小麦夏玉米产量的逐步提高和稳定,充分利用玉米生长季丰富且集中的降水与光热资源,挖掘夏玉米产量,稳夏增秋的粮食增产模式更符合该地区未来发展需求。%Medium and low-yield fields in the low plains of East Hebei Province are critical for “Bohai Granary” project for increasing grain yields at national level. Winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system is the main planting pattern for agricultural production in the area. The growth of winter wheat and summer maize is seriously restricted by water deficit, soil fertility and climate fluctuations, which results in the decreasing of grain yield. Summer maize growth season is accompanied by sufficient rain and heat, while winter wheat season is deficit in both rain and heat. There is a high potential to increase grain yield by selecting suitable cultivars, reasonable date of sowing matching with harvesting, optimization of planting, cultivation and management modes and technologies. The main aim of this research was to exploit increasing measures of winter wheat and summer maize grain yields with enhanced potential and use efficiency of resources such as water and fertilizer (by underground roots) and light and heat (by over-ground canopy). A total of eight field experiments were designed in the research, which included winter wheat seeding date, winter wheat cultivar, summer maize seeding date, summer maize harvesting date, summer maize planting pattern adjustment, deep scarification of summer maize planting, potassium fertilizer dose for summer maize, and phosphorus and organic fertilizer doses for winter wheat. The results showed that postponement of sowing date and increased seeding rate of winter wheat did not change grain yield. Early

  11. Response of Grain Weight of Maize to Variety, Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer in Asaba Area of Delta State

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    Enujeke E. C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June 2010 to evaluate the response of grain weight of maize to variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factional layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15cm and evaluated for the grain weight. The results obtained indicated that hybrid variety which produced yield of 2.1 tha-1 in 2008 and 2.3 tha-1 in 2009 was superior. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different in 2008 and 2009. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid maize variety, 9022-13, which was outstanding in grain weight be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR9922-DMRSF2 or Agbor local variety for farmers who prefer local varieties in maize production. (ii Farmers who prefer mineral fertilizers for increased grain weight of maize should apply 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10. (iii Farmers who practice organic agriculture in Asaba agro-ecological zone should apply 30tha-1 of poultry manure to enhance maize yield.

  12. Evapotranspiration, Yield and Crop Coefficient of Irrigated Maize Under Straw Mulch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-Ying; CHEN Su-Ying; PEI Dong; LIU Meng-Yu; SUN Hong-Yong

    2005-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.), a staple crop grown from June to September during the rainy season on the North China Plain,is usually inter-planted in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields about one week before harvesting of the winter wheat. In order to improve irrigation efficiency in this region of serious water shortage, field studies in 1999 and 2001, two dry seasons with less than average seasonal rainfall, were conducted with up to five irrigation applications to determine evapotranspiration, calculate the crop coefficient, and optimize the irrigation schedule with maize under mulch, as well as to establish the effects of irrigation timing and the number of applications on grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE)of maize. Results showed that with grain production at about 8000 kg ha-1 the total evapotranspiration and WUE of irrigated maize under mulch were about 380-400 mm and 2.0-2.2 kg m-3, respectively. Also in 2001 WUE of maize with mulch for the treatment with three irrigations was 11.8% better than that without mulch. In the 1999 and 2001 seasons, maize yield significantly improved (P = 0.05) with four irrigation applications, however, further increases were not significant. At the same time there were no significant differences for WUE with two to four irrigation applications.In the 2001 season mulch lead to a decrease of 50 mm in the total soil evaporation, and the maize crop coefficient under mulch varied between 0.3-1.3 with a seasonal average of 1.0.

  13. Short Communication. Effect of phosphorus nutrition and grain position within maize cob on grain phosphorus accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamamad Nadeem

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of grains may vary due to external nutrient supply and their position within parent maize cob. Phosphorus (P is the least mobile nutrient in the soil and therefore newly growing seedlings are largely dependent on the stored grain P contents which are accumulated during the crop maturity period. Objective of this study was to access the effects of different P applications and grain positions on P and dry matter contents in grains. Phosphorus application and grain position has significant (p<0.05 effects on P contents in grains whereas dry weight and P content are highly correlated. Grain weight and P contents decreased linearly from base to apical position possibly due to flow of nutrients from base towards apical position within cob. Significantly higher grain dry weight (0.35±0.01 g and P contents (962±57 µg P are recorded in high P application (92.50 kg ha-1 rate on base position whereas minimum grain dry weight (0.14±0.01 g and P contents (219±11 µg P were recorded on apical grain position in low P application (5.60 kg ha-1 rate. The results suggest that for better seedling P nutrition especially in soils of low inherent P, maize grains should be selected from base or middle position where maximum dry weight and P contents are concentrated to support the seedlings to reach at growth at which roots are capable of external P uptake.

  14. Studies on Soil fertility, Cow urine and Panchagavya levels on Growth and Yield of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Devakumar, N.; Subha, S; Rao, G.G.E.; ImranKhan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed that higher grain and stover yield, plant height and number of leaves in maize with panchagavya, cow urine but it was comparable to recommended fertilizer treatments at higher level (200% and 300%). It can be concluded that presence of rich plant growth substances, both major and micro nutrients, beneficial microbial population in organic liquid manures help to bring rapid changes in phenotypic characteristics of plants and also improves the growth and ultimately im...

  15. Relationship of soil physical quality parameters and maize yield in a Brazilian Oxisol

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    Anderson C Bergamin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian agriculture, maize (Tea mays L. is prominent because of its magnitude of grain production. However, soil compaction changes negatively the soil physical attributes, limiting the crop growth. This study aimed to evaluate physical attributes of a clayey Oxisol (Rhodic Hapludox under no-tillage, and the relationships between these attributes with maize yield in the Midwest region of Brazil. Besides this, indicators of soil physical quality when subjected to levels of compaction were determined. A randomized complete block design was applied with five replicates. Treatments were induced levels of compaction: a reference condition that reflects 8 yr of no-tillage (NT; no-tillage with additional compaction by tractor traffic in one (NT-1, two (NT-2, four (NT-4, and six passes (NT-6. There was significant correlation (P < 0.01 between all physical attributes of the studied soil. Maize yield was positively correlated to macroporosity (r = 0.41*, and negatively to penetration resistance (r = -0.42*, geometric mean diameter (r = -0.51*, and mean weighted diameter (r = -0.53*. The index of emergence speed, stem diameter, plant height, grain mass, and grain yield decreased as soil compaction increased. The physical attributes evaluated, especially the resistance to penetration and soil macroporosity, reveal the level of soil compaction and can be used as soil physical quality indicators.

  16. Variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield in some maize hybrids

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    SHUKRI FETAHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH, it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB, with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y, at Experimental Farm (EF, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and dry matter of maize performance are depending from specific characteristics: maize hybrids (MH, environmental condition (EC and cropping system (CS. Information on silage maize yield can help silage growers and users, to choose hybrids that best fit their needs. The physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, were conducted according to the formula: (MH-6 x Y-2 x P4 x R3 =144 combinations. Hybrid selection for a specific location, suitable for the agro-ecological condition is one of the essential principles for improving yield for silage or grain, without increasing of cost of maize production. Means results for evaluated maize hybrids and parameters were: Absolute growth rate (AGRµ=5.43, crop growth rate (CGRµ=30.98, total plant biomass (TPBµ=585.39 g plant-1 and total dry matter (TDMµ=22.52 ton ha-1.The aim of this study was to determine physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, in suitable agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo. The obtained results were with wide range variability and high significant differences between hybrids and years on the level P, lower than 0.01.

  17. THE EFFECT OF INTERCROPS AND DIFFERENTIATED TILLAGE ON THE MAIZE YIELDING

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    Andrzej Biskupski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the years 2008–2010 in the fields of the Experimental Station IUNG at Jelcz-Laskowice. Two-factorial experiments were laid out on the grey-brown podzolic soil formed out of loamy sand silt by the method of randomized subblocks in four replications. The experimental factors were intercrops (mustard and lupine and tillage system (traditional, simplified and zero. Winter wheat was the forecrop and maize the sequent plant. Leaf area index (LAI and mean tip angle (MTA were determined in the stage of early flowering with use of a LAI-2000 meter (LI-COR, USA in four replications. The research was carried out to find out which tillage system and intercrop would positively influence the yielding, selected indices of canopy architecture (height of plants, LAI, MTA and the amount of weeds in maize grown for grain. The yield of maize grain grown in simplified and zero tillage appeared to be lower than that obtained in traditional tillage. The highest LAI index of maize grown after both forecrops was found with traditional tillage, while the lowest with zero one. The highest maize plants were those in conventional tillage. The intercrop which appeared to have the most favourable effect on the height of maize was mustard. Reduced tillage systems increased total weed infestation in comparison to conventional tillage. Compensation of Echinochloa crus-galli, Geranium pusillum and Chenopodium album was noticed. The greatest number of weeds per unit area was found in the experiment after no-tillage system.

  18. The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations

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    Dragićević Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy and inorganic phosphorus (Pi and soluble proteins among 28 maize populations, consisted into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-phytic populations, with the aim to determine the potential of enhancing the P profile of maize plants and high grain yield through selection. The highest genetic variability of Pi and Pphy content in leaves was expressed in group with intermediate Pphy content in grain. Meanwhile, leaves of low-phytic populations were characterized with low Pphy, too (averagely 18% and high content of soluble proteins (averagely 15% in relation to high- and intermediate-phytic populations. Additionally, the lowest genetic variability of protein content was also noticeable in leaves of low-phytic populations. Positive correlation between Pi and protein content was observed in leaves of low- and high-phytic populations. The negative correlation between Pphy and Pi was detected in maize grain, but correlation was significant only in intermediate-phytic group. The highest, but not significant, average yield was observed in group of low-phytic populations, as well as its relative high genetic variability. That indicates that development of high yielding genotypes with lower phytate in grain is reasonable, and could be potentially useful in enhancing the sustainability and decreasing of environmental impact in agricultural production.

  19. Nitrogen efficiency in oats on grain yield with stability

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    José A. G. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N is the nutrient most absorbed by the oat crop. Unfavorable climate conditions decrease its efficiency, generating instability and reduction in yield. The objective of this study was to improve N use efficiency in oat grain yield by the economic value of the product and of the input and by models that scale the stability, considering systems of succession of high and reduced residual-N release in favorable and unfavorable years for cultivation. The study was conducted in the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 in two systems of succession (soybean/oat, maize/oat in randomized blocks with eight replicates, using the N-fertilizer doses of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1. The N-fertilizer dose for maximum economic efficiency in oats should be considered based on the meteorological trends of the cultivation year. N use optimization by models that determine the stability is an innovative proposal to increase fertilization efficiency on the yield. The N-fertilizer dose of 60 kg ha-1 promotes greater efficiency with predictability and yield, regardless of the agricultural year and the system of succession.

  20. Yield and quality of maize stover:Variation among cultivars and effects of N fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ming-yuan; WANG Gui-yan; LIANG Wei-li; SHI Peng-fei; DANG Jing; SUI Peng; HU Chun-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Biomass yields and concentrations of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF), and crude ifber (CF) were analyzed for ifve cultivars of summer-sown maize (Zea mays L.) stover grown in ifeld trials at three rates of N fertilization, and sampled immediately after grain harvest. The results revealed differences in yields and concentrations of nutrients according to stalk height and hence harvest portion among the cultivars. N application greatly increased biomass yield and CP, especial y in upper stalks and to a lesser extent, EE. Concentrations of NDF and ADF decreased as N rate increased. The results show that stovers from al local popular maize cultivars are suitable as animal fodder and that moderate N application improves feed quality of stover.

  1. The use of cobs, a by-product of maize grain, for energy production in anaerobic digestion

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    Massimo Blandino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the rising energy demand and the conflict between food, feed and energy crops for agricultural land, there is a growing need for alternative biomasses for energy purposes. New developments in harvesting technology have created the possibility of harvesting cobs as a by-product of maize grain harvesting. The aim of the present work has been to evaluate the potential and limitations of maize cob utilisation in an anaerobic digestion chain, considering the main agronomic, productive and qualitative traits. Maize grain and cob yields as well as the moisture content of samples collected from 1044 (farm fields (located in North West Italy have been determined over the 2012 growing season. Moreover, 27 representative fields were harvested using a modified combine-harvester that is able to collect maize grains and threshed cobs separately. The chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP of the cobs have been analysed. The relative potential yield of maize cobs was established as 18.7% of the grain mass, while the wet cob yield recorded in the field after mechanical harvesting was 1.6 t ha–1. The total solid content was 60%. Fibre fractions represented over 85% of the dry cob matter, lignin content was about 16%, while the protein, ash, lipids and macro-elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium contents were very low compared to the whole-plant maize used for silage. The average BMP of wet threshed cob was 250±20 Nm3 t VS–1. Collected data have underlined that maize cobs could be used as a sustainable feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes.

  2. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

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    Eduardo Zavaschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N, in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  3. Climate change and maize yield in southern Africa: what can farm management do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurinda, Jairos; van Wijk, Mark T; Mapfumo, Paul; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Supit, Iwan; Giller, Ken E

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that food insecurity will increase in southern Africa due to climate change. We quantified the response of maize yield to projected climate change and to three key management options - planting date, fertilizer use and cultivar choice - using the crop simulation model, agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), at two contrasting sites in Zimbabwe. Three climate periods up to 2100 were selected to cover both near- and long-term climates. Future climate data under two radiative forcing scenarios were generated from five global circulation models. The temperature is projected to increase significantly in Zimbabwe by 2100 with no significant change in mean annual total rainfall. When planting before mid-December with a high fertilizer rate, the simulated average grain yield for all three maize cultivars declined by 13% for the periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069 and by 20% for 2070-2099 compared with the baseline climate, under low radiative forcing. Larger declines in yield of up to 32% were predicted for 2070-2099 with high radiative forcing. Despite differences in annual rainfall, similar trends in yield changes were observed for the two sites studied, Hwedza and Makoni. The yield response to delay in planting was nonlinear. Fertilizer increased yield significantly under both baseline and future climates. The response of maize to mineral nitrogen decreased with progressing climate change, implying a decrease in the optimal fertilizer rate in the future. Our results suggest that in the near future, improved crop and soil fertility management will remain important for enhanced maize yield. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, none of the farm management options tested in the study can avoid large yield losses in southern Africa due to climate change. There is a need to transform the current cropping systems of southern Africa to offset the negative impacts of climate change.

  4. Effect of Grain Size and Sowing Depth on Seedling Growth and Yield of Summer Maize in Drought Condition%干旱条件下籽粒大小与播种深度对夏玉米幼苗生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秋博; 李孝东; 孔凡磊; 张頔; 王兴龙; 郭翔; 袁继超

    2016-01-01

    为探究籽粒大小与播种深度对玉米出苗及幼苗生长的影响,确定西南丘陵地区夏玉米机播的适宜籽粒大小与播种深度。采用裂区试验设计,以正红505为试验材料,3个籽粒大小为主处理,3个播种深度(2,6,10 cm)为副处理,在大田干旱条件下调查了玉米的出苗率、幼苗素质、产量及产量构成。结果表明,大粒种比小粒种出苗率高,出苗后长势旺,干物质积累量增加,幼苗健壮,抗旱性增强,最终产量更高;浅播(2 cm)利于出苗,刚出苗时以6 cm 播深的幼苗长势最好,之后10 cm 播深的幼苗生长逐渐旺盛,至五叶期(大、中粒种)-七叶期(小粒种)时超过浅播处理,最终也表现出一定的增产效果。因此,在旱地、旱季玉米生产中,选较大粒播种,适当深播,可以有效地培育壮苗、提高植株抗旱性,达到保产增收的目的。%In order to explore the effect of grain size and sowing depth on emergence and seedling growth,de-termining suitable grain size and sowing depth in mechanization of summer maize production of Southwest Hilly Are-a.In the split-plot design,using Zhenghong 505 as the test material,3 kinds of grain size was assigned to the main plot,and 3 sowing depth (2,6,1 0 cm)to the subplot,emergence rate of maize,seedling quality,yield and yield components have been investigated in drought condition.The results showed that compared with small grain,large grain had higher emergence rate,the seedling was more haleness and grew better in drought,and there was a certain effect of increasing yield ultimately;Shallow sowing(2 cm)was conducive to the emergence,and the growth vigor of the seedlings of 6 cm sowing depth was best just when emerging,then the 1 0 cm depth of the seedling grew gradual-ly strong,and obviously better at the 5 leaf period(large and medium grain)-7 leaf period(small grain)than shal-low sowing treatment,which also showed

  5. 高茎糖玉米自交系不同生育时期茎糖含量与子粒产量的关系研究%Relationship of High Stem Sugar Maize Inbred Lines at Different Growth Stages and Grain Yield of Stem Sugar Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 马骏; 杨立国; 姜敏; 王金艳

    2012-01-01

    The high stem sugar maize inbred lines 7801, 25098, 7208, 25074 and W08 as test materials, measured at different times after pollination maize stalk of sugar juice brix, total sugar content in stem, leaf photosynthetic rate and the corresponding grain economic output, analysis of the relationship between them and change the law. The results showed that stalk sugar content of the main play a decisive role for the brix and yield, which stem brix sugar content with a very significant correlation of the level of sugar production and stem had positive correlation. Partial correlation analysis showed that grain weight per plant and showed a positive correlation between brix, indicating increased stem sugar content to promote the role of maize production.%以高茎糖玉米自交系7801、25098、7208,25074、W08作为试验材料,测定玉米自交系授粉后不同时期茎秆汁液的糖锤度、茎秆总含糖量、叶片光合速率及对应的子粒经济产量,分析其相互之间的关系及变化规律.结果表明,对茎秆含糖量起决定作用的主要为锤度和产量2个性状,其中,锤度与茎秆含糖量相关性达极显著水平,产量与茎秆含糖量呈负相关关系.偏相关分析表明,单株粒重与锤度呈正相关关系,说明茎秆含糖量的提高对玉米产量有促进作用.

  6. Breeding Value of Primary Synthetic Wheat Genotypes for Grain Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Jafar; Bonnett, David; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Akdemir, Deniz; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single seed descent was used to develop 97 populations with 50 individuals per population using first back-cross, biparental, and three-way crosses. Individuals from each cross were selected for short stature, early heading, flowering and maturity, minimal lodging, and free threshing. Yield trials were conducted under irrigated, drought, and heat-stress conditions from 2011 to 2014 in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of parents and synthetic derived lines (SDLs) were estimated using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model with markers in each trial. In each environment, there were SDLs that had higher GEBVs than their recurrent BW parent for yield. The GEBVs of BW parents for yield ranged from -0.32 in heat to 1.40 in irrigated trials. The range of the SYN parent GEBVs for yield was from -2.69 in the irrigated to 0.26 in the heat trials and were mostly negative across environments. The contribution of the SYN parents to improved grain yield of the SDLs was highest under heat stress, with an average GEBV for the top 10% of the SDLs of 0.55 while the weighted average GEBV of their corresponding recurrent BW parents was 0.26. Using the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of genomic prediction for yield was 0.42, 0.43, and 0.49 in the drought, heat and irrigated trials, respectively, while for the marker-based model these values were 0.43, 0.44, and 0.55. The SYN parents introduced novel diversity into the wheat gene pool. Higher GEBVs of progenies were due to introgression and retention of some positive alleles from SYN parents. PMID:27656893

  7. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  8. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  9. The identification of bands related to yields and stability in maize hybrids and their parental components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Vojka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists have been trying to explain adaptability and stability of a genotype in terms of a desirable combination of alleles expressed via epistasis. Stability determined in one set of data is very often stability of a genotype to a prevalent stress factor in a moment of carrying out the experiment. However, grain stability of a certain genotype can be a result of different factors, such as tolerance to drought, or to some important diseases and pests. Yield and yield stability of 15 maize hybrids were observed in 24 environments. The level of the interaction effect of studied maize hybrids was identified by the AMMI analysis, while a number of bands positively related to yield and stability of studied maize hybrids were identified by a genetic characterization by RAPD markers. Bands positively related to yields were present to a greater extent in parents originating from the BSSS population, while bands positively related to stability were more present in parents originating from the Lancaster population. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31068

  10. Manejo do nitrogênio no milho em semeadura direta em sucessão a espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno e em dois locais: II - efeito sobre o rendimento de grãos Nitrogen management in maize in no-till system in succession to winter cover crops at two locations: II - effect on grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilber Argenta

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A liberação de nitrogênio (N de restos culturais depende dos processos de imobilização e mineralização microbiana, que são influenciados pelo ambiente. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar, em dois locais, os efeitos de dose e época de aplicação de N em milho (0-0; 0-160; 30-130 e 60-100kg/ha, respectivamente, na semeadura e em cobertura, em sistema de semeadura direta, implantado em duas épocas, após a dessecação (1 e aos 20 dias de duas coberturas de solo no inverno (aveia preta e ervilhaca comum e pousio invernal, sobre o rendimento de grãos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com suplementação hídrica, sendo um em Eldorado do Sul e outro em Passo Fundo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no ano agrícola 1996/97. A resposta à aplicação de N dependeu do local, da cobertura de solo no inverno e da época de semeadura após a dessecação. Em Eldorado do Sul, a aplicação de N na semeadura aumentou o rendimento de grãos em relação ao tratamento com todo o N em cobertura, independentemente do tipo de planta de cobertura de solo no inverno. Em Passo Fundo, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos com N. O aumento na dose de N na semeadura de 30 para 60kg/ha não afetou o rendimento de grãos, independente do fator testado. O atraso em 20 dias na época de semeadura do milho em sucessão à aveia preta somente foi benéfico em Eldorado do Sul, aumentanto em 34% o rendimento de grãos.The release of nitrogen (N of crop residues depends on the processes of microbial immobilization and mineralization, which are influenced by environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate, at two locations, the effects of rate and timing of N application in maize (0-0; 0-160; 30-130 and 60-100kg/ha, respectively, at sowing and sidedressed, in no-till system, established in two sowing dates after desiccation (1 and 20 days of two winter cover crops (black oat and common vetch and bare area, on grain yield. The experiment was

  11. A remoção dos perfilhos não aumenta o rendimento de grãos do milho, independentemente da época de semeadura Tiller removal does not increase maize grain yield, regardless of the sowing date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Historicamente, os perfilhos têm sido considerados indesejáveis na cultura do milho, porque não produzem espigas e podem drenar fotoassimilados do colmo principal. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido objetivando avaliar o efeito do estádio de remoção dos perfilhos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho, em duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas duas épocas de semeadura: segunda quinzena de outubro (recomendada e segunda quinzena de dezembro (tardia. Nas subparcelas, foram avaliados quatro estádios de remoção dos perfilhos: colmo principal com seis (V6, nove (V9 e quinze folhas expandidas (V15 e testemunha com perfilhos mantidos até a colheita. Testou-se o híbrido P30F53, na densidade de 55.000 plantas ha-1 e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,7m. A percentagem de plantas perfilhadas e o número de perfilhos por planta foram maiores nas semeaduras de outubro do que nas de dezembro. Não houve diferenças no rendimento de grãos do tratamento em que os perfilhos foram mantidos, em relação àqueles em que eles foram removidos em V6, V9 ou V15, independentemente da época de semeadura. Isso demonstra que os perfilhos não são drenos que comprometam o desempenho agronômico do milho. Além disso, eles podem contribuir para o rendimento de grãos nas semeaduras feitas em outubro.Historically, tillers have been considered detrimental to maize because they do not produce ears and may act as sinks competing for carbohydrates with the main stem. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of tiller removal on maize grain yield at different sowing dates. The experiment was set during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design disposed in split-plots was used. Two sowing dates were tested in the

  12. Influence of plant architecture on maize physiology and yield in the Heilonggang River valley

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    Shoubing Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The size and distribution of leaf area determine light interception in a crop canopy and influence overall photosynthesis and yield. Optimized plant architecture renders modern maize hybrids (Zea mays L. more productive, owing to their tolerance of high plant densities. To determine physiological and yield response to maize plant architecture, a field experiment was conducted in 2010 and 2011. With the modern maize hybrid ZD958, three plant architectures, namely triangle, diamond and original plants, were included at two plant densities, 60,000 and 90,000 plants ha−1. Triangle and diamond plants were derived from the original plant by spraying the chemical regulator Jindele (active ingredients, ethephon, and cycocel at different vegetative stages. To assess the effects of plant architecture, a light interception model was developed. Plant height, ear height, leaf size, and leaf orientation of the two regulated plant architectures were significantly reduced or altered compared with those of the original plants. On average across both plant densities and years, the original plants showed higher yield than the triangle and diamond plants, probably because of larger leaf area. The two-year mean grain yield of the original and diamond plants were almost the same at 90,000 plants ha−1 (8714 vs. 8798 kg ha−1. The yield increase (up to 5% of the diamonds plant at high plant densities was a result of increased kernel number per ear, which was likely a consequence of improved plant architecture in the top and middle canopy layers. The optimized light distribution within the canopy can delay leaf senescence, especially for triangle plants. The fraction of incident radiation simulated by the interception model successfully reflected plant architecture traits. Integration of canopy openness is expected to increase the simulation accuracy of the present model. Maize plant architecture with increased tolerance of high densities is probably

  13. Maize Yields Performance in Strip Planting Patterns with Two Plant Densities

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    Qian Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain is the most important maize production region in China. To further investigate the improvement of maize yield by changing the planting pattern combined with two plant densities in this region, field experiments involving four planting patterns (three-row strip, four-row strip, five-row strip and a conventional uniform row spacing pattern (the control under two plant densities (67,500 and 82,500 plants/ha were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Only the plant density, not the planting pattern, significantly influenced the leaf area index at R1 stage and the total leaf area duration. The radiation use efficiency and the above-ground biomass at R5 were both higher under the three strip planting patterns than under the control, but the differences were not statistically significant. The effects of the planting patterns on the grain yield were significant in both years and the yields were 16.7, 6.1 and 10.7%, respectively higher in 2011 and 17.2, 12.1 and 10.6%, respectively higher in 2012 under the three-, four- and five-row strip treatments, respectively, compared with the control. However, grain yield was affected by neither plant density nor the interaction between planting pattern and plant density. Therefore, optimal strip planting pattern could not be better estimated by considering plant density.

  14. Amendment of Tephrosia Improved Fallows with Inorganic Fertilizers Improves Soil Chemical Properties, N Uptake, and Maize Yield in Malawi

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    Maggie G. Munthali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Malawi is limited mainly by low soil N and P. Improved fallows of N-fixing legumes such as Tephrosia and Sesbania offer options for improving soil fertility particularly N supply. The interactions of Tephrosia fallows and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, N uptake, and maize yields were evaluated at Chitedze Research Station in Malawi. The results indicated that the level of organic matter and pH increased in all the treatments except for the control. Total N remained almost unchanged while available P decreased in all plots amended with T. vogelii but increased in T. candida plots where inorganic P was applied. Exchangeable K increased in all the plots irrespective of the type of amendment. The interaction of N and P fertilizers with T. vogelii fallows significantly increased the grain yield. The treatment that received 45 kg N ha−1 and 20 kg P ha−1 produced significantly higher grain yields (6.8 t ha−1 than all the other treatments except where 68 kg N ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1 were applied which gave 6.5 t ha−1 of maize grain. T. candida fallows alone or in combination with N and P fertilizers did not significantly affect grain yield. However, T. candida fallows alone can raise maize grain yield by 300% over the no-input control. Based on these results we conclude that high quality residues such as T. candida and T. vogelii can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields and soil fertility in N-limited soils. However, inorganic P fertilizer is needed due to the low soil available P levels.

  15. Relationships of intercropped maize, stem borer damage to maize yield and land-use efficiency in the humid forest of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi-Olaye, A; Nolte, C; Schulthess, F; Borgemeister, C

    2005-10-01

    Stem borers are the most important maize pests in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Field trials were conducted in the long and short rainy seasons of 2002 and 2003 to assess the level of damage and yield reductions caused by stem borers in monocropped maize and in maize intercropped with non-host plants such as cassava, cowpea and soybean. The intercrops were planted in two spatial arrangements, i.e. alternating hills or alternating rows. All intercrops and the maize monocrop were grown with and without insecticide treatment for assessment of maize yield loss due to borer attacks. The land-use efficiency of each mixed cropping system was evaluated by comparing it with the monocrop. The temporal fluctuation of larval infestations followed the same pattern in all cropping systems, but at the early stage of plant growth, larval densities were 21.3-48.1% higher in the monocrops than in intercrops, and they tended to be higher in alternating rows than alternating hills arrangements. At harvest, however, pest densities did not significantly vary between treatments. Maize monocrops had 3.0-8.8 times more stems tunnelled and 1.3-3.1 times more cob damage than intercrops. Each percentage increase in stem tunnelling lowered maize grain yield by 1.10 and 1.84 g per plant, respectively, during the long and short rainy season in 2002, and by 5.39 and 1.41 g per plant, respectively, in 2003. Maize yield losses due to stem borer were 1.8-3.0 times higher in monocrops than in intercrops. Intercrops had generally a higher land-use efficiency than monocrops, as indicated by land-equivalent-ratios and area-time-equivalent-ratios of >1.0. Land-use efficiency was similar in both spatial arrangements. At current price levels, the net production of mixed cropping systems was economically superior to controlling stem borers with insecticide in monocropped maize. The maize-cassava intercrop yielded the highest land equivalent ratios and the highest replacement value of the intercrop. At

  16. Effect of foliar fertilization on soybean grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Mandić V.; Simić A.; Krnjaja V.; Bijelić Z.; Tomić Z.; Stanojković A.; Ruzić-Muslić D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to estimate the effects of foliar fertilization on quantitative traits (plant height, first pod height, number of nodes per plant, number of pods per plant, number of grain per plant, grain yield per plant, 1000-grain weight and grain yield) in two soybean cultivars (Balkan and Bečejka). Studied cultivars belong to different maturity groups (Balkan - I and Bečejka - 0). Four treatments of fertilization were tested: control ...

  17. Study on Fluctuation of Grain Yield in China’s Major Grain Producing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the statistical data of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas from 1949 to 2008,and fluctuation theory,the historical process and main cause of fluctuation of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas are analyzed.The results of research show that the grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas grows in unstable fluctuation,with high-frequency fluctuation cycle and regular length;the amplitude of fluctuation,on the whole,is moderate,with not strong stability;the fluctuation of grain yield has correspondence,reflecting the N-shape developmental trend of grain production at present;the fluctuation of grain yield has gradient characteristics;in the process of comparison of grain yield,the average growth rate annually of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas is higher than that of the national average,but the relative fluctuation coefficient is also higher than that of the national average.From five aspects,namely natural disaster,agricultural policy,production input,grain price and grain circulation,the cause of fluctuation of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas is analyzed,and measures of preventing and arresting super-long fluctuation of grain yield are put forward.Firstly,stick to strict farmland protection system,and strive to promote farmland quality;secondly,strengthen infrastructure construction of grain production and beef up the ability of preventing natural disaster;thirdly,quicken the pace of agricultural technology and establish robust technology supporting system;fourthly,lay stress on innovation of agricultural organization system and provide implementation path and vehicle for application of agricultural technology measures;fifthly,perfect disaster precaution system and grain market system,and strengthen the ability of preventing risk of grain production.

  18. Effects of Variety and Spacing on Percentage (% Emergence and Grain Weight of Maize in Asaba Area of Delta State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enujeke E. C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to December 2009 to evaluate the response of maize varieties to three different plant spacings. It was a factorial experiment carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times. Ten maize varieties were evaluated under three different plant spacings for their percentage emergence and grain weight. The results of percentage emergence showed that open-pollinated variety BR9922-DMRSF2 which had 93.2% in 2008 and 93.8% in 2009 had highest percentage emergence. The results obtained from the grain weights indicated that hybrid variety 9022-13 that was sown at 75cm x 15cm which yielded 6.3 tha-1 in 2008 and 6.4 tha-1 in 2009 was superior, followed by open-pollinated variety BR9922-DMRSF2 which yielded 4.7tha-1 in 2008 and 4.9tha-1 in 2009. The effects of interaction showed that variety and space were significantly (p<0.05 different and positively affected maize grain weight. Based on the study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid maize variety 9022-13 which was outstanding in grain weight be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR9922-DMRSF2. (ii Spacing of 75cm x 15cm which resulted in better percentage emergence and highest grain weight be adopted in maize production.

  19. The effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM applied every second year on maize grown for grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, due to the detection of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, it has become necessary to use animal meals differently. The EU Council Decision of 4 December 2000 forbade use of processed animal protein to make feeds for cattle, swine, and poultry. Meat and bone meal (MBM is rich in macro- and microelements as well as in organic substance, and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers containing N and P. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of MBM applied every second year as an organic fertilizer on maize (Tea mays L. grown for grain. A two-factorial field experiment with a randomized block design was carried out in 20102011, in north-eastern Poland. Experimental factor I was MBM dose (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 Mg ha-1 applied every second year, and experimental factor II was the year of the study (two consecutive years. Increasing MBM doses applied every second year increased maize grain yield and improved grain plumpness, in comparison with mineral fertilization. The highest yield-forming effect was observed when MBM was applied at 3 Mg ha-1. Macronutrient uptake by maize plants and macronutrient concentrations in maize grain were affected by the year of the study rather than MBM dose. The results of a 2-yr experiment indicate that MBM is a valuable source of N and P for maize grown for grain, and that it is equally or more effective when compared with mineral fertilizers.

  20. Modelling the Relationship Between Summer Maize NPK Uptake and Yield on the Basis of Soil Fertility Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of fertilizer requirements can help to increase maize (Zea mays L.) yields and improve the fertilizer use efficiency. The model for the Quantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils (QUEFTS) was calibrated for maize by use of soil fertility data and fertilizer trials at different sites of the Huang Huai Hal river plain in China. The QUEFTS model accounts for interactions between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). It describes the effects of soil characteristics on maize yields in four steps: (1) assessment of the potential supply of N, P and K based on soil chemical data; (2) calculation of the actual uptake of N, P and K, in function of the potential supply as determined in step 1; (3) draft the yield ranges as a function of the actual uptake of N, P and K as determined in step 2; (4) calculation of the maize yield based on the three yield ranges established in step 3. Data of field experiments with different fertilization treatments of various regions in China during the years of 1985 to 1995 were used to calibrate the QUEFTS model for summer maize. In step 1 the N, P and K recovered from their amount applied were described by new equa tions. The minimum and maximum accumulated N, P and K (kg grain kg-1) in summer maize were determined as (21-64), (126-384) and (20-90), respectively. The simulated yields were in good agreement with the observed ones. It was concluded that the calibrated and adjusted QUEFTS model could be useful to improve fertilizer recommendations for maize in the Huang Huai Hai plain of China.

  1. Field Studies on the Relationship between Fusarium verticillioides and Maize (Zea mays L.: Effect of Biocontrol Agents on Fungal Infection and Toxin Content of Grains at Harvest

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    Paola Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is a staple food for the majority of the world's population. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg (Teleomorph: Gibberella moniliformis Wineland; synonym: F. moniliformis is both a saprophyte and a parasite of maize and can also be found as an endophyte. The presence of this fungus in maize constitutes an imminent risk due to its ability to produce fumonisins, mycotoxins with proven carcinogenic effects. The present work investigated biocontrol activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Microbacterium oleovorans against F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin B1 production in field-grown maize during four consecutive growing seasons. Treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens consistently reduced F. verticillioides inoculum and fumonisin content of harvested grains. F. verticillioides count and fumonisin levels correlated negatively with rainfall regimes; however, none of these parameters showed significant correlation with yields. Treatment with these biocontrol agents may improve phytosanitary quality of the grains and reduce toxicological risk in the maize agroecosystem.

  2. The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain

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    Vančetović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

  3. Incremento na densidade de plantas: uma alternativa para aumentar o rendimento de grãos de milho em regiões de curta estação estival de crescimento Increment on plant density: an alternative to improve maize grain yield in short growing season regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz de Almeida

    2000-03-01

    grain yield. The maize hybrids Cargill 901 and XL 370 were evaluated at several plant populations, ranging from 37000 to 100000pl ha-1, under different management situations. In three out of four experiments, plant populations above 60000pl ha-1 maximized grain yield. The greater competition among individuals verified at high plant populations did not decrease substantially the number of ears per plant, which contributed to improve maize adaptation to high plant densities. Therefore, for regions with a short growing season, the use of early small stature maize hybrids may be accompanied by an increment in plant population up to a value varying between 65000 and 80000pl ha-1. This is conceivable as long as there is adequate soil fertility, water availability and stem lodging resistant genotypes.

  4. Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2007-08-01

    milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca.The black oats use (Avena strigosa as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N, that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

  5. Effects of nitrogen fertilization and root separation on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms%施氮和隔根对玉米植株生长、产量和根际微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向前; 黄国勤; 卞新民; 赵其国

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment with root separation was conducted to study the effects of root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms under different nitrogen fertilization levels (0. 1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0. 7 g·kg-1). Root interaction and nitrogen fertilization had positive effects on the plant height, leaf length and width, and leaf chlorophyll content of maize. Less difference was observed in the root dry mass of maize at maturing stage between the treatments root separation and no root separation. However, as compared with root separation, no root separation under the nitrogen fertilization levels 0. 1, 0. 3, 0. 5, and 0.7 g·kg-1 increased the biomass per maize plant by 8. 8% , 6.3% , 3.6% , and 0.1% , and the economic yield per maize plant by 17. 7% , 10. 0% , 8.2%, and 0. 9% , respectively. No root separation increased the quantity of rhizosphere fungi and azotobacteria significantly , as compared with root separation. With increasing nitrogen fertilization level, the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes presented an increasing trend, while that of rhizosphere azotobacteria decreased after an initial increase. The root-shoot ratio of maize at maturing stage was significantly negatively correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes , but less correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere azotobacteria. It was suggested that the root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system could improve the plant growth of maize and increase the maize yield and rhizosphere microbial quantity, but the effect would be decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level.%采用根系分隔试验,研究不同施氮水平(0.1、0.3、0.5和0.7 g· kg-1)下,玉米-大豆间作系统中根系互作对玉米植株生长、产量和根际微生物的影响.结果表明:根系互作和增施氮肥可以增加玉米株高、叶片长和叶片宽,

  6. Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21, three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1 and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1. In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante

  7. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  8. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  9. Effect of Controlled-release Urea Combined with Common Urea on the Grain Yields of Summer Maize and Distribution of Soil Ammonium and Nitrate Content%控释掺混肥对夏玉米产量及土壤硝态氮和铵态氮分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 李絮花; 唐慎欣; 李海燕; 刘旭凤; 彭强

    2011-01-01

    通过田间试验研究释放期60 d的水基包膜尿素与普通尿素常规施肥用量下不同比例配合追施对夏玉米产量、肥料利用率、氮肥农学利用率、氮肥偏生产力、氮素收获指数、氮素积累量及0-60 cm土壤硝铵态氦含量动态分布的影响.结果表明:各控释掺混处理对夏玉米的产量、肥料利用率、氮肥农学利用率、氮肥偏生产力及氮素收获指数较常规施肥都有不同程度的提高,以控氮比50%处理最佳,产量和氮肥利用率分别比对照的提高9.43%和24.69%,达到显著水平;各控释掺混处理0-60 cm土壤都保持较高的硝态氮含量,至后期较常规施肥的略高,满足了玉米的生长.玉米各时期土壤铵态氮含量大致以高控氮比处理的含量高,差异不明显,但显著高于常规施肥处理的.控氮比50%处理更适合本区域玉米生产.%Field experiment were carried out on grain yield of summer maize to determine the effect of different proportions of water-base controlled-release coated urea of 60 d release duration combined with conventional urea as topdressing on nitrogen utilization, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, nitrogen partial productivity, nitrogen harvest index and nitrogen accumulation. Dynamic distribution of nitrate content in soil was also studied. The findings indicated that the treatment of controlled-release urea combined with conventional urea (CRUCU)was remarkably higher than the ones used urea alone in various degree in maize yield, fertilizer utilization, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, productivity and nitrogen partial nitrogen harvest index, and the treatment used 50% controlled-release coated urea was superior to other ones. Its yield was increased by 9. 43% than the treatment used urea alone, while nitrogen utilization was 24. 69%. Both differences reached significant level. The nitrate nitrogen content of treatment of CRUCU was sufficient in 0 - 60 cm depth in soil layer throughout the later growth

  10. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  11. Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Graziella; Copetta, Andrea; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Cesaro, Patrizia; Scarafoni, Alessio; D'Agostino, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements.

  12. Grain filling, starch degradation and feeding value of maize for ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords; Maize (Zea mays L), Genotypes, Grain filling, Growth temperature, Kernels, Gas production, Starch degradation, Oven-drying, Silage, Ensiling temperature, Ensiling duration, Feeding value, Lactating cows Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major component in the ration of dairy cows in many parts of

  13. Identifying critical nitrogen application rate for maize yield and nitrate leaching in a Haplic Luvisol soil using the DNDC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Shen; Lei, Qiuliang; Liu, Jian; He, Jianqiang; Zhai, Limei; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-05-01

    Identification of critical nitrogen (N) application rate can provide management supports for ensuring grain yield and reducing amount of nitrate leaching to ground water. A five-year (2008-2012) field lysimeter (1 m × 2 m × 1.2 m) experiment with three N treatments (0, 180 and 240 kg Nha(-1)) was conducted to quantify maize yields and amount of nitrate leaching from a Haplic Luvisol soil in the North China Plain. The experimental data were used to calibrate and validate the process-based model of Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC). After this, the model was used to simulate maize yield production and amount of nitrate leaching under a series of N application rates and to identify critical N application rate based on acceptable yield and amount of nitrate leaching for this cropping system. The results of model calibration and validation indicated that the model could correctly simulate maize yield and amount of nitrate leaching, with satisfactory values of RMSE-observation standard deviation ratio, model efficiency and determination coefficient. The model simulations confirmed the measurements that N application increased maize yield compared with the control, but the high N rate (240 kg Nha(-1)) did not produce more yield than the low one (120 kg Nha(-1)), and that the amount of nitrate leaching increased with increasing N application rate. The simulation results suggested that the optimal N application rate was in a range between 150 and 240 kg ha(-1), which would keep the amount of nitrate leaching below 18.4 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1) and meanwhile maintain acceptable maize yield above 9410 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, 180 kg Nha(-1) produced the highest yields (9837 kg ha(-1)) and comparatively lower amount of nitrate leaching (10.0 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1)). This study will provide a valuable reference for determining optimal N application rate (or range) in other crop systems and regions in China.

  14. Within-leaf nitrogen allocation in adaptation to low nitrogen supply in maize during grain-filling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan eMu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N plays a vital role in photosynthesis and crop productivity. Maize plants may be able to increase physiological N utilization efficiency (NUtE under low-N stress by increasing photosynthetic rate (Pn per unit leaf N, that is, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between PNUE and N allocation in maize ear-leaves during the grain-filling stage under low N (no N application and high N (180 kg N ha−1 in a 2-year field experiment. Under low N, grain yield decreased while NUtE increased. Low-N treatment reduced the specific N content of ear leaves by 38% without significant influencing Pn, thereby increasing PNUE by 54%. Under low-N stress, maize plants tended to invest relatively more N into bioenergetics to sustain electron transport. In contrast, N allocated to chlorophyll and light-harvesting proteins was reduced to control excess electron production. Soluble proteins were reduced to shrink the N storage reservoir. We conclude that optimization of N allocation within leaves is a key adaptive mechanism to maximize Pn and crop productivity when N is limited during the grain-filling stage in maize under low-N conditions.

  15. Effect of High Temperature During Flowering on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Grain Yield and Quality of Different Genotypes of Maize (Zea Mays L.)%花期前后高温对不同基因型玉米光合特性及产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵龙飞; 李潮海; 刘天学; 王秀萍; 僧珊珊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study was to identify exogenous spermidine on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence under high temperature treatments during flowering (0-8 d before silking and 0-8 d sifter silking). [Method] The heat-tolerant maize genotype XD20 and heat-sensitive maize genotype ZY309 were used in this study. Photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence variation, the activities of ribulose-l,5-bi-sphosphate carboxylase (PEPCase) and phosphoenolpyrovate carboxylase (RuBPCase) were investigated during flowering. [Result] The results showed that the heat-sensitive genotype got a significant reduction in grain yield with a more reduction rate under the treatment after flowering than before flowering. It was less affected for heat-tolerant genotype. SPAD, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), primarily photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency (OPSII), photochemical quenching (qP), PEPCase and RuBPCase activities of ear-leaves were reduced. But intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), non-photochemical quenching (qN) were increased. [Conclusion] The results showed that there were significant effects of high temperature treatments during flowering on photosynthetic characteristics of summer maize, and the yield were significantly decreased. The heat-tolerant maize genotype has more photosynthesizing capacity and chlorophyll content than the heat-sensitive maize genotype.%[目的]研究花期前后高温胁迫对不同耐热性玉米光合特性及产量品质的影响.[方法]以耐热基因型浚单20和热敏感基因型驻玉309为材料,分别于花前(吐丝前0-8d)和花后(吐丝后0-8d)进行高温处理,测定叶片的叶绿素相对含量(SPAD)、光合及叶绿素荧光参数、磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶(PEPCase)和核酮糖二磷酸羧化酶(RuBPCase)活性及籽粒的产量和品质.[结果]花期前后高温胁迫导致2个基因型玉米产量显著下降,浚单20

  16. Assessing factors influencing maize yield response to nitrogen using remote sensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, Brian Theodore

    Nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in maize that is an environmental issue; the result of over or asynchronous application with respect to crop N uptake. Rates are largely determined by a yield goal, which fails to account for spatial and temporal variability in N supply and grain yield. Crop canopy sensors that monitor N status of maize have been validated as a way to increase nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and maintain yield potential by applying N in-season. Such methods are not immune to the effects of temporal variability that occur beyond the time of application, such as intense rainfall events that are conducive to N loss. To identify potential factors that influence the temporal stability of hybrid respond to N, two different experiments carried out. In the first, blocks represented a range of soil organic matter (OM) and mean relative yield (MRY) values, and received split N application at different timings. Nitrogen, OM, MRY, and timing were evaluated across years for temporal stability and influence on yield. Results showed only MRY was temporally stable; although all factors influenced yield. Sidedress application beyond V14 lost yield. In the second experiment, temporal stability of hybrid response to N (RTN) was evaluated. Hybrids selected represented a broad range of RTN. Hybrid x N interaction was significant across site years, which indicated an inability to classify hybrids based on RTN. A final experiment compared crop canopy sensors from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), to collect more frequent N status of maize, and established best management practices of how to utilize an active crop canopy sensor mounted to a UAV. Results showed that an active crop canopy sensor mounted on a UAV is a suitable platform to replace or augment current methods of acquiring N status of maize canopies. The collective result of experiments showed a lack in temporal stability that exists in terms of N management that is largely influence by local site and seasonal

  17. Effect of different mulching materials on maize growth and yield in conservation agriculture systems of sub-humid Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mupangwa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of conservation agriculture (CA for smallholders increased the competition for crop residues between crop and livestock enterprises of the mixed smallholder farming system. Smallholders practicing CA have resorted to using grass and leaf litter in addition to available crop residues. The effect of these different mulching materials on maize (Zea mays L. growth and yield is not well documented in smallholder CA systems of southern Africa. A two-year experiment was run in 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons to evaluate the effect of maize residues, grass (Hyparrhenia filipendula (L. Stapf. and leaf litter that farmers are currently using and residues from leguminous species, sunhemp (Crotolaria juncea L. and Tephrosia (Tephrosia vogelii ((Hook f. on maize nitrogen (N uptake, growth and yield. Significant differences in soil water content across treatments were only observed during March in 2012/13 season. Maize residues retained more soil water and Tephrosia had the lowest soil water content when seasonal rainfall pattern was erratic. Grass and Tephrosia treatments had the lowest chlorophyll content. Conventional ploughing, maize residues and leaf litter had similar chlorophyll content which was significantly higher than grass and Tephrosia treatments. At a site with higher initial soil fertility conventional ploughing treatment out yielded the other treatments by 727–1265 kg ha−1. With more degraded sandy soil conventional practice had 119–430 kg ha−1 more maize grain than the CA treatments. With adequate fertilization, the mulching materials have a similar effect on maize growth in basins and direct seeding. Further studies on different application rates of mulching materials and mineral N fertilizer, and nutrient release patterns of these residues are critical in order to better understand soil fertility management under smallholder CA systems.

  18. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Sun

    Full Text Available Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  19. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  20. Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ricardo Machado da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L. breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations: GO-D (DENTADO, GO- F (FLINT, GO-A (AMARELO, GO-B (BRANCO, GO-L (LONGO, GO-G (GROSSO, GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP and Rio Verde (GO in 1998/99 (normal season crop and Piracicaba (SP in 1999 (off-season crop. All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1 and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746 was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547 was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

  1. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  2. Nitrogen use efficiency in forage yield of tropical maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Lopes Cancellier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of adapted cultivars to nitrogen stress conditions is shown as an ecologically sustainable option to ensure higher yields in low input agricultural systems. This study aimed to evaluate the NUE in tropical maize (Zea mays L. populations to forage production in the south of the State of Tocantins. Two experiments were done corresponding to low and high N availability sown on November 21, 2009. Twenty four maize populations and a commercial cultivar BR 106 were used in the experiments. The experimental design was a randomized block with two replicates. Plant height, ear height, ear participation in plant total green mass, ear green mass; plant green mass without ear, total green mass and NUE in forage production were evaluated. Through Moll methodology differences among populations for nitrogen use efficiency were found, however these differences weren’t found on Fischer methodology. Populations 12-4, 1-3, 12-6, 12-5, 26-1, 15-2, 25-2 and 1-5 are considered efficient in nitrogen use. The populations 12-6, 12-5, 12-4, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 and 15-2 are the best populations to use in high and low N environment, combining great production of green mass and being efficient in N use.

  3. Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2006-06-01

    investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar.The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1, medium (S2, high (S3 and very high (S4 management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1 to 13,848 (S4kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1 to 2,937,00 (S4R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

  4. Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Guedes Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha. There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

  5. A comparison of controlled self-pollination and open pollination results based on maize grain quality

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    Hanna Sulewska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. grain endosperm is triploid (3n, of which 2n come from the male (transferred by pollen and only 1n from the female plant, thus a major impact of the male form can be expected on grain quality parameters. A good example of this relationship is the phenomenon of xenia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pollen on grain quality. The field experiment was conducted in 2011; seeds were harvested from eight cultivars: Bosman, Blask, Tur, Kozak, Bielik, Smok, SMH 220 and Kresowiak, derived from free pollination and controlled self-pollination of maize. Analyses of nutrient contents and starch content in the grain were conducted in the laboratory. In addition, 1000 grain weight and the hectoliter weight of all grain samples were recorded. The results confirmed differences in grain quality of maize hybrids obtained by self-pollination and by open pollination. Grain of maize plants obtained by open-pollination was characterised by higher contents of N-free extract and starch, and lower protein content. Undertaking further studies on this subject may indicate specific recommendations for agricultural practice, such as mixtures of hybrids with good combining abilities, which will contribute to improved grain quality without additional costs.

  6. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpeng Xu

    Full Text Available Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L. were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT, farmers' practice (FP, a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies.

  7. Influence of Precipitation on Maize Yield in the Eastern United States

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    Chengyi Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most General Circulation Models predict more infrequent but larger precipitation events in the eastern United States combined with a warmer climate. This could have a negative effect on maize production. To understand the sensitivity of maize production to future changes in precipitation, we analyzed growing season precipitation and average state maize yields in the eastern United States for the period 1963–2011. Growing season precipitation did not show a strong trend during this period. However, crop yields increased at 3.90% in the southern, 2.62% in the central, and 2.31% in the northern part of the eastern United States, which we attributed to technology and management. To separate technology and management effects from precipitation variability, we corrected maize yields for these yield trends. We then correlated maize yield corrected for advances in technology and management with total growing season precipitation and precipitation in the critical month of pollination, from the regional to state scale. Maize yield - precipitation relationships showed that moisture shortage rather than excess determined maize yield in the Eastern United States. The relationship between total growing season precipitation-maize yield was stronger in the southeastern than in the northeastern U.S., but the critical month precipitation-maize yield relationship was stronger in the northeastern than in the southeastern U.S. If climate model predictions are accurate and total growing season precipitation will not decrease in this region but variability will, it is likely that maize yields in the northeastern U.S. will be more significantly affected.

  8. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing...... maize have often grown maize consecutively for several years. This leads to significant amounts of debris building up in the fields, which serves as an important source of inoculum for diseases when new crops are grown. In recent years, leaf diseases have caused production problems over several seasons....... Two major diseases have been identified: Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) and Northern leaf blotch (Exserohilum turcicum). Other diseases, including Southern maize leaf blight or maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, and Northern corn leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris zeicola, may potentially play...

  9. Evaluation of special grains bean lines for grain yield, cooking time and mineral concentrations

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    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability of 32 inbred special grains bean lines was investigated for grain yield, mass of 100 grains, cooking time, and mineral concentrations in grains, and Z index was used for selection of superior lines in most of the characters. IAC Centauro, IAC Galante, Xamego, Ouro Branco, Montcalm, and Hooter lines presented high yield grain, short cooking time (less than 24 min, and high potassium (>14 g kg-1 dry matter [DM], calcium (>1.42 g kg-1 DM, iron (>97.60 mg kg-1 DM, zinc (>29.05 mg kg-1 DM and copper (>8.67 mg kg-1 DM concentrations, and their dietary use is therefore recommended. Cal-96 line presents higher Z index for grain yield and for the most of the minerals, and its use is recommended for crosses for the development of superior lines.

  10. [Effect of the prolamins in maize (Zea mays L.) grain on tortilla texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F C; Salinas, M Y; Vázquez, C M G; Velázquez, C G A; Aguilar, G N

    2007-09-01

    The prolamins (zeins) are the main storage proteins in the maize grain. There are limited investigations related to their participation on tortilla texture. For determining their effect, normal (6) and Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (6) genotypes were used. The chemical variables comprised prolamins, amylose and starch in whole grain and endosperm. Viscosity of the raw endosperm flour was determined as well as the tortilla texture, expressed in terms of tension force and elongation. Prolamin content in the normal maizes was 64 % higher than that in the QPMs. It was not observed any relationship between prolamin content and flour viscosity. The prolamin content was not related with tortilla hardness, measured as the tension force to rupture the tortilla, but a negative correlation was observed with tortilla elongation. The tortillas with the best texture characteristics were from H-161 nomal maize and H-143 QPM maize, both genotypes showed the smallest grain in its respective gruop. According to the results obtained in the present work, a high prolamin content in maize grain could be affecting tortilla elongation.

  11. Effect of Nitrogen Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Rainfed Wheat and Maize in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Ting-Hui; CAI Gui-Xin; GUO Sheng-Li; HAO Ming-De; L.K.HENG

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment with four treatments and four replicates in a randomized complete block design was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, of Northwest China from 1998 to 2002. The local cropping sequence of wheat, wheat-beans, maize, and wheat over the 4-year period was adopted. A micro-plot study using 15N-labelled fertilizer was carried out to determine the fate of applied N fertilizer in the first year. When N fertilizer was applied wheat (years 1, 2 and 4) and maize (year 3) grain yield increased significantly (P < 0.05) (> 30%), with no significant yield differences in normal rainfall years (Years 1, 2 and 3) for N application at the commonly application rate and at 2/3 of this rate. Grain yield of wheat varied greatly between years, mainly due to variation in annual rainfall.Results of 15N studies on wheat showed that plants recovered 36.6%-38.4% of the N applied, the N remained in soil (0-40cm) ranged from 29.2% to 33.6%, and unaccounted-for N was 29.5%-34.2%. The following crop (wheat) recovered 2.1%-2.8% of the residual N from N applied to the previous wheat crop with recovery generally decreasing in the subsequent three crops (beans, maize and wheat).

  12. Farmers' agronomic and social evaluation of productivity yield and N2-fixation in different cowpea varieties and their subsequent residual N effects on a succeeding maize crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Kuyper, T.W.; Leeuwis, C.; Abekoe, M.K.; Cobbinah, J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cowpea-maize rotations form an important component of the farming systems of smallholder farmers in the forest/savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana. We evaluated five cowpea varieties for grain yield, N-2-fixation, biomass production, and contribution to productivity of subsequent mai

  13. FORAGE AND GRAIN YIELD PERFORMANCES OF SOYBEAN LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur BILGILI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the yield and yield components of twelve soybean genotypes as a forage and a grain crop in Marmara Region of Turkey in 2003-2004 growing seasons. Forage and dry matter yield and yield components at one vegetative stage (V5 and two reproductive stages (R2, and R4 and seed yield was determined in all soybean genotypes. The experiments showed that the harvest stages had signifi cant effects on forage and dry matter yield, and R4 reproductive stage had the highest forage and dry matter yield. Dry matter partitioning of soybean plant parts was greatly affected by harvest stages, while the genotypes had little effect on dry matter partitioning of soybean plant parts. There were statistically signifi cant differences between soybean genotypes in seed yield, but the differences were small. The correlations between forage and dry matter yield and seed yield were not statistically signifi cant.

  14. Pattern in interaction in the maize yield trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Vojka B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In making decisions on the development of varieties and the identification of certain growing regions, the effects of genotype (G and genotype by environment (GxE are very important. Although the main genotype effect and the interaction effect should be partitioned, there is still a need for their integration in the yield, as both simultaneously affect a ranking of the particular genotype within a certain environment. The AMMI (Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction analysis, as a hybrid model, provides appropriate partitioning. The AMMI2 model, capturing 98.4% of the treatment sum of squares, was used, and 12 observed environments were classified into three target environments. Hence, out of 15 commercial maize hybrids, used in the trial, the hybrids ZP-677, ZP-570 and ZP-732 were selected as carriers of maximum yields in three target environments. In this way, it was shown that even in a relatively small region a narrow adaptation of genotypes can be exploited.

  15. Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

  16. Diallel analyze of yield and progress of the severity of leaf diseases in maize hybrids in two population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ventura Faria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven commercial maize hybrids (AS1575, 2B688, Penta, GNZ2004, AG8021, Sprint e P30F53 were intercrossed in a complete diallel, excluded reciprocal, obtaining 21 crosses. The 28 treatments were evaluated in two environments characterized by different densities (62,500 and 90,000 plants ha-1, with the aim of selecting the most promising parents for generating base population to obtain lines. Two experiments were carried out in Guarapuava-PR, at randomized block design with three replications. We estimated the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities for yield and disease severity assessed by the area under the common rust (Puccinia sorghi progress curve (AURPC and the area under the leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis progress curve (AULPC. The effects of GCA and SCA were significant for grain yield and diseases severity in both densities, revealing the importance of both additive and non-additive effects. There GCA x densities interaction was significant only for grain yield. Crossings P30F53 x AG8021 and P30F53 x Penta had negative estimates of SCA for AURPC and AULPC on the environments average. Hybrids GNZ 2004 and P30F53 stood out showing positive GCA for grain yield and negative for AURPC and AULPC in both densities and therefore are recommended for generating base populations for obtaining lines adapted for both densities, conventional and denser plantings, given the current trends in management of maize.

  17. Effects of Variety and Fertilizers on Number of Grains/Cob of Maize in Asaba Area of Delta State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enujeke E. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta state University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June, 2010 to evaluate the effects of variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on number of grain/cob of maize. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factorial layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three different maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15 cm and evaluated for number of grains/cob. The result obtained indicated that hybrid variety, 9022-13, which had 5090, was superior. Also, plants that received inorganic fertilizer were outstanding in number of grains/cob with values of 441.5 in 2008 and 506.0 in 2009 followed by the plants received poultry manure (444.0 in 2008 and 468.0 in 2009. Based on the rates of application of manure/inorganic fertilizer, plants that received 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were outstanding in numbers of grains/cob of maize with values of 532.8 in 2008 and 570.8 in 2009. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid variety 9022-13 should be grown in Asaba area. (ii NPK 20: 10:10 mineral fertilizers should be applied at the rate of 450kgha-1 to enhance maize yield.

  18. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo

  19. THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry De-Graft Acquah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.

  20. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  1. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  2. [Effects of tillage and straw returning on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soils and grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-li; Guo, Hai-bin; Xue, Zhi-wei; Mu, Xin-yuan; Li, Chao-hai

    2015-06-01

    A two-year field study with split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of different soil tillage (conventional tillage, CT; deep tillage, DT; subsoil tillage, ST) and straw returning (all straw retention, AS; no straw returning, NS) on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soil and grain yield. The results showed that, deep or subsoil tillage and straw returning not only reduced the soil bulk density and promoted the content of organic carbon in soil, but increased the soil microbial quantity, soil enzyme activities and grain yield. Furthermore, such influences in maize season were greater than that in wheat season. Compared with CT+NS, DT+AS and ST+AS decreased the soil bulk density at 20-30 cm depth by 8.5% and 6.6%, increased the content of soil organic carbon by 14.8% and 12.4%, increased the microorganism quantity by 45.9% and 33.9%, increased the soil enzyme activities by 34.1% and 25.5%, increased the grain yield by 18.0% and 19.3%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between DT+AS and ST+AS. We concluded that retaining crop residue and deep or subsoil tillage improved soil microorganism quantity, enzyme activities and crop yield.

  3. Methane yield through anaerobic digestion for various maize varieties in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruifang; Yuan, Xufeng; Zhu, Wanbin; Wang, Xiaofen; Chen, Shaojiang; Cheng, Xu; Cui, Zongjun

    2012-08-01

    The methane potential of nine varieties of fresh maize harvested at three different times and of maize silage was experimentally determined in batch assays. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 213.94-313.63, 195.88-334.81 mL/g VS from several fresh and silage maize in three stages, respectively. The average specific methane yield of wax ripeness stage for fresh maize and full ripeness stage for silage maize were higher than that of other stages, respectively. The high-oil varieties of fresh maize and silage varieties of ensiling maize could produce more methane than general varieties in the same ripeness stage. Methane yield of ensiled materials was higher than fresh material. The methane yields of fresh and silage maize in full ripeness stage were ranged 5656-7956 and 4633-8915 m(3)/ha, respectively. The corresponding maximum of methane yield came from fresh HO5580 and silage CAU No. 4.

  4. Performance Evaluation Of A Grain Maize Solar Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Osondu L. C.; Ugwuoke E.C; Chikelu C. C.; Eze N.N; Ukwuani S.T

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Drying under direct sunlight is one of the oldest techniques used by mankind to preserve Agriculture based food and non-food products. This paper focused on the use of solar dryer to reduce the moisture content of Agriculture produce such as maize. The experiment performed showed the moisture content of maize reduced from 20 to 13. It was also observed that the temperature increased with time. The assumed maximum temperature of the collector plate in the experiment was 100.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be

  6. Effect of Tillage Methods on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties, Growth and Grain Yield of Summer Maize%耕作方式对土壤理化性状及夏玉米生长发育和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽君; 边大红; 田晓东; 曹立燕; 崔彦宏

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of soil tillage methods on soil physical and chemical properties ,summer maize growth and grain yield ,and to provide a scientific basis for improving soil struc-ture and grain yield in northern areas of Huang-Huai-Hai region .This experiment contained four tillage styles which were sub-soiling,plowing tillage,alternate year sub-soiling and rotary tillage.The results showed that sub-soiling,al-ternate year sub-soiling and plowing tillage could significantly reduce the soil compactness at 10 cm underground and deeper;improved the soil moisture content at different growth stages ,the effect was most prominent between 20 cm to 40 cm soil layer;increased the soil potassium content′s availability between 20 cm to 60 cm soil layer;helped to maintain leaf area index at middle and later filling stages and dry matter accumulation increased 7.79%-18.09%;and increased maximum and average filling rate ,grain yield per hectare increased 4.1%-9.3%.Sub-soiling and al-ternate year sub-soiling had no significant difference between them .As far as high-yield and energy saving were con-cerned in the experiment ,the most appropriate treatment for recommendation was the alternate year sub -soiling.%研究耕作方式对土壤理化性状、夏玉米生长发育及籽粒产量的影响,为黄淮海北部地区土壤结构改善和籽粒产量提高提出有利的科学依据。试验设夏玉米前茬深松、翻耕、隔年深松和传统耕作旋耕4个处理。研究结果表明,深松、隔年深松、翻耕能够显著降低10 cm以下土层的土壤紧实度;提高各生育时期土壤含水量,尤其以20~40 cm土层表现最为明显;增加20~60 cm土层速效钾含量;有利于维持夏玉米灌浆中后期叶面积指数,干物质的积累量增加7.79%~18.09%;提高籽粒最大灌浆速率、平均灌浆速率,每公顷产量提高4.1%~9.3%。各处理间以深松和隔年

  7. PHENOTYPIC GRAIN YIELD STABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OSCULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield as well as adaptability level of several domestic soybean cultivars. The trials were conducted on three locations in the region of the eastern Croatia (Osijek, Brijest, Donji Miholjac in the period from 1998-2002 and involved 14 soybean cultivars. Tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. They belong to maturity groups 0, 0-I and I according to vegetation period length. Two parameters are used in the analysis of yield stability and cultivar adaptability: portion of variance of genotype x environment interaction of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2 GxE and regression coefficient (bi. Obtained results indicated significant differences in level and stability of grain yield as well as level of cultivar adaptability. Six of the 14 tested cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Smiljana, Kuna, Anica and Tisa had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Other tested cultivars had unstable grain yield and narrow (specific adaptability.

  8. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200±5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets...... were hay and concentrate mixtures of hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and a control of maize meal with molasses (MMMO). All concentrate mixtures contained cotton seed cake, mineral mixture.......35 for HFMO) than in maize grain based diets (6.94, 6.73 and 6.19 for RPMM, MMMO and HFMM, respectively). Energy intake was highest (P

  9. Effects of long-term full straw return on yield and potassium response in wheat-maize rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI You-lu; WANG Lei; LU Yan-li; YANG Li-ping; ZHOU Li-ping; NI Lu; CHENG Ming-fang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term straw return on crop yield, soil potassium (K) content, soil organic matter, and crop response to K from both straw and chemical K fertilizer (K2SO4) were investigated in a ifxed site ifeld experiment for winter wheat-summer maize rotation in 6 years for 12 seasons. The ifeld experiment was located in northern part of North China Plain with a sandy soil in relatively low yield potential. Two factors, straw return and chemical K fertilizer, were studied with two levels in each factor. Field split design was employed, with two straw treatments, ful straw return of previous crop (St) and no straw return, in main plots, and two chemical K fertilizer treatments, 0 and 60 kg K2O ha–1, as sub-plots. The results showed that straw return signiifcantly increased yields of winter wheat and summer maize by 16.5 and 13.2% in average, respectively, and the positive effect of straw return to crop yield showed more effective in lower yield season. Straw return signiifcantly increased K absorption by the crops, with signiifcant increase in straw part. In treatment with straw return, the K content in crop straw increased by 15.9 and 21.8%in wheat and maize, respectively, compared with no straw return treatment. But, straw return had little effect on K content in grain of the crops. Straw return had signiifcant inlfuences on total K uptake by wheat and maize plants, with an increase of 32.7 and 30.9%, respectively. There was a signiifcant correlation between crop yield and K uptake by the plant. To produce 100 kg grain, the wheat and maize plants absorbed 3.26 and 2.24 kg K2O, respectively. The contents of soil available K and soil organic matter were signiifcantly affected by the straw return with an increase of 6.07 and 23.0%, respectively, compared to no straw return treatment. K2SO4 application in rate of 60 kg K2O ha–1 showed no signiifcant effect on wheat and maize yield, K content in crop straw, total K uptake by the crops, soil available K content

  10. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  11. Performance Evaluation Of A Grain Maize Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osondu L. C.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drying under direct sunlight is one of the oldest techniques used by mankind to preserve Agriculture based food and non-food products. This paper focused on the use of solar dryer to reduce the moisture content of Agriculture produce such as maize. The experiment performed showed the moisture content of maize reduced from 20 to 13. It was also observed that the temperature increased with time. The assumed maximum temperature of the collector plate in the experiment was 100.

  12. Climate Change, Risk and Grain Yields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rainer Holst; Xiaohua Yu; Carola Grn

    2013-01-01

    Adopting Just and Pope (1978, 1979) style yield functions, this paper proposes a method to analyze the impacts of regional climate change on grain production in China. We find that changes in climate will affect grain production in North and South China differently. Specifically, it emerges that a 1°C increase in annual average temperature could reduce national grain output by 1.45%(1.74%reduction in North China and 1.19%reduction in South China), while an increase in total annual precipitation of around 100 mm could increase national grain output by 1.31%(3.0%increase in North China and 0.59%reduction in South China).

  13. Do more seeds per panicle improve grain sorghum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number rather than seed mass is largely considered to be the most important yield component of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. An experimental sorghum hybrid with enhanced seed number (tri-seed) was grown at the Soil-Plant-Environment Research (SPER) facility, USDA-ARS, Bushland, ...

  14. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller

    The maize area in northern Europe has increased dramatically during the last 20 years, in Denmark from 19,000 ha in 1990 to 172,000 ha in 2010. Knowledge about nitrogen (N) leaching from maize under temperate coastal climate conditions is sparse. In 2009 an N leaching study was started in a field......, but the effect was insignificant. The effect of tillage and previous N rates were also insignificant but the present use of cover crops had a small but significant decreasing effect on leaching compared to no cover cropping. The cover crop was well established in both years but grew less vigorously during autumn...... due to strong competition from the maize crop. The experiment shows that it is difficult for the perennial ryegrass variety used as cover crop to survive until harvest of grain maize and to reduce leaching substantially....

  15. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Yong-zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different textures and fertility levels. Three treatments for each soil were set up:(1 conventional tillage,winter irrigation, and new plastic mulching cultivation(NM;(2 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching cultivation (RM;(3 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching combined with straw mulching (RMS. The results showed that the average daily soil temperature in the two reused plastic mulching treatment(RM and RMS during maize sowing and elongation stage was lower 0.6~1.0℃(5 cm depth and 0.5~0.8℃(15 cm depth than that in the NM. This result suggested that no tillage and reused plastic mulching cultivation still had the effect of increasing soil temperature. Maize grain yield in the RM was reduced by 4.4%~10.6% compared with the conventional cultivation(NM, while the net income increased due to saving in plastic film and tillage ex-penses. There was no significant difference in maize grain yield between the RMS and NM treatment, but the net income in the RMS was in-creased by 12.5%~17.1% than that in the NM. Compared with the NM, the two reused plastic film mulching treatments (RM and RMS decreased the volume of winter irrigation, but maize IWP increased. Soil texture and fertility level affected significantly maize nitrogen uptake and IWP. In the arid oases with the shortage of water resources, cultivation practices of conservation tillage with recycle of plastic film is an ideal option for saving cost and increasing income

  16. Yield Potential of Soil Water and Its Sustainability for Dryland Spring Maize with Plastic Film Mulch on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    means PM can increase the yield potential of spring maize in water limited condition. From the result the field experiment, the grain yield under PM ranged from 6556 to 12615 kg/ha, being 803 to 3616 kg/hm-2 higher than no mulching (CK); and the WUE under plastic mulch ranged from 18.3 to 33.5 kghm-2mm-1, significantly higher than the CK in most of the experiment years (17.5-23.6 kghm-2mm-1). The ET for PM was higher than that of the CK (significance in 2009 and 2011), while it also increased the root biomass in soil, over consumed soil water and improved soil structure increased rainfall infiltration in fallow period. The result shows that the stored water by PM was 12 to 56 mm higher than the CK in the seven experiment years. So after seven years of cultivation, no significant difference was observed between treatments for the soil water storage in 0-6 m soil profile, which means that plastic film mulch can not only increase maize yield, but also is sustainable in the respect of soil water.

  17. Study on Yield Loss of Summer Maize Due to Lodging at the Big Flare Stage and Grain Filling Stage%大喇叭口及灌浆期倒伏对夏玉米产量损失的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树岩; 马玮; 彭记永; 陈忠民

    2015-01-01

    差异不显著,其中FSH(2011年)处理秃尖率最高,达27.4%。倒伏灾害同时影响穗粒数和百粒重,倒伏后均表现出减少趋势,与产量的相关系数分别为0.729和0.842(P<0.01)。受2年试验条件差异影响,2011年各倒伏处理的穗粒数显著低于对照,2012年仅灌浆期茎倒伏与对照差异显著。倒伏影响百粒重,其中灌浆期处理最显著(P<0.05)。穗粒数和百粒重与产量显著相关,相关系数分别为0.729和0.842(P<0.01)。倒伏显著降低产量,除大喇叭口期轻度根倒伏BR1外,其他倒伏处理的产量均显著低于对照(P<0.05)。大喇叭口期倒伏 BR2、BSL 和 BSH 产量损失率2年平均分别为13.9%、27.9%和27.1%;灌浆期倒伏FR1、FR2、FSL和FSH产量损失率,2年平均分别为29.0%、38.4%、45.0%和48.3%。【结论】相同倒伏类型,灌浆期倒伏较大喇叭口期倒伏影响更大;在同一生育时期,茎倒伏比根倒伏影响更明显,但茎倒伏高、低节位处理之间产量损失差异不显著。各倒伏处理的产量损失表现为灌浆期茎倒伏最高,大喇叭口期根倒伏最低。%Objective]The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of lodging on dry matter, yield components and final yield of summer maize, and further to evaluate the yield losses due to different types of lodging at different growing stages.[Method]The field experiments were conducted during two growing seasons of summer maize with the variety of Xundan 20 from 2011 to 2012 at Zhengzhou Agro-meteorological Experiment Station. The lodging was implemented by kicking down the maize plants artificially at two growing stage, the big flare stage (B) and the grain filling stage (F). And at each stage, the lodging included four types, light lodging of roots (R1, in which the angle between the lodged stem and ground was between 30 and 60 degree), serious lodging of roots (R2, in which the angle between the lodged stem and ground was lower

  18. Effects of Controlled and Slow Release Fertilizers on the N Utilization and Grain Yield in Summer Maize Under Different Plant Densities%不同种植密度下缓/控释肥施肥量对夏玉米氮利用和籽粒产量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雯; 张倩; 张洪生

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of controlled and slow release fertilizers on the N utilization and grain yield in summer maize under different plant densities, medium and high rates of controlled and slow release fertilizer (i.e. 750 kg/hm2, 975 kg/hm2) were applied under medium and high plant densities (6.75×104, 8.25 × 104 plant/hm2), summer maize cultivar‘Zhengdan 958’was used for this study. The treatment of 750 kg/hm2 controlled and slow release fertilizer level under medium plant density (6.75×104 plant/hm2) was as control. The effect of controlled and slow release fertilizer on the N concentration in either individual plant organ or total plant was insignificant. However, the increase supply of controlled and slow release obviously deceased the plant bare rate by 20.0% compared with the medium supply of controlled and slow release fertilizer, especially under high plant density (decrease by 27.0%), and the average ear weight increased by 12.4%. Although the effect of controlled and slow release fertilizer on grain yield was insignificant, the average yield of high supply of controlled and slow release fertilizer under high plant density was increased by 15.0%, 19.4%compared with control, and medium supply of controlled and slow release fertilizer under the same plant density, and the economic efficiency was also increased by 12.3%compared with control. It is thus concluded that high supply of controlled and slow release fertilizer (975 kg/hm2) under the high plant density (8.25 × 104 plant/hm2) could further increase the grain yield and economic efficiency.%为了探明缓释肥施肥量对夏玉米氮积累利用和籽粒产量的影响,以夏玉米品种‘郑单958’为材料,在不同种植密度水平(6.75×104株/hm2、8.25×104株/hm2)下,以当地传统施肥量(750 kg/hm2)为对照,增加缓释肥施肥量(975 kg/hm2)进行比较研究。结果表明:缓/控释肥施肥量对夏玉米各器官及全株氮含量、氮利

  19. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  20. Adapting Towards Climate Change: A Bioeconomic Analysis of Winterwheat and Grain Maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, N.; Finger, R.; Klein, T.; Calanca, P.; Walter, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change (CC) will alter the environmental conditions for crop growth. In order to minimize negative CC impacts on cropping systems, farmers will have to adapt their management schemes. In this paper we analyzed CC impacts and adaptation in winterwheat and grain maize production using a bio-ec

  1. An assessment of climate change impacts on maize yields in Hebei Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfu; Han, Xinru; Si, Wei; Wu, Zhigang; Chien, Hsiaoping; Okamoto, Katsuo

    2017-03-01

    The climate change impacts on maize yields are quantified in this paper using statistical models with panel data from 3731 farmers' observations across nine sample villages in Hebei Province of China. The marginal impacts of climate change and the simulated impacts on maize yields based on scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 from the global climate models of Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate version 5 (MIROC5) and Meteorological Research Institute Coupled General Circulation Model version 3 (MRI-CGCM3) were then calculated, analyzed, and explained. The results indicate that, first, the most important finding was that climate change impacts on maize yields were significant and a 1°C warming or a 1mm decrease in precipitation resulted in a 150.255kg or a 1.941kg loss in maize yields per hectare, respectively. Second, villages with latitudes of less than 39.832 and longitudes of more than 114.839 in Hebei province suffered losses due to warm weather. Third, the simulated impacts for the full sample are all negative based on scenarios from MIROC5, and their magnitudes are more than those of MRI-CGCM3 are. Based on scenarios in the 2050s, the biggest loss for maize yields per hectare for the full sample accounts for about one-tenth of the mean maize yield from 2004 to 2010, and all of the villages are impacted. Hence, it is important to help farms adopt an adaptation strategy to tackle the risk of loss for maize yields from climate change, and it is necessary to develop agricultural synthesis services as a public adaptation policy at the village level to interact with the adaptation strategy at the farm level.

  2. Practicable group testing method to evaluate weight/weight GMO content in maize grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Yanaka, Yuka; Ikezu, Yoko; Onishi, Mari; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Ninomiya, Kenji; Yotsuyanagi, Yuichi; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Naito, Shigehiro; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-07-13

    Because of the increasing use of maize hybrids with genetically modified (GM) stacked events, the established and commonly used bulk sample methods for PCR quantification of GM maize in non-GM maize are prone to overestimate the GM organism (GMO) content, compared to the actual weight/weight percentage of GM maize in the grain sample. As an alternative method, we designed and assessed a group testing strategy in which the GMO content is statistically evaluated based on qualitative analyses of multiple small pools, consisting of 20 maize kernels each. This approach enables the GMO content evaluation on a weight/weight basis, irrespective of the presence of stacked-event kernels. To enhance the method's user-friendliness in routine application, we devised an easy-to-use PCR-based qualitative analytical method comprising a sample preparation step in which 20 maize kernels are ground in a lysis buffer and a subsequent PCR assay in which the lysate is directly used as a DNA template. This method was validated in a multilaboratory collaborative trial.

  3. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  4. Nutritive value of brewers’ grain and maize silage for fattening rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guermah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific knowledge of the nutritive value of raw materials is fundamental to formulate balanced diets for rabbits and allows greater use of by-products and non-conventional feedstuffs. This paper examines the feeding value of sun-dried brewers’ grain and maize silage (whole plant for fattening rabbits. Twenty-four individually caged 8-wk-old rabbits were used to determine the digestibility. Both wet products were sun-dried and ground before being incorporated into a basal diet. The inclusion level at the expense of all basal ingredients amounted to 30%. Basal diet and both experimental diets were fed ad libitum to 8 rabbits during the 4-d balance trial. The determined digestibility of protein, fat, crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre digestibility amounted to 76.2 and 77.2%; 86.5 and 99.1%; 8.1 and 8.3% and 28.0 and 13.5%, respectively, for brewers’ grain and maize silage. The digestible energy content amounted to 11.66 MJ/kg dry matter (DM (brewers’ grain and 11.10 MJ/kg DM (maize silage. Both by-products have potential as alternative feedstuff in rabbit diets. However, further experiments are necessary to determine the effect of ensilaging the whole maize plant, as a significantly lower (P<0.001 feed intake was observed.

  5. Measuring Integration and Efficiency in Maize Grain Markets: The Case of South Africa and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Traub, Lulama Ndibongo; Myers, Robert J.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Meyer, Ferdinand H.

    2010-01-01

    Price transmission between the South African market and other regional markets is not as straightforward, despite South Africa’s role of a surplus producer for the region. There appears to be a host of local factors that must be taken into account in order to anticipate the likely level of regional food prices. This article assesses the degree of market integration and the speed of price adjustment to spatial price differentials between the SAFEX maize price in South Africa and maize grain an...

  6. Influence of maize/lablab intercropping on lepidopterous stem borer infestation in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluleke, Mary H; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Ayisi, Kingsley K

    2005-04-01

    Lepidopterous stem borers seriously affect production of maize, Zea mays L., in sub-Saharan Africa. Intercropping maize with legumes such as lablab, Lablab purpurens (L.), is one of the effective systems to control stem borers. Sole culture maize and maize/lablab intercrop system of different lablab densities were planted at two locations to investigate the effects of intercrop system on incidence and severity of stem borers with particular reference to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Stem borer infestation was found to be more severe in sole culture maize than maize in maize/lablab intercrop. There was a significantly negative relationship between lablab densities and maize grain yields, suggesting a possible competition for resources between the two crops. It was concluded that density of lablab and date of planting of lablab in maize/lablab intercropping have significant affects on stem borer populations and maize grain yields.

  7. Use of the Stable Nitrogen Isotope to Reveal the Source-Sink Regulation of Nitrogen Uptake and Remobilization during Grain Filling Phase in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Guo, Song; Chen, Qinwu; Chen, Fanjun; Yuan, Lixing; Mi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Although the remobilization of vegetative nitrogen (N) and post-silking N both contribute to grain N in maize (Zea mays L.), their regulation by grain sink strength is poorly understood. Here we use 15N labeling to analyze the dynamic behaviors of both pre- and post-silking N in relation to source and sink manipulation in maize plants. The results showed that the remobilization of pre-silking N started immediately after silking and the remobilized pre-silking N had a greater contribution to grain N during early grain filling, with post-silking N importance increasing during the later filling stage. The amount of post-silking N uptake was largely driven by post-silking dry matter accumulation in both grain as well as vegetative organs. Prevention of pollination during silking had less effect on post-silking N uptake, as a consequence of compensatory growth of stems, husk + cob and roots. Also, leaves continuously export N even though grain sink was removed. The remobilization efficiency of N in the leaf and stem increased with increasing grain yield (hence N requirement). It is suggested that the remobilization of N in the leaf is controlled by sink strength but not the leaf per se. Enhancing post-silking N uptake rather than N remobilization is more likely to increase grain N accumulation. PMID:27606628

  8. Weed Diversity Affects Soybean and Maize Yield in a Long Term Experiment in Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Davis, Adam S.; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose L.

    2017-01-01

    Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields. Using three types of models that considered internal and external (climate and weeds) factors, with additive or non-linear variants, we found that changes in weed diversity were associated with changes in rates of crop yield increase over time for both maize and soybeans. The intrinsic capacity for soybean yield increase in response to the environment was greater under more diverse weed communities. Soybean production risks were greatest in the least weed diverse systems, in which each weed species lost was associated with progressively greater crop yield losses. Managing for weed community diversity, while suppressing dominant, highly competitive weeds, may be a helpful strategy for supporting long term increases in soybean productivity. In maize, there was a negative and non-additive response of yields to the interaction between weed diversity and minimum air temperatures. When cold temperatures constrained potential maize productivity through limited resources, negative interactions with weed diversity became more pronounced. We suggest that: (1) maize was less competitive in cold years allowing higher weed diversity and the dominance of some weed species; or (2) that cold years resulted in increased weed richness and prevalence of competitive weeds, thus reducing crop yields. Therefore, we propose to control dominant weed species especially in the years of low yield and extreme minimum temperatures to improve maize yields

  9. Effect of Long-Term Potassium Fertilization on Crop Yield and Potassium Efficiency and Balance Under Wheat-Maize Rotation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-Min; YANG Xue-Yun; HE Xin-Hua; XU Ming-Gang; HUANG Shao-Min; LIU Hua; WANG Bo-Ren

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable potassium (K) management at different soil sites requires understanding the relationships between crop productivity and long-term K fertilizations on a regional or national scale. We analyzed responses of grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.), K efficiency, and partial balance (difference between K input through fertilizer and K output in the aboveground biomass) during 15- (1990-2005) or 18-year (1990-2008) K fertilizations at five distinctive agroecological zones across China. Compared to the inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization, the inorganic NPK fertilization significantly increased grain yields of wheat (21%) and maize (16%-72%) at Qiyang and Changping, where soils have low exchangeable and non-exchangeable K contents, but not at (U)rǔmqi, Yangling and Zhengzhou, where soils have a high exchangeable and non-exchangeable K and/or low N/K ratio in crop plants. Compared to the inorganic NPK fertilization, the inorganic NPK (30% N) and organic manure (70% N) fertilization (NPKM) increased grain yields of wheat (14%-40%) and maize (9%-61%) at four sites, but not at Zhengzhou. For a productivity of wheat at 2-5 t ha-1 or maize at 3-6 t ha-1, 13-26 or 9-17 kg K ha-1 were required to produce 1.0 t wheat or maize. The NP fertilization resulted in the lowest negative partial K balance and accumulated 52 kg K ha-1 year-1 less than the NPK fertilization, which accumulated 28 kg ha-1 year-1 less K than the NPKM fertilization. A re-evaluation of the site-specific fertilization effects on N/K rat io in crop plants and soil K accumulation under current NPK and NPKM fertilization is urgently needed to increase both crop yield and K use efficiency at different agroecological zones across China.

  10. Satellite detection of rising maize yield heterogeneity in the U.S. Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.; Azzari, George

    2017-01-01

    The future trajectory of crop yields in the United States will influence food supply and land use worldwide. We examine maize and soybean yields for 2000-2015 in the Midwestern U.S. using a new satellite-based dataset on crop yields at 30m resolution. We quantify heterogeneity both within and between fields, and find that the difference between average and top yielding fields is typically below 30% for both maize and soybean, as expected in advanced agricultural regions. In most counties, within-field heterogeneity is at least half as large as overall heterogeneity, illustrating the importance of non-management factors such as soil and landscape position. Surprisingly, we find that yield heterogeneity is rising in maize, both between and within fields, with average yield differences between the best and worst soils more than doubling since 2000. Heterogeneity trends were insignificant for soybean. The findings are consistent both with recent adoption of precision agriculture technologies and with recent trends toward denser sowing in maize, which disproportionately raise yields on better soils. The results imply that yield gains in the region are increasingly derived from the more productive land, and that sub-field precision management of nutrients and other inputs is increasingly warranted.

  11. Leaf type and grain yield in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Vojislav M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year trial (2000-2002 was aimed to investigate the grain yield of nine pea genotypes with different leaf type. One (Akatsievydnaya forma had acacia (Aftl, four (NS-junior, Moravac, Javor and Amino normal (AfTl and four (Jezero, 4(1993, CD and Primeroy afila (afTl leaf type. Average plant height (PH, first pod height (FPH, internode number (IN, pod number per plant (PNP, grain number per plant (GNP, plant mass (PM, grain yield per plant (GYP and per area unit (GYA, harvest index (HI and thousand grains weight (TGW were studied. There existed significant differences in all yield components, both between the different leaf type groups and between the genotypes of the same group. The AfTl cultivars had the greatest values for PH (75.2 cm, FPH (43.5 cm, IN (18.9, PNP (8.7, GNP (34.2, PM (15.89 g and GYP (6.97 g. The afTl genotypes had the greatest HI (0.56, GYA (2980 t/ha and TGW (255 g. As for the cultivars, NS-junior was characterized by the greatest values of PH (120.4 cm, FPH (68,6 cm. IN (22.2, PNP (11.3, GNP (42.5 and PM (17.95 g. Javor had the greatest GYP (8.56 g, while the greatest HI was determined in genotype 4(1993(0,60. The greatest GYA was in Primeroy (4298 kg/ha and the greatest TGW was measured in Moravac (301 g.

  12. Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf. in Thrace Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kahraman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirdağ, Lüleburgaz and Edirne during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length and grain yield. In the first experimental year, there was a high positive significant correlation between grain yield and grain weight/spike, test weight and 1000 grain weight. In the second experimental year, grain yield showed positive and significant correlations with 1000 grain weight, test weight and stem length. The biggest differences among investigated cultivar of durum wheat were found in stem length, grains/spike and 1000 grain weight. Grain yield of examined cultivars depended mainly on 1000 grain weight, test weight, grain weight/spike and agroecological conditions during the growing period. However, location, production year and genotypes were the most important determinant of potential yield of cultivars. Ç 1252, Fuatbey 2000, Epidur, Kızıltan95, Aydın 93 and Altın 97 were found more suitable cultivars that the others for durum wheat production in Thrace Region.

  13. Trends of Yield and Soil Fertility in a Long-Term Wheat-Maize System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xue-yun; SUN Ben-hua; ZHANG Shu-lan

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of the wheat-maize rotation is important to China’s food security. Intensive cropping without recycling crop residues or other organic inputs results in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients, and is assumed to be non-sustainable. We evaluated the effects of nine different treatments on yields, nitrogen use efifciency, P and K balances, and soil fertility in a wheat-maize rotation system (1991-2010) on silt clay loam in Shaanxi, China. The treatments involved the application ofrecommended dose of nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), nitrogen and potassium (NK), phosphorus and potassium (PK), combined NPK, wheat or maize straw (S) with NPK (SNPK), or dairy manure (M) with NPK (M1NPK and M2NPK), along with an un-treated control treatment (CK). The mean yields of wheat and maize ranged from 992 and 2 235 kg ha-1 under CK to 5962 and 6894 kg ha-1 under M2NPK treatment, respectively. Treatments in which either N or P was omitted (N, NK and PK) gave signiifcantly lower crop yields than those in which both were applied. The crop yields obtained under NP, NPK and SNPK treatments were statistically identical, as were those obtained under SNPK and MNPK. However, M2NPK gave a signiifcant higher wheat yield than NP, and MNPK gave signiifcant higher maize yield than both NP and NPK. Wheat yields increased signiifcantly (by 86 to 155 kg ha-1 yr-1) in treatments where NP was applied, but maize yields did not. In general, the nitrogen use efifciency of wheat was the highest under the NP and NPK treatments; for maize, it was the highest under MNPK treatment. The P balance was highly positive under MNPK treatment, increasing by 136 to 213 kg ha-1 annually. While the K balance was negative in most treatments, ranging from 31 to 217 kg ha-1 yr-1, levels of soil available K remained unchanged or increased over the 20 yr. SOM levels increased signiifcantly in all treatments. Overall, the results indicated that combinations of organic manure and

  14. Long-Term Effects of Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Yield and Soil Fertility for a Winter Wheat-Maize System in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Dong; H. HENGSDIJK; DAI Ting-Bo; W. de BOER; JING Qi; CAO Wei-Xing

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the effect of inorganic and organic nutrient sources on yield and yield trends of both winter wheat and maize, 2) monitor the changes in soil organic matter content under continuous wheat-maize cropping with different soil fertility management schemes, and 3) identify reasons for yield trends observed in Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, over a 20-year period. There were eight treatments applied to both wheat and maize seasons: a control treatment (C); three inorganic fertilizers, that is, nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); and addition of farmyard manure (FYM) to these four treatments, that is,M, MN, MNP, and MNPK. At the end of the experiment the MN, MNP, and MNPK treatments had the highest yields,about 7 t wheat ha-1 and 7.5 t maize ha-1, with each about i t ha-1 more than the NPK treatments. Over 20 years with FYM soil organic matter increased by 80% compared to only 10% with NPK, which explained yield increases. However,from an environmental and agronomic perspective, manure application was not a superior strategy to NPK fertilizers.If manure was to be applied, though, it would be best applied to the wheat crop, which showed a better response than maize.

  15. Effects of Different Nitrogen Management Methods on Soil N2O Emission and Crop Yield of Grain Field in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHU Xiao-xiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the published literature analysis of wheat and maize field in North China, this study investigated the effects of different management methods of nitrogen(N application rates, basal/topdressing ratios and N control measures on the soil N2O emission and crop yield. The results showed that reducing N application rates and adjusting basal/top dressing ratios under high N level could decrease soil N2O emissions. Besides, N application with nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide(DCD was an effective practice for wheat/maize yield enhancement and soil N2O emission reduction. In order to reduce the soil N2O emission as well as ensure crop yield production in North China, the optimal N application rate of 167~174 kg·hm-2 at basal/top dressing ratio 1:1 with DCD was recommended for wheat production. As a result, soil N2O total emission was 0.31 kg·hm-2 and wheat grain yield reached more than 6200 kg·hm-2. For maize production, the optimal N application rate of 177~181 kg·hm-2 at basal/top dressing ratios 2:3~1:2 with DCD was regarded as the best practice. Soil N2O total emission was 1.70 kg·hm-2 and maize grain yield exceeded 9000 kg·hm-2.

  16. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  17. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed silage and grain from a maize hybrid with the cry1F trait versus its nonbiotech counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Owens, F; Hinds, M; Dana, G; Hunst, P

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding grain and maize silage from a non-Bt maize and a variety of Bt maize that contains cry1F (event TC1507, event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1), a gene that provides maize with insect resistance, on the health and performance of dairy cows were evaluated. In a crossover trial, 20 lactating Holstein cows were assigned to each of 2 dietary treatment groups and fed diets containing whole-plant maize silage plus maize grain from TC1507 or its near-isoline counterpart (control). Each period of the crossover trial lasted 28 d and was preceded by a 7-d adjustment period. To minimize variability due to stage of lactation, 2 blocks of 10 cows at 90 to 130 d of lactation at the start of the trial were used. Within each dietary treatment, 10 cows were from each of 2 genetic selection lines (high and average fat plus protein predicted transmitting ability). Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Dry matter intake and daily production of milk, fat, protein, lactose, nonfat solids, and total solids did not differ between cows fed the TC1507 diet and cows fed the control diet. Furthermore, milk from cows in different dietary treatment groups did not differ in milk urea nitrogen concentration or somatic cell count. For milk fat percentage, a significant dietary treatment by genetic group interaction was detected although overall yield of milk and solids-corrected milk did not differ with diet. Physical measures of cow health including body weight, body condition score, temperature, pulse, and respiration rate were collected weekly; dietary treatment group means for these measures were not different. Blood chemistry and hematological analyses were conducted using blood samples collected from cows before the start of the trial and at the end of each period. Overall, the TC1507 and control groups did not differ in any of these indices of health status. Further, hematological profiles for cows in the dietary treatment groups were not different. In summary, no

  18. Resistance of Bt-maize (MON810) against the stem borers Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and its yield performance in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Mugo, Stephen; Mwimali, Murenga; Anani, Bruce; Tende, Regina; Beyene, Yoseph; Gichuki, Simon; Oikeh, Sylvester O; Nang'ayo, Francis; Okeno, James; Njeru, Evans; Pillay, Kiru; Meisel, Barbara; Prasanna, B M

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance of maize hybrids with Bt event MON810 (Bt-hybrids) against the maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) in a biosafety greenhouse (BGH) and against the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under confined field trials (CFT) in Kenya for three seasons during 2013-2014. The study comprised 14 non-commercialized hybrids (seven pairs of near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt hybrids) and four non-Bt commercial hybrids. Each plant was artificially infested twice with 10 first instar larvae. In CFT, plants were infested with C. partellus 14 and 24 days after planting; in BGH, plants were infested with B. fusca 21 and 31 days after planting. In CFT, the seven Bt hybrids significantly differed from their non-Bt counterparts for leaf damage, number of exit holes, percent tunnel length, and grain yield. When averaged over three seasons, Bt-hybrids gave the highest grain yield (9.7 t ha(-1)), followed by non-Bt hybrids (6.9 t ha(-1)) and commercial checks (6 t ha(-1)). Bt-hybrids had the least number of exit holes and percent tunnel length in all the seasons as compared to the non-Bt hybrids and commercial checks. In BGH trials, Bt-hybrids consistently suffered less leaf damage than their non-Bt near isolines. The study demonstrated that MON810 was effective in controlling B. fusca and C. partellus. Bt-maize, therefore, has great potential to reduce the risk of maize grain losses in Africa due to stem borers, and will enable the smallholder farmers to produce high-quality grain with increased yield, reduced insecticide inputs, and improved food security.

  19. Role of Zinc Fertilizers in Increasing Grain Zinc Concentration and Improving Grain Yield of Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Phattarakul, Nattinee; Cakmak, Ismail; Boonchuay, Panomwan; Wongmo, Jumniun; Rerkasem, Benjavan

    2009-01-01

    Iron (Fe) toxicity is a widespread nutrient disorder and limit to grain yield in lowland rice. As it is, however, sometimes associated with deficiency of other nutrients, Fe toxicity might be also managed and alleviated by applications of concerned nutrients such as potassium (K) and zinc (Zn). However, the information on this topic available in literature is very limited, especially in the case of Zn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil and foliar Zn applicatio...

  20. Response on yield and nutritive value of two commercial maize hybrids as a consequence of a water irrigation reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gallo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated in a practical farm condition the response of two commercial maize hybrids (maturity class FAO rating 700 grown for silage production on chemical composition and digestibility of whole maize plant as consequence of a severe water irrigation reduction. Based on different irrigation applications, water restricted (WR and fully irrigated (FI plots received 50 and 200 mm of irrigation water, respectively. A split-plot factorial arrangement in a randomised complete block design with two main plots (WR and FI and two sub-plots (hybrid A and B with 12 replications/ treatment was performed. Studied parameters were dry matter (DM yield, harvest index (HI, chemical composition, rumen in situ DM and neutral detergent fibre disappearance (DMD and NDFD, respectively, indigestible NDF (iNDF, 7h in vitro starch degradability (7hIVSD and net energy (NE for lactation content. Total DM and grain yields, HI and chemical composition differed (P<0.05 between FI and WR crops and only slight differences were recorded between hybrids. When compared to FI plants, WR had lower starch and higher fibre contents (P<0.05. Higher DMD (59.2 vs 56.4% DM and NDFD (61.0 vs 58.4% NDFOM were measured for FI with respect to WR crops, whereas iNDF was about 36% higher (P<0.05 in WR than FI. Lastly, WR plants had a lower NE content than FI plants (P<0.05. Our research showed that a drastic reduction in water irrigation negatively affected whole plant yield, chemical composition and nutrient availability of forage maize.

  1. Manipulating plant geometry to improve microclimate, grain yield, and harvest index in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob A.; Xue, Qingwu; Chen, Yuanquan

    2017-01-01

    Cultivar selection, planting geometry, and plant population are the key factors determining grain sorghum yields in water deficit areas. The objective of this study was to investigate whether clump geometry (three plants clustered) improves microclimate within crop canopy when plants are grown under varying water levels. In a 2-yr sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) greenhouse study, plants were grown at two geometries (clump and conventional evenly spaced planting, ESP), two water levels (high and low, representing well-watered and water-limited condition, respectively), and three soil surface treatments (lid covered, straw-mulched, and bare). Air temperature and relative humidity (RH) within the plant canopy were measured every five minutes at different growth stages. Mean vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) within the clumps were consistently lower than those for ESPs, indicating that clumps improved the microclimate. Clumps had significantly higher harvest index (HI) compared to ESPs (0.48 vs. 0.43), which was largely due to clumps having an average of 0.4 tillers per plant compared to 1.2 tillers per plant for ESPs. Grain yield in the current study was similar between clumps and ESPs. However, our results suggest that improved microclimate was likely a reason for clumps producing significantly higher grain yields compared to ESPs in previous studies. PMID:28264051

  2. Grain Yield Response Of Rice Cultivars Under Upland Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Priya A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a view to understand the differences in yield among rice cultivars under drought, a comparative study was done using53 rice genotypes including three local land races in both controlled and upland conditions. Ten yield components wererecorded in both the conditions. The correlation, path analysis and drought indices viz., relative yield (RY and susceptibilityindex (S were worked out. The correlation studies revealed that the single plant yield (SPY was significantly positivelycorrelated with number of leaves, number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of primary branches per panicle,number of secondary branches per panicle, number of grains per panicle, number of chaffs per panicle and boot leaf breadthwhen evaluated under controlled irrigation condition. But none of the above traits had significant positive correlation withSPY in upland condition. In the path analysis, it was found out that number of productive tillers per plant has a high positivedirect effect and most of other traits showed negligible or low direct effect in lowland condition, but in upland conditionnone of the factors are having high direct effects towards SPY. From the S and RY, it was found that the local land racesand drought tolerant varieties MDU 5, TKM11 etc., performed well under upland condition

  3. SPEIPM-based research on drought impact on maize yield in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Bo; GUO Yin-qiao; TAO Hong-bin; LIU Guang-zhou; LI Shao-kun; WANG Pu

    2015-01-01

    The calculation method of potential evapotranspiration (PET) was improved by adopting a more reliable PET estimate based on the Penman-Monteith equation into the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) in this study (SPEIPM). This improvement increased the applicability of SPEI in North China Plain (NCP). The historic meteorological data during 1962–2011 were used to calculate SPEIPM. The detrended yields of maize from Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Beijing, and Tianjin provinces/cities of NCP were obtained by linear sliding average method. Then regression analysis was made to study the relationships between detrended yields and SPEI values. Different time scales were applied, and thus SPEIPM was mentioned as SPEIPMk-j (k=time scale, 1, 2, 3, 4,…, 24 mon;j=month, 1, 2, 3,..., 12), among which SPEIPM3-8 relfected the water condition from June to August, a period of heavy precipitation and vigorous growth of maize in NCP. SPEIPM3-8 was highly correlated with detrended yield in this region, which can effectively evaluate the effect of drought on maize yield. Additional y, this relationship becomes more signiifcant in recent 20 yr. The regression model based on the SPEI series explained 64.8%of the variability of the annual detrended yield in Beijing, 45.2%in Henan, 58.6%in Shandong, and 54.6%in Hebei. Moreover, when SPEIPM3-8 is in the range of–0.6 to 1.1,–0.9 to 0.8 and–0.8 to 2.3, the detrended yield increases in Shandong, Henan and Beijing. The yield increasing range was during normal water condition in Shandong and Henan, where precipitation was abundant. It indicated that the ifeld management matched wel with local water condition and thus al owed stable and high yield. Maize yield increase in these two provinces in the future can be realized by further improving water use efifciency and enhancing the stress resistance as wel as yield stability. In Hebei and Beijing, the precipitation is less and thus the normal water condition cannot meet

  4. Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar–compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agegnehu, Getachew [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia); Bass, Adrian M. [Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, Science Road, Richmond, New South Wales 2753 (Australia); Nelson, Paul N.; Bird, Michael I. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    Soil quality decline represents a significant constraint on the productivity and sustainability of agriculture in the tropics. In this study, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two on soil fertility, maize yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was investigated in a tropical Ferralsol. The treatments were: 1) control with business as usual fertilizer (F); 2) 10 t ha{sup −1} biochar (B) + F; 3) 25 t ha{sup −1} compost (Com) + F; 4) 2.5 t ha{sup −1} B + 25 t ha{sup −1} Com mixed on site + F; and 5) 25 t ha{sup −1} co-composted biochar–compost (COMBI) + F. Total aboveground biomass and maize yield were significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in grain yield between 10 and 29%. Some plant parameters such as leaf chlorophyll were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Significant differences were observed among treatments for the δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C contents of kernels. Soil physicochemical properties including soil water content (SWC), total soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −} N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly increased by the organic amendments. Maize grain yield was correlated positively with total biomass, leaf chlorophyll, foliar N and P content, SOC and SWC. Emissions of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were higher from the organic-amended soils than from the fertilizer-only control. However, N{sub 2}O emissions generally decreased over time for all treatments and emission from the biochar was lower compared to other treatments. Our study concludes that the biochar and biochar–compost-based soil management approaches can improve SOC, soil nutrient status and SWC, and maize yield and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in certain systems. - Graphical abstract: Grain yield, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil

  5. Climate Change Impact Uncertainties for Maize in Panama: Farm Information, Climate Projections, and Yield Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Cecil, L. Dewayne; Horton, Radley M.; Gordon, Roman; McCollum, Raymond (Brown, Douglas); Brown, Douglas; Killough, Brian; Goldberg, Richard; Greeley, Adam P.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a pilot project to characterize and bound multi-disciplinary uncertainties around the assessment of maize (Zea mays) production impacts using the CERES-Maize crop model in a climate-sensitive region with a variety of farming systems (Panama). Segunda coa (autumn) maize yield in Panama currently suffers occasionally from high water stress at the end of the growing season, however under future climate conditions warmer temperatures accelerate crop maturation and elevated CO (sub 2) concentrations improve water retention. This combination reduces end-of-season water stresses and eventually leads to small mean yield gains according to median projections, although accelerated maturation reduces yields in seasons with low water stresses. Calibrations of cultivar traits, soil profile, and fertilizer amounts are most important for representing baseline yields, however sensitivity to all management factors is reduced in an assessment of future yield changes (most dramatically for fertilizers), suggesting that yield changes may be more generalizable than absolute yields. Uncertainty around General Circulation Model (GCM)s' projected changes in rainfall gain in importance throughout the century, with yield changes strongly correlated with growing season rainfall totals. Climate changes are expected to be obscured by the large inter-annual variations in Panamanian climate that will continue to be the dominant influence on seasonal maize yield into the coming decades. The relatively high (A2) and low (B1) emissions scenarios show little difference in their impact on future maize yields until the end of the century. Uncertainties related to the sensitivity of CERES-Maize to carbon dioxide concentrations have a substantial influence on projected changes, and remain a significant obstacle to climate change impacts assessment. Finally, an investigation into the potential of simple statistical yield emulators based upon key climate variables characterizes the

  6. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Iaşi contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7

  7. Adoption and Impacts of Sustainable Agricultural Practices on Maize Yields and Incomes: Evidence from Rural Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, J.; Alene, A.D.; Gardebroek, C.; Kassie, M.; Tembo, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a multinomial endogenous treatment effects model and data from a sample of over 800 households and 3,000 plots to assess the determinants and impacts of adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) on maize yields and household incomes in rural Zambia. Results show that adop

  8. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  9. Detection of Genes that Determine Maize Grain Quality Characteristics and Resistance to Stress Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovskyi, O.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 200 experimental maize samples (Maize Company were examined for the presence of genes that determine the quality characteristics of grain (wx and fl-2 genes, herbicide (bar (pat, epsps genes and insect (cry-genes resistance. The total DNA was extracted from maize living plant tissue. Primers to detect wx, fl-2, bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 genes were designed and selected. Multiplex and Touchdown PCR were worked out. PCR amplification of certain sequences was carried out. No transgenes (bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 were found among 200 analyzed experimental maize samples. At the same time, fl-2 gene was found in 41 samples, wx gene was found in 192 analyzed samples.

  10. Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize grain on B. thuringiensis-susceptible Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, K L; Hellmich, R L; Iverson, C T; Lewis, L C

    2000-06-01

    Percentage survivorship, developmental time, adult body length, and sex ratio of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) reared on field-produced grain from sixteen cultivars of maize, Zea mays L., including several transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner hybrids and selected non-Bt isolines, were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Compared with isolines, development was delayed and survivorship reduced for P. interpunctella reared on grain from transgenic hybrids with the CaMV/35s promoter that express Cry1Ab protein. Similarly, compared with non-Bt hybrids, a transgenic hybrid with the CaMV/35s promoter that expresses Cry9C protein delayed development, decreased survivorship, and caused reductions in adult body length of P. interpunctella. In contrast, no significant differences in P. interpunctella developmental times or survivorship were observed between transgenic hybrids with the PEPC promoter expressing Cry1Ab and their isolines. Additionally, developmental time, survivorship, and adult body length were similar between P. interpunctella reared on a transgenic hybrid with the CaMV/35s promoter expressing Cry1Ac and non-Bt hybrids. Our data demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize grain, especially grain from hybrids with the CaMV/35s promoter expressing Cry1Ab or Cry9C, can significantly affect B. thuringiensis-susceptible P. interpunctella populations up to 4 or 5 mo after harvest.

  11. [Measuring fatty acid concentration in maize grain by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Yu-Qiu; Fu, Yang; Hu, Jie-Yun; Chai, Yu-Chao; Zhang, Yi-Rong; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The fatty acid concentrations in maize grain were analyzed with a set of 294 samples including normal inbred lines, high-oil inbred lines and high-oil recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The method of partial least squares (PLS) regression with internal cross validation was employed to develop the measuring models of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for concentrations of four major fatty acids, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids, as well as oil concentration in maize grain. The NIRS models were accurate for oleic acid, linoleic acid and oil concentrations. The determination coefficients of these models in cross validation were 0.89, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively; the determination coefficients in external validation were 0.86, 0.84 and 0.92, respectively; and the ratio of standard deviation (SD) to root mean square error of validation (RMSEV) in both calibration and external validation sets (RSC(P)) was higher than 2.5. But the models for palmitic and stearic acid concentrations were not accurate enough with determination coefficients in cross validation and external validation lower than 0.80, and RSC(P) lower than 2.5. Further practical validation showed that the predicted results by using NIRS models for oleic acid, linoleic acid and oil concentrations were accurate and reliable, which will be a useful approach to the measurement of a large number of breeding samples during genetic improvement of oil quality and quantity in maize.

  12. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tančić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Rates and Application Method on Grain Yield and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Babazadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper application of N fertilizer and its optimization for increasing the economic yield of rice is definitely important. In order to determine the best N application method and amount according to growth stages of hybrid rice, an experiment was carried out at experimental farm of RRII in a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The treatments included 6 application methods as follow: total nitrogen at transplanting stage ,50% at transplanting stage +50% at early tillering , 50% at transplanting stage +50% at panicle initiation , 50% at transplanting stage +25% at maximum tillering +25% at booting ,34% at transplanting stage + 33% at early tillering + 33% at booting and 70% at transplanting + 30% at panicle initiation. 3 levels of nitrogen (90,120 and 150 kg/ha from urea source were also used. Recorded traits were grain yield and yield component. Results showed the significant interactions between split methods and N rates on yield, flag leaf area, filled and unfilled grain number per panicle and percentage fertility (p

  14. Effect of Transplantation in Different Seedling Age on Growth and Yield of Spring Maize in Shanxi Early Mature Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong ZHAO; Wei ZHANG; Yanlong HAN; Chunxia JIANG; Huatao LIU; Dongmei ZHANG; Mingjing HUANG; Xuefang HUANG; Enke LIU

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore a new mulch-free maize planting mode and the best seedling age for maize transplantation in Shanxi early mature area,a field experiment was carried out using completely randomized block design. Taking mulch based direct sowing as the control group,effects of transplantation in different seedling age on maize growing process,plant height,yield and composition factors of maize were analyzed.Results indicate that growing process of maize seedlings transplanted in different seedling age is slightly slower than the control group. Transplantation has the effect of reducing plant height. Although the yield of transplanted maize in different seedling age is lower than the control group. Besides,with the growth of seedling age of transplantation,the gap is widening. However,it is expected to realize mulch-free maize planting by transplantation in Shanxi early mature area. The yield of maize transplanted in two-leaf seedling age is not significantly different from the control group,and the yield is only 9% lower than the mulch-based direct sowing( CK). In conclusion,two-leaf period is the best seedling transplantation age for maize in Shanxi early mature area in this experiment condition.

  15. [Effects of nitrogen application period on the nitrogen metabolism key enzymes activities and antioxidant characteristics of high-yielding summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Peng; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Dong, Shu-Ting; Liu, Peng; Li, Deng-Hai

    2012-06-01

    Taking the high-yielding summer maize cultivars Denghai 661 (DH661) and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study their grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, key enzymes activities of nitrogen metabolism, and antioxidant enzymes activities under effects of different nitrogen application periods. One-dose nitrogen application at jointing stage was not beneficial to the increase of grain yield and the nitrogen accumulation in plant and grain, while split application in combination with application after anthesis increased the nitrogen accumulation in plant and grain significantly and increased the grain yield. When the nitrogen was applied at a ratio of 2:4:4 at jointing stage, 10-leaf stage, and 10 days after anthesis, the grain yield of DH661 was up to 14123.0 kg x hm(-2); when the nitrogen was applied at a ratio of 1:2:5:2 as the basal and at jointing stage, 10-leaf stage, and 10 days after anthesis, the grain yield of ZD958 was up to 14517.1 kg x hm(-2). These two nitrogen application modes increased the grain yield of DH661 and ZD958 by 14.5% and 17.5%, respectively, as compared with one-dose nitrogen application at jointing stage. Split nitrogen application before anthesis increased plant nitrate reductase activity significantly. In the 0-42 days after anthesis under split nitrogen application, the glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase activities of DH661 and ZD958 were averagely increased by 32.6%, 47.1% and 50.4%, and 14.5%, 61.8% and 25.6%, and the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were increased by 22. 0% and 36.6%, and 13.4% and 62.0%, respectively, and the malondialdehyde content was decreased significantly, as compared with one-off nitrogen application. It was suggested that for the high-yielding of summer maize, split application of nitrogen and appropriately increasing the nitrogen application ratio after anthesis could enhance the plant key nitrogen metabolism enzymes

  16. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Phytic Acid Concentration in Maize Grain Under Two Nitrogen Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-chao; HUANG Ya-qun; MA Wen-qi; ZHOU Jin-feng; BIAN Fen-ru; CHEN Fan-jun; MI Guo-hua

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the main storage form of phosphorus (P) in seeds. It can form insoluble complexes with microelements, thereby reducing their bioavailability for animals. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with grain PA concentration (PAC) is essential to improve this trait without affecting other aspects of grain nutrition such as protein content. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we mapped QTL for grain PAC, as well as grain nitrogen concentration (NC) and P concentration (PC) in maize under two N conditions in 2 yr. We detected six QTLs for PAC. The QTL for PAC on chromosome 4 (phi072-umc1276) was identified under both low-N and high-N treatments, and explained 13.2 and 15.4%of the phenotypic variance, respectively. We identified three QTLs for grain NC, none of which were in the same region as the QTLs for PAC. We identified two QTLs for PC in the low-N treatment, one of which (umc1710-umc2197) was in the same interval as the QTL for PAC under high-N conditions. These results suggested that grain PAC can be improved without affecting grain NC and inorganic PC.

  17. Effect of self-purging pyrolysis on yield of biochar from maize cobs, husks and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intani, Kiatkamjon; Latif, Sajid; Kabir, A K M Rafayatul; Müller, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, biochar was produced from maize residues (cobs, husks, leaves) in a lab-scale pyrolysis reactor without using a purging gas. The physicochemical properties of biomass and biochar were analysed. Box-Behnken design was used to optimise operational conditions for biochar yields. Multivariate correlations of biochar yields were established using reduced quadratic models with R(2)=0.9949, 0.9801 and 0.9876 for cobs, husks and leaves, respectively. Biochar yields were negatively correlated with the temperature, which was significantly influenced by the exothermic reactions during the pyrolysis of maize residues. The heating rate was found to have the least effect on biochar yields. Under optimal conditions, the maximum biochar yields from cobs, husks and leaves were 33.42, 30.69 and 37.91%, respectively. The highest biochar yield from maize leaves was obtained at a temperature of 300°C, a heating rate of 15°C/min and a holding time of 30min.

  18. Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar-compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agegnehu, Getachew; Bass, Adrian M; Nelson, Paul N; Bird, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Soil quality decline represents a significant constraint on the productivity and sustainability of agriculture in the tropics. In this study, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two on soil fertility, maize yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was investigated in a tropical Ferralsol. The treatments were: 1) control with business as usual fertilizer (F); 2) 10 t ha(-1) biochar (B)+F; 3) 25 t ha(-1) compost (Com)+F; 4) 2.5 t ha(-1) B+25 t ha(-1) Com mixed on site+F; and 5) 25 t ha(-1) co-composted biochar-compost (COMBI)+F. Total aboveground biomass and maize yield were significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in grain yield between 10 and 29%. Some plant parameters such as leaf chlorophyll were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Significant differences were observed among treatments for the δ(15)N and δ(13)C contents of kernels. Soil physicochemical properties including soil water content (SWC), total soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly increased by the organic amendments. Maize grain yield was correlated positively with total biomass, leaf chlorophyll, foliar N and P content, SOC and SWC. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were higher from the organic-amended soils than from the fertilizer-only control. However, N2O emissions generally decreased over time for all treatments and emission from the biochar was lower compared to other treatments. Our study concludes that the biochar and biochar-compost-based soil management approaches can improve SOC, soil nutrient status and SWC, and maize yield and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in certain systems.

  19. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  20. Biochar effect on maize yield and soil characteristics in five conservation farming sites in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Martinsen, Vegard; Shitumbanuma, Victor; Alling, Vanja; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Sparrevik, Magnus; Hale, Sarah E.; Obia, Alfred; Mulder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06) and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1) of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site) with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2) and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2) of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC), no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2). In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an

  1. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination

  2. Effects of nitrogen and potassium combinations on yields and infestations of maize by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the humid forest of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Schulthess, Fritz; Borgemeister, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Field trials were set up in the humid forest zone of Cameroon to investigate the effects of combinations of different rates of nitrogen (N) (0, 60, and 120 kg N ha(-1)) and potassium (K) (0, 80, and 160 kg K ha(-1)) applied to the soil on the incidence and damage of the noctuid stemborer Busseola fusca (Fuller), and on maize, Zea mays L., yield. Each N/K combination had an insecticide control to assess yield losses due to borers. In contrast to N, K had no effect on plant growth and borer incidence and damage. Across seasons and days after planting, total plant dry matter (DM) production increased with N level and it was 1.2-1.9 and 1.7-2.2 times, respectively, higher at 60 and 120 kg N ha(-1) compared with 0 kg N ha(-1). Total DM at harvest was strongly related to the N content of the plant at 63 d after planting. At the early growth stage, borer abundance and stem tunneling tended to increase with N level, but percentages of dead hearts did not vary with treatment. Maize grain yields increased linearly with N level, but grain yield losses decreased depending on season. Grain yield losses were 11-18.2 times higher with 0 kg N ha(-1) compared with 120 kg N ha(-1). The findings so far indicated that, soil application of N improves the nutritional status of maize, which consequently enhanced its tolerance to stemborer attacks. Improving soil fertility can thus be a very effective means of complementing integrated stemborer control in the humid forest zone of Cameroon.

  3. Maize Yield Estimation Through the Simulation of Radiation Penetration Into the Canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musembi, David Kasina

    It is essential for planning purposes to be able to assess or predict the output of vital crops in order to develop strategies to cope with shortfalls or surplusses with sufficient lead time. This is usually done by developing yield prediction models based on well specified production factors. Crop yield results from the interaction among plant, physical and environmental factors. Radiation is a key environmental factor in this regard and the principal driver of the biological system. When all the other conditions are optimum, productivity is a function of the available energy and the size of the plant surface able to trap it. However, the distribution of radiation within the plant canopy is uncertain. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the light extinction coefficients of three maize hybrids of different morphological description are different; whether these coefficients change with time during the growing season; and attempt to establish the nature of the relationships between biomass accumulation and the observed morphological plant characters. The extinction coefficients of the three hybrids were not significantly different. They increased with vegetative growth to reach maxima at anthesis and decreased subsequently as the crops approached physiological maturity. These coefficients were used to fit Beer-Bougher type regressions for predicting light penetration into the various canopy levels. There were significant differences in light penetration, among the hybrids, during the growing season as well as within each day. The largest leaf area (index) and the highest light absorption occurred at the top layer of the canopies. Moreover, the highest light penetration into the canopies does not appear to take place at zenith but seems to occur when the solar elevation and leaf angles reach certain critical values. Leaf area index (LAI) had the greatest effect on light penetration during the growing season while the effect of leaf angle was

  4. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  5. Pattern in interaction in the maize yield trial

    OpenAIRE

    Babić Vojka B.; Babić Milosav M.; Ivanović Mile R.; Filipović Milomir R.

    2011-01-01

    In making decisions on the development of varieties and the identification of certain growing regions, the effects of genotype (G) and genotype by environment (GxE) are very important. Although the main genotype effect and the interaction effect should be partitioned, there is still a need for their integration in the yield, as both simultaneously affect a ranking of the particular genotype within a certain environment. The AMMI (Additive Main Effect and Mu...

  6. Climatic factors affecting annual maize yields in the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Maxx

    1997-11-01

    Locally measured climatic variables, such as temperature and precipitation, clearly affect agriculture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Some climate/agriculture applications, however, do better to focus on meso- and large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulatory influences on the location of interest. In the Valley of Oaxaca in the highlands of southern Mexico for example, rain-fed maize yields are as sensitive to interannual variations in the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and a synoptic index of summer 850 hPa-level temperatures in the Mexico-USA border region as they are to locally measured precipitation, a variable to which yields are also strongly related. From 1978 to 1990, August precipitation explains 62 per cent of the variation in yields on the area planted in rain-fed maize in the Valley of Oaxaca, a region highly dependent on that crop. An index derived from 850 hPa-level temperatures and the annual average value of the SOI are comparable, explaining 48 per cent and 68 per cent of maize-yield variation respectively. This suggests that useful information for agricultural decision-making in the Valley of Oaxaca can be obtained by monitoring ENSO and the development of large-scale circulatory patterns. Unlike local observations, these larger scale phenomena may provide advance warning of precipitation conditions during the agricultural season upon which so many people's livelihoods in the region depend.

  7. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize ( Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  8. Effects of plant density on the photosynthetic and chloroplast characteristics of maize under high-yielding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baizhao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jiwang; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2017-04-01

    Plant density has been recognized as a major factor determining the grain yield. The photosynthetic performance changes as the density increases. The main objective of this research was to evaluate responses of photosynthetic performance and chloroplast ultrastructure to planting densities in two summer maize ( Zea mays L.) hybrids Denghai661 (DH661) and Nongda108 (ND108). DH661 was planted at densities of 30,000, 45,000, 60,000, 75,000, 90,000, 105,000, 120,000, or 135,000 plants ha-1. ND108 was planted at densities of 30,000, 45,000, 60,000, 75,000, or 90,000 plants ha-1. Research variables included leaf area, grain yield, chlorophyll content, leaf gas exchange parameters, number of chloroplasts, and chloroplast ultrastructure. As plant density increased, chlorophyll a and b content significantly decreased; carotenoids initially decreased and then increased; the net photosynthetic rate during each growth period significantly decreased; the membrane structure of mesophyll cells was gradually damaged; the number of chloroplasts significantly decreased; the external form of chloroplasts shifted from long and oval to elliptical or circular; the number of grana significantly decreased, while the number of grana lamellae increased; grana gradually became hypogenetic and eventually dissolved; plot yield increased; and yield per plant significantly decreased. The yield per plant of DH661 at 135,000 plants ha-1 and that of ND108 at 90,000 plants ha-1 decreased by 65.8 and 42.5%, respectively, compared with those at 30,000 plants ha-1.

  9. Comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop performance: natural variation, incremental improvements and economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Mark; Shryock, Jereme J; Clements, Michael J; Hall, Michael A; Loida, Paul J; McClerren, Amanda L; McKiness, Zoe P; Phillips, Jonathan R; Rice, Elena A; Stark, Steven B

    2014-09-01

    Grain yield from maize hybrids continues to improve through advances in breeding and biotechnology. Despite genetic improvements to hybrid maize, grain yield from distinct maize hybrids is expected to vary across growing locations due to numerous environmental factors. In this study, we examine across-location variation in grain yield among maize hybrids in three case studies. The three case studies examine hybrid improvement through breeding, introduction of an insect protection trait or introduction of a transcription factor trait associated with increased yield. In all cases, grain yield from each hybrid population had a Gaussian distribution. Across-location distributions of grain yield from each hybrid partially overlapped. The hybrid with a higher mean grain yield typically outperformed its comparator at most, but not all, of the growing locations (a 'win rate'). These results suggest that a broad set of environmental factors similarly impacts grain yields from both conventional- and biotechnology-derived maize hybrids and that grain yields among two or more hybrids should be compared with consideration given to both mean yield performance and the frequency of locations at which each hybrid 'wins' against its comparators. From an economic standpoint, growers recognize the value of genetically improved maize hybrids that outperform comparators in the majority of locations. Grower adoption of improved maize hybrids drives increases in average U.S. maize grain yields and contributes significant value to the economy.

  10. In-Season Root-Zone Nitrogen Management Strategies for Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in High-Yielding Maize Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-Feng; CHEN Xin-Ping; ZHANG Fu-Suo; CAO Ming-Hui; CUI Zhen-Ling; BAI Jin-Shun; YUE Shan-Chao; CHEN Su-Yi; T.M(U)LLER

    2012-01-01

    Many recently developed N management strategies have been extremely successful in improving N use efficiency.However,attempts to further increase grain yields have had limited success.Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at four sites to evaluate the effect of an in-season root-zone N management strategy on maize (Zea mays L.).According to the in-season root-zone N management,the optimal N rate (ONR) was determined by subtracting measured soil mineral N (NH4+-N and NO3--N) in the root zone from N target values.Other treatments included a control without N fertilization,70% of ONR,130% of ONR,and recommended N rate (RNR) by agronomists in China that have been shown to approach maize yield potentials.Although apparent N recovery for the ONR treatment was significantly higher than that under RNR in 2007,grain yield declined from 13.3 to 11.0 Mg ha-1 because of an underestimation of N uptake.In 2008,N target values were adjusted to match crop uptake,and N fertilization rates were reduced from 450 kg N ha- 1 for RNR to 225 to 265 kg N ha-1 for ONR.High maize yields were maintained at 12.6 to 13.5 Mg ha-1,which were twice the yield from typical farmers'practice.As a result,apparent N recovery increased from 29% to 66%,and estimated N losses decreased significantly for the ONR treatment compared to the RNR treatment.In conclusion,the in-season root-zone N management approach was able to achieve high yields,high NUE and low N losses.

  11. Factors controlling regional grain yield in China over the last 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    wang, Xiaobin; Cai, D.X.; Grant, C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Food production is highly dependent on regional yields of crops. Regional differences in grain yields could be due to fertilizer management and climate variability. Here, we analyze trends of grain yields in North China, Northeast China, East China, and Central and Southwest China from 1992 to 2012,

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics of maize yield water constraints under climate change in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent "hot-spots" in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity.

  13. Effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on maize yield in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Jabloun, Mohamed; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind;

    2016-01-01

    , drought risk and irrigation requirement on rain-fed maize yield in specific maize growth phases. The maize growing season was divided into four growth phases comprising seeding, vegetative, flowering and maturity based on observations of phenological data from 1981 to 2010. The dual crop coefficient...... was used to calculate crop evapotranspiration and soil water balance during the maize growing season. The effects of mean temperature, solar radiation, effective rainfall, water deficit, drought stress days, actual crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement in different growth phases were included...... in the statistical model to predict maize yield. During the period 1961–2010, mean temperature increased significantly in all growth phases in NFR, while solar radiation decreased significantly in southern NFR in the seeding, vegetative and flowering phases. Effective rainfall increased in the seeding and vegetative...

  14. Current warming will reduce yields unless maize breeding and seed systems adapt immediately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, A. J.; Koehler, A.-K.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Whitfield, S.; Das, B.

    2016-10-01

    The development of crop varieties that are better suited to new climatic conditions is vital for future food production. Increases in mean temperature accelerate crop development, resulting in shorter crop durations and reduced time to accumulate biomass and yield. The process of breeding, delivery and adoption (BDA) of new maize varieties can take up to 30 years. Here, we assess for the first time the implications of warming during the BDA process by using five bias-corrected global climate models and four representative concentration pathways with realistic scenarios of maize BDA times in Africa. The results show that the projected difference in temperature between the start and end of the maize BDA cycle results in shorter crop durations that are outside current variability. Both adaptation and mitigation can reduce duration loss. In particular, climate projections have the potential to provide target elevated temperatures for breeding. Whilst options for reducing BDA time are highly context dependent, common threads include improved recording and sharing of data across regions for the whole BDA cycle, streamlining of regulation, and capacity building. Finally, we show that the results have implications for maize across the tropics, where similar shortening of duration is projected.

  15. Mortality of insects and quality of maize grains in hermetic and non-hermetic storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila C. Viebrantz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Due to the need to improve the quality and safety of foods, chemical methods used to control grain pests have been replaced by alternative methods. For example, modified atmosphere within the storage units has been used. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate maize grain quality and mortality of insects of the species Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum in hermetic and non-hermetic environments for 50 days of storage. The hermetic units consisted of polyethylene "bags" with capacity for 60 kg. A cage with 20 adults of each species and 200 g of maize was placed inside each unit. The oxygen level was quantified every five days. Evaluations of insect mortality and survival occurred at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days of storage. At 0, 30 and 50 days, density, moisture and fungal incidence analyses were conducted. The airtight system is efficient in the control of insects, with satisfactory mortality values for both species. Insects favor the development of fungi during the storage, regardless of the storage system.

  16. STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wi and S2GxYindicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

  17. Variation Character of Grain Yield per Unit Area in Main Grain-producing Area of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yeqing; ZHANG Pingyu; ZHANG Huimin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the surveys and the statistic data during 1980-2003, the variation character of grain yield per unit area in Northeast China and its main factors have been discussed by the methods of statistics and grey correlation analysis. The results show that: 1) the grain yield per unit area has been taking on an increasing trend in the recent 20 years. It increased from 2519.80kg/ha in 1980 to 4216.11 kg/ha in 2003, with an increasing rate of 67.32%; 2) the variation of grain yield per unit area is considerably prominent and its range is also very great, with the maximal increase rate of 42.59% and maximal decrease rate of 21.13%, respectively, which are far above the whole Chinese average level; 3) the variation of main crops' yield per unit area is remarkable, which takes on the character that the yield of corn is much higher than that of soybean and rice; and 4) the grey correlation analysis shows that the most important factors impacting the variation of grain yield per unit area are the total power of agricultural machinery, the consumption of chemical fertilizer and effective irrigated area. However, the influence of natural disaster and income level should not be ignored. Effective ways to improve grain yield per unit area are to construct farmland improvement groundwork, reclaim the middle- and low-yield farmland, etc.

  18. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  19. Effects of the Alternate Years Deep Plowing on Leaf Senescence after Anthesis and Grain Yield of Summer Maize%隔年深耕对夏玉米花后叶片衰老和子粒产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张权; 张莉; 焦念元; 李潮海; 付国占

    2013-01-01

    Based on the method of fixed field location experiment, this article studied the effect of the alternate years deep plowing on ear-leaf senescence and yield in the areas of wheat-corn two crops a year of North China Plain. The results have shown that the alternate years deep plowing led to increase SOD and POD activity and keep the con-tent of MDA in a low level in summer maize, all these made leaf physiological function stronger in later growing period. Finally, straw application with alternate years deep plowing got the best result, and the yield was higher than the other treats.%通过田间定位试验,研究不同耕作方式对华北小麦、玉米一年两熟农作区夏玉米开花后叶片衰老生理特性及产量的影响。结果表明,秸秆还田和隔年深耕可以显著提高玉米叶片各生育期SOD、POD活性,且MDA含量一直保持在较低水平,维持了叶片后期较高的生理功能,最终产量表现为秸秆还田与隔年深耕相结合时产量高于其他处理,起到良好的增产效果。

  20. Effect of Different Fertilization Practices on Yield of a Wheat-Maize Rotation and Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A 15-year field experiment was carried out in Henan Province, China, to study the effects of different fertilization practices on yield of a wheat-maize rotation. Fertilizers tested contained N alone (N), N plus P (NP) or plus P and K (NPK), all with or without manure (M). Different long-term fertilization practices affected the yields under the rotation system of wheat and maize differently and the effects on yields was in a general trend of MNPK>MNP>MN>NPK>NP>M>N>the control. The average contribution rate of soil fertility to the highest yield was 37.9%, and the rest 62.1% came from fertilizer applications. The yield effects of the chemical fertilizers were in the order of N>P>K and were increased by application of manure.Balanced fertilization with multielement chemical fertilizers and manure can be effective in maintaining growth in agricultural production. Combined application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure also increased the content of soil organic matter.

  1. Yield-trait performance landscapes: from theory to application in breeding maize for drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carlos D; Podlich, Dean; Dong, Zhanshan; Samples, Mitch; Cooper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of breeding strategies to increase drought resistance in crops could be increased further if some of the complexities in gene-to-phenotype (G → P) relations associated with epistasis, pleiotropy, and genotype-by-environment interactions could be captured in realistic G → P models, and represented in a quantitative manner useful for selection. This paper outlines a promising methodology. First, the concept of landscapes was extended from the study of fitness landscapes used in evolutionary genetics to the characterization of yield-trait-performance landscapes for agricultural environments and applications in plant breeding. Second, the E(NK) model of trait genetic architecture was extended to incorporate biophysical, physiological, and statistical components. Third, a graphical representation is proposed to visualize the yield-trait performance landscape concept for use in selection decisions. The methodology was demonstrated at a particular stage of a maize breeding programme with the objective of improving the drought tolerance of maize hybrids for the US Western Corn-Belt. The application of the framework to the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in maize supported selection of Doubled Haploid (DH) lines with improved levels of drought tolerance based on physiological genetic knowledge, prediction of test-cross yield within the target population of environments, and their predicted potential to sustain further genetic progress with additional cycles of selection. The existence of rugged yield-performance landscapes with multiple peaks and intervening valleys of lower performance, as shown in this study, supports the proposition that phenotyping strategies, and the directions emphasized in genomic selection can be improved by creating knowledge of the topology of yield-trait performance landscapes.

  2. CG FARRAPO: a sudangrass cultivar with high biomass and grain yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ghisleni Arenhardt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The new sudangrass cultivar [Sorghum sudanense (Piper Stapf.] was developed by the method of selection of individual plants with progeny testing. The most important traits are high biomass yield with high grain yield.

  3. Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Prasad Poudel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions for yield trends and variability analyses. Quadratic model was fitted well in all data sets except wheat yield in Pakistan. A clear indication of slowing growth rates was observed for wheat yield in Bangladesh and India, as well as a significant increase in maize yield variability was realized in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lank. The factors influencing for slowing yield growth rates are considered as comparative disadvantage of wheat to Boro rice in case of Bangladesh, whereas depletion of soil nutrient contents in the rice-wheat production areas and negative impact of climate change in India. The slowing yield growths exerted a challenge for food security in Bangladesh and India. Thus, policy implementations are urgent to improve the wheat yield growth and maize yield stabilization in the concerning countries.

  4. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerp Tamminga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  5. Nutrient uptake requirements with increasing grain yield for rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Sheng-guo; ZHAO Bing-qiang; LI Yan-ting; YUAN Liang; LIN Zhi-an; HU Shu-wen; SHEN Bing

    2016-01-01

    Improved estimates of nutrient requirements for rice (Oryza sativaL.) in China are essential to optimize fertilization regulation for increasing grain yields and reducing the potential of environmental negative inlfuences, especialy under high-yielding intensive systems. A database involving rice grain yields, nutrient concentrations and accumulations colected from on-ifeld station experiments in the literatures published from 2000 to 2013 in China was developed to understand the relationships between grain yields and plant nutrient uptakes, and to quantify nutrient requirements for different yield levels. Considering al data sets, rice grain yield ranged from 1.4 to 15.2 t ha–1 with the mean value of 7.84 t ha–1, andca. 10.4% of yield observa-tions were higher than the yield barrier level of 10 t ha–1. N requirement to produce one ton grain was 21.10 kg for the yield range 10 t ha–1, respectively. Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) requirements showed increasing trends, from 3.51 and 19.87 kg per t grain for 10.0 t ha–1 range. In conclusion, nutrient requirement varied with increasement of grain yield, and N, P and K presented various response trends, increasing, declining or stagnating, which would be of great beneift for improving fertilizer strategies.

  6. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-01-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961–2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains. PMID:26054055

  7. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; Faria, Carla Bertechini; de Castro, Fausto Fernandes; de Souza, Sandra Regina; dos Santos, Fabiane Cristina; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2015-07-07

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases.

  8. Relationship between Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Grain Yield in Spring Wheat Cultivated under Different Water Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In C3 plants, carbon isotope discrimination (△) has been proposed as an indirect selection criterion for grain yield. Reported correlations between △ and grain yield however, differ highly according to the analyzed organ or tissue, the stage of sampling, and the environment and water regime. In a first experiment carried out in spring wheat during two consecutive seasons in the dry conditions of northwest Mexico (Ciudad Obregon, Sonora), different water treatments were applied,corresponding to the main water regimes available to spring wheat worldwide, and the relationships between △ values of different organs and grain yield were examined. Under terminal (post-anthesis) water stress, grain yield was positively associated with △ in grain at maturity and in leaf at anthesis, confirming results previously obtained under Mediterranean environments. Under early (pre-anthesis) water stress and residual moisture stress, the association between grain △ and yield was weaker and highly depended on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing. No correlation was found between △ and grain yield under optimal irrigation. The relationship between △ and grain yield was also studied during two consecutive seasons in 20 bread wheat cultivars in the Ningxia region (Northern China), characterized by winter drought(pre-anthesis water stress). Wheat was grown under rainfed conditions in two locations (Guyuan and Pengyang) and under irrigated conditions in another two (Yinchuan and Huinong). In Huinong, the crop was also exposed to salt stress.Highly significant positive associations were found between leaf and grain △ and grain yields across the environments.The relationship between △ and yield within environments highly depended on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing, the quantity and distribution of rainfall during the growth cycle, the presence of salt in the soil, and the occurrence of irrigation before anthesis. These two experiments

  9. Studies on the Effects of Climatic Factors on Dryland Wheat Grain Yield in Maragheh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of climate variables on rainfed wheat grain yield, climate data and wheat yield for 10 years (1995-2005 collected from Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI in Maragheh as the main station in cold and semi-cold areas. Collected data were analyzed by correlation coefficient, simple regression, stepwise regression and path analysis. The results showed that relationships between grain yield with average relative humidity and total rainfall of growing season was positive and significant at 5% and 1% probabilities, respectively. However, evaluation between grain yield with sunny hours and class A pan evaporation was negative and significant (p

  10. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33-43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between -25 and -2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha-1year-1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971-2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  11. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33-43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between -25 and -2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha(-1)year(-1) (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971-2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  12. Satellite Estimates of Crop Area and Maize Yield in Zambia's Agricultural Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, G.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting crop yield and area from satellite is a valuable tool to monitor different aspects of productivity dynamics and food security. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where the agricultural landscape is complex and dominated by smallholder systems, such dynamics need to be investigated at the field scale. We leveraged the large data pool and computational power of Google Earth Engine to 1) generate 30 m resolution cover maps of selected provinces of Zambia, 2) estimate crop area, and 3) produce yearly maize yield maps using the recently developed SCYM (Scalable satellite-based Crop Yield Mapper) algorithm. We will present our results and their validation against a ground survey dataset collected yearly by the Zambia Ministry of Agriculture from about 12,500 households.

  13. Cross-Continental Comparisons of Grain Yields Under Climate Change: Potential for Agricultural Adaptation to Offset Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Twine, T. E.; Ummenhofer, C. C.; Girvetz, E. H.; Chhetri, N.; McCarthy, H. R.; Xu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Variations in the timing and magnitude of warming and changes in precipitation patterns will have differential effects on the yields of staple grains under climate change. Modeling these changes accurately at the regional scale is important to prioritize adaptation measures to continue to provide food for a growing global population. We used climate projections from five IPCC AR4 CMIP3 climate models (BCCR-BCM2.0, CSIRO-Mk3.5, IPSL-CM4v1, CCSR-MIROC3.2-medres, and NCAR-CCSM3) and three emissions scenarios (B1, A1b, and A2) to obtain a robust estimate of future climate possibilities. Key modeled hydroclimatic variables impacting yield were compared with 20th century observational data to assess the model's representation of the mean state, seasonal cycle, and interannual to decadal variability for four sites located in Iowa, USA; Punjab, India; Free State, South Africa; and the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. We used the process-based model Agro-IBIS to project climate change impacts to annual yield and growing season net primary productivity of maize (USA and India) and winter wheat (South Africa and Australia) in these regions. Changes in productivity at each of the four sites are related to current climate variability and projected changes, taking into account model performance and limiting factors for growth in the different regions. Relative changes in maize/wheat yields in the four regions between three periods (the late 20th and mid- and late-21st century) can be attributed to progressively changing local climate conditions and linked to large-scale circulation changes. For example, India is projected to experience the greatest warming along with a decrease in mean precipitation, which might substantially decrease yields, while under some scenarios of warming and increased mean precipitation, Iowa is predicted to experience yield increases. In addition to mean changes, frequency and magnitude of high- and low-yield years are assessed for the three periods

  14. Effects of autoclaving and pullulanase debranching on the resistant starch yield of normal maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA S. MILAŠINOVIĆ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, resistant starch (RS, type 3, was prepared by the autoclaving and debranching of normal maize starch isolated from a selected ZP genotype. The objectives of this study were to optimize both starch autoclaving and debranching with pullulanase (PromozymeBrewQ for the production of RS. Autoclaving at 120 °C (30 min increased the RS content of all samples, whereas freezing at –20 °C did not have an obvious effect on the RS contents. The highest RS yield in the autoclaved starch samples was 7.0 % after three autoclaving–cooling cycles. After pullulanase debranching at 50 °C and retrogradation at 4 °C, the RS yields ranged from 10.2 to 25.5 % in all samples (depending on the hydrolysis time. Debranched starch samples with a maximum RS yield of 25.5 % were obtained after a debranching time of 24 h. This study showed that starch from the selected ZP maize genotype is suitable for pullulanase treatment and RS preparation but that additional studies with a greater number of different treatments (incubation time/temperature are necessary to manipulate and promote crystallization and enhance RS formation.

  15. Effects of heat stress during grain filling on the structure and thermal properties of waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dalei; Shen, Xin; Cai, Xuemei; Yan, Fabao; Lu, Weiping; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-01-15

    Clarifying the waxy maize starch physicochemical characteristics response to heat stress could modify starch quality. The effects of heat stress during grain filling (1-40day after pollination) on starch structure and thermal properties of four waxy maize varieties were investigated. The mean day/night temperature during grain filling for heat stress and control treatments was 35.2/16.1°C and 27.4/15.6°C, respectively. Heat stress during grain filling increased the starch average granule size and the proportion of long chains in amylopectin. Starch granules under heat stress presented more pitting or uneven surfaces. X-ray peak intensities in response to heat stress were variety dependent. Heat stress during grain filling decreased the swelling power and increased the gelatinization temperature and retrogradation percentage, while the gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. In conclusion, heat stress during grain filling significantly affected structural characteristics of waxy maize starch and consequently, changed its swelling and thermal properties.

  16. Efficiency of Traditional Maize Storage and Control Methods in Rural Grain Granaries: a Case Study from Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueye, MT.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize storage and pest control method as practiced in traditional clay granaries in the Kédougou region in eastern Senegal were evaluated under rural conditions during two successive years. Three storage modes, i.e. maize cobs, winnowed and non-winnowed maize grains, were tested in seven granaries where the insecticidal plants Hyptis spicigera or H. suaveolens were either incorporated in the store structure or deposited as layers intermittently with maize. At the beginning of the storage period, all granaries were artificially infested with 7 pairs Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais. No damage, losses or live insects were observed during 7 months of storage when maize cobs were placed between layers of H. spicigera. Compared with the control, incorporation of insecticidal plants within the granary bottom had no significant effect on the damage and loss level irrespective of the storage mode. Non-winnowed maize always suffered less damage and losses than the winnowed variant. In all granaries depredation, insect abundance and moisture content were highest toward the end of storage period between June and July.

  17. Simulating maize yield and bomass with spatial variability of soil field capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liwang; Ahuja, Lajpat; Trout, Thomas; Nolan, Bernard T.; Malone, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variability in field soil properties is a challenge for system modelers who use single representative values, such as means, for model inputs, rather than their distributions. In this study, the root zone water quality model (RZWQM2) was first calibrated for 4 yr of maize (Zea mays L.) data at six irrigation levels in northern Colorado and then used to study spatial variability of soil field capacity (FC) estimated in 96 plots on maize yield and biomass. The best results were obtained when the crop parameters were fitted along with FCs, with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 354 kg ha–1 for yield and 1202 kg ha–1 for biomass. When running the model using each of the 96 sets of field-estimated FC values, instead of calibrating FCs, the average simulated yield and biomass from the 96 runs were close to measured values with a RMSE of 376 kg ha–1 for yield and 1504 kg ha–1 for biomass. When an average of the 96 FC values for each soil layer was used, simulated yield and biomass were also acceptable with a RMSE of 438 kg ha–1 for yield and 1627 kg ha–1 for biomass. Therefore, when there are large numbers of FC measurements, an average value might be sufficient for model inputs. However, when the ranges of FC measurements were known for each soil layer, a sampled distribution of FCs using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) might be used for model inputs.

  18. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  19. Application of csm- ceres-maize model for seasonal and multi-decadal predictions of maize yield in under subtropical condition of Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Prasad Amgain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The average maize yield of 2.5 t/ha in sub-tropical terai and inner terai of Nepal has been very less than its potential yield of about 5.0 t/ha, for which changing climatic scenarios have been reported the critical factors. Cropping system Model (CSM-Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES-Maize, embedded under Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT ver. 4.2 was evaluated from a datasets of field experimentation by growing four diverse maize genotypes viz. full season OPV (Rampur Composite, Quality Protein Maize (Posilo Makai-1, Hybrid (Gaurav and Pop corn (Pool-12 under three different planting dates (September 1, October 1 and November 1 in 2009-10 at Rampur Campus, Chitwan. The experiment was laid out in two factor factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in slightly acidic (pH 6.7 sandy loam soil having low soil available N( 0.49% and K (148 kg/ha and medium P (16.3 kg/ha status. The ancillary and yield data obtaining from field experiment was analyzed from the M-Stat C software and recorded that Gaurav hybrid produced significantly higher yield under September 1 planting (5.86 t/ha followed by Posilo Makai 1 (5.55 t/ha, Rampur Composite (5.1t/ha and the least with Pool-12 (3.45 t/ha. Further, the heat use efficiency of diverse maize genotypes were also calculated by using the mean temperature based accumulative heat unit system and found the stable yields only with Rampur Composite for all planting dates and the rest genotypes were suitable only to the early winter plantings. Model calibration was done by using September 1 planting date for all 4 maize genotypes while validation was accomplished by using the remaining treatments for predicting growth and yield of different maize genotypes. The year 2006- 07 was found 13, 18, 23 and 7% higher in producing the maize yield than the standard year 2009-10 for Rampur Composite, Posilo Makai-1, Gaurav and Pool-12

  20. Application of Chebyshev Polynomial in Predicting the Grain Yield——A Case of Grain Yield in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the fundamental principles of the least square methods, the Chebyshev polynomial data fitting method is given, by using this method, the grain yield of Jilin Province from 1952 to 2008 is analyzed. The results show that when analyzing the research data of agricultural economy, the least square method of the Chebyshev polynomials is a good choice; by establishing the prediction model of the least square method of Chebyshev polynomials, we get the results that the grain yield in Jilin Province from 2009 to 2015 is 29.004 millon, 29.836 million, 30.681 million, 31.540 million, 32.412 million, 33.298 million, 34.197 million ton ; the annual average growth rate of grain yield from 2009 to 2015 is 2.78%, lower than the annual growth rate of 7.12% from 2000 to 2008.

  1. Molecular Improvement of Grain Weight and Yield in Rice by Using GW6 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan-yuan; HU Jiang; YE Guo-you; GUO Long-biao; TAO Hong-jian; ZHAO Xiang-qian; XU Jie; LI Geng-mi; HU Shi-kai; DONG Guo-jun; SHI Zheng-yuan; WU Li-wen

    2014-01-01

    Molecular design breeding is one of straightforward approaches to break yield barriers in rice. In this study, GW6 gene for grain length and width from Baodali was transferred into an indica recurrent parent 9311 and a japonica variety Zhonghua 11 (ZH11) using marker-assisted backcross (MAB). One and three introgression lines were selected for phenotypic analysis from 9311 and ZH11 genetic backgrounds, respectively. SSL-1, an improved 9311 near isogenic line with GW6 performed 11%, 19% and 6.7%higher of grain length, 1000-grain weight and single plant yield, respectively, as compared with 9311. All the three improved ZH11-GW6 lines, R1, R2 and R3, had more than 30% increase in grain weight and about 7%higher in grain yield. Seed plumpness of R1, R2 and R3 was improved synchronously because the three ZH11-GW6 lines contained GIF1 (Grain Incomplete Filling 1), a dominant grain filling gene. Thus, GW6 has high potential in increasing the yield of inbred lines through MAB, making it an important genetic resource in super hybrid rice breeding. This study provides insights in the utilization of GW6 for large grain and high yield rice breeding via molecular design breeding.

  2. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  3. Variation in internal N efficiency of maize and impact on yield-goal based N recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal N efficiency (IE) is defined as grain dry matter (DM) produced per unit of N in the above-ground plant at physiological maturity (R6). Internal N efficiency defines the target for plant N content at R6 in yield-goal based N rate recommendations (currently used in 30 U.S. states) and several...

  4. Water Consumption and Maize Yield for Alternative Furrow Irrigation in Western Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Aili; LI Yuexing; WEI Yongxia

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at less and un-uniform distribution rainfall problems, the serious draught in spring, low crop production and water efficiency in sandy soil area of Heilongjiang Province, the experiment of alternative furrow irrigation was conducted in Dumeng County in 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to find the water consumption law and its influence on maize yield. The results showed that the highest water consumption was during the heading stage and the highest daily consumption of water was during the filling stage. The stimulation effect of alternative furrow irrigation on yield was obvious in the that the seedling was 38.85 mm; the jointing was 108.11 mm; the heading was 124.39 mm; the filling was 88.96 mm; the milk was 60.21 mm; and the harvesting was 47.89 mm.

  5. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and urea, and phosphate fertiliser application methods on maize yields in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in western Kenya is often limited by deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. We assessed the effectiveness of Tithonia diversifolia green manure (tithonia, farmyard manure (FYM and urea as sources of nitrogen (N for maize when inorganic phosphorus (P fertiliser was either broadcast (BR or spot-placed in the planting hole (SP for two consecutive seasons; October to December of 1998 and April to August of 1999 at two sites; Nyabeda and Khwisero in western Kenya. A randomised complete block design with four replications was used. Maize yields were higher at Nyabeda and responded to P application better than at Khwisero. At the same N rate, tithonia and FYM were as effective as urea in increasing maize yields at both sites. There were no significant differences in maize yields when phosphate fertiliser was either BR or SP regardless of the N source used in the first season. However, in the second season, the residual yields for the BR treatments were consistently higher than those of the SP. Our results suggest that tithonia and FYM can substitute for urea as N sources and that fertiliser P should be broadcast and incorporated together with the organic materials at the time of planting to save on labour costs.

  6. A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Virginia A.

    It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize

  7. The impact of Ni, Co and Mo supplementation on methane yield from anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evranos, Beyza; Demirel, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to demonstrate the impact of trace metal supplementation, namely nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo), on the methane yields obtained from batch mesophilic anaerobic digestion of maize silage as mono-substrate. The maize silage used in this experimental work initially lacked Ni and Co. Trace metal concentration selected was 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L for Ni and Co, respectively, while it was 0.05 and 0.25 mg/L for Mo. The supplementation by Ni, Co and Mo, individually or in combination at different doses, seemed to improve the methane yields for mono-digestion of maize silage and particularly, the highest methane yield of 0.429 L CH4/g VSadded was obtained, when Ni, Co and Mo were supplemented together at concentrations of 0.5, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively.

  8. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vančetović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic - BSSS and Iodent. A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a dinstinctive genetic group (Unknown. In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR. Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p<0.01. The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain (ΔG for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74% followed by protein (10.14%. Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected ΔG for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to ΔG values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality.

  9. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

    2014-06-01

    Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

  10. Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China Plain using AquaCrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is a major grain production area in China, but the current winter wheat-summer maize system has resulted in a large water deficit. This water-shortage necessitates the improvement of crop water productivity in the NCP. A crop water model, AquaCrop, was adopted to investigate yield and water productivity (WP for rain-fed summer maize on the piedmont of the NCP. The data sets to calibrate and validate the model were obtained from a 3-year (2011—2013 field experiment conducted on the Yanshan piedmont of the NCP. The range of root mean square error (RMSE between the simulated and measured biomass was 0.67—1.25 t·hm-2, and that of relative error (RE was 9.4%—15.4%, the coefficient of determination (R2 ranged from 0.992 to 0.994. The RMSE between the simulated and measured soil water storage at depth of 0—100 cm ranged from 4.09 to 4.39 mm; and RE and R2 in the range of 1.07%—1.20% and 0.880—0.997, respectively. The WP as measured by crop yield per unit evapotranspiration was 2.50—2.66 kg·m-3. The simulated impact of long-term climate (i.e., 1980—2010 and groundwater depth on crop yield and WP revealed that the higher yield and WP could be obtained in dry years in areas with capillary recharge from groundwater, and much lower values elsewhere. The simulation also suggested that supplementary irrigation in areas without capillary groundwater would not result in groundwater over-tapping since the precipitation can meet the water required by both maize and ecosystem, thus a beneficial outcome for both food and ecosystem security can be assured.

  11. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  12. Wheat Grain Yield and Protein Content as Influenced by Sodium Bisulfite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-ze; ZHANG Shu-qin; TIAN Ji-chun; ZHAO Shi-jie

    2002-01-01

    Two wheat varieties with similar yield and significantly different protein content were chosen to study the effect of foliage spraying sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) at low concentration to wheat plants receiving different levels of nitrogen on nitrate reduction along with yield and protein content of grain, so as to discuss the relationship between carbon metabolism and nitrogen metabolism, and find out the intrinsic mechanism of grain yield and protein content formation. The results showed that spraying NaHSO3 at grain-filing stage increased the yield of grain, but declined the capacity of nitrate reduction, which might result in decrease of protein content in the end. Whether receiving NaHSO3 or not, the variety with high protein content had higher final protein level and nitrate reduction capacity than that with low protein content.

  13. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  14. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  15. Analysis of variability, heritability, and interrelationships among grain yield and related characters in barley advanced lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to improve pure lines for low input agricultural areas of the semi-arid region of Iran and similar environmental conditions. Forty barley pure lines provided from ICARDA along with three check cultivars were evaluated under rain-fed conditions in a semi-arid region of Iran during two years (2011-2013. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications to estimate genetic variation and heritability for agro-morphological traits. The highest values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were observed for the number of grains per spike followed by peduncle length, early vigor and grain yield. The broad heritability estimates ranged from 24% for grain yield to 96% for the number of grains per spike. The highest and lowest expected genetic advance, observed for days to physiological maturity and the number of grains per spike, respectively. Results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that hectoliter grain weight and thousand grain weight exhibited the highest direct effects on grain yield, respectively. Comparisons between the pure lines and check cultivars indicated that out of 40 pure lines, 27 lines had a higher grain yield. Also, the pure lines No. 29, 13, 9 and 33 were identified as the superior lines for semi-arid environmental conditions. Our results indicate that check cultivars could be improved by selecting for pure lines with taller peduncle and the number of grains per spike, but with heavier grains. Therefore, these lines can be used as genetic material to broaden the genetic basis of barley breeding programs all over the world.

  16. Global and grain-specific accumulation of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases in transgenic maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin N; Bougri, Oleg; Carlson, Alvar R; Meissner, Judy; Pan, Shihao; Parker, Matthew H; Zhang, Dongcheng; Samoylov, Vladimir; Ekborg, Nathan A; Michael Raab, R

    2011-12-01

    In planta expression of cell wall degrading enzymes is a promising approach for developing optimized biomass feedstocks that enable low-cost cellulosic biofuels production. Transgenic plants could serve as either an enzyme source for the hydrolysis of pretreated biomass or as the primary biomass feedstock in an autohydrolysis process. In this study, two xylanase genes, Bacillus sp. NG-27 bsx and Clostridium stercorarium xynB, were expressed in maize (Zea mays) under the control of two different promoters. Severe phenotypic effects were associated with xylanase accumulation in maize, including stunted plants and sterile grains. Global expression of these xylanases from the rice ubiquitin 3 promoter (rubi3) resulted in enzyme accumulation of approximately 0.01 mg enzyme per gram dry weight, or approximately 0.1% of total soluble protein (TSP). Grain-specific expression of these enzymes from the rice glutelin 4 promoter (GluB-4) resulted in higher-level accumulation of active enzyme, with BSX and XynB accumulating up to 4.0% TSP and 16.4% TSP, respectively, in shriveled grains from selected T0 plants. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the GluB-4 promoter for biotechnological applications. The phenotypic effects of xylanase expression in maize presented here demonstrate the difficulties of hemicellulase expression in an important crop for cellulosic biofuels production. Potential alternate approaches to achieve xylanase accumulation in planta without the accompanying negative phenotypes are discussed.

  17. QTL identification of grain protein concentration and its genetic correlation with starch concentration and grain weight using two populations in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuling Li; Yanzhao Wang; Mengguan Wei; Xuehui Li; Jiafeng Fu

    2009-04-01

    Protein is one of the three main storage chemical components in maize grains, and is negatively correlated with starch concentration (SC). Our objective was to analyse the influence of genetic backgrounds on QTL detection for protein concentration (PC) and to reveal the molecular genetic associations between PC and both SC and grain weight (GWP). Two hundred and eighty-four (Pop1) and 265 (Pop2) F2:3 families were developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred GY220 and two normal maize inbreds 8984 and 8622 respectively, and were genotyped with 185 and 173 pairs of SSR markers. PC, SC and GWP were evaluated under two environments. Composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiple interval mapping (MIM) methods were used to detect single-trait QTL for PC, and multiple-trait QTL for PC with both SC and GWP. No common QTL were shared between the two populations for their four and one PC QTL. Common QTL with opposite signs of effects for PC and SC/GWP were detected on three marker intervals at bins 6.07–6.08, 8.03 and 8.03–8.04. Multiple-traits QTL mapping showed that tightly-linked QTL, pleiotropic QTL and QTL having effects with opposite directions for PC and SC/GWP were all observed in Pop1, while all QTL reflected opposite effects in Pop2.

  18. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  19. Effects of chromium(III and VI) on spring barley and maize biomass yield and content of nitrogenous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowski, Mirosław; Radziemska, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of trivalent Cr(III) or hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) soil contamination on biomass yield and nitrogenous compound content of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the main crop and subsequently maize (Zea mays L.) grown successively, and (2) examine whether the neutralizing additives applied (compost, zeolite, and calcium oxide) may be effective in reducing adverse impact of chromium (Cr) on crops. Spring barley yield was markedly decreased by Cr compounds, particularly Cr(VI). In contrast, maize yield was significantly increased by Cr(VI). Hexavalent Cr exerted a greater effect than the Cr(III) form on nitrogen levels in spring barley. Chromium significantly increased ammonia nitrogen content in maize. The accumulation of NO(3)(-)-N in plants treated with Cr(VI) was lower than in controls. The application of compost, zeolite, and calcium oxide onto the soil increased yield of maize only in pots containing Cr(III). Neutralizing additives exerted a positive, increased effect on the N-total content of maize but not spring barley, which was apparent with calcium oxide. Accumulation of NH(4)(+)-N in maize in pots with Cr(VI) was increased by all additives applied. The content of nitrate nitrogen in spring barley was predominantly affected by addition of compost and calcium oxide into the soil, producing a significant rise in NO(3)(-)-N content. Chromium, especially Cr(VI), used at doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg soil exerted adverse effects in treated plants, particularly spring barley.

  20. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 sit

  1. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  2. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  3. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro-ecological...

  4. Dryland maize yields and water use efficiency in response to tillage/crop stubble and nutrient management practices in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Dai, K.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2011-01-01

    Rainfed crop production in northern China is constrained by low and variable rainfall. This study explored the effects of tillage/crop residue and nutrient management practices on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and N agronomic use efficiency (NAE) at Shouyang Dryland Farming

  5. Dryland maize yields and water use efficiency in response to tillage and nutrient management practices in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Dai, K.; Zhao, Q.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2009-01-01

    Rainfed crop production in northern China is constrained by low and variable rainfall. This study explored the effects of tillage and nutrient management practices on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water use efficiency (WUE), at Shouyang Dryland Farming Experimental Station in northern China during 2

  6. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION WITH FERMENTED BIOSLUDGE ON THE YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF ABOVEGROUND MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. PHYTOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hanáčková

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Yield and nutritional value of maize for silage in dependance on type, rate and application of organic manures were investigated in a field semi-operational experiment established near the biogas station in the location of Kolíňany in the years 2004 and 2005. The trial results confirmed a statistically high significant effect of weather conditions on the maize aboveground phytomass yield. Under the infavourable weather conditions of the year 2004 a lower yield (28.01 t.ha-1 was achieved in comparison with the year 2005 (48.33 t.ha-1. When 50 t.ha-1 of biosludge was applied in autumn, the highest yield as well as the highest energy value of aboveground maize phytomass expressed in terms of net energy of lactation (NEL = 6.45 MJ.kg-1 DM and net energy of fattening (NEF = 6.47 MJ.kg-1 DM were achieved. Spring application of biosludge decreased the content of dry matter in maize by 20.7 %, and increased the content of crude protein by 13.7 %, crude fibre by 5.5 % and ash by 26.3 % compared to the values achieved at autumn biosludge application. The value of protein truly digested in the small intestine was the highest in treatment fertilized with farm - yard manure with the rate of 40 t. ha-1 (PDIN = 52.33 g.kg-1 DM, PDIE = 77.37 g.kg-1 DM.

  7. Maize yield and quality in response to plant density and application of a novel plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, L.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in China have gradually increased plant density in maize to achieve higher yields, but this has increased risk of lodging due to taller and weaker stems at higher plant densities. Plant growth regulators can be used to reduce lodging risk. In this study, for the first time, the performance o

  8. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency.

  9. Probabilistic maize yield simulation over East Africa using ensemble seasonal climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Geoffrey; Supit, Iwan; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal climate variability influences crop yields, especially in areas where rain fed agriculture is widely practiced such as in the East African region. Assuming that seasonal climate prediction skill would translate to similarly skillful prediction of impacts, an ensemble seasonal climate hindcast (ECMWF system4 EPS) for the period 1981 to 2010 at different initialization dates (lead months) before sowing is used to drive a crop simulation model: the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model, implemented for a single season Maize crop. The water-limited yield predictions were assessed against reference yields produced by the same crop model forced by the WATCH Forcing Data ERA-Interim (WFDEI) at grid point level. We focus on the main sowing dates of June/July (Northern region), March (Equatorial East Africa) and November (Southern region). Deviation of yields from the mean over the study period is used to indicate regions in which probabilistic yield forecasts would be useful while the Relative Operating Curve Skill Score (ROCSS) indicates prediction skill of above normal, near normal and below normal yield prediction. Equatorial regions of East Africa and coastal Kenya with sowing date in March show a mean deviation of ≥ 500 Kg/ha. Here probabilistic yield forecasts can potentially be useful as opposed to the northern and southern regions with less deviation. The high deviation in this region may also be due to the existence of more than one cropping season corresponding to the bi-modal rainfall regime since the model only simulates a single season. A positive ROCSS over a large extent of the equatorial region show predictability skill of all the tercile forecasts simulated by forecasts initialized at the start of sowing date (March i.e. lead 0 forecasts) and no predictability at longer lead months. Over Ethiopia in the northern region of East Africa, November harvests with a sowing date of June show predictability of the upper, lower and middle terciles at lead-0

  10. The Impact of Climate Change on Maize Yield and Farmers’ Adaptation Options:Evidence from Three Provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiliang; MA; Weisheng; KONG

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to answer the question that whether farmers can adjust better to climate change in the short-term than in long-term by using panel data models and long difference models respectively.We find that short term weather shocks are less detrimental to maize yield than the long-term climate changes,which can be seen as the evidences of adaptations.For adaptation options,we find farmers choose to decrease maize planting area or enlarge the irrigation inputs to cope with the increase of extreme heat days;when there are more precipitations,farmers will increase the input of fertilizer or labor.

  11. PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN JUVENILE STAGE AND WINTER BARLEY BREEDING FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD AND STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kovačević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic efficiency parameters (Fv/Fm, ET0/ABS and PIABS were investigated at the end of tillering stage of winter barley grown in stress environment (21.3% vol. water content of soil and control (water content 30.4% vol. in relation to grain yield per vegetative pot. The trial was conducted in vegetative pots according to the RBD method of two-factorial experiment with 10 winter barley cultivars (7 tworowed and 3 six-rowed and 2 treatments in 3 repetitions. The stressed variant was exposed to water reduction three times (end of tillering stage, flag leaf to beginning of heading stage, grain filling stage. From sowing to maturity, the air temperature varied from -3.9°C to 32.9°C and water content from 16.4 % to 39.0 % of soil volume in vegetative pot. Significant differences were found for grain yield among the cultivars. The short-term drought stress caused significant reductions in grain yield per pot. The photosynthetic efficiency parameters were significant between cultivars, but significant effects for treatments and interaction were only detected for the Fv/Fm parameter. Photosynthetic efficiency parameters did not have significant correlation coefficients with grain yield and its stability in both treatments. Stability indexes of the parameters PIABS and Fv/Fm had positive but not significant correlations with grain yield in stressed variant (0.465 and 0.452 and stability index of grain yield (0.337 and 0.481.

  12. Genetic Dissection of QTL Associated with Grain Yield in Diverse Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. breeding programs strive to increase grain yield; however, the progress is hampered due to its quantitative inheritance, low heritability, and confounding environmental effects. In the present study, a winter wheat population of 159 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was evaluated in six trials under rainfed, terminal drought, and fully-irrigated conditions, over four years. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL mapping was conducted for grain yield main effect (GY and the genotype × environment interaction (GEI effect. A total of 17 QTL were associated with GY and 13 QTL associated with GEI, and nine QTL were mapped in the flanking chromosomal regions for both GY and GEI. One major QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2, explaining up to 22% of grain yield, was identified in all six trials. Besides the additive effect of QTL associated with GY, interactions among QTL (QTL × QTL interaction, QTL × environment, and QTL × QTL × environment were also observed. When combining the interaction effects, QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2 along with other QTL explained up to 52% of the variation in grain yield over the six trials. This study suggests that QTL mapping of complex traits such as grain yield should include interaction effects of QTL and environments in marker-assisted selection.

  13. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Berraies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm. Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot., is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum [Desf.] Husn. particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  14. Selection for silage yield and composition did not affect genomic diversity within the Wisconsin Quality Synthetic maize population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Aaron J; Beissinger, Timothy M; Silva, Renato Rodrigues; de Leon, Natalia

    2015-02-02

    Maize silage is forage of high quality and yield, and represents the second most important use of maize in the United States. The Wisconsin Quality Synthetic (WQS) maize population has undergone five cycles of recurrent selection for silage yield and composition, resulting in a genetically improved population. The application of high-density molecular markers allows breeders and geneticists to identify important loci through association analysis and selection mapping, as well as to monitor changes in the distribution of genetic diversity across the genome. The objectives of this study were to identify loci controlling variation for maize silage traits through association analysis and the assessment of selection signatures and to describe changes in the genomic distribution of gene diversity through selection and genetic drift in the WQS recurrent selection program. We failed to find any significant marker-trait associations using the historical phenotypic data from WQS breeding trials combined with 17,719 high-quality, informative single nucleotide polymorphisms. Likewise, no strong genomic signatures were left by selection on silage yield and quality in the WQS despite genetic gain for these traits. These results could be due to the genetic complexity underlying these traits, or the role of selection on standing genetic variation. Variation in loss of diversity through drift was observed across the genome. Some large regions experienced much greater loss in diversity than what is expected, suggesting limited recombination combined with small populations in recurrent selection programs could easily lead to fixation of large swaths of the genome.

  15. Selection for Silage Yield and Composition Did Not Affect Genomic Diversity Within the Wisconsin Quality Synthetic Maize Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Aaron J.; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Silva, Renato Rodrigues; de Leon, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage is forage of high quality and yield, and represents the second most important use of maize in the United States. The Wisconsin Quality Synthetic (WQS) maize population has undergone five cycles of recurrent selection for silage yield and composition, resulting in a genetically improved population. The application of high-density molecular markers allows breeders and geneticists to identify important loci through association analysis and selection mapping, as well as to monitor changes in the distribution of genetic diversity across the genome. The objectives of this study were to identify loci controlling variation for maize silage traits through association analysis and the assessment of selection signatures and to describe changes in the genomic distribution of gene diversity through selection and genetic drift in the WQS recurrent selection program. We failed to find any significant marker-trait associations using the historical phenotypic data from WQS breeding trials combined with 17,719 high-quality, informative single nucleotide polymorphisms. Likewise, no strong genomic signatures were left by selection on silage yield and quality in the WQS despite genetic gain for these traits. These results could be due to the genetic complexity underlying these traits, or the role of selection on standing genetic variation. Variation in loss of diversity through drift was observed across the genome. Some large regions experienced much greater loss in diversity than what is expected, suggesting limited recombination combined with small populations in recurrent selection programs could easily lead to fixation of large swaths of the genome. PMID:25645532

  16. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  17. Modeling contribution of shallow groundwater to evapotranspiration and yield of maize in an arid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Huo, Zailin; Qu, Zhongyi; Xu, Xu; Huang, Guanhua; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2017-01-01

    Capillary rise from shallow groundwater can decrease the need for irrigation water. However, simple techniques do not exist to quantify the contribution of capillary flux to crop water use. In this study we develop the Agricultural Water Productivity Model for Shallow Groundwater (AWPM-SG) for calculating capillary fluxes from shallow groundwater using readily available data. The model combines an analytical solution of upward flux from groundwater with the EPIC crop growth model. AWPM-SG was calibrated and validated with 2-year lysimetric experiment with maize. Predicted soil moisture, groundwater depth and leaf area index agreed with the observations. To investigate the response of model, various scenarios were run in which the irrigation amount and groundwater depth were varied. Simulations shows that at groundwater depth of 1 m capillary upward supplied 41% of the evapotranspiration. This reduced to 6% at groundwater depth of 2 m. The yield per unit water consumed (water productivity) was nearly constant for 2.3 kg/m3. The yield per unit water applied (irrigation water productivity) increased with decreasing irrigation water because capillary rise made up in part for the lack of irrigation water. Consequently, using AWPM-SG in irrigation scheduling will be beneficial to save more water in areas with shallow groundwater. PMID:28220874

  18. FUMIGATION TOXICITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST Rhyzopertha dominica (F. IN STORED MAIZE GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDEANY NÚBIA DE SOUZA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae is a primary pest of stored grains in many regions of the world. In this work we evaluated the fumigant activity of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Citrus aurantium L., Mentha spicata L. and Croton pulegiodorus Baill on adult R. dominica in stored maize. Tests were conducted to determine lethals concentrations (CL50 and CL100 and mortality (fumigation.The fumigation test was done in containers made of glass containing 10 individuals of R. dominica, where essential oils were applied at different concentrations: O. basilicum and M. spicata (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40μL/L of air, C. aurantium (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60μL/L of air and C. pulegiodorus (0, 20, 30, 50, 70 and 90μL/L of air. After 48 hours of exposure to the oils the percentage of insect mortality was evaluated. According to LC50 and LC100 the toxicity of essential oils decreased in the following order: O. basilicum> M. spicata> C. pulegiodorus> C. aurantium. The essential oil of O. basilicum exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against R. dominica adults, with a LC50 value of 17.67 μL/L air and LC100 value of 27.15 μL/ L air. The C. aurantium essential oil required higher concentrations than O. basilicum, M. spicata and C. pulegiodorus to kill insects. However, all oils evaluated presented fumigating property to promote the control of R. dominica and demonstrated potential use in the management of this coleoptera.

  19. Grain size effect on yield strength of titanium alloy implanted with aluminum ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurev, Ivan, E-mail: yiywork@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the microstructure and phase state of commercially pure titanium VT1-0 implanted by aluminum ions. This study has been carried out before and after the ion implantation for different grain size, i.e. 0.3 µm (ultra-fine grain condition), 1.5 µm (fine grain condition), and 17 µm (polycrystalline condition). This paper presents details of calculations and analysis of strength components of the yield stress. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress. So, both before and after the ion implantation, the increase of the grain size leads to the decrease of the alloy hardening. Thus, hardening in ultra-fine and fine grain alloys increased by four times, while in polycrystalline alloy it increased by over six times.

  20. Diallel analysis of resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and kernels, resulting in Fusarium ear rot disease, reduced grain yields, and contamination of grain with the mycotoxin fumonisin. Typical hybrid maize breeding programs involve selection for both favorable inbred and hybrid performance, and the...

  1. RESPONSE OF MAIZE GENOTYPES TO FERTILIZATION ON HYDROMORPHIC SOIL OF SAVA VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing seed-maize is more profitable than mercantile maize, but also riskier, especially under less favourable soil conditions because parents of maize hybrids are less tolerant than their progeny to environmental stress, including plant nutrition problems. For this reason, we conducted the field experiment with P and K fertilization and a range of maize genotypes (parents of seed-maize on soil with moderate P and K supplies. Following application of 382 kg P and 726 kg K ha-1 , maize grain yields increased from 1.93 t ha-1 to 2.86 t ha-1 (3-year means. High correlations were found between grain yields of maize genotypes and nutrient concentrations in ear-leaf at silking stage (r = 0.82** for P and r = 0.90** for K. Based on these results, we could recommend the higher P and K fertilization of seed-maize crops on soils of similar chemical properties.

  2. Parental Drought and Defoliation Effect on Yield, Grains Biochemical Aspects and Drought Performance of Sorghum Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, A. H.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of drought stress and drought with defoliation on yield parameters of three sorghum varieties (Giza 15, Dorado and Hybrid 113. Also, the effect of these parental stress treatments on drought performance of progeny of the most drought tolerant variety was investigated. Application of drought stress in the vegetative stage non significantly affected panicles number, grain yield and harvest index of all cultivars. Drought stress in the reproductive stage of Giza 15 and Hybrid 113 cultivars caused a two fold increase in length of lateral branch and panicles number. However, grain yield and total panicles weight were significantly reduced in all cultivars due to this stress. Application of drought with defoliation in the vegetative stage reduced shoot and straw weights, and grain yield in sorghum in comparison with drought stress only. Protein-N and polysaccharides content were decreased in parent grains in response to water stress.The stress intensity index (SII of progeny from drought- subjected parents was about 30-fold greater than SII of progeny from control parents. Further, SII of progeny from parents exposed to drought stress in the reproductive stage was higher than the SII of progeny from parents subjected to drought stress in the vegetative stage . A strong negative correlation appeared between the stress intensity index of the progeny and polysaccharides content of parent grains. Based on our research parental defoliation did not improve the drought resistance of sorghum progeny.

  3. Silicon improves rice grain yield and photosynthesis specifically when supplied during the reproductive growth stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinsky, Alyne O; Detmann, Kelly C; Reis, Josimar V; Ávila, Rodrigo T; Sanglard, Matheus L; Pereira, Lucas F; Sanglard, Lílian M V P; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Araújo, Wagner L; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2016-11-01

    Silicon (Si) has been recognized as a beneficial element to improve rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yield. Despite some evidence suggesting that this positive effect is observed when Si is supplied along the reproductive growth stage (from panicle initiation to heading), it remains unclear whether its supplementation during distinct growth phases can differentially impact physiological aspects of rice and its yield and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of additions/removals of Si at different growth stages and their impacts on rice yield components, photosynthetic performance, and expression of genes (Lsi1, Lsi2 and Lsi6) involved in Si distribution within rice shoots. Positive effects of Si on rice production and photosynthesis were manifested when it was specifically supplied during the reproductive growth stage, as demonstrated by: (1) a high crop yield associated with higher grain number and higher 1000-grain weight, whereas the leaf area and whole-plant biomass remained unchanged; (2) an increased sink strength which, in turn, exerted a feed-forward effect on photosynthesis that was coupled with increases in both stomatal conductance and biochemical capacity to fix CO2; (3) higher Si amounts in the developing panicles (and grain husks) in good agreement with a remarkable up-regulation of Lsi6 (and to a lesser extent Lsi1). We suggest that proper levels of Si in these reproductive structures seem to play an as yet unidentified role culminating with higher grain number and size.

  4. On-Farm Study on Intercropping of Hybrid Maize with Different Short Duration Vegetables in the Charland of Tangail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Rahaman, MM Rahman, S Roy, M Ahmed, MS Bhuyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in charland at the Multi Location Testing (MLT site Bhuapur, Tangail during 2012-13 and 2013-14 under AEZ-8 to find out the suitable intercropping system of hybrid maize with different short duration vegetables with economic return. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with six dispersed (six farmers’ field replications. The hybrid maize (ver. BARI Hybrid maize-7, potato (Diamant, spinach (local, red amaranth (BARI Lalsak-1, Radish (BARI Mula-1 were used as the planting materials. Five treatment combinations viz. T1= Sole Maize, T2= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Potato (var. Diamant, T3= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Spinach (var. local, T4= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Red amaranth (var. BARI Lalshak-1 and T5= 100% Maize (Maize paired row + Radish (var. BARI Mula-1 were studied. Maize grain yield in intercropped combination varied from 5.59-7.62 t ha-1. But the highest grain yield (8.17 t ha-1 was obtained from sole maize. Maize equivalent yields in the intercrops situation ranged from 11.39-19.68 t ha-1 where highest maize equivalent yield 19.68 t ha-1 was recorded from the treatment T3 (100 % maize + spinach. The same combinations also gave highest gross return (Tk. 373930 ha-1 and gross margin (Tk. 258585 ha-1 as well as benefit cost ratio (3.24. Though highest grain yield was recorded from sole maize but equivalent yield and economic return was much lower than the treatment T3.

  5. A decade of precision agriculture impacts on grain yield and yield variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeting management practices and inputs with precision agriculture has high potential to meet some of the grand challenges of sustainability in the coming century, including simultaneously improving crop yields and reducing environmental impacts. Although the potential is high, few studies have do...

  6. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin Wang; Fa Cui; Jinping Wang; Li Jun; Anming Ding; Chunhua Zhao; Xingfeng Li; Deshun Feng; Jurong Gao; Honggang Wang

    2012-12-01

    Grain protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is generally considered a highly heritable character that is negatively correlated with grain yield and yield-related traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for protein content was mapped using data on protein content and protein content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits to evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between protein content and yield, as well as yield-related traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a recombinant inbred line population with 302 lines derived from a cross between the Chinese cultivar Weimai 8 and Luohan 2. Inclusive composite interval mapping using IciMapping 3.0 was employed for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additives. A strong genetic relationship was found between protein content and grain yield, and yield-related traits. Unconditional QTL mapping analysis detected seven additive QTL for protein content, with additive effects ranging in absolute size from 0.1898% to 0.3407% protein content, jointly accounting for 43.45% of the trait variance. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated two QTL independent from yield, which can be used in marker-assisted selection for increasing yield without affecting grain protein content. Three additional QTL with minor effects were identified in the conditional mapping. Of the three QTLs, two were identified when protein content was conditioned on yield, which had pleiotropic effects on those two traits. Conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the individual QTL level for closely correlated traits. Further, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with minor effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  7. Integrated crop management practices for maximizing grain yield of double-season rice crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei; Ling, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kehui; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing

    2017-01-01

    Information on maximum grain yield and its attributes are limited for double-season rice crop grown under the subtropical environment. This study was conducted to examine key characteristics associated with high yielding double-season rice crop through a comparison between an integrated crop management (ICM) and farmers’ practice (FP). Field experiments were conducted in the early and late seasons in the subtropical environment of Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China in 2013 and 2014. On average, grain yield in ICM was 13.5% higher than that in FP. A maximum grain yield of 9.40 and 10.53 t ha‑1 was achieved under ICM in the early- and late-season rice, respectively. Yield improvement of double-season rice with ICM was achieved with the combined effects of increased plant density and optimized nutrient management. Yield gain of ICM resulted from a combination of increases in sink size due to more panicle number per unit area and biomass production, further supported by the increased leaf area index, leaf area duration, radiation use efficiency, crop growth rate, and total nitrogen uptake compared with FP. Further enhancement in the yield potential of double-season rice should focus on increasing crop growth rate and biomass production through improved and integrated crop management practices.

  8. Integrated crop management practices for maximizing grain yield of double-season rice crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei; Ling, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kehui; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing

    2017-01-01

    Information on maximum grain yield and its attributes are limited for double-season rice crop grown under the subtropical environment. This study was conducted to examine key characteristics associated with high yielding double-season rice crop through a comparison between an integrated crop management (ICM) and farmers’ practice (FP). Field experiments were conducted in the early and late seasons in the subtropical environment of Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China in 2013 and 2014. On average, grain yield in ICM was 13.5% higher than that in FP. A maximum grain yield of 9.40 and 10.53 t ha−1 was achieved under ICM in the early- and late-season rice, respectively. Yield improvement of double-season rice with ICM was achieved with the combined effects of increased plant density and optimized nutrient management. Yield gain of ICM resulted from a combination of increases in sink size due to more panicle number per unit area and biomass production, further supported by the increased leaf area index, leaf area duration, radiation use efficiency, crop growth rate, and total nitrogen uptake compared with FP. Further enhancement in the yield potential of double-season rice should focus on increasing crop growth rate and biomass production through improved and integrated crop management practices. PMID:28079051

  9. Strategy of specification of management areas: rice grain yield as related to soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known nowadays that soil variability can influence crop yields. Therefore, to determine specific areas of soil management, we studied the Pearson and spatial correlations of rice grain yield with organic matter content and pH of an Oxisol (Typic Acrustox under no- tillage, in the 2009/10 growing season, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the Brazilian Cerrado (longitude 51º24' 21'' W, latitude 20º20' 56'' S. The upland rice cultivar IAC 202 was used as test plant. A geostatistical grid was installed for soil and plant data collection, with 120 sampling points in an area of 3.0 ha with a homogeneous slope of 0.055 m m-1. The properties rice grain yield and organic matter content, pH and potential acidity and aluminum content were analyzed in the 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m soil layers. Spatially, two specific areas of agricultural land management were discriminated, differing in the value of organic matter and rice grain yield, respectively with fertilization at variable rates in the second zone, a substantial increase in agricultural productivity can be obtained. The organic matter content was confirmed as a good indicator of soil quality, when spatially correlated with rice grain yield.

  10. Organic amendment based on vermicompost and compost: differences on soil properties and maize yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Manuel; Benítez, Concepción

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the effect of two vermicomposts [animal (VCD) and vegetal origin (VGF)] and a cotton gin compost (C) at rates of 1780 and 3560 kg fresh organic matter ha(-1) for 3 years on an Typic Xerofluvent located near Seville (Spain) on soil biological properties, nutrition (leaf N, P and K concentration, pigments and soluble carbohydrate concentrations) and yield parameters of maize (Zea mays cv. Tundra) crop. All organic waste materials had a positive effect on the soil biological properties, plant nutrition and crop yield parameters, although at the end of the experimental period and at the high organic matter rate, the soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities increased more significantly in the VCD-amended soils (86.4, 85.8, 94.5, 99.3, 70.1 and 63.8%, respectively) respect to the control soil, followed by VGF-amended soils (84.8, 80.6, 92.7, 99.1, 68.3 and 61.6%, respectively) and CC-amended soils (80.5, 75.9, 89.7, 99, 65.7 and 59.9%, respectively). Leaf N, P and K contents and pigments and soluble carbohydrate contents were highest in VCD-amended soils, followed by VGF and CC treatments. Compared with the control soil, the application of VCD in soils at high doses increased the crop yield parameters, followed by VGF and CC treatments. This may have been due to a greater labile fraction of organic matter in the VCD than the VGF and CC, respectively.

  11. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  12. Investigating the implications of meteorological indicators of seasonal rainfall performance on maize yield in a rain-fed agricultural system: case study of Mt. Darwin District in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushore, Terence; Manatsa, Desmond; Pedzisai, Ezra; Muzenda-Mudavanhu, Chipo; Mushore, Washington; Kudzotsa, Innocent

    2016-06-01

    The study focuses on the impacts of climate variability and change on maize yield in Mt. Darwin District. The rainfall and temperature data for the period under study that is from 1992 to 2012 were obtained from Meteorological Services Department of Zimbabwe at daily resolution while crop yield data were obtained from Department of Agricultural, Technical and Extension Services (AGRITEX) and Zimbabwe Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT) at seasonal/yearly resolution. In order to capture full rainfall seasons, a year was set to begin on 1 June and end on 31 July the next year. Yearly yield, temperature and rainfall data were used to compute time series analysis of rainfall, temperature and yield. The relationship between temperature, rainfall, quality of season (start, cessation, dry days, wet days and length) and yield was also investigated. The study also investigated the link between meteorological normal and maize yield. The study revealed that temperature is rising while rainfall is decreasing with time hence increasing risk of low maize yield in Mt. Darwin. Correlation between maize yield was higher using a non-linear (R 2 = 0.630) than a linear regression model (R 2 = 0.173). There was a very high correlation between maize yield and number of dry days (R = -0.905) as well as between maize yield and length of season (R = 0.777). We also observed a strong correlation between percentage normal rainfall and percentage normal maize yield (R 2 = 0.753). This was also agreed between rainfall tessiles and maize yield tessiles as 50 % of the seasons had normal and above normal rainfall coinciding with normal and above normal maize yield. Of the 21 seasons considered, only one season had above normal rainfall while maize yield was below normal. The study concluded that there is a strong association between meteorological normal and maize yield in a rain-fed agricultural system. Climate information remains crucial to agricultural productivity hence the need to train farmers to

  13. Experiment for the Impact of Flood in Different Development Stages on Summer Maize Growth and Yields%不同生育期积水对夏玉米生长和产量的影响试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房稳静; 武建华; 陈松; 张静; 李晨; 刘端

    2009-01-01

    通过对拔节期和抽雄期田间不同积水深度和积水时间的试验,模拟研究夏玉米对不同洪涝灾害程度的耐受力和洪涝灾害对产量构成因素及最终产量的影响.结果表明:积水对夏玉米密度、绿叶数、果穗长、果穗粗和实产的影响较明显,而对发育期出现早晚和百粒重的影响不明显.拔节期积水5d以上,抽雄期积水7d以上,夏玉米基本绝收.玉米苗越小,耐洪涝的能力越弱.%The endurance of summer maize to floods and the impacts of the floods to maize yields and its components were studied through the experiment of different flood depth and time for summer maize in the jointing stage and tassel-ing stage. The results showed that flood had obvious impacts on the maize density, maize greenery, ear lengthen and thick, and the yields, but not on the development process and one hundred grains weight. It was no gains if flood continued more than 5days in jointing stage or more than 7days during tasseling stage. The endurance of younger maizes was weaker than old ones.

  14. Effects of farmers' practices of fertilizer application and land use types on subsequent maize yield and nutrient uptake in central Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.; Kossou, D.; Acakpo, K.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Four on-farm experiments in central Benin examined whether land-use succession and fertilizer treatments for prior cotton would sustain subsequent maize crop yields and achieve balanced plant nutrition. Treatments consisted of three prior land use successions, i.e. before planting maize (egusi melon

  15. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased...

  16. PARENTAL DROUGHT AND DEFOLIATION EFFECT ON YIELD, GRAINS BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS AND DROUGHT PERFORMANCE OF SORGHUM PROGENY

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Ibrahim; El-Shahaby, O. A.; Abo-Hamed, S. A.; Younis, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of drought stress and drought with defoliation on yield parameters of three sorghum varieties (Giza 15, Dorado and Hybrid 113). Also, the effect of these parental stress treatments on drought performance of progeny of the most drought tolerant variety was investigated. Application of drought stress in the vegetative stage non significantly affected panicles number, grain yield and harvest index of all cultivars. Drought stress in the reproductive...

  17. Variations in CYP78A13 coding region influence grain size and yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Fang, Jun; Ou, Shujun; Gao, Shaopei; Zhang, Fengxia; Du, Lin; Xiao, Yunhua; Wang, Hongru; Sun, Xiaohong; Chu, Jinfang; Wang, Guodong; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-04-01

    Grain size is one of the most important determinants of crop yield in cereals. Here, we identified a dominant mutant, big grain2 (bg2-D) from our enhancer-trapping population. Genetic analysis and SiteFinding PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed that BG2 encodes a cytochrome P450, OsCYP78A13. Sequence search revealed that CYP78A13 has a paralogue Grain Length 3.2 (GL3.2, LOC_Os03g30420) in rice with distinct expression patterns, analysis of transgenic plants harbouring either CYP78A13 or GL3.2 showed that both can promote grain growth. Sequence polymorphism analysis with 1529 rice varieties showed that the nucleotide diversity at CYP78A13 gene body and the 20 kb flanking region in the indica varieties were markedly higher than those in japonica varieties. Further, comparison of the genomic sequence of CYP78A13 in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar 9311 showed that there were three InDels in the promoter region and eight SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) in its coding sequence. Detailed examination of the transgenic plants with chimaeric constructs suggested that variation in CYP78A13 coding region is responsible for the variation of grain yield. Taken together, our results suggest that the variations in CYP78A13 in the indica varieties hold potential in rice breeding for application of grain yield improvement.

  18. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  19. Effects of Aerated Irrigation on Leaf Senescence at Late Growth Stage and Grain Yield of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lian-feng; Yu Sheng-miao; JIN Qian-yu

    2012-01-01

    With the japonica inbred cultivar Xiushui 09,indica hybrid combinations Guodao 6 and Liangyoupeijiu as materials,field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the effects of aerated irrigation on leaf senescence at late growth stage and grain yield of rice.The dissolved oxygen concentration of aerated water evidently increased and decreased at a slow rate.The soil oxidation-reduction potential under aerated irrigation treatment was significantly higher than that of the CK,contributing to significant increases in effective panicles,seed setting rate and grain yield.In addition,the aerated irrigation improved root function,increased superoxide dismutase activity and decreased malondialdehyde content in flag leaves at post-flowering,which delayed leaf senescence process,prolonged leaf functional activity and led to enhanced grain filling.

  20. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    in reported grain yields, (2) diversity in disease resistance, and (3) diversity in weed suppressiveness, all among component varieties. Relative mixing effect was also found to increase significantly with the effective number of component varieties. The effects of the latter two differed significantly...

  1. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eig

  2. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  3. Line × Tester Mating Design Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes were crossed in a line × tester mating design. The 20 F1's and their parents were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results indicated that sufficient genetic variability was observed for all characters studied. A899 × Rmada, A899 × Wifak, and A1135 × Wifak hybrids had greater grain yield mean than the parents. A901 line and the tester Wifak were good combiners for the number of grains per spike. MD is a good combiner for 1000-kernel weight and number of fertile tillers. HD1220 is a good general combiner to reduce plant height; Rmada is a good general combiner to shorten the duration of the vegetative growth period. A901 × Wifak is a best specific combiner to reduce plant height, to increase 1000-kernel weight and number of grains per spike. AA × MD is a best specific combiner to reduce duration of the vegetative period, plant height and to increase the number of kernels per spike. A899 × Wifak showed the highest heterosis for grain yield, accompanied with positive heterosis for the number of fertile tillers and spike length, and negative heterosis for 1000-kernel weight and the number of days to heading. σgca2/σsca2,  (σD2/σA21/2 low ratios and low to intermediate estimates of h2ns supported the involvement of both additive and nonadditive gene effects. The preponderance of non-additive type of gene actions clearly indicated that selection of superior plants should be postponed to later generation.

  4. Efficiency of inoculant with Azospirillum brasilense on the growth and yield of second-harvest maize1

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Raoni Ribeiro Guedes Fonseca; Quirino,Gerciene da Silva Ferreira; Naves,Daniela Cristina de Freitas; Santos,Charles Barbosa; Rocha,Ana Flávia de Souza

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe misuse of fertilizers has become a growing concern in terms of agricultural and environmental sustainability. One alternative to reduce the impact of chemical fertilizers is the use of inoculants containing nitrogen-fixing and plant growth promoting bacteria. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of an inoculant with Azospirillum brasilense on the growth and yield of secondharvest maize. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications, in a 3 × 5 factori...

  5. Huitlacoche yield in some maize varieties in the Mediterranean region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aydoğdu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Huitlacoche is the Aztecs name given to the smut galls on ears of maize caused by the pathogenic plant fungus Ustilago maydis [(DC Corda.]. It is known as maize mushroom, and it has been considered a delicacy and in Mesoamerica. The aim of the present study was to determine the responses of some maize varieties to the growth of the fungus in order to evaluate the prospect production of these smutty ears as a maize mushroom. A 2-year study was conducted in the Mediterranean region of Turkey in 2010 and 2011. Inoculations were performed by injecting inoculum into the ear through the silk channel of plants in plots. Each treatment had control plots. Average ear-gall (huitlacoche severity and incidence of all the varieties were at the rates of 4.0 and 41.6%, respectively. However, the highest severity of ear-gall (6.5 and incidence (60.6% were found in Karadeniz Yıldızı flint maize variety; colossal smutty ears were formed in the maize cultivars. This study showed that certain maize cultivars (flint corn and dent corn can be used efficiently in the production of huitlacoche.

  6. Maize Yield and Related Traits Under Different Salt Stresses%不同盐分逆境下玉米产量及相关性状的表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔士友; 张蛟蛟; 冒宇翔

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress, as one of the major abiotic stresses, severely limits crop productivity. Study on salinity effects on maize seedling growth and yield components would improve management practices in fields and increase the understanding of salt tolerance mechanism of maize.‘Suyu 10’and‘Suyu 30’with salt tolerance were selected to evaluate the effects of different salinities on maize grain yield and traits related to yield. The results indicated that the grain yield decreased linearly with salinity increase, under the salinity of 1.5 g/kg soil, the grain yield of‘Suyu 10’and‘Suyu 30’accounted for 54.2%and 64.3%of that without salt stress. Among yield components, kernel number per ear was more sensitive to salinity than 100-kernel weight. Biomass (fresh and dry weight) at jointing stage correlated positively with grain yield. Among salt tolerance indexes including relative fresh weight, relative dry weight, relative water content and relative grain yield, relative grain yield was better for characterizing salt resistance, differences among various salinity gradients reached a significant level. It was concluded that under the salt stress of 1.5g/kg soil, the yield of maize was only about 60%of that without salt stress, and the breeding of salt tolerant maize, especially the salt tolerance at seedling stage, should be strengthened.%盐逆境是重要的非生物逆境之一,严重限制了作物生产的发展,研究盐分对玉米幼苗生长、产量组分的效应有助于改进滩涂玉米生产措施以及加深对玉米耐盐机制的理解。选用耐盐性较强的玉米杂交种‘苏玉10号’和‘苏玉30’,利用盐池设施测试不同盐分逆境下玉米产量及其相关性状的表现。随着盐分的增加,籽粒产量呈线性下降,在1.5 g/kg的盐分逆境下‘苏玉10号’和‘苏玉30’的籽粒产量为非逆境的54.2%和64.3%;在减产的因素中,穗粒数比百粒重对盐分逆境更为敏感。拔节

  7. Wheat Grain Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-Term Fertilization Experiment on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ming-De; FAN Jun; WANG Quan-Jiu; DANG Ting-Hui; GUO Sheng-Li; WANG Ji-Jun

    2007-01-01

    To provide a scientific basis for sustainable land management,a 20-year fertility experiment Was conducted in Changwu County,Shaanxi Province,China to investigate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers on wheat grain yield and yield stability on the Loess Plateau using regression and stability analysis.The experiment consisted of 17fertilizer treatments.containing the combinations of different N and P levels,with three replications arranged in a randomized complete block design.Nitrogen fertilizer was applied as urea,and P was applied as calcium superphosphate.Fertilizer rates had a large effect on the response of wheat yield to fertilization.Phosphorus,combined with N,increased yield significantly(P≤0.01).In the unfertilized control and the N or P sole application treatments,wheat yield had a declining trend although it was not statistically significant.Stability analysis combined with the trend analysis indicated that integrated use of fertilizer N and P was better than their sole application in increasing and sustaining the productivity of rainfed winter wheat.

  8. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  9. Wheat ear carbon assimilation and nitrogen remobilization contribute significantly to grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bangwei; Serret, Maria Dolores; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Bort Pie, Jordi; Araus, José Luis; Aranjuelo, Iker; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro

    2016-11-01

    The role of wheat ears as a source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in the grain filling process has barely been studied. To resolve this question, five wheat genotypes were labeled with (15) N-enriched nutrient solution. N remobilization and absorption were estimated via the nitrogen isotope composition of total organic matter and Rubisco. Gas exchange analyses showed that ear photosynthesis contributed substantially to grain filling in spite of the great loss of C due to respiration. Of the total kernel N, 64.7% was derived from the N acquired between sowing and anthesis, while the remaining 35.3% was derived from the N acquired between anthesis and maturity. In addition, 1.87 times more N was remobilized to the developing kernel from the ear than from the flag leaf. The higher yielding genotypes showed an increased N remobilization to the kernel compared to the lower yielding genotypes. In addition, the higher yielding genotypes remobilized more N from the ears to the kernel than the lower yielding genotypes, while the lower yielding genotypes remobilized more N from the flag leaf to the kernel. Therefore, the ears contribute significantly toward fulfilling C and N demands during grain filling.

  10. Wheat ear carbon assimilation and nitrogen remobilization contribute significantly to grain yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangwei Zhou; Maria Dolores Serret; Abdelhalim Elazab; Jordi Bort Pie; Jose Luis Araus; Iker Aranjuelo; Alvaro Sanz-Saez

    2016-01-01

    The role of wheat ears as a source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in the grain filling process has barely been studied. To resolve this question, five wheat genotypes were labeled with 15N-enriched nutrient solution. N remobilization and absorption were estimated via the nitrogen isotope composition of total organic matter and Rubisco. Gas exchange analyses showed that ear photosynthesis contributed substan-tially to grain filling in spite of the great loss of C due to respiration. Of the total kernel N, 64.7%was derived from the N acquired between sowing and anthesis, while the remaining 35.3%was derived from the N acquired between anthesis and maturity. In addition, 1.87 times more N was remobilized to the developing kernel from the ear than from the flag leaf. The higher yielding genotypes showed an increased N remobiliza-tion to the kernel compared to the lower yielding genotypes. In addition, the higher yielding genotypes remobilized more N from the ears to the kernel than the lower yielding genotypes, while the lower yielding genotypes remobilized more N from the flag leaf to the kernel. Therefore, the ears contribute signi-ficantly toward fulfilling C and N demands during grain filling.

  11. Combining ability and heritability of selected rice varieties for grain yield, its components and grain quality characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahgholipour Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the combining ability and heritability of rice grain yield, its components and some grain quality traits such as amylose content (AC, gelatinization temperature (GT, gel consistency (GC and head rice recovery (HRR. The study was commenced by crossing the selected rice varieties based on a full diallel mating design. The F1 was harvested at the end of the season. In the following season, the crossed, reciprocal and parental lines were planted in randomly complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance indicated that genotypes were significantly different for all traits. The diallel analysis by Griffing`s method showed highly significant differences for GCA for number of panicles per plant (PN, amylose content, gelatinization temperature and head rice recovery. Highly significant differences were also observed for both SCA and REC for all evaluated characters. The results showed that the grain yield (GY, number of filled grains (FGN, 100-grain weight (HGW and GC were controlled by non-additive gene action, while the inheritance of PN, AC, GT and HRR were largely controlled by additive gene effects, although non- additive genetic components and reciprocal effect were also involved, which suggest that a selection process could be done in the early generations. The two improved lines (RI18442-1 and RI18430-46 were found to be good general combiners for GY and FGN, while the best combiners for PN was Tarom Mohali and IR50 and for HGW was RI18430-46. The best combinations for GY were RI18430-46 × IR50, Tarom Mohali × RI18447-2 and Daylamani × RI18430-46. The good hybrids were Tarom Mohali × IR50, Line23 × RI18447-2 and Line23 × Backcross line for AC. Narrow sense heritability showed that the GY and GC had the lowest values while the other traits had either moderate or high heritability, which indicates selection in the early generations could be done to fix the favorable genes. In present

  12. Assessment of growth and yield losses in two Zea mays L. cultivars (quality protein maize and nonquality protein maize) under projected levels of ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-02-01

    Rapid industrialization and economic developments have increased the tropospheric ozone (O3) budget since preindustrial times, and presently, it is supposed to be a major threat to crop productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.), a C4 plant is the third most important staple crop at global level with a great deal of economic importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two maize cultivars [HQPM1: quality protein maize (QPM)] and [DHM117: nonquality protein maize (NQPM)] to variable O3 doses. Experimental setup included filtered chambers, nonfiltered chambers (NFC), and two elevated doses of O3 viz. NFC+15 ppb O3 (NFC+15) and NFC+30 ppb O3 (NFC+30). During initial growth period, both QPM and NQPM plants showed hormetic effect that is beneficial due to exposure of low doses of a toxicant (NFC and NFC+15 ppb O3), but at later stages, growth attributes were negatively affected by O3. Growth indices showed the variable pattern of photosynthate translocation under O3 stress. Foliar injury in the form of interveinal chlorosis and reddening of leaves due to increased production of anthocyanin pigments was observed at higher concentrations of O3. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of leaves taken from NFC+30 showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins, and differential response was observed between the two test cultivars. Decline in the number of male flowers at elevated O3 doses suggested damaging effect of O3 on reproductive structures which might be a cause of productivity losses. Variable carbon allocation pattern particularly to husk leaves, foliar injury, and damage of photosynthetic proteins led to significant reductions in economic yield at higher O3 doses. PCA showed that both the cultivars responded more or less similarly to O3 stress in their respective groupings of growth and yield parameters, but magnitude of their response was variable. It is further supported by difference in the significance of correlations between variables of

  13. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.

    2012-01-01

    ), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... silage (n = 10). The samples were collected from the harvest years 2006–2010, The results show that DON-3-glucoside and DON co-occurred in cereal grains and, especially in several of the highly contaminated samples, the concentration of the glucoside can be relatively high, corresponding to over 37...

  14. Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, Romina V; Etcheverry, Miriam G

    2008-04-01

    The antifungal activity of Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Pëumus boldus Mol (boldus), Hedeoma multiflora Benth (mountain thyme), Syzygium aromaticum L. (clove), and Lippia turbinate var. integrifolia (griseb) (poleo) essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus section Flavi was evaluated in sterile maize grain under different water activity (a(w)) condition (0.982, 0.955, and 0.90). The effect of EOs added to maize grains on growth rate, lag phase, and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation of Aspergillus section Flavi were evaluated at different water activity conditions. The five EOs analyzed have been shown to influence lag phase and growth rate. Their efficacy depended mainly on the essential oil concentrations and substrate water activity conditions. All EOs showed significant impact on AFB(1) accumulation. This effect was closely dependent on the water activity, concentration, and incubation periods. Important reduction of AFB(1) accumulation was observed in the majority of EO treatments at 11 days of incubation. Boldus, poleo, and mountain thyme EO completely inhibited AFB(1) at 2000 and 3000 microg g(-1). Inhibition of AFB(1) accumulation was also observed when aflatoxigenic isolates grew with different concentration of EOs during 35 days.

  15. [Effects of straw incorporation on rice carbon sequestration characteristics and grain yield formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Peng-Gang; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Zhu, Lian-Feng; Yu, Sheng-Miao; Hu, Zhi-Hua

    2014-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of straw incorporation on rice dry matter accumulation and transportation, rice carbon sequestration and grain yield formation. The experiment included four levels of straw incorporation: 0 (control), 4000, 6000 and 8000 kg · hm(-2). Hybrid rice cultivar Zhongzheyou 1 was used in this experiment. The results showed that the average rice dry matter accumulation amount of the three straw incorporation treatments was increased by 63.03 g · m(-2) compared with the control, and that of straw incorporation of 6000 kg · hm(-2) showed the most favorable result, which was 154.40 g · m(-2) higher than the control. Effects of straw incorporation on rice dry matter accumulation showed the best performance from the maximum tillering stage to the full heading stage, and the dry matter accumulation at this stage was 71.25 g · m(-2) higher than the control. Compared with the control, the average dry matter exportation rate and apparent transformation rate from rice stem and leaf in the straw incorporation treatments were increased by 4.2% and 3.7%, respectively. The highest dry matter exportation rate and apparent transformation rate from rice stem and leaf were observed in the straw incorporation treatment of 6000 kg · hm(-2), which were increased by 12.8% and 11.1% compared to the control, respectively. The average rice carbon sequestration from the straw incorporation treatments was increased by 55.38 g · m(-2) compared with the control, and straw incorporation of 6000 kg · hm(-2) performed best with an increase of 17.8% compared with the control. Straw incorporation played a positive role in regulating the carbon sequestration of stem and leaf at the early growth stage and carbon sequestration of spike at the late growth stage. The average grain yield from the straw incorporation treatments was increased by 794.59 kg · hm(-2) (9.5% higher) compared with the control. Rice grain yields from the straw incorporation

  16. Use of Selection Indices Based on Multivariate Analysis for Improving Grain Yield in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein SABOURI; Babak RABIEI; Maryam FAZLALIPOUR

    2008-01-01

    In order to study selection indices for improving rice grain yield, a cross was made between an Iranian traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety, Tarommahalli and an improved indica rice variety, Khazar in 2006. The traits of the parents (30 plants), F1 (30 plants) and F2 generations (492 individuals) were evaluated at the Rice Research institute of Iran (RRII) during 2007. Heritabilities of the number of panicles per plant, plant height, days to heading and panicle exsertion were greater than that of grain yield. The selection indices were developed using the results of multivariate analysis. To evaluate selection strategies to maximize grain yield, 14 selection indices were calculated based on two methods (optimum and base) and combinations of 12 traits with various economic weights. Results of selection indices showed that selection for grain weight, number of panicles per plant and panicle length by using their phenotypic and/or genotypic direct effects (path coefficient) as economic weights should serve as an effective selection criterion for using either the optimum or base index.

  17. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of rice under mechanical transplantation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Liu

    Full Text Available A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT. The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT.

  18. Effect of Different Nitrogen Application Levels on Yield Traits of Fall Super-sweet Maize%不同施氮量对秋播超甜玉米产量性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杏安; 梁秀兰; 胡美英

    2011-01-01

    为探明广东地区超甜玉米种植的最适氮肥施用量,为该地区甜玉米种植过程中合理施用氮肥提供科学的理论依据.试验采用田间数据统计和室内拷种的方法,分析6种不同施氮水平对秋播"华珍"超甜玉米产量性状的影响.结果表明:6组不同施氮量对超甜玉米叶面积、穗长、穗粗、穗行粒数、百粒鲜重和百粒干重都有显著的增产效果.其中有效增加促进叶片面积,穗长、穗粗、穗行粒数以及鲜苞产量的最佳氮肥施用量在225~300kg/hm2之间.不同氮肥水平对百粒鲜重和百粒干重也有显著增产效果,最佳施氮量在300~375 kg/hm2之间.因此通过调控氮肥的施用量来增加超甜玉米产量是可行的,其中约300kg/hm2的氮肥施用量既能有效提高超甜玉米主要产量性状,降低生产成本,也能避免氮肥施用过多对玉米植株生长以及生态环境造成不良影响.%In order to clarify the optimal nitrogen application level in the process of growing fall super-sweet maize in Guangdong province, and provide scientific theory for the reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer in super-sweet maize production, field statistics and routine indoor statistics were performed to study the effect of six different nitrogen application levels on the yield traits of super-sweet maize. The result indicated that 6 different nitrogen application levels could significantly improve leaf area, length and wide of spike, grain number of row, yield of fresh-maize bract and weight of 100 fresh grain and weight of 100 dried grain.225-300 kg/hm2 was the optimal nitrogen application rang to improve the frontal 4 yield traits, and 300-375 kg/hm2 was optimal to the latter, fresh weight of 100 grain and 100 dried grain, so it was quite feasible to enhance the maize yield by regulating the application of nitrogen, and nitrogen application level at about 300 kg/hm2 not only improved effectively the main yield traits of maize

  19. Increased maize yield using slow-release attapulgite-coated fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yu; Song, Chao; Gan, Yantai; Li, Feng-Min

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Slow-release fertilizers could improve the productivity of field crops and reduce environmental pollution. So far, no slow-release fertilizers are suited for maize cultivation in semiarid areas of China. Therefore, we tested attapulgite-coated fertilizers. Attapulgite-coated fertilizers were prepared by dividing chemical fertilizers into three parts according to the nutrient demand of maize in its three main growth stages and coating each part with a layer of attapulgi...

  20. The comparative analysis based on maize integrated QTL map and meta-analysis of plant height QTLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; YAO Ji; ZHANG Zhengfeng; ZHENG Yonglian

    2006-01-01

    1201 published maize QTLs conferring for 68 traits were collected and imported into local CMap software to construct an integrated QTL map, which can be used for marker-mining, QTL localization, gene cloning and marker-assisted selection. The maize integrated QTL map showed that maize QTLs for various traits usually clustered in all chromosomes. 22 plant height QTLs of maize were co-linear with 64 plant height QTLs of rice, 43 grain yield QTLs of maize were co-liner with 7 grain yield QTLs of rice. 127 plant height QTLs of maize were refined by means of "overview" analysis. At last, 40 "real" QTLs were identifed. A substantial number of candidate quantitative trait genes for plant height of maize were found. These results established an important bioinformatics platform for extracting most of maize QTL information.

  1. Use of Major Quantitative Trait Loci to Improve Grain Yield of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Long-biao; YE Guo-you

    2014-01-01

    Further improvement of rice productivity remains a challenge. Breeding is perceived as an important option to increase rice yield. However, the genetic progress of grain yield in most rice breeding programs was slow in the last decades. Although great progress in rice genomics and molecular biology has been achieved, the effect of such technological innovations on rice breeding is far small. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) for a few target quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has significant effects in improving qualitative traits, such as disease resistance. The success of MAS has therefore motivated breeders to identify and use major QTLs for yield and yield component traits. In this review, we summarized the recent methods in QTL identification, including novel statistical methods for linkage and association mapping, special population types, and whole-genome sequencing. We reviewed the successful application of marker-assisted gene introgression and gene pyramiding to improve grain yield and discussed the design of efficient MAS schemes to further increase the success rate of breeding programs. The use of well-characterized major QTLs through introgression and gene pyramiding is proven effective in improving grain yield, particularly yield under abiotic stress. Major QTLs that are stable across genetic background and growing environments are often found in less adapted germplasms, such as landraces and wild relatives. Advanced backcross QTL analysis and introgression lines, which integrate QTL discovery and utilization, are important methods for exploiting major QTLs contained in such germplasms. Next-generation sequencing substantially increases mapping resolution and accelerates the identification of casual genes underlying major QTLs. Practical guidelines derived from theoretical and empirical studies are given to guide the design of efficient marker-assisted gene introgression and pyramiding schemes.

  2. Genetic variability among exotic and indigenous maize inbreds for resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sitophilus oryzae is one of the most important stored grain pests of maize causing substantial losses. Owing to high cost, environmental and health hazards, chemical control does not provide an acceptable solution. Host plant resistance offers sustainable and cost-effective way to reduce the losses. A set of 162 diverse inbreds were evaluated to assess their responses to infestation of S. oryzae. Significant variation for (1 grain weight loss (GWL (4.19–42.32%, (2 emergence of insect progeny (5.67–75.67, (3 germination of infested seeds (GIS (0.00–81.33%, (4 pericarp thickness (PT of the grain (47.32–194.83 μm and (5 grain hardness (GH (113.00–1,171.67 Newton was observed among inbreds. GWL and emergence of insect progeny were positively correlated, while GIS was negatively correlated with both. PT and GH did not show any association with other characters. CML442 and CM394 earlier reported to be promising against S. zeamais, were also identified as resistant to S. oryzae. SKV21, Pant109, Pant124, MGB1, CML207 and LM13 were identified as resistant inbreds. These inbreds can potentially serve as valuable donors in the resistance breeding programme. The resistant inbreds can also be crossed with diverse susceptible inbreds to generate mapping populations for identifying QTLs conferring resistance to S. oryzae.

  3. Effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame (Sesamum indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame, an experiment was conducted at experimental station, college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Four different irrigation intervals (one, two, three and four weeks with four plant densities (20, 30, 40 and 50 plants/m2 were compared in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Irrigation intervals and plant densities allocated in main plots and subplots, respectively. Different characteristics such as plant height, distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of grains per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, 1000-seed weight, harvest index and oil yield were recorded. The results showed that there were no significant difference between different irrigation intervals in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of grains per capsule, 1000-seed weight and harvest index. Different irrigation intervals had significant effects on plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, grain yield and oil yield. There were significant differences between different plant densities in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of graines per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, harvest index and oil yield. The highest grain yield (798/7 kg/ha and oil yield (412/8 kg/ha were obtained at one week and four weeks irrigation intervals, respectively. Between all treatments, 50 plants/m2 and one week irrigation interval produced the highest grain yield (914/7 kg/ha and oil yield (478/6 kg/ha. Because of shortage of water in Mashhad condition, the results recommended that, 50 plants/m2 and two weeks irrigation interval produced rather acceptable grain yield, with less water consumption.

  4. Using statistical model to simulate the impact of climate change on maize yield with climate and crop uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Chunyi; Chen, Sining

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of the impact of climate change on crop productions with considering uncertainties is essential for properly identifying and decision-making agricultural practices that are sustainable. In this study, we employed 24 climate projections consisting of the combinations of eight GCMs and three emission scenarios representing the climate projections uncertainty, and two crop statistical models with 100 sets of parameters in each model representing parameter uncertainty within the crop models. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on maize (Zea mays L.) yield at three locations (Benxi, Changling, and Hailun) across Northeast China (NEC) in periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069, taking 1976-2005 as the baseline period. The multi-models ensembles method is an effective way to deal with the uncertainties. The results of ensemble simulations showed that maize yield reductions were less than 5 % in both future periods relative to the baseline. To further understand the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty, such as climate projections and crop model parameters, in ensemble yield simulations, variance decomposition was performed. The results indicated that the uncertainty from climate projections was much larger than that contributed by crop model parameters. Increased ensemble yield variance revealed the increasing uncertainty in the yield simulation in the future periods.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation characterisation of water status of developing grains of maize (Zea mays L.) grown at different nitrogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Prameela; Chopra, Usha Kiran; Verma, Ajay Pal Singh; Joshi, Devendra Kumar; Chand, Ishwar

    2014-04-01

    Changes in water status of developing grains of maize (Zea mays L.) grown under different nitrogen levels were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. There were distinct changes in water status of grains due to the application of different levels of nitrogen (0, 120 and 180 kg N ha(-1)). A comparison of the grain developmental characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, not only the developmental characteristics like grain weight, grain number/ear, and rate of grain filling increased, but also bound water characterized by the T2 component of NMR relaxation increased with nitrogen application (50-70%) and developmental stages leading to maturation (10-60%). The consistency in the patterns of responses to free water and intermediate water to increasing levels of nitrogen application and grain maturity suggested that nitrogen application resulted in more proportion of water to both bound- and intermediate states and less in free state. These changes are further corroborated by the concomitant increases in protein and starch contents in grains from higher nitrogen treatments as macromolecules like protein and starch retain more amount of water in the bound state. The results of the changes in T2 showed that water status during grain development was not only affected by developmental processes but also by nitrogen supply to plants. This study strongly indicated a clear nutrient and developmental stage dependence of grain tissue water status in maize.

  6. 密度对玉米产量(>15000kg·hm-2)及其产量构成因子的影响%Effects of Density on Maize Yield and Yield Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楷; 王克如; 王永宏; 赵健; 赵如浪; 王喜梅; 李健; 梁明晰; 李少昆

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究密度对高产玉米(>15000kg·hm-2)产量及其构成因子的影响,揭示高产玉米产量形成机制,为玉米持续稳定高产提供依据.[方法]连续两年在新疆和宁夏高产玉米区,以郑单958为试材,以1.5万株/hm2为一个密度梯度,设置从1.5万株/hm2至18万株/hm2不同密度处理,充分满足水肥需求,进行高产栽培实践,在实现高产基础之上分析其产量及产量构成因子特征.[结果]两年多点共68个处理,最低和最高单产分别为7675.5和20503.5kg·hm-2,其中有47个处理达到15000kg·hm-2以上的产量;对产量构成特征的分析表明,要达到15000kg·hm-2以上的高产,最低、最高密度分别为5.25万株/hm2和16.28万株/hm2;最低、最高收获穗数分别为6.66万穗/hm2和13.84万穗/hm2;最低、最高穗粒数分别为365和657粒;最低、最高千粒重分别为237和404g.[结论]密度与单产呈抛物线关系,以10.5万株/hm2密度处理单产最高;随着产量的提高,种植密度、单位面积穗数、穗粒数和千粒重表现出最适值范围变窄的趋势.随种植密度增加,单位面积穗数呈增加趋势,穗粒数和千粒重呈下降趋势,而单位面积粒数呈增加并趋于不变趋势.%[Objective] Field experiments were conducted to study the influence of density on maize yield (> 15 000 kg·hm-2) and yield components in order to exploring the formation mechanism of high-yield so as to provide a basis for stable high-yield maize. [Method] The experiments were carried out in high-yield maize areas of Xinjiang and Ningxia regions. Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) was planted at different densities from 15 000 plants/hm2 to 180 000 plants/hm2 by making 15 000 plants/hm2 as a density gradient with fully satisfy fertilizer and water demand. High-yield cultivation was practiced, and then the yield and yield component, characteristics were analyzed based on the high-yield (> 15 000 kg·hm-2). [Result] The 68 different density level plots were

  7. A model of a successful utilization of a high genetic potential of maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Milovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a system, defined as a ZP system, implying corresponding relationship among research, seed production and seed marketing, is that each segment within the system has its tasks and responsibilities, as well as, a clear interest. This system was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, almost half a century ago. The crucial characteristic is that this system encompasses obtained results of scientific accomplishments (patent - a released hybrid, optimal utilisation of the environmental conditions, facilities for seed drying, processing and packing, staff and transport capacities. The ZP system provides the economic interest of all participants in studies and the maize seed production. The fundamental base of the quality seed production within the ZP system is a multidisciplinary programme on maize breeding, as well as, 535 released hybrids with standard and specific traits. According to regulations in foreign countries, approximately 100 ZP maize hybrids have been released abroad. Agroecological conditions in Serbia are favorable for the development of the best genotypes and the production of basic and certified maize seed. There 10 processing plants that apply recent technologies in the maize seed processing procedure. Several generations of experts have been trained and gained experience within the maize seed production. Three seed testing laboratories have been accredited by the International Seed Testing Association. According to regulations in Serbia, monitoring of seed production under field conditions, and further on, during the processing practice is done only by designate authorities. This study presents one of successful systems of the seed production organization applicable in countries with similar conditions.

  8. Effects of Nitrogen on Grain Yield, Nutritional and Processing Quality of Wheat for Different End Uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xin-kai; GUO Wen-shan; ZHOU Jun-liang; HU Hong; ZHANG Ying; LI Chun-yan; FENG Chao-nian; PENG Yong-xin

    2003-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen on grain yield, nutritional quality and processing quality of wheat for different end uses were studied in Yangzhou from 2000 to 2002. Increasing N application amount and/or the ratio of topdressing N after elongation stage could raise grain yield, protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation, falling number, development time and stability time. To produce strong-gluten and medium-gluten wheat, the suitable ratio of basis : tillering: elongation: booting N fertilizer was 3: 1: 3 : 3 or 5: 1 : 2: 2with 180 - 240 kg N ha-1. To produce weak-gluten wheat, the ratio of basis: tillering: elongation N fertilizer should be 7 : 1: 2 with 180 kg N ha-1 and 240 × 104 ha-1 seedlings.

  9. Effect of induced lodging on grain yield and quality of brewing barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lodging is one of the main factors of constraint to grain yield stability in barley. The objective of this study wasto evaluate the effects of lodging on agronomic and qualitative traits, when induced at different stages of the crop development.The trial was carried out in Victor Graeff, RS, using a randomized complete block design with four replications and 3 factors:year, lodging date and lodging intensity. The analyzed parameters were grain yield (GY, kernel plumpness (KP, germination(G, and score of lodging at harvest (SLH. No significant interaction was observed for GY and G. The effects of inducedlodging at the booting and physiologic maturity stages were distinct for GY, KP and G. Unlike G, the variables GY and KPwere not significantly affected by lodging intensity. Quantitative and qualitative losses in barley can be predicted based onlodging.

  10. Changes in fatty acid content and composition in silage maize during grain filling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Khan, M.A.; Struik, P.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The stage of maturity at harvest has a major effect on the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of forage plants consumed by dairy cows. The present study investigated the dynamics of FA content and composition in stover (leaves and stem) and ears (cob, shank and husks) of two maize g

  11. EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY OF HULLED AND HULLESS SPRING OATS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A field trial was set up in 2014 the growing season at the Bc Institute’s experimental field in Botinec aiming to investigate the effect of four levels of nitrogen fertilization on grain yield, test weight, thousand kernel weight and plant height of eight hulled and two hulless oat genotypes. Significant differences were found out among nitrogen fertilization levels as well as among the eight hulled genotypes for all traits. The interaction genotype × N fertilization was not significant. Sign...

  12. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  13. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaiguo; Xu, Xinpeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000–2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (PFP-N), P (PFP-P) and K (PFP-K) were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (AEN), P (AEP) and K (AEK) were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application) values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R’s nutrient management (right time, right rate, right site

  14. Tillering does not interfere on white oat grain yield response to plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Milton Luiz de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant density is one of the cropping practices that has the largest impact on individual plant growth. This work was conducted to evaluate the response of white oat (Avena sativa cultivars with contrasting tillering patterns to variations in plant density. Two field experiments were carried out in Lages, SC, Brazil, during the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons. A split plot experimental design was used. Four oat cultivars were tested in the main plots: UFRGS 14, UFRGS 18, UPF 16 and UPF 17 using five plant densities split plots: 50, 185, 320, 455 and 550 plants m-2. Five plant samples were taken 25, 34, 48, 58 and 70 days after plant emergence to assess the treatment effects on dry matter partition between main stem and tillers. UFRGS 18 promoted dry matter allocation to tillers whereas UPF 17 directed dry mass mostly to the main stem. Differences in dry mass allocation between the main stem and tillers had no impact on grain yield, UPF 16 presenting the highest values for both growing seasons. The lack of interaction between population density and cultivar and the small effect of plant population on grain yield indicates that the oat tillering ability is not fundamental to define its grain yield.

  15. Impact of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth and yield of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Hafiz Naeem Asghar*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar and Muhammad Arshad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are supportive in the transformation of soil phosphorus (P and are thus an important component of the soil P cycle. These are effective in releasing P both from inorganic and organic pools of total soil P through their respective solubilizing and mineralizing abilities. To evaluate this, five promising strains of PGPR [PS-01 (Burkholderai sp., PS-12 (Bacillus sp., PS-32 (Pseudomonas sp., PS-41 (Flavobacterium sp. and PS-51 (Pseudomonas sp.] capable of solubilization of both organic and inorganic phosphorus as investigated under in vitro conditions were evaluated in a pot trial for their rhizosphere phosphatase activity and mineralization potential of organic P in soil, plant growth and yield at different farmyard manure (FYM levels i.e. 0, 8 and 16 Mg ha-1. These bacterial strains were also monitored for other attributes like chitinase activities and root colonization ability in addition to phosphatase activity, auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity. In response to inoculation with these selected rhizobacteria, significant increases in plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and grain yield were observed which were up to 16, 11, 42, 29 and 33%, respectively, over uninoculated control in the presence of FYM at 16 Mg ha-1. Similarly, there were significant increases in the rhizosphere phosphatase activity, mineralization of organic P and soil available P which were 189, 185 and 62% higher than uninoculated control in the presence of FYM, respectively. The study demonstrated that the use of PGPR having multifaceted beneficial traits would be highly effective for improving growth and yield of crops.

  16. 美国高产优质青贮玉米杂交种的选育%Breeding Maize Hybrids for High Silage Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-wei; 徐国良; 李淑华; XUE Yin-gen; 才卓

    2011-01-01

    总结粮饲兼用型、多叶型和棕色中脉型3种类型青贮玉米杂交种的特点.介绍青贮玉米产量和饲料营养价值的评价指标和方法,比较不同类型的青贮玉米种质资源的饲料营养价值和目前美国市场上最新的青贮玉米杂交种的农艺性状和品质性状.2010年美国德克萨斯州青贮玉米区域参试杂交种生物产量和干物质产量分别达78 210 kg/hm2和27 370 kg/hm2,淀粉含量平均为40.9%,中性洗涤纤维平均36.4%,总可消耗营养平均为75%.%Maize silage is an important source of forage. Superior hybrids should yield well, have high silage quality, and be adapted to local environments. Dual-type hybrids can be used for grain and silage production. They are usually taller and later in maturity and have a higher percentage of tropical germplasm than the typical temperate grain hybrids. Leafy hybrids have 9-12 leaves above the top ear due to a dominant gene(Lfyl). They usually have tall flexible stalks, thinner stalk rinds, wider leaves, soft and white cobs, and softer kernels. Silage-specific brown midrib hybrids have higher silage digestibility. Breeding for brown midrib hybrids takes more efforts because brown midrib trait is recessive and the two parent lines must be homozygous for a particular recessive gene. In 2010, the Texas state silage maize performance tests involved 28 hybrids at Halfway and 33 hybrids at Etter. The top yielding hybrid produced 78 210 kg/ha of silage yield and 27 370 kg/ha of dry matter. Silage quality was assayed with the NIR method. The tested hybrids had, on average based on the dry matter, 40.9% starch, 36.4% NDF, and 75% TDN.

  17. Combining Ability and Parent-Offspring Correlation of Maize (Zea may L.) Grainβ-Carotene Content with a Complete Diallel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; CAO Mo-ju; XIAO Lan-hai; WANG Jing; LU Yan-li; RONG Ting-zhao; PAN Guang-tang; WU Yuan-qi; TANG Qi-lin; LAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has become a worldwide problem. Biofortified foods can potentially be an inexpensive, locally adaptable, and long-term solution to dietary-nutrient deficiency. In order to improve theβ-carotene content in maize grain by breeding and minimize vitamin A deficiency, a complete diallel cross was designed with eight inbred lines of maize, and 64 combinations were obtained in this study. The experimental combinations were planted in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, respectively, with a random complete block design. Theβ-carotene contents in the grains of the experimental materials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the tested materials, the effect difference of general combining ability of theβ-carotene content was significant;however, the effect difference of the special combining ability and the reciprocal effect were not significant. Theβ-carotene content of maize grain was not influenced significantly by the cross and the reciprocal cross. There was a significant correlation about theβ-carotene content in the maize grains between the F1 and their parents. The combinations with high β-carotene content were obviously influenced by the environment, and the mean value ofβ-carotene content for the experimental materials planted in Ya’an of Sichuan was higher than that planted in Yuanjiang of Yunnan, with the results being significant at the 0.01 level.

  18. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  19. Rice Breeding for High Grain Yield under Drought: A Strategic Solution to a Complex Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalabh Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect rice production in rainfed areas. Recent trends in climate change have predicted a further increase in drought intensity, making the development of new drought-tolerant rice cultivars critical to sustain rice production in this ecosystem. The use of grain yield as a selection criterion at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, through proper population development and precise phenotyping techniques, has allowed the development of several high-yielding rice cultivars that have been released in major rainfed rice-growing areas. This strategy has also allowed the identification of several major quantitative trait loci (QTLs that show large effects under drought across environments and genetic backgrounds. These QTLs are being pyramided together to develop drought-tolerant versions of popular drought-susceptible varieties. The near-isogenic lines (NILs developed can replace the popular, high-yielding but drought-susceptible varieties in rainfed areas prone to drought. Additionally, these NILs serve as suitable genetic material for the study of molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying these QTLs. This may provide a better understanding of plant functions responsible for high grain yield under drought and lead to the identification of new traits and genes.

  20. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  1. Response of Winter Wheat Grain Yield and Phosphorus Uptake to Foliar Phosphite Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muaid S. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems that potentially hinders the use of foliar fertilization as a tool to improve nutrient use efficiency is the lack of effective formulations. A phosphite based product, Nutri-phite (3% N, 8.7% P, and 5.8% K was used as model phosphite formulation for foliar application in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Five field trials were established in the fall of 2009 and 2010 at Perkins, Perry, and Morrison, OK. Treatments encompassed the application of nitrogen (N at 100 or 75% of crop need and phosphorus at 100 (P 100% and 80% (P 80% sufficiency with and without Nutri-phite. Nutri-phite was applied at one and/or two stages of wheat; GS 13 to 14 and GS 49 to 53 at the rate of 433 and 148 g ha−1 P and N, respectively. Grain yield was increased by Nutri-phite treatments, especially at Morrison. Grain P concentration of plots treated with two applications of Nutri-phite ranged from 13 to 55% more than the nontreated and standard NP received plots at Perkins in 2009/10 and Perry in 2010/11. Grain P uptake was increased due to application of Nutri-phite at Perkins in 2009/10 and Morrison and Perry in 2010/11. Combined over three year-locations, Nutri-phite increased grain P concentration by 11.6%. The higher grain P concentration of plots treated with Nutri-phite compared to the other treatments clearly demonstrates its potential in improving P status of wheat grain.

  2. 滴施液体肥对甜玉米生长、产量及品质的影响%Effects of Drip Irrigating Liquid Fertilizer on Growth,Yield and Quality of Sweet Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓兰生; 涂攀峰; 叶倩倩; 龚林; 张承林

    2012-01-01

    The effects of drip irrigating liquid fertilizer on growth, yield and quality of sweet maize were studied. The results showed that the biomass, plant height, stem diameter, leaf length and width under the drip irrigating liquid fertilizer treatment were significantly higher than that under conventional irrigation and fertilization treatment. Compared to conventional irrigation and fertilization, drip irrigating liquid fertilizer could obviously enhance the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of sweet maize. In terms of yield and quality of sweet maize, the ear weight, ear length, ear diameter, 100-grain weight, kernel weight per row, yield and sugar content of sweet maize under drip irrigating liquid fertilizer treatment were increased 15. 1%, 2. 1%, 8.5%, 12.3%, 6.8%, 10.0% and 11.7% respectively than that under conventional irrigation and fertilization treatment. In summary, the drip irrigating liquid fertilizer could significantly enhance the growth and accumulation of nutrients for sweet maize, so as to improve the yield and quality of sweet maize.%在滴灌施肥条件下研究液体肥料对甜玉米生长、产量及品质的影响.结果表明,滴施液体肥料处理甜玉米的地上部生物量、株高、茎粗、叶长、叶宽等生长指标明显高于常规灌溉施肥处理;与常规灌溉施肥相比,滴施液体肥可明显提高甜玉米对氮、磷、钾的吸收量;滴施液体肥处理甜玉米的穗重、穗长、穗粗、百粒重、行粒数、产量、糖度分别比常规施肥处理高15.1%、2.1%、8.5%、12.3%、6.8%、10.0%、11.7%.滴灌施用液体肥可明显促进甜玉米的生长,提高养分的累积量,从而提高产量和改善品质.

  3. Effects of Postponing N Application on Wheat Grain Yield, Protein Quality and Fertilizer-N use Efficiency in Low-Yield Field in Jianghan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 to 2010, the effects of postponing N application on wheat grain yield and process quality were studied in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain in wheat. The results were as follows. When the Topdressing fertilizer N (TN was postponed from tilling stage to jointing stage, the biomass and the SPAD value in flag leaf reduced, respectively. And grain yield, protein content in grain and stability time of paste, reduced as a result. When the topdressing fertilizer N was postponed from jointing stage to booting stage, the regularity of above index changed conversely. For the treatments with the same topdressing fertilizer date (jointing stage, the appropriate ratio of Basal dressing fertilizer (BNto topdressing fertilizer was 3:7, with high biomass, high SPAD value in flag leaf, high grain yield and high process quality as a result. The results also indicated that the right stage for more N in organ vegetative to be transferred to grain was jointing stage and the right ratio of BN to TN was 3:7, which was the very basis for high nitrogen fertilizer utilization. Based on the above results, it was suggested that to gain high grain yield and high process quality the appropriate date for topdressing fertilizer N in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain was jointing stage and the ratio of BN to TN was 3:7.

  4. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  5. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    , and decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results......The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...

  6. Measurement method for yield component traits of maize based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的玉米果穗产量组分性状测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金辉; 马钦; 朱德海; 郭浩; 王越; 张晓东; 李绍明; 刘哲

    2015-01-01

    The maize variety test is an important link in the process of crop genetic breeding. The different maize varieties will produce a large number of varieties phenotype data, which need to be collected, collated, recorded, statistically analyzed and stored. Some phenotype data are related to the maize yield, such as bald rate, ear rows, row grains and so on. These maize characters are often collected by the traditional manual measurement at present. For example, the ear rows can be calculated by the maize section image which destroys the maize to be tested .Another measurement method for the ear rows is to rotate and scan the maize, which is very difficult to meet the needs of high throughput maize variety test. Aiming at the above problems, the calculation model according to the color and biological features of maize has been constructed based on the machine vision technology in this paper. The calculation model can compute the maize character parameters precisely, such as bald rate, ear rows, row grains and so on. The experimental results show that the calculation measurement has the high recognition precision and speed. The ear length ,ear diameter ,ear rows ,row grains and other yield components are taken as example for verifying the above calculation model in this paper. The experimental environment settings for image acquisition model are as follows: non wide-angle CMOS pinhole camera (portable, low cast), acquisition environment of soft light and bright place (no special light source set). The camera is 5 million pixels, and the image resolution is 2942 pixels× 1944 pixels. Shoot height is 55 cm, the shooting format is to A3. The algorithm is tested by the PC machine which is configured as a dual core cpu (1.9 GHz) and 2 GB ram. The method presented in this paper can overcome these disadvantages of traditional manual measurement, such as low efficiency, subjective error, and unable to retain the integrity of the original maize material. The method presented in

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Maize Yield and Its Components Under Different Water Treatments at Flowering Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-He Lu; Yi-Rong Zhang; Jing-Rui Dai; Ji-Hua Tang; Jian-Bing Yan; Xi-Qing Ma; Jian-Sheng Li; Shao-Jiang Chen; Jian-Cang Ma; Zhan-Xian Liu; Li-Zhu E

    2006-01-01

    Drought or water stress is a serious agronomic problem resulting in maize (Zea mays L.) yield loss throughout the world. Breeding hybrids with drought tolerance is one important approach for solving this problem. However, lower efficiency and a longer period of breeding hybrids are disadvantages of traditional breeding programs. It is generally recognized that applying molecular marker techniques to traditional breeding programs could improve the efficiency of the breeding of drought-tolerant maize. To provide useful information for use in studies of maize drought tolerance,the mapping and tagging of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield and its components were performed in the present study on the basis of the principle of a mixed linear model. Two hundred and twenty-one recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of Yuyu 22 were grown under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. In the former treatment group, plants were well irrigated, whereas those in the latter treatment group were stressed at flowering time.Ten plants of each genotype were grown in a row that was 3.00 m×0.67 m (length×width). The results show that a few of the QTL were the same (one additive QTL for ear length, two additive QTL and one pair of epistatic QTL for kernel number per row, one additive QTL for kernel weight per plant), whereas most of other QTL were different between the two different water treatment groups. It may be that genetic expression differs under the two different water conditions. Furthermore, differences in the additive and epistatic QTL among the traits under water-stressed conditions indicate that genetic expression also differs from trait to trait.Major and minor QTL were detected for the traits,except for kernel number per row, under water-stressed conditions. Thus, the genetic mechanism of drought tolerance in maize is complex because the additive and epistatic QTL exist at the same time and the major and minor QTL all contribute to phenotype under water

  8. The Influence of Forage Combination Maize Grain – Fodder Beet on Feeding Behaviour Duration for Intensively Farmed Coypu (Nutria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bănăţean-Dunea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the behaviour of one species, with interest in animal husbandry science represent a compulsory necessityfor the development and improvement of the breeding and exploiting technology for this species. The studies oncoypus behaviour are applied in the development of knowledge regarding ethology, coypu breeding technology,animal welfare and, at the moment, this present great importance for animal protection. The biological materialstudied was consisted of adult coypus, belonging to the variety Golden Standard. The supervised indices were:feeding behaviour duration if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet according to gender and time slot, theduration of one feeding sequence according to forage consumed, gender and time slot and the number of feedingsequences according to forage consumed, gender and time slot. For realising the purposed aim, each coypu wasmonitorized (video, individually, 24 hours a day. The duration of feeding behaviour when coypus are fed with maizegrain and fodder beet was 4921.63±472.64 seconds for males (5.69% of the behaviour al manifestations, and forcoypu females, the duration of feeding behaviour was 5450.00±297.94 seconds (6.30% of the behaviour almanifestations. The most intense manifestations of the feeding behaviour occurred in the time slot 08:00-14:00, andthe lowest intensity of the feeding behaviour manifestations occurred in the time slot 02:00-08:00. The average totalnumber of males feeding sequences if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet was 51.63 ± 5.54 sequencesand the average total number of females feeding sequences was 56.38 ± 2.48 sequences.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Yield and Grain Quality Traits in Winter Wheat Genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tadesse

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011-2012 at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W ranged from 13.6-16.1% and 217.6-375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B, wPt4680 (4A, wPt3509 (5A, wPt8183 (6B, and wPt0298 (2D were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA's International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations.

  10. [Effects of tillage mode on water use efficiency and yield of summer maize under different simulated rainfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wen, Xiao-xia; Liao, Yun-cheng

    2013-08-01

    Based on the tillage practices of summer maize and the rainfall pattern in Northwest China, and by using self-made simulated rainfall device, a field experiment was conducted on the effects of plowing, no-tillage, and no-tillage plus mulching on the water use efficiency (WUE) and yield of summer maize under rainfalls 250, 350 and 450 mm from June to September, 2010. Compared with plowing, no-tillage increased the WUE and yield under rainfall 250 mm by 26% and 16.5% and under rainfall 350 mm by 17.6% and 6.1%, respectively. Under rainfall 450 mm, the water storage was smaller in treatment no-tillage than in treatment plowing, and the WUE and yield in treatment no-tillage were 1.1% and 0.6% lower than those in treatment plowing, respectively. No-tillage plus mulching overcame the disadvantage of no-tillage in lesser water-storing under sufficient rainfall than plowing. Under the three rainfalls, no-tillage plus mulching could effectively inhibit the soil evaporation between plants, decrease the invalid water consumption of bare soil, and increase the soil water storage and the rate of evapotranspiration to water consumption. Compared with plowing, no-tillage plus mulching increased the WUE and yield under rainfall 250 mm by 48.6% and 32.9%, under rainfall 350 mm by 51.6% and 27.1%, and under 450 mm rainfall by 23.7% and 13.1%, respectively. In sum, relative to plowing, no-tillage showed its superiority in increasing WUE and yield under rainfalls 250 and 350 mm, whereas no-tillage plus mulching increased the WUE and yield significantly under rainfalls 250 and 450 mm.

  11. Abscisic acid and aldehyde oxidase activity in maize ear leaf and grain relative to post-flowering photosynthetic capacity and grain-filling rate under different water/nitrogen treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shujun; Zhang, Zongzheng; Ning, Tangyuan; Ren, Shizhong; Su, Licheng; Li, Zengjia

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated changes in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and grain ABA concentrations in two maize cultivars and analyzed the following relationships under different water/nitrogen treatments: leaf ABA concentrations and photosynthetic parameters; leaf ABA concentrations and grain ABA concentrations; leaf/grain ABA concentrations and grain-filling parameters; and aldehyde oxidase (AO, EC 1.2.3.1) activities and ABA concentrations. The ear leaf average AO activities and ABA concentrations were lower in the controlled release urea treatments compared with the conventional urea treatments. The average AO activities in the grains were higher in the controlled release urea treatments, and the ABA concentrations were significantly increased at 11-30 DAF. The Pn and ABA concentrations in ear leaves were negatively correlated. And the Gmean were positively correlated with the grain ABA concentrations at 11-30 DAF and negatively correlated with the leaf ABA concentrations at 20 and 40-50 DAF. The grain ABA concentrations and leaf ABA concentrations were positively correlated. Thus, the Gmean were closely related to the AO activities and to the ear leaf and grain ABA concentrations. As compared to other treatments, the subsoiling and controlled release urea treatment promoted the uptake of water and nitrogen by maize, increased the photosynthetic capacity of the ear leaves, increased the grain-filling rate, and improved the movement of photosynthetic assimilates toward the developing grains. In the cultivar Z958, higher ABA concentrations in grains at 11-30 DAF and lower ABA concentrations in ear leaves during the late grain-filling stage, resulted in higher grain-filling rate and increased accumulation of photosynthetic products (relative to the cultivar D3).

  12. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar; Vergara-Diaz; Shawn; C.Kefauver; Abdelhalim; Elazab; Maria; Teresa; Nieto-Taladriz; José; Luis; Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen(Warrior/Ambition),against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red,Green, Blue(RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity.RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust(R2= 0.581 and R2= 0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI(R2= 0.118 and R2= 0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  13. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Vergara-Diaz; Shawn C. Kefauver; Abdelhalim Elazab; Maria Teresa Nieto-Taladriz; José Luis Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition), against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2=0.581 and R2=0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2=0.118 and R2=0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7%of the yield losses.

  14. [Effects of rotational tillage during summer fallow on wheat field soil water regime and grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xian-qing; Wang, Wei; Han, Qing-fang; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Yan, Bo; Li, Yong-ping; Su, Qin

    2011-10-01

    In 2007-2010, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different rotational tillage practices during summer follow on the soil water regime and grain yield in a winter wheat field in Southern Ningxia arid area. Three treatments were installed, i.e., T1 (no-tillage in first year, subsoiling in second year, and no-tillage in third year), T2 (subsoiling in first year, notillage in second year, and subsoiling in third year), and CT (conventional tillage in the 3 years). Through the three years of the tillage practices, the soil water storage efficiency in treatments T1 and T2 was increased averagely by 15.2% and 26.5%, respectively, as compared to CT. In treatments T1 and T2, the potential rainfall use rate was higher, being 37.8% and 38.5%, respectively, and the rainfall use efficiency was increased averagely by 9.9% and 10.7%, respectively, as compared to CT. Rotational tillage during summer fallow could decrease the soil ineffective evaporation significantly, and save the soil water effectively in wheat growth season. At early growth stage, the water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in treatments T1 and T2 was increased averagely by 6.8% and 9. 4%, as compared to CT; at jointing, heading, and filling stages, the water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in treatments T1 and T2 had a significant increase, giving greater contribution to the wheat yield than the control. Different rotational tillage practices increased the water consumption by wheat, but in the meantime, increased the grain yield and water use efficiency. In treatments T1 and T2, the water consumption by wheat through the three years was increased averagely by 5.2% and 6.1%, whereas the grain yield and the water use efficiency were increased averagely by 9.9% and 10.6%, and by 4.5% and 4.3%, respectively, as compared to CT. Correlation analysis showed that in Southern Ningxia arid area, the soil water storage at sowing, jointing, heading, and filling stages, especially at heading stage, could

  15. 生态因子对玉米产量构成因素的调控作用%Studies on Regulating Effects of Ecological Factors on the Yield- related traits in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓华

    2000-01-01

    Regulating effects of ecological factors such as planting density, fertilizer, water and photointensity on the yield - related traits in Maize were studied by the methods of combination of field - growth with por - growth. The results are as follows: raising density can cause the decrease of chlorophyll content, leaf area and dry weight per plant. The effects of density and the interaction of density with fertilizer on the grain number per ear reached high significant levels(F = 55.08 * *, F = 70.30 * * ).The effect of P fertilizer is less than that of density(F = 7.33 * ). Grain weight and grain number per ear was reduced 44.66 % and 52.32 % under drought from silking to 6 days after silking respectivily. Abortive grains were increased 443.85% and 100 - grain weight was decreased 21.81% from 12 to 17 days after silking. Photointensity on ear position and low leaf layer were correlated and regressed significantly to grain traits.

  16. Screening survey of co-production of fusaric acid, fusarin C, and fumonisins B₁, B₂ and B₃ by Fusarium strains grown in maize grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z; Tangni, E K; Huybrechts, B; Munaut, F; Scauflaire, J; Wu, A; Callebaut, A

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium species isolated from Belgian maize were screened for their ability to produce fusarin C, fusaric acid, fumonisins B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 in maize grains. First, cultivation of Fusarium species in Myro liquid medium allowed overcoming the shortage of the standard of fusarin C on the market. All Fusarium verticillioides produced much higher contents of mycotoxins in Myro compared to Fusarium graminearum or Fusarium venenatum. The optimization of the LC-MS/MS method resulted in low limits of detection and quantification for fusarin C, fusaric acid, FB1, FB2 and FB3 determination in maize grains. Its application for screening the potential toxin production ability evidenced that the concentrations of the analytes were significantly increased at various levels when F. verticillioides strains were cultivated in maize grains and reached 441 mg kg(-1) for fusaric acid, 74 mg kg(-1) for fusarin C, 1,301 mg kg(-1) for FB1, 367 mg kg(-1) for FB2 and 753 mg kg(-1) for FB3.

  17. Corn residue stocking rate affects cattle performance but not subsequent grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, L A; Blanco-Canqui, H; Gigax, J A; McGee, A L; Shaver, T M; van Donk, S J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated effects of stocking rate on cattle performance, quality and quantity of corn residue, and impact of residue removal on grain yield for 5 yr at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln West Central Water Resources Field Laboratory near Brule, NE. Four removal treatments-1) no removal (control), 2) grazing at 2.5 animal unit month (AUM)/ha, 3) grazing at 5.0 AUM/ha, and 4) baling-were applied to a center pivot-irrigated corn field (53 ha). The field was divided into eight 6.6-ha paddocks to which replicated treatments were assigned. Samples of residue were collected in October and March (before and after residue removal) using ten 0.5-m quadrats per treatment replication. Residue was separated into 5 plant parts-stem, cob, leaf, husk, and grain-and analyzed for nutrient content. Esophageally fistulated cattle were used to measure diet quality. Cattle assigned to the 2.5 AUM/ha stocking rate treatment gained more BW ( BCS ( cattle assigned to the 5.0 AUM/ha treatment. Leaf contained the most ( 0.69) between sampling dates. Amount of total residue was reduced ( 0.05) in control paddocks between sampling dates. As a proportion of the total residue, stem increased ( < 0.01) and husk decreased ( < 0.01) between October and March. Diet CP content was similar ( = 0.10) between sampling dates for the 2 grazing treatments but IVOMD was greater after grazing in the 2.5 AUM/ha grazing treatment ( = 0.04). Subsequent grain yields were not different ( = 0.16) across all 4 residue removal treatments. At the proper stocking rate, corn residue grazing results in acceptable animal performance without negatively impacting subsequent corn grain production.

  18. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  19. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mohammadi; Ezatollah Farshadfar; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Clustering genotype × environment (GE) interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis (cluster and ordination techniques) was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) genotypes (breeding lines and old and new cultivars) along with a popular bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation, accounting for 81.2%of the total sum of squares (TSS), and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance. Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters (cold and warm), and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  20. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mohammadi; Ezatollah Farshadfar; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Clustering genotype × environment(GE) interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis(cluster and ordination techniques) was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat(Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) genotypes(breeding lines and old and new cultivars) along with a popular bread wheat(Triticum aestivum) cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation,accounting for 81.2% of the total sum of squares(TSS), and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance.Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters(cold and warm), and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  1. EFFECT OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA ON GRAIN YIELD AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOODED IRRIGATED RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAURI NELSON BEUTLER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Azospirillum brasilense , a nitrogen - fixing bacterium, on flooded irrigated rice yield. Evaluations were carried out in a shaded nursery, with seedlings grown on an Alfisol. Were performed two sets of experiments. In the first, were carried out four experiments using the flooded rice cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424; these trials were set up as completely randomized design in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha - 1 and four levels of liquid inoculant Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the manufacturer's recommendation without seed treatment. In second set, were performed two experiments using the cultivars Puitá Inta - CL and Br Irga 409, arranged in the same design, but using a 4x2 factorial. In this set, treatments were composed of four levels of Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense liquid inoculant (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the recommendation of 100 mL ha - 1 , using rice seeds with and without insecticide and fungicide treatment. Shoot dry matter, number of panicles, and rice grain yield per pot were the assessed variables. The results showed that rice seed inoculation with A. brasilense had no effects on rice grain yield of the cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424.

  2. Study of the maize and cassava farming and storage systems in central Togo with reference to the impact of the larger grain borer

    OpenAIRE

    Stabrawa, Anna

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the results of a socio-economic survey of the maize/cassava farming and storage system in central Toga, and the impact of the Larger Grain Borer (LGB), Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) on that system. The report characterises the maize and cassava farming, storage and marketing systems and examines the impact of LGB. A further 3 month study scheduled for March-May 1992 will assess the cost-effectiveness of proposed control methods, carry out additional informal surveys and e...

  3. Biomass yield development of early, medium and late Maize varieties under a future climate in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degener, J. F.; Kappas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Lower Saxony, with a total land area of about 46 500 km2, constitutes one of the most important agricultural areas in Germany and thus within Europe. Roughly one third of its agricultural area is used for maize cultivation and as of today only few information exist on how a future changing climate will affect its local growing conditions. Thus the newly developed carbon-based crop model BioSTAR and a high-resolution regional climate data-set (Wettreg) were used to evaluate the change in biomass yields of an early, medium and late maize variety. The climate input data is based on the SRES A1B scenario, with a potential fertilization effect or better still, an increased water use efficiency due to rising CO2 levels, taken into account. The biomass yield for all varieties was calculated for each year from 2001 until 2099 on a total of 91 014 sites. The results suggest clearly differentiated development paths of all varieties. All three show a significant positive trend until the end of the century. However the medium variety shows a statistical significant decline of 5% during the first 30 years and only a slight recovery towards +5% around the century's end. The late variety has the clearest and strongest positive trend, with partially more than 30% increase of biomass yields around the end of the century or +25% mean increase in the last three decades. The early variety can be seen as in-between, with no negative but also not an as strong positive development path. All varieties have their strongest increase in yields after the mid of the 21st century. Statistical evaluation of these results suggests that the shift from a summer rain to a winter rain climate in Germany will be the main limiting factor for all varieties. In addition summer temperatures will become less optimal for all maize crops. Only if the plants can supply themselves sufficiently with water outside of the increasingly dry summer months, when also temperatures are much more favorable, an increase

  4. Biomass yield development of early, medium and late Maize varieties under a future climate in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Degener

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower Saxony, with a total land area of about 46 500 km2, constitutes one of the most important agricultural areas in Germany and thus within Europe. Roughly one third of its agricultural area is used for maize cultivation and as of today only few information exist on how a future changing climate will affect its local growing conditions. Thus the newly developed carbon-based crop model BioSTAR and a high-resolution regional climate data-set (Wettreg were used to evaluate the change in biomass yields of an early, medium and late maize variety. The climate input data is based on the SRES A1B scenario, with a potential fertilization effect or better still, an increased water use efficiency due to rising CO2 levels, taken into account. The biomass yield for all varieties was calculated for each year from 2001 until 2099 on a total of 91 014 sites. The results suggest clearly differentiated development paths of all varieties. All three show a significant positive trend until the end of the century. However the medium variety shows a statistical significant decline of 5% during the first 30 years and only a slight recovery towards +5% around the century's end. The late variety has the clearest and strongest positive trend, with partially more than 30% increase of biomass yields around the end of the century or +25% mean increase in the last three decades. The early variety can be seen as in-between, with no negative but also not an as strong positive development path. All varieties have their strongest increase in yields after the mid of the 21st century. Statistical evaluation of these results suggests that the shift from a summer rain to a winter rain climate in Germany will be the main limiting factor for all varieties. In addition summer temperatures will become less optimal for all maize crops. Only if the plants can supply themselves sufficiently with water outside of the increasingly dry summer months, when also temperatures are much more

  5. Evaluation of maize grain and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) as energy sources for breeding rams based on hormonal, sperm functional parameters and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, Sellappan; Raju, Priyadarshini; Rao, Somu Bala Nageswara; Raghavendra, Subbarao; Nandi, Sumantha; Dineshkumar, Dhanasekaran; Thayakumar, Allen; Parthipan, Shivashanmugam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of different sources of dietary energy (maize vs polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on semen functional parameters and fertility of adult rams. Eighteen adult rams were divided into two groups (maize and PUFA, n=9). The main energy source for the rams in the maize group was coarsely ground maize grain, whereas in the PUFA group it was sunflower oil (rich in 18:2 linoleic acid, an omega-6 acid). The ration was fed for a minimum period of 60 days and thereafter semen was collected for evaluation. The proportion of progressive forward motility was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. Sperm lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde formation (µM per 1×10(9) spermatozoa) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. When the semen was diluted with Tris-egg yolk-citrate buffer and incubated for 24h at 4°C, the proportions of plasmalemma integrity, the sperm subpopulation positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities, and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly (P<0.05) higher in PUFA-fed than in maize-fed animals. The different sources of energy did not influence the serum and seminal plasma IGF-I levels. The cleavage rate (percentage) did not differ significantly between PUFA- (45.4±4.91) and maize- (44.63±6.8) fed animals. In conclusion, PUFA feeding influenced sperm quality by altering or stabilising membrane integrity. The present study indicates that PUFA may improve semen quality but did not improve in vitro fertilisation.

  6. Effect of Volfertile Controlled-Release Fertilizer on Maize Yield and Its Components%沃夫特控释肥用量对玉米产量及其构成因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珍珍; 鲁欣欣; 杨锦忠; 李凤涛; 苑兆鲁

    2014-01-01

    通过3年大田小区试验,研究了单粒播种条件下沃夫特控释肥不同用量对玉米产量及其构成因素的影响。结果表明,施用控释肥能显著提高单位面积穗数、穗粒数和千粒重,显著提高玉米产量;适宜施肥量为682 kg/hm2左右。%Through 3-year plot experiments in field , the effects of different application rate of Volfertile controlled-release fertilizer on yield and its components of maize were studied under monoseeding conditions . The results showed that the application of controlled -release fertilizer increased the spikes per unit area , grain number of per spike and 1 000-grain weight , so the maize yield was increased , too;the suitable appli-cation rate of controlled-release fertilizer was about 682 kg/hm2 .

  7. Impacts of industrial waste resources on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield, nutrients uptake and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satnam; Young, Li-Sen; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-10-01

    Discharging untreated highly acidic (pH10.0) paper-mill wastewater (PW) causes environmental pollution. When acidity of MW neutralized (pH 6.5±0.1) with PW and lime (treatments represented as MW+PW and MW+Lime), then MW may be utilized as a potential source of nutrients and organic carbon for sustainable food production. Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of PW and lime neutralized MW and chemical fertilizers on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Snow Jean) plant growth, yield, nutrients uptake, soil organic matter and humic substances. The field experiment was carried out on maize using MW at 6000 L ha(-1). Impacts of the MW application on maize crop and soil properties were evaluated at different stages. At harvest, plant height, and plant N and K uptake were higher in MW treatment. Leaf area index at 60 days after sowing, plant dry matter accumulation at harvest, and kernels ear(-1) and 100-kernel weight were higher in MW+Lime treatment. Kernel N, P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn, and plant Zn uptake were highest in MW+Lime. Plant Fe uptake, and soil organic matter and humic substances were highest in MW+PW. The MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments exhibited comparable results with chemically fertilized treatment. The MW acidity neutralized with lime showed positive impacts on growth, yield and nutrients uptake; nevertheless, when MW pH neutralized with PW has an additional benefit on increase in soil organic matter and humic substances.

  8. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 2nd communication: glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, H; Aulrich, K; Daenicke, R; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    To analyse substantial equivalence of genetically modified sugar-beets and maize, in which the glufosinate-tolerant (Pat) gene is inserted, crude nutrients, the amino acid and the fatty acid profiles as well as the composition of the NDF-fraction of maize grains were determined and compared with those of the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Due to the genetic manipulation differences in crude nutrient contents including sugar and starch were not detected. The amino acid profile of maize grains was analysed to be the same. Fatty acid profile and composition of cell wall constituents did not show any influences as well. Digestibility of Pat-sugar-beets and maize grains for pigs did not demonstrate meaningful differences as compared to the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Digestibility of sugar-beet roots and sugar-beet top silage for ruminants proved to be also in the scope of natural variance. As the digestibility of the macro nutrients remained unaffected, the Pat-gene introduction into both crops did not show an influence on the energetic feeding value. For pigs the ME-content of Pat-sugar-beets was determined to be 14.1 MJ/kg DM versus 13.7 MJ of the non-transgenic cultivars. ME-content of Pat-maize grains was 16.0 MJ/kg DM versus 15.8 MJ for controls. For ruminants the feeding value of Pat-sugar-beets was found to be 8.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 13.2 MJ ME/kg DM, regardless of whether the Pat-gene was inserted or not. The corresponding energy values of sugar-beet top silage ranged between 5.2 and 5.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 8.6 and 9.1 MJ ME/kg DM, with differences considered in the biological range.

  9. Fine mapping of a major QTL for grain yield on chromosome 3B of durum wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Graziani, Marta

    2012-01-01

    In durum wheat, two major QTL for grain yield (Qyld.idw-2B and Qyld.idw-3B) and related traits were identified in a recombinant population derived from Kofa and Svevo (Maccaferri et al. 2008). To further investigate the genetic and physiological basis of allelic variation for this important trait, the fine mapping of Qyld.idw-2B e Qyld.idw-3B was done during the PhD. In this regard, new molecular markers were added to increase the map resolution in the target interval. For Qyld.idw-2B ...

  10. 不同耕作方式对土壤物理性状及玉米产量的影响%Effects of Different Cultivation Methods on the Soil Physical Properties and Yield of Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕巨智; 程伟东; 钟昌松; 范继征; 石达金; 刘永红; 闫飞燕

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to identify the best cultivation method of maize and provide references for enhancing yield of maize cultivars. To study the effects of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and yield with different growing stages, a field experiment was conducted with randomized block design. The effects of different tillage methods on soil moisture content, bulk density, porosity in 0-45 cm soil depth varied with different growing stages. Among all the 6 tillage methods, the effect of 25-35 cm subsoiling depth on those physical properties mentioned above was the most obvious. In addition, after the subsoiling treatment, maize yield components, such as corn ear length, ear diameter, barren-tip length, number of rows per ear, kernels per row and 100-grain weight were improved at different degrees compared with CK. The maize yield with subsoiling treatment was 0.06%-3.13%higher than CK, but not significantly. Subsoiling could increase soil moisture, decrease soil bulk density, increase the porosity, function as water conservation and increase maize yield. Among them, the combination of 35 cm subsoiling depth and rotary tillage was the most optimal.%为寻求最佳耕作方式、提高玉米品种产量提供理论依据,采用随机区组设计,研究6种不同耕作方式对土壤物理性状和玉米产量的影响。不同耕作方式对不同生育时期0~45 cm土壤的含水量、容重、孔隙度影响各不同,在不同耕作方式中以深松25~35 cm效果最为明显;深松处理的玉米穗长、穗粗、秃尖长、穗行数、行粒数、百粒重等产量构成因素均较对照有不同程度的改善;深松处理比对照玉米增产0.06%~3.13%,但是增产幅度不是很明显。深松处理可以提高土壤含水量,降低容重,增加孔隙度,起到蓄水保墒作用。以深松25~35 cm为最优组合。

  11. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and irrigation on photosynthetic parameters and yield of maize in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanchao Meng

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2] and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 µmol·mol(-1, and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5-9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs and transpiration rate (Tr decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax and light saturation points (LSP were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China.

  12. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF MAIZE IN MIXTURE WITH CLIMBING BEAN IN ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Bavec, Franc; Živec, Urška; Grobelnik Mlakar, Silva; Bavec , Martina; Radics , Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    Intercropped crops represent an important production system in organic farming, especially maize/climbing bean mixture due to its high content of protein in bean seeds for human diet, and producing silage for ruminants. To test this hypothesis, the effects of maize (Zea mays L.) sown as a sole crop and maize/climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Cipro) mixtures on maize plant height, maize leaf area index, bean leaf area index and grain yield were investigated in field experiments on an o...

  13. Relation Between Maize Yield and Eco-climate Factors%玉米产量与生态气候因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雅丽; 王志伟; 栾青; 胡良温; 张爱芝

    2009-01-01

    By using the integral regression analysis method, the relationship between maize yield and eco-climate factors during 1971 and 2000 in Shanxi Province was analyzed. The result showed that the impacts of temperature and precipitation on maize yield per unit were bigger than that of the sunshine, while the eco-climate had bigger impacts on maize yields in the North Shanxi Province than that in the Middle and South Shanxi Province. For the spring maize, the precipitation had positive impacts on maize yields during seeding period, while the temperature and precipitation had positive impacts on maize yields during jointing and heading stage. The sunshine hours were more than maize needs, and had negative impacts on maize yields in the whole stage of maize. The abundand radiation resource showed a great potential for solar energy utilization of maize production in Shanxi Province. For summer maize, the temperature had negative impacts on maize yields during heading and flowering stage, while the precipitation had negative impacts on maize yields in Yuncheng during jointing and ripening stage, especially cloudy and rainy weather in ripening stage. The study revealed that the impact of ecological climatic factors on maize growing in the different growth stages, and could provide scientific references for making full use of eco-climatic resources in Shanxi Province.%采用多元积分回归的方法,对山西省1971-2000年玉米产量与生态气候因子的关系进行分析研究.结果表明:气温和降水对玉米产量的影响大,日照影响小,北部影响大,中南部影响小.春玉米播种期和苗期降水影响大多为正效应,拔节-抽雄期气温和降水影响为显著正效应,日照时数在全生育期普遍偏多,影响多为负效应,光能资源丰富,光能利用潜力大.夏玉米拔节-开花期气温影响为显著负效应,运城地区降水在拔节-成熟期为负效应,尤其成熟期阴雨天气对产量影响较大.研究结果揭示

  14. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta Silva; Saglam, Didem; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Reynolds, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain filling, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68% of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could still improve GY in a wide range of environments. However, in Iranian sites, taller genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain filling. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection.

  15. Spatial-temporal Variation Characteristics of Grain Yield per Unit Area and its Balanced Increasing Potential in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide assistance decision for grain yield in China, which can provide basis for reasonable layout of grain production project. Based on the statistical data of 2301 counties in China, using spatial autocorrelation analysis method, spatial changes of grain yield per unit area at county level in China during 1990-2010 were discussed and then the increase potential of grain yield per hectare and total yield at regional scale were calculated. The results showed that: (1 Grain yield per unit area at county level showed the evident pattern “High in the northern while low in the southern” and “High in the eastern and western while low in the middle”; The average grain yield per hectare increased by 1040.74 kg/hm2 during 1990-2010 and the increment of grain yield per unit area descended from North to South at county level. (2 Grain yield per unit area at county level in China had a strong spatial autocorrelation. The counties with "High-High" and "Low-Low" correlation were the majority. Counties with significant "High-High" correlation in 2010 were mostly located in plain area, while counties with significant "Low-Low" correlation were mainly distributed in Hengduan Mountainous Area, Inner Mongolia steppe Area, etc. (3 Two thousand three hundred and one counties were divided into 41 first-grade regions and 115 sec-grade regions according to the coupled conditions of cultivation system regionalization and LISA cluster map. The total potential output of China was 1.77×108 tons.

  16. Influence of High Temperature Stress on Net Photosynthesis, Dry Matter Partitioning and Rice Grain Yield at Flowering and Grain Filling Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L Guo-hua; WU Yong-feng; BAI Wen-bo; MA Bao; WANG Chun-yan; SONG Ji-qing

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is recognized to increase the frequency and severity of extreme temperature events. At flowering and grain filling stages, risk of high temperature stress (HTS) on rice might increase, and lead to declining grain yields. A regulated cabinet experiment was carried out to investigate effects of high temperature stress on rice growth at flowering and grain-filling stages. Results showed that no obvious decrease pattern in net photosynthesis appeared along with the temperature rising, but the dry matter allocation in leaf, leaf sheath, culm, and panicle all changed. Dry weight of panicle decreased, and ratio of straw to total above ground crop dry weight increased 6-34%from CK, which might have great effects on carbon cycling and green house gas emission. Grain yield decreased significantly across all treatments on average from 15 to 73%. Occurrence of HTS at flowering stage showed more serious influence on grain yield than at grain filling stage. High temperature stress showed negative effects on harvest index. It might be helpful to provide valuable information for crop simulation models to capture the effects of high temperature stress on rice, and evaluate the high temperature risk.

  17. Soil Texture and Cultivar Effects on Rice (Oryza sativa, L.) Grain Yield, Yield Components and Water Productivity in Three Water Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fugen; Soriano, Junel; Tabien, Rodante E; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water regime/soil condition (continuous flooding, saturated, and aerobic), cultivar ('Cocodrie' and 'Rondo'), and soil texture (clay and sandy loam) on rice grain yield, yield components and water productivity using a greenhouse trial. Rice grain yield was significantly affected by soil texture and the interaction between water regime and cultivar. Significantly higher yield was obtained in continuous flooding than in aerobic and saturated soil conditions but the latter treatments were comparable to each other. For Rondo, its grain yield has decreased with soil water regimes in the order of continuous flooding, saturated and aerobic treatments. The rice grain yield in clay soil was 46% higher than in sandy loam soil averaged across cultivar and water regime. Compared to aerobic condition, saturated and continuous flooding treatments had greater panicle numbers. In addition, panicle number in clay soil was 25% higher than in sandy loam soil. The spikelet number of Cocodrie was 29% greater than that of Rondo, indicating that rice cultivar had greater effect on spikelet number than soil type and water management. Water productivity was significantly affected by the interaction of water regime and cultivar. Compared to sandy loam soil, clay soil was 25% higher in water productivity. Our results indicated that cultivar selection and soil texture are important factors in deciding what water management option to practice.

  18. Soil Texture and Cultivar Effects on Rice (Oryza sativa, L. Grain Yield, Yield Components and Water Productivity in Three Water Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugen Dou

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water regime/soil condition (continuous flooding, saturated, and aerobic, cultivar ('Cocodrie' and 'Rondo', and soil texture (clay and sandy loam on rice grain yield, yield components and water productivity using a greenhouse trial. Rice grain yield was significantly affected by soil texture and the interaction between water regime and cultivar. Significantly higher yield was obtained in continuous flooding than in aerobic and saturated soil conditions but the latter treatments were comparable to each other. For Rondo, its grain yield has decreased with soil water regimes in the order of continuous flooding, saturated and aerobic treatments. The rice grain yield in clay soil was 46% higher than in sandy loam soil averaged across cultivar and water regime. Compared to aerobic condition, saturated and continuous flooding treatments had greater panicle numbers. In addition, panicle number in clay soil was 25% higher than in sandy loam soil. The spikelet number of Cocodrie was 29% greater than that of Rondo, indicating that rice cultivar had greater effect on spikelet number than soil type and water management. Water productivity was significantly affected by the interaction of water regime and cultivar. Compared to sandy loam soil, clay soil was 25% higher in water productivity. Our results indicated that cultivar selection and soil texture are important factors in deciding what water management option to practice.

  19. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...... assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency resulting in higher grain yields and proper grain protein content in malting barley....

  20. Genotypic diversity in the responses of yield and yield components to elevated ozone of diverse inbred and hybrid maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O3]), an important air pollutant, are phytotoxic and detrimental to crop yield causing significant losses of ~14-26 billion in 4 of the world’s major crops. Until recent years, it was believed that agricultural and economically important C4 plants, such as...

  1. Grain yield of coffee conilon different maturity groups by REML / BLUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Machado de Oliveira Moulin Carias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate the grain yield clones coffee Conilon three maturity groups by REML / BLUP. We studied 20 clones of coffee Conilon early ripening, maturation 20 intermediate and 20 late maturing for the characteristic grain yield. For each group, represented by different times of ripening of fruits installed an experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications, plots with five plants spaced 3.0 m X 1.2 m with 2777 plantas/ha-1e evaluations were made in the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, during harvest, conducted and ceded by the Institute Capixaba Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension (Incaper. The average heritability (0.28, 0.38 and the value of accuracy (0.68, 0.69 of clone selection were higher for the group of early and intermediate maturity, respectively. In the late group, the experimental accuracy was not satisfactory and therefore, a low accuracy in inference about the mean genotypic, reflecting the difficulty of selection. Clones 14 and 17 of the early group and 20, 14 and 17 of the intermediate group occupied the first places in the middle of the feature and productivity were also allocated in the same positions for MHVG (Genetic Stability of Values, PRVG (Adaptability of Genetic Values and MHPRVG (Stability and Adaptability of Genetic Values, indicating a high yield, stability and adaptability to variations in four crops for these genotypes. The interaction clones x crops was significant for the three maturity groups, characterizing a complex type of interaction, which is problematic for the breeder due to inconsistency of the superiority of clones against variations of crops. The combined results showed superiority of the group over the intermediate early and late.

  2. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI and performance (PI indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves

  3. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L. ) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos,Eastern Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped “replacement” agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area “lost” to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  4. Estimation of heterosis for grain yield and quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays var. sacharata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Dagla, R. N. Gadag, O. P. Sharma, Narendra Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to estimate heterosis for yield and biochemical quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays var. sacharata crosses. Forty five hybrids using diallel mating design excluding reciprocals were generated. These hybrids along with their ten parents and one standard check (Madhuri were grown at IARI, New Delhi during kharif-2008 in randomized block design (RBD. Estimation of heterosis over standard check (HSC ‘Madhuri’, mid-parent (HMP, and better parent (HBP was calculated. The significant heterosis over standard check for grain yield was found in five crosses, and for sugar content in twelve crosses out of forty five. The HMP for grain yield was found in eighteen crosses and for sugar content in nine crosses. The HMP for grain yield and sugar content was found in IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136, and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142. One cross IPSA-6137 × IPSA-6139 showed HMP for protein content and grain yield. One cross IPSA-6136 × IPSA-6139 showed HMP for sugar content and protein content. The HBP was observed in IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136, IPSA-6136 × IPSA-6139, IPSA-6138 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6139 × IPSA-6140 and IPSA-6140 × IPSA-6141 for sugar content and IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6137, IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6142, IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6139, IPSA-6140 × IPSA-6142, and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142 for grain yield. Two crosses IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136 and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142 have the HBP for grain yield and sugar content. One cross IPSA 6137 × IPSA 6139 showed the HBP for protein and grain yield.

  5. Evaluation of genotype x environment interactions in maize hybrids using GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Aykut Tonk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen hybrid maize genotypes were evaluated at four different locations in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasonsunder irrigated conditions in Turkey. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E, genotypes (G andGE interactions (GEI were highly significant and accounted for 74, 7 and 19 % of treatment combination sum squares, respectively.To determine the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to the GGE biplot analysis. Maize hybrid G16 can be proposedas reliably growing in test locations for high grain yield. Also, only the Yenisehir location could be best representative of overalllocations for deciding about which experimental hybrids can be recommended for grain yield in this study. Consequently, using ofgrain yield per plant instead of grain yield per plot in hybrid maize breeding programs could be preferred by private companies dueto some advantages.

  6. Effect of planting density on root lodging resistance and its relationship to nodal root growth characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shengqun; Song, Fengbin; Liu, Fulai;

    2012-01-01

    Increase of planting density has been widely used to increase grain yield in maize. However, it may lead to higher risk of root lodging hence causing significant yield loss of the crop. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of planting density on maize nodal root growth...

  7. Effect of N Fertilization on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat and Apparent N Losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhen-Ling; CHEN Xin-Ping; LI Jun-Liang; XU Jiu-Fei; SHI Li-Wei; ZHANG Fu-Suo

    2006-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to winter wheat is a common problem on the North China Plain. To determine the optimum fertilizer N rate for winter wheat production while minimizing N losses, field experiments were conducted for two growing seasons at eight sites, in Huimin County, Shandong Province, from 2001 to 2003. The optimum N rate for maximum grain yield was inversely related to the initial soil mineral N content (Nmin) in the top 90 cm of the soil profile before sowing. There was no yield response to the applied N at the three sites with high initial soil mineral N levels (average 212 kg N ha-1). The average optimum N rate was 96 kg N ha-1 for the five sites with low initial soil Nmin (average 155 kg N ha-1) before sowing. Residual nitrate N in the top 90 cm of the soil profile after harvest increased with increasing fertilizer N application rate. The apparent N losses during the wheat-growing season also increased with increasing N application rate. The average apparent N losses with the optimum N rates were less than 15 kg N ha-1,whereas the farmers' conventional N application rate resulted in losses of more than 100 kg N ha-1. Therefore, optimizing N use for winter wheat considerably reduced N losses to the environment without compromising crop yields.

  8. Analysis of the stability for yield in maize (Zea mays hybrids in the central Ecuadorian Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vera Aviles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the stability of commercial and experimental maize hybrids in the Central Ecuadorian Coastal Region. During a period from december 2010 to april 2011 uniform trials of yield in four locations with contrasting environments were evaluated. The genetic material was constituted by five experimental hybrids and three commercial. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks design with four replications; the experimental plots were two rows with a length of 5.0 m separated to 0.90 meters. The combined analysis of variance proposed by Eberhart and Russel was statistical significance as well as for genotype and for interaction. The average yield showed that between experimental hybrids two, (SM45 x SSD08SV39 and (SM45 x SV15SV39, were highlighted with averages higher than 7.0 t ha-1 whilst AG-003 was the highlighted commercial hybrid with a yield of 7.48 t ha-1. The best yields and environmental indexes were registered in the locations of Quevedo and Vinces, the lowest environmental indexes were for Balzar and Ventanas. In relation to the tendency of response of the outstanding genotypes in the four evaluation environments, it was particularly observed that genotypes are desirable by virtue of the outstanding results in both favorable and unfavorable environments.

  9. Regional crop modelling in Europe: The impact of climate conditions and farm characteristics on maize yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Boogaard, H.; Diepen, van K.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of climate variability and climate change on regional crop yields are commonly assessed using process-based crop models. These models, however, simulate potential and water limited yields, which do not always relate to observed yields. The latter are largely influenced by crop management, wh

  10. Mixed Compound of DCPTA and CCC Increases Maize Yield by Improving Plant Morphology and Up-Regulating Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Wang

    Full Text Available DCPTA (2-diethylaminoethyl-3, 4-dichlorophenylether and CCC (2-chloroethyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride have a great effect on maize growth, but applying DCPTA individually can promote the increase of plant height, resulting in the rise of lodging percent. Plant height and lodging percent decrease in CCC-treated plants, but the accumulation of biomass reduce, resulting in yield decrease. Based on the former experiments, the performance of a mixture which contained 40 mg DCPTA and 20 mg CCC as active ingredients per liter of solution, called PCH was tested with applying 40mg/L DCPTA and 20mg/L CCC individually. Grain yield, yield components, internode characters, leaf area per plant, plant height and lodging percent as well as chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymatic antioxidants, membranous peroxide and organic osmolyte were analyzed in two years (2011 and 2012, using maize hybrid, Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958 at density of 6.75 plants m-2. CCC, DCPTA and PCH were sprayed on the whole plant leaves at 7 expanded leaves stage and water was used as control. Compared to control, PCH significantly increased grain yield (by 9.53% and 6.68% from 2011 to 2012. CCC significantly decreased kernel number per ear (by 6.78% and 5.69% and thousand kernel weight (TKW (by 8.57% and 6.55% from 2011 to 2012. Kernel number per ear and TKW increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants, but showed no significant difference between them. In CCC-treated and PCH-treated plants, internode length and plant height decreased, internode diameter increased, resulting in the significant decline of lodging percent. With DCPTA application, internode diameter increased, but internode length and plant height increased at the same time, resulting in the augment of lodging percent. Bending strength and puncture strength were increased by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs. In PCH-treated plants, bending strength and puncture strength were greater than other

  11. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E; Newman, John W; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch.

  12. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange França

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF, a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após a emergência (DAE em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M, aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C e ervilhaca/milho (E/M e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1 aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C. Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1. Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE, o maior IAF (4,41 e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%, enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE. O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1.This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI, shoot dry matter (SDM production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and

  13. Genetic enhancement for grain yield in chickpea – accomplishments and resetting research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Chaturvedi and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., commonly known as ‘gram’ is one of the major pulse crops of India covering 7.97 m ha areaproducing 7.06 m t of the grains and registering all time productivity of 885 kg/ha during 2008-09. This has become possible due todevelopment and popularization of high yielding varieties insulated well against various biotic and abiotic stresses for various partsof the country. Some of these high yielding are GNG 158, Vijay, DCP 92-3, Rajas, Digvijay, KWR 108, H 82-2, RSG 888, JG 315,Vijay, JG 16, ICCV 10, JG 11, KGD 1168, GNG 469, Pusa 372, KPG 59, ICCV 2, Shubhra (IPCK 2002-29, BGD 128, PusaChamatkar (BG 1053, JGK 1 and Pusa kabuli 1003 which have stable resistance against wilt. Similarly PBG 5, GNG 469, PBG 1,Pusa 413, Pusa 408, Pusa 417 and Himachal chana 1 have resistance against ascochyta blight besides high yield potential. Littleefforts have been made in vast variability present among germplasm accessions, which are available with several International andNational Institutes. Inter-mating between accessions/elite lines of same origin or inter-varietal crosses led varieties development hasresulted in narrow genetic base of existing cultivars. Little efforts have been made in exploitation of wild Cicer and exoticcollections also. Concerted and systematic efforts are required to harness the potential of this vast variability. In view of the changingclimatic and global scenario there is urgent need to reorient breeding programme so that desired level of genetic enhancement can beachieved. Genetic options for mitigating terminal soil moisture stress and high temperature, both at reproductive and vegetativestage, development of genotypes with high nutrient efficiency need care in breeding programmes. Besides, biotic and abiotic stressesnow trade has become more important. Ttherefore development varieties possessing consumers’ preferred traits like seed size inkabuli and milling quality in desi chickpea need special

  14. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagatur, Naveen K; Mudili, Venkataramana; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Gupta, Vijai K; Natarajan, Gopalan; Sreepathi, Murali H; Vardhan, Batra H; Putcha, Venkata L R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO) on growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%). DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50) of OSEO was determined to be 8.5 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 and 1800 μg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 μg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 μg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13) revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250-1500 μg/mL) significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers.

  15. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar eKalagatur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO on growth and zearalenone (ZEA production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 of OSEO was determined to be 8.5µg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 µg/mL and 1800 µg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 µg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 µg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13 revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250 µg/mL to 1500 µg/mL significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers.

  16. Calibration-induced uncertainty of the EPIC model to estimate climate change impact on global maize yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Skalský, Rastislav; Porter, Cheryl H.; Balkovič, Juraj; Jones, James W.; Yang, Di

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the interactions between agricultural production and climate is necessary for sound decision-making in climate policy. Gridded and high-resolution crop simulation has emerged as a useful tool for building this understanding. Large uncertainty exists in this utilization, obstructing its capacity as a tool to devise adaptation strategies. Increasing focus has been given to sources of uncertainties for climate scenarios, input-data, and model, but uncertainties due to model parameter or calibration are still unknown. Here, we use publicly available geographical data sets as input to the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) for simulating global-gridded maize yield. Impacts of climate change are assessed up to the year 2099 under a climate scenario generated by HadEM2-ES under RCP 8.5. We apply five strategies by shifting one specific parameter in each simulation to calibrate the model and understand the effects of calibration. Regionalizing crop phenology or harvest index appears effective to calibrate the model for the globe, but using various values of phenology generates pronounced difference in estimated climate impact. However, projected impacts of climate change on global maize production are consistently negative regardless of the parameter being adjusted. Different values of model parameter result in a modest uncertainty at global level, with difference of the global yield change less than 30% by the 2080s. The uncertainty subjects to decrease if applying model calibration or input data quality control. Calibration has a larger effect at local scales, implying the possible types and locations for adaptation.

  17. Stay-green alleles individually enhance grain yield in sorghum under drought by modifying canopy development and water uptake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Andrew K; van Oosterom, Erik J; Mullet, John E; George-Jaeggli, Barbara; Jordan, David R; Klein, Patricia E; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-08-01

    Stay-green is an integrated drought adaptation trait characterized by a distinct green leaf phenotype during grain filling under terminal drought. We used sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a repository of drought adaptation mechanisms, to elucidate the physiological and genetic mechanisms underpinning stay-green. Near-isogenic sorghum lines (cv RTx7000) were characterized in a series of field and managed-environment trials (seven experiments and 14 environments) to determine the influence of four individual stay-green (Stg1-4) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on canopy development, water use and grain yield under post-anthesis drought. The Stg QTL decreased tillering and the size of upper leaves, which reduced canopy size at anthesis. This reduction in transpirational leaf area conserved soil water before anthesis for use during grain filling. Increased water uptake during grain filling of Stg near-isogenic lines (NILs) relative to RTx7000 resulted in higher post-anthesis biomass production, grain number and yield. Importantly, there was no consistent yield penalty associated with the Stg QTL in the irrigated control. These results establish a link between the role of the Stg QTL in modifying canopy development and the subsequent impact on crop water use patterns and grain yield under terminal drought.

  18. Effect of azotobacter,slurry and their combination on economic characters and yield of maize%菌剂、沼液及其复配对玉米经济性状和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺国强; 邓志平; 刘展志; 谢剑波; 李朋飞; 董仁杰; 庞昌乐; 陈三凤

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究菌剂、沼液及其复配对玉米经济性状和产量的影响。用固氮芽孢杆菌W6、巴西固氮螺菌Yu62及固氮巨大芽孢杆菌C4这3种固氮菌分别接种,并与沼液复配后接种玉米,以及这3种固氮菌与解磷假单胞菌S20组成的的4种微生物复合菌剂单独或与沼液复配后接种玉米。结果表明:除百粒重外,单菌剂处理组、沼液处理组及二者复配处理组均较清水组在玉米经济性状及单产方面表现优良。各单菌剂处理组中,固氮巨大芽孢杆菌C4效果较佳,相对于清水处理组,干穗单产增产10.47%。沼液与菌剂配合使用处理玉米的效果要优于相应菌剂单独处理%The aim of this research was to study the effect of microbes,biogas slurry and their combination on the economic characters and yield of maize.The nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bacillus megaterium C4,Bacillus sp.W6,Azospirillum brasilense Yu62,the combination of nitrogen-fixing bacteria with Pseudomonas alealigenes S20 and the combination of bacteria with the biogas slurry were applied to maize in the field.Experimental results showed that the treatments of either single bacterium,biogas slurry or their combination gave a more excellent performance than water treatment in terms of maize yield and economic characteristics except kernel weight,Bacteria treatment groups,especially with C4,gave a 10% higher dry ear yield compared to the water treatment group.The combination of biogas slurry with these bacteria was superior to individual use on maize.In particular,the combined biogas slurry with microbial agent C4 had increases of 2.17% kernel weight,25.15% dry ear yield and 12.47% grain yield comparing to the water treatment.

  19. Sistema de cultivo e doses de nitrogênio na sanidade e no rendimento do milho Cropping systens and nitrogen levels in the maize plant health and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As podridões da base do colmo (PBC e grãos ardidos (GA ocorrem em lavouras de milho, causando prejuízos aos produtores e contaminando os grãos com micotoxinas. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar os efeitos do monocultivo de milho, da rotação de culturas com feijoeiro e da adubação nitrogenada na incidência de PBC e GA, nos teores de fumonisinas, peso de mil sementes (PMS e no rendimento de grãos de milho. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições por tratamento. Na parcela principal, foram testados três híbridos de milho: P30F36, AS 1575 e Maximus. Nas subparcelas, foi avaliada a resposta dos híbridos a cinco doses de nitrogênio (N, equivalentes a 0; 75; 140; 215 e 290kg de N ha-1, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para os valores médios de PBC, fumonisina e rendimento de grãos nos dois sistemas de cultivo avaliados. Para os valores médios de GA e PMS, ocorreram diferenças entre híbridos somente quando cultivados em rotação de cultura. A incidência dos parâmetros PBC e GA, quando em monocultura, foi superior aos encontrados quando cultivado em rotação de culturas. As variações médias do PMS e rendimento de grãos foram superiores quando em rotação, comparativamente ao sistema de cultivo em monocultura. As diferentes doses de N explicaram apenas parcialmente as variações observadas em todas as variáveis analisadas.The stalk rot (SR and grain rot (GR occur in crops as corn, causing losses to farmers and contaminating the grain with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of corn monoculture, crop rotation with common bean, and nitrogen fertilization on the incidence of SR, GR, fumonisin levels, weight of thousand seeds (WTS and grain yield. The experiment was randomized blocks with split plot and four replicates per treatment. In the main plot were tested three maize

  20. How accurately do maize crop models simulate the interactions of atmospheric CO2 concentration levels with limited water supply on water use and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the ability of 21 crop models to capture the impact of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO218 ]) on maize yield and water use as measured in a 2-year Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment experiment conducted at the Thünen Institute in Braunschweig, Germany (Manderscheid et al. 2014). D...

  1. Statistical analysis of the relationship between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation across Inner Mongolia, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Limin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Exploring possible relationships between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation under climate change is fundamental to science-based decision for food security in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR). To determine the relationship of maize yield with precipitation variables across IMAR during 1960-2012, we selected 11 precipitation indices of rainy season and divided IMAR into four sub-regions—west, middle, east, and northeast using principal component analysis and K-means clustering methods. Results show that climate-induced maize yield is more sensitive to precipitation variability in the west and middle IMAR. The most important precipitation factor that limits maize yield is moderate precipitation days in these two sub-regions. Moreover, west and middle Inner Mongolia was dominated by decreasing precipitation during the rainy season. Furthermore, the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation cycle has the significant influence on the rainy-season precipitation in the west and middle IMAR.

  2. Enteric and manure-derived methane emissions and biogas yield of slurry from dairy cows fed grass silage or maize silage with and without supplementation of rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    to parity and days in milk. Two diets were based on maize silage with (MS+) or without (MS−) supplementation of crushed rapeseed, and the third diet was based on late cut grass silage without supplementation of crushed rapeseed (GS−). Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition were measured. Enteric...

  3. Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: a three year mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Thuy Thu; Henry-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Rumpel, Cornelia; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Compost, vermicompost and biochar amendments are thought to improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their long-term impact on crop yield and the environment in tropical agro-ecosystems. In this study we investigated the effect of organic amendments (buffalo manure, compost and vermicompost) and biochar (applied alone or with vermicompost) on plant yield, soil fertility, soil erosion and water dynamics in a degraded Acrisol in Vietnam. Maize growth and yield, as well as weed growth, were examined for three years in terrestrial mesocosms under natural rainfall. Maize yield and growth showed high inter-annual variability depending on the organic amendment. Vermicompost improved maize growth and yield but its effect was rather small and was only significant when water availability was limited (year 2). This suggests that vermicompost could be a promising substrate for improving the resistance of agrosystems to water stress. When the vermicompost-biochar mixture was applied, further growth and yield improvements were recorded in some cases. When applied alone, biochar had a positive influence on maize yield and growth, thus confirming its interest for improving long-term soil productivity. All organic amendments reduced water runoff, soil detachment and NH₄(+) and NO₃(-) transfer to water. These effects were more significant with vermicompost than with buffalo manure and compost, highlighting that the beneficial influence of vermicompost is not limited to its influence on plant yield. In addition, this study showed for the first time that the combination of vermicompost and biochar may not only improve plant productivity but also reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of the Impact of China’s Direct Grain Subsidies on Grain Yield--Based on the Empirical Analysis of Panel Data Pertaining to 29 Provinces in the Period 2004-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We build the influence function empirical model of China’s grain production at the present stage in view of the factors influencing direct grain subsidies,using Cobb-Douglas production function model.And we estimate the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield,using the panel data pertaining to 29 provinces in the period 2004-2007;comparatively analyze the validity and limitation of policy factors of direct grain subsidies on China’s grain yield.The results show that at the present stage,the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield is 0.002 3,and under the existing subsidy system and level,direct grain subsidies play a positive role in increasing grain yield,but the role is limited;the elasticity coefficient of impact of the food price on grain yield is much larger than that of impact of direct grain subsidies on grain yield.Therefore,the government should strengthen and improve direct grain subsidy policies;in the mean time,pay full attention to the use of market mechanism to consolidate the basic role of the food price in promoting food security to a great extent.

  5. Studv on Fluctuation of Grain Yield in Chinas Major Grain Producing Areas%中国粮食主产区粮食产量波动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾莉丽

    2011-01-01

    By using the statistical data of grain yield in China' s major grain producing areas from 1949 to 2008, and fluctuation theory, the historical process and main cause of fluctuation of grain yield in China' s major grain producing areas are analyzed. The results of research show that the grain yield in China's major grain producing areas grows in unstable fluctuation, with high-frequency fluctuation cycle and regular length; the amplitude of fluctuation, on the whole, is moderate, with not strong stability; the fluctuation of grain yield has correspondence, reflecting the N-shape developmental trend of grain production at present; the fluctuation of grain yield has gradient characteristics; in the process of comparison of grain yield, the average growth rate annually of grain yield in China' s major grain producing areas is higher than that of the national average, but the relative fluctuation coefficient is also higher than that of the national average. From five aspects, namely natural disaster, agricultural policy, production input, grain price and grain circulation, the cause of fluctuation of grain yield in China' s major grain producing areas is analyzed, and measures of preventing and arresting super-long fluctuation of grain yield are put forward. Firstly, stick to strict farmland protection system, and strive to promote farmland quality; secondly, strengthen infrastructure construction of grain production and beef up the ability of preventing natural disaster; thirdly, quicken the pace of agricultural technology and establish robust technology supporting system; fourthly, lay stress on innovation of agricultural organization system and provide implementation path and vehicle for application of agricultural technology measures; fifthly, perfect disaster precaution system and grain market system, and strengthen the ability of preventing risk of grain production.%依据1949~2008年粮食主产区粮食产童统计数据,应用波动理论分析了粮食主

  6. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil

  7. Optimizing nitrogen management for soft red winter wheat yield, grain protein, and grain quality using precision agriculture and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Dianne Carter

    The purpose of this research was to improve the management of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in North Carolina. There were three issues addressed; the quality of the grain as affected by delayed harvest, explaining grain protein variability through nitrogen (N) management, and developing N recommendations at growth stage (GS) 30 using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography. The impact of delayed harvest on grain yield, test weight, grain protein, and 20 milling and baking quality parameters was studied in three trials in 2002 and three trials in 2003. Yield was significantly reduced in three out of five trials due to dry, warm environments, possibly indicating shattering. Test weights were significantly reduced in five out of six trials and were positively correlated to the number of precipitation events and to the number of days between harvests, indicating the negative effects of wetting and drying cycles. Grain protein was not affected by delayed harvest. Of the 20 quality parameters investigated, flour falling number, clear flour, and farinograph breakdown times were significantly reduced due to delayed harvest, while grain deoxynivalenol (DON) levels increased with a delayed harvest. Grain protein content in soft red winter wheat is highly variable across years and environments. A second study examined the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and times of application on grain protein variability. Seven different environments were utilized in this study. Though environment contributed about 23% of grain protein variability, the majority of that variability (52%) was attributed to N management. It was found that as grain protein levels increased at higher N rates, so did overall protein variability as indicated by the three stability indexes employed. In addition, applying the majority of total N at growth stage (GS) 30 decreased grain protein stability. Site-specific N management systems using remote sensing techniques can

  8. Effects of field high temperature on grain yield and quality of a subtropical type japonica rice—Pon-Lai rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chien Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical japonica type rice is sensitive to high temperature. Pon-Lai rice is a special japonica type with adaptation to the subtropical climate in Taiwan. Facing climate change, rising temperatures would damage the yield and quality of rice production. This research was conducted using Pon-Lai rice in the field of a subtropical climate. We conducted 2 experiments, including a year-round experiment and collection of samples from different districts for building different temperature conditions. We analyzed the correlation between rising temperature and rice yield or quality. In our results, the critical period of temperature effect is 0–15 days after heading (H15. The threshold of high temperature damage in yield and appearance quality was 25–27 °C. Grain weight decreased about 2–6%, while the temperature of H15 was raised 1 °C above the thresholds. Perfect grain ratio and chalky grain ratio decreased and increased, respectively, while the temperature of H15 was raised above the thresholds. However, the high temperature in H15 affected the physicochemical characteristics. In addition, we found positive correlation between grain length to width ratio and perfect grain ratio. Grain length to width ratio could be an index of temperature effects for grain quality. In our study, when the temperature was below 30 °C, a rising temperature of H15 could damage rice yield and appearance quality, and change grain shape. Our results could provide reference for dealing with the warming future in other temperate rice-cultivated countries.

  9. Relationship Between Grain-filling Characteristics and Grain Weight in Different Kernel Positions of Maize%玉米不同部位子粒灌浆特性与粒重的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟佳佳; 董树亭; 张吉旺; 刘鹏; 赵斌

    2013-01-01

      以郑单958(ZD958)和登海661(DH661)为试验材料,研究在4.5万、7.5万、10.5万株/hm2种植密度下玉米上部及中下部子粒灌浆特性和粒重的关系。结果表明,穗粒数和千粒重是决定子粒最终产量的重要因素,两者均随着密度的增加而显著降低。同一密度下,穗位层光照自开花当天(0 d)先降低后升高,总体呈“高-低-高”的变化趋势,底层光照则持续升高。上部子粒的起始生长势、灌浆速率、胚乳细胞数及淀粉含量均低于中下部子粒。相关及通径分析表明,影响粒重的主要因素是灌浆速率、胚乳细胞数目和淀粉含量,其相关系数分别为0.95966**、0.98191**和0.87776*。光照(包括穗位层和底层)主要通过灌浆速率和淀粉含量来间接影响粒重。%Two cultivars ZD958 and DH661 were used to analyze the effects of different planting densities on grain filling characteristics and grain weight in apical and mid-basal kernel positions of maize. The results showed that both grain number and kernel weight decreased with the increase of density and they determined the grain yield to-gether. At the same density, ear layer transmission declined since pollination(0 d) and then increased slowly while that of bottom kept increasing since pollination. The initial division power(R0), division rate, endosperm cell number and starch content of apical kernels were lower than these of mid-basal kernels. Correlation and path analysis showed that main factors that affected grain weight were division rate, endosperm number and starch content, their correlation co-efficients were 0.959 66**, 0.981 91**and 0.877 76*, respectively. Light transmission, including ear layer and bot-tom, affected grain weight via division rate and starch content.

  10. Effects of Tillage Practices on Water Consumption, Water Use Efifciency and Grain Yield in Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Cheng-yan; YU Zhen-wen; SHI Yu; CUI Shi-ming; WANG Dong; ZHANG Yong-li; ZHAO Jun-ye

    2014-01-01

    Water shortage is a serious issue threatening the sustainable development of agriculture in the North China Plain, with the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as its largest water-consuming crop. The effects of tillage practices on the water consumption and water use efifciency (WUE) of wheat under high-yield conditions using supplemental irrigation based on testing soil moisture dynamic change were examined in this study. This experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2010, with ifve tillage practice treatments, namely, strip rotary tillage (SR), strip rotary tillage after subsoiling (SRS), rotary tillage (R), rotary tillage after subsoiling (RS), and plowing tillage (P). The results showed that in the SRS and RS treatments the total water and soil water consumptions were 11.81, 25.18%and 12.16, 14.75%higher than those in SR and R treatments, respectively. The lowest ratio of irrigation consumption to total water consumption in the SRS treatment was 18.53 and 21.88%for the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 growing seasons, respectively. However, the highest percentage of water consumption was found in the SRS treatment from anthesis to maturity. No signiifcant difference was found between the WUE of the lfag leaf at the later iflling stage in the SRS and RS treatments, but the lfag leaf WUE at these stages were higher than those of other treatments. The SRS and RS treatments exhibited the highest grain yield (9 573.76 and 9 507.49 kg ha-1 for 3-yr average) with no signiifcant difference between the two treatments, followed by P, R and SR treatments. But the SRS treatment had the highest WUE. Thus, the 1-yr subsoiling tillage, plus 2 yr of strip rotary planting operation may be an efifcient measure to increase wheat yield and WUE.

  11. Rice grain yield and quality responses to free-air CO2 enrichment combined with soil and water warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2016-03-01

    Rising air temperatures are projected to reduce rice yield and quality, whereas increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) can increase grain yield. For irrigated rice, ponded water is an important temperature environment, but few open-field evaluations are available on the combined effects of temperature and [CO2 ], which limits our ability to predict future rice production. We conducted free-air CO2 enrichment and soil and water warming experiments, for three growing seasons to determine the yield and quality response to elevated [CO2 ] (+200 μmol mol(-1) , E-[CO2 ]) and soil and water temperatures (+2 °C, E-T). E-[CO2 ] significantly increased biomass and grain yield by approximately 14% averaged over 3 years, mainly because of increased panicle and spikelet density. E-T significantly increased biomass but had no significant effect on the grain yield. E-T decreased days from transplanting to heading by approximately 1%, but days to the maximum tiller number (MTN) stage were reduced by approximately 8%, which limited the panicle density and therefore sink capacity. On the other hand, E-[CO2 ] increased days to the MTN stage by approximately 4%, leading to a greater number of tillers. Grain appearance quality was decreased by both treatments, but E-[CO2 ] showed a much larger effect than did E-T. The significant decrease in undamaged grains (UDG) by E-[CO2 ] was mainly the result of an increased percentage of white-base grains (WBSG), which were negatively correlated with grain protein content. A significant decrease in grain protein content by E-[CO2 ] accounted in part for the increased WBSG. The dependence of WBSG on grain protein content, however, was different among years; the slope and intercept of the relationship were positively correlated with a heat dose above 26 °C. Year-to-year variation in the response of grain appearance quality demonstrated that E-[CO2 ] and rising air temperatures synergistically reduce grain appearance quality of

  12. Changes in plant morphology in response to recurrent selection in the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic maize population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize plant phenotype has changed a great deal through the era of hybrid maize production. Some of the observed changes, such as upright leaf angle, silking-anthsis interval, and tassel branch number, have well understood contributions to improved grain yield in modern hybrids. However, less is ...

  13. Polycomb Protein OsFIE2 Affects Plant Height and Grain Yield in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhonghua; Jiao, Guiai; Tang, Shaoqing; Luo, Ju; Hu, Peisong

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type. In addition, compared to wild-type, the number of large and small vascular bundles decreased in osfie2-1, as well as cell number and cell size in spikelet hulls. OsFIE2 is expressed in most tissues and the coded protein localizes in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that OsFIE2 interacts with OsiEZ1 which encodes an enhancer of zeste protein previously identified as a histone methylation enzyme. RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that some homeotic genes and genes involved in endosperm starch synthesis, cell division/expansion and hormone synthesis and signaling are differentially expressed between osfie2-1 and wild-type. In addition, the contents of IAA, GA3, ABA, JA and SA in osfie2-1 are significantly different from those in wild-type. Taken together, these results indicate that OsFIE2 plays an important role in the regulation of plant height and grain yield in rice. PMID:27764161

  14. Effect of Indigenous Nitrogen Supply of Soil on the Grain Yield and Fertilizer-N Use Efficiency in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun; XU Wei; TANG Cheng; WANG Zhi-qin; YANG Jian-chang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of application of N fertilizer on wheat on the grain yield and N use efficiency (FNUE) of rice in the wheat-rice rotation system, as well as on the soil fertility were studies. N-fertilizer application on wheat significantly increased total N,ammonium-N and nitrate-N contents in paddy field, resulting in high indigenous N supply of soil (INS). Compared with low INS, the effect of N rate on the grain yield of rice was reduced significantly, and FNUE was decreased under high INS. These results indicated that high INS was one of the main reasons for the low FNUE in rice.

  15. Phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria from an organic farm and their influence on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurdeep; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it avoids the use of synthetic chemicals. Plant production in organic farming mainly depends on nutrient release as a function of mineralization processes in soils. In the present study, efficient phosphate mineralizing bacteria were isolated and their efficacy tested in plant mineral uptake and soil fertility of an organic field. Amongst 12 P-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) isolated from an organic field, two isolates were selected for field inoculation based on their rock phosphate (RP) solubilzing ability, exudation of organic acids, phosphatase and phytase activity and production of indole acetic acid an