MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon
An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…
Hiscox, Michael D.
Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…
Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L
Regulation of transfusion or blood banking facilities has followed, rather than preceded the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry and today we find, in Europe and the United States, the basic regulations developed for the pharmaceutical industry being extended to blood transfusion centres (BTC)*. In this article we explore the role of voluntary accreditation or registration to quality systems standards such as ISO 9000 and discuss how these can be used to advantage and how these standards can provide a substantial base for meeting legislative requirements. In the UK there is also a voluntary accreditation procedure available for all clinical laboratories, known as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA). Comparisons between ISO 9000, CPA and other standards are made. We also discuss how voluntary registration, particularly to ISO 9000 can provide an excellent basis for moving into more extensive and progressive Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes which in turn bring a variety of benefits, not least of which is increased staff involvement in your organisation. Experience of the route to quality through voluntary accreditation suggests that external assessment delivers new insights into the organisation that cannot easily be supplanted by internal audit. In Europe legislation relating to pharmaceuticals has steadily increased in scope and in detailed requirements from those set out in the 1965 Directive 65/65/EEC. The legislative framework has steadily increased, bringing plasma and plasma products as well as others such as radiopharmaceuticals, into the product licensing requirements. The progression of legislation seems unlikely to cease and it is debatable how long the Medicines Control Agency (MCA) and its Inspectorate will accept that BTCs can operate at a level which is different from that of the majority of pharmaceutical manufacturers. The change in emphasis in legislation particularly in Europe means that harm that is caused to a patient by a blood
Petersen, Morten Aa.; Aaronson, Neil K; Chie, Wei-Chu
PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcomes should ideally be adapted to the individual patient while maintaining comparability of scores across patients. This is achievable using computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The aim here was to develop an item bank for CAT measurement of the pain domain as measured...... were obtained from 1103 cancer patients from five countries. Psychometric evaluations showed that 16 items could be retained in a unidimensional item bank. Evaluations indicated that use of the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements with 15-25 % compared to using the QLQ-C30 pain scale....... CONCLUSIONS: We have established an item bank of 16 items suitable for CAT measurement of pain. While being backward compatible with the QLQ-C30, the new item bank will significantly improve measurement precision of pain. We recommend initiating CAT measurement by screening for pain using the two original QLQ...
Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.
Volume 1 of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the "ACER…
Hung, Man; Voss, Maren W; Bounsanga, Jerry; Crum, Anthony B; Tyser, Andrew R
Clinical measurement. The psychometric properties of the PROMIS v1.2 UE item bank were tested on various samples prior to its release, but have not been fully evaluated among the orthopaedic population. This study assesses the performance of the UE item bank within the UE orthopaedic patient population. The UE item bank was administered to 1197 adult patients presenting to a tertiary orthopaedic clinic specializing in hand and UE conditions and was examined using traditional statistics and Rasch analysis. The UE item bank fits a unidimensional model (outfit MNSQ range from 0.64 to 1.70) and has adequate reliabilities (person = 0.84; item = 0.82) and local independence (item residual correlations range from -0.37 to 0.34). Only one item exhibits gender differential item functioning. Most items target low levels of function. The UE item bank is a useful clinical assessment tool. Additional items covering higher functions are needed to enhance validity. Supplemental testing is recommended for patients at higher levels of function until more high function UE items are developed. 2c. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, Diane, Ed.
This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…
Cabrero-García, Julio; Ramos-Pichardo, Juan Diego; Muñoz-Mendoza, Carmen Luz; Cabañero-Martínez, María José; González-Llopis, Lorena; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio
To develop and validate an item bank to measure mobility in older people in primary care and to analyse differential item functioning (DIF) and differential bundle functioning (DBF) by sex. A pool of 48 mobility items was administered by interview to 593 older people attending primary health care practices. The pool contained four domains based on the International Classification of Functioning: changing and maintaining body position, carrying, lifting and pushing, walking and going up and down stairs. The Late Life Mobility item bank consisted of 35 items, and measured with a reliability of 0.90 or more across the full spectrum of mobility, except at the higher end of better functioning. No evidence was found of non-uniform DIF but uniform DIF was observed, mainly for items in the changing and maintaining body position and carrying, lifting and pushing domains. The walking domain did not display DBF, but the other three domains did, principally the carrying, lifting and pushing items. During the design and validation of an item bank to measure mobility in older people, we found that strength (carrying, lifting and pushing) items formed a secondary dimension that produced DBF. More research is needed to determine how best to include strength items in a mobility measure, or whether it would be more appropriate to design separate measures for each construct.
Fenwick, Eva K; Pesudovs, Konrad; Khadka, Jyoti; Rees, Gwyn; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L
We are developing an item bank assessing the impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on quality of life (QoL) using a rigorous multi-staged process combining qualitative and quantitative methods. We describe here the first two qualitative phases: content development and item evaluation. After a comprehensive literature review, items were generated from four sources: (1) 34 previously validated patient-reported outcome measures; (2) five published qualitative articles; (3) eight focus groups and 18 semi-structured interviews with 57 DR patients; and (4) seven semi-structured interviews with diabetes or ophthalmic experts. Items were then evaluated during 3 stages, namely binning (grouping) and winnowing (reduction) based on key criteria and panel consensus; development of item stems and response options; and pre-testing of items via cognitive interviews with patients. The content development phase yielded 1,165 unique items across 7 QoL domains. After 3 sessions of binning and winnowing, items were reduced to a minimally representative set (n = 312) across 9 domains of QoL: visual symptoms; ocular surface symptoms; activity limitation; mobility; emotional; health concerns; social; convenience; and economic. After 8 cognitive interviews, 42 items were amended resulting in a final set of 314 items. We have employed a systematic approach to develop items for a DR-specific QoL item bank. The psychometric properties of the nine QoL subscales will be assessed using Rasch analysis. The resulting validated item bank will allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the QoL impact of DR and DR therapies from the patient's perspective.
Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K
to 12 lack of appetite items. CONCLUSIONS: Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise...
Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A; Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shulman, Lisa M
The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometrics of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System self-efficacy for managing daily activities item bank. The item pool was field tested on a sample of 1087 participants via internet (n = 250) and in-clinic (n = 837) surveys. All participants reported having at least one chronic health condition. The 35 item pool was investigated for dimensionality (confirmatory factor analyses, CFA and exploratory factor analysis, EFA), item-total correlations, local independence, precision, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender, race, ethnicity, age groups, data collection modes, and neurological chronic conditions (McFadden Pseudo R (2) less than 10 %). The item pool met two of the four CFA fit criteria (CFI = 0.952 and SRMR = 0.07). EFA analysis found a dominant first factor (eigenvalue = 24.34) and the ratio of first to second eigenvalue was 12.4. The item pool demonstrated good item-total correlations (0.59-0.85) and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). The item pool maintained its precision (reliability over 0.90) across a wide range of theta (3.70), and there was no significant DIF. The findings indicated the item pool has sound psychometric properties and the test items are eligible for development of computerized adaptive testing and short forms.
Irwin, Debra E; Gross, Heather E; Stucky, Brian D; Thissen, David; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Lai, Jin Shei; Amtmann, Dagmar; Khastou, Leyla; Varni, James W; DeWalt, Darren A
Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO) among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric proxy-report item banks. The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact). Caregivers (n = 25) of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads). Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432). In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%), married (70%), Caucasian (64%) and had at least a high school education (94%). Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily asthma, which was diagnosed or treated within 6
Irwin Debra E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatric proxy-report item banks. Methods The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact. Caregivers (n = 25 of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432. In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Results Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%, married (70%, Caucasian (64% and had at least a high school education (94%. Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily
Obbarius, Nina; Fischer, Felix; Obbarius, Alexander; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Rose, Matthias
To develop the first item bank to measure Stress Resilience (SR) in clinical populations. Qualitative item development resulted in an initial pool of 131 items covering a broad theoretical SR concept. These items were tested in n=521 patients at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), as well as other state-of-the-art item analyses and IRT were used for item evaluation and calibration of the final item bank. Out of the initial item pool of 131 items, we excluded 64 items (54 factor loading .3, 2 non-discriminative Item Response Curves, 4 Differential Item Functioning). The final set of 67 items indicated sufficient model fit in CFA and IRT analyses. Additionally, a 10-item short form with high measurement precision (SE≤.32 in a theta range between -1.8 and +1.5) was derived. Both the SR item bank and the SR short form were highly correlated with an existing static legacy tool (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale). The final SR item bank and 10-item short form showed good psychometric properties. When further validated, they will be ready to be used within a framework of Computer-Adaptive Tests for a comprehensive assessment of the Stress-Construct. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.
The second volume of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the…
Liao, Wen-Wei; Ho, Rong-Guey
One of the major weaknesses of the item exposure rates of figural items in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests lies in its inaccuracies. In this study, a new approach is proposed and a useful test tool known as the Virtual Item Bank (VIB) is introduced. The VIB combine Automatic Item Generation theory and image processing theory with the concepts of…
Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank--a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of…
Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Simpson, Annie N; Bonilha, Heather S; Simpson, Kit N; Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A
To improve the practical use of the short forms (SFs) developed from the item bank, we compared the measurement precision of the 4- and 8-item SFs generated from a motor item bank composed of the FIM and the Minimum Data Set (MDS). The FIM-MDS motor item bank allowed scores generated from different instruments to be co-calibrated. The 4- and 8-item SFs were developed based on Rasch analysis procedures. This article compared person strata, ceiling/floor effects, and test SE plots for each administration form and examined 95% confidence interval error bands of anchored person measures with the corresponding SFs. We used 0.3 SE as a criterion to reflect a reliability level of .90. Veterans' inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community living centers. Veterans (N=2500) who had both FIM and the MDS data within 6 days during 2008 through 2010. Not applicable. Four- and 8-item SFs of FIM, MDS, and FIM-MDS motor item bank. Six SFs were generated with 4 and 8 items across a range of difficulty levels from the FIM-MDS motor item bank. The three 8-item SFs all had higher correlations with the item bank (r=.82-.95), higher person strata, and less test error than the corresponding 4-item SFs (r=.80-.90). The three 4-item SFs did not meet the criteria of SE bank composed of existing instruments across the continuum of care in veterans. We also found that the number of items, not test specificity, determines the precision of the instrument. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.
Crins, M H P; Roorda, L D; Smits, N; de Vet, H C W; Westhovens, R; Cella, D; Cook, K F; Revicki, D; van Leeuwen, J; Boers, M; Dekker, J; Terwee, C B
The aims of the current study were to calibrate the item parameters of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Behavior item bank using a sample of Dutch patients with chronic pain and to evaluate cross-cultural validity between the Dutch-Flemish and the US PROMIS Pain Behavior item banks. Furthermore, reliability and construct validity of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Behavior item bank were evaluated. The 39 items in the bank were completed by 1042 Dutch patients with chronic pain. To evaluate unidimensionality, a one-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. A graded response model (GRM) was used to calibrate the items. To evaluate cross-cultural validity, Differential item functioning (DIF) for language (Dutch vs. English) was evaluated. Reliability of the item bank was also examined and construct validity was studied using several legacy instruments, e.g. the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. CFA supported the unidimensionality of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Behavior item bank (CFI = 0.960, TLI = 0.958), the data also fit the GRM, and demonstrated good coverage across the pain behavior construct (threshold parameters range: -3.42 to 3.54). Analysis showed good cross-cultural validity (only six DIF items), reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.95) and construct validity (all correlations ≥0.53). The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Behavior item bank was found to have good cross-cultural validity, reliability and construct validity. The development of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Behavior item bank will serve as the basis for Dutch-Flemish PROMIS short forms and computer adaptive testing (CAT). © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Prem Senthil, Mallika; Khadka, Jyoti; De Roach, John; Lamey, Tina; McLaren, Terri; Campbell, Isabella; Fenwick, Eva K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad
Our understanding of the coping strategies used by people with visual impairment to manage stress related to visual loss is limited. This study aims to develop a sophisticated coping instrument in the form of an item bank implemented via Computerised adaptive testing (CAT) for hereditary retinal diseases. Items on coping were extracted from qualitative interviews with patients which were supplemented by items from a literature review. A systematic multi-stage process of item refinement was carried out followed by expert panel discussion and cognitive interviews. The final coping item bank had 30 items. Rasch analysis was used to assess the psychometric properties. A CAT simulation was carried out to estimate an average number of items required to gain precise measurement of hereditary retinal disease-related coping. One hundred eighty-nine participants answered the coping item bank (median age = 58 years). The coping scale demonstrated good precision and targeting. The standardised residual loadings for items revealed six items grouped together. Removal of the six items reduced the precision of the main coping scale and worsened the variance explained by the measure. Therefore, the six items were retained within the main scale. Our CAT simulation indicated that, on average, less than 10 items are required to gain a precise measurement of coping. This is the first study to develop a psychometrically robust coping instrument for hereditary retinal diseases. CAT simulation indicated that on an average, only four and nine items were required to gain measurement at moderate and high precision, respectively.
Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li
The positive emotional and sensory expectancies of cigarette smoking include improved cognitive abilities, positive affective states, and pleasurable sensorimotor sensations. This paper describes development of Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking item banks that will serve to standardize the assessment of this construct among daily and nondaily cigarette smokers. Data came from daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers who completed an online survey. To identify a unidimensional set of items, we conducted item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of fixed-item short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess the construct. Eighteen items were included in the item banks (15 common across daily and nondaily smokers, 1 unique to daily, 2 unique to nondaily). The item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 for both), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.86). Results from simulated CATs indicated that, on average, less than 8 items are needed to assess the construct with adequate precision using the item banks. These analyses identified a new set of items that can assess the positive emotional and sensory expectancies of smoking in a reliable and standardized manner. Considerable efficiency in assessing this construct can be achieved by using the item bank SF, employing computer adaptive tests, or selecting subsets of items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Bonilha, Heather S; Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A
This study examined dimensionality and item-level psychometric properties of an item bank measuring activities of daily living (ADL) across inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community living centers. Common person equating method was used in the retrospective veterans data set. This study examined dimensionality, model fit, local independence, and monotonicity using factor analyses and fit statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch analysis. Following the elimination of invalid data, 371 veterans who completed both the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and minimum data set (MDS) within 6 days were retained. The FIM-MDS item bank demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .98) and met three rating scale diagnostic criteria and three of the four model fit statistics (comparative fit index/Tucker-Lewis index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.14, and standardized root mean residual = 0.07). PCA of Rasch residuals showed the item bank explained 94.2% variance. The item bank covered the range of θ from -1.50 to 1.26 (item), -3.57 to 4.21 (person) with person strata of 6.3. The findings indicated the ADL physical function item bank constructed from FIM and MDS measured a single latent trait with overall acceptable item-level psychometric properties, suggesting that it is an appropriate source for developing efficient test forms such as short forms and computerized adaptive tests.
Oude Voshaar, Martijn A.H.; Ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.
Objective: Traditional patient-reported physical function instruments often poorly differentiate patients with mild-to-moderate disability. We describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a generic item bank for measuring everyday activity limitations in outpatient populations. Study
Anatchkova, Milena D; Rose, Matthias; Ware, John E
Role functioning (RF) is a key component of health and well-being and an important outcome in health research. The aim of this study was to develop an item bank to measure impact of health on role functioning.......Role functioning (RF) is a key component of health and well-being and an important outcome in health research. The aim of this study was to develop an item bank to measure impact of health on role functioning....
McCray, Gareth; Brunfaut, Tineke
This study investigates test-takers' processing while completing banked gap-fill tasks, designed to test reading proficiency, in order to test theoretically based expectations about the variation in cognitive processes of test-takers across levels of performance. Twenty-eight test-takers' eye traces on 24 banked gap-fill items (on six tasks) were…
Martijn A H Oude Voshaar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To calibrate the Dutch-Flemish version of the PROMIS physical function (PF item bank in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to evaluate cross-cultural measurement equivalence with US general population and RA data. METHODS: Data were collected from RA patients enrolled in the Dutch DREAM registry. An incomplete longitudinal anchored design was used where patients completed all 121 items of the item bank over the course of three waves of data collection. Item responses were fit to a generalized partial credit model adapted for longitudinal data and the item parameters were examined for differential item functioning (DIF across country, age, and sex. RESULTS: In total, 690 patients participated in the study at time point 1 (T2, N = 489; T3, N = 311. The item bank could be successfully fitted to a generalized partial credit model, with the number of misfitting items falling within acceptable limits. Seven items demonstrated DIF for sex, while 5 items showed DIF for age in the Dutch RA sample. Twenty-five (20% items were flagged for cross-cultural DIF compared to the US general population. However, the impact of observed DIF on total physical function estimates was negligible. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the PROMIS PF item bank adequately fit a unidimensional IRT model which provides support for applications that require invariant estimates of physical function, such as computer adaptive testing and targeted short forms. More studies are needed to further investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the US-based PROMIS calibration and standardized metric.
Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W; Cella, David
To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Individual interviews (n=44) and focus groups (n=65 individuals with SCI and n=42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n=877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n=245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury--Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM.
Petersen, Morten Aa.; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Costantini, Anna
of the widely used EORTC Quality of Life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: On the basis of literature search and evaluations by international samples of experts and cancer patients, 38 candidate items were developed. The psychometric properties of the items were evaluated in a large...... international sample of cancer patients. This included evaluations of dimensionality, item response theory (IRT) model fit, differential item functioning (DIF), and of measurement precision/statistical power. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 1,023 cancer patients from four countries. The evaluations showed...... that 24 items could be included in a unidimensional IRT model. DIF did not seem to have any significant impact on the estimation of EF. Evaluations indicated that the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements by up to 50% compared to the QLQ-C30 EF scale without reducing power. CONCLUSION...
Paz, Sylvia H; Spritzer, Karen L; Reise, Steven P; Hays, Ron D
About 70% of Latinos, 5 years old or older, in the United States speak Spanish at home. Measurement equivalence of the PROMIS ® pain interference (PI) item bank by language of administration (English versus Spanish) has not been evaluated. A sample of 527 adult Spanish-speaking Latinos completed the Spanish version of the 41-item PROMIS ® pain interference item bank. We evaluate dimensionality, monotonicity and local independence of the Spanish-language items. Then we evaluate differential item functioning (DIF) using ordinal logistic regression with item response theory scores estimated from DIF-free "anchor" items. One of the 41 items in the Spanish version of the PROMIS ® PI item bank was identified as having significant uniform DIF. English- and Spanish-speaking subjects with the same level of pain interference responded differently to 1 of the 41 items in the PROMIS ® PI item bank. This item was not retained due to proprietary issues. The original English language item parameters can be used when estimating PROMIS ® PI scores.
Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Traditional patient-reported physical function instruments often poorly differentiate patients with mild-to-moderate disability. We describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a generic item bank for measuring everyday activity limitations in outpatient populations. Seventy-two items generated from patient interviews and mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domestic life chapter were administered to 1128 adults representative of the Dutch population. The partial credit model was fitted to the item responses and evaluated with respect to its assumptions, model fit, and differential item functioning (DIF). Measurement performance of a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm was compared with the SF-36 physical functioning scale (PF-10). A final bank of 41 items was developed. All items demonstrated acceptable fit to the partial credit model and measurement invariance across age, sex, and educational level. Five- and ten-item CAT simulations were shown to have high measurement precision, which exceeded that of SF-36 physical functioning scale across the physical function continuum. Floor effects were absent for a 10-item empirical CAT simulation, and ceiling effects were low (13.5%) compared with SF-36 physical functioning (38.1%). CAT also discriminated better than SF-36 physical functioning between age groups, number of chronic conditions, and respondents with or without rheumatic conditions. The Rasch assessment of everyday activity limitations (REAL) item bank will hopefully prove a useful instrument for assessing everyday activity limitations. T-scores obtained using derived measures can be used to benchmark physical function outcomes against the general Dutch adult population.
Oude Voshaar, M.A.H.; ten Klooster, P.M.; Glas, C.A.W.; Vonkeman, H.E.; Taal, E; Krishnan, E.; Moens, H.J.B.; Boers, M.; Terwee, C.B.; van Riel, P.L.C.M.; van de Laar, M.A.F.J.
Objective: To calibrate the Dutch-Flemish version of the PROMIS physical function (PF) item bank in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate cross-cultural measurement equivalence with US general population and RA data. Methods: Data were collected from RA patients enrolled in the
Martine H P Crins
Full Text Available The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS is a universally applicable set of instruments, including item banks, short forms and computer adaptive tests (CATs, measuring patient-reported health across different patient populations. PROMIS CATs are highly efficient and the use in practice is considered feasible with little administration time, offering standardized and routine patient monitoring. Before an item bank can be used as CAT, the psychometric properties of the item bank have to be examined. Therefore, the objective was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank (DF-PROMIS-PF in Dutch patients receiving physical therapy.Cross-sectional study.805 patients >18 years, who received any kind of physical therapy in primary care in the past year, completed the full DF-PROMIS-PF (121 items.Unidimensionality was examined by Confirmatory Factor Analysis and local dependence and monotonicity were evaluated. A Graded Response Model was fitted. Construct validity was examined with correlations between DF-PROMIS-PF T-scores and scores on two legacy instruments (SF-36 Health Survey Physical Functioning scale [SF36-PF10] and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability-Index [HAQ-DI]. Reliability (standard errors of theta was assessed.The results for unidimensionality were mixed (scaled CFI = 0.924, TLI = 0.923, RMSEA = 0.045, 1th factor explained 61.5% of variance. Some local dependence was found (8.2% of item pairs. The item bank showed a broad coverage of the physical function construct (threshold-parameters range: -4.28-2.33 and good construct validity (correlation with SF36-PF10 = 0.84 and HAQ-DI = -0.85. Furthermore, the DF-PROMIS-PF showed greater reliability over a broader score-range than the SF36-PF10 and HAQ-DI.The psychometric properties of the DF-PROMIS-PF item bank are sufficient. The DF-PROMIS-PF can now be used as short forms or CAT to measure the level of
Hollingworth, Andrew; Beck, Valerie M
Efficient visual search requires that attention is guided strategically to relevant objects, and most theories of visual search implement this function by means of a target template maintained in visual working memory (VWM). However, there is currently debate over the architecture of VWM-based attentional guidance. We contrasted a single-item-template hypothesis with a multiple-item-template hypothesis, which differ in their claims about structural limits on the interaction between VWM representations and perceptual selection. Recent evidence from van Moorselaar, Theeuwes, and Olivers (2014) indicated that memory-based capture during search, an index of VWM guidance, is not observed when memory set size is increased beyond a single item, suggesting that multiple items in VWM do not guide attention. In the present study, we maximized the overlap between multiple colors held in VWM and the colors of distractors in a search array. Reliable capture was observed when 2 colors were held in VWM and both colors were present as distractors, using both the original van Moorselaar et al. singleton-shape search task and a search task that required focal attention to array elements (gap location in outline square stimuli). In the latter task, memory-based capture was consistent with the simultaneous guidance of attention by multiple VWM representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
JOSEPH P. EIMICKE
Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to present findings related to differential item functioning (DIF in the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS depression item bank, and to discuss potential threats to the validity of results from studies of DIF. The 32 depression items studied were modified from several widely used instruments. DIF analyses of gender, age and education were performed using a sample of 735 individuals recruited by a survey polling firm. DIF hypotheses were generated by asking content experts to indicate whether or not they expected DIF to be present, and the direction of the DIF with respect to the studied comparison groups. Primary analyses were conducted using the graded item response model (for polytomous, ordered response category data with likelihood ratio tests of DIF, accompanied by magnitude measures. Sensitivity analyses were performed using other item response models and approaches to DIF detection. Despite some caveats, the items that are recommended for exclusion or for separate calibration were "I felt like crying" and "I had trouble enjoying things that I used to enjoy." The item, "I felt I had no energy," was also flagged as evidencing DIF, and recommended for additional review. On the one hand, false DIF detection (Type 1 error was controlled to the extent possible by ensuring model fit and purification. On the other hand, power for DIF detection might have been compromised by several factors, including sparse data and small sample sizes. Nonetheless, practical and not just statistical significance should be considered. In this case the overall magnitude and impact of DIF was small for the groups studied, although impact was relatively large for some individuals.
Yost, Kathleen J; Waller, Niels G; Lee, Minji K; Vincent, Ann
Efficient management of fibromyalgia (FM) requires precise measurement of FM-specific symptoms. Our objective was to assess the measurement properties of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue item bank (FIB) in people with FM. We applied classical psychometric and item response theory methods to cross-sectional PROMIS-FIB data from two samples. Data on the clinical FM sample were obtained at a tertiary medical center. Data for the U.S. general population sample were obtained from the PROMIS network. The full 95-item bank was administered to both samples. We investigated dimensionality of the item bank in both samples by separately fitting a bifactor model with two group factors; experience and impact. We assessed measurement invariance between samples, and we explored an alternate factor structure with the normative sample and subsequently confirmed that structure in the clinical sample. Finally, we assessed whether reporting FM subdomain scores added value over reporting a single total score. The item bank was dominated by a general fatigue factor. The fit of the initial bifactor model and evidence of measurement invariance indicated that the same constructs were measured across the samples. An alternative bifactor model with three group factors demonstrated slightly improved fit. Subdomain scores add value over a total score. We demonstrated that the PROMIS-FIB is appropriate for measuring fatigue in clinical samples of FM patients. The construct can be presented by a single score; however, subdomain scores for the three group factors identified in the alternative model may also be reported.
Mueller, Evelyn A; Bengel, Juergen; Wirtz, Markus A
This study aimed to develop a self-description assessment instrument to measure work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases. In terms of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), work performance is defined as the degree of meeting the work demands (activities) at the actual workplace (environment). To account for the fact that work performance depends on the work demands of the job, we strived to develop item banks that allow a flexible use of item subgroups depending on the specific work demands of the patients' jobs. Item development included the collection of work tasks from literature and content validation through expert surveys and patient interviews. The resulting 122 items were answered by 621 patients with musculoskeletal diseases. Exploratory factor analysis to ascertain dimensionality and Rasch analysis (partial credit model) for each of the resulting dimensions were performed. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in four dimensions, and subsequent Rasch analysis led to the following item banks: 'impaired productivity' (15 items), 'impaired cognitive performance' (18), 'impaired coping with stress' (13) and 'impaired physical performance' (low physical workload 20 items, high physical workload 10 items). The item banks exhibited person separation indices (reliability) between 0.89 and 0.96. The assessment of work performance adds the activities component to the more commonly employed participation component of the ICF-model. The four item banks can be adapted to specific jobs where necessary without losing comparability of person measures, as the item banks are based on Rasch analysis.
Forrest, Christopher B; Devine, Janine; Bevans, Katherine B; Becker, Brandon D; Carle, Adam C; Teneralli, Rachel E; Moon, JeanHee; Tucker, Carole A; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
To describe the psychometric evaluation and item response theory calibration of the PROMIS Pediatric Life Satisfaction item banks, child-report, and parent-proxy editions. A pool of 55 life satisfaction items was administered to 1992 children 8-17 years old and 964 parents of children 5-17 years old. Analyses included descriptive statistics, reliability, factor analysis, differential item functioning, and assessment of construct validity. Thirteen items were deleted because of poor psychometric performance. An 8-item short form was administered to a national sample of 996 children 8-17 years old, and 1294 parents of children 5-17 years old. The combined sample (2988 children and 2258 parents) was used in item response theory (IRT) calibration analyses. The final item banks were unidimensional, the items were locally independent, and the items were free from impactful differential item functioning. The 8-item and 4-item short form scales showed excellent reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Life satisfaction decreased with declining socio-economic status, presence of a special health care need, and increasing age for girls, but not boys. After IRT calibration, we found that 4- and 8-item short forms had a high degree of precision (reliability) across a wide range (>4 SD units) of the latent variable. The PROMIS Pediatric Life Satisfaction item banks and their short forms provide efficient, precise, and valid assessments of life satisfaction in children and youth.
Forrest, Christopher B; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Devine, Janine; Becker, Brandon D; Teneralli, Rachel; Moon, JeanHee; Carle, Adam; Tucker, Carole A; Bevans, Katherine B
The purpose of this study is to describe the psychometric evaluation and item response theory calibration of the PROMIS Pediatric Positive Affect item bank, child-report and parent-proxy editions. The initial item pool comprising 53 items, previously developed using qualitative methods, was administered to 1,874 children 8-17 years old and 909 parents of children 5-17 years old. Analyses included descriptive statistics, reliability, factor analysis, differential item functioning, and construct validity. A total of 14 items were deleted, because of poor psychometric performance, and an 8-item short form constructed from the remaining 39 items was administered to a national sample of 1,004 children 8-17 years old, and 1,306 parents of children 5-17 years old. The combined sample was used in item response theory (IRT) calibration analyses. The final item bank appeared unidimensional, the items appeared locally independent, and the items were free from differential item functioning. The scales showed excellent reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Positive affect decreased with children's age and was lower for those with a special health care need. After IRT calibration, we found that 4 and 8 item short forms had a high degree of precision (reliability) across a wide range of the latent trait (>4 SD units). The PROMIS Pediatric Positive Affect item bank and its short forms provide an efficient, precise, and valid assessment of positive affect in children and youth.
Crins, Martine H P; Roorda, Leo D; Smits, Niels; de Vet, Henrica C W; Westhovens, Rene; Cella, David; Cook, Karon F; Revicki, Dennis; van Leeuwen, Jaap; Boers, Maarten; Dekker, Joost; Terwee, Caroline B
The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Group translated the adult PROMIS Pain Interference item bank into Dutch-Flemish. The aims of the current study were to calibrate the parameters of these items using an item response theory (IRT) model, to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Dutch-Flemish translations compared to the original English items, and to evaluate their reliability and construct validity. The 40 items in the bank were completed by 1085 Dutch chronic pain patients. Before calibrating the items, IRT model assumptions were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Items were calibrated using the graded response model (GRM), an IRT model appropriate for items with more than two response options. To evaluate cross-cultural validity, differential item functioning (DIF) for language (Dutch vs. English) was examined. Reliability was evaluated based on standard errors and Cronbach's alpha. To evaluate construct validity correlations with scores on legacy instruments (e.g., the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire) were calculated. Unidimensionality of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank was supported by CFA tests of model fit (CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.986). Furthermore, the data fit the GRM and showed good coverage across the pain interference continuum (threshold-parameters range: -3.04 to 3.44). The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank has good cross-cultural validity (only two out of 40 items showing DIF), good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98), and good construct validity (Pearson correlations between 0.62 and 0.75). A computer adaptive test (CAT) and Dutch-Flemish PROMIS short forms of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank can now be developed.
Martine H P Crins
Full Text Available The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Group translated the adult PROMIS Pain Interference item bank into Dutch-Flemish. The aims of the current study were to calibrate the parameters of these items using an item response theory (IRT model, to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Dutch-Flemish translations compared to the original English items, and to evaluate their reliability and construct validity. The 40 items in the bank were completed by 1085 Dutch chronic pain patients. Before calibrating the items, IRT model assumptions were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Items were calibrated using the graded response model (GRM, an IRT model appropriate for items with more than two response options. To evaluate cross-cultural validity, differential item functioning (DIF for language (Dutch vs. English was examined. Reliability was evaluated based on standard errors and Cronbach's alpha. To evaluate construct validity correlations with scores on legacy instruments (e.g., the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire were calculated. Unidimensionality of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank was supported by CFA tests of model fit (CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.986. Furthermore, the data fit the GRM and showed good coverage across the pain interference continuum (threshold-parameters range: -3.04 to 3.44. The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank has good cross-cultural validity (only two out of 40 items showing DIF, good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98, and good construct validity (Pearson correlations between 0.62 and 0.75. A computer adaptive test (CAT and Dutch-Flemish PROMIS short forms of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank can now be developed.
Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Gandek, Barbara
OBJECTIVE: To document the development and psychometric evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank and static instruments. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The items were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total...... response model was used to estimate item parameters, which were normed to a mean of 50 (standard deviation [SD]=10) in a US general population sample. RESULTS: The final bank consists of 124 PROMIS items covering upper, central, and lower extremity functions and instrumental activities of daily living...... to identify differences between age and disease groups. CONCLUSION: The item bank provides a common metric and can improve the measurement of PF by facilitating the standardization of patient-reported outcome measures and implementation of CATs for more efficient PF assessments over a larger range....
Rose, Matthias; Bjorner, Jakob B; Gandek, Barbara; Bruce, Bonnie; Fries, James F; Ware, John E
To document the development and psychometric evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank and static instruments. The items were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total of 16,065 adults answered item subsets (n>2,200/item) on the Internet, with oversampling of the chronically ill. Classical test and item response theory methods were used to evaluate 149 PROMIS PF items plus 10 Short Form-36 and 20 Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index items. A graded response model was used to estimate item parameters, which were normed to a mean of 50 (standard deviation [SD]=10) in a US general population sample. The final bank consists of 124 PROMIS items covering upper, central, and lower extremity functions and instrumental activities of daily living. In simulations, a 10-item computerized adaptive test (CAT) eliminated floor and decreased ceiling effects, achieving higher measurement precision than any comparable length static tool across four SDs of the measurement range. Improved psychometric properties were transferred to the CAT's superior ability to identify differences between age and disease groups. The item bank provides a common metric and can improve the measurement of PF by facilitating the standardization of patient-reported outcome measures and implementation of CATs for more efficient PF assessments over a larger range. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Lawrence, Suzanne M; Hilton, Thomas F; Daley, Dennis C; Patkar, Ashwin A; McCarty, Dennis
There is a need to monitor patients receiving prescription opioids to detect possible signs of abuse. To address this need, we developed and calibrated an item bank for severity of abuse of prescription pain medication as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 5,310 items relevant to substance use and abuse, including abuse of prescription pain medication, from over 80 unique instruments. After qualitative item analysis (i.e., focus groups, cognitive interviewing, expert review, and item revision), 25 items for abuse of prescribed pain medication were included in field testing. Items were written in a first-person, past-tense format, with a three-month time frame and five response options reflecting frequency or severity. The calibration sample included 448 respondents, 367 from the general population (ascertained through an internet panel) and 81 from community treatment programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. A final bank of 22 items was calibrated using the two-parameter graded response model from item response theory. A seven-item static short form was also developed. The test information curve showed that the PROMIS ® item bank for abuse of prescription pain medication provided substantial information in a broad range of severity. The initial psychometric characteristics of the item bank support its use as a computerized adaptive test or short form, with either version providing a brief, precise, and efficient measure relevant to both clinical and community samples. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
van Kooten, Jojanneke A M C; van Litsenburg, Raphaёle R L; Yoder, Whitney R; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Terwee, Caroline B
Sleep problems are common in adolescents and have a negative impact on daytime functioning. However, there is a lack of well-validated adolescent sleep questionnaires. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment item banks are well-validated instruments developed for and tested in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate their structural validity in adolescents. Test and retest data were collected for the Dutch-Flemish V1.0 PROMIS Sleep Disturbance (27) and Sleep-Related Impairment (16 items) item banks from 1046 adolescents (11-19 years). Cross-validation methods, Confirmatory (CFA), and Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were used. Fit indices and factor loadings were used to improve the models. The final models were assessed for model fit using retest data. The one-factor Sleep Disturbance (CFI = 0.795, TLI = 0.778, RMSEA = 0.117) and Sleep-Related Impairment (CFI = 0.897, TLI = 0.882, RMSEA = 0.156) models could not be replicated in adolescents. Cross-validation resulted in a final Sleep Disturbance model of 23 and a Sleep-Related Impairment model of 11 items. Retest data CFA showed adequate fit for the Sleep-Related Impairment-11 (CFI = 0.981, TLI = 0.976, RMSEA = 0.116). The Sleep Disturbance-23 model fit indices stayed below the recommended values (CFI = 0.895, TLI = 0.885, RMSEA = 0.105). While the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance-23 for adolescents and PROMIS Sleep-Related Impairment-11 for adolescents provide a framework to assess adolescent sleep, additional research is needed to replicate these findings in a larger and more diverse sample.
Kinjo, Akira R; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Reiko; Ikegawa, Yasuyo; Kudou, Takahiro; Igarashi, Reiko; Kengaku, Yumiko; Cho, Hasumi; Standley, Daron M; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki
The Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj, http://pdbj.org) is a member of the worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) and accepts and processes the deposited data of experimentally determined macromolecular structures. While maintaining the archive in collaboration with other wwPDB partners, PDBj also provides a wide range of services and tools for analyzing structures and functions of proteins, which are summarized in this article. To enhance the interoperability of the PDB data, we have recently developed PDB/RDF, PDB data in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) format, along with its ontology in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) based on the PDB mmCIF Exchange Dictionary. Being in the standard format for the Semantic Web, the PDB/RDF data provide a means to integrate the PDB with other biological information resources.
Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W
To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure
Crins, Martine H P; Terwee, Caroline B; Klausch, Thomas; Smits, Niels; de Vet, Henrica C W; Westhovens, Rene; Cella, David; Cook, Karon F; Revicki, Dennis A; van Leeuwen, Jaap; Boers, Maarten; Dekker, Joost; Roorda, Leo D
The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch-Flemish Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function item bank in Dutch patients with chronic pain. A bank of 121 items was administered to 1,247 Dutch patients with chronic pain. Unidimensionality was assessed by fitting a one-factor confirmatory factor analysis and evaluating resulting fit statistics. Items were calibrated with the graded response model and its fit was evaluated. Cross-cultural validity was assessed by testing items for differential item functioning (DIF) based on language (Dutch vs. English). Construct validity was evaluated by calculation correlations between scores on the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function measure and scores on generic and disease-specific measures. Results supported the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank's unidimensionality (Comparative Fit Index = 0.976, Tucker Lewis Index = 0.976) and model fit. Item thresholds targeted a wide range of physical function construct (threshold-parameters range: -4.2 to 5.6). Cross-cultural validity was good as four items only showed DIF for language and their impact on item scores was minimal. Physical Function scores were strongly associated with scores on all other measures (all correlations ≤ -0.60 as expected). The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank exhibited good psychometric properties. Development of a computer adaptive test based on the large bank is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baylor, Carolyn; McAuliffe, Megan J.; Hughes, Louise E.; Yorkston, Kathryn; Anderson, Tim; Jiseon, Kim; Amtmann, Dagmar
Purpose: To examine the cross-cultural applicability of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) through a comparison of respondents with Parkinson's disease (PD) from the United States and New Zealand. Method: A total of 428 respondents--218 from the United States and 210 from New Zealand-completed the self-report CPIB and a series of…
Khadka, Jyoti; McAlinden, Colm; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad
To investigate the effect of rating scale designs (question formats and response categories) on item difficulty calibrations and assess the impact that rating scale differences have on overall vision-related activity limitation (VRAL) scores. Sixteen existing patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) suitable for cataract assessment, with different rating scales, were self-administered by patients on a cataract surgery waiting list. A total of 226 VRAL items from these PROs in their native rating scales were included in an item bank and calibrated using Rasch analysis. Fifteen item/content areas (e.g., reading newspapers) appearing in at least three different PROs were identified. Within each content area, item calibrations were compared and their range calculated. Similarly, five PROs having at least three items in common with the Visual Function (VF-14) were compared in terms of average item measures. A total of 614 patients (mean age ± SD, 74.1 ± 9.4 years) participated. Items with the same content varied in their calibration by as much as two logits; "reading the small print" had the largest range (1.99 logits) followed by "watching TV" (1.60). Compared with the VF-14 (0.00 logits), the rating scale of the Visual Disability Assessment (1.13 logits) produced the most difficult items and the Cataract Symptom Scale (0.24 logits) produced the least difficult items. The VRAL item bank was suboptimally targeted to the ability level of the participants (2.00 logits). Rating scale designs have a significant effect on item calibrations. Therefore, constructing item banks from existing items in their native formats carries risks to face validity and transmission of problems inherent in existing instruments, such as poor targeting.
DeWalt Darren A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs in health care has seen greater use in recent years, and methods to improve the reliability and validity of PRO instruments are advancing. This paper discusses the cognitive interviewing procedures employed by the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatrics group for the purpose of developing a dynamic, electronic item bank for field testing with children and adolescents using novel computer technology. The primary objective of this study was to conduct cognitive interviews with children and adolescents to gain feedback on items measuring physical functioning, emotional health, social health, fatigue, pain, and asthma-specific symptoms. Methods A total of 88 cognitive interviews were conducted with 77 children and adolescents across two sites on 318 items. From this initial item bank, 25 items were deleted and 35 were revised and underwent a second round of cognitive interviews. A total of 293 items were retained for field testing. Results Children as young as 8 years of age were able to comprehend the majority of items, response options, directions, recall period, and identify problems with language that was difficult for them to understand. Cognitive interviews indicated issues with item comprehension on several items which led to alternative wording for these items. Conclusion Children ages 8–17 years were able to comprehend most item stems and response options in the present study. Field testing with the resulting items and response options is presently being conducted as part of the PROMIS Pediatric Item Bank development process.
Sinika Vitalij S.
Full Text Available The article presents an overview of items corresponding to the Scythian zoomorphic style discovered at barbaric and ancient sites of the Northwestern Black Sea Region, and a publication of two new findings. They were discovered on the left bank of the Lower Dniester. The first item discovered at Parkany-II settlement is a fragment of a bronze horse plaque (its lower part crafted in the shape of a "rooster"-hippocampus. The other artifact discovered near Tokmazeya village also represents a horse plaque with an image of a cat predator's head. Presently, there are no counterparts of the images on these findings in the Northwestern Black Sea Region, which is the westmost periphery of the Scythian steppe culture. These fragments of horse apparel broaden our knowledge of the Scythian "bestiary" in the region. Besides, apart from the other items of material culture, the published findings confirm the presence of Scythian population at settlement sites, which contradicts the generally accepted opinion on the exclusively nomadic cattle breeding lifestyle of the Scythians in 5th –4th centuries B.C.
Individuals with knee impairments identify items in need of clarification in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) pain interference and physical function item banks - a qualitative study.
Lynch, Andrew D; Dodds, Nathan E; Yu, Lan; Pilkonis, Paul A; Irrgang, James J
The content and wording of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function and Pain Interference item banks have not been qualitatively assessed by individuals with knee joint impairments. The purpose of this investigation was to identify items in the PROMIS Physical Function and Pain Interference Item Banks that are irrelevant, unclear, or otherwise difficult to respond to for individuals with impairment of the knee and to suggest modifications based on cognitive interviews. Twenty-nine individuals with knee joint impairments qualitatively assessed items in the Pain Interference and Physical Function Item Banks in a mixed-methods cognitive interview. Field notes were analyzed to identify themes and frequency counts were calculated to identify items not relevant to individuals with knee joint impairments. Issues with clarity were identified in 23 items in the Physical Function Item Bank, resulting in the creation of 43 new or modified items, typically changing words within the item to be clearer. Interpretation issues included whether or not the knee joint played a significant role in overall health and age/gender differences in items. One quarter of the original items (31 of 124) in the Physical Function Item Bank were identified as irrelevant to the knee joint. All 41 items in the Pain Interference Item Bank were identified as clear, although individuals without significant pain substituted other symptoms which interfered with their life. The Physical Function Item Bank would benefit from additional items that are relevant to individuals with knee joint impairments and, by extension, to other lower extremity impairments. Several issues in clarity were identified that are likely to be present in other patient cohorts as well.
Walsh, Tasanee R; Irwin, Debra E; Meier, Andrea; Varni, James W; DeWalt, Darren A
To understand differences in perceptions of patient-reported outcome domains between children with asthma and children from the general population. We used this information in the development of patient-reported outcome items for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatrics project. We conducted focus groups composed of ethnically, racially, and geographically diverse youth (8-12, 13-17 years) from the general population and youth with asthma. We performed content analysis to identify important themes. We identified five unique and different challenges that may confront youth with asthma as compared to general population youth: (1) They experience more difficulties when participating in physical activities; (2) They may experience anxiety about having an asthma attack at anytime and anywhere; (3) They may experience sleep disturbances and fatigue secondary to their asthma symptoms; (4) Their health condition has a greater effect on their emotional well-being and interpersonal relationships; and (5) Youth with asthma report that asthma often leaves them with insufficient energy to complete their school activities, especially physical activities. The results confirm unique experiences for children with asthma across a broad range of health domains and enhance the breadth of all domains when creating an item bank.
Mitchell, Alex J; Smith, Adam B; Al-salihy, Zerak; Rahim, Twana A; Mahmud, Mahmud Q; Muhyaldin, Asma S
We aimed to redefine the optimal self-report symptoms of depression suitable for creation of an item bank that could be used in computer adaptive testing or to develop a simplified screening tool for DSM-V. Four hundred subjects (200 patients with primary depression and 200 non-depressed subjects), living in Iraqi Kurdistan were interviewed. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to define the presence of major depression (DSM-IV criteria). We examined symptoms of depression using four well-known scales delivered in Kurdish. The Partial Credit Model was applied to each instrument. Common-item equating was subsequently used to create an item bank and differential item functioning (DIF) explored for known subgroups. A symptom level Rasch analysis reduced the original 45 items to 24 items of the original after the exclusion of 21 misfitting items. A further six items (CESD13 and CESD17, HADS-D4, HADS-D5 and HADS-D7, and CDSS3 and CDSS4) were removed due to misfit as the items were added together to form the item bank, and two items were subsequently removed following the DIF analysis by diagnosis (CESD20 and CDSS9, both of which were harder to endorse for women). Therefore the remaining optimal item bank consisted of 17 items and produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.987. Using a bank restricted to the optimal nine items revealed only minor loss of accuracy (AUC = 0.989, sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%). Finally, when restricted to only four items accuracy was still high (AUC was still 0.976; sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%). An item bank of 17 items may be useful in computer adaptive testing and nine or even four items may be used to develop a simplified screening tool for DSM-V major depressive disorder (MDD). Further examination of this item bank should be conducted in different cultural settings.
Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J
Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psychological distress (GPD). Multidimensional item response theory was used on existing health survey data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey (n = 766) to calibrate an item bank consisting of pooled items from the short common mental disorder screen (GHQ-12) and the Affectometer-2 (a measure of "general happiness"). Computer simulation was used to evaluate usefulness and efficacy of its adaptive administration. A bifactor model capturing variation across a continuum of population distress (while controlling for artefacts due to item wording) was supported. The numbers of items for different required reliabilities in adaptive administration demonstrated promising efficacy of the proposed item bank. Psychometric modeling of the common dimension captured by more than one instrument offers the potential of adaptive testing for GPD using individually sequenced combinations of existing survey items. The potential for linking other item sets with alternative candidate measures of positive mental health is discussed since an optimal item bank may require even more items than these.
Schnohr, Christina W.; Rasmussen, Charlotte L.; Langberg, Henning
of the Physical Function item bank into Danish. METHODS: We followed the PROMIS standard procedure, including: 1) two independent translations, 2) back translation, 3) independent reviews of translation quality, and 4) cognitive interviews with a representative sample of the adult population from the municipality...
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.
This book consists of four sections: (1) "Supplemental Materials"; (2) "Supplemental Investigations"; (3) "Test Item Bank"; and (4) "Blackline Masters." The first section provides additional background material related to selected chapters and investigations in the student book. Included are a periodic table of the elements, genetics problems and…
O'Connor, Teresia M; Pham, Truc; Watts, Allison W; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C
Research to understand how parents influence their children's dietary intake and eating behaviors has expanded in the past decades and a growing number of instruments are available to assess food parenting practices. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on how constructs should be defined or operationalized, making comparison of results across studies difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice item bank with items from published scales and supplement with parenting practices that parents report using. Items from published scales were identified from two published systematic reviews along with an additional systematic review conducted for this study. Parents (n = 135) with children 5-12 years old from the US and Canada, stratified to represent the demographic distribution of each country, were recruited to participate in an online semi-qualitative survey on food parenting. Published items and parent responses were coded using the same framework to reduce the number of items into representative concepts using a binning and winnowing process. The literature contributed 1392 items and parents contributed 1985 items, which were reduced to 262 different food parenting concepts (26% exclusive from literature, 12% exclusive from parents, and 62% represented in both). Food parenting practices related to 'Structure of Food Environment' and 'Behavioral and Educational' were emphasized more by parent responses, while practices related to 'Consistency of Feeding Environment' and 'Emotional Regulation' were more represented among published items. The resulting food parenting item bank should next be calibrated with item response modeling for scientists to use in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dirven, Linda; Groenvold, Mogens; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.
on the field-testing and psychometric evaluation of the item bank for cognitive functioning (CF). METHODS: In previous phases (I-III), 44 candidate items were developed measuring CF in cancer patients. In phase IV, these items were psychometrically evaluated in a large sample of international cancer patients...... model, showing an acceptable fit. Although several items showed DIF, these had a negligible impact on CF estimation. Measurement precision of the item bank was much higher than the two original QLQ-C30 CF items alone, across the whole continuum. Moreover, CAT measurement may on average reduce study...... sample sizes with about 35-40% compared to the original QLQ-C30 CF scale, without loss of power. CONCLUSION: A CF item bank for CAT measurement consisting of 34 items was established, applicable to various cancer patients across countries. This CAT measurement system will facilitate precise and efficient...
Gamper, Eva-Maria; Petersen, Morten Aa.; Aaronson, Neil
a computer-adaptive test (CAT) for RF. This was part of a larger project whose objective is to develop a CAT version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 which is one of the most widely used HRQOL instruments in oncology. METHODS: In accordance with EORTC guidelines, the development of the RF-CAT comprised four phases...... with good psychometric properties. The resulting item bank exhibits excellent reliability (mean reliability = 0.85, median = 0.95). Using the RF-CAT may allow sample size savings from 11 % up to 50 % compared to using the QLQ-C30 RF scale. CONCLUSIONS: The RF-CAT item bank improves the precision...
Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Heinemann, Allen W
To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications.
Pilkonis, Paul A.; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E.; Johnston, Kelly L.; Lawrence, Suzanne; Hilton, Thomas F.; Daley, Dennis C.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; McCarty, Dennis
Background Two item banks for substance use were developed as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®): severity of substance use and positive appeal of substance use. Methods Qualitative item analysis (including focus groups, cognitive interviewing, expert review, and item revision) reduced an initial pool of more than 5,300 items for substance use to 119 items included in field testing. Items were written in a first-person, past-tense format, with 5 response options reflecting frequency or severity. Both 30-day and 3-month time frames were tested. The calibration sample of 1,336 respondents included 875 individuals from the general population (ascertained through an internet panel) and 461patients from addiction treatment centers participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Results Final banks of 37 and 18 items were calibrated for severity of substance use and positive appeal of substance use, respectively, using the two-parameter graded response model from item response theory (IRT). Initial calibrations were similar for the 30-day and 3-month time frames, and final calibrations used data combined across the time frames, making the items applicable with either interval. Seven-item static short forms were also developed from each item bank. Conclusions Test information curves showed that the PROMIS item banks provided substantial information in a broad range of severity, making them suitable for treatment, observational, and epidemiological research in both clinical and community settings. PMID:26423364
Kisala, Pamela A; Victorson, David; Pace, Natalie; Heinemann, Allen W; Choi, Seung W; Tulsky, David S
To describe the development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form. Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a Psychological Trauma item bank with patient and provider focus groups, cognitive interviews, and item response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. We tested a 31-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Veterans Administration hospital. A total of 716 individuals with SCI completed the trauma items The 31 items fit a unidimensional model (CFI=0.952; RMSEA=0.061) and demonstrated good precision (theta range between 0.6 and 2.5). Nine items demonstrated negligible DIF with little impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank contains 19 items The SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank is a psychometrically robust measurement tool from which a short form and a computer adaptive test (CAT) version are available.
Victorson, David; Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Weiland, Brian; Choi, Seung W
To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Resilience item bank and short form. Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a resilience item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning (DIF). We tested a 32-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the Resilience items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI=0.968; RMSEA=0.074) and measurement precision was good (theta range between -3.1 and 0.9). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes we found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 21 retained items. This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available.
Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Tate, Denise G; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S
To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Self-esteem item bank. Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a self-esteem item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory-(IRT) based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. We tested a pool of 30 items at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the self-esteem items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI=0.946; RMSEA=0.087) and measurement precision was good (theta range between -2.7 and 0.7). Eleven items were flagged for DIF; however, effect sizes were negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 23 retained items. This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available.
Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Heinemann, Allen W; Pohlig, Ryan T; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W
To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test to assess anxiety symptoms in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a statistical linkage with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, a widely used anxiety measure. Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods; large-scale item calibration field testing; confirmatory factor analysis; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric; and linkage with the GAD-7. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Anxiety Item Bank Seven hundred sixteen individuals with traumatic SCI completed 38 items assessing anxiety, 17 of which were PROMIS items. After 13 items (including 2 PROMIS items) were removed, factor analyses confirmed unidimensionality. Item response theory analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 25 items (15 from PROMIS). The observed Pearson correlation between the SCI-QOL Anxiety and GAD-7 scores was 0.67. The SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and is available as a computer adaptive test or short form for research and clinical applications. SCI-QOL Anxiety scores have been transformed to the PROMIS metric and we provide a method to link SCI-QOL Anxiety scores with those of the GAD-7.
Dirven, Linda; Groenvold, Mogens; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Conroy, Thierry; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Young, Teresa; Petersen, Morten Aa
The European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing computerized adaptive testing (CAT) versions of all EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) scales with the aim to enhance measurement precision. Here we present the results on the field-testing and psychometric evaluation of the item bank for cognitive functioning (CF). In previous phases (I-III), 44 candidate items were developed measuring CF in cancer patients. In phase IV, these items were psychometrically evaluated in a large sample of international cancer patients. This evaluation included an assessment of dimensionality, fit to the item response theory (IRT) model, differential item functioning (DIF), and measurement properties. A total of 1030 cancer patients completed the 44 candidate items on CF. Of these, 34 items could be included in a unidimensional IRT model, showing an acceptable fit. Although several items showed DIF, these had a negligible impact on CF estimation. Measurement precision of the item bank was much higher than the two original QLQ-C30 CF items alone, across the whole continuum. Moreover, CAT measurement may on average reduce study sample sizes with about 35-40% compared to the original QLQ-C30 CF scale, without loss of power. A CF item bank for CAT measurement consisting of 34 items was established, applicable to various cancer patients across countries. This CAT measurement system will facilitate precise and efficient assessment of HRQOL of cancer patients, without loss of comparability of results.
Proposta de um instrumento de medida para avaliar a satisfação de clientes de bancos utilizando a Teoria da Resposta ao Item Proposal of tool to assess the satisfaction of bank customers using the Item Response Theory
Alceu Balbim Junior
satisfaction with the bank with which they maintain a closer relationship. Using Item Response Theory (IRT, parameters of the items and the information curve of the tool proposed were identified. The analysis of the degree of discrimination of the items indicated that they all are appropriate. The information curve obtained showed the range in which the tool proposed produces the best estimates of satisfaction levels. The study revealed the average satisfaction level of the sample and the concentration of customers in different levels of satisfaction in the scale used.
Oude Voshaar, Martijn Ah; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Taal, Erik; Krishnan, Eswar; van de Laar, Mart Afj
Patient-reported physical function is an established outcome domain in clinical studies in rheumatology. To overcome the limitations of the current generation of questionnaires, the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) project in the USA has developed calibrated item banks for measuring several domains of health status in people with a wide range of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PROMIS physical function item bank to the Dutch language and to pretest it in a sample of patients with arthritis. The items of the PROMIS physical function item bank were translated using rigorous forward-backward protocols and the translated version was subsequently cognitively pretested in a sample of Dutch patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Few issues were encountered in the forward-backward translation. Only 5 of the 124 items to be translated had to be rewritten because of culturally inappropriate content. Subsequent pretesting showed that overall, questions of the Dutch version were understood as they were intended, while only one item required rewriting. Results suggest that the translated version of the PROMIS physical function item bank is semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original. Future work will be directed at creating a Dutch-Flemish final version of the item bank to be used in research with Dutch speaking populations.
Heinemann, Allen W; Kisala, Pamela A; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Tulsky, David S
To develop a spinal cord injury (SCI)-focused version of PROMIS and Neuro-QOL social domain item banks; evaluate the psychometric properties of items developed for adults with SCI; and report information to facilitate clinical and research use. We used a mixed-methods design to develop and evaluate Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities items. Focus groups helped define the constructs; cognitive interviews helped revise items; and confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods helped calibrate item banks and evaluate differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. Five SCI Model System sites and one Veterans Administration medical center. The calibration sample consisted of 641 individuals; a reliability sample consisted of 245 individuals residing in the community. A subset of 27 Ability to Participate and 35 Satisfaction items demonstrated good measurement properties and negligible differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. The SCI-specific measures correlate strongly with the PROMIS and Neuro-QOL versions. Ten item short forms correlate >0.96 with the full banks. Variable-length CATs with a minimum of 4 items, variable-length CATs with a minimum of 8 items, fixed-length CATs of 10 items, and the 10-item short forms demonstrate construct coverage and measurement error that is comparable to the full item bank. The Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities CATs and short forms demonstrate excellent psychometric properties and are suitable for clinical and research applications.
Brown, David W., Ed.; Sewell, Jeffrey J., Ed.
This document consists of test items which are applicable to biology courses throughout Australia (irrespective of course materials used); assess key concepts within course statement (for both core and optional studies); assess a wide range of cognitive processes; and are relevant to current biological concepts. These items are arranged under…
Brown, David W., Ed.; Sewell, Jeffrey J., Ed.
This document consists of test items which are applicable to biology courses throughout Australia (irrespective of course materials used); assess key concepts within course statement (for both core and optional studies); assess a wide range of cognitive processes; and are relevant to current biological concepts. These items are arranged under…
Carare, O.V.; Claessens, C.A.M.F.; Perotti, E.C.
This paper examines the empirical evidence on the impact of reforms in the financial sector in Romania in the period 1993-1995. The methodological framework of the paper is based on a theoretical model of intertemporal bank lending in a transition country with uncertain prospects for stabilization
Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Lawrence, Suzanne M; Daley, Dennis C
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) includes five item banks for alcohol use. There are limited data, however, regarding their validity (e.g., convergent validity, responsiveness to change). To provide such data, we conducted a prospective study with 225 outpatients being treated for substance abuse. Assessments were completed shortly after intake and at 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. The alcohol item banks were administered as computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Fourteen CATs and one six-item short form were also administered from eight other PROMIS domains to generate a comprehensive health status profile. After modeling treatment outcome for the sample as a whole, correlates of outcome from the PROMIS health status profile were examined. For convergent validity, the largest correlation emerged between the PROMIS alcohol use score and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (r=.79 at intake). Regarding treatment outcome, there were modest changes across the target problem of alcohol use and other domains of the PROMIS health status profile. However, significant heterogeneity was found in initial severity of drinking and in rates of change for both abstinence and severity of drinking during follow-up. This heterogeneity was associated with demographic (e.g., gender) and health-profile (e.g., emotional support, social participation) variables. The results demonstrated the validity of PROMIS CATs, which require only 4-6 items in each domain. This efficiency makes it feasible to use a comprehensive health status profile within the substance use treatment setting, providing important prognostic information regarding abstinence and severity of drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haverman, Lotte; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Raat, Hein; van Rossum, Marion A J; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Correia, Helena; Cella, David; Roorda, Leo D; Terwee, Caroline B
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) is a new, state-of-the-art assessment system for measuring patient-reported health and well-being of adults and children. It has the potential to be more valid, reliable, and responsive than existing PROMs. The items banks are designed to be self-reported and completed by children aged 8-18 years. The PROMIS items can be administered in short forms or through computerized adaptive testing. This paper describes the translation and cultural adaption of nine PROMIS item banks (151 items) for children in Dutch-Flemish. The translation was performed by FACITtrans using standardized PROMIS methodology and approved by the PROMIS Statistical Center. The translation included four forward translations, two back-translations, three independent reviews (at least two Dutch, one Flemish), and pretesting in 24 children from the Netherlands and Flanders. For some items, it was necessary to have separate translations for Dutch and Flemish: physical function-mobility (three items), anger (one item), pain interference (two items), and asthma impact (one item). Challenges faced in the translation process included scarcity or overabundance of possible translations, unclear item descriptions, constructs broader/smaller in the target language, difficulties in rank ordering items, differences in unit of measurement, irrelevant items, or differences in performance of activities. By addressing these challenges, acceptable translations were obtained for all items. The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS items are linguistically equivalent to the original USA version. Short forms are now available for use, and entire item banks are ready for cross-cultural validation in the Netherlands and Flanders.
Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Bombardier, Charles H; Pohlig, Ryan T; Heinemann, Allen W; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W
To develop a calibrated spinal cord injury-quality of life (SCI-QOL) item bank, computer adaptive test (CAT), and short form to assess depressive symptoms experienced by individuals with SCI, transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a crosswalk to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. We used grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory (IRT) analyses, and statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric and to provide a crosswalk with the PHQ-9. Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Depression Item Bank Individuals with SCI were involved in all phases of SCI-QOL development. A sample of 716 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 35 items assessing depression, 18 of which were PROMIS items. After removing 7 non-PROMIS items, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. We used a graded response IRT model to estimate slopes and thresholds for the 28 retained items. The SCI-QOL Depression measure correlated 0.76 with the PHQ-9. The SCI-QOL Depression item bank provides a reliable and sensitive measure of depressive symptoms with scores reported in terms of general population norms. We provide a crosswalk to the PHQ-9 to facilitate comparisons between measures. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a short form and is suitable for research and clinical applications.
Fenwick, Eva K; Pesudovs, Konrad; Khadka, Jyoti; Dirani, Mohamed; Rees, Gwyn; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L
Assessing the efficacy of treatment modalities for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from the patient's perspective is restricted due to a lack of a comprehensive patient-reported outcome measure. We are developing a DR-specific quality of life (QoL) item bank, and we report here on the qualitative results from the first phase of this project. Eight focus groups and 18 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 patients with DR. The sessions were transcribed verbatim and iteratively analysed using the constant comparative method and NVIVO software. Participants had a median age of 58 years (range 27-83 years). Twenty-seven (47%) participants had proliferative DR in the better eye, and 14 (25%) had clinically significant macular oedema. Nine QoL domains were identified, namely visual symptoms, ocular surface symptoms, vision-related activity limitation, mobility, emotional well-being, health concerns, convenience, social, and economic. Participants described many vision-related activity limitations, particularly under challenging lighting conditions; however, socioemotional issues were equally important. Participants felt frustrated due to their visual restrictions, concerned about further vision loss and had difficulty coping with this uncertainty. Restrictions on driving were pervasive, affecting transport, social life, relationships, responsibilities, work and independence. Patients with DR experience many socioemotional issues in addition to vision-related activity limitations. Data from this study will be used to generate data for a DR-specific QoL item bank.
Hula, William D.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Stone, Clement A.; Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Kellough, Stacey; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Ross, Katherine B.; Schumacher, James G.; St. Jacque, Ann
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the structure and measurement properties of the Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM), a patient-reported outcome measure of communicative functioning for persons with aphasia. Method: Three hundred twenty-nine participants with aphasia responded to 177 items asking about communicative…
Morean, Meghan E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; S O'Malley, Stephanie
Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms. In 2017, 520 adolescent past-month e-cigarette users completed the PROMIS-E during a school-based survey (50.5% female, 84.8% White, 16.22[1.19] years old). Adolescents also reported on sex, grade, race, age at e-cigarette use onset, vaping frequency, nicotine e-liquid use, and past-month cigarette smoking. Analyses included conducting confirmatory factor analysis and examining the internal consistency of the PROMIS-E. Bivariate correlations and independent-samples t-tests were used to examine unadjusted relationships between e-cigarette nicotine dependence and the proposed risk factors. Regression models were run in which all potential risk factors were entered as simultaneous predictors of PROMIS-E scores. The single-factor structure of the PROMIS-E was confirmed and evidenced good internal consistency. Across models, larger PROMIS-E scores were associated with being in a higher grade, initiating e-cigarette use at an earlier age, vaping more frequently, using nicotine e-liquid (and higher nicotine concentrations), and smoking cigarettes. Adolescent e-cigarette users reported experiencing nicotine dependence, which was assessed using the psychometrically sound PROMIS-E. Experiencing stronger nicotine dependence symptoms was associated with characteristics that previously have been shown to confer risk for frequent vaping and tobacco cigarette dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Kozin, Scott; Merenda, Lisa; Gaughan, John; Tian, Feng; Gogola, Gloria; James, Michelle A; Ni, Pengsheng
One of the greatest limitations to measuring outcomes in pediatric orthopaedics is the lack of effective instruments. Computer adaptive testing, which uses large item banks, select only items that are relevant to a child's function based on a previous response and filters items that are too easy or too hard or simply not relevant to the child. In this way, computer adaptive testing provides for a meaningful, efficient, and precise method to evaluate patient-reported outcomes. Banks of items that assess activity and upper extremity (UE) function have been developed for children with cerebral palsy and have enabled computer adaptive tests that showed strong reliability, strong validity, and broader content range when compared with traditional instruments. Because of the void in instruments for children with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and the importance of having an UE and activity scale, we were interested in how well these items worked in this population. Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 200 children with BPBP was conducted. The box and block test (BBT) and Stereognosis tests were administered and patient reports of UE function and activity were obtained with the cerebral palsy item banks. Differential item functioning (DIF) was examined. Predictive ability of the BBT and stereognosis was evaluated with proportional odds logistic regression model. Spearman correlations coefficients (rs) were calculated to examine correlation between stereognosis and the BBT and between individual stereognosis items and the total stereognosis score. Six of the 86 items showed DIF, indicating that the activity and UE item banks may be useful for computer adaptive tests for children with BPBP. The penny and the button were strongest predictors of impairment level (odds ratio=0.34 to 0.40]. There was a good positive relationship between total stereognosis and BBT scores (rs=0.60). The BBT had a good negative (rs=-0.55) and good positive (rs=0.55) relationship with
... Services Analyst (202) 453-3638, Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems; or Kara Handzlik... notice of dishonor) before midnight of the banking day on which the paying bank received the check.\\3\\ A paying bank that has settled for a check before midnight of the banking day on which it received the...
Nurasyikin, Y; Leong, C F; Fadhlullah, T M; Hafiz, W M; Nadiah, Z; Atieqah, A N; Ling, T J; Das, S
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the temperature chain of red blood cells (RBC) returned unused blood bags using blood temperature indicator and ascertain the factors like transportation time, type, size of coolant box and number of bags per box. A total of 250 blood bags with the indicator were observed for the temperature changes with other factors like transportation time, type and size of coolant box and number of bags per box. The recordings were performed at several checkpoints located between the blood bank and the wards. Out of the 250 bags, 74 (29.6%) showed colour changes in which 64 (86.3%) were returned unused (RU) blood bags. The transportation time for these 74 bags was 818.3 ± 941.643 min, significantly higher than bags without colour changes, (p=0.02). Interestingly, 71.4% of the colour changes occurred within the ward. The 7 litre coolant box with an average of 1-5 blood bags per box had a statistically significant higher percentage of colour change with 59.2% compared to the 5 litre coolant box (p=0.05). This study showed that the temperature chain of blood bags was often not well maintained. These results could be mainly due to the non-adherence to the standard operating procedure (SOP) of blood transfusion and the usage of non-standardized coolant boxes.
The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is a data bank and data analysis center, which since 1985 has been jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (US DOE's) Office of Technology Support Programs and Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). It focuses on reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) data for components (e.g. valves, pumps, etc.) operating in advanced nuclear reactor facilities. As originally intended, the purpose of the CREDO system was to provide a centralized source of accurate, up-to-date data and information for use in RAM analyses necessary for meeting DOE's data needs in the areas of advanced reactor safety assessments, design and licensing. In particular, creation of the CREDO system was considered an essential element needed to fulfill the DOE Breeder Reactor Safety Program's commitment of 'identifying and exploiting areas in which probabilistic methods can be developed and used in making reactor safety Research and Development choices and optimizing designs of safety systems'. CREDO and its operation are explained. (author)
Emrich, Stephen M; Riggall, Adam C; Larocque, Joshua J; Postle, Bradley R
Traditionally, load sensitivity of sustained, elevated activity has been taken as an index of storage for a limited number of items in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Recently, studies have demonstrated that the contents of a single item held in VSTM can be decoded from early visual cortex, despite the fact that these areas do not exhibit elevated, sustained activity. It is unknown, however, whether the patterns of neural activity decoded from sensory cortex change as a function of load, as one would expect from a region storing multiple representations. Here, we use multivoxel pattern analysis to examine the neural representations of VSTM in humans across multiple memory loads. In an important extension of previous findings, our results demonstrate that the contents of VSTM can be decoded from areas that exhibit a transient response to visual stimuli, but not from regions that exhibit elevated, sustained load-sensitive delay-period activity. Moreover, the neural information present in these transiently activated areas decreases significantly with increasing load, indicating load sensitivity of the patterns of activity that support VSTM maintenance. Importantly, the decrease in classification performance as a function of load is correlated with within-subject changes in mnemonic resolution. These findings indicate that distributed patterns of neural activity in putatively sensory visual cortex support the representation and precision of information in VSTM.
The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.
McRackan, Theodore R; Velozo, Craig A; Holcomb, Meredith A; Camposeo, Elizabeth L; Hatch, Jonathan L; Meyer, Ted A; Lambert, Paul R; Melvin, Cathy L; Dubno, Judy R
No instrument exists to assess quality of life (QOL) in adult cochlear implant (CI) users that has been developed and validated using accepted scientific standards. To develop a CI-specific QOL instrument for adults in accordance with the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) guidelines. As required in the PROMIS guidelines, patient focus groups participated in creation of the initial item bank. Twenty-three adult CI users were divided into 1 of 3 focus groups stratified by word recognition ability. Three moderator-led focus groups were conducted based on grounded theory on December 3, 2016. Two reviewers independently analyzed focus group recordings and transcripts, with a third reviewer available to resolve discrepancies. All data were reviewed and reported according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. The setting was a tertiary referral center. Coded focus group data. The 23 focus group participants (10 [43%] female; mean [range] age, 68.1 [46.2-84.2] years) represented a wide range of income levels, education levels, listening modalities, CI device manufacturers, duration of CI use, and age at implantation. Data saturation was determined to be reached before the conclusion of each of the focus groups. After analysis of the transcripts, the central themes identified were communication, emotion, environmental sounds, independence and work function, listening effort, social isolation and ability to socialize, and sound clarity. Cognitive interviews were carried out on 20 adult CI patients who did not participate in the focus groups to ensure item clarity. Based on these results, the initial QOL item bank and prototype were developed. Patient focus groups drawn from the target population are the preferred method of identifying content areas and domains for developing the item bank for a CI-specific QOL instrument. Compared with previously used methods, the use of patient-centered item development for a CI
Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Tate, Denise G; Spungen, Ann M; Kirshblum, Steven C
To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and Bladder Complications scale. Using a mixed-methods design, a pool of items assessing bladder and bowel-related concerns were developed using focus groups with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and SCI clinicians, cognitive interviews, and item response theory (IRT) analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning. Thirty-eight bladder items and 52 bowel items were tested at the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation Research Center, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY. Seven hundred fifty-seven adults with traumatic SCI. The final item banks demonstrated unidimensionality (Bladder Management Difficulties CFI=0.965; RMSEA=0.093; Bowel Management Difficulties CFI=0.955; RMSEA=0.078) and acceptable fit to a graded response IRT model. The final calibrated Bladder Management Difficulties bank includes 15 items, and the final Bowel Management Difficulties item bank consists of 26 items. Additionally, 5 items related to urinary tract infections (UTI) did not fit with the larger Bladder Management Difficulties item bank but performed relatively well independently (CFI=0.992, RMSEA=0.050) and were thus retained as a separate scale. The SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks are psychometrically robust and are available as computer adaptive tests or short forms. The SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale is a brief, fixed-length outcomes instrument for individuals with a UTI.
Psychometric evaluation of the pediatric and parent-proxy Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and the Neurology and Traumatic Brain Injury Quality of Life measurement item banks in pediatric traumatic brain injury.
Bertisch, Hilary; Rivara, Frederick P; Kisala, Pamela A; Wang, Jin; Yeates, Keith Owen; Durbin, Dennis; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Bell, Michael J; Temkin, Nancy; Tulsky, David S
The primary objective is to provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the pediatric and parent-proxy versions of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Peer Relations, Mobility, Pain Interference, and Fatigue item banks, the Neurology Quality of Life measurement system (Neuro-QOL) Cognition-General Concerns and Stigma item banks, and the Traumatic Brain Injury Quality of Life (TBI-QOL) Executive Function and Headache item banks in a pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) sample. Participants were 134 parent-child (ages 8-18 years) days. Children all sustained TBI and the dyads completed outcome ratings 6 months after injury at one of six medical centers across the United States. Ratings included PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks, as well as the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (PedsQL), the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as legacy criterion measures against which these item banks were validated. The PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks demonstrated good convergent validity, as evidenced by moderate to strong correlations with comparable scales on the legacy measures. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks showed weaker correlations with ratings of unrelated constructs on legacy measures, providing evidence of discriminant validity. Our results indicate that the constructs measured by the PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks are valid in our pediatric TBI sample and that it is appropriate to use these standardized scores for our primary study analyses.
Jeffrey S. Cross
Full Text Available Following on the 2008-2012 OECD Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO feasibility study of civil engineering, in Japan a mechanical engineering learning outcomes assessment working group was established within the National Institute of Education Research (NIER, which became the Tuning National Center for Japan. The purpose of the project is to develop among engineering faculty members, common understandings of engineering learning outcomes, through the collaborative process of test item development, scoring, and sharing of results. By substantiating abstract level learning outcomes into concrete level learning outcomes that are attainable and assessable, and through measuring and comparing the students’ achievement of learning outcomes, it is anticipated that faculty members will be able to draw practical implications for educational improvement at the program and course levels. The development of a mechanical engineering test item bank began with test item development workshops, which led to a series of trial tests, and then to a large scale test implementation in 2016 of 348 first semester master’s students in 9 institutions in Japan, using both multiple choice questions designed to measure the mastery of basic and engineering sciences, and a constructive response task designed to measure “how well students can think like an engineer.” The same set of test items were translated from Japanese into to English and Indonesian, and used to measure achievement of learning outcomes at Indonesia’s Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB on 37 rising fourth year undergraduate students. This paper highlights how learning outcomes assessment can effectively facilitate learning outcomes-based education, by documenting the experience of Japanese and Indonesian mechanical engineering faculty members engaged in the NIER Test Item Bank project.First published online: 30 November 2017
Parkinson, Alan J; Hennessy, Thomas; Bulkow, Lisa; Smith, H Sally
Banked biospecimens from a defined population are a valuable resource that can be used to assess early markers for illness or to determine the prevalence of a disease to aid the development of intervention strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank (AASB) currently contains 266,353 residual biologic specimens (serum, plasma, whole blood, tissue, bacterial cultures) from 83,841 persons who participated in research studies, public health investigations and clinical testing conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service and Alaska Native tribal health organisations dating back to 1961. The majority (95.7%) are serum specimens, 77% were collected between 1981 and 1994 and 85% were collected from Alaska Native people. Oversight of the specimen bank is provided by a working group with representation from tribal, state and federal health organisations, the Alaska Area IRB and a specimen bank committee which ensures the specimens are used in accordance with policies and procedures developed by the working group.
Brodey, Benjamin B; Gonzalez, Nicole L; Elkin, Kathryn Ann; Sasiela, W Jordan; Brodey, Inger S
The computerized administration of self-report psychiatric diagnostic and outcomes assessments has risen in popularity. If results are similar enough across different administration modalities, then new administration technologies can be used interchangeably and the choice of technology can be based on other factors, such as convenience in the study design. An assessment based on item response theory (IRT), such as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) depression item bank, offers new possibilities for assessing the effect of technology choice upon results. To create equivalent halves of the PROMIS depression item bank and to use these halves to compare survey responses and user satisfaction among administration modalities-paper, mobile phone, or tablet-with a community mental health care population. The 28 PROMIS depression items were divided into 2 halves based on content and simulations with an established PROMIS response data set. A total of 129 participants were recruited from an outpatient public sector mental health clinic based in Memphis. All participants took both nonoverlapping halves of the PROMIS IRT-based depression items (Part A and Part B): once using paper and pencil, and once using either a mobile phone or tablet. An 8-cell randomization was done on technology used, order of technologies used, and order of PROMIS Parts A and B. Both Parts A and B were administered as fixed-length assessments and both were scored using published PROMIS IRT parameters and algorithms. All 129 participants received either Part A or B via paper assessment. Participants were also administered the opposite assessment, 63 using a mobile phone and 66 using a tablet. There was no significant difference in item response scores for Part A versus B. All 3 of the technologies yielded essentially identical assessment results and equivalent satisfaction levels. Our findings show that the PROMIS depression assessment can be divided into 2 equivalent
... is not the party entitled to interest compensation under article 4A, the bank must pass the benefit... the definition of ``remittance transfer'' under the Electronic Fund Transfer Act. DATES: Comments must... even if that funds transfer also meets the definition of ``remittance transfer'' under the recently...
Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks. Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.
... it is counted toward the balance maintained to satisfy a reserve balance requirement for purposes of... balance maintained to satisfy a reserve balance requirement for purposes of part 204 of this chapter... reserve balance requirement for purposes of part 204 of this chapter (Regulation D) nor make the proceeds...
Dumas, Helene M.
The PEDI-CAT is a new computer adaptive test (CAT) version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Additional PEDI-CAT items specific to postacute pediatric hospital care were recently developed using expert reviews and cognitive interviewing techniques. Expert reviews established face and construct validity, providing positive…
Beckman, N; Yazer, M; Land, K; Chesneau, S; Caulfield, J
Blood services worldwide have observed a decline in the demand for red blood cells (RBC). Despite this general decline, the demand profile has changed significantly with the demand for O D negative RBCs being maintained; whereas B D positive and AB D positive RBC demand has been reduced. In 2015, the blood type O D negative was seen in 6·3% of the combined first time donors among the five American Blood Centres involved in this study and 7·4% of first time Australian donors in 2014/2015, whereas O D negative distributions accounted for 10·5% of all red cell units issued by the American centres and 13·9% by the Australian centres. Inventory can therefore be of sufficient overall quantity but may not be adequate for the demand for units with specific blood types. Recruitment of new donors may need to become more targeted and/or financial or inventory control measures could also be required to ensure inventory matches demand. Blood Services will need to consider the available options in order to ensure that sufficiency of supply is secure and the donor panel is optimised to meet the new demand paradigm. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Morean, Meghan; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Sussman, Steve; Foulds, Jonathan; Fishbein, Howard; Grana, Rachel; O'Malley, Stephanie S
Psychometrically sound measures of e-cigarette dependence are lacking. We modified the PROMIS Nicotine Dependence Item Banks for use with e-cigarettes and evaluated the psychometrics of the 22-, 8- and 4-item adapted versions. 1009 adults who reported using e-cigarettes at least weekly completed an anonymous survey in Summer 2016 (50.2% male, 77.1% White, mean age 35.81 [10.71], 66.4% daily e-cigarette users, 72.6% current cigarette smokers). Psychometric analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, measurement invariance, examination of mean-level differences, convergent validity, and test-criterion relationships with e-cigarette use outcomes. All PROMIS-E versions had confirmable, internally consistent latent structures that were scalar invariant by sex, race, e-cigarette use (non-daily/daily), e-liquid nicotine content (no/yes), and current cigarette smoking status (no/yes). Daily e-cigarette users, nicotine e-liquid users, and cigarette smokers reported being more dependent on e-cigarettes than their counterparts. All PROMIS-E versions correlated strongly with one another, evidenced convergent validity with the Penn State E-cigarette Dependence Index and time to first e-cigarette use in the morning, and evidenced test-criterion relationships with vaping frequency, e-liquid nicotine concentration, and e-cigarette quit attempts. Similar results were observed when analyses were conducted within subsamples of exclusive e-cigarette users and duals-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Each PROMIS-E version evidenced strong psychometric properties for assessing e-cigarette dependence in adults who either use e-cigarette exclusively or who are dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. However, results indicated little benefit of the longer versions over the 4-item PROMIS-E, which provides an efficient assessment of e-cigarette dependence. The availability of the novel, psychometrically sound PROMIS-E can further research on a wide range of
Adaptive screening for depression--recalibration of an item bank for the assessment of depression in persons with mental and somatic diseases and evaluation in a simulated computer-adaptive test environment.
Forkmann, Thomas; Kroehne, Ulf; Wirtz, Markus; Norra, Christine; Baumeister, Harald; Gauggel, Siegfried; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Tennant, Alan; Boecker, Maren
This study conducted a simulation study for computer-adaptive testing based on the Aachen Depression Item Bank (ADIB), which was developed for the assessment of depression in persons with somatic diseases. Prior to computer-adaptive test simulation, the ADIB was newly calibrated. Recalibration was performed in a sample of 161 patients treated for a depressive syndrome, 103 patients from cardiology, and 103 patients from otorhinolaryngology (mean age 44.1, SD=14.0; 44.7% female) and was cross-validated in a sample of 117 patients undergoing rehabilitation for cardiac diseases (mean age 58.4, SD=10.5; 24.8% women). Unidimensionality of the itembank was checked and a Rasch analysis was performed that evaluated local dependency (LD), differential item functioning (DIF), item fit and reliability. CAT-simulation was conducted with the total sample and additional simulated data. Recalibration resulted in a strictly unidimensional item bank with 36 items, showing good Rasch model fit (item fit residualsLD. CAT simulation revealed that 13 items on average were necessary to estimate depression in the range of -2 and +2 logits when terminating at SE≤0.32 and 4 items if using SE≤0.50. Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis showed that θ estimates based on the CAT algorithm have good criterion validity with regard to depression diagnoses (Area Under the Curve≥.78 for all cut-off criteria). The recalibration of the ADIB succeeded and the simulation studies conducted suggest that it has good screening performance in the samples investigated and that it may reasonably add to the improvement of depression assessment. © 2013.
... for acceptance. (a) A Reserve Bank or a subsequent collecting bank may, if instructed by the sender, present a noncash item for acceptance in any manner authorized by law if— (1) The item provides that it... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presenting noncash items for acceptance. 210.8...
Edward J. Stevens
Banking supervision must keep pace with technical innovations in the banking industry. The international Basel Committee on Banking Supervision currently is reviewing public comments on its proposed new method for judging whether a bank maintains enough capital to absorb unexpected losses. This Economic Commentary explains how existing standards became obsolete and describes the new plan.
Full Text Available Andrea V Margulis,1 Manel Pladevall,1 Nuria Riera-Guardia,1 Cristina Varas-Lorenzo,1 Lorna Hazell,2,3 Nancy D Berkman,4 Meera Viswanathan,4 Susana Perez-Gutthann,1 1RTI Health Solutions, Barcelona, Spain; 2Drug Safety Research Unit, Southampton, UK; 3Associate Department of the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK; 4RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: The study objective was to compare the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS and the RTI item bank (RTI-IB and estimate interrater agreement using the RTI-IB within a systematic review on the cardiovascular safety of glucose-lowering drugs. Methods: We tailored both tools and added four questions to the RTI-IB. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the 44 included studies with both tools, (independently for the RTI-IB and agreed on which responses conveyed low, unclear, or high risk of bias. For each question in the RTI-IB (n=31, the observed interrater agreement was calculated as the percentage of studies given the same bias assessment by both reviewers; chance-adjusted interrater agreement was estimated with the first-order agreement coefficient (AC1 statistic. Results: The NOS required less tailoring and was easier to use than the RTI-IB, but the RTI-IB produced a more thorough assessment. The RTI-IB includes most of the domains measured in the NOS. Median observed interrater agreement for the RTI-IB was 75% (25th percentile [p25] =61%; p75 =89%; median AC1 statistic was 0.64 (p25 =0.51; p75 =0.86. Conclusion: The RTI-IB facilitates a more complete quality assessment than the NOS but is more burdensome. The observed agreement and AC1 statistic in this study were higher than those reported by the RTI-IB's developers. Keywords: systematic review, meta-analysis, quality assessment, AC1
Nine methods for automated test construction are described. All are based on the concepts of information from item response theory. Two general kinds of methods for the construction of parallel tests are presented: (1) sequential test design; and (2) simultaneous test design. Sequential design implies that the tests are constructed one after the…
Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU; Vasile ILIE
The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences ca...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agreement of receiving bank. 210.29 Section 210.29 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COLLECTION OF CHECKS AND OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION...
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.
This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing
The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr
Salonia, Andrea; Capogrosso, Paolo; Castiglione, Fabio; Russo, Andrea; Gallina, Andrea; Ferrari, Matteo; Clementi, Maria Chiara; Castagna, Giulia; Briganti, Alberto; Cantiello, Francesco; Damiano, Rocco; Montorsi, Francesco
To assess the need for sperm banking among patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who are candidates for radical prostatectomy (RP). Cross-sectional study. Urologic department. Cohort of 510 Caucasian-European candidates for RP. A 10-item self-administered questionnaire to assess opinions on sperm banking before RP, to which descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were applied. PCa patients' wishes for preoperative sperm banking. Data collection was completed for 495 patients (97.1%). Ninety-nine (20%) expressed a wish for preoperative sperm banking. Men who wanted to bank sperm were younger (mean 62.2 vs. 65.1 years), were more frequently childless (21.2% vs. 8.8%), and more frequently had a more intense desire for fatherhood (64.7% vs. 9.3%) than the patients not interested in banking sperm. Willingness to bank sperm was not affected by the patient's educational or relationship status. Moreover, the interest for sperm banking was maintained regardless of cost issues. Overall, 84% of the patients considered it necessary to have a dedicated service of preoperative sperm cryopreservation. One out of five PCa patients would bank sperm before RP. Most patients considered it necessary to establish a dedicated service for preoperative sperm cryopreservation, regardless of their own motivation to bank sperm. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.
Full Text Available To meet customer’s expectations and needs, electronic banking services have allowed financial transactions to simplify and have increased their attractiveness. Over the past few year, in order to increase customer comfort and maintain profitability, banks around the world have adopted innovative banking technologies and modern e-banking services, such as internet and mobile banking. As a matter of fact, banking over mobile phones is the newest e-banking service with several benefits for both customers and banks. The paper aims to provide an overview of the latest electronic financial channel, underlining various aspects of mobile banking as it represents a key distribution channel for a growing number of customers.
The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.
Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.
The chemistry test item banks contains 225 multiple-choice questions suitable for diagnostic and achievement testing; a three-page teacher's guide; answer key with item facilities; an answer sheet; and a 45-item sample achievement test. Although written for the new grade 12 chemistry course in Victoria, Australia, the items are widely applicable.…
Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...
Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA
Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...
Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU
Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.
Pieslak, Raymond F.
The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…
Haryono, Carissa Amelia
Bank is the main actor in a country's economic. however, bank has a high dependency on their customers, which that means bank cannot operate without the people, in this case the customers who use their services. To maintain its bond with the customers, bank have to at least fulfill three principles, and one of those principles is principle of confidentiality. With the principle of confidentiality, bank have to keep well their customers privacy, but there are some affiliated party ...
The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to
As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...
J. Gabriel Molina Ibáñez
Full Text Available Item banks play a basic role as the base to build computerized adaptive tests but, in practice, the development of item banks suppose an important effort and no much support of software exists for this task. This paper is centered on the item response data collection and management involved in the work with item banks, as part of the analysis of a computer program oriented to support the development of item banks
Fernandez Carratala, L.
There is an increasing difficulty for purchasing safety related spare items, with certifications by manufacturers for maintaining the original qualifications of the equipment of destination. The main reasons are, on the top of the logical evolution of technology, applied to the new manufactured components, the quitting of nuclear specific production lines and the evolution of manufacturers quality systems, originally based on nuclear codes and standards, to conventional industry standards. To face this problem, for many years different Dedication processes have been implemented to verify whether a commercial grade element is acceptable to be used in safety related applications. In the same way, due to our particular position regarding the spare part supplies, mainly from markets others than the american, C.N. Trillo has developed a methodology called Spare Items Validation. This methodology, which is originally based on dedication processes, is not a single process but a group of coordinated processes involving engineering, quality and management activities. These are to be performed on the spare item itself, its design control, its fabrication and its supply for allowing its use in destinations with specific requirements. The scope of application is not only focussed on safety related items, but also to complex design, high cost or plant reliability related components. The implementation in C.N. Trillo has been mainly curried out by merging, modifying and making the most of processes and activities which were already being performed in the company. (Author)
Crow, James F
Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy
Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah
Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...
Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.
Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé
We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules...... additive in costs....
Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta
To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.
Sihotang, Ellen Theresia
This study aims to analysis the important factor that influence the use of internet banking according to Booklet Perbankan Indonesia 2016 and the implication for the marketing of internet banking services. Security has become a determining factor which affecting the use of internet banking services. It is important for the bank to find out how to maintain the customers who have used the internet banking services in order to encounter competition with a variety of banking services distributi...
Implementing and maintaining the information technology (IT) infrastructure of a brain bank can be a daunting task for any brain bank coordinator, particularly when access to both funds and IT professionals is limited. Many questions arise when attempting to determine which IT products are most suitable for a brain bank. The requirements of each brain bank must be assessed carefully to ensure that the chosen IT infrastructure will be able to meet those requirements successfully and will be able to expand and adapt as the size of the brain bank increases. This chapter provides some valuable insights to be considered when implementing the IT infrastructure for a brain bank and discusses the pros and cons of various approaches and products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Larwood, Laurie; Kaplan, Mindy
Investigated tactics used by women branch bank officers for succeeding in management. Results showed a high degree of agreement about the importance of a number of items, including the ability to make decisions and the demonstration of competence. (Author)
Ephrem Habtemichael Redda; Marko van Deventer
Retail banks are increasingly focused on maintaining a loyal customer base. This is because loyal customers translate into higher profits and increased market share. The Generation Y cohort, which comprises the youth of today, is an important current and future banking segment and its bank loyalty could have a notable effect on the profitability of retail banks. Understanding the factors that positively contribute towards this cohort’s bank loyalty will aid retail banks in devisin...
Florin Alexandru LUCA
Full Text Available The financial crisis has highlighted the importance of liquidity risk for the banking system. Therefore, this study focuses on identifing the determinants of liquidity of Romanian banks. The data cover the period from 2006 to 2013 and take into account only bank-specific factors. The empirical study was applied on 16 Romanian banks and based on previous studies and uses different liquidity ratios, encompassing different points of view on liquidity. Regarding the explanatory variables considered in this analysis, they include various items of internal character concerning: capital adequacy, asset quality, profitability, efficiency of financial intermediation and the size of the banks. The results of our regression analysis indicate that bank liquidity is positively related to capital adequacy of banks and bank profitability and negatively related to the rate of non-performing loans, net interest margin and the size of the bank.
In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...
van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.
Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance,
... maintain established or projected capital levels; or (ii) Raise funds in the money markets; or (2... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other financing institution access to Farm... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Farm Credit Bank and Agricultural Credit Bank Financing of Other Financing...
Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.
The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...
Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David
We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...
Peters, Judith C.; Goebel, Rainer; Roelfsema, Pieter R.
If we search for an item, a representation of this item in our working memory guides attention to matching items in the visual scene. We can hold multiple items in working memory. Do all these items guide attention in parallel? We asked participants to detect a target object in a stream of objects while they maintained a second item in memory for…
PAKSOY, H. Mustafa; ABAROSS, Nour
This study deals with the nature of Islamic banks and their features, and requirements of these features in terms of control tools and methods appropriate with the particularity of their business and their relation with the traditional central bank. At the same time aims to view the relationship between Islamic bank and central bank. To explain this relation the researcher started to explain what is the central bank, objectives of central bank, and characteristics, what is Islamic bank and ob...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...
Understanding health-related quality of life in caregivers of civilians and service members/veterans with traumatic brain injury: Establishing the reliability and validity of PROMIS Fatigue and Sleep Disturbance item banks.
Carlozzi, Noelle E; Ianni, Phillip A; Tulsky, David S; Brickell, Tracey A; Lange, Rael T; French, Louis M; Cella, David; Kallen, Michael A; Miner, Jennifer A; Kratz, Anna L
To examine the reliability and validity of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures of sleep disturbance and fatigue in TBI caregivers and to determine the severity of fatigue and sleep disturbance in these caregivers. Cross-sectional survey data collected through an online data capture platform. Four rehabilitation hospitals and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Caregivers (N=560) of civilians (n=344) and service member/veterans (n=216) with TBI. Not Applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROMIS sleep and fatigue measures administered as both computerized adaptive tests (CATs) and 4-item short forms (SFs). For both samples, floor and ceiling effects for the PROMIS measures were low (internal consistency was very good (all alphas ≥0.80), and test-retest reliability was acceptable (all r≥0.70 except for the fatigue CAT in the service member/veteran sample r=0.63). Convergent validity was supported by moderate correlations between the PROMIS and related measures. Discriminant validity was supported by low correlations between PROMIS measures and measures of dissimilar constructs. PROMIS scores indicated significantly worse sleep and fatigue for those caring for someone with high levels versus low levels of impairment. Findings support the reliability and validity of the PROMIS CAT and SF measures of sleep disturbance and fatigue in caregivers of civilians and service members/veterans with TBI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mar 1, 2013 ... deploying information Technology in banks therefore can ... profitability indices and other control of financial ..... impact of e-banking on bank profitability .....  Nikolai L. and Bazlay J.D (1997) Intermediate Accounting, South-.
Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.
It has been argued that central bank independence (CBI) may not only be beneficial for reaching the objective of price stability, but also for maintaining financial stability. Greater independence from external pressure implies that central banks are less politically constrained in acting to prevent
Самородов, Б. В.
In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.
von Davier, Matthias
Utilizing technology for automated item generation is not a new idea. However, test items used in commercial testing programs or in research are still predominantly written by humans, in most cases by content experts or professional item writers. Human experts are a limited resource and testing agencies incur high costs in the process of continuous renewal of item banks to sustain testing programs. Using algorithms instead holds the promise of providing unlimited resources for this crucial part of assessment development. The approach presented here deviates in several ways from previous attempts to solve this problem. In the past, automatic item generation relied either on generating clones of narrowly defined item types such as those found in language free intelligence tests (e.g., Raven's progressive matrices) or on an extensive analysis of task components and derivation of schemata to produce items with pre-specified variability that are hoped to have predictable levels of difficulty. It is somewhat unlikely that researchers utilizing these previous approaches would look at the proposed approach with favor; however, recent applications of machine learning show success in solving tasks that seemed impossible for machines not too long ago. The proposed approach uses deep learning to implement probabilistic language models, not unlike what Google brain and Amazon Alexa use for language processing and generation.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wall, bank, and slope stability. 56.3130... Mining Methods § 56.3130 Wall, bank, and slope stability. Mining methods shall be used that will maintain wall, bank, and slope stability in places where persons work or travel in performing their assigned...
Ongena, S.; Smith, D.C.; Michalsen, D.
This paper measures the economy-wide impact of bank distress on the loss of relationship benefits. We use the near-collapse of the Norwegian banking system during the period 1988 to 1991 to measure the impact of bank distress announcements on the stock prices of firms maintaining a relationship with
Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.
The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...
Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M
The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...
Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…
Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Matteucci, Mariagiulia; de Jong, Martijn G.
Item response theory parameters have to be estimated, and because of the estimation process, they do have uncertainty in them. In most large-scale testing programs, the parameters are stored in item banks, and automated test assembly algorithms are applied to assemble operational test forms. These algorithms treat item parameters as fixed values,…
Kit Fai Wong
Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.
Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell
Whether central banks should play an active role in bank supervision and regulation is being debated both in the United States and abroad. While the Bank of England has recently been stripped of its supervisory responsibilities and several proposals in the United States have advocated removing bank supervision from the Federal Reserve System, other countries are considering enhancing central bank involvement in this area. Many of the arguments for and against these proposals hinge on the effe...
Fischer, H Felix; Wahl, Inka; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd; Rose, Matthias
To investigate differential item functioning (DIF) of PROMIS Depression items between US and German samples we compared data from the US PROMIS calibration sample (n = 780), a German general population survey (n = 2,500) and a German clinical sample (n = 621). DIF was assessed in an ordinal logistic regression framework, with 0.02 as criterion for R 2 -change and 0.096 for Raju's non-compensatory DIF. Item parameters were initially fixed to the PROMIS Depression metric; we used plausible values to account for uncertainty in depression estimates. Only four items showed DIF. Accounting for DIF led to negligible effects for the full item bank as well as a post hoc simulated computer-adaptive test (German general population sample was considerably lower compared to the US reference value of 50. Overall, we found little evidence for language DIF between US and German samples, which could be addressed by either replacing the DIF items by items not showing DIF or by scoring the short form in German samples with the corrected item parameters reported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elena Lidia MELNIC
Full Text Available The major concern of banks today is to recover and maintain customer trust. Customers need to feel that banks are considering their best interests. Customers are seeking for easy and personalized information. They want to better understand their financial situation and to control it. They want to know both the benefits, as well as the risks. Clients want to work with banks that are concerned about them and about their personal goals. However, only an attractive offer of banks is not the key to success today if is not supported by a superior service culture, that can make notable differentiation in the market. Many banks all over the world are systematically measuring how well they treat customers, identifying the factors shaping satisfaction, and changing operations and marketing as a result. Wise banks measure customer satisfaction regularly because it is one key to customer retention.
Sultana, Nahneen; Abdullah, Abu Md.; Tabassum, Ayesha
In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducte...
Gabriela Cornelia Piciu
Full Text Available The decline of traditional banking activities raise the issue of efficiency of financial stability, in terms ofquantitative and qualitative aspects – the increasing danger of banking failures as well as of susceptibility due toincreased propensity of banking institutions to assume additional to risks either in the form of riskier loans offer orengaging in other "non-traditional" financial activities which give a promise for greater profitability, but also higherrisks. Non-traditional activities of banking as financial products dealers (financial derivatives, generate an increasingrisks and vulnerabilities in the form of moral hazard issues. That is the reason why and these activities should beregulated as well as are the traditional activities. Challenges posed by the decline of traditional banking activities istwofold: the stability of the banking system must be maintained, while the banking system needs to be restructured toachieve financial stability in the long run. One possible way is an appropriate regulatory framework to encourage atransition period of changing the structure of banking activity(reduction of traditional activities and expanding nontraditional activities to enable banking institutions to perform a deep methodic analysis of non traditional activities,oriented to the financial banking efficiency.
van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights
Full Text Available The background of this research was mbanking users in Indonesia is still low despite the mobile phone users in developed and developing countries in the world has increased rapidly since 21st century. Some bank companies in Indonesia has been offering mbanking service but the use of mbanking for financial transaction is still low and limited. The objectives of this research was to analyze the antecedents of attitude towards mbanking and its impact on behavioral intention to adopt mbanking. The design of this research applies hypothesis testing. 200 samples selected from prospective user of 3 government bank. The sampling technique was purposive sampling with crosssectional study. Data analysis used in this research was collected by questionnaire technique with item of statements for each variable. In order to obtain valid and reliable instrument tool, validity and reliability test has been done. The result of this research conclude that there is positive effect perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived competence, perceived communication, perceived privacy and security, society influence, and facilitating condition on attitude towards mbanking. This study supports that there is positive influence on attitude towards mbanking on behavioral intention to adopt mbanking.
Molina Ibáñez, Jesús Gabriel; Pareja Montoro, Ignacio; Sanmartín, Jaime
Los tests adaptativos informatizados dependen de la existencia de bancos de ítems de los que seleccionar los ítems más adecuados a aplicar a lo largo de la administración del test. Ahora bien, la disponibilidad de bancos de ítems es bastante limitada y, por otra parte, el desarrollo de bancos de ítems suele representar un esfuerzo considerable en la práctica. Ello motivó el desarrollo de este trabajo, centrado en el análisis y diseño de un sistema orientado a dar soporte informatizado a todo ...
de Vincent-Humphreys, Rupert
As the nation's central bank, the Bank of England is committed to promoting and maintaining monetary and financial stability. Broadly speaking, this means that it sets the interest rate at a level such that the economy should meet the UK government's 2% inflation target in the medium term, and it analyses the financial system to identify and reduce systemic risks to the country's financial infrastructure. The Bank also performs several other critical functions, including managing the approximately £42bn worth of banknotes in circulation and managing the nation's foreign-currency reserves - a multicurrency fund worth some £23bn. As a physicist, I find that I can make a full contribution to this work.
Victor Mihăiţă Duţă
Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.
The banking systems of some countries export intermediation services to the rest of the world, while many other countries are net exporters of deposits to banks abroad and net importers of loans from banks abroad. Banking center countries typically have lower inflation, deeper financial systems, earn less government revenue from seigniorage, and have lower reserve money relative to bank assets than nonbanking-center countries. This paper develops a stylized model of regulated bank intermediat...
Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.
Sonnenburg, D W; Brames, M J; Case-Eads, S; Einhorn, L H
Testicular cancer is the most common carcinoma in 20- to 40-year-old men. Eighty percent of patients with metastases achieve disease-free status with chemotherapy with or without surgical resection. Standard first-line chemotherapy is bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) for three to four courses or etoposide and cisplatin (EP) for four courses. Forty percent of patients receiving chemotherapy will have permanently reduced sperm counts impairing future fertility. Sperm banking is an effective method of maintaining fertility. This retrospective study was performed to assess utilization and results from sperm banking, as well as the barriers to its use. Patients 18 and older who had received chemotherapy were given a five-item questionnaire on follow-up visit. This questionnaire included a mix of quantitative and qualitative questions. Two hundred patients enrolled in the study, and all 200 completed the questionnaire. Of the two hundred, 139 (70 %) patients chose not to bank sperm; 71 (51 %) of those were not interested, 25 (18 %) declined due to desire to start chemotherapy, 24 (17 %) were not offered, 12 (9 %) declined due to cost, and 7 (5 %) answered "other." The average age at cancer diagnosis of patients who banked sperm was 28.4 as opposed to 32.6 for patients who did not (p = 0.003). The percentage of patients that had children before their diagnosis was 21 % in the sperm banking group, and 50 % in the group that did not (p = 0.0002). Sixty-one (30 %) chose to bank sperm; 11 of 61 patients (18 %) utilized the banked sperm; 9 of 11 (82 %) patients that utilized were successful; and 3 of 9 (33 %) successes resulted in multiple gestations. Sperm banking provides the opportunity for paternity in testicular cancer patients with reduced sperm counts following treatment. However, the majority of these patients chose not to bank sperm or were not offered the opportunity. A range of factors such as time, emotional state, patient age, disease stage, prior
Constantin Marian MATEI
Full Text Available Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture. SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system. For the Internet Banking applications, SOA proved to be the optimal architectural solution, for a smoth integration between banking services from the front-end to the back-end.This paper intend to offer an insite analyse of the Internet Banking applications architecture integrated with other banking systems. A SOA oriented analyse will establish the scope of the integration architecture.
The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.
active operations by a commercial bank will be considered effective if, in the course of these operations, it receives a stable profit. Balanced growth of assets and improvement of their quality is a prerequisite for achieving and maintaining the stable functioning and development of commercial banks and their positive impact on the development of the Ukrainian economy.
Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU
Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....
Full Text Available Studies have shown that in service organizations, quality can have a growth in customer satisfaction as its consequence, and when it regards the banking services, factors are brought up with regard to the quality of banking services, which include the speed in responding, providing products proportionate to the customer needs, and gaining competence. These concepts are shared by the issue of organizational agility; hence, the qualities as well as the bank's agility of the banking system embrace these concepts in common. Therefore, the study aims at studying the effect of the quality of electronic banking services on the bank's agility, and assesses the role of two mediator variables of the quality of service system and personnel behavior quality. Using a questionnaire comprised of 76 items about the above components and asking the line personnel in Bank Saderat Iran (BSI in the branches both inside and outside of Iran, the research data was collected, and stratified random sampling was used. To analyze the data, the Structural Equation Model (SEM was used and the PLS software was employed to perform the computations. Results indicated that the model of the study has a high Goodness of Fit, and the quality of the electronic banking services had a significant effect on the bank's agility. In addition, the quality of electronic banking services affects the service system quality. The system service quality, also affects the employees' behavior. Therefore, it can be said that the electronic services quality and the bank's agility affect the personnel behavior quality through the mediated effect of the service system quality. The results of the present study can help the bank's executives to promote their bank's agility and the personnel behavior quality.
MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD
Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have
Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking; Welcome Christian Banking. ... banks pay interest on deposits, and charge interest on loans and advances, ... However, the literature on interest rates, in relation to Commercial Bank ...
Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.
There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…
Farrimond, Samantha J; Leland, Louis S
There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin.
This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...
... Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (Basel Accord); (ii) The foreign bank maintains a Tier 1 capital... 10 percent, as calculated under its home country standard; and (iii) The foreign bank's capital is...
EDWARD KERVIN B. MOJARES
Full Text Available One of the most vital challenges of the Internet as a service delivery channel is providing and maintaining service quality. This study aimed to describe the profile of the respondents with regards to socio-demographic and bank-related variables; to identify the effects of internet banking among its clients in Batangas City; to determine the level of customer’s satisfaction in terms of speed and accuracy, accessibility and convenience, and security features; to determine the respondents level of loyalty; to test the relationship between effects of internet banking service and customer satisfaction and loyalty variables; and lastly, to propose effective measures on how to enhance the quality of internet banking service offered by PNB in Batangas City. The descriptive-correlation method was utilized in the conduct of the study. The respondents of the study are the top 100 or 30% of the three hundred thirty four active users of internet banking service of Philippine National Bank in Batangas City during the period of October 2012 as generated by the bank’s system. The study revealed that the respondents are generally satisfied with the speed and accuracy, accessibility and convenience, and security features of the internet banking service facility. It was also found out that only speed and accuracy showed significant relationship on the effect of internet banking. Internet banking users are still considering the speed and accuracy of the banks service to make them satisfied despite that internet banking provides lower cost delivery channel, gives customers to almost any type of banking transactions and gives breadth and depth customer service. However, customers’ level of loyalty is not affected by the effects of internet banking services. This proves that as long as the customers are being provided with an excellent service, customer loyalty/retention could still be possibly attained by the bank
Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego
The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.
This article follows the development of test items (see "Language Assessment Quarterly", Volume 3 Issue 1, pp. 71-79 for the article "Test and Item Specifications Development"), beginning with a review of test and item specifications, then proceeding to writing and editing of items, pretesting and analysis, and finally selection of an item for a…
Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David
In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The
Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.
There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow
The banking literature documents various roles for banks in financial systems. Banks are both ‘liquidity providers’ and ‘information producers’. Banks are especially important for small and medium-size enterprises and represent these firms' principal source of external finance. Hence, the banks’
R.J. Theissen (Roel)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find
Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael
In immediate serial recall, participants are asked to recall novel sequences of items in the correct order. Theories of the representations and processes required for this task differ in how order information is maintained; some have argued that order is represented through item-to-item associations, while others have argued that each item is…
In December 2013 the ECOFIN Council has given its green light to the adoption of the second pillar of the so-called Banking Union: a Single Resolution Mechanism to wind down failing banks in the Euro-zone, and thus break the cycle between banks and sovereigns in the EU. Besides a regulation......, to be adopted in co-decision procedure with the Parliament, the Council has however endorsed a plan to adopt an international agreement on the functioning of the Single Resolution Fund (SRF). The paper critically analyses the choice to resort to international law to establish the SRF. As the paper maintains...
Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.
Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Rapp, Barbara A.; Wheeler, David L.
The GenBank sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of more than 105 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank...
Full Text Available For banking world, the existence of customers was as important asset. In the middleof strict and dynamic competition, Bank Mandiri as one of financial service providers wasaware that customer’s loyalty was what should be obtained and maintained. One way appliedby Bank Mandiri as financial service provider was relationship marketing strategy. Marketingstrategy focussed on building relationship with the customers had final objective namely toobtain customer’s loyalty, with the purpose that these customers could provide long termadvantages for the company. This study was conducted on the customers of Tabungan Mandiriin PT. Bank Mandiri (Persero Branch of Pasuruan. The technique of data collection wasquestionnaire. The number of population was 10,627 customers. The number of sample was73 with simple random sampling technique. Data analysis applied regression analysis. Basedon the description on the result of the study above, it could be concluded that there waspositive and significant effects of variables service quality, commitment and communicationeither partially or simultaneously toward customer’s loyalty. Concerning the result of the study,it was suggested (1 to improve the service especially physical development or banking hallwhich should be conducted continuously in order to make customers satisfied in transaction.(2 to have more socialization on the use of Internet Banking Mandiri and SMS Banking Mandiritechnology in order to two ways communication between customers and Bank Mandiri.
Song, Jae Seung; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun
In the pressurized water reactor, control banks are operated by 40% effective core height overlap to avoid decrease of differential rod worth. This overlap does not effect on the core depletion history because the pressurized water reactor core operated at all rod out condition for the most of the operation time. For the boron free reactor SMART, however, one or more control banks are always inserted in the core to maintain critical condition, and the control bank overlap effects on the core depletion history. Since the cycle length of SMART is limited by three-dimensional core peaking factor at EOC, at which the control bank located at the core center is withdrawn, the cycle length of SMART is affected by the control bank overlap. In this report, the effect of control bank overlap on the core depletion history was evaluated. It is concluded that 60 cm control bank overlap corresponding to 30% effective core height was selected not to increase maximum peaking factor at EOC so that the control bank overlap does not affect the cycle length of the core. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs
Soneye Gbolade Michael
This study assessed the extent of e-commerce usage for effective service delivery in Nigeria banking sector. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study covered 64 microfinance banks in Oyo State, South-West, Nigeria. The population was made up of 1275 staffs from the 64 microfinance banks. The sample size consisted of 28 microfinance banks of which 280 staffs were purposively selected. A 28-item st...
Liegl, Gregor; Gandek, Barbara; Fischer, H. Felix
precision between the short forms using different item formats. Results: Sufficient unidimensionality of all short-form items and the original PF item bank was supported. Compared to formats A and B, format C increased the range of reliable measurement by about 0.5 standard deviations on the positive side...
The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.
Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others
A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)
Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis
Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…
Akkermans, Wies; Muraki, Eiji
For trinary partial credit items the shape of the item information and the item discrimination function is examined in relation to the item parameters. In particular, it is shown that these functions are unimodal if δ2 – δ1 < 4 ln 2 and bimodal otherwise. The locations and values of the maxima are
Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. This article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1371
Full Text Available Intensification of financial development during last decade causes transformation of banking sector functioning. In particular, among the most significant changes over this period should be noted the next ones: convergence of financial market segments and appearance of cross-sector financial products, an increase of prevailing of financial sector in comparison with real economy and level of their interdependent, an intensification of crisis processes in financial and especially banking sector and a significant increase of the scale of the crisis consequences etc. thus, in such vulnerable conditions it is become very urgent to identify the relevant factors that can influence on the stability of banking sector, because its maintenance seems to be one of the most important preconditions of the stability of the national economy as a whole. Purpose of the article is to analyze key performance indicators of the Ukrainian banking system, clarify its main problems, identify relevant factors of the stability of the Ukrainian banking system and the character of their influence on the dependent variable. Realization of the mentioned above tasks was ensured by regression analysis (OLS regression. Analysis of key indicators that characterize current situation in the Ukrainian banking system found out the existence of numerous endogenous and exogenous problems, which, in turn, cause worsening most of analyzed indicators during 2013-2015. Unfavorable situation in Ukrainian banking system determined the necessity of identification of relevant factors of banking system stability to avoid transmission of financial shocks. According to the results of regression analysis on the stability of banking sector positively influence such factors as increase of interest margin to gross income ratio, reserves to assets ratio, number of branches, ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Meanwhile, negative impact on stability of banking system has an increase of liquid
Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking. The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.
to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...
The Risk Assessment Methodology Group (RAM) of the Nuclear Processes Safety Research Section (NPSR) maintains the compilation of incidents that have occurred at the Savannah River Site. The data banks have gained national recognition for their value in risk-related studies. The information provided by these data banks is widely used at SRS and across the DOE Complex. This report discusses these data banks
The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.
Full Text Available Empowering workers play an essential role on increasing productivity in any organization. The service industries such as insurance companies or banks mostly rely on their own people to retain their customers and incomes. The recent increasing trend on the number of private banks in Iran has increased competition among existing banks. The banking industry strives to empower its employees as much as possible in an attempt to maintain market share by not losing its customers. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect the most important factors empowering bank employees. The study is implemented for a recently established private bank with 228 people with 32 questions where 15 questions are focused on empowering employees. The results are analyzed using statistical tests and descriptive methods. The results indicate that leadership, academic qualification, appropriate policy and strategy, cooperation and processes play important role on empowering and enabling bank's employee.
Mikhail Vitalyevich Leonov
Full Text Available Despite the lack of a uniform definition of «a regional bank», problems of their activities are widely discussed in the context of increasing regulation of the banking sector and creation of conditions for accelerated development of certain regions. The author analyses the Russian-language scientific literature in order to define «a regional bank» and systematize its key differences from other commercial banks. The researcher shows that the allocation of regional banks in a separate group should be related to specific features of the environment and not by endogenous factors associated with the selection of activities and balance sheet structure. The low level of financial market development and concentration of specific undiversified risks are the principal qualifiers differentiating between regional banks and other credit institutions in Russia. As classification criteria the author uses following: spatial representation (the bank does not have structural subdivisions in Moscow and the ownership structure (among the bank’s owners there are no national and international financial groups that have a direct impact on the operations of the bank
Nuryati; Gendis Gumilar, Amethysa
This study analyzes and compares the financial risk of the two types of commercial banks, namely conventional commercial bank and Islamic commercial bank. Analysis tools used in this study is to use financial ratios and dicriminant values (Z values). Analysis showed that the ratio of liquidity and solvability ratios higher islamic commercial bank than conventional commercial bank. Z values higher islamic commercial bank than conventional commercial bank. The commercial banks are in a state of...
Inder Pal Singh S/o Roop singh*, Dr. Payal Bassi
E- Banking is about using the infrastructure for digital age to create opportunities, both local & global. IT enables the dramatic lowering of transaction cost and the creation of new types of banking opportunities that address the barriers of time and distance. Banking opportunities are local, global and immediate in e-banking. Internet banking has many advantages over other traditional banking delivery methods. Internet banking provides banks with an increased customer base, cost savings, m...
Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas
The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...
Shaymardanov, Shakhzod; Nuriddinov, Sadriddin; Mamadaliev, Donierbek; Murodkhonov, Mukhammad
The main objective of the commercial bank's policy in the sphere of asset and liability management is to maintain the optimal structure of assets and liabilities, ensure the compliance of amounts, terms and currency of attracting and allocating resources. The objectives and principles of asset and liability management are based on the bank's strategy and the fundamental principles of the risk management policy.
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective....... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...
A set of principles for minimizing the construction schedule was established at the outset of the CANDU 300 programme. Consideration of these principles and other factors led to the development of the unique CANDU 300 station layout. The paper discusses the CANDU 300 station layout and construction methods. In summary, the station layout provides 360 deg. construction access to all buildings, separation of nuclear and non-nuclear systems, precise and minimal physical interfaces between buildings, accommodation of many contractors and construction activities without interference, and maximum flexibility in terms of constructional, financial and supply arrangements. The CANDU 300 further employs modularization, shop fabrication and advanced instrumentation (multiplexers, remote processors, data highways) to minimize construction time. Many of the CANDU 300 features that enhance constructability also contribute to maintainability. These include the 360 deg. access to all principal buildings, the uncluttered and spacious building layouts, the simplification of systems and the high level of modularization. The CANDU 300 has also been designed to facilitate the replacement of all key components, thereby offering an essentially unlimited station life. A prime example is a reduction in the fuel channel inlet end-fitting diameter such that the fuel channels can be shop assembled and easily replaced after the initial 40 years of operation, without an extended unit outage. Maintainability within the reactor building has been given particular attention in the CANDU 300 design; key features of other CANDU reactors (the ability to replace a heat transport system pump motor at power, for example) have been incorporated, while accessibility and maintainability of all systems and components have been enhanced. These and other aspects of maintainability are discussed. (author)
Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters
Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...
Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.
GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 240 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan...
The purpose of this exploratory and to some extent descriptive analysis is to highlight the Islamic banking & finance theory, and to explain the practical disparity all over the Muslim Umma along with commonalities of Islamic banking in them. Islamic banking has been now become a value proposition which transcends cultures and will do speedily in next decades despite of cutting throat competition expected in global banking scenario. The size of Islamic Financial Industry has now reached size ...
The aim of submitted thesis Supervision in banking is to define the nature and the importance of banking supervision, to justify its existence and to analyze the applicable mechanisms while the system of banking regulation and supervision in this thesis is primarily examined in the European context, with a focus on the Czech Republic. The thesis is divided into five main chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the financial system and the importance of banks in this system, it defines the c...
Full Text Available Credit risk is the most important risk banks have to face with. It occurs due to an obligation created because of debtors' capital and interest rate nonpayment. Debtors obligations non-fulfilment may lead to great losses and insolvency in bank's business. Credit risk is the crucial reason of bank's insolvency. Over 80% of bank's balance sheet is exposed to credit risk.
Kumar Gandhi R
Full Text Available Modern customer has a high demand for quality of service than he/she had before. There is an urgent need for improving the customer service levels currently provided in the banking industry. Banks need to understand, foresee, the needs and expected levels of customer support which the customer expects when he/she steps into the branch and strive to stand up and excel in providing the service and making banking a truly delightful experience. The banker should change his/her agenda from Customer Satisfaction to Customer delight and then march towards Customer Ecstasy. This will be possible by maintaining the financial soundness of the firm. In this connection it has been given importance through this study. Since most of the Banking slightly deviate into the other areas like insurance, financial services and modern banking services such as Advisory services, Agent for receivables, custodian, instant loan provider, Forfeiter services and factoring services. A conscious attempt has been made to analysis the liquidity of state bank of India (SBI. The present study aimed to understand the financial soundness of the bank, the ratio analysis taken as tool. In this research work the secondary data mainly used, it has been collected in the form of the company manuals, Balance sheets and other documents. The data analyzed by some of the statistical tools such as ANOVA test and Multi variate test is used to analyze the interferences about the operating efficiency.
Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.
The NEA Data Bank provides the nuclear data and computer programs necessary for reactor design and other calculations over a wide range of nuclear energy applications. The role which the Data Bank plays in international cooperation efforts, and the procedures to follow to obtain data and programs from the Data Bank are described. (Auth.)
Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking
Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.
Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…
Beck, T.H.L.; Cull, R.; Berger, A.; Molyneux, P.; Wilson, J.
This paper takes stock of the current state of banking systems across Sub-Saharan Africa and discusses recent developments including innovations that might help Africa leapfrog more traditional banking models. Using an array of different data, the paper documents that African banking systems are
This review surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the causes and consequences of banking crises, and summarizes the lessons learned from policy interventions to resolve banking crises. Despite their different origins, banking crises display similar patterns. Their causes lie in
Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.
We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability
Internet Research, 1996
Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…
Muhammad Mehtab Azeem; Akin Marsap; Cigdem Ozari
Banks and bank regulatory authorities are vital players for the stability of economy and financial system in potential way. Basel III and its related to capital¡¯s requirement obligations have been effective useful tool for the banking system. Since, this is tough job for the bankers to maintain the liquidity for hedging the future risk but it also been expensive for bankers to keep the extra capital and become more liquid since this discourage the provision of loans but promote the credit ra...
Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne
A short fictional work for limited English speakers is presented that relates a young couple's experience in learning about managing their money more carefully by budgeting and maintaining a checking account. Since the couple did not have a checking account, they had to go to their savings bank in order to pay each bill and they had to keep cash…
Grinstead, N; Timoney, R
Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.
Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K
Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.
The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published
Existing reliability data banks provide information on items with catastrophic failure modes. However, many system components in a nuclear generating station, e.g., the steam generators, have a time-dependent degradation failure mode. Non-destructive tests associated with this failure mode require a different data base to permit predictive estimates of the component service life and performance. A data base suitable for this failure mode is presently being tested at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. (author)
Doolittle, Allen E.; Cleary, T. Anne
Eight randomly equivalent samples of high school seniors were each given a unique form of the ACT Assessment Mathematics Usage Test (ACTM). Signed measures of differential item performance (DIP) were obtained for each item in the eight ACTM forms. DIP estimates were analyzed and a significant item category effect was found. (Author/LMO)
... on behalf of the CRC? 617.7315 Section 617.7315 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... must the qualified lender maintain on behalf of the CRC? A qualified lender must maintain a complete file of all requests for CRC reviews, including participation in state mediation programs, the minutes...
Full Text Available This study analyzes the responses of performances of BankMandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata to merger strategy.This paper harnesses the quantitative approach with structuralbreak analysis method and impulse response function. Theplausible findings indicate that the merger of Bank Permataproduces a better performance response in comparison to theconsolidation of Bank Mandiri and the merger of Bank Danamon.The merger of Bank Permata does not result in performanceshocks, and the structural break does not prevail either. On theother hand, the consolidation of Bank Mandiri and the mergerof Bank Danamon result in structural breaks, particularly in thespread performance. In order to return to the stable position, themergers of Bank Mandiri and Bank Danamon require a longertime than does the merger of Bank Permata. This researchindicates that for large banks, the mergers and acquisitions(retaining one existing bank will deliver a better performanceresponse than will the consolidations (no existing bank. Keywords: impulse response function; merger; structural break
Tutz, Gerhard; Berger, Moritz
A novel method for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) by means of recursive partitioning techniques is proposed. We assume an extension of the Rasch model that allows for DIF being induced by an arbitrary number of covariates for each item. Recursive partitioning on the item level results in one tree for each item and leads to simultaneous selection of items and variables that induce DIF. For each item, it is possible to detect groups of subjects with different item difficulties, defined by combinations of characteristics that are not pre-specified. The way a DIF item is determined by covariates is visualized in a small tree and therefore easily accessible. An algorithm is proposed that is based on permutation tests. Various simulation studies, including the comparison with traditional approaches to identify items with DIF, show the applicability and the competitive performance of the method. Two applications illustrate the usefulness and the advantages of the new method.
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.
2009). Studies show that some banks finance their assets with internal capital ... about opaque borrowers, and extending credit based on this information. .... controls. The Bank of Ghana administratively implemented interest and exchange ... A sound and efficient banking system is a sine qua non for maintaining financial.
Coroiu Sorina Ioana
Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.
The Polish Central Bank (National Bank of Poland – NBP) performs mainly macro-economic tasks, for maintaining price levels. This Bank is not focused on tasks aimed at the interests of the State Budget. The Central Bank has a lot of power in the creation of money. It seems, there is possible to create the budgetary revenues, which are connected with the emission of money. In particular, the income from emission of coins may be determined as the budget revenue. The connection the Treasury with ...
Natal’ya A Prodanova
Full Text Available The article discusses the features of banking activities, objectives and functions of banks, they are fundamentally different from the activity of the company any other independent of the economic sphere, the role of credit institutions in society and the need for their existence in order to maintain the country’s economy as a whole. The author stresses that banks should not only be multi-functional and operational, but also to meet all the requirements of reliability and stability. The article provides a method for analyzing the nancial condition of banks.
Bruce, Bonnie; Fries, James F; Ambrosini, Debbie; Lingala, Bharathi; Gandek, Barbara; Rose, Matthias; Ware, John E
Physical function is a key component of patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment in rheumatology. Modern psychometric methods, such as Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computerized Adaptive Testing, can materially improve measurement precision at the item level. We present the qualitative and quantitative item-evaluation process for developing the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function item bank. The process was stepwise: we searched extensively to identify extant Physical Function items and then classified and selectively reduced the item pool. We evaluated retained items for content, clarity, relevance and comprehension, reading level, and translation ease by experts and patient surveys, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We then assessed items by using classic test theory and IRT, used confirmatory factor analyses to estimate item parameters, and graded response modeling for parameter estimation. We retained the 20 Legacy (original) Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and the 10 SF-36's PF-10 items for comparison. Subjects were from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and healthy aging cohorts (n = 1,100) and a national Internet sample of 21,133 subjects. We identified 1,860 items. After qualitative and quantitative evaluation, 124 newly developed PROMIS items composed the PROMIS item bank, which included revised Legacy items with good fit that met IRT model assumptions. Results showed that the clearest and best-understood items were simple, in the present tense, and straightforward. Basic tasks (like dressing) were more relevant and important versus complex ones (like dancing). Revised HAQ-DI and PF-10 items with five response options had higher item-information content than did comparable original Legacy items with fewer response options. IRT analyses showed that the Physical Function domain satisfied general criteria for unidimensionality with one-, two-, three-, and four-factor models
Vyas, Shilpan Dineshkumar
Internet banking is changing the banking industry, having the major effects on banking relationships. Banking is now no longer confined to the branches were one has to approach the branch in person, to withdraw cash or deposit a cheque or request a statement of accounts. In true Internet banking, any inquiry or transaction is processed online without any reference to the branch (anywhere banking) at any time. Providing Internet banking is increasingly becoming a "need to have" than a "nice to...
Thomas F. Cargill
This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.
Panjaitan, R. L.; Irawati, R.; Sujana, A.; Hanifah, N.; Djuanda, D.
In several literatures about evaluation and test analysis, it is common to find that there are calculations of item validity as well as item discrimination index (D) with different formula for each. Meanwhile, other resources said that item discrimination index could be obtained by calculating the correlation between the testee’s score in a particular item and the testee’s score on the overall test, which is actually the same concept as item validity. Some research reports, especially undergraduate theses tend to include both item validity and item discrimination index in the instrument analysis. It seems that these concepts might overlap for both reflect the test quality on measuring the examinees’ ability. In this paper, examples of some results of data processing on item validity and item discrimination index were compared. It would be discussed whether item validity and item discrimination index can be represented by one of them only or it should be better to present both calculations for simple test analysis, especially in undergraduate theses where test analyses were included.
Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.
Keefer, Eleanor K.; Calkins, James Alfred
The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan
Full Text Available In this work, we trace and analyze the emergence of the crisis in the Bulgarian banking system as well as the behavior of the central bank and other macroeconomic institutions. The average annual rate of growth in the net profits of the commercial banks for the period 2002-2008 amounted to 31.6%, which encouraged and accounted for the increase in credits. After 2008, the pendulum began to swing back as the difficulties in collecting loan repayments increased, the strain in financial balances tightened and assistance and support from the regulators were requested. The level of the financial and operating income was maintained primarily because of the high interest rates on the loans, but the structure of their distribution shifted substantially. Administrative costs and depreciation were nearly frozen up, and impairment and provisions grew at the expense of profit. This work shows that macroeconomic policies allowed the expansion of the lending boom and encouraged its irrational development. Poor operation and poor quality of the institutions not only allowed but also enabled direction of investments to financing of inefficient production structures. Underestimating the negative consequences shoring up a dysfunctional institutional environment is deemed a form of irrationality; however, not one of the immediate economic players acted to override the economic and political environment. The financial and economic crisis currently affecting the country has its roots in the deficiencies of the domestic macroeconomic policies, and therefore, the efforts toward overcoming these failures should be directed at improved domestic macroeconomic management.
Rahmatina A. Kasri
Full Text Available Bank run is an important economic phenomenon which increasingly occurred in in modern banking system and potentially threatened banking stability as it could trigger a banking crisis. However, most studies related to bank run focus on the occurrence of bank run in conventional banking system. Very few of them discuss the bank run phenomenon under Islamic banking system or dual banking system where Islamic banks jointly operating with conventional banks. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze the determinants of bank run in the Indonesian Islamic banking industry by employing primary data from 256 customers of Indonesia Islamic banks in 2015 and by utilizing factor analysis and descriptive statistics. In theory, Islamic banks tend to be more resilient towards any macroeconomic or financial shocks as compared to conventional banks due to the nature of its asset-based and risk-sharing arrangement. However, the result exhibits that both psychological and fundamental factors (i.e. macroeconomics and bank fundamentals strongly influence the behaviors of Islamic banking depositors to withdraw their funds, which might trigger the occurrence of bank runs in the country. Insider information, macroeconomic condition and bank fundamental factors are also shown to have the highest impacts among all variables. Hence, in the context of banking stability, the finding implies that Islamic banks are not completely immune to the impacts of macroeconomic shocks or financial crisis. As a country with a dual banking system, Indonesia had experienced several bank runs since 1990s. Therefore, the findings of the study should provide the policy makers important insight into research based-policy in order to attain financial stability as one of the main economic goals of the country. Keywords: Bank run, Islamic bank, Factor analysis, Indonesia JEL Classification: C83, G21, G28
Yu, Tai-Kuei; Fang, Kwoting
With liberalization and internalization in the financial market and progress in information technology, banks face dual competitive pressures to provide service quality and administrative efficiency. That these recent developments are fueled by technology might misleadingly suggest that the adoption of mobile banking is largely based on technological criteria. The purpose of this study is to establish a better measurement model for postadoption user perception of mobile banking services. Based on 458 valid responses of mobile banking users, the results show that the instrument, consisting of 21 items and 6 factors, is a reliable, valid, and useful measurement for assessing the postadoption perception of mobile banking.
G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah
This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...
Jones, Conor M; Baker, Justin N; Keesey, Rachel M; Eliason, Ruth J; Lanctot, Jennifer Q; Clegg, Jennifer L; Mandrell, Belinda N; Ness, Kirsten K; Krull, Kevin R; Srivastava, Deokumar; Forrest, Christopher B; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Huang, I-Chan
To compare importance ratings of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) items from the viewpoints of childhood cancer survivors, parents, and clinicians for further developing short-forms to use in survivorship care. 101 cancer survivors, 101 their parents, and 36 clinicians were recruited from St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Participants were asked to select eight items that they deemed useful for clinical decision making from each of the four Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatric item banks. These item banks were pain interference (20 items), fatigue (23 items), psychological stress (19 items), and positive affect (37 items). Compared to survivors, clinicians rated more items across four domains that were statistically different than did parents (23 vs. 13 items). Clinicians rated five items in pain interference domain (ORs 2.33-6.01; p's important but rated three items in psychological stress domain (ORs 0.14-0.42; p's important than did survivors. In contrast, parents rated seven items in positive affect domain (ORs 0.25-0.47; p's important than did survivors. Survivors, parents, and clinicians viewed importance of PRO items for survivorship care differently. These perspectives should be used to assist the development of PROs tools.
Cohn, Alain; Fehr, Ernst; Maréchal, Michel André
Trust in others' honesty is a key component of the long-term performance of firms, industries, and even whole countries. However, in recent years, numerous scandals involving fraud have undermined confidence in the financial industry. Contemporary commentators have attributed these scandals to the financial sector's business culture, but no scientific evidence supports this claim. Here we show that employees of a large, international bank behave, on average, honestly in a control condition. However, when their professional identity as bank employees is rendered salient, a significant proportion of them become dishonest. This effect is specific to bank employees because control experiments with employees from other industries and with students show that they do not become more dishonest when their professional identity or bank-related items are rendered salient. Our results thus suggest that the prevailing business culture in the banking industry weakens and undermines the honesty norm, implying that measures to re-establish an honest culture are very important.
Gusti Ngurah Oka Widana
Full Text Available The business characteristic of Islamic banks is the implementation of Islamic business ethics. Parallel with the trend of increasing preference to ethical institution, Islamic banks should put this as its competitive edge toward its competitor conventional competitor banks. However, only few previous studies discussed about the implementation of Islamic business ethics within Islamic banks and none suggested how to measure such implementation. This paper is a study of the literature on ethics and Islamic business ethics as the first step in developing a measurement tool of Islamic business ethics implementation within Islamic banks. This paper synthesizes the dimensions of Islamic business ethics that is excavated from the Quran and Sunna, being proposed by previous studies. There are seven dimensions, namely unity of God, benevolence, justice and equity, sincere, equilibrium, trusteeship and responsibility. Subsequently, this paper outlines these dimensions into 21 items. The opportunity of future empirical study is recommended at the end of this paper.
Full Text Available Known as the ‘Old Lady’ of Threadneedle Street, the Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom. Founded in 1694, the Bank of England is standing at the centre of the United Kingdom’s financial system, and is committed to promoting and maintaining monetary and financial stability as its contribution to a healthy economy. In our opinion, it is very important to analyze the Bank of England’s monetary policy strategy, starting from 1992 – adoption of the inflation target and the evolution of it’s monetary policy strategy, through an important feature – delegating operational accountability regarding the monetary policy in 1997 as well as the appropriate institutional framework. More over, it is important to analyze the Bank of England’s performances before and after granting central bank independence.
The purpose of this paper is to show the Italtel Reliability Data Bank experience in electronics after ten years from data bank creation. Technological evolution on systems and equipment have originated a reliability data bank evolution in order to maintain and improve its performances. This paper will describe the concepts employed to design the today data bank features enabling it to be an important Company tool for reliability activities. (orig.)
Rajagopal Subashini; Velmurugan Gopalasamy
The dynamics of service quality and satisfaction of customer on banks situated in various countries indicates that earlier studies offered no consensus over the subject, to confirm the issues and trends of these factors which regulate service quality and customer satisfaction. Now-a-days all public, private and foreign banks play a vital role in retail banking and provide lot of core banking services to all their rural and urban customers to maintain customer loyalty, retention and providing ...
In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)
Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen
The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.
Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.
Aesche, Darryl W.; Parslow, Graham R.
Discusses the use of a bank of about 9,000 test items in a computer-assisted instructional program at Adelaide University (South Australia). Describes the program and outlines the steps in producing an instructional program. (TW)
O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry
There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors.
Gasser, Urs; Gassmann, Oliver; Hens, Thorsten; Leifer, Larry; Puschmann, Thomas; Zhao, Leon
As time-to-market for digital banking products becomes shorter and shorter, thousands of Financial Technology (FinTech) startups and other non-banks are rising to the occasion by developing new products, services, and business models for all areas of banking in payments,investments, and financing along the entire value chain, touching all areas from front to back office, as client adoption of these new services accelerates. The lighting Company Osram, for example, recently had to reduce its w...
Since there is not a special common framework for valuation banks and it gives possibilities to create establishment, improvement and adaptation of various approaches to measuring the value of banks and financial institutions. Most approaches banks valuation note the strong dependence of financial institutions value from market interest rates (Mishkin, F., Miller, WD, Copeland, T., Koller, T., Damodaran, A., and others). Each approache reflects greater or lesser degree of accuracy depending o...
Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.
GenBank? is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300 000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank? staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Labo...
Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.
GenBank? (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assig...
Sarah Rudd; Chris Stewart
The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. The results of the latest survey show that banks’ aggregate fee income rose slightly in the banks’ 2011 financial years, but that growth in fee income was less than that in banks’ total assets. Fee income from households declined while fee income from businesses grew, largely as a result of increases in fees on business loans and bank bills.
Agerlin, Anne; Holmqvist, Maja
This report examines and analyses the difference between Danske Bank's perception of themselves and the world's perception of the bank. The difference is illustrated, because tendency shows that boundaries have an effect on Danske Bank's image. We search through collected articles in a social constructivist perspective to handle both Danske Bank’s perception and the world’s perception. The empirical foundation has made it possible to process and interpret the stated problems. The adaptation i...
Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya
Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...
This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...
N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg
Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....
Reserve Bank of Australia
The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. In 2009 growth in fee income increased slightly from recent years though it was again slower than growth in banksâ€™ balance sheets. Growth in fee income was higher for businesses than for households. Banks reacted to the financial crisis by competing more aggressively for deposit funding which resulted in total fee income from deposit accounts falling, and repricing loan products which contributed to an increase in fe...
Full Text Available The paper studied the determinants of Moldovan banking system fragility. It underlines the existing researches into the empirical determinants of banking fragility. The analysis revealed that there are numerous channels through which weaknesses within the macroeconomic conditions and structural characteristics might increase banking system fragility. The main macroeconomic determinants which may have an impact on Moldovan banking system fragility are: excessive domestic liquidity, pro-cyclical character of the banking system, dependence on remittances, financial dollarization. There are also several banking characteristics which play a role for Moldovan banking system fragility: the undermined intermediation function, high level of bad loans, uncertainties in the ownership structure, low presence of foreign strategic investors. The paper employed a quantitative, a qualitative and a comparative analysis using the financial soundness and structural indicators of the Moldovan banking system in order to assess the impact of various determinants on Moldovan banking system fragility. The results reveal a high degree of capitalization and liquidity of Moldovan banking system, factors which contribute and maintain the general stability of the entire financial system.
Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.
Watson, Leela R.
Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.
Full Text Available The study sought to investigate the impact of globalization on the quality of products in a developing economy banking sector. The objectives of the research were to ascertain whether globalisation helps restore or maintain confidence in the banking sector; ensure a sound financial sector; helps reduce fraudulent activities and whether the implementation of global measures improves the quality of products in the banking sector. Zimbabwe banking sector was used as a case study. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect the data in addition to documentary review. It was found that globalization ensures efficient service delivery as human bank tellers; long queues and underutilisation of internetwere still in existence in the banking system. Globalisation of the banking sector is essential in that it brings new technology which help improve banking services and infrastructure hence reduce fraudulent activities, new risk management techniques and increased confidence in the banking sector.
This thesis consists of three chapters that explore issues related to bank capital, multinational bank supervision, and bank lending in a developing country. The first chapter explores the impact of peer banks on bank capital adjustments. The second chapter evaluates the extent to which distortions
Full Text Available People’s borrowing behaviours are influenced by the need to fulfil their basic needs which always change in maintaining their lifestyles. This thesis analyzes the tendency of Indonesians to borrowing money, either from banks or non-banking institutions. This research was carried out using quantitative data analysis with secondary data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey panel data versions 3 and 4. The data was analyzed using STATA 12.0 software. The results of the study show that the significant factors that affect people’s behaviour in borrowing from either banks or non-banking institutions are amount of debt, assets, income, and location; while the insignificant factors are age, religion, and number of householders. Keywords: money borrowing, borrowing behaviour, debt, IFLS, STATA
Gideon P. De Bruin
Full Text Available The factor analysis of items often produces spurious results in the sense that unidimensional scales appear multidimensional. This may be ascribed to failure in meeting the assumptions of linearity and normality on which factor analysis is based. Item response theory is explicitly designed for the modelling of the non-linear relations between ordinal variables and provides a strong alternative to the factor analysis of items. Items may also be combined in parcels that are more likely to satisfy the assumptions of factor analysis than do the items. The use of the Rasch rating scale model and the factor analysis of parcels is illustrated with data obtained with the Locus of Control Inventory. The results of these analyses are compared with the results obtained through the factor analysis of items. It is shown that the Rasch rating scale model and the factoring of parcels produce superior results to the factor analysis of items. Recommendations for the analysis of scales are made. Opsomming Die faktorontleding van items lewer dikwels misleidende resultate op, veral in die opsig dat eendimensionele skale as meerdimensioneel voorkom. Hierdie resultate kan dikwels daaraan toegeskryf word dat daar nie aan die aannames van lineariteit en normaliteit waarop faktorontleding berus, voldoen word nie. Itemresponsteorie, wat eksplisiet vir die modellering van die nie-liniêre verbande tussen ordinale items ontwerp is, bied ’n aantreklike alternatief vir die faktorontleding van items. Items kan ook in pakkies gegroepeer word wat meer waarskynlik aan die aannames van faktorontleding voldoen as individuele items. Die gebruik van die Rasch beoordelingskaalmodel en die faktorontleding van pakkies word aan die hand van data wat met die Lokus van Beheervraelys verkry is, gedemonstreer. Die resultate van hierdie ontledings word vergelyk met die resultate wat deur ‘n faktorontleding van die individuele items verkry is. Die resultate dui daarop dat die Rasch
Manegold, Gwendolin; Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Tichelli, André; Granado, Christina; Hösli, Irene; Troeger, Carolyn
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stored in public inventories has become an alternative stem cell source for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The potential use of autologous UCB from private banks is a matter of debate. In the face of the limited resources of public inventories, a discussion on "hybrid" public and private UCB banking has evolved. We aimed to explore the attitudes of the donating parents toward public and private UCB banking. A standardized, anonymous questionnaire was sent to the most recent 621 public UCB donors including items regarding satisfaction with recruitment process, the need for a second consent before release of the UCB unit for stem cell transplantation, and the donors' views on public and private UCB banking. Furthermore, we asked about their views on UCB research. Of the questionnaires, 48% were returned, and 16% were lost due to mail contact. Of our donors, 95% would donate to the public bank again. As much as 35% of them were convinced that public banking was useful. Whereas 27% had never heard about private UCB banking, 34% discussed both options. Nearly 70% of donors opted for public banking due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Of our public UCB donors, 81% stated that they did not need a re-consent before UCB release for stem cell transplantation. In case of sample rejection, 53.5% wanted to know details about the particular research project. A total of 9% would not consent. Almost all donors would choose public banking again due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Shortly after donation, mail contact with former UCB donors was difficult. This might be a relevant issue in any sequential hybrid banking.
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...
IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU
The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...
Miranda Petronella VLAD
Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.
basket of items, utilized by many e-commerce sites, cannot take advantage of pre-computed user-to-user similarities. Finally, even though the...not discriminate between items that are present in frequent itemsets and items that are not, while still maintaining the computational advantages of...453219 0.02% 7.74 ccard 42629 68793 398619 0.01% 9.35 ecommerce 6667 17491 91222 0.08% 13.68 em 8002 1648 769311 5.83% 96.14 ml 943 1682 100000 6.31
Accounting for special nuclear material contained in fabricated nuclear fuel rod items has been completely automated at the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division facility in Columbia, South Carolina. Experience with the automated system has shown substantial difficulty in maintaining current knowledge of the precise locations of rods pulled out of the ''normal'' processing cycle. This has been resolved by creation of two tightly controlled staging areas for handling and distribution of all ''deviant'' rods by two specially trained expeditors. Thus, coupling automated data collection with centralized expert handling and distribution has created a viable system for control of large numbers of fuel rods in a major fabrication plant
Fang, Yiwei; van Lelyveld, Iman
In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 crisis, banks claiming positive diversification benefits are being met with skepticism. Nevertheless, diversification might be important and sizable for some large internationally active banking groups. We use a universally applicable correlation matrix approach to
Florida Univ., Gainesville. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
One in a series of consumer education materials for teenagers, this document focuses on banking and banking services. The series is based on the philosophy that teens need the training and guidance to develop the skills needed to become competent consumers. Developed for 4-H Club members, the material is designed to acquaint students with the…
Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation
van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.
Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the
van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.
Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the
van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.
Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the
Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob
Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is
The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy
G.J. Van der Star; dr. A. Maas
DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the
Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.
We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital
van der Kwaak, C.G.F.
This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly
Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response ... data. Though, there is an argument that the evaluation of fit in IRT modeling has been ... National Council on Measurement in Education ... model data fit should be based on three types of ... prediction should be assessed through the.
Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying
The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…
Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin
Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…
Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.
The increasingly competitive environment poses challenges to bankers. This paper emphasizes relationship banking as a prime source of the banks' comparative advantage. The proliferation of transaction-oriented banking (trading and financial market activities) does however seriously challenge
The Solar Bank is proposed to be established as a multinational wholesale lending institution supporting the adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by as much as 40% of the world's population. It would supply capital resources to local lending institutions such as banks, credit unions, cooperatives, and rural lending organizations in the developing countries, and to financial institutions in the developed countries. The Solar Bank is intended to be global in scope, with operations in the major countries. The Solar Bank will bring a degree of standardization to the process of making small loans to many people for the purchase of PV systems, and it will provide technical support and training to its participating financial institutions. 'Solar Bank International' is likely to be headquartered in Europe. (orig.)
Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.
Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage
Vieira, Rui P.; Raposo, Isabel P.; Sobral, Paula; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Cunha, Marina R.
Studies concerning marine litter have received great attention over the last several years by the scientific community mainly due to their ecological and economic impacts in marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep ocean seafloor. The distribution, type and abundance of marine litter in Ormonde and Gettysburg, the two seamounts of Gorringe Bank, were analyzed from photo and video imagery obtained during ROV-based surveys carried out at 60-3015 m depths during the E/V Nautilus cruise NA017. Located approximately 125 nm southwest of Portugal, Gorringe Bank lays at the crossroad between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and is therefore characterized by an intense maritime traffic and fishing activities. The high frequency of lost or discarded fishing gear, such as cables, longlines and nets, observed on Gorringe Bank suggests an origin mostly from fishing activities, with a clear turnover in the type of litter (mostly metal, glass and to a much lesser extent, plastic) with increasing depth. Litter was more abundant at the summit of Gorringe Bank (ca. 4 items·km- 1), decreasing to less than 1 item·km- 1 at the flanks and to ca. 2 items·km- 1 at greater depths. Nevertheless, litter abundance appeared to be lower than in continental margin areas. The results presented herein are a contribution to support further actions for the conservation of vulnerable habitats on Gorringe Bank so that they can continue contributing to fishery productivity in the surrounding region.
Darracq Paries, Matthieu; Faia, Ester; Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego
Euro area data show a positive connection between sovereign and bank risk, which increases with banks' and sovereign long run fragility. We build a macro model with banks subject to incentive problems and liquidity risk (in the form of liquidity based banks' runs) which provides a link between endogenous bank capital and macro and policy risk. Our banks also invest in risky government bonds used as capital buffer to self-insure against liquidity risk. The model can replicate the positive conn...
Full Text Available Development of globalization impact to a strict competition between the companies. This lead the Human Resources factor into a crucial role in maintaining, directing and developing the company. Therefore, every company needs employees who are bound by their job. One of the things that can encourage the formation of relationship between the employee is perceived organizational support. This study aims to determine the relationship between perceived organizational support by attachment of employees at PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero Tbk, Branch of Banda Aceh. The number of samples in this study were 139 permanent employees who were still working or were not taking time off from work with a minimum term of one year and the last education was diploma. The sampling technique used purposive sampling technique. Collecting the data using the scale adaptation of Survey of Perceived Organizational Support with 17-item version (α= .91 and a scale adaptation of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES with 17-item version (α= .95. The results of data analysis using pearson product moment correlation technique that showed a positive relationship between perceived organizational support by attachment of employees at PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero Tbk, Branch of Banda Aceh (rxy = .30, p < .05. The higher of perceived organizational support to the employee, likewise the higher bound of employee or otherwise.
SUSAN E. EMBRETSON
Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.
Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tanner, Jennifer E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This report examines supplemental tools that can be used in addition to optical surveillance cameras to maintain CoK in low-to-no light conditions, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of spent fuel CoK, including item counting and ID verification, in challenging conditions.
A. M. Karminsky
Full Text Available Regional banks are struggling with significant obstacles in the modern Russian economy. Among them are strong competition with major big banks, strong resource restrictions, tightening the Bank of Russia’s requirements, and quite rapid expansion of financial technologies. Thus, the reduction of regional banks occurs, that produces both a negative impact on the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and challenges for balanced competition on the Russian market. Basically, these banks provide the settlement of region’s social and economic problems while maintaining local companies and enterprises. Collateral, as a source for losses covering, became the essential element of credit risk management in banks. Providing lenders to implement such instruments, it helps to reduce bank losses under borrower’s default. The purpose of the article relates to revealing of collateral determinants with higher impact on bank risk with the application of empirical methods (including regional level. This study is based on linear regression models evaluated by the least square method. Private data of secured small and medium business loans is used. This article presents LTV (loan-to-value as a major collateral determinant. The empirical evidence of interlinkage between collateral requirements, by the means of LTV, and risk premium is provided for loan portfolio of Russian regional banks. The hypothesis that LTV conversely correlates with risk premium is statistically proved.
Camos, Valérie; Lagner, Prune; Loaiza, Vanessa M
Although verbal recall of item and order information is well-researched in short-term memory paradigms, there is relatively little research concerning item and order recall from working memory. The following study examined whether manipulating the opportunity for attentional refreshing and articulatory rehearsal in a complex span task differently affected the recall of item- and order-specific information of the memoranda. Five experiments varied the opportunity for articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing in a complex span task, but the type of recall was manipulated between experiments (item and order, order only, and item only recall). The results showed that impairing attentional refreshing and articulatory rehearsal similarly affected recall regardless of whether the scoring procedure (Experiments 1 and 4) or recall requirements (Experiments 2, 3, and 5) reflected item- or order-specific recall. This implies that both mechanisms sustain the maintenance of item and order information, and suggests that the common cumulative functioning of these two mechanisms to maintain items could be at the root of order maintenance.
Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.
Vernikovskii, V V
The data bank of the computerized data retrieval system is an organic and constituent part of the system; the level of technology and performance of the data retrieval system as a whole depend on the results of its design and operation. The data bank integrates a storage system for the entire set of data, as well as implementing an organization of a feasible storage mode for the system dictionary, computer processing procedures, user forms, system archieves and other service information. Functions of the data bank are computerized by means of a database control system. The retriveal system data bank was designed for the OKA database control system; the selection and evaluation of the feasibility of the OKA database control system, in turn, were one stage in the design of the system as a whole. The OKA database control system has been used to computerize data retrieval functions in the computerized data retrieval system, and also to maintain the system data bank in updated status.
Full Text Available This paper investigates distress classification measures in the banking sector. The power of ten different accounting measures is tested using media coverage as the benchmark for a sample of 1,175 banks which participated in merger and acquisitions or divestiture deals over the past 22 calendar years. According to the results of the study, a bank should be defined as distressed if the ratio of its non-performing loans to total loans is in the two highest deciles of the industry, using a three-year moving average. This measure is typically favored by practitioners, who maintain that other common measures, e.g., those involving provisions for loan losses, are not as accurate as they express only a managerial forecast. Interestingly, measures that capture capital adequacy too often depict the bank as healthy even if it is de facto distressed, while measures of asset quality, though highly correlated with each other, tend to overestimate the number of distressed banks.
Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van der Linden, Wim J.
Three item selection methods for criterion-referenced tests are examined: the classical theory of item difficulty and item-test correlation; the latent trait theory of item characteristic curves; and a decision-theoretic approach for optimal item selection. Item contribution to the standardized expected utility of mastery testing is discussed. (CM)
This study investigated the profitability performance of Nigerian banks following the full adoption of electronic banking system. The study became necessary as a result of increased penetration of electronic banking which has redefined the banking operations in Nigeria and around the world. Judgmental sampling method ...
Full Text Available Bank of Moslem law one of its target is profit oriented as financial institution intermediasi beside as institute of baitul maal. Bank of Moslem law can accept the fund coming from zakat , infak, alms, hibah, or other social fund which among other things come the ta’zir. Bank of Moslem law also channel it social fund coming from communal ownership of money to communal ownership organizer (nadzir as according to will ;desire of communal ownership giver (wakif. social Function execution have to pursuant to Statute of Management of Zakat and Statute of Wakaf.
Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee
Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.
Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara
assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. RESULTS: Multigroup...... levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis.......PURPOSE: To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). METHODS: Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function...
The Savannah River Laboratory maintains a series of computerized data banks primarily as an aid in probabilistic risk assessment studies for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) facilities. These include component failure rates, generic incidents, and reports of specific deviations from normal operating conditions. In addition to providing data for probability studies, these banks have served as a valuable aid in trend analyses, equipment histories, process hazards analyses, consequence assessments, incident audits, process problem solving, and training
Patty Duijm; Peter Wierts
Under Basel III rules, banks become subject to a liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) from 2015 onwards, to promote short-term resilience. We investigate the effects of such liquidity regulation on bank liquid assets and liabilities. Results indicate co-integration of liquid assets and liabilities, to maintain a minimum short-term liquidity buffer. Still, microprudential regulation has not prevented an aggregate liquidity cycle characterised by a pro-cyclical pattern in the size of balance sheets a...
Ravn Sørensen, Anders
In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...
Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.
Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)
Md Ahsan Habib
Cyber crime is a threat to our E- commerce . A hacker group named "Lazarus" hacked $951 million from Bangladesh Bank's account. This is the short case study of this incident with professional ethical view.
A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404
Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.
In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal
Spanjers, L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.
In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal
Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Liberopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Tan, B.; MacGregor Smith, J.; Gershwin, S.B.
In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon epairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal
Fries, James F; Witter, James; Rose, Matthias; Cella, David; Khanna, Dinesh; Morgan-DeWitt, Esi
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires record health information directly from research participants because observers may not accurately represent the patient perspective. Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a US National Institutes of Health cooperative group charged with bringing PRO to a new level of precision and standardization across diseases by item development and use of item response theory (IRT). With IRT methods, improved items are calibrated on an underlying concept to form an item bank for a "domain" such as physical function (PF). The most informative items can be combined to construct efficient "instruments" such as 10-item or 20-item PF static forms. Each item is calibrated on the basis of the probability that a given person will respond at a given level, and the ability of the item to discriminate people from one another. Tailored forms may cover any desired level of the domain being measured. Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) selects the best items to sharpen the estimate of a person's functional ability, based on prior responses to earlier questions. PROMIS item banks have been improved with experience from several thousand items, and are calibrated on over 21,000 respondents. In areas tested to date, PROMIS PF instruments are superior or equal to Health Assessment Questionnaire and Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 Survey legacy instruments in clarity, translatability, patient importance, reliability, and sensitivity to change. Precise measures, such as PROMIS, efficiently incorporate patient self-report of health into research, potentially reducing research cost by lowering sample size requirements. The advent of routine IRT applications has the potential to transform PRO measurement.
Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang
This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.
The focus of the paper is to analyze how the concept behind central bank policy developed over time and how the recent financial crisis and its consequences will have an influence. While the principles of the institutional arrangement for central banks (independence, clear mandate, prohibition of monetary financing) are relevant as ever, pre- crisis consensus strategies of monetary policy have been revealed as flawed. The close monitoring of money and credit developments, a key lesson to be d...
Mayes, David G.
This paper explains how banking supervision within the EU, and in Finland in particular, can be improved by the implementation of greater market discipline and related changes. Although existing EU law, institutions, market structures and practices of corporate governance restrict the scope for change, substantial improvements can be introduced now while there is a window of opportunity for change. The economy is growing H5ly and the consequences of the banking crises of the early 1990s have ...
Viral V. Acharya; Nada Mora
Can banks maintain their advantage as liquidity providers when they are heavily exposed to a financial crisis? The standard argument - that banks can - hinges on deposit inflows that are seeking a safe haven and provide banks with a natural hedge to fund drawn credit lines and other commitments. We shed new light on this issue by studying the behavior of bank deposit rates and inflows during the 2007-09 crisis. Our results indicate that the role of the banking system as a stabilizing liquidit...
Full Text Available Dynamic development of financial industry in some last ten years that, considering the kind of financial agents, remained bank-oriented represents a suficient reason to investigate the causes that brought to the present structure of banking system. After having presented theoretical bases of the integration forms and banks connection, the paper analyzes the influence of foreign banks on the development of Croatian bank system. Thus, beside the knowledge of quantitative changes in the banking system, the paper researched the motivations of the banks regarding integration that, among other things, brought to creating the effects of scale and scope economies. However, the concentrations among banks can lead to creation of negative externalities that later become potential dangers for the banking. Pre-cognitions on development of banking system are used to create projection of future banking development while the data basis of the countries from the region enabled the comparative analysis of banks integration in these countries. The conclusion is that the foreign banks have been the largest promoters of bank integration in the Republic of Croatia contributing also to qualitative development of banking market and to deepening of financial market spectrum.
Full Text Available In the late 1990s and early 2000s, banking has undergone and is still undergoing some considerable changes, adjusting itself to the new circumstances and challenges in its environment. Modern information technologies have granted an opportunity to banks to expand their operations and adjust their offer of products and services, placing them through the new communication channels. The increasing reliance on mobile devices, especially the so-called smart phones, has facilitated the development of a new form of banking, known as mobile banking. Mobile banking is a specific channel of electronic banking, enabling clients to communicate with the bank via mobile devices. The bank's products and services are, thus, available to the clients at any time and at any place, and the banking sector is expected to perfectly understand the needs of today's clients, before implementing mobile banking. The research in this paper focuses on mobile banking, as a segment of electronic banking, which has developed under the influence of modern information technologies. The paper elaborates on the main characteristics of mobile banking, its advantages, but also its drawbacks that the banks and their clients are facing in the process of its utilization (or its implementation in practice. Moreover, the paper presents the trends of using mobile banking in the world and in Serbia, along with the tendencies for developing new services.
Full Text Available Customer Relationship Management concept is tendency of banking sector to establish and maintain long-term relationships with customers in order to provide value for customers and banks. This concept allows bank to identify, segment, communicate and build long-term relationships with customers on individual basis. In today's business environment, banks have aim to identify customers and to adjust offer to meet customer`s needs, in order to maximize profits. Using modern technologies, Customer Relationship Management is becoming a method to maintain existing structure and development of high quality customer base. It involves development of marketing strategy through a better understanding of the entire customer base, understanding needs and attitudes of customers, as well as more efficient consideration of profitability and added value that each customer have for the bank. The aim of research, presented in this paper, is to assess to benefits of introducing Customer Relationship Management concept in banking sector, by defining strategies, adjustment of organizational structure, culture and internal processes with help of modern technology. The paper presents methods of measuring success of Customer Relationship Management concept and problems which banks have when implementing a new business philosophy.
Full Text Available The study proposes and discusses the development of an index of Islamic Financial and Social Reporting (IFSR for Islamic banks. The index of IFSR is carefully developed based on the relevant and applicable standards, guidelines and literature from an Islamic perspective such as the Malaysian Accounting Standards Board (MASB, Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI, Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB, Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM and Islamic social reporting literature. The index is developed in three parts, namely, financial, social, and auditing and governance. The items within the finance section are developed to ensure that the Islamic banks disclose relevant financial information. The items for the social part aim to ensure that the Islamic banks provide the relevant information regarding social and environment. The items within the auditing and governance part are developed to ensure that the Islamic banks provide relevant information regarding the monitoring and supervising activities that the Islamic banks have undertaken. The IFSR index may be lacking in terms of its usage generalisability as it is specifically developed for IFIs. The developed index of IFSR aims to promote a more appropriate level of disclosure among the Islamic banks. The need for the index is motivated by the growing importance of Islamic banks, not only from the economic perspective but also from the social perspective
This paper is an introduction to the NEA data bank. The essential programs and data for nuclear energy calculations are available from the Data Bank. The Data Bank's role, in co-operation with other centers, is to protect the technological capital represented by the programs and data in its collection, which is unique in covering nearly the whole field of reactor physics at a single center (Saclay). The compilation and exchange of experimental and evaluated neutron and other nuclear data is carried out through a world-wide information network. The tasks now assigned to the Data Bank are in the areas of computer program packaging, neutron data compilation, assembly and benchmark testing of the Joint Evaluated File (JEF) of neutron cross-section data, and servicing the NEA scientific committees, as well as providing a computer service to the main NEA secretariat. In all areas the emphasis is on developing a ''value added'' element to the incoming data or computer codes, by validation documentation and presentation of information in a convenient standard form. The services offered by the Data Bank and the computers used by the Data Bank are presented
Ellen Theresia Sihotang
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze internet banking�s users based on their experiences. It can be used to set marketing program of internet banking that appropriate with customers needs, in order to anticipate tight competition. This research methods starts with focus group discussion and clustering analysis to classify 312 respondents of internet banking users based on demographic, benefit and behavioral segmentation. The sampling method uses purposive sampling and snowball sampling. K-Means Clustering method�s produces four optimal clusters. The benefit orientation of the first cluster in on time saving. Second cluster, concern on the ease of getting and operating internet banking so this cluster does not need auxiliary features such as video guide to use internet banking. The third cluster�s orientation is on the modern lifestyle and the ease of getting and operating internet banking service with detailed daily mutation transaction The fourth cluster, concerns on the detailed daily mutation transaction but they are not sure with the security of personal data via internet banking. �
Chen, Cheng-Te; Chen, Yu-Lan; Lin, Yu-Ching; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Tzeng, Jeng-Yi
Objective The purpose of this study was to construct a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for measuring self-care performance (the CAT-SC) in children with developmental disabilities (DD) aged from 6 months to 12 years in a content-inclusive, precise, and efficient fashion. Methods The study was divided into 3 phases: (1) item bank development, (2) item testing, and (3) a simulation study to determine the stopping rules for the administration of the CAT-SC. A total of 215 caregivers of children with DD were interviewed with the 73-item CAT-SC item bank. An item response theory model was adopted for examining the construct validity to estimate item parameters after investigation of the unidimensionality, equality of slope parameters, item fitness, and differential item functioning (DIF). In the last phase, the reliability and concurrent validity of the CAT-SC were evaluated. Results The final CAT-SC item bank contained 56 items. The stopping rules suggested were (a) reliability coefficient greater than 0.9 or (b) 14 items administered. The results of simulation also showed that 85% of the estimated self-care performance scores would reach a reliability higher than 0.9 with a mean test length of 8.5 items, and the mean reliability for the rest was 0.86. Administering the CAT-SC could reduce the number of items administered by 75% to 84%. In addition, self-care performances estimated by the CAT-SC and the full item bank were very similar to each other (Pearson r = 0.98). Conclusion The newly developed CAT-SC can efficiently measure self-care performance in children with DD whose performances are comparable to those of TD children aged from 6 months to 12 years as precisely as the whole item bank. The item bank of the CAT-SC has good reliability and a unidimensional self-care construct, and the CAT can estimate self-care performance with less than 25% of the items in the item bank. Therefore, the CAT-SC could be useful for measuring self-care performance in children with
Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.
Davis, EP; Obasi, U
Banking supervision is an essential aspect of modern financial systems, seeking crucially to monitor risk-taking by banks so as to protect depositors, the government safety net and the economy as a whole against systemic bank failure and its consequences. In this context, this paper seeks to explore the relationship between risk indicators for individual banks and the different approaches to banking supervision adopted around the world. This is the first work to make use of the currently avai...
Full Text Available the article is devoted to the research of directions of client-oriented approach application during bank products promotion in Russian banks. Attention is paid to the development of electronic banking, social networks through which consumers receive the necessary information about beneficial offers and special conditions for providing banking services.
Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.
... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...
Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.
AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)
Full Text Available This paper examines contemporary trends in commercial banking, confronting the stages of deregulation and reregulation in this field triggered by the global mortgage crisis. Under deregulatory conditions the competitive position of banks has toughened, and they reacted to it by intensifying: marketization, i.e. globalization, concentration, securitization and conglomeration, and by turning to the profit-oriented risk management of their activity. The contraction of their interest margin was thus neutralized by the reduction of operational costs and loss provisions, and by an increase in non-interest revenues, thereby maintaining banking profitability. The recent crisis has pinpointed the necessity of firmer regulation or reregulation of the banking sector, aimed at reducing its systemic risk, the most important aspect of which being the stricter international banking capital and liquidity standards, along with the requirement to adequately treat systemically important banks. Reregulation should strengthen capitalization and liquidity; mitigate the volume, concentration, internationalization and business dispersion, hence improving the supervision of the banking sector, implying its lower, yet more stable profitability. Such an impact of the adopted section of targeted regulatory measures has been indicated by higher liquidity, lower globalization, slower concentration and securitization, and stabilization-oriented risk management activities of today's banks. Their growth and profitability have shrunk.
Full Text Available The Polish Central Bank (National Bank of Poland – NBP performs mainly macro-economic tasks, for maintaining price levels. This Bank is not focused on tasks aimed at the interests of the State Budget. The Central Bank has a lot of power in the creation of money. It seems, there is possible to create the budgetary revenues, which are connected with the emission of money. In particular, the income from emission of coins may be determined as the budget revenue. The connection the Treasury with the Central Bank results from the historical evolution of the origin and role of the Central Bank. It is reasonable to increase the role of the treasury securities in the Central Bank activity. The Treasury Bills should be used in the open market policy leading by the Central Bank. There is the issue of changing of the Constitution of the Republic Poland in the field of limit of the public debt (60% of GDP. It seems, the Polish Constitution should not be the only constitution in the world that introduced such a limit. This limit, and the limit on annual budgetary deficit, introduces EU law. That is a sufficient legal limit.
Full Text Available One Way to maintain the stability of banking industry is by applying the deposit insurance scheme. The application of the deposit insurance scheme has an impact by increasing the level of bank deposits. The objectives of the research are to identify the factors affecting the level of deposits of Islamic banks in Indonesia and managerial implications regarding to the functions of Indonesia Deposit Insurance Corporation (LPS. The technique used is the panel data regression with fixed effect model using the data from the 11 Islamic banks for the period of 2011 -2015. The results show that the factors affecting the level of deposits of the Islamic banks in Indonesia significantly and positively include the size of banks and their non-performing financing (NPF; however, they influence the capital negatively. Based on these results, LPS is required to build or sharpen the surveillance systems as part of its early detection by doing the mapping based on the size and to monitor the bank capital structure and bank finance portfolio structure.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i2.5156
Anoreewsky, Evelyne; Nicolas, P.; Grillo, J.P.
A system is proposed for determining semantic relations between lexical items. To do this, a descriptor is associated with each lexical item; two types of algorithms are used to calculate the relationships between descriptors ('similarity' or 'predicativity' relations). This system makes it possible to simulate linguistic experiences. Some results have been predicted and verified experimentally. [fr
Nummenmaa, Jyrki; Berki, Eleni; Hemming, Jyrki
Internet banking enables customers to save time, take control of their personal finances and even help the environment by opting to receive electronic statements. For Internet banking users, online banking services is the third most important driver of financial institution selection, falling just behind rates and fees, and also for better customer services. These days, it’s not good enough to simply offer online banking services, however. To maintain existing customers and attract new ones...
Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Zhao, Hongrui; Wei, Yu-Min; Wang, Cheng-Kuang; Zheng, Yuxiang; Chang, Li-Chung; Wang, Jiangtao
Financial supervision means that monetary authorities have the power to supervise and manage financial institutions according to laws. Monetary authorities have this power because of the requirements of improving financial services, protecting the rights of depositors, adapting to industrial development, ensuring financial fair trade, and maintaining stable financial order. To establish evaluation criteria for bank supervision in China, this study integrated fuzzy theory and the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and proposes a fuzzy-DEMATEL model. First, fuzzy theory was applied to examine bank supervision criteria and analyze fuzzy semantics. Second, the fuzzy-DEMATEL model was used to calculate the degree to which financial supervision criteria mutually influenced one another and their causal relationship. Finally, an evaluation criteria model for evaluating bank and financial supervision was established. PMID:27992449
Full Text Available Financial supervision means that monetary authorities have the power to supervise and manage financial institutions according to laws. Monetary authorities have this power because of the requirements of improving financial services, protecting the rights of depositors, adapting to industrial development, ensuring financial fair trade, and maintaining stable financial order. To establish evaluation criteria for bank supervision in China, this study integrated fuzzy theory and the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and proposes a fuzzy-DEMATEL model. First, fuzzy theory was applied to examine bank supervision criteria and analyze fuzzy semantics. Second, the fuzzy-DEMATEL model was used to calculate the degree to which financial supervision criteria mutually influenced one another and their causal relationship. Finally, an evaluation criteria model for evaluating bank and financial supervision was established.
Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.
... OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by the...
Full Text Available This research is intended to assess and analyze the financial health of Foreign Exchange Bank and Non-Foreign Exchange Bank. Assessment is done by looking at the financial ratios from 2011 to 2015, the results of each financial ratios performed comparison and analysis. The financial statements were obtained from the Indonesian Stock Exchange website. The conclusions of the analysis were compared with the indicators of Bank Indonesia's financial performance assessment released by Indonesia Bank. There is a significant difference between foreign exchange bank and non-foreign exchange bank. The ratio of financial ratios in the analysis includes NPL, CAR, ROA, LDR, and BOPO.
Full Text Available The purpose of this conducted study was to test the direct and indirect effects of internet banking quality and customer value to customer satisfaction. This study uses descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis to examine these relationships. The study is based on a survey conducted with respondents who use internet banking in their day-to-day activities, and all questionnaire items are deemed valid and reliable. For data analysis, the descriptive analysis for the indicators, dimensions, and variables proved to be in a good category. Research findings and implications of the regression analysis show that internet banking quality and customer value had a greater direct impact on customer satisfaction, rather the partial relationships of these variables to satisfaction. In the partial relationships, customer value has a higher influence on customer satisfaction, than internet banking quality. As a research recommendation, banks should provide a more humanistic internet banking service for better consumer satisfaction. A major research limitation of the study is that it does not measure service quality of internet banking, and only focuses on customers of internet banking use of one single bank. The originality of this research relies on the insights of internet banking quality leading to customer satisfaction and increasing the value of a bank to its main target markets.
R P Narayan
Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.
A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system
Kurt Von Mettenheim
Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.
Benameur, Azzedine; Khoury, Paul El; Seguran, Magali; Sinha, Smriti Kumar
SERENITY Artefacts, like Class, Patterns, Implementations and Executable Components for Security & Dependability (S&D) in addition to Serenity Runtime Framework (SRF) are discussed in previous chapters. How to integrate these artefacts with applications in Serenity approach is discussed here with two scenarios. The e-Business scenario is a standard loan origination process in a bank. The Smart Item scenario is an Ambient intelligence case study where we take advantage of Smart Items to provide an electronic healthcare infrastructure for remote healthcare assistance. In both cases, we detail how the prototype implementations of the scenarios select proper executable components through Serenity Runtime Framework and then demonstrate how these executable components of the S&D Patterns are deployed.
Yoon, Su-Youn; Lee, Chong Min; Houghton, Patrick; Lopez, Melissa; Sakano, Jennifer; Loukina, Anastasia; Krovetz, Bob; Lu, Chi; Madani, Nitin
In this study, we developed assistive tools and resources to support TOEIC® Listening test item generation. There has recently been an increased need for a large pool of items for these tests. This need has, in turn, inspired efforts to increase the efficiency of item generation while maintaining the quality of the created items. We aimed to…
Eriksson, M.; Schuster, C.
In the recent years the way to do banking has changed. Internet banking has grown and a lot of niche banks working mainly with the Internet as a medium has entered the Swedish bank market. How to keep the customer loyal online in a very competitive environment has become a main question for the banks. The aim of this dissertation is to test what factors impact bank customer loyalty in an online environment. A positivistic research philosophy, a deductive research approach, an explanatory pur...
Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.
Full Text Available Introduction. Modern business conditions and comprehensive economic globalization put the banking institutions at the forefront of the task of achieving and maintaining a high level of competitiveness both on the domestic and on the external financial markets, as banks serve as the main intermediaries in the whole complex of relationships between different economic subjects. To achieve and maintain the competitiveness of banks it is important to create an effective management mechanism, which determines the relevance of the chosen topic. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to summarize the existing theoretical aspects concerning the competitiveness of banks and develop organizational and economic approaches to its enhancement and implementation in banking practice. Results. The article generalizes the notion of competitiveness as an economic category and defines the main approaches of scientists to its interpretation. The role and importance of foreign capital in the banking system and its impact on the competitiveness of banks are considered, and the share of foreign capital in the authorized capital of banks for the period of 2008-2017 is calculated. On the basis of the comparative analysis, the impact on the competitiveness of the largest banking institutions of Ukraine on the performance indicators, such as volumes of assets, liabilities of banks and capital adequacy, was investigated. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of the mechanism of ensuring competitiveness according to the process approach is outlined. By means of the Microsoft Office Visio software system, the Bank’s own Banking Business Management business process was built to ensure the bank’s viability and its structural analysis according to the IDEF0 standard of the SADT methodology. Conclusions. The relationship between the analysis of the bank’s position and the development of its development strategy is important for the understanding and effective management
... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.214-72... 2008) Bids on * will be given equal consideration along with bids on ** and any such bids received... .** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer will...
In 1969, the popular British television programme, Tomorrow's World, featured an item that predicted point of sale terminals in every high street shop ushering in the country's computerised cashless economy. The basis for the show's prediction was a succession of ambitious projects initiated by the British banks, each with the aim of introducing a new real-time computer banking system to its network of branches by 15 February 1971. The banks, threatened by state-sponsored competition, inspire...
Harris, S.P.; Cushing, R.W.; Johnson, H.W.; Abeles, J.M.
Seismic qualification for equipment originally installed in nuclear power plants was typically performed by the original equipment suppliers or manufactures (OES/OEM). Many of the OES/OEM no longer maintain quality assurance programs with adequate controls for supplying nuclear equipment. Utilities themselves must provide reasonable assurance in the continued seismic adequacy of such replacement items. This guideline provides practical, cost-effective techniques which can be used to provide reasonable assurance that replacement items will meet seismic performance requirements necessary to maintain the seismic design basis of commercial nuclear power plants. It also provides a method for determining when a seismic technical evaluation of replacement items (STERI) is required as part of the procurement process for spare and replacement items. Guidance on supplier program requirements necessary to maintain continued seismic adequacy and on documentation of maintaining required seismic adequacy is also included
Pedersen, Eric R; Huang, Wenjing; Dvorak, Robert D; Prince, Mark A; Hummer, Justin F
Given recent state legislation legalizing marijuana for recreational purposes and majority popular opinion favoring these laws, we developed the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana scale (PBSM) to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use among those young people who choose to use the drug. In the current study, we expand on the initial exploratory study of the PBSM to further validate the measure with a large and geographically diverse sample (N = 2,117; 60% women, 30% non-White) of college students from 11 different universities across the United States. We sought to develop a psychometrically sound item bank for the PBSM and to create a short assessment form that minimizes respondent burden and time. Quantitative item analyses, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with item response theory (IRT) and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), revealed an item bank of 36 items that was examined for unidimensionality and good content coverage, as well as a short form of 17 items that is free of bias in terms of gender (men vs. women), race (White vs. non-White), ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), and recreational marijuana use legal status (state recreational marijuana was legal for 25.5% of participants). We also provide a scoring table for easy transformation from sum scores to IRT scale scores. The PBSM item bank and short form associated strongly and negatively with past month marijuana use and consequences. The measure may be useful to researchers and clinicians conducting intervention and prevention programs with young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA
In order to maintain a competitive edge in a very active banking market the implementation of a web-based solution to standardize, optimize and manage the flow of sales / pre-sales and generating new leads is requested by a company. This article presents the realization of a development framework for software interoperability in the banking financial institutions and an integrated solution for achieving sales process automation in banking. The paper focuses on presenting the requirements for ...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...
Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.
The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities
Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.
The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) was opened formally in October 1975 to foster the economic development and social progress of its member countries and Moslem communities individually as well as jointly in accordance with the priniciples of Islamic law. Its functions include participation in equity capital, granting loans for projects and enterprises, extending training facilities, and promoting foreign trade, especially in capital goods, among the member countries. The 34-member Bank is capitalized at 2 billion Islamic Dinars and located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
The bachelor thesis deals with the cyber risk in banking industry. Its main goal is to stress the imporatance of cyber risk both verbally and numericaly and review the approach of banks to this risk. The first part of this thesis specifies what cyber risk is and how it fits among other operational risks, presents the common cyber-attacks and archetypes of cyber criminals, later it delves into the cyber risk in Czech Republic and at the end of this part it mentions the legislation that covers ...
Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas
Market discipline in banking requires that explicit and implicit insurance schemes for financial sector firms are limited, and that the lack of insurance of important stakeholders is credible. This credibility cannot be achieved without transparent, predictable procedures for distress resolution for banks, including explicit rules for the liquidation of insolvent banks. We find that very few European countries have explicit procedures for dealing with problem banks. The propositions tested in...
Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca
Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projectsâ€™ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.
Full Text Available The study analyzes the competition on the banking market and proposes an overview of debt collection companies through the economic crisis which has profoundly affected the banking sector. Article scroll through the main features of competition on the banking market as well as the domain weaknesses that negatively influenced the banking system performance. Even if there is not a sufficiently transparent and functional legal framework and debt recovery market is not supervised enough, it is among the few markets that increase from year to year. Increasing competition from adjacent companies that compete with banks, namely, a non-banking entity, it is stimulating the banking system which will thus become more constructive. It is estimated, that in terms of customers, there will be no differentiation between the banking industry and non-banking entities that will reshape the Romanian banking system soon. Also, the study aims to highlight the existence of debt collection companies, implicitly, the specific markets, it is only a consequence of excessive, unnecessary and dangerous borrowing from previous years. Avoiding bad loans from banks, a fair competition from banks and from non-banking institutions, in the long term, it will generate a balance in the market and it will support economic growth of Romania.
Requirements and guidelines are provided for the control of activities to be exercised during procurement of items and services which affect the quality of nuclear facilities. These requirements and guidelines apply to procurement activities for items and services such as designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, constructing, erecting, installing, inspecting, texting, maintaining and modifying
Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lewis, Charles
Loglinear smoothing (LLS) estimates the latent trait distribution while making fewer assumptions about its form and maintaining parsimony, thus leading to more precise item response theory (IRT) item parameter estimates than standard marginal maximum likelihood (MML). This article provides the expectation-maximization algorithm for MML estimation…
The spate of armed robbery attack on banks in the last decade has been alarming. It is hoped with the current Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) cashless policy there will be a drastic drop in such incidents. However, the issue of armed robbery attack at the bank premises brings to the fore two issues which are of paramount ...
Nowadays the role of central bank is unquestioned and nearly ubiquitous. But was this always the case? This thesis analyses how De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) developed into a central bank during the first four decades of its existence. Its establishment in 1814 was the result of a combination of both
In principle, bank capital serves two functions. First, it represents the value of shareholder's equity, and secondly, it is the value of the buffer stock available to absorb unexpected losses. Because of this second function, it is argued that a bank's capital must be adequate. Adequate capital is the foundation of any banking ...
Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman
This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...
... Committees Accreditation American Board of Tissue Banking Bylaws / Ethics Communications Donor Family Services Ad Hoc Committee Education Finance ... Bureau Accredited Bank Search Bookstore Bulletins Global Topics Communications & Media Job Center News Releases Patients and Community Useful ...
Angel, Christania Graciella
Bank performance appraisal is based on bank financial report itself. The financial report can be form balance report which give information about the financial position to the outside of bank that can be used of eksternal to assess the level of risk exist in a bank. Based on ownership consist of national bank, mixture bank and foreign bank. These banks has tight compete to show a good performance to the public. This research aimed to analyze the financial performance difference of national ba...
The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is
Sousa, Sidney Júlio de Faria E; Sousa, Stella Barretto de Faria E
Eye banks use sterile procedures to manipulate the eye, antiseptic measures for ocular surface decontamination, and rigorous criteria for donor selection to minimize the possibility of disease transmission due to corneal grafting. Donor selection focuses on analysis of medical records and specific post-mortem serological tests. To guide and standardize procedures, eye bank associations and government agencies provide lists of absolute and relative contraindications for use of the tissue based on donor health history. These lists are guardians of the Hippocratic principle "primum non nocere." However, each transplantation carries risk of transmission of potentially harmful agents to the recipient. The aim of the procedures is not to eliminate risk, but limit it to a reasonable level. The balance between safety and corneal availability needs to be maintained by exercising prudence without disproportionate rigor.
Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response data. Item-level modeling gives IRT advantages over classical test theory. The fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) models is a necessary condition that must be assessed for further use of item and models that best fit ...
O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth
Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.
@@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.
UBS, CERN branch
UBS SA, formerly Société de Banque Suisse (Swiss Bank Corporation), which has been providing banking services on the CERN site since 1954, is delighted to continue its financial partnership with the CERN personnel. Recent trends in payment methods - a decline in the use of cash combined with an increase in the use of 'virtual money', credit or payment cards and e-banking - have led UBS SA to place greater emphasis on customer services compared with conventional, over-the-counter transactions. Since our customers' banking habits have also changed, we will be implementing the following changes at our CERN offices: Building 500: conversion work will shortly be commencing to provide a comfortable and well-appointed customer services area offering, in particular, greater privacy, as well as two counters. Throughout the work, every measure will be taken to minimise inconvenience to our customers. Building 504: owing to the improvements to be made to our Building 500 premises, we will hencef...
Frederick S. Mishkin
This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...
This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...
Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...
The article deals with problems related to the stochastic frontier model of bank efficiency measurement. The model is used to study the efficiency of the banking sector of The Russian Federation. It is based on the stochastic approach both to the efficiency frontier location and to individual bank efficiency values. The model allows estimating bank efficiency values, finding relations with different macro- and microeconomic factors and testing some economic hypotheses.
Omid Takbiri; Mohammad Mohammadi; Bahman Naderi
Banking industry has significant contribution in development of economies of developing countries. Most banks execute their operations through different branches. Therefore it is important to measure the relative efficiencies of these branches. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of the most useful tools in measuring banks’ performance. The present paper aims to extract ranking pattern of banks based on performance evaluation using DEA analysis. In the present research, 120 bank branches o...
Cabello, Julia Garc?a
Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks? branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...
We analyze the desirability of fair pricing of government guarantees for bank liabilities. Fair pricing is desirable only if the banking sector is sufficiently transparent. In opaque banking systems, fair pricing may exacerbate banks' incentive to take excessive risks.
... Peoples Bank and Trust Company, both of North Carrollton, Mississippi. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
... Carolina, Seneca National Bank, Seneca, South Carolina, and The Peoples National Bank, Easley, South... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
... control of Bank of Odessa, both in Odessa, Missouri, Commercial Bank of Oak Grove, Oak Grove, Missouri... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank...
Lavinia M. GUȚU
Full Text Available Banks are important entities in the economy as they have a significant role in maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. This is possible through the work of refocusing resources from those who have surplus to those who are in a deficit situation. Therefore, like any other company, the performance is highly desirable for banks. It is therefore essential to identify which are the main factors influencing the achievement of this goal. From this perspective, this paper aims to analyze the microeconomic factors affecting the financial performance of banks in Romania. Special attention will be paid to Internet technology or ICT as part of new banking technologies because, so far, in Romania, there are few studies of this kind.
Matsumoto, K.; Duppont, E.
The Data Bank (DB) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) provides scientists in member countries with reference materials in the field of nuclear energy applications. The services include the compilation, verification, and distribution of nuclear data, chemical thermodynamic data, integral benchmark experiments, as well as computer programs and associated application libraries. The Data Bank also develops and maintains databases and related administration/retrieval tools, including the JANIS display software. The Data Bank works in close co-operation with the Nuclear Science Section, especially in the field of computer codes and associated application libraries benchmarking, integral experiments, nuclear data evaluation co-operation, and knowledge preservation. These activities are in essence international and organised in close collaboration with other main national and international organisations. More information on the NEA Data Bank can be found at www.oecd-nea.org/databank.
The OECD NEA Data Bank provides scientist in member countries with reference materials in the field of nuclear energy applications. The services include the compilation, verification, and distribution of nuclear data, chemical thermodynamic data, integral benchmark experiments, as well as computer programs and associated application libraries. The Data Bank also develops and maintains databases and related administration/retrieval tools, including the JANIS display software. The Data Bank works in close co-operation with the Nuclear Science Section, especially in the field of computer codes and associated application libraries benchmarking, integral experiments, nuclear data evaluation co-operation, and knowledge preservation. These activities are in essence international and organised in close collaboration with other main national and international organisations. More information on the NEA Data Bank can be found at www.oecd-nea.org/databank.
An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.
The theoretical analysis in the second part investigates the effect of liquidity assistance and bailouts on bank risk taking and liquidity choice. Furthermore, it explores the possibilities for central banks to create ambiguity about liquidity assistance, thereby influencing bank choices. The
Flynn, David T.
The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…
In the mid-seventies EPRI initiated a research project to review the human factors aspects of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the course of investigating operator-control room interfaces in five operational control rooms, it became evident that many plant outages had either been caused or prolonged by human factors problems associated with maintenance activities. Consequently, as one of several follow-on projects, EPRI sponsored a review of nine power plants (five nuclear and four fossil) to examine the human factors aspects of plant maintainability. This survey revealed a wide variety of generic human factors problems that could negatively impact the effectiveness of plant maintenance personnel. It was clear that plant maintainability features deserved no less attention to human factors concerns than the operational features of the control room. This paper describes subsequent EPRI-initiated efforts to assist the utilities in conducting self-reviews of maintainability effectiveness and effect needed enhancements
Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas
for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress resolution......Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders......, and blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...
Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet in the banking industry on the one hand is closely related to a change in the structure of the organization and nature of operations in banking industry itself, and on the other hand, to the emergence of computer as a significant organizational tool. Banks have always been starving to introduce new technologies to reduce operational costs and expand their businesses. This study is an attempt to investigate the contribution of Internet banking on the performance of the banking system in India. Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE ratios are used to test this effect. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant effect of Internet banking services on the profitability of banks in terms of ROA and ROE in India.
... RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION § 996.2 Bank employees. Upon the request of the Directorate of the Resolution..., employees, or agents of the Banks are authorized to act for and on behalf of the Resolution Funding... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and...
Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne
This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.
Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a
... Funding Corporation Securities offered and sold by the Funding Corporation, in accordance with the Securities Documentation, and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars; to service and maintain Book-entry..., Security Entitlements, and the operation of the Book-Entry System under this Part. ...
Ruth A. Childs
Full Text Available Matrix sampling of items -' that is, division of a set of items into different versions of a test form..-' is used by several large-scale testing programs. Like other test designs, matrixed designs have..both advantages and disadvantages. For example, testing time per student is less than if each..student received all the items, but the comparability of student scores may decrease. Also,..curriculum coverage is maintained, but reporting of scores becomes more complex. In this paper,..matrixed designs are compared with more traditional designs in nine categories of costs:..development costs, materials costs, administration costs, educational costs, scoring costs,..reliability costs, comparability costs, validity costs, and reporting costs. In choosing among test..designs, a testing program should examine the costs in light of its mandate(s, the content of the..tests, and the financial resources available, among other considerations.
Cleveland, J.W.; Regenie, T.R.; Wilson, R.J.
Environmental qualification and equipment warrantee insurance stipulations should be supplemented with a reliable maintainability program structured to identify and control fast failing subcomponents within critical equipment. Anticipation of equipment subcomponent failures can control unnecessary plant off-line occurrences. Incorporation of reliability, availability, and maintainability considerations into plant maintenance policies on power generation and safety related items have positive cost benefit advantages
The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them
Niang, Bénédicte; Coudre, Jean Pierre
To maintain the flow of hospital discharges, the patient's return home with support from a home nursing service is important. If any difficulties are identified, there are various programmes or good practices which can be put into place. The future law on adapting society to ageing also comprises a scheme combining home assistance and nursing care.
Full Text Available Abstract. The"Competition-fragility" view and The "Competition-stability" view has a contrary logical flow in predicting the relationship between bank stability and competition among banks. According to Berger et al (2009, these two views differ on credit risk aspect of loan portfolio, but on the risks faced by the bank as a whole, these two views have the same prediction. In the credit market which is dominated by few banks with substantial market power, the risk of bank credit portfolio increases as predicted by the view "competition-fragility", but the bank's overall risk does not always go up with the jump in credit portfolio risk. The paper shows that empirical test of the Indonesian banking system support this hypothesis, except in foreign bank group that has its own business model. The relationship of competition and the credit risk of banks in Indonesia also have a U -shape pattern that increasing competition in the early stages can reduce credit risk, which is due to increasing income diversification and diversification of bank credit type, but at a certain point the increasing competition has worsened the quality of bank credit portfolio. Key word: banking competition, risk, stability, fragility, diversification
This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.
Eder, Armin; Fecht, Falko; Pausch, Thilo
In a theoretical model of the Diamond-Dybvig style, in which deposit-taking banks and financial markets coexist, bank behavior is analyzed taking into account a positive ex-ante probability of a future financial crisis. We focus on the role of the interaction of market liquidity and banks' funding liquidity in the propagation of shocks in the financial system. Our findings suggest that in particular bank-dominated financial systems are prone to contagious bank runs due to asset price deterior...
Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo
Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789
Edmund T Rolls
Full Text Available Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.
Rolls, Edmund T; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo
Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.
Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a selected-response format. This chapter presents a short overview of how item response theory and generalizability theory were integrated to model such assessments. Further, the precision of the esti...
Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John
In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks......, they have done nothing to curb the risk of relatively risky banks, which presumably pose the greatest threat to financial stability...
Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili
Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity
Rafael Bautista Mesa
Full Text Available This study aims to measure the main determinants influencing bank efficiency. We suggest that the bank efficiency ratio, obtained from the income statement, is positively related to the size of a bank in terms of total assets. However, we believe that such a relationship cannot be maintained for banks over a certain size. By the use of the regression analysis method, we analyze the link between bank efficiency and bank size, using a sample of 3952 banks in the European Union. Our results show that the efficiency ratio stops improving for banks with total assets over $25 billion. Previous literature, using different analysis techniques, does not reach an agreement on this point. Furthermore, our study identifies further variables which negatively affect the efficiency of banks, such as competition and lending diversification, or affect them positively, such as the wholesale funding ratio and income diversification. Our findings imply the need for different bank policies depending on total assets, in order to limit the size and activities of banks.
... plans or issued to finance acquisitions, including acquisitions of business entities, may be dedicated... Board is placing greater weight on the building-block approach for assessing capital requirements. This approach generally provides that nonbank subsidiaries of a banking organization should maintain levels of...
The purpose of this conducted study was to test the direct and indirect effects of internet banking quality and customer value to customer satisfaction. This study uses descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis to examine these relationships. The study is based on a survey conducted with respondents who use internet banking in their day-to-day activities, and all questionnaire items are deemed valid and reliable. For data analysis, the descriptive analysis for the indicators, dime...
Bischof, Jannis; Wüstemann, Jens
There is a considerable degree of heterogeneity in the way how European banks present their financial instruments in IFRS financial statements. In a sample of 109 European banks, we identify three major presentation formats that are currently applied: a presentation by measurement category, by product, and by purpose. We find the use of the measurement categories, which were originally designed by IAS 39 for measurement purposes, as line items to be the prevalent choice across countries. We a...
Elisabeth Combes-Thuelin; Lionel Escaffre
International audience; Regarding financial reporting, information about performances is one of the preferred items banking institutions are referring to. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative performance indicators are a significant part of annual reports. Reporting about performances raises some other issues: valuation at cost or at fair value, registration versus disclosure. In the case of the banking industry, the accounting information disclosed is all the more important as this sector...
EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og stærktmed......EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og...
The UBS will be integrating its two computer platforms during the weekend of 24 April.This operation involves changing your account card and Eurocheque card, which will be sent to you by post.Those who receive their bank correspondence at CERN may obtain their codes from the branch there.The security and rapidity of this procedure will be helped by the presentation of an identity document.Despite the precautions taken, problems may be experienced with the operation of the cash-points during that weekend.The bank's staff would like to offer apologies in advance for any difficulties and are at your disposal for any information you may need.UBS
Eutalia Aparecida Candido de Araujo
Full Text Available A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; portanto, as conclusões não dependem apenas do teste ou questionário, mas de cada item que o compõe. Este artigo propõe-se a apresentar esta Teoria que revolucionou a teoria de medidas.La preocupación con las medidas de los rasgos psicológicos es antigua y muchos estudios y propuestas de métodos fueron desarrollados para lograr este objetivo. Entre estas propuestas de trabajo se incluye la Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem (TRI que, en principio, vino a completar las limitaciones de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests, ampliamente utilizada hasta hoy en la medida de los rasgos psicológicos. El punto principal de la TRI es que se tiene en cuenta el punto concreto, sin relevar las puntuaciones totales; por lo tanto, los resultados no sólo dependen de la prueba o cuestionario, sino que de cada ítem que lo compone. En este artículo se propone presentar la Teoría que revolucionó la teoría de medidas.The concern with measures of psychological traits is old and many studies and proposals of methods were developed to achieve this goal. Among these proposed methods highlights the Item Response Theory (IRT that, in principle, came to complete limitations of the Classical Test Theory, which is widely used until nowadays in the measurement of psychological traits. The main point of IRT is that it takes into account the item in particular, not relieving the total scores; therefore, the findings do not only depend on the test or questionnaire
Binder, Michael; Wieland, Volker
The establishment of the ECB and with it the launch of the euro has arguably been a unique endeavor in economic history, representing an important experiment in central banking. This note aims to summarize some of the main lessons learned from this experiment and sketch some of the prospects for the ECB. It is written for "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics", 2nd edition. JEL Classification: E52, E58
Lind, Maria Benedicte; Rice, Harrie Emily; Andersen, Lærke Maria; Elfort, Amanda Josefine; Pedersen, Sophie Espe; Sahibzada, Qamar Un Nisa
The purpose of this project is to examine the campaign Øhhkonomi from Danske Bank. The project is based on examining which assumptions the campaign, and further actions surrounding the campaign, expresses about the audience. The campaign audience is specifically 18-27 years old and addresses problems regarding their personal finance skills and understanding thereof. Starting from a communication point of view, the project examines the campaign and the sender in itself. The purpose hereof is t...
Benson, D; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J
The GenBank sequence database has undergone an expansion in data coverage, annotation content and the development of new services for the scientific community. In addition to nucleotide sequences, data from the major protein sequence and structural databases, and from U.S. and European patents is now included in an integrated system. MEDLINE abstracts from published articles describing the sequences provide an important new source of biological annotation for sequence entries. In addition to ...
KARL-THEODOR EISELE; PHILIPPE ARTZNER
This paper is based on a general method for multiperiod prudential supervision of companies submitted to hedgeable and non-hedgeable risks. Having treated the case of insurance in an earlier paper, we now consider a quantitative approach to supervision of commercial banks. The various elements under supervision are the bank’s current amount of tradeable assets, the deposit amount, and four flow processes: future trading risk exposures, deposit flows, flows of loan repayments and of deposit re...
Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E
Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Prawitasari, Larasati; Hudrasyah, Herry
Internet banking is a form of self-service technology. In the global banking business, Internet banking has a big role for doing the business. In developing country, Internet banking received relatively little attention although has been deployed for years. Only 3% of customer Bank XYZ in Indonesia using Internet banking service actively, although has been 9 years Bank XYZ introduced Internet banking service. This study addressed what factor that drives and influences Internet banking accepta...
Steam and condensate systems must be maintained with the same diligence as the boiler itself. Unfortunately, they often are not. The water treatment program, critical to keeping the boiler at peak efficiency and optimizing operating life, should not stop with the boiler. The program must encompass the steam and condensate system as well. A properly maintained condensate system maximizes condensate recovery, which is a cost-free energy source. The fuel needed to turn the boiler feedwater into steam has already been provided. Returning the condensate allows a significant portion of that fuel cost to be recouped. Condensate has a high heat content. Condensate is a readily available, economical feedwater source. Properly treated, it is very pure. Condensate improves feedwater quality and reduces makeup water demand and pretreatment costs. Higher quality feedwater means more reliable boiler operation
Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G
Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab
The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.
The concept of improving nuclear safety versus maintaining it has been discussed at a number of nuclear regulators meetings in recent years. National reports have indicated that there are philosophical differences between NEA member countries about whether their regulatory approaches require licensees to continuously improve nuclear safety or to continuously maintain it. It has been concluded that, while the actual level of safety achieved in all member countries is probably much the same, this is difficult to prove in a quantitative way. In practice, all regulatory approaches require improvements to be made to correct deficiencies and when otherwise warranted. Based on contributions from members of the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), this publication provides an overview of current nuclear regulatory philosophies and approaches, as well as insights into a selection of public perception issues. This publication's intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)
Lukmanova Inessa Galeevna
Calculation of reduction of the overall cost of the real estate item that has improved quality indicators in comparison with the overall cost of the real estate item of satisfactory quality, taken as a benchmark, is made. The nature of interrelation between the quality of building works and maintenance expenses is provided. The overall cost of the item increases alongside with the increase of its quality, therefore the pre-set quality indicator should be defined by taking account of the market conditions, rates charged for building works and payable by buyers, and the amount of building works that sell at a higher price. The indicator of the overall cost of the item of real estate, if forthcoming operational expenses are taken into account, i.e. calculated for the course of the overall life cycle of the item, is essential if the investor is going to maintain the building. Investors often act as sellers of completed buildings; therefore, the product price set at the time when it is offered for sale is of particular importance.
Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator
Aji Damanuri Abstract: Shari>’ah banking, for the last ten years, has increased in prosperity not only at the quantity of conventional banks but also at the count of assets and customers. This economical opportunity drives amount of conventional banks both to convert their institutions to be shari>’ah banks and to open officially shari>’ah platform units with their own assets. This system takes a significant question, is the conversion effected by both banker ideological factor and capitalists or pure economical rational calculation? Is a religious consideration linked to economical rationality? This paper is to elaborate the conversion using not only ‘choice theory’ (teori pilihan but also ‘rational action’ (tindakan rasional to seek religious action possibility in a reasonable way of shari>’ah banking. Keywords: shari>’ah bank, conversion, rational action, religiosity.
Full Text Available Strategic positioning has always been a key tool for managers to analyze the position of the firm in different attributes in comparison with competitors. With regard to fierce competition in banking industry, the aim of this study is to analyze the position of Bank Melli Iran with 5 public and private rivals in 6 attributes. The sample of this study was 387 Bank Melli Iran customers. The results of this study were in 14 perceptual maps in which the positions of Bank Melli Iran attributes have been shown compared with bank’s key competitors. The results showed that Bank Melli Iran had strong position and came to the first place in attributes like price, physical equipment and location and security. Moreover, Bank Melli Iran has to improve its position in attributes with no better position.
Full Text Available Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resource facilitating conditions, and technology facilitating conditions. Meanwhile, mobile banking emerged as superior to Internet banking for other constructs. By adding a comparative concept into an extended decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB model, this study may expand the applicable domain of current social psychology theories from the adoption of single products or services to the choice between competing products or services that achieve similar purposes and functions.
Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.
Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.
Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L
Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Utilizing a micro computer based test bank offers a training department many advantages and can have a positive impact upon training procedures and examination standards. Prior to data entry, Training Department management must pre-review the examination questions and answers to ensure compliance with examination standards and to verify the validity of all questions. Management must adhere to the TSD format since all questions require an enabling objective numbering scheme. Each question is entered under the enabling objective upon which it is based. Then the question is selected via the enabling objective. This eliminates any instructor bias because a random number generator chooses the test question. However, the instructor may load specific questions to create an emphasis theme for any test. The examination, answer and cover sheets are produced and printed within minutes. The test bank eliminates the large amount of time that is normally required for an instructor to formulate an examination. The need for clerical support is reduced by the elimination of typing examinations and also by the software's ability to maintain and generate student/course lists, attendance sheets, and grades. Software security measures limit access to the test bank, and the impromptu method used to generate and print an examination enhance its security
Pere Arqué-Castells; Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal
During the period 1965-1987 Spain was an emerging market in full transition from developing to developed status. During the same period the Spanish banking system underwent an unprecedented episode of expansion growing from 5,000 to over 30,000 bank branches. We examine whether the latter process partly caused the former by focusing on the relationship between branch expansion and entrepreneurship in the wholesale and retail trade industries. To address the non-random allocation of bank branc...
International Finance Corporation
The overall objective of this study is to learn about the impact of International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) Banking on Women (BoW) Program in the Europe and Central Asia and the Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) through BLC Bank of Lebanon. The objective of this specific case study is to understand the success of the BoW program for BLC Bank in Lebanon in terms of the program’s contri...
This article describes the growth of Islamic banking industry in Indonesia. Islamic banking to perform progressive and strong performance from the banking indicators. Bank Indonesia estimates that the Islamic banking industry will achieve a growth higher than the national banking system in general. In the development of Islamic banking there are still some challenges to be solved especially for a small market share, lack of human resources, and the lack of product developmen...
Azuar Juliandi, Dewi Andriani,
Sharia bank now has popularity among the people of Indonesia. Sharia bankbased on present Islamic economic principles. Sharia Bank has a big role increaseworld banking in Indonesia. Attentive Indonesia society majority is Moslem, soSharia Banking in the future has good prospect with increase knowledge aboutawareness to use banking produc and information with experience society aboutbenefit sharia banking. This study aimed to know knowledge and attitude society forsharia banking and to know kn...
During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...
Haribowo, Ignatius Novianto
This study aims to examine the factors that influence a person to withdraw all or part of the money from the bank in liquidation of large banks case in Indonesia. This study uses the theory of Lewin to uncover factors that may influence a person to withdraw part or all of the money from the bank if there is a big bank liquidation. Based on Lewin's theory, there are two factors that can influence a person's decision, namely internal factors and external factors. Internal factors in this study ...
Fursova Viktoriya А.
Full Text Available The article analyzes and generalizes contemporary techniques for assessing the financial sustainability of commercial banks. It has been identified that none of the techniques considered takes in full account of the bank’s debt level to the National Bank of Ukraine, despite the large role of the regulator in maintaining liquidity and solvency of banking institutions during the crisis. The necessity to consider, in terms of the rating techniques for assessment of the financial sustainability of commercial banks, the refinancing indicator that can be useful to calculate the ratio of the credit means of the National Bank of Ukraine to the equity capital, has been substantiated. Improving the existing rating techniques by including this indicator will enhance their efficiency and provide possibility to develop timely recommendations for regulating crisis developments in a banking institution.
Valentin Mihai Leoveanu
Full Text Available Leadership could be seen as a process to achieve company’s goals through company’s people. In any company and also in banks and central banks, leadership could register notable performance as a result of harmonization between formal and informal organization of the company. Maintaining a dynamic and optimal balance for ensuring the simultaneous attainment of individual aspirations of employees and company objectives should be a goal and a permanent preoccupation of the management team. Nowadays, leadership of the central banks have to face a multitude of issues that concern accountability and credibility of monetary authorities. In this regard, one of the essential characteristics that determine and influence leadership of a central bank was to ensure that the degree of central bank independence from the political authorities of the country concerned. Before and during the international financial crisis, NBR has faced some important and difficult periods, watershed might say, in terms of the proper functioning of his leadership. These include: adopting the strategy of monetary policy based on inflation targeting, the speculative attack on the currency in the period 17 October to 5 November 2008 and the liquidity crisis of Romanian banks with foreign capital.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is twofold: 1. examine the relationship betweenservice quality dimensions and customer satisfaction with bank territorialunits; 2. establish which quality measure method out of the four considered inthis study should be applied in order to better determine the areas that needfurther improvement and investment. In this respect, we performed PrincipalComponent Regression (PCR and considered direct importance andperformance measures as well. Our results reveal that human resourceshave the greatest impact on customers’ satisfaction with bank territorial unitsand that both “Convenience and Efficiency” and “Bank personnel” are thedimensions that bank management should consider in their efforts to improveand maintain the service quality level. To the best of our knowledge, this isthe first study which tries to emphasize the relationship between servicequality dimensions and Romanian customers’ satisfaction with bank territorialunits. The main limit of the study lies in the fact that data were collectedamong the customers of a single bank. Nevertheless, it provides valuableinformation about the Romanian market and ought to be considered astarting point for further studies.
This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....
Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito
A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks..., provided such loans are authorized by the policies of the bank and/or association involved, do not constitute a significant shift in loan volume away from the bank or association's assigned territory, and are...
..., North Dakota, as trustees/administrators, to retain voting shares of the Commercial Bank of Mott Employee Stock Ownership Plan, and thereby indirectly retain voting shares of Commercial Bank of Mott, both... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank...
... Bancshares, Inc., and thereby acquire control of First Commercial Bank, both of Edmond, Oklahoma. Board of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
... shares of Anchor Commercial Bank, Juno Beach, Florida. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
... voting shares of Chino Commercial Bank, N.A., both of Chino, California. Board of Governors of the... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...