WorldWideScience

Sample records for maintains energy reserves

  1. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Thillart, van den G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four

  2. Sociable Robots Through Self-Maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  3. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schioler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  4. The energy reserves of our planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischoff, G.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from a prognosis for the development of the world energy consumption, the situation of special primary energy sources (reserves, potential) is briefly described. According to the amount and location of the reserves - 90% of the fossil energy reserves are in industrialized countries -, coal will play a leading role in meeting the energy demands of the future. Without breeder reactors, the role of nuclear energy will be limited in time. (UA) [de

  5. Wind energy projects: Some reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldkamp, H.F.; Goezinne, F.

    1991-01-01

    Among people directly involved in wind energy great optimism about the use of windpumps is not uncommon. Projects show that often this is not justified. Why do windpump projects fail? Errors seen by the authors are: 1. Windpumps are installed only because policy makers or researchers want it and not because there is a need felt for them by the users; 2. There is too much attention for the technical side and not for other, more important problems; 3. Experimental (and hence unreliable) windpumps are used in projects; and 4. Too much weight is attached to small, long term economic advantages, which do not count in reality. Although the windmill has its place, it should be recognized that in many cases wind energy is not a good option. 15 refs

  6. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  7. Maintaining a Viable Energy Savings Performance Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Katherine L; Huckeby, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Substantial amounts of information are available on Energy Savings Performance Contract award requirements, measurement, and verification, but we have found very little information on the day-to-day...

  8. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase...... their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional...... offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both...

  10. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  11. The world's energy reserves. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of the world's energy reserves and their production, prices for fuel today and in the future, expenditures for enterprises for the production of synthetic fuels (gasification of coal, liquefaction of coal, producing MeOH from coal). It is thought that the production of synthetic fuel in the 1980 to 1990 time frame will be profitable if the cost for the production of traditional fuels rises by at least 2 percent per year more rapidly than inflation and if the cost of natural gas approaches the cost of oil (converted for the produced energy). The cost of synthetic fuels from fuel shales is lower than from coal and fuel shales will apparently be the most probable raw material for the production of synthetic fuels even today.

  12. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Through a commitment to high performance, school districts are discovering that smart energy choices can create lasting benefits for students, communities, and the environment. For example, an energy efficient school district with 4,000 students can save as much as $160,000 a year in energy costs. Over 10 years, those savings can reach $1.6 million, translating into the ability to hire more teachers, purchase more textbooks and computers, or invest in additional high performance facilities. Beyond these bottomline benefits, schools can better foster student health, decrease absenteeism, and serve as centers of community life. The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools Program promotes a 30 percent improvement in existing school energy use. It also encourages the building of new schools that exceed code (ASHRAE 90.11999) by 50 percent or more. The program provides resources like this Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools to assist school decisionmakers in planning, financing, operating, and maintaining energy efficient, high performance schools. It also offers education and training for building industry professionals. Operations and maintenance refer to all scheduled and unscheduled actions for preventing equipment failure or decline with the goal of increasing efficiency, reliability, and safety. A preventative maintenance program is the organized and planned performance of maintenance activities in order to prevent system or production problems or failures from occurring. In contrast, deferred maintenance or reactive maintenance (also called diagnostic or corrective maintenance) is conducted to address an existing problem. This guide is a primary resource for developing and implementing a districtor schoolwide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The EnergySmart Schools Solutions companion CD contains additional supporting information for design, renovation, and retrofit projects. The objective

  13. Energy reserves and energy resources: situation in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, L.

    1981-01-01

    Following an explanation of the main relevant technical terms and units, the author discusses the world energy consumption over the last few years and its structural development. This is supplemented by an analysis of energy consumption in Austria. Based on this, the author gives a forecast of the further growth of the world energy consumption figures to the year 2020 and compares these with the world's reserves of raw materials for energy production. A similar comparison is made for Austria. Outlining the irregularity in the distribution of the reserves over the earth and a short explanation of the dependence on the respective technology of the utilisation of nuclear fuels, the author discusses the possibilities of developing the energy resources all over the world as well as in Austria. The quantitative assessment is based on IIASA studies and on corresponding investigations carried out in Austria. By way of summary, he presents an outlook on the possibilities of upgrading solid fuels as a temporary remedy against future difficulties in the supply of crude oil or natural gas and underlines the importance of nuclear energy for the future. (Auth.)

  14. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy... renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will be...

  15. Sociable mobile robots through self-maintained energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    society, collecting and sharing are experimentally recognized as the highest property. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in robot society, which is naturally inspired from swarm behavior of honey-bee and ant. Typically, autonomous mobile robots are usually......Research of sociable robots has emphasized interaction and coordination of mobile robots with inspiration from natural behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, sharing and so forth. However, the animal behaviors are looking for food towards survival. In an animal...... equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the limitation, we describe practical deployment of a group of mobile robot with the possibility of carrying and exchanging fuel, e.g. battery to other robots. Early implementation that includes modular hardware and control...

  16. Joint energy and spinning reserve dispatching and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidinejad, M.; Song, Y.-H.; Javidi Dasht-Bayaz, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Unpredictable load demand variations, and also sudden generation interruption, may cause imbalance in power systems. To prevent any blackout and to reduce such total power imbalance, spinning reserve can provide electric power system ability to respond. Adequate amount of spinning reserve should be based on economy and risk as an optimal decision making. This paper uses Quadratic Programming (QP) method to solve Joint Energy and Spinning Reserve Dispatch (JESRD) problem and derives the optimal price of spinning reserve. In JESRD, Unserved Energy Cost (UEC) is considered as an Opportunity Cost of Spinning Reserve (OCSR). To distribute the System Reserve Requirements (SRR) among generation units, two different models, Fixed Reserve Percentage (FRP) or fixed allocation model and Non-Fixed Reserve Percentage (NFRP) or flexible allocation model has been investigated. Numerical results on a 5-bus test system and the 30-bus IEEE standard system, considering FRP and NFRP models are included. (author)

  17. Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) Fort Bliss Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    FINAL REPORT Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) Fort Bliss Military Reservation ESTCP Project EW-201140 FEBRUARY...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-11-C-0082 Fort Bliss, Texas...Lockheed Martin’s Intelligent Microgrid Solution can provide more energy security while also lowering electric utility costs and greenhouse gas emissions

  18. Renewable Energy Development on Fort Mojave Reservation Feasiblity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell Gum, ERCC analytics LLC

    2008-03-17

    The Ft. Mojave tribe, whose reservation is located along the Colorado River in the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada near the point where all three states meet, has a need for increased energy supplies. This need is a direct result of the aggressive and successful economic development projects undertaken by the tribe in the last decade. While it is possible to contract for additional energy supplies from fossil fuel sources it was the desire of the tribal power company, AHA MACAV Power Service (AMPS) to investigate the feasibility and desirability of producing power from renewable sources as an alternative to increased purchase of fossil fuel generated power and as a possible enterprise to export green power. Renewable energy generated on the reservation would serve to reduce the energy dependence of the tribal enterprises on off reservation sources of energy and if produced in excess of reservation needs, add a new enterprise to the current mix of economic activities on the reservation. Renewable energy development would also demonstrate the tribe’s support for improving environmental quality, sustainability, and energy independence both on the reservation and for the larger community.

  19. Maintaining Department of Energy facilities general design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A General Design Criteria (GDC) Planning Board has been established in the Department of Energy to streamline the improvement and maintenance of the GDC Manual. This Planning Board, composed of a membership from field organizations and Headquarters programmatic offices, started work on 15 enhancements to the GDC Manual. One of those enhancements details natural phenomena hazards criteria. In the past year the Planning Board submitted a major recommendation which has been implemented into what is known as the GDC Improvements project. The result of this project pledges to dramatically increase the GDC Manual's utilization and effectiveness

  20. Total, accessible and reserve wind energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The article is a part of the international project 'Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Inventory of the Greenhouse Gases Emission and Sinks Alternative Energy Balance and Technology Programs' sponsored by the Department of Energy, US. The 'total' average annual wind resources in Bulgaria determined on the basis wind velocity density for more than 100 meteorological stations are estimated on 125 000 TWh. For the whole territory the theoretical wind power potential is about 14200 GW. The 'accessible' wind resources are estimated on about 62000 TWh. The 'reserve' (or usable) wind resources are determined using 8 velocity intervals for WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) operation, number and disposition of turbines, and the usable (3%) part of the territory. The annual reserve resources are estimated at about 21 - 33 TWh. The 'economically beneficial' wind resources (EBWR) are those part of the reserve resources which could be included in the country energy balance using specific technologies in specific time period. It is foreseen that at year 2010 the EBWR could reach 0.028 TWh. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  2. Energy reserves mobilization: Strategies of three decapod species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, Hernán Javier; Rodríguez, Yamila Eliana; De Los Angeles Pereira, Nair; López Greco, Laura Susana; Lovrich, Gustavo Alejandro; Fernández Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2017-01-01

    In food deprivation assays, several different responses have been observed in crustaceans. However, studying energy reserves utilization among more than one species during the same starvation period has not yet been performed, particularly to discern whether the responses are due to intrinsic and/or environmental factors. We hypothesize that decapod species with similar feeding habits have the same strategies in the use of energetic reserves during starvation, even though they inhabit different environments. The aim of this study was to compare the energy reserves mobilization of three decapods species (Cherax quadricarinatus, Palaemon argentinus and Munida gregaria) with similar feeding habits, exposed to similar food deprivation conditions. The crayfish, shrimp and squat-lobster were experimentally kept at continuous feeding or continuous starvation throughout 15 days. Every 3rd day, the midgut gland index (MGI), and the glycogen, lipid and protein contents were measured in the midgut gland (MG) and pleon muscle. Palaemon argentinus mobilized more reserves during starvation, followed by C. quadricarinatus, and the last M. gregaria. The starved shrimps presented low MGI, whereas MG showed a reduction in glycogen (from day 6 to 15), lipid (from day 3 to 15), and protein levels (at day 9 and 15) while in their muscle, lipid reserves decreased at days 3 and 6. In C. quadricarinatus, the most affected parameters in the MG were MGI, glycogen (from day 6 to 15), and lipids (at day 12 and 15). In the MG of M. gregaria only the glycogen was reduced during fasting from 3 to 15 days. Even though the three studied species have similar feeding habitats, we found that their energetic profile utilization is different and it could be explained by the habitat, life span, temperature, organ/tissue, and metabolism of the species. Our results may be useful to understand the several different responses of crustaceans during starvation.

  3. Energy reserves and power plants in the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaus, C

    1971-12-01

    Solid fuels are still of primary importance in the USSR. Coal reserves and production rates are outlined. Natural gas reserves are estimated to be about 70 x 10/sup 18/m/sup 3/, with operational fields having a capacity of about 12.1 x 10/sup 18/m/sup 3/. Detailed data concerning gas and hydrodynamic reserves, energy production statistics, and high-capacity condensation-turbines are tabulated. Extensive technical data is also provided concerning installed nuclear, thermal, and hydroelectric power plants. Solar energy remains in very early stages of development. In some areas, particularly the foothills of the Caucasus, Kirim, and Kamchatka, conditions are highly favorable for the development of geothermal power plants. A geothermal installation is planned for Kamchatka. It will have a capacity of 700-850 MW, and will be driven by thermal waters arising from the Awatschinskaja Sopka volcano. Four tidal power-plants were planned for construction by 1976. The first was completed in 1968, at the Barent Sea. One of these plants will have a capacity of 30-35 TWh/annum.

  4. Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Schoepf

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm, and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0 °C within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (-53% in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.

  5. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  6. Energy and Reserve under Distributed Energy Resources Management—Day-Ahead, Hour-Ahead and Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Soares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources based on renewable energy sources in distribution systems leads to a more complex management of power systems. Consequently, ancillary services become even more important to maintain the system security and reliability. This paper proposes and evaluates a generic model for day-ahead, intraday (hour-ahead and real-time scheduling, considering the joint optimization of energy and reserve in the scope of the virtual power player concept. The model aims to minimize the operation costs in the point of view of one aggregator agent taking into account the balance of the distribution system. For each scheduling stage, previous scheduling results and updated forecasts are considered. An illustrative test case of a distribution network with 33 buses, considering a large penetration of distribution energy resources allows demonstrating the benefits of the proposed model.

  7. Characterization of U. S. energy resources and reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the best available estimates of the total domestic energy potential within the United States. The array of energy sources include those appropriate for power generation, liquid fuels, and direct heat applications. The energy sources examined are: geothermal energy, solar energy, biomass energy, wind energy, shale oil, coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat, uranium, and hydropower. 37 refs., 7 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN... Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] ...

  9. The role of international atomic energy agency in maintaining nuclear safety competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, I.; Mazour, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides information how International Atomic Energy Agency can assist Member States in maintaining and developing nuclear safety competence. The topics covered include the development of safety standards, organisation of nuclear safety related conferences, provision of safety reviews, organisation of training courses and topical workshops and publication of training related documents. Usefulness of these activities for competence development is discussed. (author)

  10. [Reduce Energy Costs While Maintaining Healthy IAQ.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #17

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) Feature Article: Reduce Energy Costs while Maintaining Healthy IAQ; (3) Insight into Excellence: North East Independent School District ; (4) School Building Week 2009; and (5) Have Your Questions Answered!

  11. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  12. Energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort: A case study of a UNT dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Dusten

    Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.

  13. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential...

  14. World uranium reserves and assurance of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This book deals mainly with those aspects of energy policy which concern uranium supply. A different complexion is put on the quantitative estimates of world uranium supplies available which are being overshadowed by political problems resulting from the special properties of this primary energy source as well as from its geographical distribution. The national policy of non-proliferation and the resource policy are demonstrated, taking the largest uranium supply countries as examples. The consumers' policy is explained, taking Europe and Japan as an example. Furthermore, a few possible political solutions are suggested. (UA) [de

  15. Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) - Fort Bliss Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Security Act EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPAct05 Energy Policy Act of 2005 EPDF Enlisted Personnel Dining Facility EPEC El Paso Electric Company...Retrofitting the existing electrical infrastructure was a challenge, especially with the existing switchboard layout restricting the addition of motor ...operators (to allow for load shedding). The Lockheed Martin team installed as many motor operators as physically possible in the existing

  16. Cellular energy metabolism maintains young status in old queen honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yen; Qiu, Jiantai Timothy; Hsu, Chin-Yuan

    2018-05-02

    Trophocytes and oenocytes of queen honey bees are used in studies of cellular longevity, but their cellular energy metabolism with age is poorly understood. In this study, the molecules involved in cellular energy metabolism were evaluated in the trophocytes and oenocytes of young and old queen bees. The findings indicated that there were no significant differences between young and old queen bees in β-oxidation, glycolysis, and protein synthesis. These results indicate that the cellular energy metabolism of trophocytes and oenocytes in old queen bees is similar to young queen bees and suggests that maintaining cellular energy metabolism in a young status may be associated with the longevity of queen bees. Fat and glycogen accumulation increased with age indicating that old queen bees are older than young queen bees. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General. The Administrator will allocate allowances from the Conservation and...

  18. Glycogen serves as an energy source that maintains astrocyte cell proliferation in the neonatal telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Hitoshi; Nomura, Tadashi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of energy are required when cells undergo cell proliferation and differentiation for mammalian neuronal development. Early neonatal mice face transient starvation and use stored energy for survival or to support development. Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide that is formed by glucose, and serves as an astrocytic energy store for rapid energy requirements. Although it is present in radial glial cells and astrocytes, the role of glycogen during development remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that glycogen accumulated in glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)+ astrocytes in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream. Glycogen levels markedly decreased after birth due to the increase of glycogen phosphorylase, an essential enzyme for glycogen metabolism. In primary cultures and in vivo, the inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase decreased the proliferation of astrocytic cells. The number of cells in the G1 phase increased in combination with the up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors or down-regulation of the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a determinant for cell cycle progression. These results suggest that glycogen accumulates in astrocytes located in specific areas during the prenatal stage and is used as an energy source to maintain normal development in the early postnatal stage.

  19. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  20. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  1. Optimal offering and allocation policies for wind power in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Jensen, Tue Vissing; Mazzi, Nicolo

    2017-01-01

    Cormick relaxation and piecewise linear decision rules are adapted and tested aiming to maximize the expected revenue for participating in both energy and reserve markets, while accounting for estimated balancing costs for failing to provide energy and reserve. A set of numerical examples, as well as a case study......Proliferation of wind power generation is increasingly making this power source an important asset in designs of energy and reserve markets. Intuitively, wind power producers will require the development of new offering strategies that maximize the expected profit in both energy and reserve markets...... of better forecast information from the different day-ahead and balancing stages, allowing different shares of energy and reserve in both stages. Under these assumptions, different mathematical methods able to deal with the uncertain nature of wind power generation, namely, stochastic programming, with Mc...

  2. Pathogens Inactivated by Low-Energy-Electron Irradiation Maintain Antigenic Properties and Induce Protective Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertey, Jasmin; Bayer, Lea; Grunwald, Thomas; Pohl, Alexandra; Beckmann, Jana; Gotzmann, Gaby; Casado, Javier Portillo; Schönfelder, Jessy; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Wetzel, Christiane; Thoma, Martin; Bailer, Susanne M.; Hiller, Ekkehard; Rupp, Steffen; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation. It acts very fast and predominantly damages nucleic acids, conserving most of the antigenic structures. However, currently used irradiation technologies (mostly gamma-rays and high energy electrons) require large and complex shielding constructions to protect the environment from radioactivity or X-rays generated during the process. This excludes them from direct integration into biological production facilities. Here, low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) is presented as an alternative inactivation method for pathogens in liquid solutions. LEEI can be used in normal laboratories, including good manufacturing practice (GMP)- or high biosafety level (BSL)-environments, as only minor shielding is necessary. We show that LEEI efficiently inactivates different viruses (influenza A (H3N8), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) and maintains their antigenicity. Moreover, LEEI-inactivated influenza A viruses elicit protective immune responses in animals, as analyzed by virus neutralization assays and viral load determination upon challenge. These results have implications for novel ways of developing and manufacturing inactivated vaccines with improved efficacy. PMID:27886076

  3. Fundamentals of Using Battery Energy Storage Systems to Provide Primary Control Reserves in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of stationary battery storage systems to German electrical grids can help with various storage services. This application requires controlling the charge and discharge power of such a system. For example, photovoltaic (PV home storage, uninterruptible power supply, and storage systems for providing ancillary services such as primary control reserves (PCRs represent battery applications with positive profitability. Because PCRs are essential for stabilizing grid frequency and maintaining a robust electrical grid, German transmission system operators (TSOs released strict regulations in August 2015 for providing PCRs with battery storage systems as part of regulating the International Grid Control Cooperation (IGCC region in Europe. These regulations focused on the permissible state of charge (SoC of the battery during nominal and extreme conditions. The concomitant increased capacity demand oversizing may result in a significant profitability reduction, which can be attenuated only by using an optimal parameterization of the control algorithm for energy management of the storage systems. In this paper, the sizing optimization is achieved and a recommendation for a control algorithm that includes the appropriate parameters for the requirements in the German market is given. Furthermore, the storage cost is estimated, including battery aging simulations for different aging parameter sets to allow for a realistic profitability calculation.

  4. Interactions between the German Electricity Spot Market and the Reserve Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Bernhardt

    2005-01-01

    Eight years after market opening, Germany has well established spot and future markets for electricity. Besides OTC and Internet broker platforms the main market place is the European Energy Exchange in Leipzig (EEX) with its spot and future market. Less known is the reserve energy market in Germany. The four German transmission system operators (TSOs) EnBW, EON, RWE and Vattenfall purchase network services on the reserve energy market. Products with specific technical requirements are primary, secondary and tertiary reserve. (Details about the technical requirements and typical means for providing the required services will be presented.) Each TSO organises a separate auction for these products - for primary and secondary reserve half-yearly, for tertiary reserve daily. Due to the technical requirements the liquidity on these markets is limited, but especially on the tertiary reserve market it is recently growing significantly due to new participants marketing several smaller municipal and industrial reserve power plants as combined bids which meet the 30 MW min. capacity requirement. Every power plant or interruptible load could not only be offered as capacity on the reserve market but could also be dispatched for the spot market. Therefore the developments of prices on these markets are not independent and opportunity costs against the spot market can be estimated for different type of plants bidding in the reserve market. Another interaction between reserve and spot market is caused by the balancing price system in Germany. Prices for balancing energy meeting deviations between load, trading balance and production of a market participant are based on quarter-hourly reserve energy costs encountered by the TSO. As unbiased load and production forecasts are not strictly enforced by the TSOs so far, part of the planned demand could be met with balancing energy if EEX spot market prices rise above expected balancing energy prices. This interrelationship has a

  5. Natural gas reserves/total energy consumption: a useful new ratio for addressing global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy analysts have used the reserves/production ratios for oil and natural gas for decades as indicators of the ability of countries to maintain or increase their production of those fuels. The global community is now faced with the challenge of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from a variety of sources, with the energy sector being the largest contributor to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Natural gas has emerged as a highly desirable fuel, since it produces lower emissions of carbon dioxide than coal or oil for equivalent amounts of energy supplied. The ratio of a country's proven natural gas reserves to its total energy consumption is a good indicator of its ability to improve its air quality situation or address greenhouse gas reduction targets from domestic natural gas sources. This paper provides the ratio for several countries at different stages of development, and discusses some of the implications. In countries where exploration for natural gas has been limited, the estimated resources in place may sometimes be a more useful indicator than proven reserves, and could be used instead. (author)

  6. Impact on reserves and energy delivery of current UC-based Market-Clearing formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Espana, G.; García-González, Javier; Ramos, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Reserves are playing each time a more important role due to the massive penetration of renewable energy sources nowadays. Operating reserves must be used for unforeseen events. All predictable events must be directly considered in the scheduling stage otherwise there will be an inefficient and

  7. Linking personality to larval energy reserves in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Höglund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    in larvae with small yolks. The relationship between social dominance and yolk size was present in siblings, demonstrating a link between interfamily variation in energy reserves and aggression, and suggests that larger yolk reserves fuel a more aggressive personality during the initial territorial...

  8. Coordination of bidding strategies in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushuan Wen; David, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of building optimally coordinated bidding strategies for competitive suppliers in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets is addressed. It is assumed that each supplier bids 24 linear energy supply functions and 24 linear spinning reserve supply functions, one for each hour, into the energy and spinning reserve markets, respectively, and each market is cleared separately and simultaneously for all the 24 delivery hours. Each supplier makes decisions on unit commitment and chooses the coefficients in the linear energy and spinning reserve supply functions to maximise total benefits, subject to expectations about how rival suppliers will bid in both markets. Two different bidding schemes have been suggested for each hour, and based on them an overall coordinated bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve market is then developed. Stochastic optimisation models are first developed to describe these two different bidding schemes and a genetic algorithm (GA) is then used to build the optimally coordinated bidding strategies for each scheme and to develop an overall bidding strategy for the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets. A numerical example is utilised to illustrate the essential features of the method. (Author)

  9. Economic-environmental energy and reserve scheduling of smart distribution systems: A multiobjective mathematical programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram; Siano, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental/economical scheduling of energy and reserve. • Simultaneous participation of loads in both energy and reserve scheduling. • Aggregate wind generation and demand uncertainties in a stochastic model. • Stochastic scheduling of energy and reserve in a distribution system. • Demand response providers’ participation in energy and reserve scheduling. - Abstract: In this paper a stochastic multi-objective economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed to schedule energy and reserve in a smart distribution system with high penetration of wind generation. The proposed multi-objective framework, based on augmented ε-constraint method, is used to minimize the total operational costs and emissions and to generate Pareto-optimal solutions for the energy and reserve scheduling problem. Moreover, fuzzy decision making process is employed to extract one of the Pareto-optimal solutions as the best compromise non-dominated solution. The wind power and demand forecast errors are considered in this approach and the reserve can be furnished by the main grid as well as distributed generators and responsive loads. The consumers participate in both energy and reserve markets using various demand response programs. In order to facilitate small and medium loads participation in demand response programs, a Demand Response Provider (DRP) aggregates offers for load reduction. In order to solve the proposed optimization model, the Benders decomposition technique is used to convert the large scale mixed integer non-linear problem into mixed-integer linear programming and non-linear programming problems. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling approach is verified on a 41-bus distribution test system over a 24-h period

  10. Enhancing the Fit through Adaptive Co-management: Creating and Maintaining Bridging Functions for Matching Scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olsson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on adaptive governance of social-ecological systems (SES and, more specifically, on social factors that can enhance the fit between governance systems and ecosystems. The challenge lies in matching multilevel governance system, often characterized by fragmented organizational and institutional structures and compartmentalized and sectorized decision-making processes, with ecosystems characterized by complex interactions in time and space. The ability to create the right links, at the right time, around the right issues in multilevel governance systems is crucial for fostering responses that build social-ecological resilience and maintain the capacity of complex and dynamic ecosystems to generate services for human well-being. This is especially true in the face of uncertainty and during periods of abrupt change and reorganization. We draw on our earlier work in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR, in southern Sweden, to provide new insights on factors that can improve such linking. We focus especially on the bridging function in SES and the factors that constrain bridging in multilevel governance systems, and strategies used to overcome these. We present two features that seem critical for linking organizations dynamically across multiple levels: 1 the role of bridging organizations and 2 the importance of leadership. Bridging organizations and the bridging function can be vulnerable to disturbance, but there are sources of resilience for securing these key structures and functions in SES. These include social mechanisms for combining multiple sources of knowledge, building moral and political support in social networks, and having legal and financial support as part of the adaptive governance structure.

  11. Seasonal and pulsatile dynamics of thyrotropin and leptin in mares maintained under a constant energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, P R; Messer, N T; Cogswell, A M; Johnson, P J; Keisler, D H; Ganjam, V K

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if seasonal and/or pulsatile variations occur in plasma concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) and leptin in mares while maintaining a constant energy balance. Blood samples were collected every 20 min during a 24h period in winter and again in summer from six Quarter Horse type mares. Plasma concentrations of TSH, leptin, and T(4) were determined by radioimmunoassay. No differences were observed in body weight between winter (388.1+/-12.5 kg) and summer (406.2+/-12.5 kg; P=0.11). Plasma concentrations of TSH were greater in the summer (2.80+/-0.07 ng/ml) when compared to winter (0.97+/-0.07 ng/ml; P<0.001). Pulse frequency of TSH was not different between winter (6.17+/-0.78 pulses/24h) and summer (5.33+/-0.78 pulses/24h; P=0.49). Mean TSH pulse amplitude, pulse area, and area under the curve were all greater in summer compared to winter (3.11+/-0.10 ng/ml versus 1.20+/-0.10 ng/ml, 24.86+/-0.10 ng/ml min versus 13.46+/-1.90 ng/ml min, 3936+/-72.93 ng/ml versus 1284+/-72.93 ng/ml, respectively; P<0.01). Mean concentrations of leptin were greater in summer (2.48+/-0.17 ng/ml) compared to winter (0.65+/-0.17 ng/ml; P<0.001). Pulsatile secretion patterns of leptin were not observed in any horses during experimentation. Mean concentrations of T(4) were greater in winter (20.3+/-0.4 ng/ml) compared to summer (18.2+/-0.4 ng/ml; P<0.001). These seasonal differences between winter and summer provide evidence of possible seasonal regulation of TSH and leptin.

  12. Research on Utilizing a Multivariate Feedback Algorithm to Maintain Stable Operation of Variable Energy Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ausdeln, L.A.; Cordes, G.A.; Haskell, K.J.; Jones, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements performed utilizing particle accelerators rely on the stability and reproducibility of the accelerator operation, most notably for beam flux (beam current) and beam energy. This can be vital when the measurements rely on previous calibrations performed to establish a standard on which to base the end result of the measurement. The authors have designed a monitoring and control virtual instrument (VI) based on National Instruments LabVIEW TM which calls external modeling code that is written in a standard programming language. The LabVIEWTM virtual instrument allows the user to monitor multiple accelerator parameters while permitting user control of the most important four of these parameters which determine machine operation. The external modeling code, the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), incorporates as a kernel the Universal Process Model (UPM) software from Triant Technologies, Inc. The kernel executes the accelerator modeling function based on previously acquired history data of the relevant parameters for accelerator operation for conditions of interest. This history data is stored as a reference set prior to subsequent operation. During accelerator operation, 11 accelerator parameters are input to ADVVS from the LabVIEW TM virtual instrument. The ADVVS uses the reference files to predict the eleven parameter values that would normally be expected for optimal accelerator operation. The set of 11 model values is the nearest model state. This multivariate modeling approach presented two principal advantages: 1. The ADVVS allowed rapid detection of anomalous accelerator behavior variant from normal accelerator behavior recorded in the reference set of the kernel. 2. The ADVVS presented a methodology to incrementally tune the accelerator back to optimal operation, thus maintaining highly stable and reproducible operation. In the future, this methodology may also be utilized to tune the accelerator initially or move

  13. Regulatory Options for Local Reserve Energy Markets: Implications for Prosumers, Utilities, and other Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Christiane; Madlener, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    While the share of fluctuating renewable energy resources is constantly increasing, the centralized, hierarchical organization of the current energy system cannot adequately accommodate such decentralized electricity generation. New ideas have been developed for improved integration, especially in the lead market Germany. One of these concepts is the microgrid, a grid within the grid. This paper presents a local reserve energy market, which can facilitate the operation and allow trading withi...

  14. Robust Co-Optimization to Energy and Reserve Joint Dispatch Considering Wind Power Generation and Zonal Reserve Constraints in Real-Time Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlai Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an energy and reserve joint dispatch model based on a robust optimization approach in real-time electricity markets, considering wind power generation uncertainties as well as zonal reserve constraints under both normal and N-1 contingency conditions. In the proposed model, the operating reserves are classified as regulating reserve and spinning reserve according to the response performance. More specifically, the regulating reserve is usually utilized to reduce the gap due to forecasting errors, while the spinning reserve is commonly adopted to enhance the ability for N-1 contingencies. Since the transmission bottlenecks may inhibit the deliverability of reserve, the zonal placement of spinning reserve is considered in this paper to improve the reserve deliverability under the contingencies. Numerical results on the IEEE 118-bus test system show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  15. A stochastic security approach to energy and spinning reserve scheduling considering demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partovi, Farzad; Nikzad, Mehdi; Mozafari, Babak; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new algorithm for allocating energy and determining the optimum amount of network active power reserve capacity and the share of generating units and demand side contribution in providing reserve capacity requirements for day-ahead market is presented. In the proposed method, the optimum amount of reserve requirement is determined based on network security set by operator. In this regard, Expected Load Not Supplied (ELNS) is used to evaluate system security in each hour. The proposed method has been implemented over the IEEE 24-bus test system and the results are compared with a deterministic security approach, which considers certain and fixed amount of reserve capacity in each hour. This comparison is done from economic and technical points of view. The promising results show the effectiveness of the proposed model which is formulated as mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and solved by GAMS software. -- Highlights: → Determination of optimal spinning reserve capacity requirement in order to satisfy desired security level set by system operator based on stochastic approach. → Scheduling energy and spinning reserve markets simultaneously. → Comparing the stochastic approach with deterministic approach to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each. → Examine the effect of demand response participation in reserve market to provide spinning reserve.

  16. Optimal Offering Strategies for Wind Power in Energy and Primary Reserve Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Jensen, Tue Vissing

    2016-01-01

    generation from the turbines. These offering strategies aim at maximizing expected revenues from both market floors using probabilistic forecasts for wind power generation, complemented with estimated regulation costs and penalties for failing to provide primary reserve. A set of numerical examples, as well......Wind power generation is to play an important role in supplying electric power demand, and will certainly impact the design of future energy and reserve markets. Operators of wind power plants will consequently develop adequate offering strategies, accounting for the market rules...... and the operational capabilities of the turbines, e.g., to participate in primary reserve markets. We consider two different offering strategies for joint participation of wind power in energy and primary reserve markets, based on the idea of proportional and constant splitting of potentially available power...

  17. Sequential bidding in day-ahead auctions for spot energy and power systems reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swider, Derk J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel approach for sequential bidding on day-ahead auction markets for spot energy and power systems reserve is presented. For the spot market a relatively simple method is considered as a competitive market is assumed. For the reserve market one bidder is assumed to behave strategically and the behavior of the competitors is summarized in a probability distribution of the market price. This results in a method for sequential bidding, where the bidding prices and capacities on the spot and reserve markets are calculated by maximizing a stochastic non-linear objective function of expected profit. With an exemplary application is shown that the trading sequence leads to increasing bidding capacities and prices in the reverse rank number of the markets. Hence, the consideration of a defined trading sequence greatly influences the mathematical representation of the optimal bidding behavior under price uncertainty in day-ahead auctions for spot energy and power systems reserve. (Author)

  18. A solar reserve methodology for renewable energy integration studies based on sub-hourly variability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Eduardo; Brinkman, Gregory; Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lew, Debra

    2012-07-01

    Increasing penetration of wind and solar energy are raising concerns among electric system operators because of the variability and uncertainty associated with the power sources. Previous work focused on the quantification of reserves for systems with wind power. This paper presents a new methodology that allows the determination of necessary reserves for high penetrations of photovoltaic power and compares it to the wind-based methodology. The solar reserve methodology was applied to Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study. A summary of the results is included. (orig.)

  19. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP) to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metaboli...

  20. A Robust Optimization Approach to Energy and Reserve Dispatch in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Conejo, Antonio J.

    To a large extent, electricity markets worldwide still rely on deterministic procedures for clearing energy and reserve auctions. However, larger and larger shares of the production mix consist of renewable sources whose nature is stochastic and non-dispatchable, as their output is not known...

  1. A robust optimization approach to energy and reserve dispatch in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Conejo, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    To a large extent, electricity markets worldwide still rely on deterministic procedures for clearing energy and reserve auctions. However, increasing shares of the production mix consist of renewable sources whose nature is stochastic and non-dispatchable, as their output is uncertain and cannot...

  2. Renewable Energy and Proven Oil Reserves Relation: Evidence from OPEC Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arcan TUZCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The well documented literature on the relation between energy consumption and climate change has been extended by the addition of renewable energy consumption. Several studies show its impact on technical efficiency, per capita income or carbon dioxide (CO2 emission levels for developed and developing countries. However, to the extent of our knowledge, very few of them state the importance of renewable energy for the countries where the main type of fossil fuels, oil, is exported. This study aims to explore the association between renewable energy, real gross domestic product (GDP, CO2 emission level, real oil prices as well as the proven oil reserves for seven members of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC. The analyses are conducted using panel data techniques, namely fixed effect – random effect tests. Our results show a positive and significant relation between renewable energy consumption, and real GDP and CO2 emission level. A statistically not significant coefficient is found for the relation between renewable energy and the proven oil reserves. The relation between energy and real oil prices is also insignificant.

  3. A Bilevel Model for Participation of a Storage System in Energy and Reserve Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Jalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    We develop a decision-making tool based on a bilevel complementarity model for a merchant price-maker energy storage system to determine the most beneficial trading actions in pool-based markets, including day-ahead (as joint energy and reserve markets) and balancing settlements. The uncertainty...... of net load deviation in real-time is incorporated into the model using a set of scenarios generated from the available forecast in the day-ahead. The objective of this energy storage system is to maximize its expected profit. The day-ahead products of energy storage system include energy as well...... system into clearing process of multiple markets and enables such a facility to possibly affect the outcomes of those markets to its own benefit through strategic price and quantity offers. The validity of the proposed approach is evaluated using a numerical study....

  4. Better uses for financial reserves. Reserves for decommisioning, dismantling and waste management could be used for changing energy sructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrek, W.

    1996-01-01

    The reserves laid back by German operators of nuclear power plants for decommissioning, dismantling and waste management amounted to more than DM 44 billion in 1994, and the sum is still increasing. With this money, the public utilities intend to strengthen their competitive position in other industrial sectrors. The author proposes to transfer this money into public funds instead in order to ensure that it is used in an economically more efficient manner. (orig./RHM) [de

  5. Energy and Reserve under Distributed Energy Resources Management-Day-Ahead, Hour-Ahead and Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    and evaluates a generic model for day-ahead, intraday (hour-ahead) and real-time scheduling, considering the joint optimization of energy and reserve in the scope of the virtual power player concept. The model aims to minimize the operation costs in the point of view of one aggregator agent taking into account...

  6. Influence of wind energy forecast in deterministic and probabilistic sizing of reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, A.; Torre, M. de la; Dominguez, T.; Rivas, R. [Red Electrica de Espana (REE), Madrid (Spain). Dept. Centro de Control Electrico

    2010-07-01

    One of the challenges in large-scale wind energy integration in electrical systems is coping with wind forecast uncertainties at the time of sizing generation reserves. These reserves must be sized large enough so that they don't compromise security of supply or the balance of the system, but economic efficiency must be also kept in mind. This paper describes two methods of sizing spinning reserves taking into account wind forecast uncertainties, deterministic using a probabilistic wind forecast and probabilistic using stochastic variables. The deterministic method calculates the spinning reserve needed by adding components each of them in order to overcome one single uncertainty: demand errors, the biggest thermal generation loss and wind forecast errors. The probabilistic method assumes that demand forecast errors, short-term thermal group unavailability and wind forecast errors are independent stochastic variables and calculates the probability density function of the three variables combined. These methods are being used in the case of the Spanish peninsular system, in which wind energy accounted for 14% of the total electrical energy produced in the year 2009 and is one of the systems in the world with the highest wind penetration levels. (orig.)

  7. Human factors design guidelines for maintainability of Department of Energy nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongarra, J.P. Jr.; VanCott, H.P.; Pain, R.F.; Peterson, L.R.; Wallace, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Intent of these guidelines is to provide design and design review teams of DOE nuclear facilities with human factors principles to enhance the design and aid in the inspection of DOE nuclear facilities, systems, and equipment. These guidelines are concerned with design features of DOE nuclear facilities which can potentially affect preventive and corrective maintenance of systems within DOE nuclear facilities. Maintenance includes inspecting, checking, troubleshooting, adjusting, replacing, repairing, and servicing activities. Other factors which influence maintainability such as repair and maintenance suport facilities, maintenance information, and various aspects of the environment are also addressed

  8. Human factors design guidelines for maintainability of Department of Energy nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongarra, J.P. Jr.; VanCott, H.P.; Pain, R.F.; Peterson, L.R.; Wallace, R.I.

    1985-06-18

    Intent of these guidelines is to provide design and design review teams of DOE nuclear facilities with human factors principles to enhance the design and aid in the inspection of DOE nuclear facilities, systems, and equipment. These guidelines are concerned with design features of DOE nuclear facilities which can potentially affect preventive and corrective maintenance of systems within DOE nuclear facilities. Maintenance includes inspecting, checking, troubleshooting, adjusting, replacing, repairing, and servicing activities. Other factors which influence maintainability such as repair and maintenance suport facilities, maintenance information, and various aspects of the environment are also addressed.

  9. [Energy requirements in adolescents playing basketball in Russian Olympic reserve team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M

    2003-01-01

    The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.

  10. Market clearing of joint energy and reserves auctions using augmented payment minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, N.; Aghaei, J.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the market clearing of joint energy and reserves auctions and its mathematical formulation, focusing on a possible implementation of the Payment Cost Minimization (PCM). It also discusses another key point in debate: whether market clearing algorithm should minimize offer costs or payment costs? An aggregated simultaneous market clearing approach is proposed for provision of ancillary services as well as energy, which is in the form of Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) formulation. In the MINLP formulation of the market clearing process, the objective function (Payment cost or offer cost) are optimized while meeting AC power flow constraints, system reserve requirements and lost opportunity cost (LOC) considerations. The model is applied to the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS), and simulation studies are carried out to examine the effectiveness of each objective function. (author)

  11. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  12. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  13. Decommissioning reserve funds problem for the energy conversion policy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusuno, Sadao

    2016-01-01

    Germany is planning to close all nuclear power plants by 2022. 'Nuclear power phase-out' policy has been decided before the Fukushima accident in 2011. Author considered the background of the 'nuclear power phase-out', and analyzed for the decommissioning reserve fund, which is one of the facing issues. Immediately after the Fukushima accident, Merkel government has decided the temporary stop of the eight nuclear plants, and subsequent closure. Moreover, in the report from the Ethics Commission for a Safe Energy Supply 'Germany's energy transition-A collective project for the future' (May 2011), step-by-step abolition from nuclear energy use is 'a very big challenge for all concerned parties'. The German government confirmed that there is enough reserve funds in the nuclear operators for the 'nuclear power phase-out'. The nuclear operators have been taken even legal measures that cannot give up the responsibility of the funding. The reserve funds are appropriated for decommissioning and the subsequent long-term disposal. As a main item of the safety priority, transparent and fair procedures, 'polluter pays principle' which are based on scientific evidence, waste disposal sites are planned to be completed until 2023. In addition, against the German government, the nuclear operators have filed a payment of compensation and court proceedings on the suspension orders before the reactor life is exhausted. (N.T.)

  14. New approach for strategic bidding of Gencos in energy and spinning reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Shirani, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    In restructured and de-regulated power systems, generating companies (Gencos) are responsible for supplying electricity for both energy and reserve markets, which usually operate simultaneously. In this condition, the question is how much and for what price must each Genco generate for each market to maximize its profit, so this paper intends to answer to this question. In this paper, first, the combined energy and reserve markets are considered, and the Nash equilibrium points are determined. Then, the bidding strategies for each Genco at these points will be presented. The bids for the energy and 10 min spinning reserve (TMSR) markets are separated in the second stage, and again, the bidding strategies for each Genco for the two separated markets will be demonstrated. Comparison of the results shows that the separated bidding strategies, while being simplified with the algebraic optimization model and reducing the time consumed, give the same results as the combined ones. The Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) nine bus test system is employed to illustrate and verify the results of the proposed method

  15. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118 examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR, appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

  16. The importance of correctly maintaining HVAC installations and energy management in the hotel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta Molero, P.

    2016-01-01

    The optimum maintenance of installations in hotel establishments is becoming increasingly necessary given the complexity and diversity of this type of buildings, with the aim of being efficient in the use of the resources that they consume, such as water and energy. From the owners of the establishments and the companies responsible for the hotel management, to the clients that stay in them, it is vitally important that the operation of its installations is guaranteed at all times, particularly as regards temperature control. Proper preventive maintenance therefore plays an essential role in ensuring that the hotel guests’ experience is as positive as possible. (Author)

  17. Decision regarding Gazifere Inc.'s request to maintain current tariffs, its distribution plan and energy efficiency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote-Verhaaf, A.; Patoine, M.A.; Tanguay, F.

    2002-01-01

    In June 2002 Gazifere Inc. applied to Quebec's Regie de l'energie for approval to maintain its current gas tariffs in its area of operation, the Outaouais region of Quebec. Gazifere also presented its program for energy efficiency and its distribution program with a request to extend its distribution network in the Outaouais. The energy efficiency program includes the rental of residential water heaters, water and gas savings, high efficiency furnaces, rental of commercial water heaters, and a program for low income families. The Regie reviewed the application and declared that the current fees could remain in effect until October 1, 2002. It also approved the modifications proposed by Gazifere to the adjustment of rates. The Regie reviewed the objectives of the energy efficiency programs and approved a volumetric budget for the plan and authorized that the deferred rate be kept in the energy efficiency program. The Regie approved that the energy efficiency plan should extend over 3 years with the exception of the residential inspection program until more information could be gathered on the energy savings in the residential sector. The Regie made a request to Gazifere to provide data on industrial consumption before authorizing $3,730,200 for extension of their distribution network. It approved the amount $5,306,400 as exploitation charges for the year 2002-2003. refs., tabs

  18. Attracting and Maintaining Demographic Diversity in Energy: Lessons from Petroleum Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaksina, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    Diversity is important for any organization, its development and growth. However, frequently we observe that, if left to their own devices, many social and professional communities become self-selective, less susceptible to change, and, thus, less diverse. For example, this phenomenon can be readily observed in the academia when a professor forms a research group that is mostly comprised of people from certain origin or personal qualities. While on an individual level, this situation can be quite convenient and even beneficial, on the large scale the lack of diversity creates severe distortions and discourages many talented individuals from joining the group, organization, or industry in general. Diversity that includes ethnic, age, and gender aspects is a serious concern in overall energy industry and academia. One of the most prominent field impacted by diversity problems is petroleum engineering which can be used as a learning opportunity for other branches of energy industry. Using petroleum engineering community, we can understand what processes have led it to become self-selective, what measures have been applied to changes the situation and introduce more diversity.

  19. Multi-objective market clearing of joint energy and reserves auctions ensuring power system security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, J.; Shayanfar, H.; Amjady, N.

    2009-01-01

    A model and solution approach to day-ahead market clearing of joint energy and reserves auctions is proposed in this paper. The model represents the clearing system used by ISO in charge of both the market operation and system security. A Multiobjective Mathematical Programming (MMP) formulation is implemented for provision of ancillary services (Automatic Generation Control or AGC, Spinning, Non-spinning and operational reserves) as well as energy in simultaneous auctions by pool-based aggregated market scheme. System security is taken into account in the market clearing procedure as the extra objective functions of the optimization problem. So, in the MMP formulation of the market clearing process, the objective functions (generation cost and security indices) are optimized while meeting AC power flow constraints, system reserve requirements and lost opportunity cost (LOC) considerations. The model is applied to the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS), and simulation studies are carried out to examine the effectiveness of the proposed method

  20. Analysis of the Effect of a Marine Energy Farm to Protect a Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacalin Peninsula in the Black Sea is a new land located south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Since 1938 this area became a biosphere reserve since many rare species of animals and plants are to be found there. The generation of this new peninsula is due to the sedimentary process induced by the Danube River outflow and it was started more than 150 years ago. In the winter of 2013 this environment was seriously affected by some very strong storms putting in real danger this ecosystem. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the protection that might be offered to this area by a marine energy farm that would be deployed in front of the peninsula. In order to assess the coastal protection offered by the proposed solution, simulations with the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore wave model have been performed for the most relevant storm patterns. The results show that a marine energy farm can provide a real sheltering effect to the ecological reserve. Such approach seems to be also economically viable since this coastal environment represents a real hot spot in the Black Sea from the point of view of marine energy resources.

  1. Effective grouping for energy and performance: Construction of adaptive, sustainable, and maintainable data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essary, David S.

    The performance gap between processors and storage systems has been increasingly critical over the years. Yet the performance disparity remains, and further, storage energy consumption is rapidly becoming a new critical problem. While smarter caching and predictive techniques do much to alleviate this disparity, the problem persists, and data storage remains a growing contributor to latency and energy consumption. Attempts have been made at data layout maintenance, or intelligent physical placement of data, yet in practice, basic heuristics remain predominant. Problems that early studies sought to solve via layout strategies were proven to be NP-Hard, and data layout maintenance today remains more art than science. With unknown potential and a domain inherently full of uncertainty, layout maintenance persists as an area largely untapped by modern systems. But uncertainty in workloads does not imply randomness; access patterns have exhibited repeatable, stable behavior. Predictive information can be gathered, analyzed, and exploited to improve data layouts. Our goal is a dynamic, robust, sustainable predictive engine, aimed at improving existing layouts by replicating data at the storage device level. We present a comprehensive discussion of the design and construction of such a predictive engine, including workload evaluation, where we present and evaluate classical workloads as well as our own highly detailed traces collected over an extended period. We demonstrate significant gains through an initial static grouping mechanism, and compare against an optimal grouping method of our own construction, and further show significant improvement over competing techniques. We also explore and illustrate the challenges faced when moving from static to dynamic (i.e. online) grouping, and provide motivation and solutions for addressing these challenges. These challenges include metadata storage, appropriate predictive collocation, online performance, and physical placement

  2. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  3. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the operation and planning of power systems have been motivated by the introduction of Distributed Generation (DG) and Demand Response (DR) in the competitive electricity markets’ environment, with deep concerns at the efficiency level. In this context, grid operators, market...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...

  4. Rights reserved to parliament in connection with the atomic energy laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, K.

    1985-01-01

    The peaceful use of nuclear energy is a key problem in the field of force created by the counter vailing interests of the economy and ecology, a problem that is a first-rate challenge to the institutions of our constitutional state. This book is intended to explain the constitutional key problem in the field of nuclear energy utilization: Does the institution ''parliament'' - primarily the Federal Parliament which by our Basic Law is assigned the function of an ''institutional centre of political affairs'' - accept the challenge or does it evade the responsibility for problems relating to the principles of our society. The author primarily reveals and discusses the task and rights to be reserved to parliament within the vast field of governmental activities, so that the large framework of legislative means of impact is left out of consideration, although some individual aspects now and then are considered as additional items which contribute to explain the point discussed. The constitutional standard is the rights reserved to parliament which, according to the theory of material and essential matters developed by the Federal Constitutional Court, include vital decisions with impact on the future development of our society, and not only problems relating to the Basic Law, as was hitherto accepted. This extended approach applies to problems solvable by legislative means. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Stochastic multiobjective self-scheduling of a power producer in joint energy and reserves markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidinasab, V.; Jadid, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic multiobjective model for self-scheduling of a power producer which participates in the day-ahead joint energy and reserves markets. The objective of a power producer is to compromise the conflicting objectives of payoff maximization and gaseous emissions minimization when committing its generation of thermal units. The proposed schedule will be used by the power producers to decide on emission quota arbitrage opportunities and for strategic bidding to the energy and reserves market. The paper analyzes a scenario-based multiobjective model in which random distributions, such as price forecasting inaccuracies as well as forced outage of generating units are modeled as scenarios tree using a combined fuzzy c-mean/Monte-Carlo simulation (FCM/MCS) method. With the above procedure the stochastic multiobjective self-scheduling problem is converted into corresponding deterministic problems. Then a multiobjective mathematical programming (MMP) approach based on ε-constraint method is implemented for each deterministic scenario. Piecewise linearized fuel and emission cost functions are applied for computational efficiency and the model is formulated as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Numerical simulations for a power producer with 21 thermal units are discussed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach in increasing expected payoffs by adjusting the emission quota arbitrage opportunities. (author)

  6. A Reserve-based Method for Mitigating the Impact of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krad, Ibrahim

    The fundamental operating paradigm of today's power systems is undergoing a significant shift. This is partially motivated by the increased desire for incorporating variable renewable energy resources into generation portfolios. While these generating technologies offer clean energy at zero marginal cost, i.e. no fuel costs, they also offer unique operating challenges for system operators. Perhaps the biggest operating challenge these resources introduce is accommodating their intermittent fuel source availability. For this reason, these generators increase the system-wide variability and uncertainty. As a result, system operators are revisiting traditional operating strategies to more efficiently incorporate these generation resources to maximize the benefit they provide while minimizing the challenges they introduce. One way system operators have accounted for system variability and uncertainty is through the use of operating reserves. Operating reserves can be simplified as excess capacity kept online during real time operations to help accommodate unforeseen fluctuations in demand. With new generation resources, a new class of operating reserves has emerged that is generally known as flexibility, or ramping, reserves. This new reserve class is meant to better position systems to mitigate severe ramping in the net load profile. The best way to define this new requirement is still under investigation. Typical requirement definitions focus on the additional uncertainty introduced by variable generation and there is room for improvement regarding explicit consideration for the variability they introduce. An exogenous reserve modification method is introduced in this report that can improve system reliability with minimal impacts on total system wide production costs. Another potential solution to this problem is to formulate the problem as a stochastic programming problem. The unit commitment and economic dispatch problems are typically formulated as deterministic

  7. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  8. Multiple energy supply risks, optimal reserves, and optimal domestic production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweifel, P.; Ferrari, M.

    1992-01-01

    This study starts from the observation that today's Western trading nations are exposed to multiple risks of energy supplies, e.g. simultaneous shortage of oil and electricity supplies. To cope with these risks, oil can be stockpiled as well as domestic capacity for power production built up. Adopting the viewpoint of a policy maker who aims at minimizing the expected cost of security of supply, optimal simultaneous adjustments of oil stocks and electric production capacities to exogenous changes such as economic growth are derived. Against this benchmark, one-dimensional rules such as 'oil reserves for 90 days' turn out to be not only suboptimal but also to foster adjustments that exacerbate suboptimality. 9 refs., 1 tabs

  9. Development of a waste minimization plan for the Department of Energy's Naval petroleum reserve No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Lane, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    A Waste Minimization Program Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) was prepared in response to DOE Order 5400.1, open-quotes General Environmental Protection Program close-quote The NPR-3 Waste Minimization Program Plan encompasses all ongoing operations at the Naval Petroleum Reserve and is consistent with the principles set forth in the mission statement for NPR-3. The mission of the NPR-3 is to apply project management, engineering and scientific capabilities to produce oil and gas from subsurface zones at the maximum efficiency rate for the United States Government. NPR-3 generates more than 60 discrete waste streams, many of significant volume. Most of these waste streams are categorized as wastes from the exploration, development and production of oil and gas and, as such, are exempt from Subtitle C of RCRA as indicated in the regulatory determination published in the Federal Register on July 6, 1988. However, because so many of these waste streams contain hazardous substances and because of an increasingly more restrictive regulatory environment, in 1990 an overall effort was made to characterize all waste streams produced and institute the best waste management practice economically practical to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste generated

  10. Cyber-physical system for a water reclamation plant: Balancing aeration, energy, and water quality to maintain process resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjie

    Aeration accounts for a large fraction of energy consumption in conventional water reclamation plants (WRPs). Although process operations at older WRPs can satisfy effluent permit requirements, they typically operate with excess aeration. More effective process controls at older WRPs can be challenging as operators work to balance higher energy costs and more stringent effluent limitations while managing fluctuating loads. Therefore, understandings of process resilience or ability to quickly return to original operation conditions at a WRP are important. A state-of-art WRP should maintain process resilience to deal with different kinds of perturbations even after optimization of energy demands. This work was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of cyber-physical system (CPS) for improving operation at Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) Calumet WRP. In this work, a process model was developed and used to better understand the conditions of current Calumet WRP, with additional valuable information from two dissolved oxygen field measurements. Meanwhile, a classification system was developed to reveal the pattern of historical influent scenario based on cluster analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. Based on the results from the classification, typical process control options were investigated. To ensure the feasibility of information acquisition, the reliability and flexibility of soft sensors were assessed to typical influent conditions. Finally, the process resilience was investigated to better balance influent perturbations, energy demands, and effluent quality for long-term operations. These investigations and evaluations show that although the energy demands change as the influent conditions and process controls. In general, aeration savings could be up to 50% from the level of current consumption; with a more complex process controls, the saving could be up to 70% in relatively steady-state conditions and at least 40

  11. 75 FR 66078 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Staff Assessment for the Solar Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Assessment for the Solar Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA (DOE/ EIS-0439) and...) Plan Amendment, as a joint environmental analysis document for the proposed Rice Solar Energy Project... two new on-site wells. Rice Solar Energy, LLC (RSE) has applied to Western to interconnect the...

  12. Dispatch of distributed energy resources to provide energy and reserve in smart grids using a particle swarm optimization approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Pinto, Tiago

    2013-01-01

    are recognized. The increasing integration of demand response and distributed generation resources, all of them mostly with small scale distributed characteristics, leads to the need of aggregating entities such as Virtual Power Players. The operation business models become more complex in the context of smart......The smart grid concept is a key issue in the future power systems, namely at the distribution level, with deep concerns in the operation and planning of these systems. Several advantages and benefits for both technical and economic operation of the power system and of the electricity markets...... grid operation. Computational intelligence methods can be used to give a suitable solution for the resources scheduling problem considering the time constraints. This paper proposes a methodology for a joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation to provide energy and reserve...

  13. Energy Reserves, Information Need and a Pinch of Personality Determine Decision-Making on Route in Partially Migratory Blue Tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L K Nilsson

    Full Text Available In facultative partial migrants some individuals in a population are migratory and others are resident and individuals decide each year anew which strategy to choose. While the proportion of birds migrating is in part determined by environmental conditions and competitive abilities, the timing of individual departure and behaviours on route are little understood. Individuals encounter different environmental conditions when migrating earlier or later. Based on cost/ benefit considerations we tested whether behaviours on route were affected by time constraints, personality and/or age in a partially migrating population of Blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus. We captured female Blue tits on migration at the Southern tip of Sweden during early, peak and late migration and measured latency to feed in an unfamiliar environment, exploration of a novel object and hesitation to feed beside a novel object (neophobia. Lean birds and birds with long wings started feeding earlier when released into the cage indicating that foraging decisions were mainly determined by energetic needs (lean and large birds. However, juveniles commenced feeding later with progression of the migratory season in concordance with predictions about personality effects. Furthermore, lean birds started to explore earlier than birds with larger fat reserves again indicating an effect of maintaining threshold energy reserves. Moreover, late migrating juveniles, started to explore earlier than early migrating juveniles possibly due to time constraints to find high-quality foraging patches or a suitable winter home. Finally, neophobia did not change over the migratory season indicating that this behaviour is not compromised by time constraints. The results overall indicate that decisions on route are mainly governed by energetic requirements and current needs to learn about the environment and only to a small extent by differences in personality.

  14. Energy Reserves, Information Need and a Pinch of Personality Determine Decision-Making on Route in Partially Migratory Blue Tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anna L K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In facultative partial migrants some individuals in a population are migratory and others are resident and individuals decide each year anew which strategy to choose. While the proportion of birds migrating is in part determined by environmental conditions and competitive abilities, the timing of individual departure and behaviours on route are little understood. Individuals encounter different environmental conditions when migrating earlier or later. Based on cost/ benefit considerations we tested whether behaviours on route were affected by time constraints, personality and/or age in a partially migrating population of Blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We captured female Blue tits on migration at the Southern tip of Sweden during early, peak and late migration and measured latency to feed in an unfamiliar environment, exploration of a novel object and hesitation to feed beside a novel object (neophobia). Lean birds and birds with long wings started feeding earlier when released into the cage indicating that foraging decisions were mainly determined by energetic needs (lean and large birds). However, juveniles commenced feeding later with progression of the migratory season in concordance with predictions about personality effects. Furthermore, lean birds started to explore earlier than birds with larger fat reserves again indicating an effect of maintaining threshold energy reserves. Moreover, late migrating juveniles, started to explore earlier than early migrating juveniles possibly due to time constraints to find high-quality foraging patches or a suitable winter home. Finally, neophobia did not change over the migratory season indicating that this behaviour is not compromised by time constraints. The results overall indicate that decisions on route are mainly governed by energetic requirements and current needs to learn about the environment and only to a small extent by differences in personality.

  15. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for the disposal of fast reserve energy at the electrical energy supply. Supraleitende Energiespeicher zur Bereitstellung schneller Reserveleistung in der elektrischen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, W [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Bittihn, R [Varta AG, Hagen (Germany); Kuerten, H [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Radtke, U [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Taube, W [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Vollmar, H E [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Willmes, H [Varta Batterie AG, Hagen (Germany)

    1994-04-05

    The authors investigate the economic efficiency of the application of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the field of electrical energy supply taking as example a network of 10 000 MW which is operated in an European interconnected power system. In case of this network the supply of the second reserve energy has become an interesting example of application, especially combined with the disconnection of the pre-heater. The application of SMES could lead to a better utilisation of existing power stations and the fuels along with a reduction of emissions. (orig.)

  16. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their...

  17. Metabolic substrate use and the turnover of endogenous energy reserves in broad-tailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Scott A; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Del Rio, Carlos Martínez

    2006-07-01

    We fed broad-tailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) diets of contrasting carbon isotope composition and measured changes in the delta(13)C of expired breath through time. By measuring the delta(13)C in the breath of fed and fasted birds we were able to quantify the fraction of metabolism fueled by assimilated sugars and endogenous energy reserves. These measurements also allowed us to estimate the fractional turnover of carbon in the hummingbirds' energy reserves. When hummingbirds were feeding, they fueled their metabolism largely ( approximately 90%) with assimilated sugars. The rate of carbon isotope incorporation into the energy reserves of hummingbirds was higher when birds were gaining as opposed to losing body mass. The average residence time of a carbon atom in the hummingbirds' energy reserves ranged from 1 to 2 days.

  18. 40 CFR 74.48 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-process sources. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-process sources. [Reserved] 74.48 Section 74.48 Protection of Environment... energy—process sources. [Reserved] ...

  19. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  20. Optimised performance of a plug-in electric vehicle aggregator in energy and reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model is developed to optimise the performance of a PEV aggregator in the power market. • PEVs aggregator can combine the PEVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. • A new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of PEV owners is proposed. • Several uncertainties are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach. • The proposed model is proficient in significantly improving the short- and long-term behaviour. - Abstract: In this paper, a new model is developed to optimise the performance of a plug-in Electric Vehicle (EV) aggregator in electricity markets, considering both short- and long-term horizons. EV aggregator as a new player of the power market can aggregate the EVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. The aggregator maximises the profit and optimises EV owners’ revenue by applying changes in tariffs to compete with other market players for retaining current customers and acquiring new owners. On this basis, a new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of EV owners and their market participation is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the behaviour of owners to select their supplying company is considered. The aggregator optimises the self-scheduling programme and submits the best bidding/offering strategies to the day-ahead and real-time markets. To achieve this purpose, the day-ahead and real-time energy and reserve markets are modelled as oligopoly markets, in contrast with previous works that utilised perfectly competitive ones. Furthermore, several uncertainties and constraints are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach, which have not been addressed in previous works. The numerical studies show the effectiveness of the proposed model

  1. Glucose is required to maintain high ATP-levels for the energy utilizing steps during PDT-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdanner, C.; Plaetzer, K.; Kiesslich, T.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may trigger apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells. Several steps in the induction and execution of apoptosis require high amounts of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Since the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) decreases early in apoptosis, we raised the question about the mechanisms of maintaining a sufficiently high ATP-level. We therefore monitored ΔΨ and the intracellular ATP-level of apoptotic human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431) after photodynamic treatment with aluminium (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride. A maximum of caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation was found at fluences of about 4 J.cm -2 . Under these conditions apoptotic cells reduced ΔΨ rapidly, while the ATP-level remained high for 4 to 6 hours after treatment for cells supplied with glucose. To analyze the contribution of glycolysis to the energy supply during apoptosis experiments were carried out with cells deprivated of glucose. These cells showed a rapid drop of ATP-content and neither caspase-activation nor nuclear fragmentation could be detected. We conclude that the use of glucose as a source of ATP is obligatory for the execution of PDT-induced apoptosis. (author)

  2. Is there a relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability after exposure to field-contaminated soils?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Lamy, Isabelle; Cheviron, Nathalie; Hedde, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    Generic biomarkers are needed to assess environmental risks in metal polluted soils. We assessed the strength of the relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability under conditions of cocktail of metals at low doses and large range of soil parameters. Aporrectodea caliginosa was exposed in laboratory to a panel of soils differing in Cd, Pb and Zn total and available (CaCl 2 and EDTA-extractable) concentrations, and in soil texture, pH, CEC and organic-C. Glycogen, protein and lipid contents were recorded in exposed worms. Glycogen contents were not linked to the explaining variables considered. Variable selection identified CaCl 2 extractable metals concentrations and soil texture as the main factors affecting protein and lipid contents. The results showed opposite effects of Pb and Zn, high inter-individual variability of biomarkers and weak relationships with easily extractable metals. Our results support the lack of genericity of energy reserves in earthworms exposed to field-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Energy reserves were quantified in earthworms exposed to a wide panel of field soils. • Protein and lipid contents were related to CaCl 2 extractable metals. • Soil texture affected protein and lipid contents. • Energy reserves were highly variable inter-individually. - Earthworm energy reserves response to low doses of available metals is not generic

  3. US Department of Energy Naval petroleum reserve number 1. Financial statement audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the United States taxpayer. NPOSR was established by a series of Executive Orders in the early 1900s as a future source of liquid fuels for the military. NPOSR remained largely inactive until Congress, responding to the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74, passed the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976. The law authorized production for six years. Thereafter, NPOSR production could be reauthorized by the President in three-year increments. Since enactment of the law, every President has determined that continuing NPOSR production is in the nation`s best interest. NPOSR currently is authorized to continue production through April 5, 2000.

  4. Provision of frequency restoration reserves by possible energy storage systems in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassheim, A.; Haan, de J.E.S.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Current developments in generation portfolios and market design urge the need to attract additional balancing services in the form of frequency restoration reserves (FRR). This work elaborates on the opportunities and constraints of current balancing markets in the Netherlands and Germany to harness

  5. Selection of Non-Restorable Reserved Energy Process Control and Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to selection of non-restorable continuously reserved discrete control and management systems of electric and heat and power processes. Two problems concerning system optimization on the basis of the following criteria – their reliability and cost have been solved in the paper. 

  6. Energy market and reserve market modeling in simultaneous and serial implementation methods with the aim of reducing electricity costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Ghoraba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In competitive electricity markets, power needed for the network’s reserve is purchased from the ancillary service market. In this market, producing units and buyers alike announce their offers. As will be seen, energy market and reserve market implementation is possible with simultaneous method and serial method by choosing each of the methods based on the type of market and other conditions. In this paper, the energy market and the active power reserve market are simulated in two formations as serial and simultaneous for a uniform pricing system. In each method, limitations of transferring power over the lines, based on available transfer capacity (ATC, is considered alongside the other constraints in the energy market and the active power reserve market. Then, during network overload, economic dispatch is accomplished between winner units in the reserve market by using a linear optimization problem, and needed power is provided from these units at a minimal cost. Finally, our proposed methods are implemented on an IEEE 39-bus test system and results are analyzed.

  7. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  8. Usage of energy reserves in crustaceans during starvation: status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; García-Carreño, Fernando; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Hernández-López, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the usage of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as energy source by marine crustaceans during starvation. Crustaceans are a large and diverse group including some economically important species. The efforts to culture them for human consumption has prompted the interest to understand the preferences of energy sources to be applied for feed formulation and cost reduction. Important differences have been found among species and appear to be related not only to the biochemistry and physiology of nutrition, but also to the living environment of the crustaceans. Furthermore, crustaceans undergo morphological, physiological and behavioral changes due to their natural growing process that affect their feeding habits, an aspect that should be carefully considered. We discuss the current information on marine crustaceans about energy usage and describe areas of future research, where starvation studies render important insights.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  10. New bidding strategy formulation for day-ahead energy and reserve markets based on evolutionary programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaviriyanupap, Pathom; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for a day-ahead market is formulated. The proposed algorithm is developed from the viewpoint of a generation company wishing to maximize a profit as a participant in the deregulated power and reserve markets. Separate power and reserve markets are considered, both are operated by clearing price auction system. The optimal bidding parameters for both markets are determined by solving an optimization problem that takes unit commitment constraints such as generating limits and unit minimum up/down time constraints into account. This is a non-convex and non-differentiable which is difficult to solve by traditional optimization techniques. In this paper, evolutionary programming is used to solve the problem. The algorithm is applied to both single-sided and double-sided auctions, numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme compared with those obtained from a sequential quadratic programming. (author)

  11. Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale integration of renewable energy sources in power system leads to the replacement of conventional power plants (CPPs) and consequently challenges in power system reliability and security are introduced. This study is focused on improving the grid frequency response after a contingency ...

  12. Waste management systems model for energy systems sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Rivera, A.L.; Pechin, W.H.; Genung, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    There is a model on the Oak Ridge Reservation which provides requirements for determining capacities and capabilities related to low-level, hazardous, and mixed wastes. In FY 1987, the model will be sufficiently advanced to provide various waste management scenarios. These scenarios will be compared technically, operationally, and financially by use of waste characterization data and process simulators that are currently under development. The results of the process simulations will be used to help identify waste treatment, storage, and disposal technologies that need to be demonstrated prior to full-scale development for DOE use. The information derived from this effort will be made available to all DOE facilities

  13. A flexible energy market - electric power reserves at the place of the end-user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livik, Klaus; Groenli, Helle; Fretheim, Stig; Feilberg, Nicolai; Gjervan, Sverre; Dymbe, Lars

    1996-01-01

    If short-term as well as long-term prices in the electric power market are to be stable, then the market must be flexible and both energy and power related efforts must be taken at the end-user's place. The report analyses what type of actors in the electric power market are profiting from a flexible end-user market for energy and power. It is found that a flexible market has utilitarian value for end-users, network owners, suppliers, market operators and system operators. It is also clearly desirable from the point of view of the authorities. Considerable possibilities of developing the flexible energy and power market exist at the end-user. The possibilities can be realized by means of technological developments and political incentives such as by rules for monopoly control. End-user measures may have considerable utilitarian value, socio economically. Especially in areas with high marginal costs of power transport will network owners see the advantages of such measures

  14. Ensuring the Reliable Operation of the Power Grid: State-Based and Distributed Approaches to Scheduling Energy and Contingency Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Jose Fernando

    Keeping a contingency reserve in power systems is necessary to preserve the security of real-time operations. This work studies two different approaches to the optimal allocation of energy and reserves in the day-ahead generation scheduling process. Part I presents a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment model to co-optimize energy and the locational reserves required to respond to a set of uncertain generation contingencies, using a novel state-based formulation. The model is applied in an offer-based electricity market to allocate contingency reserves throughout the power grid, in order to comply with the N-1 security criterion under transmission congestion. The objective is to minimize expected dispatch and reserve costs, together with post contingency corrective redispatch costs, modeling the probability of generation failure and associated post contingency states. The characteristics of the scheduling problem are exploited to formulate a computationally efficient method, consistent with established operational practices. We simulated the distribution of locational contingency reserves on the IEEE RTS96 system and compared the results with the conventional deterministic method. We found that assigning locational spinning reserves can guarantee an N-1 secure dispatch accounting for transmission congestion at a reasonable extra cost. The simulations also showed little value of allocating downward reserves but sizable operating savings from co-optimizing locational nonspinning reserves. Overall, the results indicate the computational tractability of the proposed method. Part II presents a distributed generation scheduling model to optimally allocate energy and spinning reserves among competing generators in a day-ahead market. The model is based on the coordination between individual generators and a market entity. The proposed method uses forecasting, augmented pricing and locational signals to induce efficient commitment of generators based on firm

  15. Frequency Activated Fast Power Reserve for Wind Power Plant Delivered from Stored Kinetic Energy in the Wind Turbine Inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Thuring, P.; Kumar, S

    2011-01-01

    is proposed that delivers a short-term power reserve from the kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) inertia, while considering the inherent characteristics of a wind power plant. The aim is to contribute with a fast power reserve to stabilize the frequency drop during large and sudden production deficits......With increased penetration of converter interfaced generation, synchronous generators may start to be displaced to keep the overall power balance. As a consequence the resulting inertia in the system may decrease and make the power system more exposed to frequency excursions. Here, a control...

  16. ENERGY SAVING RESERVES IN THE PRODUCTION OF FEED ADDITIVES WITH THE SPECIFIED GRANULOMETRIC COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing need to substitute expensive foreign-made feed products need for expanding food resources in the Russian market appears. The disadvantages of existing technological lines for the preparation of mineral feed additives are high specific energy consumption, low economic efficiency and inadequate conditions for environmental safety insuring. That is why energy-efficient production method for the feed additive based on zeolite and a technological line for its realization was developed at the Department of Technology of bread, pastry, pasta and grain processing industries in VSUET. Application of refrigeration unit operating in heat pump mode allows preparation of heat transfer agents with a maximum utilization of secondary heat sources. After drying the spent drying agent is fed to the preheating methioninate copper suspension through the regenerative heat exchange, then to the dehumidification into the evaporator of refrigeration unit and then it is returned to the first section of the two-part condenser in closed-loop mode. Feed fat is heated to 55 ... 60 ° C, by "hot water", heating of which takes place in the second section of the 11th condenser to the temperature of 70 ... 75 ° C and is fed into the jacket of fat melting device. Then it is returned to the second capacitor section to form a recirculation loop. We developed a feed additive with the following particle size distribution: a large fraction of 2.8%, the average fraction of 95.2%, the fine fraction of 2.0%, the residue on the sieve with a mesh № 1,2 of 2,0%, with a moisture content of 6.2%, the angle of repose of 42 deg., dispersibility of 6.9%, a bulk density of 385 kg / m3. The proposed method for the production of the feed additive based on zeolite ensures environmental safety of production due to closed recirculation circuits on material and energy flows, helps to reduce energy and resource consumption for the production of the feed additive, to obtain high

  17. [Use of energy reserves during the breeding fast of the emperor penguin, Aptenodvtes forsteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, R; Clément, C

    1976-01-19

    During the breeding fasting of the emperor penguin, the lipid and protein stores are steadily used to meet the metabolic needs; they represent respectively 93 and 7% of the energy production in the animal. The role of the glucid stores are quantitively negligible. Loss of tissue water represents 35,3% of body weight loss. Increased weight loss below 20 kg a "critical weight", is associated with a conversion to protein catabolism when lipid supplies are exhausted. These results allow the estimation of the metabolism when the body weight loss is considered in this antartic penguin.

  18. Economics of secondary energy from GTL regarding natural gas reserves of Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Arzabe Maure, Jose Omar; Oliva, Cidar Ramon

    2007-01-01

    This work aims the economics and the viability of Natural Gas Industrialization in Bolivia, by producing secondary fuels like gas to liquid (GTL)-diesel from natural gas (cleaner than the oil by-product), looking for a clean development with that environmentally well energy using this GTL process. Bolivia has resources that could fulfill these secondary energy resources from GTL. It is possible to process 30 MCMpd of gas obtaining profits from the gas and also from the liquid hydrocarbons that are found in it. Then the Bolivian GTL would present the following advantages: it would export diesel and/or gasoline and would not have to import it anymore.; the exportations of GTL-FT would reach 35 Mbpy, acquiring competitive prices; it would increase productive jobs not only due to the GTL itself, but also from secondary economy linked to GTL market; the use of GTL-FT diesel would bring a ''cleaner'' environment especially in the urban areas; finally, from the macroeconomic perspective, the investment in the plant construction and supporting works would generate a great amount of job offers. (author)

  19. Mixed quantum/classical investigation of the photodissociation of NH3(A-tilde) and a practical method for maintaining zero-point energy in classical trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhommeau, David; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2008-01-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of ammonia upon excitation of the out-of-plane bending mode (mode ν 2 with n 2 =0,...,6 quanta of vibration) in the A-tilde electronic state is investigated by means of several mixed quantum/classical methods, and the calculated final-state properties are compared to experiments. Five mixed quantum/classical methods are tested: one mean-field approach (the coherent switching with decay of mixing method), two surface-hopping methods [the fewest switches with time uncertainty (FSTU) and FSTU with stochastic decay (FSTU/SD) methods], and two surface-hopping methods with zero-point energy (ZPE) maintenance [the FSTU/SD+trajectory projection onto ZPE orbit (TRAPZ) and FSTU/SD+minimal TRAPZ (mTRAPZ) methods]. We found a qualitative difference between final NH 2 internal energy distributions obtained for n 2 =0 and n 2 >1, as observed in experiments. Distributions obtained for n 2 =1 present an intermediate behavior between distributions obtained for smaller and larger n 2 values. The dynamics is found to be highly electronically nonadiabatic with all these methods. NH 2 internal energy distributions may have a negative energy tail when the ZPE is not maintained throughout the dynamics. The original TRAPZ method was designed to maintain ZPE in classical trajectories, but we find that it leads to unphysically high internal vibrational energies. The mTRAPZ method, which is new in this work and provides a general method for maintaining ZPE in either single-surface or multisurface trajectories, does not lead to unphysical results and is much less time consuming. The effect of maintaining ZPE in mixed quantum/classical dynamics is discussed in terms of agreement with experimental findings. The dynamics for n 2 =0 and n 2 =6 are also analyzed to reveal details not available from experiment, in particular, the time required for quenching of electronic excitation and the adiabatic energy gap and geometry at the time of quenching

  20. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouayard, N.; Rharrabe, K.; Ghailani, N. N.; Jbilou, R.; Castanera, P.; Ortego, F.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens) on Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea) and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85%) and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva). The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm); and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm). All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and {alpha}-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate) activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate) increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed. (Author) 65 refs.

  1. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bouayad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens on Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85% and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva. The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm; and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and α-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed.

  2. SEE Action Guide for States: Guidance on Establishing and Maintaining Technical Reference Manuals for Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this guide is to support the development, maintenance, and use of accurate and reliable Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs). TRMs provide information primarily used for estimating the energy and demand savings of end-use energy efficiency measures associated with utility customer-funded efficiency programs.

  3. Extending market activities for a distribution company in hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets - Part I: Problem formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhour, M.; Golkar, M.A.; Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a novel hourly-ahead profit model for an active distribution company (DISCO), a DISCO with high capacity level of connected DGs that can make selling proposals for the markets, in a pool-based system. The presented model engages DSICO in both energy producing and reserve providing activities. DISCO's earnings from reserve market include the remuneration both for real-time generation and ready-for-service capacity. To achieve the optimal decisions for an active DISCO in the energy and reserve markets, a two-stage optimization model and associated mathematical formulations have been developed. The first subproblem extracts a single operating profile (a lumped financial model) of the whole distribution system, including DGs and ILs, at the connecting point to the upstream network. The second one determines the optimal values of decision variables (power and reserve commodities) to maximize the DISCO's profit, in case such variables are accepted in the markets. In other words, it aims to optimally allocate the DISCO's generating capability for proposing into the energy and reserve markets, from the DISCO's perspective. It also proposes a profit-based network reconfiguration methodology for a multi-substation multi-feeder DISCO to increase DISCO's ability to gain more benefits from the market activities. It conducts DISCO's generating capabilities towards the proper substations to reap more probable benefits. It also introduces fast, simple, and straightforward algorithms for recognition and removal of configurations having loop and/or islanding parts in. Simulation results are given at the second part of the present work.

  4. Effects of Adult Feeding and Overwintering Conditions on Energy Reserves and Flight Performance of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Dylan A; Aukema, Brian H; Charvoz, Anthony M; Venette, Robert C

    2018-04-02

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle from Asia, spreads through human-mediated movement and active flight. The effects of adult feeding and overwintering conditions on A. planipennis energy reserves (e.g., lipid, glycogen, and sugars) and flight are poorly understood. We conjectured that the potential energetic demands associated with the production of cryoprotectants might affect dispersal capacity and partially explain slower spread of A. planipennis in Minnesota than in the other states. Two studies sought to measure the effects of adult feeding on lipid content and flight capacity. Adult A. planipennis were fed shamel ash, Fraxinus uhdei Wenzig, leaves for 0-20 d after emergence, and half were flown on a custom flight mill for 24 h, before being frozen for comparative lipid analysis with a control group. The second study compared the effects of adult feeding on energy reserves and flight capacity of A. planipennis that were originally from St. Paul, Minnesota but overwintered in infested logs placed in Grand Rapids, Minnesota (low winter temperature, -34°C) or St. Paul, Minnesota (-26.3°C). Live adults consumed foliage at a constant rate, but lipid content (percentage of fresh mass) did not change with increases in feeding or flight. Adult glycogen content declined with flight and increased only slightly with feeding. Overwintering location affected survival rates but not energy reserves or flight capacity. These results suggest that the flight capacity of A. planipennis is largely determined before emergence, with no differences in energy reserves after cryoprotectant investment.

  5. Uranium as an energy source: resources, production and reserves from the point of view of technological development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersow, M.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable evaluation of the uranium resources available in the future and associated strategic reserves must take into account trends in prospecting, degree of technological development of the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (starting with the mining industry and preparation), but in particular also the specific raw material and energy yield of future generations of fuel and reactor technology. Uranium deposits are categorised with regard to ore content and probable production costs. The intensified prospecting following the increase in the uranium price will lead to discovery of further reserves and thus continue to follow the historical trend. Uranium production is subject to increasingly stringent legal boundary conditions - mining and preparation are approved according to strict international standards to minimise the environmental effects during operation and to restore and recultivate the sites after closure. New or extended/modernised uranium production sites are based on modern semi- or fully automated technologies. Exposure to radiation and environmental effects are minimised by avoidance of tailings (in situ leaching), by relocation of preparation partial processes underground or by storage of the residues from conventional plants according to international standards. In addition to a rough prediction based on currently available data trends in resource development, uranium production, fuel production and the energy yield from uranium including the option of utilisation of transuranic elements for energy production in order to minimise the radioactive waste are discussed and applied qualitatively to estimation of the reserves. (orig.)

  6. Pre-hibernation energy reserves in a temperate anuran, Rana chensinensis, along a relatively fine elevational gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Fellers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Temperate anurans have energy substrates in the liver, fat bodies, carcass and gonads; these stores provide support for metabolism and egg production during hibernation, and for breeding activities in spring. This paper compares the energy budget shortly before hibernation among Rana chensinensis populations at elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m along a river in northern China. The larger frogs, regardless of elevation, had relatively heavy storage organs and the masses of nearly all these organs were positively correlated with each other. After controlling for the effect of body size, we found no significant difference in energetic organ mass among different age classes for each of the three populations. There were sexual differences in energy strategy. Males in all populations accumulated greater reserves in liver, fat bodies and carcass than did females. In contrast, females put more energy into their ovaries and oviducts. Frogs from higher elevations tended to have heavier organs than those from lower elevations; however, the pattern did not vary systematically along fine environmental gradients. Mid-elevation R. chensinensis built up significantly more reserves than low-elevation individuals, but were similar to their highland conspecifics. Males from higher elevations tended to have heavier liver and fat bodies; females were similar in liver and ovary mass across all elevations, but formed heavier fat bodies, oviducts and somatic tissue at higher elevation sites.

  7. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  8. Maintaining evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  9. Consequences of lower food intake on the digestive enzymes activities, the energy reserves and the reproductive outcome in Gammarus fossarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Charron

    Full Text Available Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves led to impairments at an individual level (fertility, Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production. For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics.

  10. Extending market activities for a distribution company in hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets-Part II: Numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhour, M.; Golkar, M.A.; Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is to show the application and implementation of the algorithms and models proposed in part I. It also represents the simulation results of (a) extracting a lumped financial model (the aggregated model) of the distribution system with distributed generations (DGs) and interruptible loads (ILs), (b) distribution company's (DISCO's) process of decision-making, based on the created financial model, on allocating its generating capability for internal usage and proposing to the hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets, and (c) a profit-based network reconfiguration methodology that increases the DISCO's technical ability and directs its financial affairs towards more profitable transactions in the upcoming markets. The function of the algorithms used for detecting unfeasible configurations, namely loop path and/or isolated part in the network are shown and well exemplified. Influential factors in DISCO's generating capability and in the coefficients of DISCO's internal cost function (ICF) are investigated. The present study substantiates the ICF-based optimization method by comparing the relevant results with the results obtained based on the use of total cost function (TCF). Several scenarios on market prices of energy and reserve and on the contingency probability factor pertaining to the real-time generation in reserve market are considered. Simulation results indicate that getting more economical benefits, DISCO may necessarily play different roles in the market and change the network configuration, at different hours.

  11. Energy reserves of Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BES Melo

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.

  12. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nunez-Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs and Energy Reserves (ERs in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas.

  13. Application of Systems Engineering to U.S. Department of Energy Privatization Project Selection at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, John Scott

    1999-01-01

    The privatization efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Nuclear Reservation have been very successful primarily due to a disciplined process for project selection and execution. Early in the development of Privatization at Hanford, the Department of Energy determined that a disciplined alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) process would furnish the candidate projects with the best probability for success. Many factors had to be considered in the selection of projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company was assigned to develop this process and facilitate the selection of the first round of candidate privatization projects. Team members for the AGA process were assembled from all concerned organizations and skill groups. Among the selection criteria were legal, financial and technical considerations which had to be weighed

  14. CHALLENGES IN MAINTAINING EMOTION REGULATION IN A SLEEP AND ENERGY DEPRIVED STATE INDUCED BY THE 4800KM ULTRA-ENDURANCE BICYCLE RACE; THE RACE ACROSS AMERICA (RAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Lahart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM; a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotional states differing significantly between each cyclist over time. Coupled with this emotional disturbance, each cyclist experienced progressively worsening sleep deprivation and daily negative energy balances throughout the RAAM. Cyclists managed less than one hour of continuous sleep per sleep episode, high sleep latency and high percentage moving time. Of note, actual sleep and sleep efficiency were better maintained during longer rest periods, highlighting the importance of a race strategy that seeks to optimise the balance between average cycling velocity and sleep time. Our data suggests that future RAAM cyclists and crew should: 1 identify beliefs on the perceived functionality of emotions in relation to best (functional-optimal and worst (dysfunctional performance as the starting point to intervention work; 2 create a plan for support sufficient sleep and recovery; 3 create nutritional strategies that maintain energy intake and thus reduce energy deficits; and 4 prepare for the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation so that they are able to appropriately respond to unexpected stressors and foster functional working interpersonal relationships

  15. Mixed quantum/classical investigation of the photodissociation of NH3(A) and a practical method for maintaining zero-point energy in classical trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhommeau, David; Truhlar, Donald G

    2008-07-07

    The photodissociation dynamics of ammonia upon excitation of the out-of-plane bending mode (mode nu(2) with n(2)=0,[ellipsis (horizontal)],6 quanta of vibration) in the A electronic state is investigated by means of several mixed quantum/classical methods, and the calculated final-state properties are compared to experiments. Five mixed quantum/classical methods are tested: one mean-field approach (the coherent switching with decay of mixing method), two surface-hopping methods [the fewest switches with time uncertainty (FSTU) and FSTU with stochastic decay (FSTU/SD) methods], and two surface-hopping methods with zero-point energy (ZPE) maintenance [the FSTUSD+trajectory projection onto ZPE orbit (TRAPZ) and FSTUSD+minimal TRAPZ (mTRAPZ) methods]. We found a qualitative difference between final NH(2) internal energy distributions obtained for n(2)=0 and n(2)>1, as observed in experiments. Distributions obtained for n(2)=1 present an intermediate behavior between distributions obtained for smaller and larger n(2) values. The dynamics is found to be highly electronically nonadiabatic with all these methods. NH(2) internal energy distributions may have a negative energy tail when the ZPE is not maintained throughout the dynamics. The original TRAPZ method was designed to maintain ZPE in classical trajectories, but we find that it leads to unphysically high internal vibrational energies. The mTRAPZ method, which is new in this work and provides a general method for maintaining ZPE in either single-surface or multisurface trajectories, does not lead to unphysical results and is much less time consuming. The effect of maintaining ZPE in mixed quantum/classical dynamics is discussed in terms of agreement with experimental findings. The dynamics for n(2)=0 and n(2)=6 are also analyzed to reveal details not available from experiment, in particular, the time required for quenching of electronic excitation and the adiabatic energy gap and geometry at the time of quenching.

  16. Mixed quantum/classical investigation of the photodissociation of NH3(Ã) and a practical method for maintaining zero-point energy in classical trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhommeau, David; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2008-07-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of ammonia upon excitation of the out-of-plane bending mode (mode ν2 with n2=0,…,6 quanta of vibration) in the à electronic state is investigated by means of several mixed quantum/classical methods, and the calculated final-state properties are compared to experiments. Five mixed quantum/classical methods are tested: one mean-field approach (the coherent switching with decay of mixing method), two surface-hopping methods [the fewest switches with time uncertainty (FSTU) and FSTU with stochastic decay (FSTU/SD) methods], and two surface-hopping methods with zero-point energy (ZPE) maintenance [the FSTU /SD+trajectory projection onto ZPE orbit (TRAPZ) and FSTU /SD+minimal TRAPZ (mTRAPZ) methods]. We found a qualitative difference between final NH2 internal energy distributions obtained for n2=0 and n2>1, as observed in experiments. Distributions obtained for n2=1 present an intermediate behavior between distributions obtained for smaller and larger n2 values. The dynamics is found to be highly electronically nonadiabatic with all these methods. NH2 internal energy distributions may have a negative energy tail when the ZPE is not maintained throughout the dynamics. The original TRAPZ method was designed to maintain ZPE in classical trajectories, but we find that it leads to unphysically high internal vibrational energies. The mTRAPZ method, which is new in this work and provides a general method for maintaining ZPE in either single-surface or multisurface trajectories, does not lead to unphysical results and is much less time consuming. The effect of maintaining ZPE in mixed quantum/classical dynamics is discussed in terms of agreement with experimental findings. The dynamics for n2=0 and n2=6 are also analyzed to reveal details not available from experiment, in particular, the time required for quenching of electronic excitation and the adiabatic energy gap and geometry at the time of quenching.

  17. Challenges for Nuclear Energy Agencies: Maintaining Orthodoxy or Learning from the Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jashapara, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Governments recognize that their economic productivity and growth is driven by knowledge, technology and learning; namely the knowledge economy. There are no blueprints on how to best to manage knowledge enterprises and knowledge workers in this new context. This paper examines the knowledge management practices of some international firms to assess how they manage their intangible assets. The firms chosen have all won the Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises (MAKE) awards. They include Ernst&Young (US), Toyota (Japan), World Bank, Infosys (India), Unilever (UK/Netherlands), Honda (Japan), Royal Dutch Shell (UK/Netherlands) and Tata Consultancy Services (India). The focus of the paper is on the practices and real issues encountered by these firms rather than whether they support or challenge current knowledge management theory or orthodoxy. The paper concludes by exploring key lessons learned by these firms and their application to challenges among nuclear energy agencies. (author

  18. Pricing the Ramping Reserve and Capacity Reserve in Real Time Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Hongxing; Li, Zuyi

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy in recent years has led to more uncertainties in power systems. In order to maintain system reliability and security, electricity market operators need to keep certain reserves in the Security-Constrained Economic Dispatch (SCED) problems. A new concept, deliverable generation ramping reserve, is proposed in this paper. The prices of generation ramping reserves and generation capacity reserves are derived in the Affine Adjustable Robust Optimizat...

  19. Hydrocarbon reserves, energy assurance and macroeconomics: a complex balance; Reservas de hidrocarburos, seguridad energetica y macroeconomia: un balance complejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarco Tosoni, German [TYH Economia, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F.(Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The available public information relative to the limited discovered and undiscovered crude and natural gas reserves in Mexico, from an international comparison perspective, is analyzed. Through the evaluation of the national energy programs, a limited conception of energy security is made clear concerning that posed by the other countries within North America. Various scenarios are stated regarding proved/production reserves to 2020 which will induce, together with the notion of energy security, a reduction in the current production levels - crude oil exports. The paradox referring to the fact that given certain reduction levels in the exports' crude platform, both the product level as well as real public expenditure will rise, is discovered. Finally, the macroeconomic effects of the proposal and of the necessary complementary policies needed to be designed and implemented in order to improve our macroeconomic performance are also evaluated. [Spanish] Se analiza la informacion publica disponible sobre las reservas limitadas de crudo y gas natural descubiertas y no descubiertas de Mexico en una perspectiva internacional comparada. Al evaluar los programas energeticos nacionales se transparenta una concepcion limitada de la seguridad energetica, respecto de lo planteado por los otros paises de America del Norte. Se plantean diferentes escenarios de reservas probadas/produccion al 2020 que inducirian, conjuntamente con la incorporacion de la nocion de seguridad energetica, a reducir los niveles actuales de produccion - exportacion de crudo. Se descubre la paradoja de que para determinados niveles de reduccion de la plataforma de exportacion de crudo tanto el nivel de producto como de gasto publico real aumentan. Por ultimo, se evaluan tanto los efectos macroeconomicos de la propuesta como de algunas politicas complementarias que seria necesario disenar e implantar para mejorar nuestro desempeno macroeconomico.

  20. Capacity of biochar application to maintain energy crop productivity: soil chemistry, sorghum growth, and runoff water quality effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Ronnie W; Vietor, Donald M; Provin, Tony L; Munster, Clyde L; Capareda, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis of crop biomass generates a by-product, biochar, which can be recycled to sustain nutrient and organic C concentrations in biomass production fields. We evaluated effects of biochar rate and application method on soil properties, nutrient balance, biomass production, and water quality. Three replications of eight sorghum [ (L.) Moench] treatments were installed in box lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. Treatments comprised increasing rates (0, 1.5, and 3.0 Mg ha) of topdressed or incorporated biochar supplemented with N fertilizer or N, P, and K fertilizer. Simulated rain was applied at 21 and 34 d after planting, and mass runoff loss of N, P, and K was measured. A mass balance of total N, P, and K was performed after 45 d. Returning 3.0 Mg ha of biochar did not affect sorghum biomass, soil total, or Mehlich-3-extractable nutrients compared to control soil. Yet, biochar contributed to increased concentration of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and mass loss of total phosphorus (TP) in simulated runoff, especially if topdressed. It was estimated that up to 20% of TP in topdressed biochar was lost in surface runoff after two rain events. Poor recovery of nutrients during pyrolysis and excessive runoff loss of nutrients for topdressed biochar, especially K, resulted in negative nutrient balances. Efforts to conserve nutrients during pyrolysis and incorporation of biochar at rates derived from annual biomass yields will be necessary for biochar use in sustainable energy crop production. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria for sustainable spatial development in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Meiţă

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve represents a complex of ecosystems embedding a biome that had been included on UNESCO World Heritage list due to its global environmental importance. The outstanding natural diversity, including ecosystems, habitats and species situated at the top of European and International conservation lists, is mixed with an equally rich and important cultural (ethnic and religious diversity of the human communities inhabiting the area. According to the guidelines of the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO, the biosphere reserves including human settlements should be managed such that they could constitute an example for what sustainable development means. Starting from the spatial dimension added to the traditional socioeconomic, ecological and cultural pillars of sustainable development, the paper examines planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria that could substantiate a sustainable development model applicable to the Danube Delta, and counter the effects of clime change in the area. The results suggest that the traditional practices of the inhabitants could offer sustainable solutions and help preserving the natural and cultural diversity of the region.

  2. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  3. Optimal Bidding Strategy of Generation Companies (GenCos in Energy and Spinning Reserve Markets Using Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new bidding strategy become modeling to day-ahead markets. The proposed algorithm is related to the point of view of a generation company (Genco that its end is maximized its benefit as a participant in sale markets of active power and spinning reserve. In this method, hourly forecasted energy price (FEP and forecasted reserve price (FRP is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. A bi-level optimization problem That first level, is used to maximize the individual Genco’s payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer’s payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. In this paper use of the game theory in exist optimization model. The paper proposes a linear programming approach. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 quarterly financial statements, December 31, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-18

    The report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` review of the Department of Energy`s Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 interim financial statements as of December 31, 1996 and 1995. The review was done in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. A review of interim financial statements consists principally of inquiries of NPR-1 personnel and analytical procedures applied to financial data. It is substantially less in scope than an audit in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements take as a whole. Accordingly, the certified public accountants do not express such an opinion. The auditors have stated that, except for the omission of certain disclosures, they are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements in order for them to be in conformity with the other comprehensive basis of accounting described in Note 1 to the financial statements.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 quarterly financial statements, March 31, 1997 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-17

    The report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` review of the Department of Energy`s Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 interim financial statements as of March 31, 1997 and 1996. The review was done in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. A review of interim financial statements consist principally of inquires of NPR-1 personnel and analytical procedures applied to financial data. It is substantially less in scope than an audit in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole. Accordingly, the certified public accountants do not express such an opinion. The auditors have stated that, except for the omission of certain disclosures, they are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements in order for them to be in conformity with the other comprehensive basis of accounting described in Note 1 to the financial statements.

  6. Preliminary screening analysis of the off-site environment downstream of the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee, have introduced airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams that ultimately drain into the Clinch River. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. A preliminary screening was conducted of contaminants in the off-site surface water environments downstream of the DOE ORR. This screening analysis represents part of a scoping phase of the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Facilities Investigation (CRRFI). The purpose of this preliminary screening analysis is to use existing data on off-site contaminant concentrations to identify and prioritize potential contaminants of concern for further evaluation and investigation. The primary objective of this screening analysis is to ensure that CRRFI sampling and analysis efforts focus on those contaminants that may possibly contribute to human health or environmental risk. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Veselý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring

  8. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  9. The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem of the Galapagos Marine Reserve: Energy flow structure and role of keystone groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Diego J.; Wolff, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem (BCE) is among the most productive zones in the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). It is exposed to relatively cool, nutrient-rich waters of the Cromwell current, which are brought to the photic zone through topographic upwelling. The BCE is characterized by a heterogeneous rocky reef habitat covered by dense algae beds and inhabited by numerous invertebrate and fish species, which represent the food for higher predators including seals and sharks and exploited fish species. In addition, plankton and detritus based food chains channel large amounts of energy through the complex food web. Important emblematic species of the Galapagos archipelagos reside in this area such as the flightless cormorant, the Galapagos penguin and the marine iguanas. A trophic model of BCE was constructed for the habitats < 30 m depth that fringe the west coast of Isabela and east coast of Fernandina islands covering 14% of the total BCE area (44 km 2). The model integrates data sets from sub tidal ecological monitoring and marine vertebrate population monitoring (2004 to 2008) programs of the Charles Darwin Foundation and consists of 30 compartments, which are trophically linked through a diet matrix. Results reveal that the BCE is a large system in terms of flows (38 695 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) comparable to Peruvian Bay Systems of the Humboldt upwelling system. A very large proportion of energy flows from the primary producers (phytoplankton and macro-algae) to the second level and to the detritus pool. Catches are high (54.3 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) and are mainly derived from the second and third trophic levels (mean TL of catch = 2.45) making the fisheries gross efficiency high (0.3%). The system's degree of development seems rather low as indicated by a P/R ratio of 4.19, a low ascendency (37.4%) and a very low Finn's cycling index (1.29%). This is explained by the system's exposure to irregular changes in oceanographic conditions as related to the EL Niño Southern

  10. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-01-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  11. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede, E-mail: gwibawa@chem-eng.its.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  12. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia's reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  13. US Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements and management overview and supplemental financial and management information, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1995 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  14. 2010 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2010-09-01

    Under the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in 1992, all environmental restoration activities on the ORR are performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Since the 1990s, the environmental restoration activities have experienced a gradual shift from characterization to remediation. As this has occurred, it has been determined that the assessment of the individual and cumulative performance of all ORR CERCLA remedial actions (RAs) is most effectively tracked in a single document. The Remediation Effectiveness Report (RER) is an FFA document intended to collate all ORR CERCLA decision requirements, compare pre- and post-remediation conditions at CERCLA sites, and present the results of any required post-decision remediation effectiveness monitoring. First issued in 1997, the RER has been reissued annually to update the performance histories of completed actions and to add descriptions of new CERCLA actions. Monitoring information used in the 2010 RER to assess remedy performance was collected and/or compiled by DOE's Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP). Only data used to assess performance of completed actions are provided. In addition to collecting CERCLA performance assessment data, the WRRP also collects baseline data to be used to gauge the effectiveness of future actions once implemented. These baseline data are maintained in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System and will be reported in future RERs, as necessary, once the respective actions are completed. However, when insufficient data exist to assess the impact of the RAs, e.g., when the RA was only recently completed, a preliminary evaluation is made of early indicators of effectiveness at the

  15. Integration in MASCEM of the Joint Dispatch of Energy and Reserves Provided by Generation and Demand Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Santos, Gabriel; Faria, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The provision of reserves in power systems is of great importance in what concerns keeping an adequate and acceptable level of security and reliability. This need for reserves and the way they are defined and dispatched gain increasing importance in the present and future context of smart grids...

  16. Development of Energy and Reserve Pre-dispatch and Re-dispatch Models for Real-time Price Risk and Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Xie, Min; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    electricity market design may not cope with the future challenges the power system faces. The development of smart grid will enable power system scheduling and the electricity market to operate in a shorter time horizon for better integrating renewable energy sources into power systems. This paper presents......In the future energy framework of European Union and other countries, renewable energy plays an important role tackling the problems of the climate change and security of energy supply. The share of fluctuating and less predictable renewable power production will increase significantly the needs...... of securing proper balancing between generation and demand. The high penetration of renewable energy sources will also increase the burden of system operator for maintaining system reliabilities. However the current strategy of reliability management developed for conventional power systems and existing...

  17. "Gaa-Noodin-Oke" (Alternative Energy/Wind Power): A Curriculum Implementation on the White Earth Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzey, Siddika Selcen; Nyachwaya, James; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    A wind energy focused curriculum for grades 4-8 was designed and implemented to promote the understanding of wind energy concepts with American Indian students. 57 students who participated in the 2009 summer program of the "Reach for the Sky" (RFTS) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) received the curriculum. The…

  18. Territorial actions for the environment and the energy efficiency in the countries, the towns and the regional natural reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ATENEE contract (Territorial Actions for the Environment and the Energy Efficiency) favors the environment and the energy efficiency in territories, offers a partnership framework and proposes an organizational and financial help. The possibilities of this contract and some examples are presented. (A.L.B.)

  19. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  20. Energy wood reserves and the utilisation conditions of them 1/1994 - 4/1997; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskimoeloe, A [Metsaetalouden Kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the D105 project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood by developing a model for establishing the procurable volumes of energy wood. This will be done by using forestry planning data on private forests and numeric road data. Position data (GRASS) and database (Ms Access) programs are used in the model. The project was launched in the beginning of 1994 and will run until April 1997. Basic information needed was collected from pilot areas in co-operation with the PUUHA project launched in Mikkeli. Later the work continued with the Forest Energy Project of Central Finland. The position-data program is used to produce forest and road haulage distances for each forest figure. The distance data is then transferred to the database program. In the database program the procurement costs of energy wood are established by using cost models based on productivity curves. After that, it is possible to establish if the figure is economically worthwhile for energy wood harvesting purposes or not. By using this information, the model calculates first the amount of energy wood on the figure and secondly the procurable volumes of energy wood that can be delivered to the local heating plant. (orig.)

  1. Short-term Forecast of Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve from a Renewable Energy Based Virtual Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Camal , Simon; Michiorri , Andrea; Kariniotakis , Georges; Liebelt , Andreas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the initial findings on a new forecast approach for ancillary services delivered by aggregated renewable power plants. The increasing penetration of distributed variable generators challenges grid reliability. Wind and photovoltaic power plants are technically able to provide ancillary services, but their stochastic behavior currently impedes their integration into reserve mechanisms. A methodology is developed to forecast the flexibility that a win...

  2. 2011 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    Under the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in 1992, all environmental restoration activities on the ORR are performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Since the 1990s, the environmental restoration activities have experienced a gradual shift from characterization to remediation. As this has occurred, it has been determined that the assessment of the individual and cumulative performance of all ORR CERCLA remedial actions (RAs) is most effectively tracked in a single document. The Remediation Effectiveness Report (RER) is an FFA document intended to collate all ORR CERCLA decision requirements, compare pre- and post-remediation conditions at CERCLA sites, and present the results of any required post-decision remediation effectiveness monitoring. First issued in 1997, the RER has been reissued annually to update the performance histories of completed actions and to add descriptions of new CERCLA actions. Monitoring information used in the 2011 RER to assess remedy performance was collected and/or compiled by DOE's Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP). Only data used to assess performance of completed actions are provided. In addition to collecting CERCLA performance assessment data, the WRRP also collects baseline data to be used to gauge the effectiveness of future actions once implemented. These baseline data are maintained in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System and will be reported in future RERs, as necessary, once the respective actions are completed. However, when insufficient data exist to assess the impact of the RAs, e.g., when the RA was only recently completed, a preliminary evaluation is made of early indicators of effectiveness at the

  3. Physiological response to extreme fasting in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups: metabolic rates, energy reserve utilization, and water fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Delphine; Groscolas, René; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2009-11-01

    Surviving prolonged fasting requires various metabolic adaptations, such as energy and protein sparing, notably when animals are simultaneously engaged in energy-demanding processes such as growth. Due to the intermittent pattern of maternal attendance, subantarctic fur seal pups have to repeatedly endure exceptionally long fasting episodes throughout the 10-mo rearing period while preparing for nutritional independence. Their metabolic responses to natural prolonged fasting (33.4 +/- 3.3 days) were investigated at 7 mo of age. Within 4-6 fasting days, pups shifted into a stage of metabolic economy characterized by a minimal rate of body mass loss (0.7%/day) and decreased resting metabolic rate (5.9 +/- 0.1 ml O(2)xkg(-1)xday(-1)) that was only 10% above the level predicted for adult terrestrial mammals. Field metabolic rate (289 +/- 10 kJxkg(-1)xday(-1)) and water influx (7.9 +/- 0.9 mlxkg(-1)xday(-1)) were also among the lowest reported for any young otariid, suggesting minimized energy allocation to behavioral activity and thermoregulation. Furthermore, lean tissue degradation was dramatically reduced. High initial adiposity (>48%) and predominant reliance on lipid catabolism likely contributed to the exceptional degree of protein sparing attained. Blood chemistry supported these findings and suggested utilization of alternative fuels, such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and de novo synthesized glucose from fat-released glycerol. Regardless of sex and body condition, pups tended to adopt a convergent strategy of extreme energy and lean body mass conservation that appears highly adaptive for it allows some tissue growth during the repeated episodes of prolonged fasting they experience throughout their development.

  4. Energy wood reserves and the utilization conditions of them 1/1994-12/1996; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaemisedellytykset 1/1994-12/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterlin, V. [Metsaetalouden kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood, and clarification of the procurable volumes of energy wood by using the forestry-planning systems for private forests. A model will be developed for planning the energy wood procurement, and the regional energy wood reserves will be investigated for different utilization targets and purposes. The project has started in the beginning of 1993 and it will last to the end of 1996. Basic information needed was collected from the pilot areas in cooperation with the PUUHA project stated in Mikkeli. The targets have been determined from the pilot areas using an position-data program, used as calculation program, in the form of maps and forest stand charts. The numerical road data of the area has been carried over from the database of the National Board of Survey. The volumes of energy wood reserves of the test area have been calculated and composed on different levels of biomass utilization from variable procurement targets by taking the calculatory short-distance transportation and the harvesting costs of the first thinnings in to account and separately from the utilization targets of the felling residues utilization targets. At present cost and stumpage price level only a small proportion of first thinning targets seem to be profitable in utilization of energy wood. Even these targets usually require forest amelioration support

  5. Energy wood reserves and the utilization conditions of them 1/1994-12/1996; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaemisedellytykset 1/1994-12/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterlin, V [Metsaetalouden kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood, and clarification of the procurable volumes of energy wood by using the forestry-planning systems for private forests. A model will be developed for planning the energy wood procurement, and the regional energy wood reserves will be investigated for different utilization targets and purposes. The project has started in the beginning of 1993 and it will last to the end of 1996. Basic information needed was collected from the pilot areas in cooperation with the PUUHA project stated in Mikkeli. The targets have been determined from the pilot areas using an position-data program, used as calculation program, in the form of maps and forest stand charts. The numerical road data of the area has been carried over from the database of the National Board of Survey. The volumes of energy wood reserves of the test area have been calculated and composed on different levels of biomass utilization from variable procurement targets by taking the calculatory short-distance transportation and the harvesting costs of the first thinnings in to account and separately from the utilization targets of the felling residues utilization targets. At present cost and stumpage price level only a small proportion of first thinning targets seem to be profitable in utilization of energy wood. Even these targets usually require forest amelioration support

  6. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.; Loar, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It is the third such document prepared for this purpose. The first ecorisk strategy document described the ERA process and presented a tiered approach to ERAs appropriate to complex sites. The first revision was necessitated by the considerable progress that has been made by the parties to the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for the ORR in resolving specific issues relating to ERA as a result of a series of data quality objectives (DQOs) meetings. The tiered approach to ERAs as recommended in the first document was implemented, generic conceptual models were developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints was agreed upon. This revision is necessitated by comments from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Region IV and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) which clarified and modified the positions taken during the DQO process. In particular, support for the collection of data that would support ERAs for all OUs on the ORR have been withdrawn. Therefore, the work plan developed to fill the reservation-wide data needs identified in the DQO process has also been withdrawn, and portions that are still relevant have been incorporated into this document. The reader should be aware that this guidance is complex and lengthy because it attempts to cover all the reasonable contingencies that were considered to be potentially important to the FFA parties

  7. Lowering rumen-degradable protein maintained energy-corrected milk yield and improved nitrogen-use efficiency in multiparous lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J D; Kassube, K R; Ríus, A G

    2017-10-01

    model underestimated metabolizable protein and RUP supply, and overestimated RUP requirements, resulting in predictive losses of milk yield 1.4 to 5.8 times greater than observed values. In summary, the reduction of RDP and RUP proportions did not affect DMI, whereas the RUP reduction at 10% RDP had a small negative effect on energy-corrected milk yield. However, reduction of RDP and RUP consistently improved N-use efficiency of heat-stressed multiparous cows. The reduction of RDP and RUP proportions reduced DMI and milk yield but did not affect energy-corrected milk yield in primiparous cows, indicating a limited supply of nutrients. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental restoration of mercury contamination of East Fork Poplar Creek at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge, Tennessee, reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the open-quotes Cold Warclose quotes era, approximately 239,000 pounds of mercury were released from the Y-12 Nuclear Weapons Plant to the East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. As a result, approximately 75 tons of the contaminant resides within the floodplain soils beyond the confines of the DOE reservation, a Federal Superfund Site. The EFPC watershed encompasses multiple land uses whose ownership varies from private citizens, municipal government, and federal government. DOE, in cooperation with the State of Tennessee and EPA, proposes to clean up the contamination to a risk based standard of 400 ppm. This level has been determined to be protective of human health and the environment. The remedial process and development of the remedial alternative are the result of close interagency cooperation between the State, EPA, U.S. Fish ampersand Wildlife Service, and the Army Corps of Engineers. This case study outlines that process

  9. Chronic pyruvate supplementation increases exploratory activity and brain energy reserves in young and middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennariikka eKoivisto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~ 800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2- 6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic post-mortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement.

  10. Resource Management Plan for the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 15, Appendix P: waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.A.

    1984-07-01

    Since their inception, the DOE facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation have been the source of a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes which are characterized as nonhazardous, hazardous, and/or radioactive. The major airborne releases come from three primary sources: steam plant emissions, process discharge, and cooling towers. Liquid wastes are handled in various manners depending upon the particular waste, but in general, major corrosive waste streams are neutralized prior to discharge with the discharge routed to holding or settling ponds. The major solid wastes are derived from construction debris, sanitary operation, and radioactive processes, and the machining operations at Y-12. Nonradioactive hazardous wastes are disposed in solid waste storage areas, shipped to commercial disposal facilities, returned in sludge ponds, or sent to radioactive waste burial areas. The radioactive-hazardous wastes are treated in two manners: storage of the waste until acceptable disposal options are developed, or treatment of the waste to remove or destroy one of the components prior to disposal. 5 references, 4 figures, 13 tables

  11. Approximating optimal behavioural strategies down to rules-of-thumb: energy reserve changes in pairs of social foragers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Rands

    Full Text Available Functional explanations of behaviour often propose optimal strategies for organisms to follow. These 'best' strategies could be difficult to perform given biological constraints such as neural architecture and physiological constraints. Instead, simple heuristics or 'rules-of-thumb' that approximate these optimal strategies may instead be performed. From a modelling perspective, rules-of-thumb are also useful tools for considering how group behaviour is shaped by the behaviours of individuals. Using simple rules-of-thumb reduces the complexity of these models, but care needs to be taken to use rules that are biologically relevant. Here, we investigate the similarity between the outputs of a two-player dynamic foraging game (which generated optimal but complex solutions and a computational simulation of the behaviours of the two members of a foraging pair, who instead followed a rule-of-thumb approximation of the game's output. The original game generated complex results, and we demonstrate here that the simulations following the much-simplified rules-of-thumb also generate complex results, suggesting that the rule-of-thumb was sufficient to make some of the model outcomes unpredictable. There was some agreement between both modelling techniques, but some differences arose - particularly when pair members were not identical in how they gained and lost energy. We argue that exploring how rules-of-thumb perform in comparison to their optimal counterparts is an important exercise for biologically validating the output of agent-based models of group behaviour.

  12. Approximating optimal behavioural strategies down to rules-of-thumb: energy reserve changes in pairs of social foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Sean A

    2011-01-01

    Functional explanations of behaviour often propose optimal strategies for organisms to follow. These 'best' strategies could be difficult to perform given biological constraints such as neural architecture and physiological constraints. Instead, simple heuristics or 'rules-of-thumb' that approximate these optimal strategies may instead be performed. From a modelling perspective, rules-of-thumb are also useful tools for considering how group behaviour is shaped by the behaviours of individuals. Using simple rules-of-thumb reduces the complexity of these models, but care needs to be taken to use rules that are biologically relevant. Here, we investigate the similarity between the outputs of a two-player dynamic foraging game (which generated optimal but complex solutions) and a computational simulation of the behaviours of the two members of a foraging pair, who instead followed a rule-of-thumb approximation of the game's output. The original game generated complex results, and we demonstrate here that the simulations following the much-simplified rules-of-thumb also generate complex results, suggesting that the rule-of-thumb was sufficient to make some of the model outcomes unpredictable. There was some agreement between both modelling techniques, but some differences arose - particularly when pair members were not identical in how they gained and lost energy. We argue that exploring how rules-of-thumb perform in comparison to their optimal counterparts is an important exercise for biologically validating the output of agent-based models of group behaviour.

  13. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  14. Deriving Optimal End of Day Storage for Pumped-Storage Power Plants in the Joint Energy and Reserve Day-Ahead Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chazarra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology to maximise the income and derive the optimal end of day storage of closed-loop and daily-cycle pumped-storage hydropower plants. The plants participate in the day-ahead energy market as a price-taker and in the secondary regulation reserve market as a price-maker, in the context of the Iberian electricity system. The real-time use of the committed reserves is considered in the model formulation. The operation of the plants with the proposed methodology is compared to the ones that use an end of day storage of an empty reservoir or half of the storage capacity. Results show that the proposed methodology increases the maximum theoretical income in all the plants analysed both if they only participate in the day-ahead energy market and if they also participate in the secondary regulation service. It is also shown that the increase in the maximum theoretical income strongly depends on the size of the plant. In addition, it is proven that the end of day storages change notably in the new reserve-driven strategies of pumped-storage hydropower plants and that the proposed methodology is even more recommended if the secondary regulation service is considered.

  15. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.; Loar, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It is the third such document prepared for this purpose. The first ecorisk strategy document described the ERA process and presented a tiered approach to ERAs appropriate to complex sites. The first revision was necessitated by the considerable progress that has been made by the parties to the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for the ORR in resolving specific issues relating to ERA as a result of a series of data quality objectives (DQOs) meetings. The tiered approach to ERAs as recommended in the first document was implemented, generic conceptual models were developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints was agreed upon. This revision is necessitated by comments from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Region IV and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) which clarified and modified the positions taken during the DQO process. In particular, support for the collection of data that would support ERAs for all OUs on the ORR have been withdrawn. Therefore, the work plan developed to fill the reservation-wide data needs identified in the DQO process has also been withdrawn, and portions that are still relevant have been incorporated into this document. The reader should be aware that this guidance is complex and lengthy because it attempts to cover all the reasonable contingencies that were considered to be potentially important to the FFA parties.

  16. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  17. System-Level Operational and Adequacy Impact Assessment of Photovoltaic and Distributed Energy Storage, with Consideration of Inertial Constraints, Dynamic Reserve and Interconnection Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems requires a fundamental understanding of its impact at a system-level. Furthermore, distributed energy storage (DES technologies, such as batteries, are attracting great interest owing to their ability to provide support to systems with large-scale renewable generation, such as PV. In this light, the system-level impacts of PV and DES are assessed from both operational and adequacy perspectives. Different control strategies for DES are proposed, namely: (1 centralised, to support system operation in the presence of increasing requirements on system ramping and frequency control; and (2 decentralised, to maximise the harnessing of solar energy from individual households while storing electricity generated by PV panels to provide system capacity on request. The operational impacts are assessed by deploying a multi-service unit commitment model with consideration of inertial constraints, dynamic reserve allocation, and interconnection flexibility, while the impacts on adequacy of supply are analysed by assessing the capacity credit of PV and DES through different metrics. The models developed are then applied to different future scenarios for the Great Britain power system, whereby an electricity demand increase due to electrification is also considered. The numerical results highlight the importance of interconnectors to provide flexibility. On the other hand, provision of reserves, as opposed to energy arbitrage, from DES that are integrated into system operation is seen as the most effective contribution to improve system performance, which in turn also decreases the role of interconnectors. DES can also contribute to providing system capacity, but to an extent that is limited by their individual and aggregated energy availability under different control strategies.

  18. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation: 1994 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The tiered approach to ecological risk assessment has been implemented, generic conceptual models have been developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints has been agreed upon. The document also includes changes in terminology to agree with the terminology in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) framework for ecological risk assessment. Although ecological risks are equal in regulatory importance to human health risks, formal procedures for ecological risk assessment are poorly developed. This report will provide specific guidance and promote the use of consistent approaches for ecological risk assessments at individual sites on the ORR. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance and with relevant EPA guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it should be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  19. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  20. Reserves for nuclear power plant decommissioning and radwaste disposal in Germany. An analysis and evaluation from the angle of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, V.

    1998-01-01

    The study, which is the first of its kind in Germany, presents a comprehensive survey of total reserves set up by the German nuclear industry for liabilities and costs for nuclear power plant decommissioning and resulting radwaste disposal, which is a legal and foreseeable responsibility but uncertain in amount. The study looks into the various ways the earmarked money was invested and analyses the funds with respect to their efficiency and reliability to provide financial security for the given tasks and purpose. The question put in this context is: Are the reserves set up so far in line with official cost estimates, i.e. will they cover estimated costs, or do they even exceed the estimated amounts? The conclusions drawn and explained in this document are: The reserves for nuclear decommissioning have been used by the nuclear power plant operators and electricity companies as a significant capital source. Some of the capital accrued is being increasingly used at present to cover expenses arising for restructuring of business and diversification into new business segments of interest in the open national and European electricity markets. Companies such as RWE, Preussen Elektra, and Bayernwerk, which until deregulation of the energy sector were just power supply companies, have been transformed into conglomerate companies and international players in the markets, like RWE Holding, VEBA, and VIAG. It can be safely assumed that the companies would not have been able to reach the important positions they currently hold in the German economy without tapping the reserves for nuclear decommissioning. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Brazilian uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt

  2. Assessment of the requirements for placing and maintaining Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basins under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amacker, O.P. Jr.; Curtis, M.M.; Delegard, C.H.; Hsue, S.T.; Whitesel, R.N.

    1997-03-01

    The United States is considering the offer of irradiated research reactor spent fuel (RRSF) for international safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The offer would be to add one or more spent fuel storage basins to the list of facilities eligible for IAEA safeguards. The fuel to be safeguarded would be stored in basins on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This RRSF potentially can include returns of Material Test Reactor (MTR) VAX fuel from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile (ABC); returns from other foreign research reactors; and fuel from domestic research reactors. Basins on the SRS being considered for this fuel storage are the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (RBOF) and the L-Area Disassembly Basin (L-Basin). A working group of SRS, U.S. Department of Energy International Safeguards Division (NN-44), and National Laboratory personnel with experience in IAEA safeguards was convened to consider the requirements for applying the safeguards to this material. The working group projected the safeguards requirements and described alternatives

  3. Feasibility study on superconducting energy storages for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. Final report; Machbarkeitsuntersuchung von supraleitenden Energiespeichern zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockl, V [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Koetschau, S [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Nick, W [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Peschel, H [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Prescher, K [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Rzezonka, B [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Thiel, C [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Voelzke, R [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Zaviska, O [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Radtke, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Kleimaier, M [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Uttich, R [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present integrated research project conducted by Siemens AG in cooperation with the power supply companies PreussenElektra AG and RWE Energie AG was started in March 1994 and finally concluded in March 1996 after a run time of 25 months. On the strength of their know-how as manufacturers of electrotechnical installations and power plants the cooperating partners were fully equipped to examine the technical and economic conditions relevant to the practical application of superconducting energy storages. The aim of the study was to examine the feasibility and economic efficiency of superconducting magnetic energy storages (SMES) for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. The SMES is also to provide the power for primary regulation, a function effected by slight throttling of live steam valves in conventional thermal power plants. A basic cost estimation was made for economic assessment purposes. The estimated cost of the first plant (including development costs and component testing) and subsequent (series produced) plants is to serve as a basis for the ensuing decision on prototype construction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Maerz 1994 wurde das vorliegende Forschungsverbundprojekt von der Siemens AG in Zusammenarbeit mit den Energieversorgungsunternehmen PreussenElektra AG und RWE Energie AG begonnen und nach einer Laufzeit von 25 Monaten im Maerz 1996 abgeschlossen. Die beteiligten Unternehmen bringen durch ihr Know-how als Hersteller von elektrotechnischen Anlagen und Kraftwerken und als Betreiber von Stromversorgungsnetzen und Kraftwerken alle Voraussetzungen mit, die technischen und wirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen fuer den Anwendungsfall zu untersuchen. Das Ziel der Untersuchung war, die technische Machbarkeit und die Wirtschaftlichkeit eines supraleitenden magnetischen Energiespeichers (SMES) fuer den Einsatz zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung zu untersuchen. Hierbei soll der SMES die Primaerregelleistung liefern, die bisher in thermischen

  4. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  5. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-11-30

    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maintaining steam/condensate lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Steam and condensate systems must be maintained with the same diligence as the boiler itself. Unfortunately, they often are not. The water treatment program, critical to keeping the boiler at peak efficiency and optimizing operating life, should not stop with the boiler. The program must encompass the steam and condensate system as well. A properly maintained condensate system maximizes condensate recovery, which is a cost-free energy source. The fuel needed to turn the boiler feedwater into steam has already been provided. Returning the condensate allows a significant portion of that fuel cost to be recouped. Condensate has a high heat content. Condensate is a readily available, economical feedwater source. Properly treated, it is very pure. Condensate improves feedwater quality and reduces makeup water demand and pretreatment costs. Higher quality feedwater means more reliable boiler operation

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation volume I. Y-12 mercury task force files: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the series of records identified in the documents of the Y-12 Mercury Task Force Files that pertain to the use of mercury in the separation and enrichment of lithium isotopes at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project. Specific attention will be given to the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation, the development of the Y-12 Plant, and the use of mercury in the production of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s. This introduction provides background information on the Y-12 Mercury Task Force Files, an assembly of documents resulting from the 1983 investigation of the Mercury Task Force into the effects of mercury toxicity upon workplace hygiene and worker health, the unaccountable loss of mercury, and the impact of those losses upon the environment. This introduction also explains the methodology used in the selection and inventory of these record series. Other topics include the methodology used to produce this guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to the collection.

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation Volume 2. Records relating to cesium at the K-25 Plant: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-21

    The purpose of this guide is to describe the documents and record series at the K-25 plant that pertain to the handling of waste containing cesium-137 produced as a result of processes to enrich uranium and separate plutonium at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Oak Ride Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP, called K-25) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, the purpose of which is to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in it. Specific attention is given to the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation, the history and development of the K-25 plant, the creation and handling of cesium-contaminated waste, and environmental monitoring efforts at ORNL and K-25 from the late 1940s to the present. This introduction also presents the methodology used to identify the documents and series pertaining to cesium, a discussion of the inventory of these documents, information concerning access to the site and the records, and a description of the arrangement of the chapters.

  9. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  10. Constructability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A set of principles for minimizing the construction schedule was established at the outset of the CANDU 300 programme. Consideration of these principles and other factors led to the development of the unique CANDU 300 station layout. The paper discusses the CANDU 300 station layout and construction methods. In summary, the station layout provides 360 deg. construction access to all buildings, separation of nuclear and non-nuclear systems, precise and minimal physical interfaces between buildings, accommodation of many contractors and construction activities without interference, and maximum flexibility in terms of constructional, financial and supply arrangements. The CANDU 300 further employs modularization, shop fabrication and advanced instrumentation (multiplexers, remote processors, data highways) to minimize construction time. Many of the CANDU 300 features that enhance constructability also contribute to maintainability. These include the 360 deg. access to all principal buildings, the uncluttered and spacious building layouts, the simplification of systems and the high level of modularization. The CANDU 300 has also been designed to facilitate the replacement of all key components, thereby offering an essentially unlimited station life. A prime example is a reduction in the fuel channel inlet end-fitting diameter such that the fuel channels can be shop assembled and easily replaced after the initial 40 years of operation, without an extended unit outage. Maintainability within the reactor building has been given particular attention in the CANDU 300 design; key features of other CANDU reactors (the ability to replace a heat transport system pump motor at power, for example) have been incorporated, while accessibility and maintainability of all systems and components have been enhanced. These and other aspects of maintainability are discussed. (author)

  11. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  12. Building and maintaining media contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This presentation is answering the question: 'how does British Energy build and maintain its relationships with journalists in so many areas', not only the basic industrial correspondents that you would expect to have to deal with an industry British Energy, but those dealing with science and technology, the environment, personnel and training, city and financial, political, and on and on, and that is just the national press. Then add the local and regional media around power station sites - literally hundreds of contacts and you start to get an idea about the size of our media contact database. But it is managed it rather well. Every six months British Energy takes part in a survey run by one of the UK's leading market research companies who conducts a poll among journalists and then rate each company's performance. In the last three years British Energy has not been outside the top five in most categories, and in the top two in several. The answer is a lot of work over a long period of time. You cannot expect to build trusting relationships with a journalist overnight. At British Energy the key is being open and honest, and always available. Of course good media relations is not a one-way street, and there has to be some element of compromise if you are to achieve a relationship based on mutual trust

  13. In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate alters energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity and myogenic gene expression of breast muscle in embryos and neonatal broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M M; Gao, T; Zhang, L; Li, J L; Lv, P A; Yu, L L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity (SCMA) and myogenic gene expression in breast muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. A total of 960 eggs were randomly allocated into three treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) saline group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%), and 3) CrPyr group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%) containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg at 17.5 d of incubation. After hatching, a total of 120 male chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment group, with eight replicate sets per group. Selected chicks had body BW close to the average of their pooled group. Our results showed that the total and relative breast muscle weights of broilers subjected to CrPyr treatment were higher than those in the control and saline groups on 19 d of incubation (19 E), the day of hatch, 3 and 7 d post-hatch (P creatine concentrations on 19 E, the day of hatch and 3 d post-hatch, the same treatment increased phosphocreatine concentrations on 19 E. Broilers in the CrPyr group showed higher expression of myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) (P < 0.05), myogenin and paired box 7 (Pax7), as well as higher index of SCMA on 3 d post-hatch. However, myostatin mRNA expression in CrPyr-treated broilers was down-regulated on 3 d post-hatch (P < 0.05). These results indicated that IOF of CrPyr increased energy reserves of embryos and SCMA of broilers on 3 d post-hatch, which led to enhanced muscle growth in the late embryos and neonatal broilers. Additionally, IOF of CrPyr increased the activity of satellite cells possibly through up-regulating MyoD, myogenin, and Pax7 mRNA expression and down-regulating myostatin mRNA expression. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Seamless service: maintaining momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, N; Timoney, R

    1994-01-01

    Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.

  15. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  16. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation volume I. Y-12 mercury task force files: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the series of records identified in the documents of the Y-12 Mercury Task Force Files that pertain to the use of mercury in the separation and enrichment of lithium isotopes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role in the project. Specific attention will be given to the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation, the development of the Y-12 Plant, and the use of mercury in the production of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s. This introduction provides background information on the Y-12 Mercury Task Force Files, an assembly of documents resulting from the 1983 investigation of the Mercury Task Force into the effects of mercury toxicity upon workplace hygiene and worker health, the unaccountable loss of mercury, and the impact of those losses upon the environment. This introduction also explains the methodology used in the selection and inventory of these record series. Other topics include the methodology used to produce this guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to the collection

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation Volume 2. Records relating to cesium at the K-25 Plant: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe the documents and record series at the K-25 plant that pertain to the handling of waste containing cesium-137 produced as a result of processes to enrich uranium and separate plutonium at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Oak Ride Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP, called K-25) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, the purpose of which is to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role in it. Specific attention is given to the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation, the history and development of the K-25 plant, the creation and handling of cesium-contaminated waste, and environmental monitoring efforts at ORNL and K-25 from the late 1940s to the present. This introduction also presents the methodology used to identify the documents and series pertaining to cesium, a discussion of the inventory of these documents, information concerning access to the site and the records, and a description of the arrangement of the chapters

  19. Selling the SPR [Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in the USA was created in 1975, in conjunction with the wider reserve programme of the International Energy Agency, following the 1973/74 Arab oil embargo. The only source of funding for the SPR has been annual appropriations bills from Congress. In 1994, however, Congress, seeking ways to balance the nation's budget and given the perception by many free market economists that the danger of serious oils supply disruption has passed, refused to allocate funds for SPR oil purchases. No crude oil stocks have been added to the reserve since then. In 1996, congress took the further step of requiring sales of oil from the reserve in order to pay for the programme's running costs and to meet the costs of maintaining the reserve's storage facilities. The reserve oil is stored in caverns under salt domes in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico and some of these are beginning to fracture to the extent that they are having to be decommissioned. The SPR has been investigating ways of raising money in order to lessen its dependence on Congress. These include leasing pipelines and a marine terminal, and allowing the storage of foreign owned oil in underused caverns. (author)

  20. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  1. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  2. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  3. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  4. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  5. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Volume 1, Appendix F, Nevada Test Site and Oak Ridge Reservation Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This volume addresses the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at two US Department of Energy sites, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These sites are being considered to provide a reasonable range of alternative settings at which future SNF management activities could be conducted. These locations are not currently involved in management of large quantities of SNF; NTS has none, and ORR has only small quantities. But NTS and ORR do offer experience and infrastructure for the handling, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and they do exemplify a broad spectrum of environmental parameters. This broad spectrum of environmental parameters will provide, a perspective on whether and how such location attributes may relate to potential environmental impacts. Consideration of these two sites will permit a programmatic decision to be based upon an assessment of the feasible options without bias, to the current storage sites. This volume is divided into four parts. Part One is the volume introduction. Part Two contains chapters one through five for the NTS, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Three contains chapters one through five for the ORR, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Four is summary information including the list of preparers, organizations contacted, acronyms, and abbreviations for both the NTS and the ORR. A Table of Contents, List of Figures, and List of Tables are included in parts Two, Three, and Four. This approach permitted the inclusion of both sites in one volume while maintaining consistent chapter numbering.

  6. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  7. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  8. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  9. Níveis de energia metabolizável em rações para frangos de corte mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura Metabolizable energy levels in diets for broiler maintained in environment of high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmino José Vieira Barbosa

    2008-05-01

    were evaluated by performance (feed intake, weight gain and feed: gain ratio and carcass characteristics in the periods from 22 to 35 days, 36 to 42 days, 43 to 49 days and 22 to 49 days of age, respectively. Weight gain and feed:gain ratio of broilers maintained in high temperature environment were not influenced by metabolizable energy levels of diets. Metabolizable energylevels of the diet did not affect: carcass, thigh, over thigh, wing, tulip, gizzard, heart, liver and proventricle and intestine. However, the abdominal fat increases and breast yield proportionally decrease with the increase of the metabolizable energy levels of the diet in high temperature environment conditions.

  10. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H Calendar Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Richard [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    As defined in the preamble of the final rule, the entire DOE facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) must meet the 10 mrem/yr ED standard.1 In other words, the combined ED from all radiological air emission sources from Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) and any other DOE operation on the reservation must meet the 10 mrem/yr standard. Compliance with the standard is demonstrated through emission sampling, monitoring, calculations and radiation dose modeling in accordance with approved EPA methodologies and procedures. DOE estimates the ED to many individuals or receptor points in the vicinity of ORR, but it is the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) that determines compliance with the standard.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was established in 1975 as an emergency response to the 1973 Arab oil embargo. It is authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), and by the comprehensive energy plans of all Administrations since 1975, in recognition of the long-term dependence of the US on imported crude oil and petroleum products. Section 165 of EPCA requires the Secretary of Energy to submit an Annual Report to the President and the Congress. On May 13, 1998, the Department published a Statement of Administration Policy which reaffirmed its commitment to maintain a Government-owned and controlled, centrally located Strategic Petroleum Reserve of crude oil. The Reserve is to be used solely for responding to the types of severe oil supply interruptions presently contemplated in EPCA. Over the past twenty years, the Reserve has grown as large as 592 million barrels--a peak reached in 1994. From 1994 to 1996, nearly 28 million barrels were sold to raise revenues for the U S Treasury. As of December 31, 1998, the crude oil inventory was 561,108,127 barrels which equated to 60 days of net oil imports during 1998. The US now relies on a combination of both the Reserve and private stocks to meet its oil storage obligations to the International Energy Agency.

  12. Study of the Effect of Time-Based Rate Demand Response Programs on Stochastic Day-Ahead Energy and Reserve Scheduling in Islanded Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    In recent deregulated power systems, demand response (DR) has become one of the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for smoothing the load profile when the system is under stress. By participating in DR programs, customers are able to change their energy consumption habits in response...

  13. Agreement on the establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 22 thereof, the Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  14. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 25 thereof, the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation.' The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  15. Shale gas, let us exploit our reserves. Let us reduce the energy cost in France, let us revitalise industry, economy and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This report first recalls what shale gas is, and then comments its recent development in the USA and in the world while noticing the different attitudes of European countries with respect to this issue. It proposes an overview of resources and of existing extraction techniques, and discusses issues related to environmental risks (additives, water, sound and visual pollution, seismicity) and how risk can be prevented. It discusses to which extent shale gas can be considered as a resource for the future, and discusses the French potential related to shale gas exploitation (overview of the French energy situation, possible economic boom due to this exploitation, an energy independence asset, a possible asset for the environment). The French stand-off situation (recall of the law vote situation, a not valorised industrial sector) is discussed in terms of permit delivery practices, of poor support by elected representatives, and of influence of the ecologist lobby. The authors finally call for a new debate on this issue

  16. Drosophila larvae lacking the bcl-2 gene, buffy, are sensitive to nutrient stress, maintain increased basal target of rapamycin (Tor signaling and exhibit characteristics of altered basal energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrate Jessica P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 proteins are the central regulators of apoptosis. The two bcl-2 genes in Drosophila modulate the response to stress-induced cell death, but not developmental cell death. Because null mutants are viable, Drosophila provides an optimum model system to investigate alternate functions of Bcl-2 proteins. In this report, we explore the role of one bcl-2 gene in nutrient stress responses. Results We report that starvation of Drosophila larvae lacking the bcl-2 gene, buffy, decreases survival rate by more than twofold relative to wild-type larvae. The buffy null mutant reacted to starvation with the expected responses such as inhibition of target of rapamycin (Tor signaling, autophagy initiation and mobilization of stored lipids. However, the autophagic response to starvation initiated faster in larvae lacking buffy and was inhibited by ectopic buffy. We demonstrate that unusually high basal Tor signaling, indicated by more phosphorylated S6K, was detected in the buffy mutant and that removal of a genomic copy of S6K, but not inactivation of Tor by rapamycin, reverted the precocious autophagy phenotype. Instead, Tor inactivation also required loss of a positive nutrient signal to trigger autophagy and loss of both was sufficient to activate autophagy in the buffy mutant even in the presence of enforced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling. Prior to starvation, the fed buffy mutant stored less lipid and glycogen, had high lactate levels and maintained a reduced pool of cellular ATP. These observations, together with the inability of buffy mutant larvae to adapt to nutrient restriction, indicate altered energy metabolism in the absence of buffy. Conclusions All animals in their natural habitats are faced with periods of reduced nutrient availability. This study demonstrates that buffy is required for adaptation to both starvation and nutrient restriction. Thus, Buffy is a Bcl-2 protein that plays an

  17. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  18. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  19. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  20. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  1. Common characterization of variability and forecast errors of variable energy sources and their mitigation using reserves in power system integration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Dir. Plantif. de la Production Eolienne, Montreal, QC (Canada). HQ Production; Holttinen, H. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    This In this paper we define and characterize the two random variables, variability and forecast error, over which uncertainty in power systems operations is characterized and mitigated. We show that the characterization of both these variables can be carried out with the same mathematical tools. Furthermore, this common characterization of random variables lends itself to a common methodology for the calculation of non-contingency reserves required to mitigate their effects. A parallel comparison of these two variables demonstrates similar inherent statistical properties. They depend on imminent conditions, evolve with time and can be asymmetric. Correlation is an important factor when aggregating individual wind farm characteristics in forming the distribution of the total wind generation for imminent conditions. (orig.)

  2. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1994 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The tiered approach to ecological risk assessment has been implemented, generic conceptual models have been developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints has been agreed upon. The document also includes changes in terminology to agree with the terminology in the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) framework for ecological risk assessment. Although ecological risks are equal in regulatory importance to human health risks, formal procedures for ecological risk assessment are poorly developed. This report will provide specific guidance and promote the use of consistent approaches for ecological risk assessments at individual sites on the ORR. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance and with relevant EPA guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it should be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources

  3. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  4. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    was highest in cows that had an improvement in RFAT and BCS during the dry period. Therefore, assuring a good nutritional status in the dry period (BCS ≥ 3.0 at 165 ± 14 days prepartum and ≥3.25 at parturition) is an important aim to optimize the postpartum conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to TAI followed by natural mating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  6. Maintainability effectiveness evaluations and enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the mid-seventies EPRI initiated a research project to review the human factors aspects of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the course of investigating operator-control room interfaces in five operational control rooms, it became evident that many plant outages had either been caused or prolonged by human factors problems associated with maintenance activities. Consequently, as one of several follow-on projects, EPRI sponsored a review of nine power plants (five nuclear and four fossil) to examine the human factors aspects of plant maintainability. This survey revealed a wide variety of generic human factors problems that could negatively impact the effectiveness of plant maintenance personnel. It was clear that plant maintainability features deserved no less attention to human factors concerns than the operational features of the control room. This paper describes subsequent EPRI-initiated efforts to assist the utilities in conducting self-reviews of maintainability effectiveness and effect needed enhancements

  7. Maintaining ancient organelles: mitochondrial biogenesis and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rick B; Horton, Julie L; Kelly, Daniel P

    2015-05-22

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome and drives the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues, as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  9. Developing and maintaining nuclear competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobert, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them

  10. [Maintaining patients' autonomy at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Bénédicte; Coudre, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To maintain the flow of hospital discharges, the patient's return home with support from a home nursing service is important. If any difficulties are identified, there are various programmes or good practices which can be put into place. The future law on adapting society to ageing also comprises a scheme combining home assistance and nursing care.

  11. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  12. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  13. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  15. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Maintaining protein composition in cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab

    2017-12-20

    The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.

  17. Improving versus maintaining nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of improving nuclear safety versus maintaining it has been discussed at a number of nuclear regulators meetings in recent years. National reports have indicated that there are philosophical differences between NEA member countries about whether their regulatory approaches require licensees to continuously improve nuclear safety or to continuously maintain it. It has been concluded that, while the actual level of safety achieved in all member countries is probably much the same, this is difficult to prove in a quantitative way. In practice, all regulatory approaches require improvements to be made to correct deficiencies and when otherwise warranted. Based on contributions from members of the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), this publication provides an overview of current nuclear regulatory philosophies and approaches, as well as insights into a selection of public perception issues. This publication's intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  18. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  19. Developing and maintaining instructor capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, W.P.; Smith, G.

    1985-01-01

    The New York Power Authority, after surveying available courses, decided to develop an in-house instructor training program. Following the principles of the Systems Approach to Training the course embodied the results of a job analysis resulting in a program containing instruction in Educational Philosophy, the Systems Approach to Training, Methods and Media, and Testing. The course content is covered through classroom instruction, on-the-job training, instructor evaluations, and assignments. Instructors completing the program continue to maintain skills with inservice training

  20. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  1. Maintaining nuclear competence and expertise in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30 % of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC ( previously PNC ). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present paper

  2. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  3. Citizen ’Cyber’ Airmen: Maintaining Ready and Proficient Cyberspace Operators in the Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Cisco bring the most unique and current expertise.40 Even if Air Force RC personnel do not work for those companies but work in places that implore...labor market .46 Air Force RC members who are employed in industries related to cyber operations can be tapped to provide current knowledge, tools, and

  4. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  5. Managing Phytophthora ramorum at Bloedel Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren Strenge; Marianne Elliott; Gary Chastagner; Casey Sclar

    2017-01-01

    Bloedel Reserve is a 150-acre botanical garden and nature preserve on the north end of Bainbridge Island in Washington on the Puget Sound. The grounds encompass undeveloped forest, pastures, a bird marsh, woodland plantings, and intensely maintained gardens within the limits of the City of Bainbridge Island. The garden is part of the Sentinel Plant Network, a...

  6. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  7. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  8. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  9. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  10. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  11. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  12. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  13. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  14. Uranium reserves fall: AAEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources

  15. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source

  16. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  17. Data base dictionary for the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study Groundwater Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) Groundwater Data Base has been compiled to consolidate groundwater data from the three US Department of Energy facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Each of these facilities maintains its own groundwater and well construction data bases. Data were extracted from the existing data bases, converted to a consistent format, and integrated into the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base structures. This data base dictionary describes the data contained in the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base and contains information on data base structure, conventions, contents, and use.

  18. 7 CFR 1709.2 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.2 Policy. Section 1709.2 Policy. Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.2 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  19. 7 CFR 1709.202 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.202 Policy. Section 1709.202 Policy... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program § 1709.202 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  20. Price, technology, and ore reserves, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    Factors determining ore reserves in view of future uses are investigated: existing mining technologies, new techniques, price-technology relationship, effects of the use of different energy sources, exploration techniques, and price change are discussed. The effect of price and technology on reserves of specific commodities is dealth with. A section is also devoted to uranium

  1. 18 CFR 284.125 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 284.125 Section 284.125 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.125 [Reserved] ...

  2. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  3. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  5. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  6. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. 12 CFR 615.5134 - Liquidity reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserve requirement. 615.5134 Section..., LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5134 Liquidity reserve requirement. (a) Each Farm Credit bank must maintain a liquidity reserve, discounted in accordance with...

  8. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  9. Building and maintaining media relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterberg, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In my opinion good media relations are among the most valuable investments regarding the communications and Public Relations operations within an Organisation. This means, that all the work you put up in building and maintaining media relations, is worth all the efforts. It can mean the difference between success or failure. Although a reporter never would admit that he or she is easily influenced, the fact is that you would get better press in an emergency case if you have a positive personal relation to the reporter. So, in my opinion there is nothing more important, in building and maintaining media relations, than the face-to-face-contact. My experience of good personal relations to reporters is also that you're not only getting better press in emergency cases. You are more successful in getting published when you have something positive to say, too. Honesty and openness are two key-words in this context. I have never tried to manipulate and delude a reporter, since that definitely would ruin the relationship. I always try to be as straight forward as possible and underline what I can say and what I can't. That instead of presenting some forced lies. For me, it is also very important to create some kind of mid-field ground, where the reporter and I can meet unprejudiced. Sense of humour and distance, both to yourself and your organisation, are two main characteristics that are invaluable in order to create a good personal relationship with a reporter. But, I'm very accurate in emphasizing when I enter my role as a company representative. All in order to be regarded as correct, yet obliging. To be quick when it comes to returning calls is another vital component that gives the reporter a feeling that he or she is important enough to be contacted as soon as possible. This service-minded attitude is of course good for the relationship. Besides the more personal relation it's important to have a business-like relation, where you show a great deal of

  10. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  11. OPINIONS ON INTERNATIONAL RESERVES MANAGEMENT - POST CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    MERCEA (HANDRO) PATRICIA AMALIA

    2017-01-01

    The recent crisis demonstrated once again the importance of maintaining an adequate level of the international reserves as part of the defense of a country against the shocks internationally transmitted. Liquidity buffers aided the good functioning of financial systems, and allowed countries to cope with sudden foreign capital stops or to manage massive outflows without facing a costly crisis. This logic has been strengthened in the context of the crisis from 2008, when countries ...

  12. Investigating Power System Primary and Secondary Reserve Interaction under High Wind Power Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Jin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Power system frequency needs to be maintained close to its nominal value at all times to successfully balance load and generation and maintain system reliability. Adequate primary frequency response and secondary frequency response are the primary forces to correct an energy imbalance at the second-to-minute level. As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio, there is an increased need for wind to provide frequency response. This paper addresses one of the major concerns about using wind for frequency regulation: the unknown factor of the interaction between primary and secondary reserves. The lack of a commercially available tool to model this has limited the energy industry's understanding of when the depletion of primary reserves will impact the performance of secondary response or vice versa. This paper investigates the issue by developing a multi-area frequency response integration tool with combined primary and secondary capabilities. The simulation is conducted in close coordination with economical energy scheduling scenarios to ensure credible simulation results.

  13. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  14. An Online Evaluation of Operating Reserve for System Security

    OpenAIRE

    Le-Ren Chang-Chien; Yin-Juin Lin; Chin-Chung Wu

    2007-01-01

    Utilities use operating reserve for frequency regulation.To ensure that the operating frequency and system security are well maintained, the operating grid codes always specify that the reserve quantity and response rate should meet some prescribed levels. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate system's contingency reserve for an isolated power network. With the presented algorithm to estimate system's frequency response characteristic, an online allocation of contingency reserve would...

  15. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities...

  16. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  17. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  18. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  20. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...

  1. Energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    From energy policy to the problem of public acceptance of nuclear power, problems like energy supply, energy strategies, the race of industrial countries for the short energy reserves, the West German energy demand until the year 2.000, energy conservation, and the controversy over increased use of nuclear energy are reviewed. (GL) [de

  2. Evolution of maintainability in France since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make the point of maintainability in France since 1971. The importance of maintainability is recalled. Publications in France from 1971 to 1975 show the interest arose by maintainability; their analysis permits to make clear the general plan followed by the studies and gives indications on the directions of actual efforts. Conclusion is drawn on the orientation of work at short, medium and long term [fr

  3. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  4. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  5. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...

  6. 2002 energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report has 12 chapters. The first chapter includes world energy reserves, the second chapter is about world primary energy production and consumption condition. Other chapters include; world energy prices, energy reserves in Turkey, Turkey primary energy production and consumption condition, Turkey energy balance tables, Turkey primary energy reserves production, consumption, imports and exports conditions, sectoral energy consumptions, Turkey secondary electricity plants, Turkey energy investments, Turkey energy prices.This report gives world and Turkey statistics on energy

  7. 40 CFR 600.406-77 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.406-77 [Reserved] ...

  8. 18 CFR 284.222 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 284.222 Section 284.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... Blanket Certificates Authorizing Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines on Behalf of Others and...

  9. Uranium - raw material reserves for coming generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutner, H.

    1981-01-01

    Large uranium occurences have been discovered in the South of Mexico. The deposits are situated in the Sierra Mixteca. Reserves of 9.400 tons had been at Mexico's disposal even before these new discoveries. The quantitiy discovered recentyl amounts to 20.000 tons. The uranium reserves available apart from those in centrally controlled economic systems are presently estimated at five million tons. Meanwhile American scientists have found out that all the rivers of the world transport about 16.000 tons of uranium from the continents into the oceans per annum. The energy value of this washed out amount of uranium corresponds to the 25-fold world power demand of today. US scientists have discovered that the oceans can provide uranium for about seven million years of the present world energy demand. While the petroleum reserves decrease worldwide it seems that the exploration of uranium has just been started. (orig.) [de

  10. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  11. Environmental restoration and waste management Site-Specific Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to achieving and maintaining environmental regulatory compliance while responding to public concerns and emphasizing waste minimization. DOE publishes the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) annually to document its progress towards these goals. The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe the activities undertaken to implement the FYP goals at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) installations and programs specifically for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding areas. This SSP addresses activities and goals to be accomplished during FY93 even through the FYP focuses on FY94

  12. Data base dictionary for the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study Groundwater Data Base. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) Groundwater Data Base has been compiled to consolidate groundwater data from the three US Department of Energy facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Each of these facilities maintains its own groundwater and well construction data bases. Data were extracted from the existing data bases, converted to a consistent format, and integrated into the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base structures. This data base dictionary describes the data contained in the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base and contains information on data base structure, conventions, contents, and use.

  13. OPINIONS ON INTERNATIONAL RESERVES MANAGEMENT - POST CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA (HANDRO PATRICIA AMALIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent crisis demonstrated once again the importance of maintaining an adequate level of the international reserves as part of the defense of a country against the shocks internationally transmitted. Liquidity buffers aided the good functioning of financial systems, and allowed countries to cope with sudden foreign capital stops or to manage massive outflows without facing a costly crisis. This logic has been strengthened in the context of the crisis from 2008, when countries with lots of reserves, such as China or Brazil, came through better than those with lower liquid assets. Economists have argued that developing countries need reserves mainly to cover urgent imports and short-term debts. The current level of global reserves far exceeds this traditional postulate. In this context, it is necessary to rethink the adequacy of the level of constituting the reserves portfolio. The dominance of the dollar as a reserve currency, another important feature of the current reserves portfolio, makes the holders become vulnerable to the monetary policy of FED. A greater flexibility of the currency will also be needed. The often called the “trilemma” of international economics dictates: when capital is mobile, countries must choose between fixing their currencies and controlling their domestic monetary conditions. They cannot do both. The domestic currency inflexibility will ultimately lead to asset bubbles and inflation. The pressure of capital flows will depend on the prospects of rich economies, especially America’s. The increment of emerging economies availability to allow the exchange rate to move will depend on what China does - and China may remain forever linked to the dollar. The emergence of a global currency that constitute a genuine means of exchange or the use of cross-border multifaceted cash pools common to IMF members would reduce systemic risks. International regulations for countries with persistent trade surpluses could be a

  14. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  15. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  16. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  18. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.

  19. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  20. Coal: resources, reserves and production - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For the French, whose last coal mine closed in 2004, the 'comeback' of coal as a political issue may seem a bit surprising. Even if coal is still used in domestic industry and to produce electricity, it is many years since it was used as the primary energy source for electricity production. This situation, specific to France and certain European countries, is not at all typical of the world situation: in the face of surging energy demand, coal - whose reserves have been estimated by the World Energy Council to cover 145 years of consumption at the current rate - seems to be an energy of the future and an alternative to oil, natural gas and nuclear power for the production of electricity

  1. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  2. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  3. Natural gas: reserves keep ahead of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, G V

    1983-08-01

    World production of natural gas in 1982 fell only 1.6% below 1981 levels, while proven recoverable reserves were up by 3.6% for a total of 3.279 quadrillion CF, which is 32.4% higher than had been estimated in 1978. Gas consumption, however, has experienced greater changes, with most of the industrialized countries (except for Japan) reporting declines in gas demand resulting from falling oil prices, reduced energy demand, and a slack world economy. Although gas seems to be holding its own in energy markets, further progress will not be easy to achieve.

  4. Understanding how replication processes can maintain systems away from equilibrium using Algorithmic Information Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sean D

    2016-02-01

    Replication can be envisaged as a computational process that is able to generate and maintain order far-from-equilibrium. Replication processes, can self-regulate, as the drive to replicate can counter degradation processes that impact on a system. The capability of replicated structures to access high quality energy and eject disorder allows Landauer's principle, in conjunction with Algorithmic Information Theory, to quantify the entropy requirements to maintain a system far-from-equilibrium. Using Landauer's principle, where destabilising processes, operating under the second law of thermodynamics, change the information content or the algorithmic entropy of a system by ΔH bits, replication processes can access order, eject disorder, and counter the change without outside interventions. Both diversity in replicated structures, and the coupling of different replicated systems, increase the ability of the system (or systems) to self-regulate in a changing environment as adaptation processes select those structures that use resources more efficiently. At the level of the structure, as selection processes minimise the information loss, the irreversibility is minimised. While each structure that emerges can be said to be more entropically efficient, as such replicating structures proliferate, the dissipation of the system as a whole is higher than would be the case for inert or simpler structures. While a detailed application to most real systems would be difficult, the approach may well be useful in understanding incremental changes to real systems and provide broad descriptions of system behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability And Maintainability Issues for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Zane J.; Gold, Saul L.; Koontz, Ron F.; Lavine, Ted L.

    2011-01-01

    Large accelerators for high energy physics research traditionally have been designed using informal best design, engineering, and management practices to achieve acceptable levels of operational availability. However, the Next Linear Collider(NLC) project presents a particular challenge for operational availability due to the unprecedented size and complexity of the accelerator systems required to achieve the physics goals of high center-of-mass energy and high luminosity. Formal reliability and maintainability analysis, design, and implementation will be required to achieve acceptable operational availability for the high energy physics research program. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of reliability analysis and applies them to the 2.6-cm microwave power system of the two 10-km-long, 250-GeV linacs that are currently proposed for the NLC design.

  6. Risk spreading, connectivity, and optimal reserve spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, Shane A; Connolly, Sean R

    2012-01-01

    Two important processes determining the dynamics of spatially structured populations are dispersal and the spatial covariance of demographic fluctuations. Spatially explicit approaches to conservation, such as reserve networks, must consider the tension between these two processes and reach a balance between distances near enough to maintain connectivity, but far enough to benefit from risk spreading. Here, we model this trade-off. We show how two measures of metapopulation persistence depend on the shape of the dispersal kernel and the shape of the distance decay in demographic covariance, and we consider the implications of this trade-off for reserve spacing. The relative rates of distance decay in dispersal and demographic covariance determine whether the long-run metapopulation growth rate, and quasi-extinction risk, peak for adjacent patches or intermediately spaced patches; two local maxima in metapopulation persistence are also possible. When dispersal itself fluctuates over time, the trade-off changes. Temporal variation in mean distance that propagules are dispersed (i.e., propagule advection) decreases metapopulation persistence and decreases the likelihood that persistence will peak for adjacent patches. Conversely, variation in diffusion (the extent of random spread around mean dispersal) increases metapopulation persistence overall and causes it to peak at shorter inter-patch distances. Thus, failure to consider temporal variation in dispersal processes increases the risk that reserve spacings will fail to meet the objective of ensuring metapopulation persistence. This study identifies two phenomena that receive relatively little attention in empirical work on reserve spacing, but that can qualitatively change the effectiveness of reserve spacing strategies: (1) the functional form of the distance decay in covariance among patch-specific demographic rates and (2) temporal variation in the shape of the dispersal kernel. The sensitivity of metapopulation

  7. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  8. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  9. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present a...

  10. Maintainability of manpower system with restricted recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maintainability of a manpower system is studied under a Markov framework. The classical method of controlling only one factor of flow is extended to highlight the case in which two factors are under control simultaneously. One special case of this extension, where recruitment of units faces partial embargo, is given, ...

  11. Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.; Geringer, T.; Radiation Protection Academy Seibersdorf; Haug, T.

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

  12. The importance of university research in maintaining the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the university in maintaining and revitalizing the nuclear option should have four goals. First, it must attract highly skilled students who have an interest in math and science and help foster their interest in nuclear science and engineering. Next, it must present a state-of-the-art educational program that contains meaningful research to maintain these students. The third goal of nuclear engineering departments is to provide the nontechnical student a fair assessment of benefits and risks associated with commercial nuclear power relative to other sources of electricity. Lastly, it must effectively communicate to all students a compelling vision of nuclear power as a vital energy resource that will grow. The most difficult role for the university is to successfully convey a future for those in the nuclear science and engineering program

  13. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  14. Fast and Reliable Primary Frequency Reserves From Refrigerators with Decentralized Stochastic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrettos, Evangelos; Ziras, Charalampos; Andersson, Goran

    2016-01-01

    in the controller to account for thermostat resolution limitations, and finally, we modify the control design to account for refrigerator door openings. Extensive simulations with actual frequency signal data and with different aggregation sizes, load characteristics, and control parameters, demonstrate......Due to increasing shares of renewable energy sources, more frequency reserves are required to maintain power system stability. In this paper, we present a decentralized control scheme that allows a large aggregation of refrigerators to provide Primary Frequency Control (PFC) reserves to the grid...... based on local frequency measurements and without communication. The control is based on stochastic switching of refrigerators depending on the frequency deviation. We develop methods to account for typical lockout constraints of compressors and increased power consumption during the startup phase...

  15. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  16. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  17. Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, William

    1998-01-01

    .... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...

  18. Natural gas reserve growth in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woronuk, R. [Canadian Gas Potential Committee, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[GasEnergy Strategies Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An appreciation study of a natural gas reservoir is a component of assessing its ultimate reserve potential. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee (CGPC) defines appreciation as the change in a reserve estimate from a previously booked pool or basin. Basins cannot appreciate through the addition of new pools. Ultimate potential includes all of the following: cumulative production; remaining discovered reserves; adjustments to remaining discovered reserves; and, full appreciated undiscovered reserves. This presentation outlined the procedures used by the CGPC in its appreciation studies. It also reviewed data supplier issues, regulatory practices, and booking issues. A series of graphs were also included depicting pools discovered in 1993 and the average pool gas in place. Reservoir loss from 1993 to 1998 was attributed to the fact that enhanced recovery technology cannot keep pace with the degradation in pool quality. It was noted that beyond 1998, significant increases in gas prices should increase recovery factors. Special studies by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board have included the depreciation of unconnected gas pools and the appreciation of sheet sands. The challenge of tracking pool appreciation was discussed with reference to estimating new pool discoveries in established fields. 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. 2014 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Joan F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) is located in Roane and Anderson counties in East Tennessee, about 40 km (25 miles) from Knoxville. ORR is one of DOE’s most unique and complex sites. It encompasses three major facilities and thousands of employees that perform every mission in the DOE portfolio—energy research, environmental restoration, national security, nuclear fuel supply, reindustrialization, science education, basic and applied research in areas important to US security, and technology transfer. ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project for the purposes of enriching uranium and pioneering methods for producing and separating plutonium. Today, scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), DOE’s largest multipurpose national laboratory, conduct world-leading research in advanced materials, alternative fuels, climate change, and supercomputing. The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 or Y-12 Complex) is vital to maintaining the safety, security, and effectiveness of the US nuclear weapons stockpile and reducing the global threat posed by nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), a former uranium enrichment complex, is being transitioned to a clean, revitalized industrial park.

  20. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  1. Maintaining Respiratory Health in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Modaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease that primarily affects the lungs and the digestive system, however, it also affects a number of other organs and systems. More than 90% of mortality of  CF patients is due to lung complications.  Healthy lungs are important for a long life for people with CF, We will discuss two important topics for maintaining respiratory health. Chronic use of drugs for maintaining respiratory health There are a number of drugs available to keep CF lungs healthy. We will discuss the science behind the recommendations for use of: Inhaled antibiotics Dornase alfa Azithromycin Hypertonic saline High-dose ibuprofen Ivacaftor CF Airway Clearance Therapies Airway Clearance therapy is very important to keeping CF lungs healthy. Our discussions cover the following topics such as the: Daily airway clearance Different techniques of airway clearance Effect of aerobic exercise on airway clearance  

  2. Maintaining the Identify of Dynamically Embodied Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Alan; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Bradley, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual agents are traditionally constrained in their embod- iment, as they are restricted to one form of body. We propose allowing them to change their embodiment in order to expand their capabili- ties. This presents users with a number of di±culties in maintaining the identity of the agents, but these can be overcome by using identity cues, certain features that remain constant across embodiment forms. This pa- per outlines an experiment that examines these identity cues, and shows that th...

  3. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  4. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  5. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  6. Energy options in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid rise of oil price and the future shortage of oil are the problems, to which those in charge of energy must face. The method of maintaining and increasing energy consumption without destroying financial balance must be found. As the common points in Japan and France, domestic energy resources are scarce, coal reserves are small and the cost is high, the room for expanding water power generation hardly remains, and the atomic energy projects of large scale seem to be the only solution, but actually, they encountered many difficulties. In France, Energy Conservation Agency was established in 1974. The energy consumption per man was 4500 kWh in 1979, and it is not high level, accordingly it is difficult to reduce the present consumption further. The growth of electricity consumption in 1979 slowed down remarkably. The present crisis is oil crisis instead of energy crisis. Therefore electric power is the most suitable medium to get rid of the bondage of oil. The breakdown of heat production is as follows: coal 41%, oil 32%, gas 4%, and uranium 23%. Since 1976, 15 power plants of 3.5 million kW were converted to coal burning, but more staffs are required for the operation and maintenance. Water power generation is valuable to supplement nuclear power generation which lacks flexibility. As the nucleus of energy projects in France, PWR development project is in progress. Six 900 MW PWR plants are in operation. (Kako, I.)

  7. 12 CFR 1511.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Funding Corporation Securities offered and sold by the Funding Corporation, in accordance with the Securities Documentation, and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars; to service and maintain Book-entry..., Security Entitlements, and the operation of the Book-Entry System under this Part. ...

  8. Does bilingualism contribute to cognitive reserve? Cognitive and neural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were used as keywords for study retrieval: "bilingual AND reserve," "reserve AND neural mechanisms," and "reserve AND multilingualism." Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency, and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The value of electricity and reserve services in low carbon electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Avinash; Fouquet, Nicolas; Staffell, Iain; Hawkes, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A power dispatch model is used to simulate electricity and reserve prices. •Good agreement is observed between modelled and historic prices in 2015. •Higher renewables and CCS with lower fossil fuels leads to lower electricity prices. •Contrary to expectation, gone green scenario leads to lowest increase in reserve price. •Flexible aggregated demand response likely to offer significant economic benefits. -- Abstract: Decarbonising electricity systems is essential for mitigating climate change. Future systems will likely incorporate higher penetrations of intermittent renewable and inflexible nuclear power. This will significantly impact on system operations, particularly the requirements for flexibility in terms of reserves and the cost of such services. This paper estimates the interrelated changes in wholesale electricity and reserve prices using two novel methods. Firstly, it simulates the short run marginal cost of generation using a unit commitment model with post-processing to achieve realistic prices. It also introduces a new reserve price model, which mimics actual operation by first calculating the day ahead schedules and then letting deviations from schedule drive reserve prices. The UK is used as a case study to compare these models with traditional methods from the literature. The model gives good agreement with and historic prices in 2015. In a 2035 scenario, increased renewables penetration reduces mean electricity prices, and leads to price spikes due to expensive plants being brought online briefly to cope with net load variations. Contrary to views previously held in literature, a renewable intensive scenario does not lead to a higher reserve price than a fossil fuel intensive scenario. Demand response technology is shown to offer sizeable economic benefits when maintaining system balance. More broadly, this framework can be used to evaluate the economics of providing reserve services by aggregating decentralised energy

  10. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  11. Designing connected marine reserves in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Munguía-Vega, Adrián; Beger, Maria; Del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, Maria; Suárez-Castillo, Alvin N; Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Gerber, Leah R; Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Adams, Vanessa M; Kolb, Melanie; Graham, Erin M; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Castillo-López, Alejandro; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Petatán-Ramírez, David; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Torre, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Marine reserves are widely used to protect species important for conservation and fisheries and to help maintain ecological processes that sustain their populations, including recruitment and dispersal. Achieving these goals requires well-connected networks of marine reserves that maximize larval connectivity, thus allowing exchanges between populations and recolonization after local disturbances. However, global warming can disrupt connectivity by shortening potential dispersal pathways through changes in larval physiology. These changes can compromise the performance of marine reserve networks, thus requiring adjusting their design to account for ocean warming. To date, empirical approaches to marine prioritization have not considered larval connectivity as affected by global warming. Here, we develop a framework for designing marine reserve networks that integrates graph theory and changes in larval connectivity due to potential reductions in planktonic larval duration (PLD) associated with ocean warming, given current socioeconomic constraints. Using the Gulf of California as case study, we assess the benefits and costs of adjusting networks to account for connectivity, with and without ocean warming. We compare reserve networks designed to achieve representation of species and ecosystems with networks designed to also maximize connectivity under current and future ocean-warming scenarios. Our results indicate that current larval connectivity could be reduced significantly under ocean warming because of shortened PLDs. Given the potential changes in connectivity, we show that our graph-theoretical approach based on centrality (eigenvector and distance-weighted fragmentation) of habitat patches can help design better-connected marine reserve networks for the future with equivalent costs. We found that maintaining dispersal connectivity incidentally through representation-only reserve design is unlikely, particularly in regions with strong asymmetric patterns of

  12. Riparian reserves within oil palm plantations conserve logged forest leaf litter ant communities and maintain associated scavenging rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gray, C. L.; Lewis, O. T.; Chung, A. Y. C.; Fayle, Tom Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 0021-8901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : agroecosystems * bait removal * biodiversity conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.196, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12371/epdf

  13. 9 CFR 93.103 - Import permits for birds; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities maintained by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drury Lane, Rock Tavern, NY, 12575, or to the port veterinarian in charge of the New York Animal Import... calendar year in which they are issued. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  14. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  15. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  16. Lipoprotein internalisation induced by oncogenic AMPK activation is essential to maintain glioblastoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, M; Foretz, M; Viollet, B; Prieto, A; Fraga, M; García-Caballero, T; Costoya, J A; Señarís, R

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic adaptations are essential during tumour growth to maintain the high proliferation levels exhibited by cancer cells. In this study, we examined the transformations that occurred in the lipid metabolism in astrocytic tumours, and the possible role of the fuel-sensing enzyme AMPK. Metabolic targets might help design new and effective drugs for cancer. To accomplish this objective, we studied both mice and human astrocytic tumours. We first used a mouse model of astrocytoma driven by oncogenic H-RasV12 and/or with PTEN deletion based on the common constitutive activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT cascades in human astrocytomas. We then confirmed the results in human glioblastoma cell lines and in glioblastoma tissue samples from patients. We show that the high levels of activated AMPK, observed in astrocytic tumours, increase extracellular lipid internalisation and reduce energy expenditure by inhibiting 'de novo' fatty acid (FA) synthesis, which allows tumour cells to obtain building blocks and energy to be able to create new organelles and new cells. Our findings demonstrate that AMPK plays a crucial role in glioblastoma cell growth and suggest that blocking lipoprotein receptors could potentially be used as a plausible therapeutic approach for these and other type of tumours with high levels of AMPK. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  18. Reserve reporting in the United States coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily

    2012-01-01

    United States energy policymaking can be better supported with accurate and consistent data on coal reserves, both in the public and private sectors. In particular, reserve data for coal and other energy resources should be directly comparable so that decision-makers can easily understand the relationship among available resources. Long-term policy and investment choices regarding energy security, the environment, and resource allocation depend on accurate information, but existing and easily available data on the magnitude of geologically, environmentally, economically, socially, and legally accessible coal reserves are of insufficient quality to guide such decisions. Even still, these data are often presented for use in policy and energy analysis. Currently, coal reserves are overstated relative to competitor energy resource reserves, in part because coal reporting standards have historically been more liberal and vague than standards for resources like natural gas. Overstating the marketable coal resource could lead to inefficient allocation of limited capital investment that can be difficult to reverse. US government bodies like the Energy Information Administration, United States Geological Survey, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Bureau of Land Management can help correct deficiencies by clarifying standards and collecting data that are relevant for decision-makers, such as energy-based reserve information. - Highlights: ► US Coal reserves are important to public and private policy and investment decisions. ► Poor quality data and coal reserve overreporting misrepresent reality. ► Choices made based on bad information can lead to long-term capital misallocation. ► Numerous government agencies are tasked with providing public data on coal reserves. ► Clearer, more restrictive reserves reporting standards can aid decision-makers.

  19. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS... BUILDINGS § 433.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] ...

  20. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  1. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  2. 77 FR 21854 - Collection of Checks and Other Items by Federal Reserve Banks and Funds Transfers Through Fedwire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... it is counted toward the balance maintained to satisfy a reserve balance requirement for purposes of... balance maintained to satisfy a reserve balance requirement for purposes of part 204 of this chapter... reserve balance requirement for purposes of part 204 of this chapter (Regulation D) nor make the proceeds...

  3. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  4. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  5. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  6. Demand as Frequency-controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian Brandt; Østergaard, Jacob

    with great enthusiasm from all DFR project members who have shown a memorable dedication to their work. Active control of electricity demand is a key technology when creating a more dynamic, wind power friendly energy system. In this demonstration project, we have developed and tested devices, which use...... electric loads to provide frequency controlled primary reserves. The devices collected data from domestic households and industrial loads covering i.e. circulation pumps, electrical domestic heating, bottle coolers, a wastewater treatment plant etc., that have been analysed and used for the papers...

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its surrounding environs and the public during 1991. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1991 data for the ORR. This volume, Volume 2, includes the detailed data formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included. The information in Vol. 2 is addressed and analyzed in Vol. 1

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. This volume (volume 2) includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are presented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  9. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. This Volume (Volume 1) includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. Volume 2 includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  10. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  11. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  12. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  13. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  14. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  15. Coal: resources, reserves and production - Panorama 2008; Charbon: ressources, reserves et production - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the French, whose last coal mine closed in 2004, the 'comeback' of coal as a political issue may seem a bit surprising. Even if coal is still used in domestic industry and to produce electricity, it is many years since it was used as the primary energy source for electricity production. This situation, specific to France and certain European countries, is not at all typical of the world situation: in the face of surging energy demand, coal - whose reserves have been estimated by the World Energy Council to cover 145 years of consumption at the current rate - seems to be an energy of the future and an alternative to oil, natural gas and nuclear power for the production of electricity.

  16. Power system reliability impacts of wind generation and operational reserve requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its variability, wind generation integration presents a significant challenge to power system operators in order to maintain adequate reliability levels while ensuring least cost operation. This paper explores the trade-off between the benefits associated to a higher wind penetration and the additional operational reserve requirements that they impose. Such exploration is valued in terms of its effect on power system reliability, measured as an amount of unserved energy. The paper also focuses on how changing the Value of Lost Load (VoLL can be used to attain different reliability targets, and how wind power penetration and the diversity of the wind energy resource will impact quality of supply (in terms of instances of unserved energy. The evaluation of different penetrations of wind power generation, different wind speed profiles, wind resource diversity, and different operational reserve requirements, is conducted on the Chilean Northern Interconnected System (SING using statistical modeling of wind speed time series and computer simulation through a 24-hour ahead unit commitment algorithm and a Monte Carlo simulation scheme. Results for the SING suggest that while wind generation can significantly reduce generation costs, it can also imply higher security costs to reach acceptable reliability levels.

  17. THE EFFECT OF CHANGES IN RESERVE REQUIREMENTS DURING THE 1930s:

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mayer; Thomas F. Cargill

    2004-01-01

    The differential response of cash reserves of member banks and nonmember banks not subject to the 1936-37 increase in reserve requirements is estimated to determine whether the 1937-38 recession was caused by the increase in reserve requirements. We identify 17 states that maintained constant reserve requirements from June 1934 to June 1941. While member banks increased their cash reserve ratios relative to nonmember banks, the magnitude of the adjustment is too small to have contributed to t...

  18. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  19. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  20. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  1. Human factors review of power plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  2. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  3. Balancing selection maintains cryptic colour morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Maren

    2017-11-01

    Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not. Theory predicts that genetic drift and various forms of selection reduce variation over time, making the persistence of colour variants over generations a puzzle. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. () study the cryptic colour morphs of Timema cristinae walking sticks to shed light on the genetic architecture and mechanisms that allow colour polymorphism maintenance over long timescales. By combining genome-wide data with phenotyping information from natural populations, they were able to map the green and melanistic colour to one genomic region with highly reduced effective recombination rate between two main chromosomal variants, consistent with an inversion polymorphism. These two main chromosomal variants showed geographically widespread heterozygote excess, and genomic signatures consistent with long-term balancing selection. A younger chromosomal variant was detected for the third morph, the green-striped colour morphs, in the same genomic regions as the melanistic and the green-unstriped morphs. Together, these results suggest that the genetic architecture of cryptic T. cristinae morphs is caused by nonrecombining genomic blocks that have been maintained over extended time periods by balancing selection making this study one of the few available empirical examples documenting that balancing selection of various forms may play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic

  4. 18 CFR 284.103-284.106 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 284.103-284.106 Section 284.103-284.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines §§ 284.103-284.106 [Reserved] ...

  5. 18 CFR 284.143-284.148 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 284.143-284.148 Section 284.143-284.148 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines §§ 284.143-284.148 [Reserved] ...

  6. Microbiota-stimulated immune mechanisms to maintain gut homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hachung; Kasper, Dennis Lee

    2010-08-01

    In recent years there has been an explosion of interest to identify microbial inhabitants of human and understand their beneficial role in health. In the gut, a symbiotic host-microbial interaction has coevolved as bacteria make essential contributions to human metabolism and bacteria in turn benefits from the nutrient-rich niche in the intestine. To maintain host-microbe coexistence, the host must protect itself against microbial invasion, injury, and overreactions to foreign food antigens, and gut microbes need protection against competing microbes and the host immune system. Perturbation of this homeostatic coexistence has been strongly associated with human disease. This review discusses how gut bacteria regulate host innate and adaptive immunity, with emphasis on how this regulation contributes to host-microbe homeostasis in the gut. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maintaining bone health in prostate cancer throughout the disease continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Fred; Eastham, James

    2010-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent malignancy in men, with 604,506 new cases diagnosed yearly worldwide. Maintaining bone health is important during all stages of PC, including patients who experience bone loss from androgen-deprivation therapy and patients who develop bone metastases. Patients with bone metastases often experience severe bone pain and are at increased risk for potentially debilitating skeletal-related events. Bisphosphonates are a well-established treatment option for patients with bone metastases from solid tumors and bone lesions from multiple myeloma. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is the only bisphosphonate (BP) that has been extensively studied in patients with castration-recurrent PC and is indicated for treating patients with bone metastases from PC in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. This review will examine the breadth of evidence supporting a role for ZOL and emerging therapies in managing patients with PC throughout the disease continuum. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kirby, Brendan [Kirby Consultant; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  9. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettweis, G.

    1978-01-01

    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  10. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  11. Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-29

    C. c ) CPi i 0 0 00 0 le C C.C~r In 1]1 In 00 It .- I to C-38 ’U2 WIX ’W~ - m u. -C-LC m4 C v , v ul FA ?w % -D 1 o r cl jc j, II t %c oK W)i Ir of... platform programs, while Program 11 contains 26 sub-programs each having a separate Reserve program sponsor. The distribution of Program 11 resources is...a mix of specific skills required to bring an active Navy oper-Iating platform to organizational manning. Each SRU is tailored to a specific ship

  12. Does Bilingualism Contribute to Cognitive Reserve? Cognitive and Neural Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology in order to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve in order to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. Method Pubmed and PsychINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were employed as keywords for study retrieval: ‘bilingual AND reserve’, ‘reserve AND neural mechanisms’, and ‘reserve AND multilingualism’. Results Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Conclusions Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PMID:24933492

  13. Reserve growth during financial volatility in a technologically challenging world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth (growth-to-known) is the addition of oil and gas quantities to reported proved or proved-plus-probable reserves in discovered fields. The amount of reserve growth fluctuates through time with prevailing economic and technological conditions. Most reserve additions are the result of investment in field operations and in development technology. These investments can be justified by higher prices of oil and gas, the desire to maintain cash flow, and by greater recovery efficiency in well established fields. The price/cost ratio affects decisions for field abandonment and (or) implementation of improved recovery methods. Although small- to medium-size fields might show higher percentages of reserve growth, a relatively few giant fields contribute most volumetric reserve growth, indicating that companies may prefer to invest in existing fields with low geologic and production risk and an established infrastructure in order to increase their price/cost relationship. Whereas many previous estimates of reserve growth were based on past trends of reported reserves, future reserve growth is expected to be greatly affected by financial volatility and fluctuating economic and technological conditions.

  14. No reserved communication lanes for high energy (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Pitrelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The American particle physics community is in jeopardy and may end up drowning in a boundless sea trying to grasp at non-existing funds, dragging US physics and science as a whole to the bottom. This is a price the most powerful and high-tech country of the world cannot afford, as warned by the editors of a report published in late April by the National Academy of Sciences1. Behind so much alarm is the International Linear Collider (ILC – a large particle accelerator facility which, according to the report, should be built on American territory, if research on the elementary constituents of nature is to survive in the United States. The ILC will probably cost a total of five hundred million dollars in the first five years, whereas billions will have to be invested in the subsequent seven years. Hardly impressive, however, if compared with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC, the biggest and costliest machine ever conceived in the history of science. Devised to describe the first instants of the universe, as many will recall, the SSC project was severely hampered by political and bureaucratic plots in 1993, when the Clinton administration decided to halt work on the accelerator, after ten years and approximately two billion dollars already spent.

  15. Department of Energy Environmental Management Plan for Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Environmental Program Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Complex was prepared in response to recommendations made at the Congressional hearing held in Oak Ridge on July 11, 1983, to discuss the extent and impact of mercury and other pollutants from DOE's Oak Ridge facilities. While this is a planning document and not a commitment of funds, this effort will help to focus DOE resources toward resolving environmental problems at Oak Ridge in a timely and cost-effective manner. The plan includes: (1) an environmental planning basis; (2) a brief description of the problems and proposed resolutions for each plant; (3) research and development requirements and funding schedules; (4) funding schedule summaries; and (5) continuing analyses and unresolved issues. The planning basis provides the foundation for identifying the environmental problems and their potential resolutions. While applicable environmental standards must be met, there is considerable latitude for interpretation of existing regulations and projection of future requirements. This latitude can have a significant impact on funding and scheduling. 11 figures, 8 tables

  16. A Century in Reserve and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monagle, James P

    2008-01-01

    ... Reserve, this Strategy Research Project (SRP) describes the role of the Army Reserve from its beginning as a reserve corps of medical doctors to that of a strategic reserve force, and then to its current operational role...

  17. Energy policy in Maghreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents energy policy in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Statistical data on fossil fuels reserves and renewable energy sources are given. This paper describes also energy consumption and energy conservation, power generation and interconnected power systems. 5 tabs

  18. Position paper on maintaining nuclear competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The ENS Higher Scientific Council (HSC) is concerned about the current negative developments within some Member States of the EU and the consequential reduced perspectives in the field of nuclear energy technology, education, research and development. The HSC believes that the use of nuclear energy provides an essential contribution to the secure, clean and affordable energy supply for electricity generation, and that this will remain for at least the rest of this century. The HSC, therefore, strongly recommends that within the EU the resources that are allocated to nuclear education and training and to nuclear R and D reflects the increasing globalization of nuclear power and the needs of Member States that will have nuclear power or decommissioning programmes for decades to come. In addition, the HSC recommends that the nuclear industry should actively encourage the setting up of knowledge transfer mechanisms to ensure that the knowledge, know-how and experiences of the current generation of professionals within the industry is not lost to the young people entering nuclear careers. Mobility programmes to support and encourage young professionals to work across the EU to gain wider experience of nuclear power operations should be set up. These activities should help young professionals working in the nuclear technology field to expand long-life networks and business connections and thereby be better prepared for the challenges of the 21{sup st} century. (orig.)

  19. Position paper on maintaining nuclear competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The ENS Higher Scientific Council (HSC) is concerned about the current negative developments within some Member States of the EU and the consequential reduced perspectives in the field of nuclear energy technology, education, research and development. The HSC believes that the use of nuclear energy provides an essential contribution to the secure, clean and affordable energy supply for electricity generation, and that this will remain for at least the rest of this century. The HSC, therefore, strongly recommends that within the EU the resources that are allocated to nuclear education and training and to nuclear R and D reflects the increasing globalization of nuclear power and the needs of Member States that will have nuclear power or decommissioning programmes for decades to come. In addition, the HSC recommends that the nuclear industry should actively encourage the setting up of knowledge transfer mechanisms to ensure that the knowledge, know-how and experiences of the current generation of professionals within the industry is not lost to the young people entering nuclear careers. Mobility programmes to support and encourage young professionals to work across the EU to gain wider experience of nuclear power operations should be set up. These activities should help young professionals working in the nuclear technology field to expand long-life networks and business connections and thereby be better prepared for the challenges of the 21 st century. (orig.)

  20. Maintaining Gamma Spectrometer and its challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlipah Mohd Ramlan; Ramzah Mohamed; Saipo Bahari Abdul Ratan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the activities of the Group Maintenance of Instrumentation and Automation Center. Maintenance of group activities is to provide maintenance service on equipment at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Category of equipment is maintained instrumentation / nuclear electronics, scientific, analytical, security, communications, audio visual and other related. Maintenance services is to support research and development and scientific services at Nuclear Malaysia. Equipment maintenance services including repair service (CM), periodic maintenance (PM), technical testing and calibration of new devices. The objective is to ensure that maintenance activities can be the hope of an equipment, extend the life of the operation of the equipment, reducing 'down time' and reduce maintenance costs. Among the challenges in managing the maintenance of equipment in Nuclear Malaysia is the lack of expertise in specific areas such as nuclear instrumentation, analytical instruments, the problem of the inability of local suppliers to provide after-sales service, lack of spares, maintenance and nothing less emphasis on preventive maintenance schedule is perfect. (author)

  1. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  3. Method for rudder roll stabilization control by maintaining ship speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiquan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship navigating on the surface of the water may experience greater resistance, adversely affect-ing its speed and leading to energy loss. The added resistance of surface ships in both still water and waves are investigated, and the computation method of total speed loss is presented. An autopilot system is intro-duced to constrain the speed loss, and course keeping and rudder roll stabilization sliding mode control laws are proposed according to a compact control strategy. The two working conditions of "heading" and "heading plus anti-roll" are discussed, including roll stabilization, heading error, speed maintenance and rudder abrasion. The results show that the speed can be effectively maintained using this method, and from a commercial point of view, the fin-rudder roll stabilization control is not recommended for vessels equipped with both fins and rudders.

  4. Lipoprotein Lipase Maintains Microglial Innate Immunity in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of a hypercaloric diet upregulates microglial innate immune reactivity along with a higher expression of lipoprotein lipase (Lpl within the reactive microglia in the mouse brain. Here, we show that knockdown of the Lpl gene specifically in microglia resulted in deficient microglial uptake of lipid, mitochondrial fuel utilization shifting to glutamine, and significantly decreased immune reactivity. Mice with knockdown of the Lpl gene in microglia gained more body weight than control mice on a high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF diet. In these mice, microglial reactivity was significantly decreased in the mediobasal hypothalamus, accompanied by downregulation of phagocytic capacity and increased mitochondrial dysmorphologies. Furthermore, HCHF-diet-induced POMC neuronal loss was accelerated. These results show that LPL-governed microglial immunometabolism is essential to maintain microglial function upon exposure to an HCHF diet. In a hypercaloric environment, lack of such an adaptive immunometabolic response has detrimental effects on CNS regulation of energy metabolism.

  5. Hindbrain ghrelin receptor signaling is sufficient to maintain fasting glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Scott

    Full Text Available The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.

  6. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Skoe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function.

  7. Invasive Plant Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McCracken, Kitty [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Invasive non-native plant species have become one of the greatest ecological threats across the country and around the world. Actively managing incursions of invasive plants is crucial to maintaining ecosystems, protecting natural resources, and ensuring proper function of facilities and their support infrastructures, power lines and other utility rights-of-way (ROWs), communications structures, roadways, and waterways. Invasive plants can threaten cultural resources, public and private properties, forests, wetlands, and other natural areas through increased risks of fire and storm damage, as well as decrease native plant diversity, particularly disrupting vital habitats of threatened and endangered species, both plant and animal. In 2000, the Federal Plant Protection Act came into effect. Under this Act, federal agencies are required to develop and coordinate an undesirable plants management program for control of invasive plants on federal lands under each agency’s respective jurisdiction. The agency must adequately fund the undesirable plants management program using an Integrated Pest Management Plan. Additionally, each agency is required to implement cooperative agreements with local and state agencies, as well as other federal agencies, to manage undesirable plants on federal lands under the agency’s jurisdiction. The US Department of Energy (DOE) takes its responsibility for addressing invasive and undesirable plant issues very seriously. Many DOE sites have programs to control invasive pest plant species. DOE has taken a proactive stance toward invasive plant control, and the Invasive Plant Management Plan— created to meet regulatory requirements of federal laws, executive orders, presidential memos, contracts, and agreements on DOE’s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)—has been in effect since 2004. This document represents the second revision of this plan.

  8. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovinyukov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedure determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resource classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author)

  9. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovyunikov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedures determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resources classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author). 1 tab

  10. Impact of reserves information on formulating government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekelund, M.W.; Anderson, B.; Khan, M.; Hudson, B.

    1997-01-01

    Policies regarding the development and production of Alberta's mineral resources such as oil, gas, and bitumen, are developed by the Alberta Ministry of Energy. The Ministry is divided into the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and the Department of Energy. The EUB deals with conservation, production measurement and reporting, environmental issues and some public utility issues. The Department of Energy deals with determining the appropriate fiscal and tenure regimes, market effectiveness issues and collection of Alberta's share of production. Reserve estimates are used for policy development and implementation purposes. The impact of some doubts regarding the reliability of reserves information and its impact on provincial policy recommendations were highlighted. Examples were drawn from bitumen reserves determination in the Athabasca Oil Sands area, enhanced oil recovery programs within the conventional oil sector, and royalty formulation within the conventional oil and gas sectors

  11. Tried And True Integrating Active And Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    from home station to work and train with experienced maintainers in the Reserve Component. Since there are no dorms or dining facilities, young... smart and experienced leadership out given limited progression. In a new test of the Integrated Wing, the Air Force proposes restructuring the Active...degree or for shorter term family reasons (i.e. to care for an elderly parent or child). I believe it will benefit only a small percentage of Airmen who

  12. Future energy, exotic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumon, R

    1974-01-01

    The Detroit Energy Conference has highlighted the declining oil reserves, estimated worldwide at 95 billion tons vs. an annual rate of consumption of over 3 billion tons. The present problem is one of price; also, petroleum seems too valuable to be simply burned. New sources must come into action before 1985. The most abundant is coal, with 600 billion tons of easily recoverable reserves; then comes oil shale with a potential of 400 billion tons of oil. Exploitation at the rate of 55 go 140 million tons/yr is planned in the U.S. after 1985. More exotic and impossible to estimate quantitatively are such sources as wind, tides, and the thermal energy of the oceans--these are probably far in the future. The same is true of solar and geothermal energy in large amounts. The only other realistic energy source is nuclear energy: the European Economic Community looks forward to covering 60% of its energy needs from nuclear energy in the year 2000. Even today, from 400 mw upward, a nuclear generating plant is more economical than a fossil fueled one. Conservation will become the byword, and profound changes in society are to be expected.

  13. Low ATP level is sufficient to maintain the uncommitted state of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, L B; Rylova, Y V; Andreeva, E R; Kulikov, A V; Pogodina, M V; Zhivotovsky, B; Gogvadze, V

    2013-10-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) are minimally differentiated precursors with great potential to transdifferentiate. These cells are quite resistant to oxygen limitation, suggesting that a hypoxic milieu can be physiological for MMSCs. Human MMSCs isolated from adipose tissue were grown at various oxygen concentrations. Alteration in cell immunophenotype was determined by flow cytometry after staining with specific antibodies. Concentrations of glucose and lactate were determined using the Biocon colorimetric test. Cellular respiration was assessed using oxygen electrode. The modes of cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with Annexin V and propidium iodide. We found that permanent oxygen deprivation attenuated cellular ATP levels in these cells, diminishing mitochondrial ATP production but stimulating glycolytic ATP production. At the same time, permanent hypoxia did not affect MMSCs' viability, stimulated their proliferation and reduced their capacity to differentiate. Further, permanent hypoxia decreased spontaneous cell death by MMSCs. Under hypoxic conditions glycolysis provides sufficient energy to maintain MMSCs in an uncommitted state. These findings are of interest not only for scientific reasons, but also in practical terms. Oxygen concentration makes an essential contribution to MMSC physiology and should be taken into account in the setting of protocols for cellular therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [The air belongs to us: the importance of maintaining air quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Portal, José Antonio; González-Barcala, F Javier; Jorda, Ramón Magarolas; Martínez González, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Interest in identifying the long-term harmful effects of atmospheric pollution on respiratory health, and concern about this issue, has prompted several studies, whose results have been published throughout this year. On the occasion of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery's Year of the Environment, from the Section of Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases, we review the advances made in the effects of atmospheric pollution on respiratory health and the actions undertaken by the Society. The main objective of the Society's Year of the Environment is to inform citizens in general and respiratory patients in particular of the benefits of breathing clean air. The first step in achieving this aim is education. The goal is to educate young people in lasting habits that promote a respectful attitude to the environment, inculcating them with the need for sustainable development through responsible energy consumption and reduction of the emission of pollutants. Informed citizens will demand public health policies aimed at maintaining the quality of the air we breathe from politicians. The website www.elaireesnuestro.com provides information and educational material on the subject. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Sunda Language Reservation in Cianjur on The Age to Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati Kurniawati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to gain an understanding of Sundanese language reservation in Kota Cianjur at the compulsory school age. The observations focused on the domains of Sundanese use that included the family and education sphere. The problem in this research is how the reservation of Sundanese language is viewed from the point of choice of language with the domain of its use? In this research used qualitative approach with ethnography method. The ethnographic research procedure in this study is 1 define sub focus, 2 observation and interview, 3 collect data, 4 make notes, 5, analyze data, and 6 make ethnographic reports. The research findings show that the form of speech is a statement, a question, a greeting, a thank-you note, a formula phrase, a solicitation, a request to do something, an apology, an order, and an agreement. Based on the Sundanese language reservation category in Cinajur city at the compulsory education age in the family realm is maintained (85--100%. The participants of Sundanese speech have a positive loyalty and attitude towards the language. Meanwhile, the education sphere is less maintained (51-74%. In the realm of education, there can be a shift in language because it is poorly maintained and the said participants have no balance in lending languages.

  16. Cost Analysis of Maintenance Programs for Pre-Positioned War Reserve Material Stock (PWRMS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cyr, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    ...) for that maintenance. The objective is to provide DoD, the Navy, and the Civil Engineer Corps a guideline and possible benchmark for maintenance costs required to maintain the CESE War Reserves in a Cl condition of readiness...

  17. Heuristic Optimization Techniques for Determining Optimal Reserve Structure of Power Generating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Goel, Lalit; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    cost of the system will also increase. The reserve structure of a MSS should be determined based on striking a balance between the required reliability and the reserve cost. The objective of reserve management for a MSS is to schedule the reserve at the minimum system reserve cost while maintaining......Electric power generating systems are typical examples of multi-state systems (MSS). Sufficient reserve is critically important for maintaining generating system reliabilities. The reliability of a system can be increased by increasing the reserve capacity, noting that at the same time the reserve...... the required level of supply reliability to its customers. In previous research, Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been used to solve most reliability optimization problems. However, the GA is not very computationally efficient in some cases. In this chapter a new heuristic optimization technique—the particle swarm...

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, N.L.

    1989-05-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1988. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1988 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Volume 2. The tables in Volume 2 are addressed in Volume 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1991 is the 21st in a series that began in 1971. The report documents the annual results of a comprehensive program to estimate the impact of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge operations upon human health and the environment. The report is organized into ten sections that address various aspects of effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, dose assessment, waste management, and quality assurance. A compliance summary gives a synopsis of the status of each facility relative to applicable state and federal regulations. Data are included for the following: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs are intended to serve as effective indicators of contaminant releases and ambient contaminant concentrations that have the potential to result in adverse impacts to human health and the environment

  20. Oil reserves are a dynamic quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this exclusive interview with Rolf Hartl, head of the Oil Association of Switzerland, questions on developments in the consumption area and on future perspectives for the oil business are dealt with. The extent of oil reserves is looked at and the opinions of various experts on the subject are discussed. The 'energy-hunger' of China and third-world countries is discussed and the question is asked as to whether the maximum of oil-extraction has already been reached. Price developments and their possible effect on consumption are discussed, as are the effects of political conflicts on price developments. Finally, perspectives for the development of new oil discoveries are looked at

  1. Are deterministic methods suitable for short term reserve planning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Although deterministic methods for establishing minutes reserve (such as the N-1 reserve or the percentage reserve) ignore the stochastic nature of reliability issues, they are commonly used in energy modelling as well as in practical applications. In order to check the validity of such methods, two test procedures are developed. The first checks if the N-1 reserve is a logical fixed value for minutes reserve. The second test procedure investigates whether deterministic methods can realise a stable reliability that is independent of demand. In both evaluations, the loss-of-load expectation is used as the objective stochastic criterion. The first test shows no particular reason to choose the largest unit as minutes reserve. The expected jump in reliability, resulting in low reliability for reserve margins lower than the largest unit and high reliability above, is not observed. The second test shows that both the N-1 reserve and the percentage reserve methods do not provide a stable reliability level that is independent of power demand. For the N-1 reserve, the reliability increases with decreasing maximum demand. For the percentage reserve, the reliability decreases with decreasing demand. The answer to the question raised in the title, therefore, has to be that the probability based methods are to be preferred over the deterministic methods

  2. Radioactive waste management at the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    During some 30 years of plutonium production, the Hanford Reservation has accumulated large quantities of low- and high-level radioactive wastes. The high-level wastes have been stored in underground tanks, and the low-level wastes have been percolated into the soil. In recent years some programs for solidification and separation of the high-level wastes have been initiated. The Hanford waste-management system was studied by a panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences. The panel concluded that Hanford waste-management practices were adequate at present and for the immediate future but recommended increased research and development programs related to long-term isolation of the wastes. The panel also considered some alternatives for on-site disposal of the wastes. The Hanford Reservation was originally established for the production of plutonium for military purposes. During more than 30 years of operation, large volumes of high- and low-level radioactive wastes have been accumulated and contained at the site. The Management of these wastes has been the subject of controversy and criticism. To obtain a true technical evaluation of the Hanford waste situation, the Energy Research and Development Administration (now part of the Department of Energy) issued a contract to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Councilto conduct an independent review and evaluation of the Hanford waste-management practices and plans. A panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) of the National Academy of Sciences conducted this study between the summer of 1976 and the summer of 1977. This article is a summary of the final report of that panel

  3. Number skills are maintained in healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Didino, Daniele; Stoianov, Ivilin; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Numerical skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline, but whether they change in healthy ageing is not well known. Longer exposure to numbers and quantity-related problems may progressively refine numerical skills, similar to what happens to other cognitive abilities like verbal memory. Alternatively, number skills may be sensitive to ageing, reflecting either a decline of number processing itself or of more auxiliary cognitive abilities that are involved in number tasks. To distinguish between these possibilities we tested 30 older and 30 younger participants on an established numerosity discrimination task requiring to judge which of two sets of items is more numerous, and on arithmetical tasks. Older participants were remarkably accurate in performing arithmetical tasks although their numerosity discrimination (also known as 'number acuity') was impaired. Further analyses indicate that this impairment was limited to numerosity trials requiring inhibiting information incongruent to numerosity (e.g., fewer but larger items), and that this also correlated with poor inhibitory processes measured by standard tests. Therefore, rather than a numerical impairment, poor numerosity discrimination is likely to reflect elderly's impoverished inhibitory processes. This conclusion is supported by simulations with a recent neuro-computational model of numerosity perception, where only the specific degradation of inhibitory processes produced a pattern that closely resembled older participants' performance. Numeracy seems therefore resilient to ageing but it is influenced by the decline of inhibitory processes supporting number performance, consistent with the 'Inhibitory Deficit' Theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How social-class stereotypes maintain inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T

    2017-12-01

    Social class stereotypes support inequality through various routes: ambivalent content, early appearance in children, achievement consequences, institutionalization in education, appearance in cross-class social encounters, and prevalence in the most unequal societies. Class-stereotype content is ambivalent, describing lower-SES people both negatively (less competent, less human, more objectified), and sometimes positively, perhaps warmer than upper-SES people. Children acquire the wealth aspects of class stereotypes early, which become more nuanced with development. In school, class stereotypes advantage higher-SES students, and educational contexts institutionalize social-class distinctions. Beyond school, well-intentioned face-to-face encounters ironically draw on stereotypes to reinforce the alleged competence of higher-status people and sometimes the alleged warmth of lower-status people. Countries with more inequality show more of these ambivalent stereotypes of both lower-SES and higher-SES people. At a variety of levels and life stages, social-class stereotypes reinforce inequality, but constructive contact can undermine them; future efforts need to address high-status privilege and to query more heterogeneous samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  7. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E.

    2002-02-01

    A review is made about the consequences of the European directive on energy that entered into application in august 2000. It appears that most countries are opening their electricity and gas markets at a faster pace than required by the E.U. directive. European gas imports reached 480 Gm{sup 3} in 2000 and are expected to be over 700 Gm{sup 3} in 2015, so the question of the reliability of the gas suppliers has to be answered at the European level. The current time is marked by an increase of the complexity of the energy market that is due to different factors: 1) the delay in the implementation of European energy directives in France, 2) new arrangement is occurring in United-Kingdom in the energy sector, 3) the lack of a regulating authority in Germany, and 4) the difficulty of inter-connecting the different European energy networks. This transitory period may generate some economic imbalances and competition disturbances by allowing some enterprises to benefit from lower energy prices before others. (A.C.)

  8. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  10. Energy policy and challenges: which part for the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides many data and charts on the energy domain: energy consumption, energy demand, the reserves, the climatic changes, the renewable energies, the energy cost, the radioactive wastes management, the new nuclear technology. (A.L.B.)

  11. Coal reserves in the United States and around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubert, K.; Masudi, H.

    1995-01-01

    There is an urgent need to examine the role that coal might play in meeting world energy needs during the next 20 years. Oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) can no longer be relied upon to provide expanding supplies of energy, even with rapidly rising prices. Neither can nuclear energy be planned on for rapid expansion worldwide until present uncertainties about it are resolved. Yet, the world's energy needs will continue to grow, even with vigorous energy conservation programs and with optimistic rates of expansion in the use of solar energy. Coal already supplies 25% of the world's energy, its reserves are vast, and it is relatively inexpensive. This study, with the aid of reports from the World Coal Study (WOCOL) examines the needs for coal on a global scale, its availability past and present, and its future prospects

  12. Mexico's energy dilemmas in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mexico's energy system is overwhelmingly dependent on hydrocarbons. Although a significant producer of oil and gas, and a considerable exporter of crude oil, it is increasingly dependent on imports of oil products and natural gas for its internal energy demand. In a World where free trade is increasing the interdependence of the industrialized economies, Mexico's energy policy dilemma is basically between maintaining as much as possible its self sufficiency; or relying on imports, while generating oil revenues through exports to invest in developing a diversified economy. Energy demand projections to 2030 are carried out that exhibit the limitations of present available oil and gas proved reserves under past policies. Alternative energy policy scenarios are then examined. (authors)

  13. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

  14. Valve maintainability in CANDU-PHW nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, N.E.; Crago, W.A.

    1977-09-01

    Design, application, layout and administrative factors which affect valve maintainability in CANDU-PHW power reactors are identified and discussed. Some of these are illustrated by examples based on prototype reactor operation experience. Valve maintainability improvements resulting from laboratory development and maintainability analysis, have been incorporated in commercial CANDU-PHW nuclear generating stations. These, also, are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  15. Nuclear energy outlook 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With the launch today of its first Nuclear Energy Outlook, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) makes an important contribution to ongoing discussions of nuclear energy's potential role in the energy mixes of its member countries. As world energy demand continues to grow unabated, many countries face serious concerns about the security of energy supplies, rising energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. In his presentation, the NEA Director-General Luis Echavarri is emphasizing the role that nuclear power could play in delivering cost-competitive and stable supplies of energy, while also helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In one Outlook scenario, existing nuclear power technologies could provide almost four times the current supply of nuclear-generated electricity by 2050. Under this scenario, 1400 reactors of the size commonly in use today would be in operation by 2050. But in order to accomplish such an expansion, securing political and societal support for the choice of nuclear energy is vital. An ongoing relationship between policy makers, the nuclear industry and society to develop knowledge building and public involvement will become increasingly important, the publication notes. Moreover, governments have a clear responsibility to maintain continued effective safety regulation, advance efforts to develop radioactive waste disposal solutions and uphold and reinforce the international non-proliferation regime. The authors find that the security of energy from nuclear power is more reliable than that for oil or gas. Additionally, uranium's high energy density means that transport is less vulnerable to disruption, and storing a large energy reserve is easier than for fossil fuels. One tonne of uranium produces the same energy as 10 000 to 16 000 tonnes of oil using current technology. Ongoing technological developments are likely to improve that performance even more. Until the middle of the century the dominant reactor

  16. Management of development of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper: 'Management of development of renewable energy sources is to point out the possible solutions for neutralizing the threat of energy shortages. The paper outlines major short and long term energy problems facing humanity. The increase of world human population is, inevitably, accompanied by higher energy consumption. Reserves decrease of nonrenewable energy sources like oil, gas, and coal is a major threat to maintaining current living conditions, and thus requires solutions in order to neutralize the threat. This is why the management of development of renewable energy sources is an imperative for Serbia. The paper emphasizes the use of solar energy, because the annual average of solar radiation in Serbia is about 40% higher than the European average, however, the actual use of the sun's energy to generate electricity in Serbia is far behind the countries of the European Union. Solar energy is clean, renewable, and the fact that 4.2 kilowatt-hours are received daily per square meter averaged over the entire surface of the planet, makes it an almost unused energy source, Compared to EU countries, the price of non-renewable derived energy is, on average, higher in Serbia. Taking this into consideration, the use of solar energy, as an unused resource, imposes itself as indispensable.

  17. Assessing U.S. coal resources and reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Brian N.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program, conducts systematic, geology-based, regional assessments of significant coal beds in major coal basins in the United States. These assessments detail the quantity, quality, location, and economic potential of the Nation’s remaining coal resources and reserves and provide objective scientific information that assists in the formulation of energy strategies, environmental policies, land-use management practices, and economic projections.

  18. The energy innovation network : fuelling an integrated energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Global primary energy demand is expected to increase by 1.7 per cent annually from 2000 to 2030, reaching an annual level of 15.3 billion tonnes of oil equivalent. Fossil fuels are expected to supply over 90 per cent of global incremental energy demand through 2030, while gas consumption is estimated to double between 2000 and 2030 due to its cost competitiveness, high availability and environmental advantages. Oil will remain the largest fuel source with demand increasing by 1.6 per cent annually. In order to tap the vast Canadian resource potential, innovative new technologies are needed to unlock the remaining conventional oil and gas reserves. It was argued that no single source of energy will be sufficient to meet world or Canadian demand. Therefore, there is also a need for a collaborative initiative to facilitate a long-term effort to implement an integrated energy innovation strategy. The Energy Innovation Network (EnergyINet) was created help industry, governments, and the research community address the challenges of ensuring an abundant supply of environmentally responsible energy. Given the right technologies, bitumen, coal, and coalbed methane have hundreds of years of production remaining. Production of those reserves depends on finding effective solutions to production costs, cost and availability of feedstocks needed to produce higher valued products, market limitations, and land, water, air, and greenhouse gas issues. The main challenge is to finance the development of such technologies into reliable, large-scale commercial applications. It was concluded that Canada's ability to maintain competitive energy supplies from conventional and non-conventional energy systems will be severely limited as the need to protect the environment, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and conserve water moves higher on the public agenda. 13 refs.

  19. 40 CFR 73.85 - Administrator review of the reserve program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73... (ii) Qualified renewable energy generation, allocations of allowances will continue pursuant to § 73... allocated for either qualified energy conservation measures or qualified renewable energy generation, the...

  20. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS...-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction...

  1. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  2. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake. Instead, food intake needs to be controlled because the limited capacity of the gut means that processing a meal presents a significant physiological challenge and potentially hinders other activities. We illustrate the relationship between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure with a simple analogy in which: (1) water in a bathtub represents body energy content, (2) water in a saucepan represents food in the gut, and (3) the bathtub is filled via the saucepan. Furthermore, (4) it takes hours to process and pass the full energy (macronutrient) content of the saucepan to the bathtub, and (5) both the saucepan and bathtub resist filling, representing negative feedbacks on appetite (desire to eat). This model is consistent with the observations that appetite is reduced acutely by energy intake (a meal added to the limited capacity of the saucepan/gut), but not increased by an acute increase in energy expenditure (energy removed from the large store of energy in the bathtub/body). The existence of relatively very weak but chronic negative feedback on appetite proportional to body fatness is supported by observations on the dynamics of energy intake and weight gain in rat dietary obesity. (We use the term 'appetite' here because 'hunger' implies energy depletion.) In our model, appetite is motivated by the accessibility of food and the anticipated and experienced

  3. Calculation program development for spinning reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This study is about optimal holding of spinning reserve and optimal operation for it. It deals with the purpose and contents of the study, introduction of the spinning reserve electricity, speciality of the spinning reserve power, the result of calculation, analysis for limited method of optimum load, calculation of requirement for spinning reserve, analysis on measurement of system stability with summary, purpose of the analysis, cause of impact of the accident, basics on measurement of spinning reserve and conclusion. It has the reference on explanation for design of spinning reserve power program and using and trend about spinning reserve power in Korea.

  4. Improving Deterministic Reserve Requirements for Security Constrained Unit Commitment and Scheduling Problems in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyu

    Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve zone, but intra-zonal congestion may block the deliverability of operating reserves within a zone. Thus, improving reserve policies such as reserve zones may improve the location and deliverability of reserve. As more non-dispatchable renewable resources are integrated into the grid, it will become increasingly difficult to predict the transfer capabilities and the network congestion. At the same time, renewable resources require operators to acquire more operating reserves. With existing deterministic reserve requirements unable to ensure optimal reserve locations, the importance of reserve location and reserve deliverability will increase. While stochastic programming can be used to determine reserve by explicitly modelling uncertainties, there are still scalability as well as pricing issues. Therefore, new methods to improve existing deterministic reserve requirements are desired. One key barrier of improving existing deterministic reserve requirements is its potential market impacts. A metric, quality of service, is proposed in this thesis to evaluate the price signal and market impacts of proposed hourly reserve zones. Three main goals of this thesis are: 1) to develop a theoretical and mathematical model to better locate reserve while maintaining the deterministic unit commitment and economic dispatch

  5. Empirical analysis of optimal strategic petroleum reserve in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yi-Ming; Wu, Gang; Liu, Lan-Cui; Fan, Ying

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government began to prepare for the establishment of strategic petroleum reserve in March 2004. Therefore, answering the question of what level of strategic petroleum reserve would be suitable for China's future economic development becomes essential. Using a decision tree model based on a cost function, this paper quantifies China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2005-2020. This approach provides a methodology reference for further quantified discussion on China's SPR. Our results show that: for economic development and security of the energy supply, the strategic petroleum reserve should be the equivalent of 30-60 days of net oil import for an optimal solution, when the oil price is $ 50/bbl; with a reserve of an equivalent of 60-90 days of net oil import to have an optimal solution when oil price is $20-35/bbl. (author)

  6. Operational Strategies for Predictive Dispatch of Control Reserves in View of Stochastic Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Heussen, Kai; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In view of the predictability and stochasticity of wind power generation, transmission system operators (TSOs) can benefit from predictive dispatch of slow and manual control reserves in order to maintain reactive reserve levels for unpredictable events. While scenario-based approaches for stocha...

  7. 13 CFR 120.847 - Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF). (a) General. PCLP CDCs must establish and maintain a LLRF... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF). 120.847 Section 120.847 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  8. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as gly......Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves...

  9. World energy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Basic facts on energy reserves and main environmental effects of energy production are recalled. Physical constraints associated to the different energy production means are summarized, and present cost estimates are given. (author)

  10. 78 FR 71448 - Regional Reliability Standard BAL-002-WECC-2-Contingency Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...; Order No. 789] Regional Reliability Standard BAL-002-WECC-2--Contingency Reserve AGENCY: Federal Energy... (Contingency Reserve). The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and Western Electricity... Region and is meant to specify the quantity and types of [[Page 71449

  11. Nutritional support to maintain proper immune status during intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function which can increase the risk of picking up minor infections. To maintain robust immunity, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important in the maintenance of immune function. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Similar effects can be seen with daily ingestion of high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplements, though concerns have been expressed that excessive antioxidant intake may impair exercise training adaptations. It is safe to say with reasonable confidence that individual amino acids, colostrum, Echinacea, and zinc are unlikely to boost immunity or reduce infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotic and plant polyphenol (e.g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Maintaining US Space Weather Capabilities after DMSP: Research to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuzak, J. S.; Gentile, L. C.; Burke, W. J.; Holeman, E. G.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    The first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft was launched in 1972; the last is scheduled to fly in 2020. Presently, there is no replacement for the space-weather monitoring sensors that now fly on DMSP. The present suite has provided comprehensive, long-term records that constitute a critical component of the US space weather corporate memory. Evolving operational needs and research accomplishments justify continued collection of space environmental data. Examples include measurements to: (1) Monitor the Dst index in real time as a driver of next-generation satellite drag models; (2) Quantify electromagnetic energy fluxes from deep space to the ionosphere/ thermosphere that heat neutrals, drive disturbance-dynamo winds and degrade precise orbit determinations; (3) Determine strengths of stormtime electric fields at high and low latitudes that lead to severe blackouts and spacecraft anomalies; (4) Specify variability of plasma density irregularities, equatorial plasma bubbles, and the Appleton anomaly to improve reliability of communication, navigation and surveillance links; (5) Characterize energetic particle fluxes responsible for auroral clutter and radar degradation; (6) Map regions of L-Band scintillation for robust GPS applications; and (7) Update the World Magnetic Field Model needed to maintain guidance system superiority. These examples illustrate the utility of continued space environment awareness. Comprehensive assessments of both operational requirements and research advances are needed to make informed selections of sensors and spacecraft that support future capabilities. A proposed sensor set and satellite constellation to provide the needed measurement capabilities will be presented.

  13. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  14. Development growth of uranium reserves during mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, M.

    1989-01-01

    According to the 1988 issue of the Nuclear Energy Agency report 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' (the Red Book), total uranium resources remained constant, and compare with those given in the 1986 issue. However, the low cost category of the Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR), that is to say potentially mineable reserves under present market conditions, presents a different picture. These show a decrease of 54 000 tonnes U, or about 3.5%, from the 1 January 1985 level. It seems insignificant until compared with what was removed from the ground - only a quarter of the 71 500 tonnes U of the low cost uranium that was extracted during 1985 and 1986 was renewed by the industry. This is probably related to the low level of exploration activity since 1983. Moreover, new uranium might be not as easy to find as some past discoveries have led us to believe. While in 1988 it appears there is enough low cost uranium to supply existing reactors, the picture quickly changes. From 1991 onwards, for 30 years' supply for existing reactors, uranium will have to come from RAR in the higher cost category. (author)

  15. Land Use Manager Application Ensures Protectiveness Following Remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation - 13355

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, Sid; Brown, Sally; Sims, Lynn [Restoration Services, Inc., P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Darby, Jason [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Oak Ridge Site (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term stewardship is the set of activities necessary to return contaminated land to safe and beneficial use. The activities include physical and legal controls to prevent inappropriate exposure to contamination left in place at a site. It is the longest phase of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program and ensures the protection of human health and the environment for varied end uses. At the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation an automated program has been developed and implemented that tracks the multitude of long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a large site that currently has over 50 actions requiring long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation consists primarily of three plant sites, and long-term stewardship will enable these sites to be leased to private entities (East Tennessee Technology Park), modernized for an evolving national security mission (Y-12 National Security Complex), and revitalized to continue multi-disciplinary research (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The varied site end uses of the individual plant sites coupled with the multitude of controls required by leaving waste in place presents challenges. A single remedial action may include surveillance and maintenance activities, media monitoring, property record notices as well as physical controls such as fences and signs. Thus, the array of long-term stewardship activities is complex and intermingled (over 200 inspections each year at various frequencies are required currently) and requires an effective tracking program, termed the Land Use Manager. The Land Use Manager is a web-based data management application for use by personnel responsible for implementing, maintaining, and verifying engineering and land use controls on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The program is a data entry and tracking tool, as well as a notification tool. The status and performance of engineering and land use controls are checked annually

  16. Land Use Manager Application Ensures Protectiveness Following Remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation - 13355

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, Sid; Brown, Sally; Sims, Lynn; Darby, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Long-term stewardship is the set of activities necessary to return contaminated land to safe and beneficial use. The activities include physical and legal controls to prevent inappropriate exposure to contamination left in place at a site. It is the longest phase of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program and ensures the protection of human health and the environment for varied end uses. At the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation an automated program has been developed and implemented that tracks the multitude of long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a large site that currently has over 50 actions requiring long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation consists primarily of three plant sites, and long-term stewardship will enable these sites to be leased to private entities (East Tennessee Technology Park), modernized for an evolving national security mission (Y-12 National Security Complex), and revitalized to continue multi-disciplinary research (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The varied site end uses of the individual plant sites coupled with the multitude of controls required by leaving waste in place presents challenges. A single remedial action may include surveillance and maintenance activities, media monitoring, property record notices as well as physical controls such as fences and signs. Thus, the array of long-term stewardship activities is complex and intermingled (over 200 inspections each year at various frequencies are required currently) and requires an effective tracking program, termed the Land Use Manager. The Land Use Manager is a web-based data management application for use by personnel responsible for implementing, maintaining, and verifying engineering and land use controls on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The program is a data entry and tracking tool, as well as a notification tool. The status and performance of engineering and land use controls are checked annually for

  17. 18 CFR 284.225-284.226 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 284.225-284.226 Section 284.225-284.226 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Blanket Certificates Authorizing Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines on...

  18. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang

    2010-01-01

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  19. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  20. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  1. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219 [Reserved] ...

  2. 47 CFR 25.402 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402 [Reserved] ...

  3. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Podlaseck, Mark E.; Qu, Huiming; Shae, Zon-Yin; Sheopuri, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting

  4. 47 CFR 80.146 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches § 80.146 [Reserved] ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.146 Section 80.146...

  5. 47 CFR 80.145 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.145 [Reserved] Shipboard General Purpose Watches ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.145 Section 80.145...

  6. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  7. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  8. 40 CFR 405.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY... § 405.73 [Reserved] ...

  9. 40 CFR 408.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 408.73 Section 408.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Processing Subcategory § 408.73 [Reserved] ...

  10. 40 CFR 407.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.73 Section 407.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Vegetables Subcategory § 407.73 [Reserved] ...

  11. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  12. Advanced digital technology - improving nuclear power plant performance through maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.; Senechal, R.R.; Altenhein, G.D.; Harvey, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    In today's energy sector there is ever increasing pressure on utilities to operate power plants at high capacity factors. To ensure nuclear power is competitive into the next century, it is imperative that strategic design improvements be made to enhance the performance of nuclear power plants. There are a number of factors that affect a nuclear power plant's performance; lifetime maintenance is one of the major contributors. The maturing of digital technology has afforded ABB the opportunity to make significant design improvements in the area of maintainability. In keeping with ABB's evolutionary advanced nuclear plant design approach, digital technology has systematically been incorporated into the control and protection systems of the most recent Korean nuclear units in operation and under construction. One example of this was the multi-functional design team approach that was utilized for the development of ABB's Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS). The design team consisted of engineers, maintenance technicians, procurement specialists and manufacturing personnel in order to provide a complete perspective on all facets of the design. The governing design goals of increased reliability and safety, simplicity of design, use of off-the-shelf products and reduced need for periodic surveillance testing were met with the selection of proven ABB-Advant Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) as the heart of the DPPS. The application of digital PLC technology allows operation for extended periods without requiring routine maintenance or re-calibration. A well documented commercial dedication program approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) as part of the System 80+ TM Advanced Light Water Reactor Design Certification Program, allowed the use of off-the shelf products in the design of the safety protection system. In addition, a number of mechanical and electrical improvements were made which support maintainability. The result is a DPPS

  13. How to maintain nuclear competence and knowledge management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Meglea, Claudia; Paraschiva, M. V.; Banutoiu, Maria; Popescu, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the next decades, the tasks in nuclear activities will remain important in Europe irrespective of the different energy options decided by the Member State Governments. Radiation protection, safe nuclear plant operation and nuclear waste management where existing, rely on highly skilled people. There are serious concerns about their replacement from the coming generation. Reasons for concern occur now in several reports. Knowledge Management has evolved from an information technology buzzword, into a domain with a wide spectrum of practical applications in a rapidly growing number of organizations. In the information society, knowledge management techniques are seen as the decisive means in concentrating and preserving a company's knowledge, offering easy and fast access to this knowledge (particularly the experts 'implicit' knowledge as opposed to 'explicit' documents), ensuring its efficient use, thus keeping up the company's competitiveness. The variety of techniques employed by a knowledge management such as knowledge portals for easy access and navigation of the knowledge, document management systems for administration of arbitrary documents formats, content managers with extended classification, search and retrieval capabilities, yellow pages connecting the knowledge domain with the knowledgeable persons in the field, and inclusion of existing databases might help overcome the difficulties which are foreseen for the near future. As a consequence, the chances and benefits offered by knowledge management in the nuclear field should not be neglected. First projects use are under way in several countries to investigate these aspects. An efficient knowledge management should have those coming from other domains to enter easily into the nuclear sector. In the end, however, successful recruitment of skilled nuclear personnel will depend mostly on the attractiveness of the sector. In view of enlargement of the European Union, a major additional aspect is that all

  14. Maintainability design and evaluation of mechanical systems based on tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, M.F.; Gandhi, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability of mechanical systems based on tribology is suggested and evaluated in this paper. Tribo-features of mechanical systems, which characterise maintainability are identified and are modelled in terms of tribo-maintainability digraph. The nodes in the digraph represent the tribo-features and edges represent the degree of influence among the features. A matrix, one to one representation of the digraph, is defined to develop system maintainability expression (SPF-t) based on the tribology. It is also useful in comparing the various design alternatives from tribo-maintainability point of view. Maintainability is evaluated from the tribo-maintainability index, obtained from SPF-t (i.e. permanent of the matrix) by substituting the numerical values of the features and their interdependence. A higher value of the index implies better maintainability of the systems. The proposed methodology also guides designers in enhancing the maintainability of a system by appropriately incorporating tribo-features. An example to illustrate the methodology is also presented

  15. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da

    1980-10-01

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  16. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  17. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  18. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  19. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  20. Micro-level stochastic loss reserving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Plat, R.

    2010-01-01

    To meet future liabilities general insurance companies will set-up reserves. Predicting future cash-flows is essential in this process. Actuarial loss reserving methods will help them to do this in a sound way. The last decennium a vast literature about stochastic loss reserving for the general

  1. Evaluation system of minerals reserve at Nuclebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used world wide, and specially at Nuclebras. The paper discusses a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (Conventional, Statistical and Geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification of reserves as well as the results achieved [pt

  2. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  3. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of the...

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Protection Rad Neshaps Radionuclide Inventory Web Database and Rad Neshaps Source and Dose Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Patricia A; Smith, Linda L; Johnson, David N

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated national emission standards for emissions of radionuclides other than radon from US Department of Energy facilities in Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H. This regulatory standard limits the annual effective dose that any member of the public can receive from Department of Energy facilities to 0.1 mSv. As defined in the preamble of the final rule, all of the facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, i.e., the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, East Tennessee Technology Park, and any other U.S. Department of Energy operations on Oak Ridge Reservation, combined, must meet the annual dose limit of 0.1 mSv. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there are monitored sources and numerous unmonitored sources. To maintain radiological source and inventory information for these unmonitored sources, e.g., laboratory hoods, equipment exhausts, and room exhausts not currently venting to monitored stacks on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus, the Environmental Protection Rad NESHAPs Inventory Web Database was developed. This database is updated annually and is used to compile emissions data for the annual Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad NESHAPs) report required by 40 CFR 61.94. It also provides supporting documentation for facility compliance audits. In addition, a Rad NESHAPs source and dose database was developed to import the source and dose summary data from Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer model files. This database provides Oak Ridge Reservation and facility-specific source inventory; doses associated with each source and facility; and total doses for the Oak Ridge Reservation dose.

  5. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  6. High-Efficiency Housing at the Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Opportunities and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, Lars J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Desai, Jal D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rehder, Tim [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8

    2018-03-13

    This project was initiated to provide design assistance in an effort to maximize energy performance for affordable housing at the Fort Peck Indian Reservation near Poplar, Montana. The Make It Right Foundation (MIRF) built 20 high performing homes (LEED Platinum) in 2015 and 2016 with three (3) different design options. NREL and EPA set out to provide energy analysis along with measurement and verification (M and V) of the homes to characterize energy use and provide clarity for future decision making with regard to tribal housing options. The results included herein summarize the energy end uses and documents projected energy impacts from various aspects of the MIRF home designs and construction. This report includes an analysis of energy use in 5 MIRF homes, comparing energy use across the different styles and configurations. Energy models were created for the 2 styles of MIRF homes, including renewable energy assessment for photovoltaic (PV) systems. Existing tribal housing has also been analyzed, with 5 housing units being analyzed for energy use and an energy model being created for 1 housing unit. The findings of this study highlight many of the challenges that arise when attempting to construct high performance housing in a region where such construction practices are still relatively rare. Homes in Poplar are well designed and, for the most part, and include climate specific design considerations appropriate for northeastern Montana. The most significant issues identified in MIRF homes were related to the work done to put the homes on the foundation, insulate the crawlspaces, and do final connection with the utilities. The Taxed II Credit homes are well designed and well suited to northeastern Montana, and with slight modifications to the design and construction could be very efficient. All occupant comfort and energy usage issues that were identified during the site visits can be remedied through retrofit measures that are relatively inexpensive. Energy

  7. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  9. Initiating and maintaining recreational walking: a longitudinal study on the influence of neighborhood green space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Giles-Corti, Billie; Summers, Jacqui; du Toit, Lorinne; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville

    2013-09-01

    This study examined prospective relationships of green space attributes with adults initiating or maintaining recreational walking. Postal surveys were completed by 1036 adults living in Adelaide, Australia, at baseline (two time points in 2003-04) and follow-up (2007-08). Initiating or maintaining recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Green space attributes examined were perceived presence, quality, proximity, and the objectively measured area (total and largest) and number of green spaces within a 1.6 km buffer drawn from the center of each study neighborhood. Multilevel regression analyses examined the odds of initiating or maintaining walking separately for each green space attribute. At baseline, participants were categorized into non-regular (n = 395), regular (n = 286), and irregular walkers (n = 313). Among non-regular walkers, 30% had initiated walking, while 70% of regular walkers had maintained walking at follow-up. No green space attributes were associated with initiating walking. However, positive perceptions of the presence of and proximity to green spaces and the total and largest areas of green space were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of walking maintenance over four years. Neighborhood green spaces may not assist adults to initiate walking, but their presence and proximity may facilitate them to maintain recreational walking over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 33 CFR 118.5 - Penalty for failure to maintain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States who fails or refuses to maintain such lights and other signals, or to obey any of the lawful rules... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty for failure to maintain. 118.5 Section 118.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  11. Maintaining patients' dignity during clinical care: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Pyng; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2011-02-01

    This article is a report of a study undertaken to understand how nurses maintain patients' dignity in clinical practice. Dignity is a core concept in nursing care and maintaining patients' dignity is critical to their recovery. In Western countries, measures to maintain dignity in patients' care include maintaining privacy of the body, providing spatial privacy, giving sufficient time, treating patients as a whole person and allowing patients to have autonomy. However, this is an under-studied topic in Asian countries. For this qualitative descriptive study, data were collected in Taiwan in 2009 using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 30 nurses from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Nurses' measures to maintain dignity in patient care were captured in five themes: respect, protecting privacy, emotional support, treating all patients alike and maintaining body image. Participants did not mention beneficence, a crucial element achieved through the professional care of nurses that can enhance the recovery of patients. In-service education to help nurses enhance dignity in patient care should emphasize emotional support, maintaining body image and treating all patients alike. Our model for maintaining dignity in patient care could be used to develop a clinical care protocol for nurses to use in clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A Methodology for Integrating Maintainability Using Software Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.

    1989-01-01

    Maintainability must be integrated into software early in the development process. But for practical use, the techniques used must be as unobtrusive to the existing software development process as possible. This paper defines a methodology for integrating maintainability into large-scale software and describes an experiment which implemented the methodology into a major commercial software development environment.

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation Volume 3. Records relating to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Operations Office: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the documents and record series pertaining to the production, release, and disposal of radioactive barium-lanthanum (RaLa), iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role. It provides information on the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), particularly ORNL. Specific attention is given to the production of RaLa and the fission products iodine-131 and cesium-137. This introduction also describes the methodologies HAI used in the selection and inventorying of documents and record series pertaining to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137, and in the production of this guide. Concluding paragraphs describe the arrangement of the record series, explain the information contained in the record series descriptions, and indicate restrictions on access to the records

  14. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  15. Maintaining dignity. The perspective of nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...... dignity is maintained. Background. Elderly living in nursing homes are vulnerable which appeal to nursing care ethics and emphasise the importance of care for human dignity. There have been several attempts to define dignity as a theoretical concept, but few studies on how dignity is maintained from...... was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Findings. The residents’ experiences revealed one main theme and seven sub-themes contributing to maintain dignity. The overall theme was: Coping with vulnerability and the subthemes were: Attention and care for basic needs; preserving a positive...

  16. The importance of correctly maintaining HVAC installations and energy management in the hotel sector; La importancia del correcto mantenimiento de instalaciones de climatización y de la gestión energética en el sector hotelero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Molero, P.

    2016-07-01

    The optimum maintenance of installations in hotel establishments is becoming increasingly necessary given the complexity and diversity of this type of buildings, with the aim of being efficient in the use of the resources that they consume, such as water and energy. From the owners of the establishments and the companies responsible for the hotel management, to the clients that stay in them, it is vitally important that the operation of its installations is guaranteed at all times, particularly as regards temperature control. Proper preventive maintenance therefore plays an essential role in ensuring that the hotel guests’ experience is as positive as possible. (Author)

  17. Evaluation of Design Models of Process Equipment for Use in PRIDE: Remote Operability and Maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Seung Nam; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Han, Jong Hui; Cho, Il Je; Lee, Han Soo

    2012-01-01

    Process equipment for pyroprocessing are being developed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Those equipment should be operated and maintained in a fully remote manner in the argon gas filled cell of PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) at KAERI because direct human access to the in-cell is not possible during an operation due to the high toxicity of the argon gas. To make such process equipment remotely operable and maintainable, their design developments have been tested and evaluated in a simulator before they are constructed. A simulator as a means of evaluating the remote operability and maintainability of the design models of process equipment for pyroprocessing is described, and results of the design models tested and evaluated in a simulator are presented

  18. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  19. User's guide for the Uranium Ore Reserve Calculation System (URAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The URAD (Uranium Reserves and Data) system consists of four computer programs designed to facilitate the evaluation of uranium ore reserves analysis and the handling of basic uranium assay data. URAD is designed specifically as a training tool for anyone unfamiliar with the methodology, data requirements, and/or general computer applications in the field of uranium ore reserves analysis. However, it can effectively be used in a 'production' environment involving considerable amounts of data. The resulting programs are written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 3.1) and may be run on any IBM-compatible microcomputer under DOS 2.1 (or later). Only a basic working knowledge of DOS 2.1 is needed to maintain the system and run the programs. This guide includes the overview of the URAD system, the review of sample data and a complete description of the file structure and sample type formats of the basic sample data files. Program URDAT explains the initial processing of the primary UDAT files to obtain standard output listings and gamma-log interpretations of radiometric data, and to create intermediate UDAT files which are used by the ore reserves programs - RESUV, ORSAC, and SCOR. Figs and tabs

  20. Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (Biscay, Spain): Conservation against development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Eguskitza, Nekane; Rescia, Alejandro J; Onaindia, Miren

    2017-08-15

    The protected area approach has extended from conserving biodiversity to improving human well-being. However, the relationship between conservation and socioeconomic and cultural development continues to be controversial. This paper combines land use variables with socioeconomic and cultural variables through multivariate ordination analysis and evaluates their evolution in two areas inside and outside a Biosphere Reserve since the approval of the Governance Plan for Use and Management in the Reserve. The results indicate a similar tendency in the two areas, from the abandonment of traditional rural activities and decline in pine plantations to naturalness, urban sprawl and the growth of the tertiary economic sector, welfare indicators and sustainability index. However, it can be broadly observed that the region included inside the protected area presents better conservation features (native forest) and rural systems (forestry and primary economic sector) than the region outside the protected area while maintaining similar socioeconomic and cultural conditions. We suggest that the designation of the Biosphere Reserve does not influence the local population negatively but does safeguard its conservation, which could have enhanced socioeconomic and cultural development. Thus, even though certain changes must be made to replace the conifer plantations and encourage agricultural activities, the designation of the protected area fulfills its sustainability goal and enhances the local population's quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  2. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  3. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  4. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1996-01-01

    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  5. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  6. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  7. Deciphering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the author aims at giving some explanations about the various terms regarding energy which are present in our everyday life, in speeches, in papers and magazines, on the air, in our energy bills, for instance: energy poverty, price of a barrel of oil, resources and proved reserves, intermittency and energy storage, fossil and renewable energies, and so on. In a first part, the author addresses issues ranging from the development needs of a society to the energy assessment of a country, i.e.: nature and quantity of needs in services provided by energy, analysis of the required quantity of energy products needed to satisfy these needs, stages between primary resources and service delivery, description of the French consumption of available final energy products (per product and per economic sector). In the second part, he addresses energy supply, energy sectors and environmental issues, thus focusing on the front end of the energy system, i.e. ways of production from primary energy resources to final energy products: main physical characteristics and description of the different fissile, fossil and renewable energies, description of the main sectors of production of final energy products (fuels, electricity, heat) with a specific attention to electricity. In this part, local, regional and global environmental issues related to the exploitation of these energy sectors are discussed: sources of atmospheric pollution related to energy, relationship between energy and global warming, role of the different greenhouse gases emitted by these sectors, and quantitative analysis of these emissions. The third part addresses the economy of energy systems. The author proposes a cost assessment method which can be used for the production analysis as well as the economic analysis of a specific energy product. He also described external costs and profits, and methods to take those hidden costs and profits into account. Other economic tools are discussed and compared

  8. [Climate change risk of nature reserve and its assessment: A case study of Dalinuoer National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Shen, Wei Shou; Liu, Hai Yue

    2016-12-01

    According to the theoretical framework of addressing climate change based on risk mana-gement and the challenge to nature reserve management under climate change, climate change risk of nature reserve was analyzed and defined. Focus on birds and water habitat, grassland habitat, forest habitat, wetland habitat in Dalinuoer Nature Reserve, risk assessment method of nature reserve under climate change was formulated, climate change risks to Dalinuoer Nature Reserve and its habitats were assessed and predicted. The results showed that, during the period from 1997 to 2010, there was significant volatility in dynamic changes of climate change risks to Dalinuoer Nature Reserve and waterbody, grassland, forest, wetland in the region, Dalinuoer Nature Reserve and its habitats were in status of risk in 1999, 2001, 2005 and 2008, wetland habitat was also in status of risk in 2002 and 2004. Under scenario A, B and C, climate change risks to Dalinuoer Nature Reserve and waterbody, grassland, forest, wetland in the region would be more serious in 2020 and 2030, compared with the 2010 level. Climate change risks to different habitats were different significantly, with most serious climate change risk to wetland habitat due to its sensitivity to climate change and rich bird resources. The effect of climate change on nature reserve and related risk would be aggravated by excess utilization of water resource and grassland resource. As climate change risks had appeared in Dalinuoer Nature Reserve, risk management associated with climate change could greatly help to maintain and enhance biodiversity protection function of nature reserves.

  9. Meal consumption is ineffective at maintaining or correcting water balance in a desert lizard, Heloderma suspectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christian D; Jackson, Marin L; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-04-15

    Many xeric organisms maintain water balance by relying on dietary and metabolic water rather than free water, even when free water may be available. For such organisms, hydric state may influence foraging decisions, since meal consumption is meeting both energy and water demands. To understand foraging decisions it is vital to understand the role of dietary water in maintaining water balance. We investigated whether meal consumption was sufficient to maintain water balance in captive Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) at varying levels of dehydration. Gila monsters could not maintain water balance over long time scales through meal consumption alone. Animals fed a single meal took no longer to dehydrate than controls when both groups were deprived of free water. Additionally, meal consumption imparts an acute short-term hydric cost regardless of hydration state. Meal consumption typically resulted in a significant elevation in osmolality at 6 h post-feeding, and plasma osmolality never fell below pre-feeding levels despite high water content (~70%) of meals. These results failed to support our hypothesis that dietary water is valuable to Gila monsters during seasonal drought. When considered in conjunction with previous research, these results demonstrate that Gila monsters, unlike many xeric species, are heavily reliant on seasonal rainfall and the resulting free-standing water to maintain water balance.

  10. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  11. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  12. 7 CFR 1221.114 - Operating reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Board § 1221.114 Operating reserve. The Board may establish an operating monetary reserve and may...

  13. 40 CFR 406.43 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.43 Section 406.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.43 [Reserved] ...

  14. 40 CFR 406.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.23 Section 406.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.23 [Reserved] ...

  15. 40 CFR 406.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.13 Section 406.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.13 [Reserved] ...

  16. 41 CFR 101-39.205 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.205 [Reserved] ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 101-39.205...

  17. 22 CFR 99.3 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 99.3 Section 99.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES REPORTING ON CONVENTION AND NON-CONVENTION ADOPTIONS OF EMIGRATING CHILDREN § 99.3 [Reserved] ...

  18. 14 CFR 99.12 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 99.12 Section 99.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.12 [Reserved] ...

  19. 26 CFR 1.46-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 1.46-10 Section 1.46-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-10 [Reserved] ...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4161(b) - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 48.4161(b) Section 48.4161(b) Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b) [Reserved] ...