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Sample records for main injector fmi

  1. Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

  2. The Fermilab Main Injector Technical Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1994-08-01

    This report contains a description of the design, cost estimate, and construction schedule of the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) Project. The technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the FMI Project have already been established and may be found in the Fermilab Main Injector Title I Design Report, issued in August 1992. This report updates and expands upon the design and schedule for construction of all subsystem components and associated civil construction described in the Title I Design Report. The facilities described have been designed in conformance with DOE 6430.1A, "United States Department of Energy General Design Criteria."

  3. Radiation shielding of the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.

    1995-05-01

    The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases

  4. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x10 31 cm -2 s -1 in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction

  5. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x10{sup 31} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction.

  6. The main injector chromaticity correction sextupole magnets: Measurements and operating schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Bogacz, A.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.; Fang, S.J.; Martin, P.S.; Glass, H.D.; Sim, J.

    1995-05-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which will be used to accelerate protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. The natural chromaticities of the machine for the horizontal and the vertical Planes are -33.6 and -33.9 respectively. The Δp/p of the beam at injection is about 0.002. The chromaticity requirements of the FMI, are primarily decided by the Δp/p = 0.002 of the beam at injection. This limits the final chromaticity of the FMI to be ±5 units. To correct the chromaticity in the FMI two families of sextupole magnets will be installed in the lattice, one for each plane. A sextupole magnet suitable for the FMI needs has been designed and a number of them are being built. New chromaticity compensation schemes have been worked out in the light of recently proposed faster acceleration ramps. On an R/D sextupole magnet the low current measurements have been carried out to determine the electrical properties. Also, using a Morgan coil, measurements have been performed to determine the higher ordered multipole components up to 18-poles. An overview of these result are presented here

  7. The impact of deformation on the final alignment of the Fermilab main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, G.; Lakanen, St.

    1999-01-01

    The determination of deformation of the reference points is very important for the final alignment process and the future performance of the FMI machine. In case of Main Injector Tunnel practically all points of the network were subject to deformation. The method of minimizing the first norm of the displacement vector of the reference points was chosen as the method to analyze the deformation experienced within the project. Basic principles of deformation determination and analysis evaluations movement of the network relative of the beam position will be exhibited in this poster. (authors)

  8. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-07-15

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 10{sup 31} per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research.

  9. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 10 31 per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research

  10. Chromaticity compensation scheme for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The current Main Injector lattice is studied in the context of full chromaticity compensation in the presence of the eddy current, saturation and the end-pack sextupole fields generated by the dipole magnets. Two families of correcting sextupole magnets are placed to compensate these fields and to adjust the chromaticity (in both planes) to some desired value. Variation of the dipole induced sextupole fields with the B-field (changing along a ramp) are modeled according to recent experimental measurements of the Main Injector dipole magnet Analysis of the required sextupole strengths is carried out along two realistic momentum ramps. The results of our calculation give quantitative insight into the requisite performance of the sextupole magnets

  11. Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Lucas, P.; Malensek, A.; Murphy, C.T.; Yang, M.-J.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics

  12. Detailed Measurement of ORSC Main Chamber Injector Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Michael J.

    Improving fidelity in simulation of combustion dynamics in rocket combustors requires an increase in experimental measurement fidelity for validation. In a model rocket combustor, a chemiluminescence based spectroscopy technique was used to capture flame light emissions for direct comparison to a computational simulation of the production of chemiluminescent species. The comparison indicated that high fidelity models of rocket combustors can predict spatio-temporal distribution of chemiluminescent species with trend-wise accuracy. The comparison also indicated the limited ability of OH* and CH* emission to indicate flame heat release. Based on initial spectroscopy experiments, a photomultiplier based chemiluminescence sensor was designed to increase the temporal resolution of flame emission measurements. To apply developed methodologies, an experiment was designed to investigate the flow and combustion dynamics associated with main chamber injector elements typical of the RD-170 rocket engine. A unique feature of the RD-170 injector element is the beveled expansion between the injector recess and combustion chamber. To investigate effects of this geometry, a scaling methodology was applied to increase the physical scale of a single injector element while maintaining traceability to the RD-170 design. Two injector configurations were tested, one including a beveled injector face and the other a flat injector face. This design enabled improved spatial resolution of pressure and light emission measurements densely arranged in the injector recess and near-injector region of the chamber. Experimental boundary conditions were designed to closely replicate boundary conditions in simulations. Experimental results showed that the beveled injector face had a damping effect on pressure fluctuations occurring near the longitudinal resonant acoustic modes of the chamber, implying a mechanism for improved overall combustion stability. Near the injector, the beveled geometry

  13. Transition crossing in the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Fermi Lab Main Injector. The theory indicates that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a ''γ T jump'' of about 1.5 unit within 1 ms is adequate to achieve a ''clean'' crossing in the currently proposed h=588 scenario. 19 refs., 4 figs

  14. Results on Fermilab main injector dipole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Baiod, R.; DiMarco, J.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Mishra, S.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.F.; russell, O.A.; Tompkins, J.C.; Walbridge, D.G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the Productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B/I) vs. I in providing insight into the measured results

  15. A transitionless lattice for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Lee, S.Y.

    1991-05-01

    Medium energy (1 to 30 GeV) accelerators are often confronted with transition crossing during acceleration. A lattice without transition is presented, which is a design for the Fermilab Main Injector. The main properties of this lattice are that the γ t is an imaginary number, the maxima of the dispersion function are small, and two long-straight section with zero dispersion. 7 refs., 5 figs

  16. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  17. The design and manufacture of the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Chester, N.S.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.

    1992-03-01

    Fermilab's new Main Injector Ring (MIR) will replace the currently operating Main Ring to provide 150 GeV Proton and Antiproton beams for Tevetron injection, and rapid cycling, high intensity, 120 GeV Proton beams for Antiproton production. To produce and maintain the required high beam quality, high intensity, and high repetition rate, conventional dipole magnets with laminated iron core and water cooled copper conductor were chosen as the bending magnet. A new magnet design having low inductance, large copper cross section, and field uniformity sufficient for high intensity injection and efficient slow resonant extraction, is required to obtain the needed geometric aperture, dynamic aperture, and operational reliability. The current Main Injector Ring lattice design requires the use of 344 of these magnets. 216 of these magnets are to be 6 m long, and 128 are to be 4 m long

  18. AMC's Fleet Management Initiative (FMI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holcomb, Michael

    2008-01-01

    .... The goal of the FMI effort was twofold: (1) It was primarily intended to shift the maintenance function to AMC, the Army's recognized expert for performing maintenance, thereby enabling TRADOC to refocus its efforts on its core competency...

  19. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-05-01

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  20. Impedance budget and beam stability analysis of the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

    1993-05-01

    The impedance budget of the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) is estimated, which includes the contributions from the resistive walls, bellows, rf cavities, steps, Lambertsons, etc. Beam stability during ramping and bunch coalescence is analyzed. The transverse resistive-wall coupled bunch growth is found to be somewhat worse than the situation in the Main Ring (MR)

  1. An improved imaginary transition γt lattice for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.; Trbojevic, D.

    1992-08-01

    An improved imaginary-γ t lattice for the 150 GeV Fermilab Main Injector is presented. It has the properties of small dispersion function, good tunability, small tune dependences on momentum with the presence of chromaticity sextupoles, and a large dynamical aperture. In addition, many of the quadrupoles can be recycled from the present Main Ring

  2. Spin Tracking of Polarized Protons in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, M. [Fermilab; Lorenzon, W. [Michigan U.; Aldred, C. [Michigan U.

    2016-07-01

    The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab currently produces high-intensity beams of protons at energies of 120 GeV for a variety of physics experiments. Acceleration of polarized protons in the MI would provide opportunities for a rich spin physics program at Fermilab. To achieve polarized proton beams in the Fermilab accelerator complex, shown in Fig.1.1, detailed spin tracking simulations with realistic parameters based on the existing facility are required. This report presents studies at the MI using a single 4-twist Si-berian snake to determine the depolarizing spin resonances for the relevant synchrotrons. Results will be presented first for a perfect MI lattice, followed by a lattice that includes the real MI imperfections, such as the measured magnet field errors and quadrupole misalignments. The tolerances of each of these factors in maintaining polariza-tion in the Main Injector will be discussed.

  3. A kaon physics program at the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Peter

    1997-11-01

    In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay K L → π 0 ν anti ν decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K + beam to produce a pure K 0 beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare K S decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ''kaon factory'' proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world

  4. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near ±45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

  5. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, W.; Steimel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System

  7. Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

    1994-03-01

    One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 10 10 protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20π mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations

  8. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Briegel, C.; Brown, B.C.; Capista, D.; Drennan, C.; Fellenz, B.; Knickerbocker, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Marchionni, A.; Needles, C.; Olson, M.

    2011-01-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and show a number of examples of its use in both the Main Injector and Tevatron.

  9. Experience with the source evaluation board method of procuring technical components for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.J.; Collins, J.P.; Kobliska, G.R.; Chester, N.S.; Pewitt, E.G.; Fowler, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    Fermilab has adopted the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) method for procuring certain major technical components of the Fermilab Main Injector. The SEB procedure is designed to ensure the efficient and effective expenditure of Government funds at the same time that it optimizes the opportunity for attainment of project objectives. A qualitative trade-off is allowed between price and technical factors. The process involves a large amount of work and is only justified for a very limited number of procurements. Fermilab has gained experience with the SEB process in awarding subcontracts for major subassemblies of the Fermilab Main Injector dipoles

  10. First-principles simulation and comparison with beam tests for transverse instabilities and damper performance in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklaus, Dennis; Foster, G.William; Kashikhin, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    An end-to-end performance calculation and comparison with beam tests was performed for the bunch-by-bunch digital transverse damper in the Fermilab Main Injector. Time dependent magnetic wakefields responsible for ''Resistive Wall'' transverse instabilities in the Main Injector were calculated with OPERA-2D using the actual beam pipe and dipole magnet lamination geometry. The leading order dipole component was parameterized and used as input to a bunch-by-bunch simulation which included the filling pattern and injection errors experienced in high-intensity operation of the Main Injector. The instability growth times, and the spreading of the disturbance due to newly misinjected batches was compared between simulations and beam data collected by the damper system. Further simulation models the effects of the damper system on the beam

  11. The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.; Chester, N.; Desavouret, E.; Garvey, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Harfoush, F.; Holmes, S.; Humbert, J.; Kerby, J.; Knauf, A.; Kobliska, G.; Lipski, A.; Martin, P.; Mazur, P.; Orris, D.; Ostiguy, J.; Peggs, S.; Pachnik, J.; Pewitt, E.; Satti, J.; Schmidt, E.; Sim, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walbridge, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta) max is ∼> 1.4, and the average electron density is n e ∼> 10 10 m -3 at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3

  13. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  14. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10 9 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

  15. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backfish, Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  16. 53 MHZ Feedforward beam loading compensation in the Fermilab main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph E Dey et al.

    2003-01-01

    53 MHz feedforward beam loading compensation is crucial to all operations of the Main Injector. Recently a system using a fundamental frequency down converter mixer, a digital bucket delay module and a fundamental frequency up converter mixer were used to produce a one-turn-delay feedforward signal. This signal was then combined with the low level RF signal to the cavities to cancel the transient beam induced voltage. During operation they have shown consistently over 20 dB reduction in side-band voltage around the fundamental frequency during Proton coalescing and over 14 dB in multi-batch antiproton coalescing

  17. Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, Miguel A; Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

  18. Design for Fermilab main injector magnet ramps which account for hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Bhat, C.M.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Wu, G.

    1997-05-01

    Although the dominant fields in accelerator electromagnets are proportional to the excitation current, precise control of accelerator parameters requires a detailed understanding of the fields in Main Injector magnets including contribution from eddy currents, magnet saturation, and hysteresis. Operation for decelerating beam makes such considerations particularly significant. Analysis of magnet measurements and design of control system software is presented. Field saturation and its effects on low field hysteresis are accounted for in specifying the field ramps for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Some simplifying assumptions are made which are accepted as limitations on the required ramp sequences. Specifications are provided for relating desired field ramps to required current ramps for the momentum, tune, and chromaticity control

  19. Operational performance of a bunch by bunch digital damper in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, P.; Ashmanskas, W.J.; Foster, G.W.; Hansen, S.; Marchionni, A.; Nicklaus, D.; Semenov, A.; Wildman, D.; Kang, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project

  20. Cross Section Measurements In The Main Injector Particle Production (FNAL-E907) Experiment At 58 GEV Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV π, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary π, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected ∼ 0.26 x 10 6 events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

  1. Tevatron energy and luminosity upgrades beyond the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidei, D.; Kamon, T.; Lopez, J.; McIntyre, P.; White, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron will be the world's highest energy hadron collider until the LHC is commissioned, it has the world's highest energy fixed target beams, and Fermilab will be the leading high energy physics laboratory in the US for the foreseeable future. Following the demise of the SSC, a number of possible upgrades to the Tevatron complex, beyond construction of the Main Injector, are being discussed. Using existing technology, it appears possible to increase the luminosity of the bar pp Collider to at least 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 (Tevatron-Star) and to increase the beam energy to 2 TeV (DiTevatron). Fixed target beam of energy about 1.5 TeV could also be delivered. Leaving the existing Tevatron in the tunnel and constructing bypasses around the collider halls would allow simultaneous 800 GeV fixed target and √s = 4 TeV collider operation. These upgrades would give Fermilab an exciting physics program which would be complementary to the LHC, and they would lay the groundwork for the construction of a possible post-LHC ultra-high energy hadron collider

  2. CFD simulation of coaxial injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, D. Brian

    1993-01-01

    The development of improved performance models for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is an important, ongoing program at NASA MSFC. These models allow prediction of overall system performance, as well as analysis of run-time anomalies which might adversely affect engine performance or safety. Due to the complexity of the flow fields associated with the SSME, NASA has increasingly turned to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques as modeling tools. An important component of the SSME system is the fuel preburner, which consists of a cylindrical chamber with a plate containing 264 coaxial injector elements at one end. A fuel rich mixture of gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen is injected and combusted in the chamber. This process preheats the hydrogen fuel before it enters the main combustion chamber, powers the hydrogen turbo-pump, and provides a heat dump for nozzle cooling. Issues of interest include the temperature and pressure fields at the turbine inlet and the thermal compatibility between the preburner chamber and injector plate. Performance anomalies can occur due to incomplete combustion, blocked injector ports, etc. The performance model should include the capability to simulate the effects of these anomalies. The current approach to the numerical simulation of the SSME fuel preburner flow field is to use a global model based on the MSFC sponsored FNDS code. This code does not have the capabilities of modeling several aspects of the problem such as detailed modeling of the coaxial injectors. Therefore, an effort has been initiated to develop a detailed simulation of the preburner coaxial injectors and provide gas phase boundary conditions just downstream of the injector face as input to the FDNS code. This simulation should include three-dimensional geometric effects such as proximity of injectors to baffles and chamber walls and interaction between injectors. This report describes an investigation into the numerical simulation of GH2/LOX coaxial

  3. C. elegans fmi-1/flamingo and Wnt pathway components interact genetically to control the anteroposterior neurite growth of the VD GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarcaya Najarro, Elvis; Ackley, Brian D

    2013-05-01

    Directed axonal growth is essential to establish neuronal networks. During the early development of the VD neurons, an anterior neurite that will become the VD axon extends along the anteroposterior (A/P) axis in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in Caenorhabditis elegans. Little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are important for correct neurite growth in the VNC. In fmi-1/flamingo mutant animals, we observed that some postembryonically born VD neurons had a posterior neurite instead of a normal anterior neurite, which caused aberrant VD commissure patterning along the A/P axis. In addition, VD anterior neurites had underextension defects in the VNC in fmi-1 animals, whereas VD commissure growth along the dorsoventral (D/V) axis occurred normally in these animals, suggesting that fmi-1 is important for neurite growth along the A/P axis but not the D/V axis. We also uncovered unknown details of the early development of the VD neurons, indicating that the neurite defects arose during their early development. Interestingly, though fmi-1 is present at this time in the VNC, we did not observe FMI-1 in the VD neurons themselves, suggesting that fmi-1 might be working in a cell non-autonomous fashion. Furthermore, fmi-1 appears to be working in a novel pathway, independently from the planar cell polarity pathway and in parallel to lin-17/frizzled and dsh-1/dishevelled, to determine the direction of neurite growth. Our findings indicate that redundant developmental pathways regulate neurite growth in the VNC in C. elegans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The psychometric properties of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS and Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI as measures of mindfulness and their relationship with burnout and work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Given the increasing interest in mindfulness in the workplace, recent research recommends that the psychometric properties of existing mindfulness measures be evaluated in terms of convergent and predictive validity. Research purpose: The research purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the 15-item (short version Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS and the 14-item (short version Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI in parallel on a South African sample. Furthermore, the research aimed to investigate the convergent validity between the FMI and MAAS as well as their relationship to burnout and work engagement (predictive validity. Motivation for the study: Organisational scholars must investigate the most appropriate instruments for measuring mindfulness in the workplace. Doing so would allow an eventual meta-analysis on the construct and its relationships and utility in the workplace. Research design, approach and methodology: For this study, a quantitative cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Convenience sampling was chosen and 497 participants applying for admission to a management and leadership degree programme at a South African Business School participated in the study. All participants of the sample are employed at either private or public institutions. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the convergent validity of the instruments. Cronbach’s alpha was utilised in determining the reliabilities of the instruments. The product–moment correlation by Pearson was used to compare the two instruments in terms of their relationship to burnout and work engagement. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine whether the FMI and MAAS are significant predictors of burnout and work engagement (predictive validity. Main findings: The results showed that the short versions of both the FMI and the MAAS are valid and reliable unidimensional measures of mindfulness. The findings showed

  5. CTF3 Drive Beam Injector Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082899; Doebert, S

    2015-01-01

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The main feasibility issues of the two-beam acceleration scheme are being demonstrated at CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). The CTF3 Drive Beam injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by the bunching system and two accelerating structures all embedded in solenoidal magnetic field and a magnetic chicane. Three sub-harmonic bunchers (SHB), a prebuncher and a travelling wave buncher constitute the bunching system. The phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system produces unwanted satellite bunches between the successive main bunches. The beam dynamics of the CTF3 Drive Beam injector is reoptimised with the goal of improving the injector performance and in particular decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and the beam emittance in transverse plane compare to the original model based on P. Ur...

  6. Electron linac injector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    There is a continuing demand for improved injectors for electron linacs. Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators require pulse trains of high brightness and, in some applications, high average power at the same time. Wakefield-accelerator and laser-acceleration experiments require isolated bunches of high peak brightness. Experiments with alkali-halide photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for injector applications are described. For isolated pulses, metal photocathodes (illuminated by intense laser pulses) are being employed. Reduced emittance growth in high-peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by linearizing the cavity electric field's radial component and by using high field strengths at the expense of lower shunt impedance. Harmonically excited cavities have been proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance of linac cavities and thereby reducing the energy spread produced in the acceleration process. Operation of injector linacs at a subharmonic of the main linac frequency is also proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance

  7. La "condizionalità" del FMI: per un sistema migliore. (IMF conditionality – a better way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SPRAOS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L' articolo esamina le condizioni del FMI per la tranche di credito accordi stand-by superiori. L' FMI deve affrontare le critiche che le sue azioni recenti hanno comportato sul ' territorio a causa di errori nei prestiti di banche   ai paesi del terzo mondo banche private - una questione che avrebbe potuto essere lasciata alle forze di mercato libere .Le condizioni di assistenza del FMI dovrebbero concentrarsi non sugli strumenti di politica ma su obiettivi politici , come la crescita , l'occupazione , l'inflazione e , in ultima analisi , il ripristino della bilancia dei pagamenti dei paesi.The article looks at IMF conditions for upper credit tranche stand-by arrangements. The IMF must face the criticism that its recent actions have transgressed on private banks' territory because of banks' errors in lending to third world countries - a matter that could have been left to free market forces. Conditions for IMF aid should focus not on policy instruments but on policy targets, such as growth, employment, inflation and, ultimately, restoration of countries' balance of payments positions. Conditions for IMF help should be centred squarely on the balance of payments of aid-seeking countries if a backwards trend is to be avoided.JEL: F32, F33

  8. Simulations of Electron Cloud Effects on the Beam Dynamics for the FNAL Main Injector Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnad Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine M.; Grote, David

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab main injector (MI) is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort. This upgrade will involve a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value. Such an increase will place the MI in a regime in which electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. We have used the electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP, recently augmented with new modeling capabilities and simulation techniques, to study the dynamics of beam-electron cloud interaction. This work in progress involves a systematic assessment of beam instabilities due to the presence of electron clouds

  9. Geometrical characterization and performance optimization of monopropellant thruster injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Nada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of the injector in a monopropellant thruster is to atomize the liquid hydrazine and to distribute it over the catalyst bed as uniformly as possible. A second objective is to place the maximum amount of catalyst in contact with the propellant in as short time as possible to minimize the starting transient time. Coverage by the spray is controlled mainly by cone angle and diameter of the catalyst bed, while atomization quality is measured by the Sauter Mean Diameter, SMD. These parameters are evaluated using empirical formulae. In this paper, two main types of injectors are investigated; plain orifice and full cone pressure swirl injectors. The performance of these two types is examined for use with blow down monopropellant propulsion system. A comprehensive characterization is given and design charts are introduced to facilitate optimizing the performance of the injector. Full-cone injector is a more suitable choice for monopropellant thruster and it might be available commercially.

  10. Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitzer, S A; Cary, J R; Stoltz, P H; LeBrun, P; Spentzouris, P; Amundson, J F

    2009-01-01

    High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

  11. Commissioning and First Results of the Electron Beam Profiler in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M. [Fermilab; Fitzgerald, J. [Fermilab; Lundberg, C. [Fermilab; Prieto, P. [Fermilab; Zagel, J. [Fermilab; Blokland, W. [Oak Ridge

    2017-08-01

    The planned neutrino program at Fermilab requires large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and often depends on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a probe beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and a similar device has been installed in the Main Injector at Fermilab. Commissioning of the device is in progress with the goal of having it operational by the end of the year. The status of the commissioning and initial results will be presented

  12. Injector MD Days 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2017-01-01

    The Injector Machine Development (MD) days 2017 were held on 23-24 March, 2017, at CERN with thefollowing main goals:Give a chance to the MD users to present their results and show the relevant progress made in 2016 onseveral fronts.Provide the MD users and the Operation (OP) crews with a general overview on the outcome and theimpact of all ongoing MD activities.Identify the open questions and consequently define - with priorities - a list of machine studies in theinjectors for 2017 (covering the operational beams, LHC Injectors Upgrade, High Luminosity LHC,Physics Beyond Colliders, other projects).Create the opportunity to collect and document the highlights of the 2016 MDs and define the perspectivesfor 2017.Discuss how to make best use of the MD time, in particular let the main MD user express their wishesand see whether/how OP teams can contribute to their fulfilment.

  13. The Fermilab Main Injector dipole and quadrupole cooling design and bus connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    The proposed system for connecting the low conductivity water (LCW) and the electrical power to the magnets is explained. This system requires minimum maintenance. Stainless steel headers supply LCW to local, secondary manifolds which regulate the flow to the dipole and to the copper bus which conduct both power and cooling water to the quadrupole. A combination of ceramic feedthroughs and thermoplastic hoses insulate the piping electrically from the copper bus system. The utilities for the Main Injector are grouped together at the outside wall of the tunnel leaving most of the enclosure space for servicing. Space above the headers is available for future accelerator expansion. The new dipoles have bolted electrical connections with flexible copper jumpers. Separate compression fittings are used for the water connections. Each dipole magnet has two water circuits in parallel designed to minimize thermal stresses and the number of insulators. Two electrical insulators are used in series because this design has been shown to minimize electrolyses problems and copper ion deposits inside the insulators. The design value of the temperature gradient of the LCW is 8 degrees C

  14. Putting a New Spin on an Existing Machine: Prospects for Polarizing the Fermilab Main Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Christine

    2012-10-01

    As we continue to explore quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as the theory of the strong force, with gluon interactions in hadrons responsible for more than 98% of the visible mass in the universe, spin remains an important degree of freedom to be able to manipulate in order to advance the field. In particular, spin-momentum correlations in QCD, broadly analogous to quantum electrodynamical spin-orbit couplings in the hydrogen atom, have risen to the forefront of QCD research over the past decade. The current status of a proposal to polarize the proton beam at the Fermilab Main Injector will be presented, and the physics that could be accomplished with a hadronic fixed-target program at such a facility will be discussed.

  15. The SSRL injector beam position monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, W.; Baird, S.; Brennan, S.; Borland, M.; Hettel, R.; Nuhn, H.D.; Ortiz, R.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Yang, J.

    1991-01-01

    The beam position monitoring system of the SSRL injector forms a vital component of its operation. Several different types of instrumentation are used to measure the position or intensity of the electron beam in the injector. These include current toroids, fluorescent screens, Faraday cups, the 'Q' meter, a synchrotron light monitor, and electron beam position monitors. This paper focuses on the use of the electron beam position monitors to measure electron trajectories in the injector transport lines and the booster ring. The design of the beam position monitors is described in another paper to be presented at this conference. There are three different beam position monitor systems in the injector. One system consists of a set of five BPMs located on the injection transport line from the linac to the booster (known as the LTB line). There is a second system of six BPMs located on the ejection transport line (known as the BTS line). Finally, there is an array of 40 BPMs installed on the main booster ring itself. This article describes the software and processing electronics of the systems used to measure electron beam trajectories for the new SSRL injector for SPEAR

  16. Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the

  17. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumolo, G.; Bartosik, H.; Papaphilippou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 are presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. 2012 MD will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided. (authors)

  18. Análisis semiológico de los Discursos del FMI y Fidel Castro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Puentes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CHASQUI presenta aquí una rara pieza de información. Sobre la base de dos entrevistas exclusivas, una con el FMI y la otra de Fidel Castro acerca de la deuda externa, que marcan posiciones irreconciliables ideológicas y pragmáticas, que a simple vista impiden cualquier intento de diálogo y negociación, se ha hecho un análisis semiológico de las mismas. Esta debiera ser la tarea de los semiólogos para que su información sea de utilidad para los economistas y políticos que se sientan a la mesa de negociaciones, para que puedan mejorar el diálogo y aportar soluciones más justas para los pueblos, en particular los de América Latina, que sufren las consecuencias negativas de la deuda externa, y del anti-diálogo. CHASQUI entrevistó en exclusiva al FMI. Fidel Castro, de paso por Ecuador y en visita a CIESPAL, habló con los colegas del CEDIS. y Lucía Lemos, investigadora, hace el análisis de-los discursos.

  19. An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Edwards

    1998-11-01

    ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

  20. Conceptual design of the DEMO neutral beam injectors: main developments and R&D achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonato, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Cismondi, F.; Fantz, U.; Fassina, A.; Franke, T.; Furno, I.; Hopf, C.; Jenkins, I.; Sartori, E.; Tran, M. Q.; Varje, J.; Vincenzi, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of the nuclear fusion power plant DEMO, to be built after the ITER experimental reactor, are usually understood to lie somewhere between those of ITER and a ‘first of a kind’ commercial plant. Hence, in DEMO the issues related to efficiency and RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) are among the most important drivers for the design, as the cost of the electricity produced by this power plant will strongly depend on these aspects. In the framework of the EUROfusion Work Package Heating and Current Drive within the Power Plant Physics and Development activities, a conceptual design of the neutral beam injector (NBI) for the DEMO fusion reactor has been developed by Consorzio RFX in collaboration with other European research institutes. In order to improve efficiency and RAMI aspects, several innovative solutions have been introduced in comparison to the ITER NBI, mainly regarding the beam source, neutralizer and vacuum pumping systems.

  1. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  2. Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

    2006-01-01

    The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here

  3. The NLC Injector System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Clendenin, J.E.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Jobe, R.; Kotseroglou, T.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.V.; Li, Z.; Maruyama, T.; Millage, K.K.; McKee, B.; Mulhollan, G.; Munro, M.H.; Rago, C.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Ross, M.C.; Phinney, N.; Schultz, D.C.; Sheppard, J.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Vlieks, A.E.; Woodley, M D.; Bibber, K. van; Takeda, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NW) Injector System is designed to produce low emittance, 10 GeV electron and positron beams at 120 hertz for injection into the NLC main linacs. Each beam consists of a train of 9.5 bunches spaced by 2.8 ns; each bunch has a population of 1.15 x 10 10 particles. At injection into the main linacs, the horizontal and vertical emittances are specified to be γ var e psilon x = 3 x 10 -6 m-rad and γ var e psilon

  4. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-11-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  5. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Papaphilippou, Y

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 will be presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LIU project. 2012 MDs will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided.

  6. Injector machine development days 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H

    2017-01-01

    Following the important progress made in 2016 in the Machine Development (MD) activities that took place in all the accelerators of the LHC injector chain, the days 23-24 March, 2017, have been devoted to summarise the main out- come from the MDs and lay out the plans for the next steps. The event was also triggered by the following motivations and goals: Give a chance to the MD users to present their results; Provide a platform in which MD users, MD coordinators and operations crews meet and discuss openly the optimisation of the MD time and procedures, taking into account of the different perspectives; Provide an overview of all the ongoing activities to better frame their impact in the broader picture of the CERN short and long term projects; Identify the open questions, define and prioritise ma- chine studies in the injectors for 2017; Create the opportunity to obtain and document written reports from MD users. Within this contribution, we just summarise the context and the main points discussed at the ev...

  7. Redirecting by Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Object Infrastructure Framework, a system that seeks to simplify the creation of distributed applications by injecting behavior on the communication paths between components. We touch on some of the ilities and services that can be achieved with injector technology, and then focus on the uses of redirecting injectors, injectors that take requests directed at a particular server and generate requests directed at others. We close by noting that OIF is an Aspect-Oriented Programming system, and comparing OIF to related work.

  8. A proposed injector for the LCLS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Bharadwaj, V.K.; Emma, P.; Miller, R.H.; Palmer, D.T.; Woodley, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will use the last portion of the SLAC accelerator as a driver for a short wavelength FEL. The injector must produce 1-nC, 3-ps rms electron bunches at a repetition rate of up to 120 Hz with a normalized rms emittance of about 1 mm-mrad. The injector design takes advantage of the photocathode rf gun technology developed since its conception in the mid 1980's, in particular the S-band rf gun developed by the SLAC/BNL/UCLA collaboration, and emittance compensation techniques developed in the last decade. The injector beamline has been designed using the SUPERFISH, POISSON, PARMELA, and TRANSPORT codes in a consistent way to simulate the beam from the gun up to the entrance of the main accelerator linac where the beam energy is 150 MeV. PARMELA simulations indicate that at 150 MeV, space charge effects are negligible

  9. New features of the MAX IV thermionic pre-injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, J., E-mail: joel.andersson@maxiv.lu.se; Olsson, D., E-mail: david.olsson@maxiv.lu.se; Curbis, F.; Malmgren, L.; Werin, S.

    2017-05-21

    The MAX IV facility in Lund, Sweden consists of two storage rings for production of synchrotron radiation. The smaller 1.5 GeV ring is presently under construction, while the larger 3 GeV ring is being commissioned. Both rings will be operating with top-up injections from a full-energy injector. During injection, the electron beam is first delivered to the main injector from a thermionic pre-injector which consists of a thermionic RF gun, a chopper system, and an energy filter. In order to reduce losses of high-energy electrons along the injector and in the rings, the electron beam provided by the thermionic pre-injector should have the correct time structure and energy distribution. In this paper, the design of the MAX IV thermionic pre-injector with all its sub components is presented. The electron beam delivered by the pre-injector and its dependence on parameters such as optics, cathode temperature, and RF power are studied. Measurements are here compared with simulation results obtained by particle tracking and electromagnetic codes. The chopper system is described in detail, and different driving schemes that optimize the injection efficiency for the two storage rings are investigated. During operation, it was discovered that the structure of the beam delivered by the gun is affected by mode beating between the accelerating and a low-order mode. This mode beating is also studied in detail. Finally, initial measurements of the electron beam delivered to the 3 GeV ring during commissioning are presented.

  10. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  11. On-line control system for electron injector based on autoemission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.V.; Karpov, A.G.; Ovsyannikov, D.A.; Prudnikov, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    An original on-line system of control of electron injector parameters on the base of an autoemission cathode is described. The system includes hardware (analog-to-digital and graphical displays, a printer, a magnetic disc memory a plotter) and data control and readout equipment. A high-voltage power source of the 'RACE' is controlled by digital measuring devices connected with a computer data via a special matching device. Software includes servicing subroutines for injector controls and those permitting to display, plot and print results. The main operating program functioning in the interactive mode enables to specify the injector operating conditions and check its characteristics

  12. Beam instrumentation in the LEP Pre-injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, S.; Bottollier, J.F.; Frammery, B.; Szeless, B.; Van Rooy, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the beam instrumentation of the LEP pre-injector (LPI) including its design philosophy and software. The usefulness of these equipments for the LPI start-up is considered from an operational point of view and encountered problems are mentioned

  13. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  14. Injector of the Utrecht EN tandem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, K. van der; Haas, A.P. de; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Fysisch Lab.)

    1984-02-15

    An injector has been built to obtain improved beam transmission through the EN tandem. The injector has been provided with a 90/sup 0/ analysing magnet, m/..delta..m=300, and 130 kV preacceleration. Beam optics calculations have been made for the injector and tandem. The injector has been equipped with a fiber optics control and data acquisition system.

  15. Steady state neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoo, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Baruah, U.K.; Bisai, N.; Chakbraborty, A.K.; Chakrapani, Ch.; Jana, M.R.; Bajpai, M.; Jaykumar, P.K.; Patel, D.; Patel, G.; Patel, P.J.; Prahlad, V.; Rao, N.V.M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, N.P.; Sridhar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >10 5 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m 2 , frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

  16. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L M; Pardo, R C; Shepard, K W; Billquist, P J; Bogaty, J M; Clifft, B E; Harkewicz, R; Joh, K; Markovich, P K; Munson, F H; Zinkann, G; Nolen, J A [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A Positive-Ion Injector (PII) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structure. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to [approx equal] 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A>0.1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating [sup 30]Si[sup 7+], [sup 40]Ar[sup 11+], [sup 132]Xe[sup 13+], and [sup 208]Pb[sup 24+]. For all of these, transmission through the injector linac was [approx equal] 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to [approx equal] 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time. (orig.).

  17. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  18. High-brightness injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and 'macro' factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

  19. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  20. NLC electron injector beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.

    1995-10-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) being designed at SLAC requires a train of 90 electron bunches 1.4 ns apart at 120 Hz. The intensity and emittance required at the interaction point, and the various machine systems between the injector and the IP determine the beam requirements from the injector. The style of injector chosen for the NLC is driven by the fact that the production of polarized electrons at the IP is a must. Based on the successful operation of the SLC polarized electron source a similar type of injector with a DC gun and subharmonic bunching system is chosen for the NLC

  1. Swirl Coaxial Injector Testing with LOX/RP-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Casiano, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Testing was conducted at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the fall of 2012 to evaluate the operation and performance of liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP ]1) in an existing swirl coaxial injector. While selected Russian engines use variations of swirl coaxial injectors, component level performance data has not been readily available, and all previously documented component testing at MSFC with LOX/RP ]1 had been performed using a variety of impinging injector designs. Impinging injectors have been adequate for specific LOX/RP ]1 engine applications, yet swirl coaxial injectors offer easier fabrication efforts, providing cost and schedule savings for hardware development. Swirl coaxial elements also offer more flexibility for design changes. Furthermore, testing with LOX and liquid methane propellants at MSFC showed that a swirl coaxial injector offered improved performance compared to an impinging injector. So, technical interest was generated to see if similar performance gains could be achieved with LOX/RP ]1 using a swirl coaxial injector. Results would allow such injectors to be considered for future engine concepts that require LOX/RP ]1 propellants. Existing injector and chamber hardware was used in the test assemblies. The injector had been tested in previous programs at MSFC using LOX/methane and LOX/hydrogen propellants. Minor modifications were made to the injector to accommodate the required LOX/RP ]1 flows. Mainstage tests were performed over a range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. Additional testing included detonated gbombs h for stability data. Test results suggested characteristic velocity, C*, efficiencies for the injector were 95 ]97%. The injector also appeared dynamically stable with quick recovery from the pressure perturbations generated in the bomb tests.

  2. The injector of the Utrecht EN tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, K. van der; Haas, A.P. de; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1984-01-01

    An injector has been built to obtain improved beam transmission through the EN tandem. The injector has been provided with a 90 0 analysing magnet, m/Δm=300, and 130 kV preacceleration. Beam optics calculations have been made for the injector and tandem. The injector has been equipped with a fiber optics control and data acquisition system. (orig.)

  3. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  4. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Joh, K.; Markovich, P.K.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.; Nolen, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A Positive-Ion Injector (PH) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structures. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to ∼ 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A > 0. 1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating 3O Si 7+ , 40 Ar ll+ , 132 Xe 13+ , and 208 Pb 24+ . For all of these, transmission through the injecter linac was ∼ 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to ∼ 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time

  5. CFD simulations of the diesel jet primary atomization from a multihole injector

    OpenAIRE

    Chasos, Charalambos

    2017-01-01

    [EN] High pressure multi-hole diesel injectors are currently used in direct-injection common-rail diesel engines for the improvement of fuel injection and air/fuel mixing, and the overall engine performance. The resulting spray injection characteristics are dictated by the injector geometry and the injection conditions, as well as the ambient conditions into which the liquid is injected. The main objective of the present study was to design a high pressure multi-hole diesel inject...

  6. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  7. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades

  8. CNG INJECTOR RESEARCH FOR DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the tests results of the prototype design of hydraulically assisted injector, that is designed for gas supply into diesel engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose a injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

  9. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's 'New Culture' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. 'New Culture' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper details the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line are presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  10. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...

  11. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230... Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a) Water.... Injectors and feedwater pumps must be kept in good condition, free from scale, and must be tested at the...

  12. Transient Beam Dynamics in the LBL 2 MV Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E; Grote, D

    1999-01-01

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K + ) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV gun pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam, and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is being built to match the beam to the electrostatic accelerator ELISE. The gun preinjector, designed to hold up to 1 MV with minimal breakdown risks, consists of a hot aluminosilicate source with a large curved emitting surface surrounded by a thick ''extraction electrode''. During beam turn-on the voltage at the source is biased from a negative potential, enough to reverse the electric field on the emitting surface and avoid emission, to a positive potential to start extracting the beam; it stays constant for about 1 (micro)s, and is reversed to turn-off the emission. Since the Marx voltage applied on the accelerating quadrupoles and the main pre-injector gap is a long, constant pulse (several (micro)s), the transient behavior is dominated by the extraction pulser voltage time profile. The transient longitudinal dynamics of the beam in the injector was simulated by running the Particle in Cell codes GYMNOS and WARP3d in a time dependent mode. The generalization and its implementation in WAIW3d of a method proposed by Lampel and Tiefenback to eliminate transient oscillations in a one-dimensional planar diode will be presented

  13. Pellet injector research and development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Barber, G.C.; Baylor, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for more than 15 years. Recent major applications of the ORNL development program include (1) a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, (2) a centrifuge pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak, and most recently (3) a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector for the DIII-D tokamak. In addition to applications, ORNL is developing advanced technologies, including high-speed pellet injectors, tritium injectors, and long-pulse pellet feed systems. The high-speed research involves a collaboration between ORNL and ENEA-Frascati in the development of a repeating two-stage light gas gun based on an extrusion-type pellet feed system. Construction of a new tritium-compatible, extruder-based repeating pneumatic injector (8-mm-diam) is complete and will replace the pipe gun in the original tritium proof-of-principle experiment. The development of a steady-state feed system in which three standard extruders operate in tandem is under way. These research and development activities are relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and are briefly described in this paper

  14. Numerical Simulation of Twin Nozzle Injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Milak, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fuel injectors for marine applications have traditionally utilized nozzles with symmetric equispaced orifice configuration. But in light of the new marine emission legislations the twin nozzle concept has arisen. The twin nozzle differs from the conventional configuration by utilizing two closely spaced orifices to substitute each orifice in the conventional nozzle. Injector manufacturers regard twin nozzle injectors as a promising approach to facilitate stable spray patterns independent of t...

  15. Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Whealton, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER)

  16. Space-charge effects on bunching of electrons in the CEBAF injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    1997-01-01

    The main injector for the 4 GeV CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson national accelerator facility was designed to deliver simultaneously three CW electron beams for nuclear physics research. The maximum design current for a single beam from the injector is 100 μA, or 0.2 pC per microbunch at a repetition rate of 499 MHz. It was found through computer simulation that space charge even at a subpicocoulomb level can spoil the bunching of electrons significantly, and some unexpected phenomena observed experimentally could be explained accordingly. This problem arises because of the low-momentum tilt allowed for bunching to preserve low-momentum spread. In this paper, we analyze in detail the space-charge effects on bunching of electrons with the CEBAF injector as an example. Conditions for effective matching of longitudinal phase space in the presence of space charge are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.

    1991-05-01

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  18. Status of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The planned positive-ion injector for ATLAS consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platfrom and a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. The objective is to replace the present tandem injector with a system that can increase beam intensities by two orders of magnitude and extend the mass range up to uranium. In the first, developmental stage of the work, now in progress, the ECR source will be built, the technology of superconducting accelerating structures for low-velocity ions will be developed, and these structures will be used to form a 3-MV prototype injector linac. Even this small system, designed for ions with A < 130, will be superior to the present FN tandem as a heavy-ion injector. In later phases of the work, the injector linac will be enlarged enough to allow ATLAS to effectively accelerate uranium ions. The injector system is expected to provide exceptional beam quality. The status of the work, expected performance of the accelerator system, and the technical issues involved are summarized

  19. Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Grote, D.P.; Halaxa, E.; Henestroza, E.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Karpenko, V.; Sangster, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements

  20. Deuterium pellet injector gun design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, R.V.; Wysor, R.B.; Bryan, W.E.; Shipley, W.D.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Fisher, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI), an eight-pellet pneumatic injector, is being designed and fabricated for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). It will accelerate eight pellets, 4 by 4 mm maximum, to greater than 1500 m/s. It utilizes a unique pellet-forming mechanism, a cooled pellet storage wheel, and improved propellant gas scavenging

  1. Transient beam dynamics in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 2 MV injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A driver-scale injector for the heavy ion fusion accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (above 2 MV), high current (more than 0.8 A of K + ) and low normalized emittance (less than 1 π mm mrad). The injector consists of a 750 keV gun pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge-dominated beam, and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is being built to match the beam to the electrostatic accelerator ELISE. The gun pre-injector, designed to hold up to 1 MV with minimal breakdown risks, consists of a hot alumino-silicate source with a large curved emitting surface surrounded by a thick ''extraction electrode''. During beam turn-on the voltage at the source is biased from a negative potential, enough to reverse the electric field on the emitting surface and to avoid emission, to a positive potential to start extracting the beam; it stays constant for about 1 μs, and is reversed to turn off the emission. Since the Marx voltage applied on the accelerating quadrupoles and the main pre-injector gap is a long, constant pulse (several microseconds), the transient behavior is dominated by the extraction pulser voltage time profile. The transient longitudinal dynamics of the beam in the injector was simulated by running the particle-in-cell codes GYMNOS and WARP3D in a time-dependent mode. The generalization and its implementation is WARP3D of a method proposed by Lampel and Tiefenback to eliminate transient oscillations in a one-dimensional planar diode will be presented. (orig.)

  2. Modeling of classical swirl injector dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, Maksud M.

    The knowledge of the dynamics of a swirl injector is crucial in designing a stable liquid rocket engine. Since the swirl injector is a complex fluid flow device in itself, not much work has been conducted to describe its dynamics either analytically or by using computational fluid dynamics techniques. Even the experimental observation is limited up to date. Thus far, there exists an analytical linear theory by Bazarov [1], which is based on long-wave disturbances traveling on the free surface of the injector core. This theory does not account for variation of the nozzle reflection coefficient as a function of disturbance frequency, and yields a response function which is strongly dependent on the so called artificial viscosity factor. This causes an uncertainty in designing an injector for the given operational combustion instability frequencies in the rocket engine. In this work, the author has studied alternative techniques to describe the swirl injector response, both analytically and computationally. In the analytical part, by using the linear small perturbation analysis, the entire phenomenon of unsteady flow in swirl injectors is dissected into fundamental components, which are the phenomena of disturbance wave refraction and reflection, and vortex chamber resonance. This reveals the nature of flow instability and the driving factors leading to maximum injector response. In the computational part, by employing the nonlinear boundary element method (BEM), the author sets the boundary conditions such that they closely simulate those in the analytical part. The simulation results then show distinct peak responses at frequencies that are coincident with those resonant frequencies predicted in the analytical part. Moreover, a cold flow test of the injector related to this study also shows a clear growth of instability with its maximum amplitude at the first fundamental frequency predicted both by analytical methods and BEM. It shall be noted however that Bazarov

  3. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  4. Pellet injectors for steady state plasma fuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyar, I.; Geraud, A.; Yamada, H.; Lukin, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Skoblikov, S.; Umov, A.; Oda, Y.; Gros, G.; Krasilnikov, I.; Reznichenko, P.; Panchenko, V.

    2005-01-01

    Successful steady state operation of a fusion reactor should be supported by repetitive pellet injection of solidified hydrogen isotopes in order to produce high performance plasmas. This paper presents pneumatic pellet injectors and its implementation for long discharge on the LHD and TORE SUPRA, and a new centrifuge pellet injector test results. All injectors are fitted with screw extruders well suited for steady state operation

  5. Pneumatic pellet injectors for TFTR and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of pneumatic hydrogen pellet injectors for plasma fueling applications on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). The performance parameters of these injectors represent an extension of previous experience and include pellet sizes in the range 2-6 mm in diameter and speeds approaching 2 km/s. Design features and operating characteristics of these pneumatic injectors are presented

  6. Design of cryo-vacuum system for MW neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chundong; Xie Yuanlai

    2010-01-01

    Neutral beam injector is an equipment that is used to produce and then to neutralize high energetic particle beam. A neutral beam injector (EAST-NBI) with MW magnitude neutral beam power is considered to be developed to support the EAST physical research. The requirements for vacuum system were analyzed after introducing the principle of EAST-NBI. A differential vacuum system structure was chosen after analyzing the performance of different vacuum pumping system structure. The gas sources and their characteristics were analyzed, and two inserted type cryocondensation pumps were chosen as main vacuum pump. The schematic structure of the two cryocondensation pump with pumping area 8 m 2 and 6 m 2 were given and their cooling method and temperature control mode were determined. (authors)

  7. Modelling the High-speed Injector for Diesel ICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryuk, V. V.; Kayukov, S. S.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Belousov, A. V.; Gallyamov, R. E.; Zvyagintsev, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the results of research on the option of improving the operation speed of the electro-hydraulically driven injectors (Common Rail) for diesel ICE. The injector investigated in this article is a modified serial injector Common Rail-type with solenoid. The model and the injector parameters are represented in the package LMS Imagine. Lab AMESim with the detailed description of the substantiation and background for the research. Following the research results, the advantages of the proposed approach to analysing the operation speed were detected with outlining the direction of future studies.

  8. Application of advanced diagnostics to airblast injector flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcvey, John B.; Kennedy, Jan B.; Russell, Sid

    1987-01-01

    This effort is concerned with the application of both conventional laser velocimetry and phase Doppler anemometry to the flow produced by an airblast nozzle. The emphasis is placed on the acquisition of data using actual engine injector/swirler components at (noncombusting) conditions simulating those encountered in the engine. The objective of the effort was to test the applicability of the instrumentation to real injector flows, to develop information on the behavior of injectors at high flow, and to provide data useful in the development of physical models of injector flows.

  9. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Min, Kyoung Doug

    2006-01-01

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

  10. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10 -7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

  11. Direct Fuel Injector Power Drive System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    solenoid coil to create magnetic field in the stator. Then, the stator pulls the pintle to open the injector nozzle . This pintle movement occurs when the...that typically deal with power strategies to the injector solenoid coil. Numerical simulation codes for diesel injection systems were developed by...Laboratory) for providing the JP-8 test fuel. REFERENCES 1. Digesu, P. and Laforgia D., “ Diesel electro- injector : A numerical simulation code”. Journal of

  12. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

  14. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  15. Design and Fabrication of Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion Thrust Chamber Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. P.; Medina, C. R.; Protz, C. S.; Kenny, R. J.; Kelly, G. W.; Casiano, M. J.; Hulka, J. R.; Richardson, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. On the current project, several configurations of new main injectors were considered for the thrust chamber assembly of the integrated test article. All the injector elements were of the gas-centered swirl coaxial type, similar to those used on the Russian oxidizer-rich staged-combustion rocket engines. In such elements, oxidizer-rich combustion products from the preburner/turbine exhaust flow through a straight tube, and fuel exiting from the combustion chamber and nozzle regenerative cooling circuits is injected near the exit of the oxidizer tube through tangentially oriented orifices that impart a swirl motion such that the fuel flows along the wall of the oxidizer tube in a thin film. In some elements there is an orifice at the inlet to the oxidizer tube, and in some elements there is a sleeve or "shield" inside the oxidizer tube where the fuel enters. In the current project, several variations of element geometries were created, including element size (i.e., number of elements or pattern density), the distance from the exit of the sleeve to the injector face, the width of the gap between the oxidizer tube inner wall and the outer wall of the sleeve, and excluding the sleeve entirely. This paper discusses the design rationale for each of these element variations, including hydraulic, structural

  16. Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design of an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. The pellets are transported to the plasma in an injection line that also serves to minimize the gas loading on the torus; the injection line incorporates a fast shutter valve and two stages of guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations. A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector and vacuum system operation. In early pellet fueling experiments on TFTR, the injector has been used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into plasma discharges. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-dia) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 10 14 cm -3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-dia) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 10 14 cm -3 . Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented

  17. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Wook [Korea Institue of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyoung Doug [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images.

  18. New developments of HIF injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-high intensity heavy-ion beam is highly pursued for heavy-ion researches and applications. However, it is limited by heavy-ion production of ion source and space-charge-effect in the low energy region. The Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion (HIF facilities were proposed in 1970s. The HIF injectors have large cavity number and long total length, e.g., there are 27 injectors in HIDIF and HIBLIC is 30 km in length, and the corresponding HIF facilities are too large and too expensive to be constructed. Recently, ion acceleration technologies have been developing rapidly, especially in the low energy region, where the acceleration of high intensity heavy-ions is realized. Meanwhile, superconducting (SC acceleration matures and increases the acceleration gradient in medium and high energy regions. The length of HIF injectors can be shortened to a buildable length of 2.5 km. This paper will present a review of a renewed HIF injector, which adopts multi-beam linac-based cavities. Keywords: Heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF, Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ, IH cavity, Heavy-ion, Multi-beam accelerator, PACS Codes: 52.58.Hm, 28.52.Av, 29.20.Ej, 29.27.-a, 29.27.Ac, 41.75.Lx

  19. Compact 250-kV injector system for PIGMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Mueller, D.W.; Lederer, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    A 250-kV proton injector to be used in the development of a linac suitable for medical applications has been constructed. This injector utilizes a spherical Pierce geometry to produce a converging beam. A gas insulated accelerating column is cantilevered on a grounded vacuum system, with a separate high voltage equipment dome connected to a 300-kV Cockcroft-Walton power supply. The injector can be operated locally or remotely, with the remote control accomplished by a microprocessor system linked to a central control minicomputer. This injector has been designed as a low-cost compact system. The design details and the data obtained during initial operation are presented

  20. Ignition Delay Properties of Alternative Fuels with Navy-Relevant Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    nozzle tip. 8 Figure 3 EMD injector cross-sectional view, after [15]. c. Sturman Injector A Sturman research diesel injector was used to validate...PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS WITH NAVY-RELEVANT DIESEL INJECTORS by Andrew J. Rydalch June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Christopher M. Brophy...Navy’s Green Fleet Initiative, this thesis researched the ignition characteristics for diesel replacement fuels used with Navy-relevant fuel injectors

  1. High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Virgo, M

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

  2. Commissioning of the RFQ1 injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbique, G.M.; Sheikh, J.Y.; Taylor, T.; Birney, L.F.; Davidson, A.D.; Wills, J.S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The RFQ1 accelerator is being developed at Chalk River to test the limits of the cw RFQ technology. A 50 kV injector has been built and is now being commissioned as the first phase of the program. This paper describes some of the innovative features of the RFQ1 injector and reports on initial operating experience

  3. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an 40 Ar 12+ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 π keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs

  4. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Benaroya, R.; Billquist, P.J.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H. Jr.; Nixon, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an /sup 40/Ar/sup 12 +/ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 ..pi.. keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  5. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model. (Author) 5 figs., 7 refs

  6. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  7. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section 870.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device...

  8. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (11) Visualization Study on the Start-Up of the Steam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji Okamoto; Tadashi Narabayashi; Chikako Iwaki; Shuichi Ohmori; Michitsugu Mori

    2006-01-01

    The Steam Injector is the superior system to pump the fluid without rotating machine. Because the water column is surrounded by the saturated steam, very high heat transfer is also expected with direct condensation. The inside of the Steam Injector is very complicated. To improve the efficiency of the Steam Injector, the water column behavior inside the Injector is visualized using the Dynamic PIV system. Dynamic PIV system consists of the high-speed camera and lasers. In this study, 384 x 180 pixel resolution with 30,000 fps camera is used to visualize the flow. For the illumination CW green laser with 300 mW is applied. To view inside the Injector, relay lens system is set at the Injector wall. Very high speed water column during the starting up of Steam Injector had been clearly visualized with 30,000 fps. The wave velocity on the water column had been analyzed using PIV technique. The instability of the water column is also detected. (authors)

  9. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional ray-trace code with a two-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model

  10. LTP fibre injector qualification and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogenstahl, J; Cunningham, L; Fitzsimons, E D; Hough, J; Killow, C J; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Robertson, D; Rowan, S; Ward, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) fibre injector qualification project in terms of vibration and shock tests. The fibre injector is a custom built part and therefore must undergo a full space qualification process. The mounting structure and method for sinusoidal vibration and random vibration tests as well as shock tests will be presented. Furthermore a proposal will be presented to use the fibre injector pair qualification model to build an optical prototype bench. The optical prototype bench is a full-scale model of the flight model. It will be used for development and rehearsal of all the assembly stages of the flight model and will provide an on-ground simulator for investigation as an updated engineering model.

  11. High voltage power supplies for the neutral beam injectors of the stellarator TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Liniers, M.; Martinez Laso, L.; Jauregi, E.; Lucia, C.; Valcarcel, F.

    2001-01-01

    Neutral beam injection will be available for the second experimental phase of TJ-II. Two injectors, set in co-counter configuration, will inject into the plasma two 40 keV H 0 beams, each of up to 1 MW. The two high voltage power supplies to feed the acceleration grids of the injectors, described in this paper, are of the transformer-rectifier type, taking their primary energy from a pulsed flywheel generator, and are coupled to the acceleration grids through a switching device. This environment effectively sets the main operation limits and protection requirements of the power supplies

  12. Using one-dimensional modeling to analyze the influence of the use of biodiesels on the dynamic behavior of solenoid-operated injectors in common rail systems: Results of the simulations and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; De la Morena, J.; Carreres, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of using diesel or biodiesel on injector hydraulic behavior has been analyzed. ► Single and main + post injections have been studied for different injection pressures. ► Higher viscosity affects needle dynamics, especially for low injection pressure. ► The post injection masses are lower for biodiesel fuel despite its higher density. ► Modified injector has been proposed to compensate the differences between the fuels. - Abstract: The influence of using biodiesel fuels on the hydraulic behavior of a solenoid operated common rail injection system has been explored by means of a one-dimensional model. This model has been previously obtained, including a complete characterization of the different components of the injector (mainly the nozzle, the injector holder and the electrovalve), and extensively validated by means of mass flow rate results under different conditions. After that, both single and multiple injection strategies have been analyzed, using a standard diesel fuel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as working fluids. Single long injections allowed the characterization of the hydraulic delay of the injector, the needle dynamics and the discharge capability of the couple injector-nozzle for the two fuels considered. Meanwhile, the effect of biodiesel on main plus post injection strategies has been evaluated in several aspects, such as the separation of the two injections or the effect of the main injection on the post injection fueling. Finally, a modification in the injector hardware has been proposed in order to have similar performances using biodiesel as the original injector configuration using standard diesel fuel.

  13. The light-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams

  14. High Brightness Injectors Based On Photocathode DC Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Yunn

    2001-01-01

    Sample results of new injector design method based on a photocathode dc gun are presented, based on other work analytically proving the validity of the emittance compensation scheme for the case even when beam bunching is involved. We have designed several new injectors appropriate for different bunch charge ranges accordingly. Excellent beam quality produced by these injectors clearly shows that a photocathode dc gun can compete with a rf gun on an equal footing as the source of an electron beam for the bunch charge ranging up to 2 nano Coulomb (nC). This work therefore elevates a dc gun based injector to the preferred choice for many ongoing high brightness accelerator projects considering the proven operational stability and high average power capability of the dc gun

  15. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: design and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L M [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Pardo, R C [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Shepard, K W [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Billquist, P J [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bogaty, J M [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Clifft, B E [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Harkewicz, R [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Munson, F H [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nolen, J A [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zinkann, G P [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed. (orig.)

  16. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: Design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Munson, F.H.; Nolen, J.A.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed Positive-Ion Injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed

  17. Pellet injector research and development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Argo, B.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Whealton, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL including single-shot guns that inject one pellet, multiple-shot guns that inject four and eight pellets, machine gun-types (single- and multiple-barrel) that can inject up to >100 pellets, and centrifugal accelerators (mechanical devices that are inherently capable of high repetition rates and long-pulse operation). With these devices, macroscopic pellets (1--6 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are typically accelerated to speeds of ∼1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. In the past few years, steady progress has been made at ORNL in the development and application of pellet injectors for fueling present-day and future fusion devices. In this paper, we briefly describe some research and development activities at ORNL, including: (1) two recent applications and a new one on large experimental fusion devices, (2) high-velocity pellet injector development, and (3) tritium injector research

  18. Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, A.; Garibaldi, P.

    2005-01-01

    A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm 2 within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m 2 ) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m 2 ), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

  19. Review on pressure swirl injector in liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    The pressure swirl injector with tangential inlet ports is widely used in liquid rocket engine. Commonly, this type of pressure swirl injector consists of tangential inlet ports, a swirl chamber, a converging spin chamber, and a discharge orifice. The atomization of the liquid propellants includes the formation of liquid film, primary breakup and secondary atomization. And the back pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber could have great influence on the atomization of the injector. What's more, when the combustion instability occurs, the pressure oscillation could further affects the atomization process. This paper reviewed the primary atomization and the performance of the pressure swirl injector, which include the formation of the conical liquid film, the breakup and atomization characteristics of the conical liquid film, the effects of the rocket engine environment, and the response of the injector and atomization on the pressure oscillation.

  20. Combustion behaviors of GO2/GH2 swirl-coaxial injector using non-intrusive optical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuoBiao, Cai; Jian, Dai; Yang, Zhang; NanJia, Yu

    2016-06-01

    This research evaluates the combustion behaviors of a single-element, swirl-coaxial injector in an atmospheric combustion chamber with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) as the propellants. A brief simulated flow field schematic comparison between a shear-coaxial injector and the swirl-coaxial injector reveals the distribution characteristics of the temperature field and streamline patterns. Advanced optical diagnostics, i.e., OH planar laser-induced fluorescence and high-speed imaging, are simultaneously employed to determine the OH radical spatial distribution and flame fluctuations, respectively. The present study focuses on the flame structures under varying O/F mixing ratios and center oxygen swirl intensities. The combined use of several image-processing methods aimed at OH instantaneous images, including time-averaged, root-mean-square, and gradient transformation, provides detailed information regarding the distribution of the flow field. The results indicate that the shear layers anchored on the oxygen injector lip are the main zones of chemical heat release and that the O/F mixing ratio significantly affects the flame shape. Furthermore, with high-speed imaging, an intuitionistic ignition process and several consecutive steady-state images reveal that lean conditions make it easy to drive the combustion instabilities and that the center swirl intensity has a moderate influence on the flame oscillation strength. The results of this study provide a visualized analysis for future optimal swirl-coaxial injector designs.

  1. Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system

  2. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon; Badra, Jihad; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Im, Hong G.

    2016-01-01

    linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide

  3. Engineering problems of future neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.

    1977-01-01

    Because there is no limit to the energy or power that can be delivered by a neutral-beam injector, its use will be restricted by either its cost, size, or reliability. Studies show that these factors can be improved by the injector design, and several examples, taken from mirror reactor studies, are given

  4. Transient states analysis of CI engine injectors with the use of optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, M.; Pielecha, I.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of research was to define real injection time delay against the time of electrical control signal for piezoelectric and electromagnetic diesel fuel injectors. The second objective of this work was the evaluation of influence of typical injection parameters on this delay. The analysis was focused on the occurrence of appropriate control signals recorded with the use of fast-varying data acquisition system and compared with the data recorded by high speed camera. The tests were conducted in constant volume chamber for different injector types used in combustion engines with direct injection of diesel fuel. The tests were performed under variable conditions: different fuel pressure, air back-pressure and injection duration time.

  5. Development of a non-engine fuel injector deposit test for alternative fuels (ENIAK-project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel Waerme Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Deposit formation in and on the injectors of diesel engines may lead to injector malfunction, resulting in a loss in power, rough engine operation and poor emission levels. Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, good housekeeping when using biodiesel is required, and all additives have to pass a no-harm test concerning injector fouling. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: The XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine and cannot reproduce internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 1 per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The ENIAK-Project is funded by the FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources) and conducted in cooperation with AGQM, ASG and ERC. Its main goal is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses a complete common rail system. The injection takes place in a self-designed reactor instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle, leading to a low amount of fuel required. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. (orig.)

  6. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K + , 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than ± 0.2% over the 1 micros pulse

  7. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PRE-INJECTOR DIGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILINSKI, M.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE, E.; BELLAVIA, S.; PIKIN, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new ion pre-injector line is currently under design at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL,). Collectively, this new line is referred to as the EBIS project. This pre-injector is based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (R-FQ) accelerator, and a linear accelerator. The new EBIS will be able to produce a wide range of heavy ion species as well as rapidly switching between species. To aid in operation of the pre-injector line, a suite of diagnostics is currently proposed which includes faraday cups, current transformers, profile monitors, and a pepperpot emittance measurement device

  8. LIPAc personnel protection system for realizing radiation licensing conditions on injector commissioning with deuteron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroki, E-mail: takahashi.hiroki@jaea.go.jp [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kojima, Toshiyuki [Gitec Co. Ltd., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Marqueta, Alvaro; Nishiyama, Koichi [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sakaki, Hironao [Quantum Beam Science Center, JAEA, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan); Gobin, Raphael [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif/Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Personnel Protection System (PPS) is developed to adapt the radiation licensing. • PPS achieves the target performance to secure the personnel safety. • Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) is developed to manage the beam-operation-time. • Satisfying performance of PDMS is confirmed by injector operation with H+ beam. • By the result of PPS and PDMS tests, the radiation license was successfully obtained. - Abstract: The performance validation of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), up to the energy of 9 MeV deuteron beam with 125 mA continuous wave (CW), is planned in Rokkasho, Japan. There are three main phases of LIPAc performance validation: Injector commissioning, RFQ commissioning and LIPAc commissioning. Injector commissioning was started by H{sup +} and D{sup +} beam. To apply the radiation licensing for the Injector commissioning, the entering/leaving to/from accelerator vault should be under control, and access to the accelerator vault has to be prohibited for any person during the beam operation. The Personnel Protection System (PPS) was developed to adapt the radiation licensing conditions. The licensing requests that PPS must manage the accumulated D{sup +} current. So, to manage the overall D{sup +} beam time during injector operation, Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) was developed as a configurable subsystem as part of the PPS. The PDMS was tested during H{sup +} beam (as simulated D{sup +}) operation, to confirm that it can handle the beam inhibit from Injector before the beam accumulation is above the threshold value specified in the radiation licensing condition. In this paper, the design and configuration of these systems and the result of the tests are presented.

  9. Influence of geometric and hydro-dynamic parameters of injector on calculation of spray characteristics of diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main role in air/fuel mixture formation at the IC diesel engines has the energy introduced by fuel into the IC engine that is the characteristics of spraying fuel into the combustion chamber. The characteristic can be defined by the spray length, the spray cone angle, the physical and the chemical structure of fuel spray by different sections. Having in mind very complex experimental setups for researching in this field, the mentioned characteristics are mostly analyzed by calculations. There are two methods in the literature, the first based on use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations and the second, the calculations of spray characteristics by use of very complex mathematical methods. The second method is dominant in the modern literature. The main disadvantage of the calculation methods is a correct definition of real state at the end of the nozzle orifice (real boundary conditions. The majority of the researchers in this field use most frequently the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. This coefficient depends on injector design, as well as depends on the level of fuel energy and fuel energy transformation along the injector. Having in mind the importance of the real boundary conditions, the complex methods for calculation of the fuel spray characteristics should have the calculation of fuel flows inside the injector and the calculation of spray characteristics together. This approach is a very complex numerical problem and there are no existing computer programs with satisfactory calculation results. Analysis of spray characteristics by use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations is presented in this paper. The special attention is dedicated to the analysis of the constant in the semi-empirical expressions and influence parameters on this constant. Also, the method for definition of realistic boundary condition at the end of the nozzle orifice is presented in the paper. By use of this method completely

  10. Status and performance of PF injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Isamu

    1994-01-01

    PF injector linac has been improved on a buncher section for accelerating of intense electron beam, and reinforced a focusing system of the positron generator linac for the expansion of phase space. In this presentation, I shall report present status and performance of PF injector linac, and discuss its upgrade program for B-factory project. (author)

  11. Digital Measuring Devices Used for Injector Hydraulic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leontiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a high specific impulse of the LRE (liquid-propellant engine chamber it is necessary to have optimally organized combustion of the fuel components. This can be ensured by choosing the optimum geometry of gas-dynamic contour of the LRE combustor, as well as by improving the sputtering processes and mixing the fuel components, for example, by selection of the optimum type, characteristics, and location of injectors on the mixing unit of the chamber.These particular reasons arise the interest in the injector characteristics in terms of science, and technological aspects determine the need for control of underlying design parameters in their manufacture.The objective of this work is to give an experimental justification on used digital measurement instrumentation and research the hydraulic characteristics of injectors.To determine injector parameters most widely were used the units with sectional collectors. A technique to control injector parameters using the sectional collectors involves spraying the liquid by injector at a given pressure drop on it for a certain time (the longer, the higher the accuracy and reliability of the results and then determining the amount of liquid in each section to calculate the required parameters of injector.In this work the liquid flow through the injector was determined by high-precision flowmeters FLONET FN2024.1 of electromagnetic type, which have very high metrological characteristics, in particular a flow rate error does not exceed 0.5% in a range of water flow from Qmin= 0.0028 l/s to Qmax Qmax = 0.28 l/s. To determine the coefficient of uneven spray were used differential pressure sensors DMD 331-ASLX of company "DB Sensors RUS", which have an error of 0.075% with a range of differential pressure 0 ... 5 kPa. Measuring complex MIC-200 of company "NPP Measure" and WinPos software for processing array information provided entry, recording, and processing of all the data of the experiment.In this

  12. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  13. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L M; Pardo, R C; Shepard, K W; Bogaty, J M; Clifft, B E; Munson, F H; Zinkann, G [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-04-15

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized. (orig.).

  14. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized

  15. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-08-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  16. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  17. Integrated numerical modeling of a laser gun injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Benson, S.; Bisognano, J.; Liger, P.; Neil, G.; Neuffer, D.; Sinclair, C.; Yunn, B.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF is planning to incorporate a laser gun injector into the linac front end as a high-charge cw source for a high-power free electron laser and nuclear physics. This injector consists of a DC laser gun, a buncher, a cryounit and a chicane. The performance of the injector is predicted based on integrated numerical modeling using POISSON, SUPERFISH and PARMELA. The point-by-point method incorporated into PARMELA by McDonald is chosen for space charge treatment. The concept of ''conditioning for final bunching'' is employed to vary several crucial parameters of the system for achieving highest peak current while maintaining low emittance and low energy spread. Extensive parameter variation studies show that the design will perform beyond the specifications for FEL operations aimed at industrial applications and fundamental scientific research. The calculation also shows that the injector will perform as an extremely bright cw electron source

  18. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  19. An introduction to photo-injector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1993-07-01

    A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Can the proton injectors meet the HL-LHC requirements after LS2?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, B.; Bartosik, H.; Bracco, C.; Bruening, O.; Carli, C.; Cornelis, K.; Damerau, H.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hancock, S.; Hanke, K.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mikulec, B.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Steerenberg, R.; Vretenar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LIU project has as mandate the upgrade of the LHC injector chain to match the requirements of HL-LHC. The present planning assumes that the upgrade work will be completed in LS2, for commissioning in the following operational year. The known limitations in the different injectors are described, together with the various upgrades planned to improve the performance. The expected performance reach after the upgrade with 25 and 50 ns beams is examined. The project planning is discussed in view of the present LS1 and LS2 planning. The main unresolved questions and associated decision points are presented, and the key issues to be addressed by the end of 2012 are detailed in the context of the machine development programs and hardware construction activities. (authors)

  1. A light ion four rod RFQ injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Ferch, M.; Klein, H.

    1987-01-01

    The four-rod RFQ has been developed in Frankfurt as an alternative solution for ion injectors. A 202 MHz resonator has been built with design parameters taken from the HERA injector (18keV-750keV, 20mA H - ). Properties of this structure are described and applications as light ion accelerator for particles from an EBIS ion source are discussed

  2. Initial use of the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Munson, F.H. Jr.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    The positive-ion injector of ATLAS consists of an ECR heavy-ion source coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac. The ECR source and a 3-MV version of the partially completed linac have been used to accelerate successfully several species of heavy ions. The operating experience is summarized, with emphasis on the excellent beam quality of beams from the new injector. Two new fast-timing detectors are described. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Constructing high energy accelerators under DOE's open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.

    1993-01-01

    Fermilab has initiated construction of a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main RIng accelerator. open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes environmental and safety questions have been addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that were accomplished in order to obtain the permits which controlled the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however, some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands were affected and therefore the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) compliance was a significant issue. The important feature was to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements and to perform the work required in order to proceed with the accelerator construction in a timely fashion. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  4. Predictive Evaluations of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injectors using a Flamelet-Based 3-D CFD Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brian R.; Braman, Kalem; West, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has embarked upon a joint project with the Air Force to improve the state-of-the-art of space application combustion device design and operational understanding. One goal of the project is to design, build and hot-fire test a 40,000 pound-thrust Oxygen/Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2) Oxygen-Rich staged engine at MSFC. The overall project goals afford the opportunity to test multiple different injector designs and experimentally evaluate the any effect on the engine performance and combustion dynamics. To maximize the available test resources and benefits, pre-test, combusting flow, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed on the individual injectors to guide the design. The results of the CFD analysis were used to design the injectors for specific, targeted fluid dynamic features and the analysis results also provided some predictive input for acoustic and thermal analysis of the main Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). MSFC has developed and demonstrated the ability to utilize a computationally efficient, flamelet-based combustion model to guide the pre-test design of single-element Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injectors. Previous, Oxygen/RP-2 simulation models utilizing the Loci-STREAM flow solver, were validated using single injector test data from the EC-1 Air Force test facility. The simulation effort herein is an extension of the validated, CFD driven, single-injector design approach applied to single injectors which will be part of a larger engine array. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional, CFD simulations were performed for five different classes of injector geometries. Simulations were performed to guide the design of the injector to achieve a variety of intended performance goals. For example, two GCSC injectors were designed to achieve stable hydrodynamic behavior of the propellant circuits while providing the largest thermal margin possible within the design envelope. While another injector was designed

  5. Performance potential of the injectors after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosik, H.; Carli, C.; Damerau, H.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Hancock, S.; Hanke, K.; Lombardi, A.; Mikulec, B.; Raginel, V.; Rumolo, G.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Vretenar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU Project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects etc. in the SPS. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons into the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H - injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160 MeV H - injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB-PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than nominal luminosity in the LHC. (authors)

  6. Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoki; Mizuno, Akihiko; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Hori, Toshihiko; Yanagida, Kenichi; Mashiko, Katsuo; Yokomizo, Hideaki

    1993-07-01

    In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

  7. Design of deuterium and tritium pellet injector systems for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysor, R.B.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Three pellet injector designs developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are planned for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to reach the goal of a tritium pellet injector by 1988. These are the Repeating Pneumatic Injector (RPI), the Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI). Each of the pellet injector designs have similar performance characteristics in that they deliver up to 4-mm-dia pellets at velocities up to 1500 m/s with a dsign goal to 2000 m/s. Similar techniques are utilized to freeze and extrude the pellet material. The injector systems incorporate three gun concepts which differ in the number of gun barrels and the method of forming and chambering the pellets. The RPI, a single barrel repeating design, has been operational on TFTR since April 1985. Fabrication and assembly are essentially complete for DPI, and TPI is presently on hold after completing about 80% of the design. The TFTR pellet injector program is described, and each of the injector systems is described briefly. Design details are discussed in other papers at this symposium

  8. NLCTA injector experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Adolphsen, C.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.D.; Wang, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC is to integrate the new technologies of X-band accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of high-order deflecting modes, measure the transverse components of the accelerating field, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator. For beam loading R and D, an average current of about 1 A in a 120 ns long bunch train is required. The initial commissioning of the NLCTA injector, as well as the rest of the accelerator have been progressing very well. The initial beam parameters are very close to the requirement and they expect that injector will meet the specified requirements by the end of this summer

  9. Epinephrine Auto-Injector Versus Drawn Up Epinephrine for Anaphylaxis Management: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chime, Nnenna O; Riese, Victoria G; Scherzer, Daniel J; Perretta, Julianne S; McNamara, LeAnn; Rosen, Michael A; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening event. Most clinical symptoms of anaphylaxis can be reversed by prompt intramuscular administration of epinephrine using an auto-injector or epinephrine drawn up in a syringe and delays and errors may be fatal. The aim of this scoping review is to identify and compare errors associated with use of epinephrine drawn up in a syringe versus epinephrine auto-injectors in order to assist hospitals as they choose which approach minimizes risk of adverse events for their patients. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched using terms agreed to a priori. We reviewed human and simulation studies reporting errors associated with the use of epinephrine in anaphylaxis. There were multiple screening stages with evolving feedback. Each study was independently assessed by two reviewers for eligibility. Data were extracted using an instrument modeled from the Zaza et al instrument and grouped into themes. Three main themes were noted: 1) ergonomics, 2) dosing errors, and 3) errors due to route of administration. Significant knowledge gaps in the operation of epinephrine auto-injectors among healthcare providers, patients, and caregivers were identified. For epinephrine in a syringe, there were more frequent reports of incorrect dosing and erroneous IV administration with associated adverse cardiac events. For the epinephrine auto-injector, unintentional administration to the digit was an error reported on multiple occasions. This scoping review highlights knowledge gaps and a diverse set of errors regardless of the approach to epinephrine preparation during management of anaphylaxis. There are more potentially life-threatening errors reported for epinephrine drawn up in a syringe than with the auto-injectors. The impact of these knowledge gaps and potentially fatal errors on patient outcomes, cost, and quality of care is worthy of further investigation.

  10. On the prediction of spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Qinglian; Xu, Shun; Kang, Zhongtao

    2017-09-01

    The pintle injector is famous for its capability of deep throttling and low cost. However, the pintle injector has been seldom investigated. To get a good prediction of the spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors, theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments were conducted. Under the hypothesis of incompressible and inviscid flow, a spray angle formula was deduced from the continuity and momentum equations based on a control volume analysis. The formula was then validated by numerical and experimental data. The results indicates that both geometric and injection parameters affect the total momentum ratio (TMR) and then influence the spray angle formed by liquid-liquid pintle injectors. TMR is the pivotal non-dimensional number that dominates the spray angle. Compared with gas-gas pintle injectors, spray angle formed by liquid-liquid injectors is larger, which benefits from the local high pressure zone near the pintle wall caused by the impingement of radial and axial sheets.

  11. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (5) operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Iwaki, C.; Narabayashi, T.; Mori, M.; Ohmori, S.

    2005-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. And from temperature measuring results, it is supposed that the steam temperature at the mixing nozzle is changed between about 80 degree centigrade and about 60 degree centigrade. Then from the pressure measuring results, it is confirmed that the pressure at the diffuser depends on each the throat diameter and

  12. Impact of palm biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaquat, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Fazal, M.A.; Khan, Abdul Faheem; Fayaz, H.; Varman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 250 h Endurance test on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and PB20. • Visual inspection of injectors running on DF and PB20 showed deposit accumulation. • SEM and EDS analysis showed less injector deposits for DF compared to PB20 blend. • Engine oil analysis showed higher value of wear particles for PB20 compared to DF. - Abstract: During short term engine operation, renewable fuels derived from vegetable oils, are capable of providing good engine performance. In more extended operations, some of the same fuels can cause degradation of engine performance, excessive carbon and lacquer deposits and actual damage to the engine. Moreover, temperatures in the area of the injector tip due to advanced diesel injection systems may lead to particularly stubborn deposits at and around the injector tip. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline and PB20 (20% palm biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single cylinder CI engine. The effects of DF and PB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors during running on both fuels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for PB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations, decreased viscosity and increased density values when the engine was fuelled with PB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and NO x emissions, and lower HC and CO emissions, for the PB20 blend compared to DF

  13. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macadam, Clare; Barnett, Julie; Roberts, Graham; Stiefel, Gary; King, Rosemary; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Holloway, Judith A; Lucas, Jane S

    2012-02-02

    Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  14. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macadam Clare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  15. Water jet behavior in center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Y.; Abe, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. Furthermore and effect of the non-condensable gas on the steam injector is investigated by measuring the radial temperature distributions in the water jet. From measuring results, it is supposed the more the air included in the steam, the more the temperature fluctuation of both steam and discharge water

  16. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

  17. Mechanical design for TMX injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.O.; Chen, F.F.K.; Denhoy, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    The injector system for the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) contains the components required to create and maintain a high-temperature, high-density plasma. These components include a streaming-plasma gun in each of the plug tanks to form the target-plasma, 24 neutral-beam source modules for injecting neutral deuterium atoms to heat and replace losses from the plasma, and a gas box system that applies a streaming cold gas to the plasma to stabilize it. This paper discusses the mechanical design problems and solutions for this injector system

  18. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  19. DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

    2006-08-04

    This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

  20. Effect of injector geometry on the performance of an internally mixed liquid atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushari, A.

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effect of injector's geometry on the performance of an internally mixed, air-assisted, liquid injector. In this type of injector a small amount of air is injected into a liquid stream within the injector. The interaction of the liquid with the atomizing air inside the injector induces atomization. The results presented in this paper show that the size of the droplets produced by the investigated injector decreases with a decrease in the air injection area. This is due to the increase in atomizing air injection velocity that accompanies the decrease in the air injection area, which improves atomization. This study also shows that the droplet sizes decrease with an increase in the injector's length, which is attributed to the increase in total interactive force. (author)

  1. Commissioning of the 123 MeV injector for 12 GeV CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Hofler, Alicia S.; Kazimi, Reza

    2015-09-01

    The upgrade of CEBAF to 12GeV included modifications to the injector portion of the accelerator. These changes included the doubling of the injection energy and relocation of the final transport elements to accommodate changes in the CEBAF recirculation arcs. This paper will describe the design changes and the modelling of the new 12GeV CEBAF injector. Stray magnetic fields have been a known issue for the 6 GeV CEBAF injector, the results of modelling the new 12GeV injector and the resulting changes implemented to mitigate this issue are described in this paper. The results of beam commissioning of the injector are also presented.

  2. Initial operation of the new bevatron local injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.; Dwinell, R.; Gough, R.

    1985-01-01

    Initial operational characteristics of a new Bevatron injector system are described. It is capable of providing an independent source of ions to the Bevatron through mass 40. The new injector consists of a sputter ion PIG source, operating on a 60 kV DC platform, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, all operating at 199 MHz. Beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 are accelerated to 200 keV/n in the RFQ and to 800 keV/n in the first Alvarez tank. Each Alvarez operates in the 2βlambda mode, and each is followed by a foil stripper. Beams with a q/A greater than or equal to 0.32 are accelerated through the second Alvarez to 5 MeV/n, fully stripped, and injected into the Bevatron. Because the Bevatron can be efficiently switched between this injector and the Super HILAC injector, a more efficient operations schedule is made possible to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the Biomedical and Nuclear Science research programs

  3. Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Wysor, R.B.; Fehling, D.T.; Foust, C.R.; Baylor, L.R.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs

  4. Initial operation of the new Bevatron local injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.; Dwinell, R.; Gough, R.

    1985-05-01

    Initial operational characteristics of a new Bevatron injector system are described. It is capable of providing an independent source of ions to the Bevatron through mass 40. The new injector consists of a sputter ion PIG source, operating on a 60 kV dc platform, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, all operating at 199 MHz. Beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 are accelerated to 200 keV/n in the RFQ and to 800 keV/n in the first Alvarez tank. Each Alvarez operates in the 2βlambda mode, and each is followed by a foil stripper. Beams with a q/A greater than or equal to 0.32 are accelerated through the second Alvarez to 5 MeV/n, fully stripped, and injected into the Bevatron. Because the Bevatron can be efficiently switched between this injector and the SuperHILAC injector, a more efficient operations schedule is made possible to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the Biomedical and Nuclear Science research programs. 5 refs

  5. Extraction septum magnet for the SSRL SPEAR injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerino, J.; Baltay, M.; Boyce, R.; Harris, S.; Hettel, R.; Horton, M.; Zuo, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) successfully commissioned a 3-3.5 GeV electron injector for the SPEAR Storage Ring during 1990. The Injector operates at a 10 Hz repetition rate and accelerates ∼ 10 10 electrons per second for extraction and transport to SPEAR. The extraction septum magnet is a pulsed Lambertson type which, for reasons of economy, was constructed from the same laminations which form 1/2 of an Injector booster synchrotron dipole magnet core block. The excitation coil also utilizes a design in common with the pulse chokes of the booster magnet circuit. The septum magnet is pulsed by an SCR controlled resonant LC circuit with a resonant frequency of 30 Hz

  6. Hollow-Wall Heat Shield for Fuel Injector Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Russell B. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A fuel injector component includes a body, an elongate void and a plurality of bores. The body has a first surface and a second surface. The elongate void is enclosed by the body and is integrally formed between portions of the body defining the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of bores extends into the second surface to intersect the elongate void. A process for making a fuel injector component includes building an injector component body having a void and a plurality of ports connected to the void using an additive manufacturing process that utilizes a powdered building material, and removing residual powdered building material from void through the plurality of ports.

  7. LHC Report: imaginative injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierre Freyermuth for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    A new bunch injection scheme from the PS to the SPS allowed the LHC to achieve a new peak luminosity record.   Figure 1: PSB multi-turn injection principle: to vary the parameters during injection with the aim of putting the newly injected beam in a different region of the transverse phase-space plan. The LHC relies on the injector complex to deliver beam with well-defined bunch populations and the necessary transverse and longitudinal characteristics – all of which fold directly into luminosity performance. There are several processes taking place in the PS Booster (PSB) and the Proton Synchrotron (PS) acting on the beam structure in order to obtain the LHC beam characteristics. Two processes are mainly responsible for the beam brightness: the PSB multi-turn injection and the PS radio-frequency (RF) gymnastics. The total number of protons in a bunch and the transverse emittances are mostly determined by the multi-turn Booster injection, while the number of bunches and their time spacin...

  8. Development of 4-shot pellet injector for JET-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, O.; Kuribayashi, S.; Uchikawa, T.; Onozuka, M.; Kasaki, S.; Hasegawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    A pneumatic 4 pellet injector has been constructed for JFT-2M. The performance tests have proved high performance and reliability of the injector. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in hydrogen pellet tests is 1.4km sec. The device is now in use for JFT-2M in a place of a previous single pellet injector, contributing to plasma studies. In this paper the outline of features and performance of the device is presented

  9. Lithium Pellet Injector Development for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettelfinger, G.; Dong, J.; Gernhardt, R.; Kugel, H.; Sichta, P.; Timberlake, J.

    2003-01-01

    A pellet injector suitable for the injection of lithium and other low-Z pellets of varying mass into plasmas at precise velocities from 5 to 500 m/s is being developed for use on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). The ability to inject low-Z impurities will significantly expand NSTX experimental capability for a broad range of diagnostic and operational applications. The architecture employs a pellet-carrying cartridge propelled through a guide tube by deuterium gas. Abrupt deceleration of the cartridge at the end of the guide tube results in the pellet continuing along its intended path, thereby giving controlled reproducible velocities for a variety of pellets materials and a reduced gas load to the torus. The planned injector assembly has four hundred guide tubes contained in a rotating magazine with eight tubes provided for injection into plasmas. A PC-based control system is being developed as well and will be described elsewhere in these Proceedings. The development path and mechanical performance of the injector will be described

  10. RF Design of the TW Buncher for the CLIC Drive Beam Injector (2nd report)

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub-harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the second report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This second report includes the study of HOM effects, retuning the cells, study of dimensional tolerances and the heat dissipation on the surface.

  11. Tritium pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3 He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  12. ATA injector-gun calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached

  13. First operation of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Munson, F.H.; Nolen, J.A.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate tat all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system

  14. First operation of the ATLAS positive-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Shephard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Munson, F.H.; Nolen, J.A.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate that all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system. (Author) 5 refs., tab., fig

  15. Platelet injectors for Space Shuttle orbit maneuvering engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, R. C.; Labotz, R. J.; Bassham, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering Subsystem Rocket Engine employs a platelet element injector concept. This injector has demonstrated 316-sec vacuum specific impulse performance under simulated altitude conditions when tested with a milled slot/electroformed nickel close-out regenerative chamber and a full 71 area ratio nozzle. To date, over 300 altitude engine tests and 300 stability bomb tests have demonstrated stable, erosion free operation with this concept to test durations of 150 seconds. The injector and chamber also meet the reusable requirements of the shuttle with a cycle life capability in excess of 1000 cycles. An extensive altitude restart program has also demonstrated OMS-engine operation over large variations in the burn and coast times with helium saturated propellants.

  16. How far from correct is the use of adrenaline auto-injectors? A survey in Italian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Bonzano, Laura; Savi, Eleonora; Peveri, Silvia; Costantino, Maria Teresa; Crivellaro, Mariangiola; Manzotti, Giuseppina; Lombardi, Carlo; Caminati, Marco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico

    2015-12-01

    Self-administered adrenaline through an auto-injector is the main out-of-hospital treatment for anaphylaxis, and patients should be trained to promptly and correctly use the device. The aim of the study was to verify the proper use of the device and the correct drug administration, and to identify possible misuse by patients. In seven Italian Allergy clinics, patients who were previously provided with self-injectable adrenaline were recruited at the follow-up visit required for the renewal of their prescription. All patients completed a questionnaire covering details of their allergic reactions, and knowledge of the device. The correct use was verified by the physician using a trainer with a four-step examination. 242 patients were included; 46 patients (18 %) did not always carry the auto-injector, and 35 patients (14 %) reported situations in which they were doubtful about whether to use adrenaline. Only 39 % of patients properly managed the device, while some patients (6 %) failed in all four steps. The majority of patients considered it appropriate to use adrenaline at the onset of respiratory symptoms (56 %). The factor most closely related to proper use of the device was the education of the patient (p = 0.03), while age and the time from first prescription did not affect the ability to properly use the auto-injector. Even though accurate training is conducted, many patients are still unable to properly use the adrenaline auto-injector in case of anaphylaxis. Allergists should review the instructions provided to the patients every time a renewal of the auto-injector is prescribed.

  17. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehne, D. E-mail: dkehne@gmu.edu; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O' Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I

    2001-05-21

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  18. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

    2001-05-01

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  19. Injector design for liner-on-target gas-puff experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Conti, F.; Wessel, F.; Fadeev, V.; Narkis, J.; Ross, M. P.; Rahman, H. U.; Ruskov, E.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-11-01

    We present the design of a gas-puff injector for liner-on-target experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g., Ar and Kr) gas and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers an ionized deuterium target. The annular supersonic nozzle injector has been studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated (M > 5), ˜1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on ˜1-MA current generators. The CFD simulations allowed us to study output density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape, gas pressure, and gas composition. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas density. The measurements agree well with the CFD values. We have used a simple snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector.

  20. Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

  1. Atlas positive-ion injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R C; Bollinger, L M; Shepard, K W

    1987-04-01

    The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make beams of essentially all elements including uranium available at ATLAS. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides ions of high charge states at microampere currents, and rf superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions.

  2. Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.

    1995-04-01

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K + ) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

  3. Microwave proton source development for a high-current linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.; Bolme, G.; Geisik, C.

    1995-01-01

    Powerful CW proton linear accelerators (100-mA at 0.5--1.0 GeV) are being proposed for spallation neutron-source applications. A 75-keV, 110-mA dc proton injector using a microwave ion source is being tested for these applications. It has achieved 80-keV, 110-mA hydrogen-ion-beam operation. Video and dc beam-current toroid diagnostics are operational, and an EPICS control system is also operational on the 75-keV injector. A technical base development program has also been carried out on a 50-keV injector obtained from Chalk River Laboratories, and it includes low-energy beam transport studies, ion source lifetime tests, and proton-fraction enhancement studies. Technical base results and the present status of the 75-keV injector will be presented

  4. Feasibility and application on steam injector for next-generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Ishiyama, Takenori; Miyano, Hiroshi; Nei, Hiromichi; Shioiri, Akio

    1991-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted on steam injector for a next generation reactor. The steam injector is a simple, compact passive device for water injection, such as Passive Core Injection System (PCIS) of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS), because of easy start-up without an AC power. An analysis model for a steam injector characteristics has been developed, and investigated with a visualized fundamental test for a two-stage Steam Injector System (SIS) for PCIS and a one-stage low pressure SIS for PCCS. The test results showed good agreement with the analysis results. The analysis and the test results showed the SIS could work over a very wide range of the steam pressure, and is applicable for PCIS or PCCS in the next generation reactors. (author)

  5. Transient Tolerant Automated Control System for the LEDA 75kV Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.; Harrington, M.; Hodgkins, D.; Kerstiens, D.M.; Stettler, M.W.; Warren, D.S.; Zaugg, T.; Arvin, A.; Bolt, S.; Richards, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) injector is designed to inject 75-keV, 110-mA, proton beams into the LEDA RFQ. The injector operation has been automated to provide long term, high availability operation using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Automated recovery from spark-downs demands reliable spark detection and sequence execution by the injector controller. Reliable computer control in the high-energy transient environment required transient suppression and isolation of hundreds of analog and binary data lines connecting the EPICS computer controller to the injector and it's power supplies and diagnostics. A transient suppression design based on measured and modeled spark transient parameters provides robust injector operation. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design, implementation and operational performance

  6. Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, M.; Pacher, C.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of ΔE inj =10 meV is derived. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Impact of biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaquat, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Continued legislative pressure to reduce exhaust emissions from CI (compression ignition) has resulted in the development of advanced fuel injection equipment. This advanced injection system produces higher temperatures and pressures at the injector tip, where deposit formation is initiated. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline fuel and JB20 (20% jatropha biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single-cylinder CI engine. The effects of JB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated during the endurance test. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors for both fuel samples. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for JB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations and decreased viscosity values when the engine was fueled with JB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and NO x emissions, and lower HC (hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, for the JB20 blend compared to DF. - Highlights: • Endurance test for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and JB20. • Investigation on effects of JB20 on the injector deposits and exhaust emissions. • Lubricating oil analysis during endurance test. • SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. • EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis

  8. Mixture distribution in a multi-valve twin-spark ignition engine equipped with high-pressure multi-hole injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroglou, N; Arcoumanis, C; Mori, K; Motoyama, Y

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence has been mainly used to characterise the two-dimensional fuel vapour concentration inside the cylinder of a multi-valve twin-spark ignition engine equipped with high-pressure multi-hole injectors. The effects of injection timing, in-cylinder charge motion and injector tip layout have been quantified. The flexibility in nozzle design of the multi-hole injectors has proven to be a powerful tool in terms of matching overall spray cone angle and number of holes to specific engine configurations. Injection timing was found to control spray impingement on the piston and cylinder wall, thus contributing to quick and efficient fuel evaporation. It was confirmed that in-cylinder charge motion plays a major role in engine's stable operation by assisting in the transportation of the air-fuel mixture towards the ignition locations (i.e. spark-plugs) in the way of a uniformly distributed charge or by preserving stratification of the charge depending on operating mode of the engine

  9. Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

    1981-02-01

    An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures

  10. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  11. The JET high frequency pellet injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraud, Alain; Dentan, M.; Whitehead, A.; Butcher, P.; Communal, D.; Faisse, F.; Gedney, J.; Gros, G.; Guillaume, D.; Hackett, L.; Hennion, V.; Homfray, D.; Lucock, R.; McKivitt, J.; Sibbald, M.; Portafaix, C.; Perin, J.P.; Reade, M.; Sands, D.; Saille, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new deuterium ice pellet injector is in preparation for JET. It is designed to inject both small pellets (variable volume within 1-2 mm 3 ) at high frequency (up to 60 Hz) for ELM mitigation experiments and large pellets (volume within 35-70 mm 3 ) at moderate frequency (up to 15 Hz) for plasma fuelling. It is based on the screw extruder technology developed by PELIN and pneumatic acceleration. An injection line will connect the injector to the flight tubes already in place to convey the pellets toward the plasma either from the low field side or from the high field side of the torus. This injection line enables: (i) the pumping of the propellant gas, (ii) the provision of the vacuum interface with the torus and (iii) the selection of the flight tube to be used via a fast selector. All the interfaces have been designed and a prototype injector is being built, to demonstrate that the required performance is achievable

  12. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuillier, T., E-mail: thuillier@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Angot, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Sole, P. [LPSC, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Canet, C.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jardin, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B. [GANIL, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Biarrotte, J. L. [IPN Orsay, Université Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Denis, J.-F.; Roger, A.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D. [Irfu, CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SACM, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ∼50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  13. Design of the ITER Neutral Beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemsworth, R.S.; Feist, J.; Hanada, M.; Heinemann, B.; Inoue, T.; Kuessel, E.; Kulygin, V.; Krylov, A.; Lotte, P.; Miyamoto, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Murdoch, D.; Nagase, A.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Pamela, J.; Panasenkov, A.; Shibata, K.; Tanii, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed in Europe, Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D 0 to the ITER plasma for pulse length of ≥1000 s. The injectors each use a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D - . This will be neutralized in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. DO ESTRANGULAMENTO EXTERNO À MORATÓRIA: A NEGOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA COM O FMI NO GOVERNO FIGUEIREDO (1979-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Salomão

    Full Text Available RESUMO O processo de endividamento externo adotado nos anos 1970 esteve diretamente associado à necessidade de financiamento do II PND. A necessidade de legitimação do regime discricionário compeliu o governo a inserir a economia brasileira de modo imprudente no circuito financeiro internacional. Após o segundo choque do petróleo, em 1979, a política econômica da tecnocracia resumiu-se a administrar a crise do balanço de pagamentos. Estabeleceu-se, então, uma longa e hesitante negociação com o FMI e com os credores internacionais, e as divergências dela decorrentes ensejaram a decretação da moratória da dívida externa anos depois.

  15. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 1: Hydraulic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    An experimental study of two real multi-hole Diesel injectors is performed under current DI Diesel engine operating conditions. The aim of the investigation is to study the influence of injector technology on the flow at the nozzle exit and to analyse its effect on the spray in evaporative conditions and combustion development. The injectors used are two of the most common technologies used nowadays: solenoid and piezoelectric. The nozzles for both injectors are very similar since the objective of the work is the understanding of the influence of the injector technology on spray characteristics for a given nozzle geometry. In the first part of the study, experimental measurements of hydraulic characterization have been analyzed for both systems. Analysis of spray behaviour in evaporative conditions and combustion development will be carried out in the second part of the work. Important differences between both injectors have been observed, especially in their transient opening and closing of the needle, leading to a more efficient air-fuel mixing and combustion processes for the piezoelectric actuated injector. (author)

  16. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  17. Study on biodiesel heat transfer through self-temperature limit injector during vehicle cold start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of Self-Temperature Limit-Injector (STL- injector is proposed to reduce the biodiesel consumption and emission in vehicle cold start process. The STL-injector is capable of fast raising fuel temperature, which helps improve the quality of diesel spray and its combustion efficiency. A STL-injector model is established with consideration of electro-mechanic coupling and fluid-structure interaction. A transient simulation is conducted using dynamic grid technology. The results show that STL-injector can effectively raise biodiesel temperature to 350K from 300K in 32 seconds. That is to say, adding STL-injector to existing biodiesel combustion system is an environment-friendly solution due to improving atomization and spray quality quickly.

  18. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (12) Evaluations of Spatial Distributions of Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka Abe; Yujiro Kawamoto; Chikako Iwaki; Tadashi Narabayashi; Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori

    2006-01-01

    Next-generation nuclear reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. One of the innovative technologies is the supersonic steam injector, which has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation nuclear reactor. The steam injector has functions of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery and a high efficiency heat exchanger. The performances of the supersonic steam injector as a pump and a heat exchanger are dependent on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. In previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about the operating characteristics of steam injector and about the direct contact condensation between static water pool and steam in atmosphere. However, there is a little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under the great shear stress. In order to examine the heat transfer and flow behavior in supersonic steam injector, it is necessary to measure the spatial temperature distribution and velocity in detail. The present study, visible transparent supersonic steam injector is used to obtain the axial pressure distributions in the supersonic steam injector, as well as high speed visual observation of water jet and steam interface. The experiments are conducted with and without non-condensable gas. The experimental results of the interfacial flow behavior between steam and water jet are obtained. It is experimentally clarified that an entrainment exists on the water jet surface. It is also clarified that discharge pressure is depended on the steam supply pressure, the inlet water flow rate, the throat diameter and non-condensable flow rate. Finally a heat flux is estimated about 19 MW/m 2 without non-condensable gas condition in steam. (authors)

  19. Present status of the negative ion sources and injectors at JAERI tandem accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Yoshida, T.; Abe, S.

    1988-01-01

    The JAERI tandem accelerator began regular operation with the 350 kV negative ion jnjector and 3 kinds of nagative ion sources (Direct Extraction Duoplasmatron Ion Source, Heinickie Penning Ion Source, Negative Ion Sputter Source (Refocus-UNIS)) since 1982. An extension with the injector was constructed in 1984, (1) to increase reliability of all devices in the injector, (2) to exclude completely any unsafe operation in the injector, and (3) to tune several ion sources simultaneously, while a certain ion source is in operation. After the extended injector became available, we have been able to run the whole injector system very safely, steadily and effectively, and have had few troubles. Currently, the second injector has been constructed in order to obtain a full strength of resistance against any sudden troubles in the injector. Several other operational and developmental items will be discussed in the text briefly. (author)

  20. Argonne tandem as injector to a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yntema, J.L.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Henning, W.; Kutschera, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem uses Pelletron chains, NEC accelerator tubes, and a dual closed-corona system. Its main function is to be an injector for a superconducting linear accelerator. As long as the transverse and longitudinal emittances are within the acceptance of the linac, the output beam quality of the tandem-linac system is essentially determined by the tandem. The sensitivity of the linac to the longitudinal emittance ΔEΔt of the incident beam makes the output beam quality dependent on the negative-ion velocity distribution in the source, transit-time effects in the tandem, molecular-beam dissociation, and stripper-foil uniformity. This paper discusses these beam-degrading effects

  1. Developing the Model of Fuel Injection Process Efficiency Analysis for Injector for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. Yu; Kayukov, S. S.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Belousov, A. V.; Gallyamov, R. E.; Lysenko, Yu D.

    2018-01-01

    The article proposes an assessment option for analysing the quality of fuel injection by the injector constituting the development of calculation blocks in a common injector model within LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim. The parameters of the injector model in the article correspond to the serial injector Common Rail-type with solenoid. The possibilities of this approach are demonstrated with providing the results using the example of modelling the modified injector. Following the research results, the advantages of the proposed approach to analysing assessing the fuel injection quality were detected.

  2. Study on thermal-hydraulic behavior in supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Fukuichi, Akira; Kawamoto, Yujiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Supersonic steam injector is the one of the most possible devices aiming at simplifying system and improving the safety and the credibility for next-generation nuclear reactor systems. The supersonic steam injector has dual functions of a passive jet pump without rotating machine and a compact and high efficiency heat exchanger, because it is operated by the direct contact condensation between supersonic steam and subcooled water jet. It is necessary to clarify the flow behavior in the supersonic steam injector which is governed by the complicated turbulent flow with a great shear stress of supersonic steam. However, in previous study, there is little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under such a great shear stress at the gas-liquid interface. In the present study, turbulent flow behavior including the effect of the interface between water jet and supersonic steam is developed based on the eddy viscosity model. Radial velocity distributions and the turbulent heat transfer are calculated with the model. The calculation results are compared with the experimental results done with the transparent steam injector. (author)

  3. Characteristics of modified CT injector for JFT-2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, N. [Himeji Institute of Technology, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukumoto@elct.eng.himeji-tech.ac.jp; Ogawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nagata, M. [Himeji Institute of Technology, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201 (Japan); Uyama, T. [Himeji Institute of Technology, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201 (Japan); Shibata, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kusama, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    The HIT-CTI mark II compact toroid (CT) injector employed for the JFT-2M tokamak facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been upgraded to improve injection performance. The nozzle of the mark III injector now has a linear tube in place of the original focus cone to avoid rapid focus and deceleration, and the tapered outer electrode has been replaced with more gentle taper in the compression section in order to facilitate gradual compression. The dependence of CT velocity and electron density on poloidal bias flux and trigger time of CT acceleration have been investigated in the operable range of 70-230 km/s average CT velocity and electron density of 0.1-1.0 x 10{sup 22} m{sup -3} at an accelerator bank voltage of 25 kV. The operation window is broader than that of the mark II injector. Emission of a CT plasmoid from the injector, and transport to the flux conserver as a high-density spheromak magnetic structure have also been confirmed.

  4. Beam dynamics simulation of the S-DALINAC injector section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Sylvain; Ackermann, Wolfgang; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In order to extend the experimental possibilities at the superconducting electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC a new polarized gun has recently been installed in addition to the well-established thermionic electron source. Beside the two electron sources the injector section consists of several short quadrupole triplets, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter and a chopper/prebuncher system. The setup of these components differs depending on whether bunched polarized electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 keV range are supplied by the polarized source or whether a continuous unpolarized 250 keV electron beam is extracted from the thermionic gun. The electrons pass through the injector at a relatively low energy and therefore are very sensitive to the beam forming elements in this section. Thus, a proper knowledge of the particle distribution at the exit of the injector section is essential for the quality of any simulation of the subsequent accelerator parts. In this contribution first numerical beam dynamics simulation results of the S-DALINAC injector setup are discussed.

  5. Diagnostics and camera strobe timers for hydrogen pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.L.; Fisher, P.W.; Qualls, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen pellet injectors have been used to fuel fusion experimental devices for the last decade. As part of developments to improve pellet production and velocity, various diagnostic devices were implemented, ranging from witness plates to microwave mass meters to high speed photography. This paper will discuss details of the various implementations of light sources, cameras, synchronizing electronics and other diagnostic systems developed at Oak Ridge for the Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), a system built for the Oak Ridge Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) built for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Although a number of diagnostic systems were implemented on each pellet injector, the emphasis here will be on the development of a synchronization system for high-speed photography using pulsed light sources, standard video cameras, and video recorders. This system enabled near real-time visualization of the pellet shape, size and flight trajectory over a wide range of pellet speeds and at one or two positions along the flight path. Additionally, the system provides synchronization pulses to the data system for pseudo points along the flight path, such as the estimated plasma edge. This was accomplished using an electronic system that took the time measured between sets of light gates, and generated proportionally delayed triggers for light source strobes and pseudo points. Systems were built with two camera stations, one located after the end of the barrel, and a second camera located closer to the main reactor vessel wall. Two or three light gates were used to sense pellet velocity and various spacings were implemented on the three experiments. Both analog and digital schemes were examined for implementing the delay system. A digital technique was chosen

  6. Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

    2001-10-01

    We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.

  7. Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehab, R.; Bernard, M.; Bourdon, J.C.; Garvey, T. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l`Accelerateur Lineaire; Aune, B.; Desmons, M.; Fusellier, J.; Gougnaud, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Buhler, S.; Junquera, T. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.). 7 refs.

  8. Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.; Bernard, M.; Bourdon, J.C.; Garvey, T.; Aune, B.; Desmons, M.; Fusellier, J.; Gougnaud, F.; Buhler, S.; Junquera, T.

    1995-01-01

    A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.)

  9. Development and design of railgun system to pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Tsujjmura, S.; Kuribayashi, S.; Shimizu, K.C.; Tamura, H.; Sawaoka, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the railgun systems for the application of pellet injector are investigated and developed in the experimental stage. One of the main features of our railgun systems is to employ a pulse laser beam to induce the initial plasma armature between rails to be accelerated. This unique feature provides the reduction of the supplied voltage to the breakdown between the rails and to reduce the erosion of the rails. This paper presents the current results of a the authors' experimental and theoretical research progress, and introduces the design study for electromagnetic railgun based on our research progress

  10. Design of an electron injector for multi-stages laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, T.

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is a particle acceleration process relying on the interaction between high intensity laser pulses, of the order of 10 18 W/cm 2 and a plasma. The plasma wave generated in the laser wake sustain high amplitude electric fields (1- 100 GV/m). Those electric fields are 3 orders of magnitude higher than maximum electric fields in radio frequency cavities and represent the main benefit of LWFA, allowing more compact acceleration. However improvements of the LWFA-produced electron bunches properties, stability and repetition rate are mandatory for LWFA to be usable for applications. A scheme to improve electron bunches properties and to potentially increase the repetition rate is multi-stage LWFA. The laser plasma electron source, called the injector, has to produce relatively low energy (50 - 100 MeV), but high charge, small size and low divergence electron bunches. Produced electron bunches then have to be transported and injected into a second stage to increase electron kinetic energy. The subject of this thesis is to study and design a laser wakefield electron injector for multistage LWFA. In the frame of CILEX and the two-stages LWFA program, a prototype of the injector was built : ELISA consisting in a variable length gas cell. The plasma electronic density, which is a critical parameter for the control of the electron bunches properties, was characterized both experimentally and numerically. ELISA was used at 2 different laser facilities and physical mechanisms linked to electron bunches properties were studied in function of experimental parameters. A range of experimental parameters suitable for a laser wakefield injector was determined. A magnetic transport and diagnostic line was also built, implemented and tested at the UHI100 laser facility of the CEA Saclay. It allowed a more precise characterization of electron bunches generated with ELISA as well as an estimation of the quality of transported electron bunches for their

  11. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.J.; Hewett, D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced

  12. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hewett, D. W.

    1993-05-01

    We have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced.

  13. The Supervisory Control System for the HL-2A Neutral Beam Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Li; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xueyun; Yang, Jiaxing; Huang, Zhihui; Kang, Zihua; Wang, Mingwei; Zhang, Guoqing; Lei, Guangjiu; Rao, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Supervisory control and protection system of the neutral beam injector (NBI) in the HL-2A tokamak is presented. The system is used for a safe coordination of all the main NBI subsystems. Because the system is based on computer networks with its transmission medium of optical fiber, its advantages in high operational stability, reliability, security and flexible functional expandability are clearly shown during the NBI commissioning and heating experiment in HL-2A.

  14. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

  15. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  16. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  17. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper

  18. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  19. Hydraulic Characterization of Diesel Engine Single-Hole Injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Arco Sola, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Due to world trend on the emission regulations and greater demand of fuel economy,the research on advanced diesel injector designs is a key factor for the next generation diesel engines. For that reason, it is well established that understanding the effects of the nozzle geometry on the spray development, fuel-air mixing, combustion and pollutants formation is of crucial importance to achieve these goals.In the present research, the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on the internalflo...

  20. Shielding calculations for the TFTR neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Lillie, R.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.

    1979-07-01

    Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations have been performed to determine the location and thickness of concrete shielding around the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) neutral beam injectors. Two sets of calculations were performed: one to determine the dose equivalent rate on the roof and walls of the test cell building when no injectors are present, and one to determine the contribution to the dose equivalent rate at these locations from radiation streaming through the injection duct. Shielding the side and rear of the neutral beam injector with 0.305 and 0.61 m of concrete, respectively, and lining the inside of the test cell wall with an additional layer of concrete having a thickness of 0.305 m and a height above the axis of deuteron injection of 3.10 m are sufficient to maintain the biological dose equivalent rate outside the test cell to approx. 1 mrem/DT pulse

  1. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  2. An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, H; Rinolfi, Louis; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, A D

    2000-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

  3. An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Roger H.

    2001-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed

  4. An injector for the CLIC test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans-Heinrich; Rinolfi, L.; Zhou, F.; Mouton, B.; Miller, R.; Yeremian, D.

    2008-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

  5. Pressure injectors for radiologists: A review and what is new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrajit, Inna K; Sivasankar, Rajeev; D’Souza, John; Pant, Rochan; Negi, Raj S; Sahu, Samresh; Hashim, PI

    2015-01-01

    Pressure Injectors are used routinely in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Advances in medical science and technology have made it is imperative for both diagnostic as well as interventional radiologists to have a thorough understanding of the various aspects of pressure injectors. Further, as many radiologists may not be fully conversant with injections into ports, central lines and PICCs, it is important to familiarize oneself with the same. It is also important to follow stringent operating protocols during the use of pressure injectors to prevent complications such as contrast extravastion, sepsis and air embolism. This article aims to update existing knowledge base in this respect

  6. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  7. The CH section of the 17 MeV injector for MYRRHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed beam-dynamics design for the MYRRHA injector was optimized in view of a high reliability and availability and fulfills all requirements of the nuclear reactor. The basic concept of the EUROTRANS injector was revised and further developed. Ar result of this work among others the quality of the excite beam could be distrinctly improved. In the statistical error analysis the beam dynamics have been shown as extremely robust and yields even under most pessimistic error assumptions a transmission of above 99.9 %. The new injector concept offers essential advances against the injector design presented in ''MAX Referenzdesign 012'' and is applied as new ''MAX Referenzdesign 2014''. The development history until the new reference design was a successive process with numerous iterative intermediate steps. With the altrnative design (C1) and the consolidated alternative design (C2) in this thesis also the milestones of the injector development are described. The good beam-dynamical properties of the new injector design (C3) could be confirmed in comparison calculations with TraceWin at the IN2P3 rate at CNRS. Beside the beam dynamics the required accelerator cavities were developed and optimized for a high reliability and availability too. The RF design of the CH structures is layed out for a most possible breakdown safety in the operation with low electrical field gradients far below the technical power limits and possibilities of each cavity.

  8. A suite of diagnostics to validate and optimize the prototype ITER neutral beam injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, R.; Agostini, M.; Barbisan, M.; Brombin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Croci, G.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R. S.; De Muri, M.; Muraro, A.; Peruzzo, S.; Pimazzoni, A.; Pomaro, N.; Rebai, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zaupa, M.

    2017-10-01

    The ITER project requires additional heating provided by two neutral beam injectors using 40 A negative deuterium ions accelerated at 1 MV. As the beam requirements have never been experimentally met, a test facility is under construction at Consorzio RFX, which hosts two experiments: SPIDER, full-size 100 kV ion source prototype, and MITICA, 1 MeV full-size ITER injector prototype. Since diagnostics in ITER injectors will be mainly limited to thermocouples, due to neutron and gamma radiation and to limited access, it is crucial to thoroughly investigate and characterize in more accessible experiments the key parameters of source plasma and beam, using several complementary diagnostics assisted by modelling. In SPIDER and MITICA the ion source parameters will be measured by optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes, cavity ring down spectroscopy for H^- density and laser absorption spectroscopy for cesium density. Measurements over multiple lines-of-sight will provide the spatial distribution of the parameters over the source extension. The beam profile uniformity and its divergence are studied with beam emission spectroscopy, complemented by visible tomography and neutron imaging, which are novel techniques, while an instrumented calorimeter based on custom unidirectional carbon fiber composite tiles observed by infrared cameras will measure the beam footprint on short pulses with the highest spatial resolution. All heated components will be monitored with thermocouples: as these will likely be the only measurements available in ITER injectors, their capabilities will be investigated by comparison with other techniques. SPIDER and MITICA diagnostics are described in the present paper with a focus on their rationale, key solutions and most original and effective implementations.

  9. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging contrast media injectors: technical feature review – what is really needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friebe M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Friebe Institute of Medical Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Germany Abstract: There has been little technical innovation over the last few years for contrast media (CM injectors that are used for diagnostic imaging (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and hybrid imaging systems, such as positron emission tomography–CT or magnetic resonance–positron emission tomography examinations. The medical need of CM for the enhancement of diagnostic images has been around for a long time, but the application of the CM into the blood stream comes with potential medical complications for the patient and requires a lot of operator experience and training. Most power injector systems that are currently used can do significantly more than what is typically required; this complexity however, adds error potential and cost. This paper focuses on the main features that CM injector systems should have and highlights the technical developments that are useful to have but which add complexity and cost, increase setup time, and require intensive training for safe use. CM injection protocols are very different between CT and MRI, with CT requiring many more variances, has a need for multiphase protocols, and requires a higher timing accuracy. A CM injector used in the MRI suite, on the other-hand, could only need a relatively time insensitive injection with a standard injection flow rate and a volume that is dependent on the patients’ weight. This would make easy and lightweight systems possible, which are able to safely and accurately perform the injection task, while allowing full MRI compatibility with relatively low cost investment and consumable costs. Keywords: power injector, contrast media injection, injection protocols, MRI compatibility

  10. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

  11. Pneumatic injector of deuterium macroparticles for TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyar, I.V.; Umov, A.P.; Lukin, A.Ya.; Skoblikov, S.V.; Reznichenko, P.V.; Krasil'nikov, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel-solid-deuterium pellets into the plasma of the TORE-SUPRA tokamak in a steady-state mode is described. The deuterium pellet injection with an unlimited duration is ensured by a screw extruder in which gaseous deuterium is frozen and squeezed outwards in the form of a rod with a rectangular cross section. A cutter installed on the injector's barrel cuts a cylinder with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 1.0-3.5 mm out from this rod. The movement of the cutter is controlled by a pulsed electromagnetic drive at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. In the injector's barrel, a compressed gas accelerates a deuterium pellet to a velocity of 100-650 m/s [ru

  12. A numerical study of candidate transverse fuel injector configurations in the Langley scramjet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that numerically solves the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and species equations near one or more transverse hydrogen fuel injectors in a scramjet engine. The program currently computes the turbulent mixing and reaction of hydrogen fuel and air, and allows the study of separated regions of the flow immediately preceding and following the injectors. The complex shock-expansion structure produced by the injectors in this region of the engine can also be represented. Results are presented that describe the flow field near two opposing transverse fuel injectors and two opposing staged (multiple) injectors, and comparisons between the two configurations are made to assess their mixing and flameholding qualities.

  13. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6-7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the

  14. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6–7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the

  15. ILSE-ESQ injector scaled experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Yu, S.; Grote, D.

    1993-01-01

    A 2 MeV, 800 mA, K + injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ISLE) is under development at LBL. It consists of a 500keV-1MeV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ). One of the key issues for the ESQ centers around the control of beam aberrations due to the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes: in a strong electrostatic quadrupole field, ions at beam edge will have energies very different from those on the axis. The resulting kinematic distortions lead to S-shaped phase spaces, which, if uncorrected, will lead eventually to emittance growth. These beam aberrations can be minimized by increasing the injection energy and/or strengthening the beam focusing. It may also be possible to compensate for the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes by proper shaping of the quadrupoles electrodes. In order to check the physics of the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes of the ESQ design a scaled experiment has been designed that will accommodate the parameters of the source, as well as the voltage limitations, of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE). Since the 500 KeV pre-injector delivers a 4 cm converging beam, a quarter-scale experiment will fit the 1 cm converging beam of the SBTE source. Also, a 10 mA beam in SBTE, and the requirement of equal perveance in both systems, forces all the voltages to scale down by a factor 0.054. Results from this experiment and corresponding 3D PIC simulations will be presented

  16. Experimental study of acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors in a combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Soon; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2007-01-01

    In a liquid rocket engine, acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied experimentally for combustion stability by adopting linear acoustic test. In the previous work, it has been found that gas-liquid scheme injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping or absorption when it is tuned finely. Based on this finding, acoustic-damping characteristics of multi-injectors are intensively investigated. From the experimental data, it is found that acoustic oscillations are almost damped out by multi-injectors when they have the tuning length proposed in the previous study. The length corresponds to a half wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling inside the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. But, new injector-coupled acoustic modes show up in the chamber with the injectors of the tuning length although the target mode is nearly damped out. And, appreciable frequency shift is always observed except for the case of the worst tuned injector. Accordingly, it is proposed that the tuning length is adjusted to have the shorter length than a half wavelength when these phenomena are considered

  17. Injector modeling and achievement/maintenance of high brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1985-10-01

    Viewgraphs for the workshop presentation are given. The presentation has three fundamental parts. In part one the need for numerical calculations is justified and the available computer codes are enumerated. The capabilities and features of the DPC computer code are the focal point in this section. In part two the injector design issues are discussed. These issues include such things as the beam optics and magnetic field profile. In part three the experimental results of two injector designs are compared with DPC predictions. 8 figs

  18. Status of Resistive Magnets in the LHC Injectors Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Bauche, J; Zickler, T; Newborough, A; Sgobba, S; Lopez, R

    2010-01-01

    About 4650 normal conducting magnets are presently installed in the CERN accelerators complex, more than 3000 of them belonging to the LHC injector chain and 163 installed in the LHC. The oldest magnets have been in operation for 50 years, and some of them are submitted to aggressive conditions, either in terms of radiation, extreme water cooling conditions or temperature. The smallest magnets in the linacs weigh a few kilograms, whilst each of the main magnets of the Proton Synchrotron weighs 33 tons. The paper reviews the status of these magnets and gives some examples of findings and relevant recent actions undertaken to ensure their reliable operation in the coming years.

  19. Neutron and gamma ray streaming calculations for the ETF neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.

    1981-02-01

    Two-dimensional radiation transport methods have been used to estimate the effects of neutron and gamma ray streaming on the performance of the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) neutral beam injectors. The calculations take into account the spatial, angular, and spectral distributions of the radiation entering the injector duct. The instantaneous nuclear heating rate averaged over the length of the cryopumping panel in the injector is 7.5 x 10 -3 MW/m 3 which implies a total heat load of 2.2 x 10 -4 MW. The instantaneous dose rate to the ion gun insulators was estimated to be 3200 rad/s. The radial dependence of the instantaneous dose equivalent rate in the neutral beam injector duct shield was also calculated

  20. LES of cavitating flow inside a Diesel injector including dynamic needle movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örley, F.; Hickel, S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    We perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent, cavitating flow inside a 9-hole solenoid common-rail injector including jet injection into gas during a full injection cycle. The liquid fuel, vapor, and gas phases are modelled by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitation model is based on a thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The geometry of the injector is represented on a Cartesian grid by a conservative cut-element immersed boundary method. The strategy allows for the simulation of complex, moving geometries with sub-cell resolution. We evaluate the effects of needle movement on the cavitation characteristics in the needle seat and tip region during opening and closing of the injector. Moreover, we study the effect of cavitation inside the injector nozzles on primary jet break-up.

  1. Control-volume-based model of the steam-water injector flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwidziński, Roman

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents equations of a mathematical model to calculate flow parameters in characteristic cross-sections in the steam-water injector. In the model, component parts of the injector (steam nozzle, water nozzle, mixing chamber, condensation wave region, diffuser) are treated as a series of connected control volumes. At first, equations for the steam nozzle and water nozzle are written and solved for known flow parameters at the injector inlet. Next, the flow properties in two-phase flow comprising mixing chamber and condensation wave region are determined from mass, momentum and energy balance equations. Then, water compression in diffuser is taken into account to evaluate the flow parameters at the injector outlet. Irreversible losses due to friction, condensation and shock wave formation are taken into account for the flow in the steam nozzle. In two-phase flow domain, thermal and mechanical nonequilibrium between vapour and liquid is modelled. For diffuser, frictional pressure loss is considered. Comparison of the model predictions with experimental data shows good agreement, with an error not exceeding 15% for discharge (outlet) pressure and 1 K for outlet temperature.

  2. Ramp injector scale effects on supersonic combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebs, Adam

    The combustion field downstream of a 10 degree compression ramp injector has been studied experimentally using wall static pressure measurement, OH-PLIF, and 2 kHz intensified video filtered for OH emission at 320 nm. Nominal test section entrance conditions were Mach 2, 131 kPa static pressure, and 756K stagnation temperature. The experiment was equipped with a variable length inlet duct that facilitated varying the boundary layer development length while the injector shock structure in relation to the combustor geometry remained nearly fixed. As the boundary within an engine varies with flight condition and does not scale linearly with the physical scale of the engine, the boundary layer scale relative to mixing structures of the engine becomes relevant to the problem of engine scaling and general engine performance. By varying the boundary layer thickness from 40% of the ramp height to 150% of the ramp height, changes in the combustion flowfield downstream of the injector could be diagnosed. It was found that flame shape changed, the persistence of the vortex cores was reduced, and combustion efficiency rose as the incident boundary layer grew.

  3. Deterioration of the fuel injection parameters as a result of Common Rail injectors deposit formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes external and internal Common Rail injectors deposits formed in dynamometer engine simulation tests. It discussed not only the key reasons and factors influencing injector deposit formation but also the resulting way of fuel preparation and engine test approaches. The effects of external coking deposit as well as internal deposits two most common form types that is carboxylic soaps and organic amides on deterioration of the fuel injection parameters were assessed. The assessments covered both deposits impacts on quantitative and qualitative changes of the injectors diagnostic parameters and as a result on deterioration of the injector performance. Finally the comparisons between characteristic of dosage of one fuel injector before test and characteristics few injectors after engine tests of simulated deposit formation were made.

  4. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuzzi, D., E-mail: diego.marcuzzi@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Muri, M.; Chitarin, G.; Gambetta, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Pilan, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, L.; Visentin, M.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R. S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  5. A Argentina entre as reformas econômicas neoliberais e a redefinição das negociações com o FMI (1989-2007 L'Argentine entre les réformes économiques néoliberales et la redéfinition des négociations avec le FMI (1989-2007 Argentina: between neoliberal economic reform and redefinitions of negotiations with the IMF (1989-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rodrigues Marques da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar a influência da crise econômica sobre a formação de novas coalizões políticas na Argentina dos anos 2000, as quais levaram a uma ruptura em relação à política econômica adotada pelos governos Menem e De la Rúa. Essas transformações permitiram uma mudança na estratégia do governo Kirchner nas relações com o Fundo Monetário Internacional (FMI, levando a uma posição mais dura do governo argentino em rechaço às posições do Fundo. A política econômica sustentada pelos governos Duhalde e Kirchner teve como base o regime cambial competitivo, em substituição ao regime de conversibilidade vigente nos anos 1990, e contou com o apoio dos grupos empresariais voltados para o mercado doméstico, favorecidos pela desvalorização do peso. A proposta desses governos para a promoção do crescimento econômico excluiu atores com vínculos externos, que faziam parte das coalizões de apoio nas gestões Menem e De la Rúa. Entre os excluídos estavam os credores que detinham papéis da dívida em moratória desde 2001 e empresas prestadoras de serviços públicos privatizadas na década de 1990, que recebiam apoio do FMI. Essas razões explicam o fato das negociações com o Fundo durante o governo Kirchner terem sido marcadas por impasses e pela postura firme dos negociadores argentinos. Transformações no contexto internacional também tiveram impacto sobre as negociações do governo Kirchner com o FMI. Com a eleição de George W. Bush nos Estados Unidos, em 2000, enfraqueceu-se o apoio norte-americano à concessão de empréstimos do Fundo a países em desenvolvimento. O governo republicano defendeu ainda a redução do papel do FMI na intermediação das negociações entre países devedores e credores privados. O governo argentino sentia que já poderia, nessa altura, dispensar a intermediação de instituições financeiras internacionais nas negociações referentes à dívida p

  6. Simulation of Assembly Tolerance and Characteristics of High Pressure Common Rail Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Lu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuel injector is the key part of a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system. Its manufacturing precision and assembly quality affect system's property and performance. According to the characteristics and demands of assembly of the fuel injector, an intelligent optimization algorithm is proposed to resolve the problem of assembly sequence planning. Based on geometric modeling, assembly dimension chain of the injector control chamber is established, and the relationship between assembly tolerance and volume change of control chamber is analyzed. The optimization model of the assembly is established. The impact of assembly tolerance on injector's performance is simulated according to the optimization algorithm. The simulation result shows that quantity of injection fuel changes correspondingly with the change of assembly tolerance, while injection rate and pressure do not change significantly, and the response rate of needle considerably slow. Similarly, the leakage rate of fuel in control chamber is calculated, indicating that the assembly tolerance has obvious impact on fuel leakage and its rate. The study illuminates that injector's assembly tolerance has prominent effect on injection.

  7. Table-top pellet injector (TATOP) for impurity pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, Tamás, E-mail: szepesi.tamas@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, Konkoly Thege 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Herrmann, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kocsis, Gábor; Kovács, Ádám; Németh, József [Wigner RCP, RMI, Konkoly Thege 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Ploeckl, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A portable pellet injector for solid state pellets was designed. • Aims to study ELM triggering potential of impurity pellets. • Aims for multi-machine comparison of pellet–plasma interaction. • Max. pellet speed: 450 m/s, max. rate: 25 Hz. • Pellet size: 0.5–1.5 mm (diameter). - Abstract: A table-top pellet injector (TATOP) has been designed to fulfill the following scientific aims: to study the ELM triggering potential of impurity pellets, and to make pellet injection experiments comparable over several fusion machines. The TATOP is based on a centrifugal accelerator therefore the complete system is run in vacuum, ensuring the compatibility with fusion devices. The injector is able to launch any solid material (stable at room temperature) in form of balls with a diameter in the 0.5–1.5 mm range. The device hosts three individual pellet tanks that can contain e.g. pellets of different materials, and the user can select from those without opening the vacuum chamber. A key element of the accelerator is a two-stage stop cylinder that reduces the spatial scatter of pellets exiting the acceleration arm below 6°, enabling the efficient collection of all fired pellets. The injector has a maximum launch speed of 450 m/s. The launching of pellets can be done individually by providing TTL triggers for the injector, giving a high level of freedom for the experimenter when designing pellet trains. However, the (temporary) firing rate cannot be larger than 25 Hz. TATOP characterization was done in a test bed; however, the project is still in progress and before application at a fusion oriented experiment.

  8. The control system for the multiple-pellet injector on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Stewart, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A stand-alone control and data acquisition system for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiple-pellet injector installed on the Joint European Torus (JET) has been designed and installed with the injector. This system, which is based on a MicroVAX II computer and a programmable logic controller (PLC), is an upgrade of previous systems designed for ORNL pellet injectors installed on other fusion experiments. The primary control system upgrades are in the user interface, in the automation of sequential injector operation, and in the analysis of the transient data acquired for each pellet fired. The system is integrated into the JET CODAS environment through CAMAC communications modules with customized communications software. Routine operation of the injector is automated and requires no operator intervention. Details of the hardware and software design and the operation of the system are presented in this paper. 4 refs., 3 figs

  9. Study on the characteristics of the supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Shibayama, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Steam injector is a passive jet pump which operates without power source or rotating machinery and it has high heat transfer performance due to the direct-contact condensation of supersonic steam flow onto subcooled water jet. It has been considered to be applied to the passive safety system for the next-generation nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to clarify operating mechanisms of the steam injector and to determine the operating ranges. In this study, temperature and velocity distribution in the mixing nozzle as well as flow directional pressure distribution were measured. In addition, flow structure in whole of the injector was observed with high-speed video camera. It was confirmed that there were unsteady interfacial behavior in mixing nozzle which enhanced heat transfer between steam flow and water jet with calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Discharge pressure at diffuser was also estimated with a one-dimensional model proposed previously. Furthermore, it was clarified that steam flow did not condense completely in mixing nozzle and it was two-phase flow in throat and diffuser, which seemed to induce shock wave. From those results, several discussions and suggestions to develop a physical model which predicts the steam injectors operating characteristics are described in this paper

  10. Design of spheromak injector using conical accelerator for large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, H.; Yasui, K.; Kato, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Optimization of CT injector for LHD has been carried out and conical electrode for adiabatic CT compression is adopted in the design. Point-model of CT acceleration in a co-axial electrode is solved to optimize the electrode geometry and the power supplies. Large acceleration efficiency of 34% is to be obtained with 3.2 m long conical accelerator and 40 kV - 42 kJ power supply. The operation scenario of a CT injector named SPICA mk. I (SPheromak Injector using Conical Accelerator) consisting of 0.8 m conical accelerator is discussed based on this design. (author)

  11. Effects of pilot injection parameters on low temperature combustion diesel engines equipped with solenoid injectors featuring conventional and rate-shaped main injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.

    2016-01-01

    injection on engine performance and emissions has also been assessed in the presence of rate-shaped main injections. These main injection profiles have been implemented with solenoid injectors by designing the injection fusion between a pre injection shot, which is added after the pilot injection, and the main injection. This innovative strategy shows benefits, with respect to combustion noise, although it still results in a reduced impact on NO_x emissions. Furthermore, the brake specific fuel consumption and soot levels generally become worse than in the case of the simple pilot–main injection schedules. The injection fusion strategy has a significant impact on the soot versus dwell time dependence, which is influenced by the interference between the main injection and pilot combustion.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Characteristics of a Double-Base Swirl Injector in a Liquid Rocket Propellant Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah OMMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the fundamentals of swirl injector calculation is investigated and new design procedure is proposed. The design method for double-base liquid-liquid injectors is presented based on this theory and experimental results. Then special conditions related to double-based liquid-liquid injectors are studied and the corresponding results are applied in design manipulation. The behaviour of injector in various performing conditions is studied, and the design procedure is presented based on obtained results. A computer code for designing the injector is proposed. Based on this code, four injectors are manufactured. A specialized laboratory was setup for the measurement of macroscopic spray characteristics under different pressure such as homogeneous droplet distribution, spray angle, swirl effect. Finally, through PDA cold test, the microscopic characteristics of injectors spray are also obtained and measured. The results, which will be explained in detail, are satisfactory.

  13. Using CFD as Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Rocker, Marvin; Canabal, Francisco; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2003-01-01

    The choice of tools used for injector design is in a transitional phase between exclusive reliance on the empirically based correlations and extensive use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program goals emphasizing lower costs and increased reliability have produced a need to enable CFD as an injector design tool in a shorter time frame. This is the primary objective of the Staged Combustor Injector Technology Task currently under way at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The documentation of this effort begins with a very brief status of current injector design tools. MSFC's vision for use of CFD as a tool for combustion devices design is stated and discussed with emphasis on the injector. The concept of the Simulation Readiness Level (SRL), comprised of solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, is introduced and discussed. This quantitative measurement is used to establish the gap between the current state of demonstrated capability and that necessary for regular use in the design process. MSFC's view of the validation process is presented and issues associated with obtaining the necessary data are noted and discussed. Three current experimental efforts aimed at generating validation data are presented. The importance of uncertainty analysis to understand the data quality is also demonstrated. First, a brief status of current injector design tools is provided as context for the current effort. Next, the MSFC vision for using CFD as an injector design tool is stated. A generic CFD-based injector design methodology is also outlined and briefly discussed. Three areas where MSFC is using injector CFD analyses for program support will be discussed. These include the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) engine which uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants in a full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle and the TR-107 and the RS84 engine both of which use RP-1 and oxygen in an ORSC cycle. Finally, an attempt is made to

  14. Pellet injector development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Argo, B.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Whealton, J.H.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma

  15. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

  17. Solid state high power amplifier for driving the SLC injector klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judkins, J.G.; Clendenin, J.E.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1985-03-01

    The SLC injector klystron rf drive is now provided by a recently developed solid-state amplifier. The high gain of the amplifier permits the use of a fast low-power electronic phase shifter. Thus the SLC computer control system can be used to shift the phase of the high-power rf rapidly during the fill time of the injector accelerator section. These rapid phase shifts are used to introduce a phase-energy relationship in the accelerated electron pulse in conjunction with the operation of the injector bunch compressor. The amplifier, the method of controlling the rf phase, and the operational characteristics of the system are described. 5 refs., 4 figs

  18. A high output, large acceptance injector for the NOSAMS Tandetron AMS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longworth, Brett E., E-mail: blongworth@whoi.edu; Reden, Karl F. von; Long, Pat; Roberts, Mark L.

    2015-10-15

    We have completed a major upgrade of the National Ocean Sciences AMS Facility (NOSAMS) Tandetron AMS system in two stages. First, the simultaneous (recombinator) injector was replaced with a fast-cycling sequential injector and changes to the low-energy acceleration section. Data after the injector commissioning show an improvement in background, with mean machine background (commercial graphite) of Fm 0.0004 (62 ka). Second, we replaced the original ion source with a high-output 40 sample MCSNICS source. This improved beam currents and raw ratio fractionation, and increased sample to detection efficiency fivefold.

  19. Status of the positive ion injector for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, P K; Benaroya, R; Bogaty, J M; Bollinger, L M; Clifft, B E; Craig, S L; Henderson, D; Markovich, P; Munson, F; Nixon, J M; Pardo, R C; Phillips, D; Shepard, K W; Tilbrook, I; Zinkann, G [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Physics Div.

    1989-04-01

    The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as {beta} = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100. (orig.).

  20. Status of the positive ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Benaroya, R.; Bogaty, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as β = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100. (2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.)

  1. Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M. E-mail: fmbieniosek@lbl.gov; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C

    2001-05-21

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

  2. Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Kwan, J. W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

    2001-05-01

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

  3. Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

    2001-01-01

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated

  4. Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

    2000-01-01

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated

  5. Solution of some pumping problems in the injector vacuum system of the T-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.D.; Karasev, B.G.; Malyshev, I.F.; Saksaganskii, G.L.; Serbrennikov, D.V.; Sorokin, A.G.; Soikin, V.F.; Pustovoit, Yu.M.

    1978-09-01

    The fast neutral deuterium atom injection system in the T-20 includes 8 injectors. In the present paper an analysis is made of the vacuum system of the injectors with 160 keV rated fast atom energy, these being subjected to the largest gas loading. The pumping system for the 80 keV injectors is designed along similar lines. (UK)

  6. The ANL 50 MeV H- Injector: 35 year anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipp, V.; Brumwell, F.; McMichael, G.

    1996-01-01

    The H - Injector at ANL consists of a 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton preaccelerator and an Alvarez type 50 MeV Linac. The accelerator was originally constructed as the source of protons for the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS). The first proton beam was extracted from the preaccelerator in 1961. The accelerator is presently used as the injector for the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), a 500 MeV rapid cycling synchrotron with a spallation-neutron target. During most of the time since turn-on over 15 years ago, the IPNS facility availability has rarely dropped below 90% and has averaged 95% over the last ten years. During the same period, the 50 MeV injector availability has averaged 99%. Performance and improvements over the 35 year period is discussed

  7. Microcomputer control system for the SuperHILAC third injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Glatz, J.; Selph, F.B.; Fahmie, M.P.; Ritchie, A.L.; Keith, S.R.; Stover, G.R.; Besse, L.J.

    1979-09-01

    A new control system using the latest technology in microcomputers will be used on the third injector at the SuperHILAC. It incorporates some new and progressive ideas in both hardware and software design. These ideas were inspired by the revolution in microprocessors. The third injector project consists of a high voltage pre-injector, a Wideroe type linear accelerator, and connecting beam lines, requiring control of 80 analog and 300 boolean devices. To solve this problem, emphasizing inexpensive, commercially available hardware, we designed a control system consisting of 20 microcomputer boards with a total of 700 kilobytes of memory. Each computer board using a 16-bit microprocessor has the computing power of a typical minicomputer. With these microcomputers operating in parallel, the programming can be greatly simplified, literally replacing software with hardware. This improves system response speed and cuts costs dramatically. An easy to use interpretive language, similar to BASIC, will allow operations personnel to write special purpose programs in addition to the compiled procedures

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of a porous fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, J.

    2009-03-15

    Diesel engines are the most fuel efficient engines for transportation. However the details of the mixing and combustion process in the cylinders result in relatively high emissions of soot. In his graduation work the author developed a new type of fuel injection system for Diesel engines. The injection from the developed porous injector nozzle can be regarded as the limiting case of injection from very many, very small holes. Furthermore it is expected that the improved combustion characteristics yielded much less soot emissions. After the computational determination of an optimal geometry for the porous nozzle, experiments have been performed. The results of the prototypes showed a rather homogeneous hemispherical spray shape. The author conducted tests that showed that the mass flow, at constant pressure, of the porous injector is higher than the conventional one. This means that the pressure can be set lower or injection time can be shortened. A patent is applied and obtained for this innovative injector.

  9. SLC injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanerfeld, H; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; James, M.B.; Miller, R.H.

    1985-03-01

    The injector for the Stanford Linear Collider is being studied using the fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell program MASK. The program takes account of cylindrically symmetrical rf fields from the external source, as well as fields produced by the beam and dc magnetic fields. It calculates the radial and longitudinal motion of electrons and plots their positions in various planes in phase space. Bunching parameters can be optimized and insights into the bunching process and emittance growth have been gained. The results of the simulations are compared to the experimental results

  10. Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, A.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Migliano, A.C.C.

    1991-03-01

    In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

  11. The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the laser phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA, the spray characteristics of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector were studied. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD, axial velocity and size data rate were measured under different gas injecting pressure drop and liquid injecting pressure drop. Comparing to a single liquid injection, SMD with gas presence is obviously improved. So the gas presence has a significant effect on the atomization of the swirl injector. What’s more, the atomization effect of gas-liquid is enhanced with the increasing of the gas pressure drop. Under the constant gas pressure drop, the injector has an optimal liquid pressure drop under which the atomization performance is best.

  12. Development of fast opening magnetic valve for JT-60 pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawasaki, Kouzo; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Yoshioka, Yuji; Ohta, Kazuya; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Onozuka, Masanori; Uchikawa, Takashi; Iwamoto, Syuichi; Hashiri, Noboru

    1989-01-01

    A pneumatic four-pellet injector (JT-60 pellet injector) has been constructed for JT-60 in May, 1988. A fast opening magnetically driven propellant gas injection valve has been developed for JT-60 pellet injector. This valve can accelerate four cylindrical pellets, two 3.8 mm diameter by 3.8 mm and two 2.7 mm diameter by 2.7 mm, to greater than 1.6 km/s with propellent gas of up to 50 bar. It is now successfully in use in JT-60, contributing to plasma studies. In this paper the outline of a newly developed fast opening magnetic valve and the results of performance tests are presented. (author). 6 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Pellet injector research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement devices are under development a the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range 1-2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumataic-based pellet fueling systems for two of the world's largest tokamak experiments, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). A new versatile centrifuge type injector is being readied at ORNL for use on the Tore Supra tokamak. Also, a new simplified eight-shot injector design has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). In addition to these confinement physics related activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets have already been demonstrated. This paper describes these ongoing activities. 25 refs., 9 figs

  14. Integrated design of the SSC linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Valiecnti, R.; Wood, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linac act as a unit (referred to as the Linac Injector), the Ion Source and LEBT being cantilevered off of the RFQ. Immediately adjacent to both ends of the RFQ cavity proper are endwall chambers containing beam instrumentation and independently-operated vacuum isolation valves. The Linac Injector delivers 30 mA of H - beam at 2.5 MeV. This paper describes the design constraints imposed on the endwalls, aspects of the integration of the Ion Source and LEBT including attachment to the RFQ, maintainability and interchangeability of LEBTs, vacuum systems for each component, and the design of necessary support structure. (Author) 2 tab

  15. Investigation of the cavitation fluctuation characteristics in a Venturi injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuncheng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Lingjiu; Yan, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The suction flow rate in a Venturi injector increases to a maximum and appears to be unstable when critical cavitation occurs. This study analyzes changes in the cavitation length in high-speed videos of a Venturi injector with critical cavitation to find periodic fluctuations in the cavitation cloud. Pressure fluctuation measurements show a dominant low frequency fluctuation that is almost as large as the oscillation frequency seen visually for the same conditions. The variation of the cavitation numbers and the measured transient outlet pressure show that critical cavitation occurs in the Venturi injector when the peak-to-peak pressure difference is greater than a critical value. Moreover, when the cavitation numbers become very small in the cavitation areas, the peak-to-peak pressures begin to decrease. The relationship between the suction performance and the outlet pressure fluctuations has a significant inflection point which can be used to determine proper working conditions. These experimental statistics provide a pressure range based on the inlet and outlet pressures for which the improvement of suction performance will not substantially change the outlet pressure fluctuations. Both the high-speed photography and the pressure measurement show the periodic oscillations of the cavitation cloud in a Venturi injector and can be used to detect the occurrence of critical cavitation. (paper)

  16. Status of the new high intensity H- injector at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; York, R.L.; McConnell, J.R.; Kandarian, R.

    1984-04-01

    The requirement for higher intensity H - ion beams for the proton storage ring now being constructed at LAMPF necessitated the development of a new H - ion source and the rebuilding of the original H - injector and its associated beam transport lines. The goal of the ion source development program was to produce an H - beam with a peak intensity of 20 mA at 10% duty factor and with a beam emittance of less than 0.08 cm-mrad normalized at 95% beam fraction. The ion source concept which was best suited to our requirements was the multicusp, surface-production source developed for neutral beam injectors at Berkeley by Ehlers and Leung. An accelerator version of this source has been subsequently developed at Los Alamos to meet these storage ring requirements. The use of these higher intensity H - beams, together with the more stringent chopping and bunching requirements entailed in the operation of the storage ring, now requires rebuilding the entire H - injector at LAMPF. This construction is in progress. It is anticipated that the new injector will be fully operational by the end of 1984 and that the required H - beams will be available for the operation of the storage ring in early 1985

  17. Investigation of the cavitation fluctuation characteristics in a Venturi injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuncheng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Lingjiu; Yan, Haijun, E-mail: yanhj@cau.edu.cn [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The suction flow rate in a Venturi injector increases to a maximum and appears to be unstable when critical cavitation occurs. This study analyzes changes in the cavitation length in high-speed videos of a Venturi injector with critical cavitation to find periodic fluctuations in the cavitation cloud. Pressure fluctuation measurements show a dominant low frequency fluctuation that is almost as large as the oscillation frequency seen visually for the same conditions. The variation of the cavitation numbers and the measured transient outlet pressure show that critical cavitation occurs in the Venturi injector when the peak-to-peak pressure difference is greater than a critical value. Moreover, when the cavitation numbers become very small in the cavitation areas, the peak-to-peak pressures begin to decrease. The relationship between the suction performance and the outlet pressure fluctuations has a significant inflection point which can be used to determine proper working conditions. These experimental statistics provide a pressure range based on the inlet and outlet pressures for which the improvement of suction performance will not substantially change the outlet pressure fluctuations. Both the high-speed photography and the pressure measurement show the periodic oscillations of the cavitation cloud in a Venturi injector and can be used to detect the occurrence of critical cavitation. (paper)

  18. INTOR neutral beam injector concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, D.H.; Stewart, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The US INTOR phase 1 effort in the plasma heating area is described. Positive ion based sources extrapolated from present day technology are proposed. These sources operate at 175 keV beam energy for 6 s. Five injectors - plus one spare - inject 75 MW. Beam energy, source size, interface, radiation hardening, and many other studies are summarized

  19. Evaluation of friction heating in cavitating high pressure Diesel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, R.; Koukouvinis, P.; Strotos, G.; McDavid, R.; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Jason; Marengo, M.; Gavaises, M.

    2015-12-01

    Variation of fuel properties occurring during extreme fuel pressurisation in Diesel fuel injectors relative to those under atmospheric pressure and room temperature conditions may affect significantly fuel delivery, fuel injection temperature, injector durability and thus engine performance. Indicative results of flow simulations during the full injection event of a Diesel injector are presented. In addition to the Navier-Stokes equations, the enthalpy conservation equation is considered for predicting the fuel temperature. Cavitation is simulated using an Eulerian-Lagrangian cavitation model fully coupled with the flow equations. Compressible bubble dynamics based on the R-P equation also consider thermal effects. Variable fuel properties function of the local pressure and temperature are taken from literature and correspond to a reference so-called summer Diesel fuel. Fuel pressurisation up to 3000bar pressure is considered while various wall temperature boundary conditions are tested in order to compare their effect relative to those of the fuel heating caused during the depressurisation of the fuel as it passes through the injection orifices. The results indicate formation of strong temperature gradients inside the fuel injector while heating resulting from the extreme friction may result to local temperatures above the fuel's boiling point. Predictions indicate bulk fuel temperature increase of more than 100°C during the opening phase of the needle valve. Overall, it is concluded that such effects are significant for the injector performance and should be considered in relevant simulation tools.

  20. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  1. Plans for the upgrade of the LHC injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Meddahi, M; Vretenar, M

    2011-01-01

    The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project has been launched at the end of 2010 to prepare the CERN accelerator complex for reliably providing beam with the challenging characteristics required by the high luminosity LHC until at least 2030. Based on the work already started on Linac4, PS Booster, PS and SPS, the LIU project coordinates studies and implementation, and interfaces with the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project which looks after the upgrade of the LHC itself, expected by the end of the present decade. The anticipated beam characteristics are described, as well as the status of the studies and the solutions envisaged for improving the injector performances.

  2. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (6) Operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yujiro; Abe, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    One of the most interesting devices for next generation reactor systems aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility is the steam injector which is a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery. One of the applications of the steam injector is the passive water injection system to inject the coolant water into the core. The system can be started up merely by injecting the steam without any outer power supply. Since the steam injector is a simple, compact and passive device for water injection, if the steam injector is applied to the actual reactor, it is expected to make the system simple and to reduce the construction cost. Although non-condensable gases are well known for reducing heat transfer between water and steam, the effect of the non-condensable gas on the condensation of supersonic steam on high-speed water jet has not been cleared. The present paper reports about the experimental apparatus, measurement instrument and experimental results of observing the phenomenon inside the test section supplying water and steam to the test by using both the high-speed camera and the video camera and measuring the temperature and the pressure distribution n the test section. (author)

  3. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbahn, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius

  4. A Compact Multi-Beamlets High Current Injector for HIFDrivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, J.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Grote, D.P.; Westenskow, G.A.

    2005-09-06

    Using curved electrodes in the injector, an array of converging beamlets can produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than the one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams, so the success of this experiment has significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers.

  5. Investigation of Direct-Injection via Micro-Porous Injector Nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, J.J.E.; Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.; De Goey, L.P.H.

    2009-02-15

    The possibility to reduce soot emissions by means of injecting diesel fuel through a porous injector is investigated. From literature it is known that better oxygen entrainment into the fuel spray leads to lower soot emissions. By selection of porous material properties and geometry, the spray is tunable such that a maximum of air, present in the cylinder, is utilized. A numerical model has been created to predict the flow through the porous nozzle. Experiments are reported on the spray shape, flow rate and the durability of the porous injector under atmospheric circumstances.

  6. Real Time Monitoring of Diesel Engine Injector Waveforms for Accurate Fuel Metering and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. R. Farooqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development, experimentation, and validation of a reliable and robust system to monitor the injector pulse generated by an engine control module (ECM which can easily be calibrated for different engine platforms and then feedback the corresponding fueling quantity to the real-time computer in a closed-loop controller in the loop (CIL bench in order to achieve optimal fueling. This research utilizes field programmable gate arrays (FPGA and direct memory access (DMA transfer capability to achieve high speed data acquisition and delivery. This work is conducted in two stages: the first stage is to study the variability involved in the injected fueling quantity from pulse to pulse, from injector to injector, between real injector stators and inductor load cells, and over different operating conditions. Different thresholds have been used to find out the best start of injection (SOI threshold and the end of injection (EOI threshold that capture the injector “on-time” with best reliability and accuracy. Second stage involves development of a system that interprets the injector pulse into fueling quantity. The system can easily be calibrated for various platforms. Finally, the use of resulting correction table has been observed to capture the fueling quantity with highest accuracy.

  7. The high current test facility injector operation to 40 mA dc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungrin, J.; Ormrod, J.H.; Michel, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The high current test facility injector is a 750 keV proton accelerator designed to investigate the problems involved in the acceleration of intense dc proton beams. The performance of the injector and the experience gained in operation with dc beams up to 40 mA are described. (author)

  8. Development of a negative ion-based neutral beam injector in Novosibirsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A A; Abdrashitov, G F; Anashin, V V; Belchenko, Yu I; Burdakov, A V; Davydenko, V I; Deichuli, P P; Dimov, G I; Dranichnikov, A N; Kapitonov, V A; Kolmogorov, V V; Kondakov, A A; Sanin, A L; Shikhovtsev, I V; Stupishin, N V; Sorokin, A V; Popov, S S; Tiunov, M A; Belov, V P; Gorbovsky, A I; Kobets, V V; Binderbauer, M; Putvinski, S; Smirnov, A; Sevier, L

    2014-02-01

    A 1000 keV, 5 MW, 1000 s neutral beam injector based on negative ions is being developed in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk in collaboration with Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. The innovative design of the injector features the spatially separated ion source and an electrostatic accelerator. Plasma or photon neutralizer and energy recuperation of the remaining ion species is employed in the injector to provide an overall energy efficiency of the system as high as 80%. A test stand for the beam acceleration is now under construction. A prototype of the negative ion beam source has been fabricated and installed at the test stand. The prototype ion source is designed to produce 120 keV, 1.5 A beam.

  9. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  10. Development of a measuring system for vapor-jet forms of small-sized fuel injectors; Kogata injector funmu keijo sokutei system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibino, H; Komatsubara, H; Kawashima, O; Fujita, A [Aisan Industry Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In the small-sized fuel injectors adapted to the United States` exhaust-gas regulation or the like, the vapor jet is extremely atomized and the jet form as one of the performances of the product has become more important than before. Accordingly, we have developed a measuring system in which the vapor jet of the small-sized fuel injector is irradiated with a flat laser light, the sectional form of the jet that is shining due to diffusion is sampled, and the distribution and the form of the sampled sections are determined by the image processing. 2 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. The transverse and longitudinal beam characteristics of the PHIN photo-injector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mete, Ö; Dabrowski, A; Divall, M; Döbert, S; Egger, D; Elsener, K; Fedosseev, V; Lefèvre, T; Petrarca, M

    2010-01-01

    A new photo-injector, capable to deliver a long pulse train with a high charge per bunch for CTF3, has been designed and installed by a collaboration between LAL, CCLRC and CERN within the framework of the second Joint Research Activity PHIN of the European CARE program. The demonstration of the high charge and the stability along the pulse train are the important goals for CTF3 and the CLIC drive beam. The nominal beam for CTF3 has an average current of 3.5 A, a 1.5 GHz bunch repetation frequency and a pulse length of 1.27 μs (1908 bunches). The existing CTF3 injector consists of a thermionic gun and a subharmonic bunching system. The PHIN photo-injector is being tested in a dedicated test-stand at CERN to replace the existing CTF3 injector that is producing unwanted satellite bunches during the bunching process. A phase-coding scheme is planned to be implemented to the PHIN laser system providing the required beam temporal structure by CTF3. RF photo-injectors are high-brightness, low-emittance electron so...

  12. Safety assessment of a new single-use small-incision injector for intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satanovsky, Alexandra; Ben-Eliahu, Shmuel; Apple, David J; Kleinmann, Guy

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the safety of a new injector, the Raysert R-INJ-04/18, for implantation of the C-flex intraocular lens (IOL). Ophthalmology Department, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel. Experimental study. Sixty IOLs were subdivided into 2 equally sized groups. Group A IOLs were injected using the established R-INJ-04 injector, and those in Group B were injected with the new injector. The IOLs were injected into a Petri dish. Subsequently, all IOLs and injectors were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically and then photographed under light microscopy (LM). Two IOLs in each group were randomly chosen and sent for evaluation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray. All remaining IOLs were sent for power and modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. All Group B IOLs were successfully injected without evident signs of scratching, cracks, or deposits on LM and SEM examination. In Group A, findings were confined to a singular incidence of a small deposit detected on the periphery of the posterior optical surface of the IOL, with corresponding findings detected on the injector nozzle. No signs of scratching, cracks, or deposits were found in the rest of the IOLs or injectors. The power and MTF analyses were within the normal range for all IOLs. The new 1.8 mm external diameter soft-tipped injector for 2.4 to 2.2 mm incisions was shown to be safe for the implantation of the C-flex 21.0 diopter IOL. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Passive system with steam-water injector for emergency supply of NPP steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'chenko, A.G.; Strakhov, A.N.; Magnitskij, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The calculation results of reliability indicators of emergency power supply system and emergency feed-water supply system of serial WWER-1000 unit are presented. To ensure safe water supply to steam generators during station blackout it was suggested using additional passive emergency feed-water system with a steam-water injector working on steam generators dump steam. Calculated analysis of steam-water injector operating capacity was conducted at variable parameters of steam at the entrance to injector, corresponding to various moments of time from the beginning of steam-and-water damping [ru

  14. Pellet injectors for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Lang, R.S.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.

    1981-09-01

    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity ( 3 ). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  15. ENERGY CORRECTION FOR HIGH POWER PROTON/H MINUS LINAC INJECTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAPARIA, D.; LEE, Y.Y.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    High-energy proton/H minus energy (> GeV) linac injector suffer from energy jitter due to RF amplitude and phase stability. Especially in high power injectors this energy jitter result beam losses more than 1 W/m that require for hand on maintenance. Depending upon the requirements for next accelerator in the chain, this energy jitter may or may not require to be corrected. This paper will discuss the sources of this energy jitter, correction schemes with specific examples.

  16. LS1 Report: injectors 2.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

  17. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  18. Intensity limits of the PSI Injector II cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, A.; Adelmann, A.; Barlow, R.; Baumgarten, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate limits on the current of the PSI Injector II high intensity separate-sector isochronous cyclotron, in its present configuration and after a proposed upgrade. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors, neutron and neutrino experiments, and medical isotope production all benefit from increases in current, even at the ∼ 10% level: the PSI cyclotrons provide relevant experience. As space charge dominates at low beam energy, the injector is critical. Understanding space charge effects and halo formation through detailed numerical modelling gives clues on how to maximise the extracted current. Simulation of a space-charge dominated low energy high intensity (9.5 mA DC) machine, with a complex collimator set up in the central region shaping the bunch, is not trivial. We use the OPAL code, a tool for charged-particle optics calculations in large accelerator structures and beam lines, including 3D space charge. We have a precise model of the present (production) Injector II, operating at 2.2 mA current. A simple model of the proposed future (upgraded) configuration of the cyclotron is also investigated. We estimate intensity limits based on the developed models, supported by fitted scaling laws and measurements. We have been able to perform more detailed analysis of the bunch parameters and halo development than any previous study. Optimisation techniques enable better matching of the simulation set-up with Injector II parameters and measurements. We show that in the production configuration the beam current scales to the power of three with the beam size. However, at higher intensities, 4th power scaling is a better fit, setting the limit of approximately 3 mA. Currents of over 5 mA, higher than have been achieved to date, can be produced if the collimation scheme is adjusted.

  19. Spray analysis of the PFAMEN injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, J.J.E.; Boot, M.D.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Bosi, M.; Postrioti, L.

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier study, a novel type of diesel fuel injector was proposed. This prototype injects fuel via porous (sintered) micro pores instead of via the conventional 6-8 holes. The micro pores are typically 10-50 micrometer in diameter, versus 120-200 micrometer in the conventional case. The

  20. Management of high current transients in the CWDD Injector 200 kV power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.A.; Pile, G.; Zinneman, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The injector for the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator is designed to deliver a high current CW negative deuterium ion beam at an energy of 200 keV to a Radio Frequency Quadrupole. The injector comprises a volume ion source, triode accelerator, high-power electron traps and low-energy beam transport with a single focusing solenoid. Some 75 Joules of energy are stored in stray capacitance around the high voltage system and discharged in a few microseconds following an injector breakdown. In order to limit damage to the accelerator grids, a magnetic snubber is incorporated to absorb most of the energy. Nevertheless, large current transients flow around the system as a result of an injector breakdown; these have frequently damaged power components and caused spurious behavior in many of the supporting systems. The analytical and practical approaches taken to minimize the effects of these transients are described. Injector breakdowns were simulated using an air spark gap and measurements made using standard EMC test techniques. The power circuit was modeled using an electrical simulation code; good agreement was reached between the model and measured results

  1. Numerical and experimental study of the beam dynamics of CANDELA photo-injector and associated instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanz, Guillaume

    1999-01-01

    Laser triggered radiofrequency guns are the most luminous electron sources allowing to reach the performances requested by highly demanding applications like the e + /e - linear colliders and the short wave free electron lasers. CANDELA is a band S photo-injector triggered by a sub-picosecond laser. It allows reaching peak currents of hundred of amperes at average energies higher than 2 MeV. The original concept of two accelerating cavities aims at minimizing the transverse and longitudinal emittances following the Gao's principles. From practical reasons the operating parameters, particularly the laser pulse duration, do not correspond to those considered in the design. Hence, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the gun's performances in experimental environment. The study of a stabile injector operation resulted in evolutions with consequences in the phase control systems implying the laser and the HF (Hyper Frequency) source. The beam transverse and longitudinal characteristics have been measured as a function of the main parameters i.e., the beam charge and the phase shift between the laser and the HF wave. Measurements of the transverse emittance energy dispersion and wave packed duration are presented for several injector configurations. The systems of existing beam measurements have been studied to determine the resolution and the experimental conditions to fulfill, in order to suggest improvements for the CANDELA beam. The experiments with the beam have been compared with numerical simulations. Agreement was obtained within wide ranges of parameters for most of the characteristic beam quantities

  2. 3.5 MeV pulsed power system for LIA injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Dai Guangsen; Liu Xiaoping; Zhang Kaizhi; Li Xin; Li Yuan; Xia Liansheng; Xie Min; Zhang Linwen; Deng Jianjun; Ding Bonan

    2005-01-01

    A 3.5 MeV injector for linear induction accelerator has been built up at Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics. The injector is based on the principle of inductive adder. It consists of 12 induction cells. Seven induction cells are on the cathode stem side, which are connected in series, and provide about 2 MV on the cathode of the diode. The other five are connected in series on the anode stem side and provide about 1.5 MV on the anode of the diode. A 3.5 MV pulsed power system to provide energy for the injector has been designed, which consists of two Marx generators, 12 water insulated Blumleins, and trigger system. Charge voltage of each water insulated Blumlein is 200 kV. A 300 kV/90 ns high voltage pulse is fed into one induction cell since load impedance is higher. The pulsed power system can generate an intense electron beam with 2-3 kA. (authors)

  3. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Hori, T.; Suzuki, S.; Yanagida, K.; Itoh, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Taniuchi, T.; Sakaki, H.; Kuba, A.; Fukushima, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaka, T.; Yokomizo, H.

    1996-01-01

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  4. Centrifuge pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buchelt, E.; Jacobi, D.; Lackner, E.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.

    1983-08-01

    An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

  5. Laser-driven injector of electrons for IOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Aleksandr

    2017-03-01

    Fermilab is developing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) ring for experiments on nonlinear integrable optics. The machine will operate with either electron beams of 150 MeV or proton beams of 2.5 MeV energies, respectively. The stability of integrable optics depends critically on the precision of the magnetic lattice, which demands the use of beam-based lattice measurements for optics correction. In the proton mode, the low-energy proton beam does not represent a good probe for this application; hence we consider the use of a low-intensity reverse-injected electron beam of matched momentum (70 MeV). Such an injector could be implemented with the use of laser-driven acceleration techniques. This report presents the consideration for a laser-plasma injector for IOTA and discusses the requirements determined by the ring design.

  6. Design and implementation of a control and data acquisition system for pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Burris, R.D.; Greenwood, D.E.; Stewart, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    A stand-alone control and data acquisition system for pellet injectors has been designed and implemented to support pellet injector development at Oak Ridge Laboratory (ORNL) and to enable ORNL pellet injectors to be installed on various fusion experimental devices. The stand-alone system permits LOCAL operation of the injector from a nearby panel and REMOTE operation from the experiment control room. Major components of the system are (1) an Allen-Bradley PLC 2/30 programmable controller, (2) a VAX minicomputer, and (3) a CAMAC serial highway interface. The programmable logic controller (PLC) is used to perform all control functions of the injector. In LOCAL, the operator interface is provided by an intelligent panel system that has a keypad and pushbutton module programmed from the PLC. In REMOTE, the operator interfaces via a VAX-based color graphics display and uses a trackball and keyboard to issue commands. Communications between the remote and local controls and to the fusion experiment supervisory system are via the CAMAC highway. The VAX archives transient data from pellet shots and trend data acquired from the PLC. Details of the hardware and software design and the operation of the system are presented in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig

  7. Upgrade of the GSI-Unilac as a FAIR high current injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Hendrik [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The existing UNIversal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI will serve as ion and dedicated uranium ion injector for the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). For nominal FAIR operation, 15 emA of Uranium 28+ at low emittances have to be injected by multiturn-injection into FAIR. To meet these requirements and to ensure reliable operation, the UNILAC will undergo a significant upgrade process. Upgrade measures concerning key accelerator components are described and a main focus is put on a replacement of the 54m Alvarez-section by a compact IH-DTL. This will open new options for future injection schemes into SIS100.

  8. Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Iverson, R.; Leyer, G.K.; Miller, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operationexclamation

  9. Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Miller, R.H.; Leger, G.K.; Iverson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the start-up operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operation!

  10. PC-based control of a high-voltage injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of high voltage injectors is one of the major problems in any accelerator system. Most of the troubles encountered in the normal operation of an accelerator are connected with the ion source and associated high voltage platforms, regardless of the source or high voltage generator type. The quality of the ion beam injected in the accelerator strongly depends on the power supplies used in the injector and on the ability to control the non-electrical parameters (gas-flow, temperature, etc.). A wide used method in controlling is based on optical links between high-voltage platform and computer, the adjustments being more or less automated. Although the method mentioned above can be still useful in injector control, a different approach is presented in this work, i.e., the computer itself is placed inside the high-voltage terminal. Only one optical link is still necessary to connect this computer with an user-friendly host at ground potential. Requirements: - varying and monitoring the filament current; - gas flow control in the ion source; - reading the vacuum values; - current and voltage control for the anodic, magnet, extraction, suppression and lens' sources. Even in the high voltage terminal there are compartments with different voltages regardless the floating ground. In our injector the extraction voltage is applied on the top of the ion source including the filament and the anodic voltage. The extraction voltage is of maximum 30 kV. In this situation a second optical link is required to transfer the control for the anodic and magnet source power supply assuming the dedicated computer on the floating ground. One PC is placed inside the high voltage terminal and one PC outside the injector. The optical link (more precisely two optical wires) connects the serial ports. The inside computer is equipped with two multipurpose ADC/DAC and digital I/O card. They permit to read or output DC levels ranging between 0 to 10 volts or TTL signals. The filament

  11. Development of a pellet cutting and loading device for the JT-60 repetitive pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Hajime; Ichige, Hisashi; Kizu, Kaname; Iwahashi, Takaaki; Honda, Masao

    2001-03-01

    In JT-60, a pellet injector that repetitively injects deuterium pellets is under development to supply fuel to high temperature plasmas and sustain high-density plasmas. The pellet injector generates cubic pellets and accelerates them with a straight-arm rotor by centrifugal force. In this acceleration method, it is important to supply pellets reliably and stably, to prevent pellet orbits from disordering and to stabilize the launching direction. To achieve higher performance of the injector, a pellet cutting and loading device that cuts a deuterium ice rod into cubic pellets and loads them to the pellet injector successively and stably has been developed. The pellet cutting and loading device can cut a deuterium ice rod produced at low temperature of -8 Pam 3 /s, cutting time of <3 ms, cutting frequency of 1-20 Hz and cutter stroke of 2.5 mm were confirmed in the device test. In the operation test after assembling this device to the centrifugal pellet injector, the operational performance of pellet injection frequency of ∼10 Hz, pellet speed of ∼690 m/s and pellet injection duration time of ∼3.5 s was achieved. Thus, the development of the pellet cutting and loading device contributed to the upgrade of the JT-60 pellet injector. (author)

  12. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  13. Update on the high-current injector for the Stanford Linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.B.; Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Miller, R.H.; Sheppard, J.C.; Sinclair, C.K.; Sodja, J.

    1983-03-01

    The high current injector has become operational. There are two crucial areas where improvements must be made to meet collider specifications: while the injector can produce up to 10 11 e - in a single S-band bucket, initially much of this charge was captured in a low energy tail and was this not suitable for transport through the accelerator and injection into the damping ring. Pulse to pulse position jitter has been observed, resulting in transverse wake field which increases beam emittance. The problems described above contribute to substantial current loss during transport from the injector (40 MeV) to the SLC damping ring (1.2 GeV). Experimental studies are continuing with the aim of understanding and improving beam characteristics including bunch length, pulse to pulse stability and emittance. The present status of these studies is reported

  14. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  15. Status of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Billquist, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs

  16. Acquisition system of tandem injector parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decourt, M.

    1986-01-01

    The system centralizes all the parameters belonging to the accelerator injector. The acquisition center system reinforces an original device made of cameras and video receivers. Besides giving access to all the parameters of the ion source, the new system allows, in the ''OSCILLO'' mode, to visualize in real time any channel on the oscilloscope [fr

  17. Pneumatic pellet injector for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawasaki, Kouzo.

    1990-01-01

    The pneumatic 4-shot pellet injector has been installed and operated for JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). The performance tests have proven that the device provides high speed pellets as planned. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in the hydrogen pellet tests is greater than 2.3km/s at 100 bar propellant gas. (author)

  18. Pneumatic pellet injector for JT-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawasaki, Kouzo

    1990-11-01

    The pneumatic 4-shot pellet injector has been installed and operated for JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). The performance tests have proven that the device provides high speed pellets as planned. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in the hydrogen pellet tests is greater than 2.3km/s at 100 bar propellant gas. (author).

  19. Design and construction of a pre-injector for the Iranian Light Source Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghipanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Every synchrotron accelerator requires a pre-injector for primary injection of the electrons into the booster ring. The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF pre-injector is a 150 MeV S-band linear accelerator with a thermionic cathode RF gun. The design of the pre-injector lattice and its beam dynamics calculation results together with the design of RF gun, alpha magnet, quadrupole magnets and linear accelerator structures are described in this article. The measurement results of the RF gun prototype fabricated in Iran demonstrate a dimension error less than 20 μm and a surface roughness of less than 0.8 μm

  20. Spray cone angle and air core diameter of hollow cone swirl rocket injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hussein Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Fuel injector for liquid rocket is a very critical component since that small difference in its design can dramatically affect the combustion efficiency. The primary function of the injector is to break the fuel up into very small droplets. The smaller droplets are necessary for fast quiet ignition and to establish a flame front close to the injector head, thus shorter combustion chamber is possible to be utilized. This paper presents an experimetal investigation of a mono-propellant hollow cone swirl injector. Several injectors with different configuration were investigated under cold flow test, where water is used as simulation fluid. This investigation reveals that higher injection pressure leads to higher spray cone angle. The effect of injection pressure on spray cone angle is more prominent for injector with least number of tangential ports. Furthermore, it was found that injector with the most number of tangential ports and with the smallest tangential port diameter produces the widest resulting spray. Experimental data also tells that the diameter of an air core that forms inside the swirl chamber is largest for the injector with smallest tangential port diameter and least number of tangential ports.ABSTRAK : Injektor bahan api bagi roket cecair merupakan satu komponen yang amat kritikal memandangkan perbezaan kecil dalam reka bentuknya akan secara langsung mempengaruhi kecekapan pembakaran. Fungsi utama injektor adalah untuk memecahkan bahan api kepada titisan yang amat kecil. Titisan kecil penting untuk pembakaran pantas secara senyap dan untuk mewujudkan satu nyalaan di hadapan, berhampiran dengan kepala injektor, maka kebuk pembakaran yang lebih pendek berkemungkinan dapat digunakan. Kertas kerja ini mebentangkan satu penyelidikan eksperimental sebuah injektor ekabahan dorong geronggang kon pusar. Beberapa injektor dengan konfigurasi berbeza telah dikaji di bawah ujian aliran sejuk, di mana air digunakan sebagai bendalir

  1. Summary, Working Group 1: Electron guns and injector designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Bazarov, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the proceedings of Working Group 1 of the 2005 Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Workshop. The subject of this working group, the electron gun and injector design, is arguably the most critical part of the ERL as it determines the ultimate performance of this type of accelerators. Working Group 1 dealt with a variety of subjects: The technology of DC, normal-conducting RF and superconducting RF guns; beam dynamics in the gun and injector; the cathode and laser package; modeling and computational issues; magnetized beams and polarization. A short overview of these issues covered in the Working Group is presented in this paper

  2. Multi-beam injector development at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Brodzik, D.A.; Johnson, R.M.; Pike, C.D.; Vanecek, D.L.; Humphries, S. Jr.; Meyer, E.A.; Hewett, D.W.

    1990-06-01

    LBL is developing a multi-beam injector that will be used for scaled accelerator experiments related to Heavy Ion Fusion. The device will produce sixteen 0.5 Amp beams of C+ at 2 MeV energy. The carbon arc source has been developed to the point where the emittance is within a factor of four of the design target. Modelling of the source behavior to find ways to reduce the emittance is discussed. Source lifetime and reliability is also of paramount importance to us and data regarding the lifetime and failure modes of different source configurations is discussed. One half of the accelerating column has been constructed and tested at high voltage. One beam experiments in this half column are underway. The second half of the column is being built and the transition 2 MV experiments should begin soon. In addition to beam and source performance we also discuss the controls for the injector and the electronics associated with the source and current injection. 3 refs., 2 figs

  3. Simulation of injector dynamics during steady inductive helicity injection current drive in the HIT-SI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C., E-mail: hansec@uw.edu [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Marklin, G. [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Victor, B. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Akcay, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Jarboe, T. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We present simulations of inductive helicity injection in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI) device that treats the entire plasma volume in a single dynamic MHD model. A new fully 3D numerical tool, the PSI-center TETrahedral mesh code, was developed that provides the geometric flexibility required for this investigation. Implementation of a zero-β Hall MHD model using PSI-TET will be presented including formulation of a new self-consistent magnetic boundary condition for the wall of the HIT-SI device. Results from simulations of HIT-SI are presented focusing on injector dynamics that are investigated numerically for the first time. Asymmetries in the plasma loading between the two helicity injectors and progression of field reversal in each injector are observed. Analysis indicates cross-coupling between injectors through confinement volume structures. Injector impedance is found to scale with toroidal current at fixed density, consistent with experimental observation. Comparison to experimental data with an injector drive frequency of 14.5 kHz shows good agreement with magnetic diagnostics. Global mode structures from Bi-Orthogonal decomposition agree well with experimental data for the first four modes.

  4. Las reformas emprendidas en Túnez de la mano del FMI y el BM ¿Precedente para la revolución de los Jazmines?”(1987-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Danies, Angie Carolina

    2016-01-01

    El estallido de la “Revolución de los Jazmines” cuestionó el éxito de un país que por más de dos décadas fue exaltado por el Banco Mundial (BM) y el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) por los logros alcanzados gracias a un programa de restructuración económica. Las exigencias e inconformidades de los manifestantes, que iban más allá de la falta de garantías democráticas, permitieron ver que el país sufría de problemas estructurales relacionados a los altos niveles de desempleo, la precarieda...

  5. Numerical investigation of injector geometry effects on fuel stratification in a GCI engine

    KAUST Repository

    Atef, Nour; Badra, Jihad; Jaasim, Mohammed; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Injectors play an important role in direct injection (DI) gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines by affecting the in-cylinder mixture formation and stratification, which in turn impacts combustion and emissions. In this work, the effects of two different injector geometries, a 7-hole solid-cone injector and an outwardly opening hollow-cone injector, on fuel mixture stratification in a GCI engine were investigated by computational simulations. Three fuels with similar autoignition kinetics, but with different physical properties, were studied to isolate the effect of the combustion chemistry on combustion phasing. In addition, start of injection (SOI) sweeps relevant to low-load engine operating conditions were performed. The results show that physical properties of the fuel do not have significant influence when using a hollow-cone injector. Richer mixtures were observed at all the studied SOI (−40 to −14 CAD aTDC) cases, which can be attributed to the nature of the hollow cone spray. At later SOIs (−18 and −14 CAD aTDC), the richer mixtures are accompanied by lower mean in-cylinder temperature due to the charge cooling effect, which surpasses the equivalence ratio effect. The effect of fuel physical properties on combustion phasing was evident in multi-hole injection cases, which can be attributed to the differences in mixture stratification and equivalence ratio distribution at the time of ignition.

  6. Numerical investigation of injector geometry effects on fuel stratification in a GCI engine

    KAUST Repository

    Atef, Nour

    2017-11-24

    Injectors play an important role in direct injection (DI) gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines by affecting the in-cylinder mixture formation and stratification, which in turn impacts combustion and emissions. In this work, the effects of two different injector geometries, a 7-hole solid-cone injector and an outwardly opening hollow-cone injector, on fuel mixture stratification in a GCI engine were investigated by computational simulations. Three fuels with similar autoignition kinetics, but with different physical properties, were studied to isolate the effect of the combustion chemistry on combustion phasing. In addition, start of injection (SOI) sweeps relevant to low-load engine operating conditions were performed. The results show that physical properties of the fuel do not have significant influence when using a hollow-cone injector. Richer mixtures were observed at all the studied SOI (−40 to −14 CAD aTDC) cases, which can be attributed to the nature of the hollow cone spray. At later SOIs (−18 and −14 CAD aTDC), the richer mixtures are accompanied by lower mean in-cylinder temperature due to the charge cooling effect, which surpasses the equivalence ratio effect. The effect of fuel physical properties on combustion phasing was evident in multi-hole injection cases, which can be attributed to the differences in mixture stratification and equivalence ratio distribution at the time of ignition.

  7. Electron acceleration in laser-plasma interaction: development and characterization of an optical injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechatin, C.

    2009-09-01

    In any particle accelerator, the injector plays a crucial role since it determines most of the characteristics of the accelerated beam. This is also true for laser-plasma accelerators, that are based on the interaction of an ultra short, ultra intense laser with an underdense plasma. However, due to the compactness of these accelerators, injection is a real challenge: to obtain a good beam quality, injected electron beams have to be ultra short and precisely synchronized with the laser. In this manuscript, the relevance of an optical injector, that relies on a second laser pulse, is experimentally demonstrated. With this injector, mono energetic electron beams have been produced in a stable manner. Moreover, this injector gives control over the electron beam parameters. Using the parameters of the second laser pulse, it has been proven that the energy, the charge and the energy spread of the accelerated beam can be simply tuned. Those additional controls make it possible to study in great details the physical phenomena at play during the acceleration. Beam loading effects, due to the interaction of the accelerated bunch with the plasma, have been identified and studied. With optimized injector parameters, the narrowest electron beams measured to date in the laser plasma interaction have been obtained, with a relative energy spread of 1%. (author)

  8. Verification on spray simulation of a pintle injector for liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Yu, Kijeong; Radhakrishnan, Kanmaniraja; Shin, Bongchul; Koo, Jaye

    2016-02-01

    The pintle injector used for a liquid rocket engine is a newly re-attracted injection system famous for its wide throttle ability with high efficiency. The pintle injector has many variations with complex inner structures due to its moving parts. In order to study the rotating flow near the injector tip, which was observed from the cold flow experiment using water and air, a numerical simulation was adopted and a verification of the numerical model was later conducted. For the verification process, three types of experimental data including velocity distributions of gas flows, spray angles and liquid distribution were all compared using simulated results. The numerical simulation was performed using a commercial simulation program with the Eulerian multiphase model and axisymmetric two dimensional grids. The maximum and minimum velocities of gas were within the acceptable range of agreement, however, the spray angles experienced up to 25% error when the momentum ratios were increased. The spray density distributions were quantitatively measured and had good agreement. As a result of this study, it was concluded that the simulation method was properly constructed to study specific flow characteristics of the pintle injector despite having the limitations of two dimensional and coarse grids.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of molecular flow in a neutral-beam injector and comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Gabriel, T.A.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Santoro, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to obtain estimates of the background gas pressure and molecular number density as a function of position in the PDX-prototype neutral beam injector which has undergone testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Estimates of these quantities together with the transient and steady-state energy deposition and molecular capture rates on the cryopanels of the cryocondensation pumps and the molecular escape rate from the injector were obtained utilizing a detailed geometric model of the neutral beam injector. The molecular flow calculations were performed using an existing Monte Carlo radiation transport code which was modified slightly to monitor the energy of the background gas molecules. The credibility of these calculations is demonstrated by the excellent agreement between the calculated and experimentally measured background gas pressure in front of the beamline calorimeter located in the downstream drift region of the injector. The usefulness of the calculational method as a design tool is illustrated by a comparison of the integrated beamline molecular density over the drift region of the injector for three modes of cryopump operation

  10. The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chen; Zhihui Yan; Yang Yang; Hongli Gao; Shunhua Yang; Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Using the laser phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA), the spray characteristics of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector were studied. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD), axial velocity and size data rate were measured under different gas injecting pressure drop and liquid injecting pressure drop. Comparing to a single liquid injection, SMD with gas presence is obviously improved. So the gas presence has a significant effect on the atomization of the swirl injector. What’s more, the atomization eff...

  11. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  12. Doppler-shift proton fraction measurement on a CW proton injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Sherman, J.D.; Zaugg, T.J.; Arvin, A.H.; Bolt, A.S.; Richards, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    A spectrometer/Optical Multi-channel Analyzer has been used to measure the proton fraction of the cw proton injector developed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) and the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Los Alamos. This technique, pioneered by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), was subsequently adopted by the international fusion community as the standard for determining the extracted ion fractions of neutral beam injectors. Proton fractions up to 95 ± 3% have been measured on the LEDA injector. These values are in good agreement with results obtained by magnetically sweeping the ion beam, collimated by a slit, across a Faraday cup. Since the velocity distribution of each beam species is measured, it also can be used to determine beam divergence. While divergence has not yet been ascertained due to the wide slit widths in use, non-Gaussian distributions have been observed during operation above the design-matched perveance. An additional feature is that the presence of extracted water ions can be observed. During ion source conditioning at 75 kV, an extracted water fraction > 30% was briefly observed

  13. Diesel ignition delay and lift-off length through different methodologies using a multi-hole injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, Raúl; Salvador, F.J.; Manin, Julien; Viera, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Lift-off length and ignition delay are measured through different methodologies. • Oxygen concentration, temperature and injection pressure sweeps are performed. • A multi hole injector is compared with an equivalent single hole injector. • Multi hole injector has shorter ignition delay and lift-off length than single hole. • Empirical correlations were calculated for an analytical description of the results. - Abstract: In this paper, lift-off length has been measured via both broadband luminosity and OH chemiluminescence. In addition, ignition delay has also been measured via broadband chemiluminescence and Schlieren imaging. A 3 orifice injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) set, referred to as Spray B, and a single component fuel (n-dodecane) was used. Experiments were carried out in a constant flow and pressure facility, that allowed to reproduce engine-like thermodynamic conditions, and enabled the study to be performed over a wide range of test conditions with a very high repetition rate. Data obtained was also compared with results from a single orifice injector also from the Engine Combustion Network, with analog orifice characteristics (90 μm outlet diameter and convergent shape) and technology as the injector used. Results showed that there is good correlation between the ignition delay measured through both methodologies, that oxygen concentration and injection pressure plays a minor role in the ignition delay, being ambient temperature and density the parameters with the highest influence. Lift-off length measurements showed significant differences between methodologies. Minor deviation was observed between injectors with different nozzle geometry (seat inclination angle), due to temperature variations along the chamber, highlighting the importance of temperature distribution along combustion vessels. Empirical correlations for lift-off and ignition delay were calculated, underlining the effect of the conditions on

  14. Numerical Study of Flow Characteristics in a Solid Particle Incinerator for Various Design Parameters of Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin Woo; Kim, Su Ho; Sohn, Chae Hoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The flow characteristics in a solid particle incinerator are investigated numerically for high burning rate of wastes. The studied incinerator employs both a swirl flow used in the furnace of power plants and a design concept applied to a rocket combustor. As the first step, the non-reactive flow field is analyzed in the incinerator with primary and secondary injectors through which solid fuel and air are injected. The deflection angle of a primary injector, inclination angle of a secondary injector, and gap between the two types of injectors are selected as design parameters. The swirl number is adopted for evaluating the degree of swirl flow and estimated over wide ranges of three parameters. The swirl number increases with deflection angle, but it is affected little by inclination angle. Recirculation zones are formed near the injectors, and their size affects the swirl number. The swirl number decreases with the zonal size of recirculation. From the numerical results, the design points can be found with strong swirl flow.

  15. 2 MV injector as the Elise front-end and as an experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Tauschwitz, A.; Grote, D.; Deadrick, F.

    1996-01-01

    We report on progress in the preparation of the 2 MV injector at LBNL as the front end of Elise and as a multipurpose experimental facility for heavy ion fusion beam dynamics studies. Recent advances in the performance and understanding of the injector are described, and some of the ongoing experimental activities are summarized. (orig.)

  16. Thermo-mechanical design of the SINGAP accelerator grids for ITER NB Injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Palma, M.D.; Zaccaria, P.

    2006-01-01

    The SINGle Aperture - SINgle GAP (SINGAP) accelerator for ITER neutral beam injector foresees four grids for the extraction and acceleration of negative ions, instead of the seven grids of the Multi Aperture Multi Grid (MAMuG) reference configuration. Optimized geometry of the SINGAP grids (plasma, extraction, pre-acceleration, and grounded grid) was identified by CEA Association considering specific requirements for ions extraction and beam generation referring to experimental data and code simulations. This paper focuses on the thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical design of the grids carried out by Consorzio RFX for the design of the first ITER NB Injector and the ITER NB Test Facility. The cooling circuit design (position and shape of the channels) and the cooling parameters (water coolant temperatures, pressure and velocity) were optimized with thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical sensitivity analyses in order to satisfy the grid functional requirements (temperatures, in plane and out of plane deformations). A complete and detailed thermo-structural design assessment of the SINGAP grids was accomplished applying the structural design rules for ITER in-vessel components and considering both the reference load conditions and the maximum load provided by the power supplies. The design required a complete modelling of the grids and their support frames by means of 3D FE and CAD models. The grids were finally integrated with the support and cooling systems inside the beam source vessel. The main results of the thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analyses are presented. The open issues are then reported, mainly regarding the material properties characterization (static and fatigue tests) and the qualification of technologies for OFHC copper electro-deposition, brazing, and welding of heterogeneous materials. (author)

  17. Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aziz; Simons, F Estelle R; Barbour, Victoria; Worth, Allison

    2012-08-15

    Anaphylaxis is a serious hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors are recommended as the initial, potentially life-saving treatment of choice for anaphylaxis in the community, but they are not universally available and have limitations in their use. To assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1980 to January 2012 ), CINAHL (EBSCO host) (1982 to January 2012 ), AMED (EBSCO host) (1985 to January 2012 ), LILACS, (BIREME) (1980 to January 2012 ), ISI Web of Science (1950 to January 2012 ). We adapted our search terms for other databases. We also searched websites listing on-going trials: the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio, and the meta Register of Controlled Trials; and contacted pharmaceutical companies who manufacture adrenaline auto-injectors in an attempt to locate unpublished material. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing auto-injector administration of adrenaline with any control including no intervention, placebo, or other adrenergic agonists were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. None of the 1328 studies that were identified satisfied the inclusion criteria. Based on this review, we cannot make any new recommendations on the effectiveness of adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Although randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of high methodological quality are necessary to define the true extent of benefits from the administration of adrenaline in anaphylaxis via an auto-injector

  18. Numerical analysis and experimental studies on solenoid common rail diesel injector with worn control valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivtsov, S. N.; Yakimov, I. V.; Ozornin, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    A mathematical model of a solenoid common rail fuel injector was developed. Its difference from existing models is control valve wear simulation. A common rail injector of 0445110376 Series (Cummins ISf 2.8 Diesel engine) produced by Bosch Company was used as a research object. Injector parameters (fuel delivery and back leakage) were determined by calculation and experimental methods. GT-Suite model average R2 is 0.93 which means that it predicts the injection rate shape very accurately (nominal and marginal technical conditions of an injector). Numerical analysis and experimental studies showed that control valve wear increases back leakage and fuel delivery (especially at 160 MPa). The regression models for determining fuel delivery and back leakage effects on fuel pressure and energizing time were developed (for nominal and marginal technical conditions).

  19. Modular injector integrated linear apparatus with motion profile optimization for spatial atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Yun; Lin, Jilong; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2017-11-01

    A spatial atomic layer deposition apparatus integrated with a modular injector and a linear motor has been designed. It consists of four parts: a precursor delivery manifold, a modular injector, a reaction zone, and a driving unit. An injector with multi-layer structured channels is designed to help improve precursor distribution homogeneity. During the back and forth movement of the substrate at high speed, the inertial impact caused by jerk and sudden changes of acceleration will degrade the film deposition quality. Such residual vibration caused by inertial impact will aggravate the fluctuation of the gap distance between the injector and the substrate in the deposition process. Thus, an S-curve motion profile is implemented to reduce the large inertial impact, and the maximum position error could be reduced by 84%. The microstructure of the film under the S-curve motion profile shows smaller root-mean-square and scanning voltage amplitude under an atomic force microscope, which verifies the effectiveness of the S-curve motion profile in reducing the residual vibration and stabilizing the gap distance between the injector and the substrate. The film deposition rate could reach 100 nm/min while maintaining good uniformity without obvious periodic patterns on the surface.

  20. Use of the Keele injector for sample introduction for gas chromatographic analysis of vinclozolin in lettuces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J H; Lee, Y S; Kim, M R; Lee, C J; Kim, I S

    2003-10-10

    We examined a Keele injector for sample introduction for gas chromatographic analysis of vinclozolin treated in lettuces. Samples in milligram quantity were introduced into a glass tube in a Keele injector at a gas chromatograph injection port. The glass tube was then crushed to allow the sample to carry onto a capillary column in a normal manner. The standard calibration curve for quantitative detection of vinclozolin was obtained by determining vinclozolin spiked in samples at variable concentrations. The calibration curve showed a linear response to vinclozolin ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 microg/g, giving a slope value of 174.8, the y-intercept value of -2.8146 and the mean r2-value of 0.9994. Limit of quantification for vinclozolin was 0.05 microg/g by this method, comparable to 0.01 microg/g by a normal injector. When samples treated previously with vinclozolin were determined by the Keele injector, vinclozolin was found to be about 30% lower as compared to a normal method, suggesting about 70% recovery of the spiked vinclozolin by the Keele injector. From these results, the Keele injector was suggested to be potential for sample introduction in gas chromatographic analysis of vinclozolin in lettuce samples.

  1. Summary of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen, Direct Metal Laser Sintering Injector Testing and Evaluation Effort at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory; Bullard, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a significant advancement in the area of additive manufacturing technology. One area that has seen substantial expansion in application has been laser sintering (or melting) in a powder bed. This technology is often termed 3D printing or various acronyms that may be industry, process, or company specific. Components manufactured via 3D printing have the potential to significantly reduce development and fabrication time and cost. The usefulness of 3D printed components is influenced by several factors such as material properties and surface roughness. This paper details three injectors that were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to evaluate the utility of 3D printed components for rocket engine applications. The three injectors were tested in a hot-fire environment with chamber pressures of approximately 1400 psia. One injector was a 28 element design printed by Directed Manufacturing. The other two injectors were identical 40 element designs printed by Directed Manufacturing and Solid Concepts. All the injectors were swirl-coaxial designs and were subscale versions of a full-scale injector currently in fabrication. The test and evaluation programs for the 28 element and 40 element injectors provided a substantial amount of data that confirms the feasibility of 3D printed parts for future applications. The operating conditions of previously tested, conventionally manufactured injectors were reproduced in the 28 and 40 element programs in order to contrast the performance of each. Overall, the 3D printed injectors demonstrated comparable performance to the conventionally manufactured units. The design features of the aforementioned injectors can readily be implemented in future applications with a high degree of confidence.

  2. Space Charge Effects for the ERL Prototype Injector Line at Daresbury Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Muratori, Bruno; Owen, Hywel; de Loos, Marieke; van der Geer, Bas

    2005-01-01

    Daresbury Laboratory is currently building an Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) that will operate at a beam energy of 35 MeV. In this paper we examine the space charge effects on the beam dynamics in the ERLP injector line. A Gaussian particle distribution is tracked with GPT (General Particle Tracer) through the injection line to the main linac to calculate the effect of 3Dspace charge in the dipoles. The nominal beam energy in the injection line is 8.3 MeV and the bunch charge 80 pC. The effects of space charge on the transverse and longitudinal emittance are studied for various electron beam parameter settings.

  3. Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, R.K.; Fable, S.A.; Schmidt, D; Arellano, L.; Smith, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development

  4. Properties of high current RFQ injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Goethe, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author)

  5. Properties of high current RFQ injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempp, A.; Goethe, J.W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1996-12-31

    RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author) 2 refs.

  6. Neutron production and dose rate in the IFMIF/EVEDA LIPAc injector beam commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Keitaro, E-mail: kondo.keitaro@jaea.go.jp [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Usami, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Ochiai, Kentaro; Shinto, Katsuhiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan); Okumura, Yoshikazu [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A dedicated neutron production yield monitoring system for LIPAc has been developed. • The biological dose rate during operation of the LIPAc injector was analyzed. • The neutron streaming effect due to penetrations in the shielding wall was investigated. - Abstract: The construction of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) is in progress in Rokkasho, Japan, and the deuteron beam commissioning of the injector began in July 2015. Due to the huge beam current of 125 mA, a large amount of d-D neutrons are produced in the commissioning. The neutron streaming effect through pipe penetrations and underground pits may dominate the radiation dose at the outside of the accelerator vault during the injector operation. In the present study the effective dose rate expected during the injector commissioning was analyzed by a Monte Carlo calculation and compared with the measured value. For the comparison it is necessary to know the total neutron production yield in the accelerator vault, thus a dedicated neutron production yield monitoring system was developed. The yield obtained was smaller than that previously reported in a literature by a factor of a few and seems to depend on some beam conditions. From the comparison it was proved that the calculation always provides a conservative estimate and the dose rates in places where occupational works can always access and the controlled area boundary are expected to be far less than the legal criteria throughout the injector commissioning.

  7. When should we perform a repeat training on adrenaline auto-injector use for physician trainees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, E; Bakirtas, A; Yilmaz, O; Karagol, I H E; Arga, M; Demirsoy, M S; Turktas, I

    2014-01-01

    Studies demonstrate that both doctors and patients may use adrenaline auto-injector improperly and the usage skills are improved by training. In this study, we aimed to determine the appropriate frequency of training to maintain skills for adrenaline auto-injector use. We invited all interns of 2011-2012 training period. At baseline, all participants were given theoretical and practical training on adrenaline auto-injector use. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups. We asked those in group 1 to demonstrate the use of adrenaline auto-injector trainer in the third month and those in group 2 in the sixth month. One hundred and sixty interns were enrolled. Compared with the beginning score, demonstration of skills at all the steps and total scores did not change for the group tested in the third month (p=0.265 and p=0.888, respectively). However; for the group examined in the sixth month; the demonstration of skills for proper use of the auto-injector at all steps and the mean time to administer adrenaline decreased (p=0.018 and padrenaline (p<0.001) and presumptive self-injection into thumb (p=0.029). Auto-injector usage skills of physician trainees decrease after the sixth month and are better in those who had skill reinforcement at 3 months, suggesting continued education and skill reinforcement may be useful. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Fundamental Study of a Single Point Lean Direct Injector. Part I: Effect of Air Swirler Angle and Injector Tip Location on Spray Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Lean direct injection (LDI) is a combustion concept to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for next generation aircraft gas turbine engines. These newer engines have cycles that increase fuel efficiency through increased operating pressures, which increase combustor inlet temperatures. NOx formation rates increase with higher temperatures; the LDI strategy avoids high temperature by staying fuel lean and away from stoichiometric burning. Thus, LDI relies on rapid and uniform fuel/air mixing. To understand this mixing process, a series of fundamental experiments are underway in the Combustion and Dynamics Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. This first set of experiments examines cold flow (non-combusting) mixing using air and water. Using laser diagnostics, the effects of air swirler angle and injector tip location on the spray distribution, recirculation zone, and droplet size distribution are examined. Of the three swirler angles examined, 60 degrees is determined to have the most even spray distribution. The injector tip location primarily shifts the flow without changing the structure, unless the flow includes a recirculation zone. When a recirculation zone is present, minimum axial velocity decreases as the injector tip moves downstream towards the venturi exit; also the droplets become more uniform in size and angular distribution.

  9. The latest development of EAST neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chundong; Xu Yongjian

    2014-01-01

    As the first full superconducting non-circular cross section Tokomak in the world, EAST is used to explore the forefront physics and engineering issues on the construction of Tokomak fusion reactor. Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, a set of neutral beam injector (4∼8 MW, 10∼100 s)will be built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the latest development of EAST neutral beam injector and the latest experiment results of long pulse beam extraction and high power beam extraction are reported, those results show that all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these will lay a solid foundation for the achievement of plasma heating and current drive for EAST in 2014. (authors)

  10. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A platelet-face injector for the fully reusable orbit maneuvering system OMS on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and low cost. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects of acoustic cavity configuration on combustion stability, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated using sea level bomb tests. Prototype injector and chamber behavior was evaluated for a variety of conditions; these tests examined the effects of film cooling, helium saturated propellants, chamber length, inlet conditions, and operating point, on performance, heat transfer and engine transient behavior. Helium bubble ingestion into both propellant circuits was investigated, as was chugging at low pressure operation, and hot and cold engine restart with and without a purge.

  11. Real-time control and data-acquisition system for high-energy neutral-beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.; Jacobson, V.

    1981-12-01

    The need for a real-time control system and a data acquisition, processing and archiving system operating in parallel on the same computer became a requirement on General Atomic's Doublet III fusion energy project with the addition of high energy neutral beam injectors. The data acquisition processing and archiving system is driven from external events and is sequenced through each experimental shot utilizing ModComp's intertask message service. This system processes, archives and displays on operator console CRTs all physics diagnostic data related to the neutral beam injectores such as temperature, beam alignment, etc. The real-time control system is data base driven and provides periodic monitoring and control of the numerous dynamic subsystems of the neutral beam injectors such as power supplies, timing, water cooling, etc

  12. Development of a high current H- injector for the proton storage ring at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, R.L.; Stevens, R.R.; DeHaven, R.A.; McConnell, J.R.; Chamberlin, E.P.; Kandarian, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new high-current H - injector has been installed at LAMPF for the Proton Storage Ring. The injector is equipped with a multicusp surface-production H - ion source that was developed at LAMPF. The ion source is capable of long-term operation at 20 mA of H - current at 10% duty factor and with normalized beam emittance of 0.08 cm-mrad (95% beam fraction). Details of the development program, the injector design, and initial operating experience are discussed. Included in the discussion is a comparison of intensity and emittance measurements of the same H - beam at 100 keV and 750 keV. 4 references, 6 figures

  13. Fueling of magnetically confined plasmas by single- and two-stage repeating pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic fusion confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogenic pellets to speeds in the kilometer-per-second range using single shot and repetitive pneumatic (light-gas gun) pellet injectors. The millimeter-to-centimeter size pellets enter the plasma and continuously ablate because of the plasma electron heat flux, depositing fuel atoms along the pellet trajectory. This fueling method allows direct fueling in the interior of the hot plasma and is more efficient than the alternative method of injecting room temperature fuel gas at the wall of the plasma vacuum chamber. Single-stage pneumatic injectors based on the light-gas gun concept have provided hydrogenic fuel pellets in the speed range of 1--2 km/s in single-shot injector designs. Repetition rates up to 5 Hz have been demonstrated in repetitive injector designs. Future fusion reactor-scale devices may need higher pellet velocities because of the larger plasma size and higher plasma temperatures. Repetitive two-stage pneumatic injectors are under development at ORNL to provide long-pulse plasma fueling in the 3--5 km/s speed range. Recently, a repeating, two-stage light-gas gun achieved repetitive operation at 1 Hz with speeds in the range of 2--3 km/s

  14. What are the 'ideal' features of an adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injector in the treatment of anaphylaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A J

    2011-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a systemic allergic reaction that often involves respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular collapse, which are potentially life-threatening if not treated promptly with intramuscular adrenaline. Owing to the unpredictable nature of anaphylaxis and accidental exposure to allergens (such as peanuts and shellfish), patients should be prescribed intramuscular adrenaline auto-injectors and carry these with them at all times. Patients also need to be able to use their auto-injectors correctly while under high stress, when an anaphylactic attack occurs. Despite this, an alarming number of patients fail to carry their auto-injectors and many patients, carers of children with known anaphylaxis and healthcare professionals do not know how to use the device correctly, despite having had training. Currently available auto-injector devices have various limitations that may impede their use in the management of anaphylaxis. There is also a lack of validated assessment criteria and regulatory requirements for new devices. This review describes the different delivery systems used in currently available auto-injectors and discusses the key barriers to the use of adrenaline auto-injectors, with the goal of identifying the 'ideal' features/characteristics of such devices in the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis that will ensure ease of use, portability and accurate delivery of a life-saving drug. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Ichige, Hisashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D{sub 2} cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x10{sup 20} atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. D{alpha} intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

  16. Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizu, Kaname; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Ichige, Hisashi

    2001-03-01

    For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D 2 cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x10 20 atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. Dα intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

  17. Acceleration characteristics of the injector Linacs for the Hyogo Hadrontherapy Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Sawada, K.; Sakata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Hyogo Hadrontherapy center in Harima Science Garden City is a cancer therapy facility with proton, helium and carbon beams. The beams are supplied by a synchrotron, which has manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, with RF 1inacs as an injector, which has manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd.(SHI). The injector consists of the identical ECR ion sources, a RFQ linac, and an Alvarez linac, which are connected by beam transport systems including vacuum systems, and some kinds of beam monitoring equipments. The results accomplished for the beam conditioning are described in this paper. (author)

  18. Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.I.; Som, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Kastengren, A.L.; El-Hannouny, E.M.; Longman, D.E.; Powell, C.F. [Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software

  19. Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A. I.; Som, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Kastengren, A. L.; El-Hannouny, E. M.; Longman, D. E.; Powell, C. F.

    2009-07-01

    A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software.

  20. End-to-end simulation of the C-ADS injector Ⅱ with a 3-D field map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijun; He Yuan; Li Chao; Wang Wangsheng; Liu Shuhui; Jia Huan; Xu Xianbo; Chen Ximeng

    2013-01-01

    The Injector II, one of the two parallel injectors of the high-current superconducting proton driver linac for the China Accelerator-Driven System (C-ADS) project, is being designed and constructed by the Institute of Modern Physics. At present, the design work for the injector is almost finished. End-to-end simulation has been carried out using the TRACK multiparticle simulation code to check the match between each acceleration section and the performance of the injector as a whole. Moreover, multiparticle simulations with all kinds of errors and misalignments have been performed to define the requirements of each device. The simulation results indicate that the lattice design is robust. In this paper, the results of end-to-end simulation and error simulation with a 3-D field map are presented. (authors)

  1. LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”

    CERN Multimedia

    Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

  2. Experimental Study of Injection Characteristics of a Multi-hole port injector on various Fuel Injection pressures and Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ommi F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. All these spray characteristics are determined by particular injector design and operating conditions. In this paper, an experimental study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and spray characteristics of a injector with multi-disc nozzle (SAGEM,D2159MA. A comparison was made on injection characteristics of the multi-hole injectors and its effects on various fuel pressure and temperature. The distributions of the droplet size and velocity and volume flux were characterized using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA technique. Through this work, it was found that the injector produces a finer spray with a wide spray angle in higher fuel pressure and temperature.

  3. Experimental Study of Injection Characteristics of a Multi-hole port injector on various Fuel Injection pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednejad, E.; Ommi, F.; Nekofar, K.

    2013-04-01

    The structures of the port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. All these spray characteristics are determined by particular injector design and operating conditions. In this paper, an experimental study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and spray characteristics of a injector with multi-disc nozzle (SAGEM,D2159MA). A comparison was made on injection characteristics of the multi-hole injectors and its effects on various fuel pressure and temperature. The distributions of the droplet size and velocity and volume flux were characterized using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. Through this work, it was found that the injector produces a finer spray with a wide spray angle in higher fuel pressure and temperature.

  4. Numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in Diesel injectors; Modelisation de l'ecoulement diphasique dans les injecteurs diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, N.

    2004-12-15

    Combustion quality in Direct Injection Diesel engine depends strongly on the jet atomization in the combustion chamber. Atomization is due to aerodynamic interaction, but it is also influenced by the liquid flow characteristics at the injector exit. As the phenomena are extremely rapid and they take place in very small geometries, experimental investigations are pretty hard to manage. Consequently, our purpose is to develop a simulation code which has two goals: a better comprehension of the flow in the injector in order to optimize the injector geometry, and the prediction of the flow characteristics at the injector exit, in order to provide boundary conditions to combustion simulation codes. At first, we describe phenomena occurring in the injector and their influence on atomization. Their we make a revue of the two-phase models, defining their validity domains. We present the model that we use, based on a homogeneous flow assumption in each mesh cell, and its implementation in KIVA-MB. We show that a particular attention has been focused on exit boundary conditions: we used non-reflective conditions. Simulations results are then described and validated for a one-hole injector and a multi-hole injector, showing the code possibilities to get a better understanding of the liquid flow in an injector during the whole injection. (author)

  5. Characterization of the transverse phase space at the photo-injector test facility in DESY, Zeuthen site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staykov, Lazar

    2012-10-01

    High brightness electron beams with charge of 1 nC and low transverse emittance are necessary for the functioning of advanced light sources such as the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray FEL (XFEL). The photo-injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is dedicated to the optimization of such electron beams. At PITZ the electrons are produced using an RF gun cavity operated at accelerating gradients of up to 60 MV/m. The gun is equipped with a pair of solenoids for the compensation of the emittance growth due to linear space charge forces. This solenoid compensation scheme is enhanced with a properly matched TESLA type normal conducting booster cavity. The main tool for the characterization of the transverse phase space of the electron beam at PITZ is the emittance measurement system (EMSY). It employs the single slit method for the measurement of the transverse phase space distribution of the electron beam. In this thesis, the performance of the EMSY was optimized for measurement of low emittances in a wide range of photo-injector parameters including such that result in electron beams close to the XFEL specifications. First results on the characterization of the PITZ photo-injector with a gun operated at maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m are presented. This includes scans of the solenoid focusing strength, the initial beam size and the booster gradient. A comparison between results obtained at lower accelerating gradients is made with emphasize on the benefit of higher accelerating gradient.

  6. Characterization of the transverse phase space at the photo-injector test facility in DESY, Zeuthen site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staykov, Lazar

    2012-10-15

    High brightness electron beams with charge of 1 nC and low transverse emittance are necessary for the functioning of advanced light sources such as the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray FEL (XFEL). The photo-injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is dedicated to the optimization of such electron beams. At PITZ the electrons are produced using an RF gun cavity operated at accelerating gradients of up to 60 MV/m. The gun is equipped with a pair of solenoids for the compensation of the emittance growth due to linear space charge forces. This solenoid compensation scheme is enhanced with a properly matched TESLA type normal conducting booster cavity. The main tool for the characterization of the transverse phase space of the electron beam at PITZ is the emittance measurement system (EMSY). It employs the single slit method for the measurement of the transverse phase space distribution of the electron beam. In this thesis, the performance of the EMSY was optimized for measurement of low emittances in a wide range of photo-injector parameters including such that result in electron beams close to the XFEL specifications. First results on the characterization of the PITZ photo-injector with a gun operated at maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m are presented. This includes scans of the solenoid focusing strength, the initial beam size and the booster gradient. A comparison between results obtained at lower accelerating gradients is made with emphasize on the benefit of higher accelerating gradient.

  7. A single-stage high pressure steam injector for next generation reactors: test results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattadori, G.; Galbiati, L.; Mazzocchi, L.; Vanini, P.

    1995-01-01

    Steam injectors can be used in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) for high pressure makeup water supply; this solution seems to be very attractive because of the ''passive'' features of steam injectors, that would take advantage of the available energy from primary steam without the introduction of any rotating machinery. The reference application considered in this work is a high pressure safety injection system for a BWR; a water flow rate of about 60 kg/s to be delivered against primary pressures covering a quite wide range up to 9 MPa is required. Nevertheless, steam driven water injectors with similar characteristics could be used to satisfy the high pressure core coolant makeup requirements of next generation PWRs. With regard to BWR application, an instrumented steam injector prototype with a flow rate scaling factor of about 1:6 has been built and tested. The tested steam injector operates at a constant inlet water pressure (about 0.2 MPa) and inlet water temperature ranging from 15 to 37 o C, with steam pressure ranging from 2.5 to 8.7 MPa, always fulfilling the discharge pressure target (10% higher than steam pressure). To achieve these results an original double-overflow flow rate-control/startup system has been developed. (Author)

  8. Transient response of a liquid injector to a steep-fronted transverse pressure wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.; Heister, S.; Stechmann, D.; Kan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the dynamic injection environment posed by unsteady pressure gain combustion processes, an experimental apparatus was developed to visualize the dynamic response of a transparent liquid injector subjected to a single steep-fronted transverse pressure wave. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure with a variety of acrylic injector passage designs using water as the working fluid. High-speed visual observations were made of the injector exit near field, and the extent of backflow and the time to refill the orifice passage were characterized over a range of injection pressures. A companion transient one-dimensional model was developed for interpretation of the results and to elucidate the trends with regard to the strength of the transverse pressure wave. Results from the model were compared with the experimental observations.

  9. Therminoic gun control system for the CEBAF injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Optimization of RF Compressor in the SPARX Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ferrario, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Spataro, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The SPARX photoinjector consists in a rf gun injecting into three SLAC accelerating sections, the first one operating in the RF compressor configuration in order to achieve higher peak current. A systematic study based on PARMELA simulations has been done in order to optimize the parameters that influence the compression also in view of the application of this system as injector of the so called SPARXINO 3-5 nm FEL test facility. The results of computations show that peak currents at the injector exit up to kA level are achievable with a good control of the transverse and longitudinal emittance by means of a short SW section operating at 11424 MHz placed before the first accelerating section. Some working points in different compression regimes suitable for FEL experiments have been selected. The stability of these points and the sensitivity to various types of random errors are discussed.

  11. High voltage series protection of neutral injectors with crossed-field tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, G.A.; Thomas, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    High voltage neutral beam injectors for fusion machines require either parallel or series protection schemes to limit fault currents in case of arcing to safe levels. The protection device is usually located between the high voltage supply and beam injector and either crowbars (parallel protection) or disconnects (series protection) the high voltage supply when a fault occurs. Because of its isolating property, series protection is preferred. The Hughes crossed-field tube is uniquely suited for series protection schemes. The tube can conduct 40 A continuously upon application of voltage (approximately 300 V) and a static magnetic field (approximately 100 G). It is also capable of interrupting currents of 1000 A within 10 μs and withstand voltage of more than 120 kV. Experiments were performed to simulate the duty of a crossed-field tube as a series protection element in a neutral injector circuit under fault conditions. Results of on-switching tests under high and low voltage and interruption of fault currents are presented. An example of a possible protection circuit with crossed-field tubes is discussed

  12. Motorized injector-assisted intrascleral intraocular lens fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Wang, Shih-Hao; Teng, Yu-Ti; Hsu, Sheng-Min

    2017-03-01

    For eyes with deficient capsular support, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has long been a technical challenge. Recently, intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a three-piece posterior chamber IOL has become a popular option. In this procedure, externalization of the leading haptic during IOL injection is a stressful step. We present a modified technique to improve the ease and safety of this step. Our modified technique involves IOL injection with a motorized injector with several important modifications described here. With these modifications, a surgeon can easily maintain the correct orientation of the IOL in a well-controlled manner during IOL injection. The records of 13 patients who underwent this technique were retrospectively evaluated. Corrected-distance visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (pIOL decentration, or vitreous hemorrhage was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, the motorized injector-assisted intrascleral IOL fixation technique is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional procedure. This technique makes the process of leading haptic externalization easier and more controllable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Motorized injector-assisted intrascleral intraocular lens fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horung Hung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For eyes with deficient capsular support, intraocular lens (IOL implantation has long been a technical challenge. Recently, intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a three-piece posterior chamber IOL has become a popular option. In this procedure, externalization of the leading haptic during IOL injection is a stressful step. We present a modified technique to improve the ease and safety of this step. Our modified technique involves IOL injection with a motorized injector with several important modifications described here. With these modifications, a surgeon can easily maintain the correct orientation of the IOL in a well-controlled manner during IOL injection. The records of 13 patients who underwent this technique were retrospectively evaluated. Corrected-distance visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (p<0.05. No postoperative retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, IOL decentration, or vitreous hemorrhage was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, the motorized injector-assisted intrascleral IOL fixation technique is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional procedure. This technique makes the process of leading haptic externalization easier and more controllable.

  14. PIP-II Injector Test: Challenges and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, P. F. [Fermilab; Carneiro, J. P. [Fermilab; Edelen, J. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Steimel, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the Injector Test warm front end, including results of the beam commissioning through the installed components, and progress with SRF cryomodules and other systems.

  15. Injection characteristics study of high-pressure direct injector for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) using experimental and analytical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Z.; Rahim, MF Abdul; Mamat, R.

    2017-10-01

    The injection characteristics of direct injector affect the mixture formation and combustion processes. In addition, the injector is converted from gasoline operation for CNG application. Thus measurement of CNG direct injector mass flow rate was done by independently tested a single injector on a test bench. The first case investigated the effect of CNG injection pressure and the second case evaluate the effect of pulse-width of injection duration. An analytical model was also developed to predict the mass flow rate of the injector. The injector was operated in a choked condition in both the experiments and simulation studies. In case 1, it was shown that mass flow rate through the injector is affected by injection pressure linearly. Based on the tested injection pressure of 20 bar to 60 bar, the resultant mass flow rate are in the range of 0.4 g/s to 1.2 g/s which are met with theoretical flow rate required by the engine. However, in Case 2, it was demonstrated that the average mass flow rate at short injection durations is lower than recorded in Case 1. At injection pressure of 50 bar, the average mass flow rate for Case 2 and Case 1 are 0.7 g/s and 1.1 g/s respectively. Also, the measured mass flow rate at short injection duration showing a fluctuating data in the range of 0.2 g/s - 1.3 g/s without any noticeable trends. The injector model able to predict the trend of the mass flow rate at different injection pressure but unable to track the fluctuating trend at short injection duration.

  16. Ion source and injector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    This is a survey of low energy accelerators which inject into proton linacs. Laboratories covered include Argonne, Brookhaven, CERN, Chalk River, Fermi, ITEP, KEK, Rutherford, and Saclay. This paper emphasizes complete injector systems, comparing significant hardware features and beam performance data, including recent additions. There is increased activity now in the acceleration of polarized protons, H + and H - , and of unpolarized H - . New source development and programs for these ion beams is outlined at the end of the report. Heavy-ion sources are not included

  17. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  18. Space Shuttle main engine product improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, A. D.; Klatt, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The current design of the Space Shuttle Main Engine has passed 11 certification cycles, amassed approximately a quarter million seconds of engine test time in 1200 tests and successfully launched the Space Shuttle 17 times of 51 engine launches through May 1985. Building on this extensive background, two development programs are underway at Rocketdyne to improve the flow of hot gas through the powerhead and evaluate the changes to increase the performance margins in the engine. These two programs, called Phase II+ and Technology Test Bed Precursor program are described. Phase II+ develops a two-tube hot-gas manifold that improves the component environment. The Precursor program will evaluate a larger throat main combustion chamber, conduct combustion stability testing of a baffleless main injector, fabricate an experimental weld-free heat exchanger tube, fabricate and test a high pressure oxidizer turbopump with an improved inlet, and develop and test methods for reducing temperature transients at start and shutdown.

  19. Generation and acceleration of high intensity beams in the SLC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.C.; Browne, M.J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Jobe, R.K.; Seeman, J.T.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stiening, R.F.

    1985-04-01

    A new gun pulser and substantially increased focusing have been added to the first 100 m of the SLAC linac in order to provide a pair of intense electron bunches to the SLC damping ring. Each bunch from this injector must have 5 x 10 10 electrons, an invariant emittance γepsilon less than or equal to 1.8 x 10 -3 m-rad and the pair must have an energy spread of less than 2%. Wakefield instabilities present in earlier versions of this injector have been controlled by reducing the transverse beam dimension by a factor of 3

  20. Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevany Paulino de Pinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

  1. Using CFD as a Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Canabal, Francisco; Rocker, marvin; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2005-01-01

    New programs are forcing American propulsion system designers into unfamiliar territory. For instance, industry s answer to the cost and reliability goals set out by the Next Generation Launch Technology Program are engine concepts based on the Oxygen- Rich Staged Combustion Cycle. Historical injector design tools are not well suited for this new task. The empirical correlations do not apply directly to the injector concepts associated with the ORSC cycle. These legacy tools focus primarily on performance with environment evaluation a secondary objective. Additionally, the environmental capability of these tools is usually one-dimensional while the actual environments are at least two- and often three-dimensional. CFD has the potential to calculate performance and multi-dimensional environments but its use in the injector design process has been retarded by long solution turnaround times and insufficient demonstrated accuracy. This paper has documented the parallel paths of program support and technology development currently employed at Marshall Space Flight Center in an effort to move CFD to the forefront of injector design. MSFC has established a long-term goal for use of CFD for combustion devices design. The work on injector design is the heart of that vision and the Combustion Devices CFD Simulation Capability Roadmap that focuses the vision. The SRL concept, combining solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, has been established as a quantitative gauge of current and desired capability. Three examples of current injector analysis for program support have been presented and discussed. These examples are used to establish the current capability at MSFC for these problems. Shortcomings identified from this experience are being used as inputs to the Roadmap process. The SRL evaluation identified lack of demonstrated solution accuracy as a major issue. Accordingly, the MSFC view of code validation and current MSFC-funded validation efforts were discussed in

  2. Effect of Injector Geometry on Atomization of a Liquid-Liquid Double Swirl Coaxial Injector Using Non-invasive Laser, Optical and X-ray Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, C. R.; Meyer, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a liquid-liquid double swirl coaxial injector were studied using non-invasive optical, laser, and X-ray diagnostics. A parametric study of injector exit geometry demonstrated that spray breakup time, breakup type and sheet stability could be controlled with exit geometry. Phase Doppler interferometry was used to characterize droplet statistics and non-dimensional droplet parameters over a range of inlet conditions and for various fluids allowing for a study on the role of specific fluid properties in atomization. Further, X-ray radiography allowed for investigation of sheet thickness and breakup length to be quantified for different recess exit diameters and inlet pressures. Finally, computed tomography scans revealed that the spray cone was distinctively non-uniform and comprised of several pockets of increased mass flux.

  3. Investigation of direct-injection via micro-porous injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, J.J.E.; Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility to reduce soot emissions by means of injecting diesel fuel through a porous injector is investigated. From literature it is known that better oxygen entrainment into the fuel spray leads to lower soot emissions. By selection of porous material properties and geometry, the spray is

  4. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limitin...

  5. Repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector for plasma fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.; Foster, C.A.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed for plasma fueling applications. The repetitive device extends pneumatic injector operation to steady state. The active mechanism consists of an extruder and a gun assembly that are cooled by flowing liquid-helium refrigerant. The extruder provides a continuous supply of solid hydrogen to the gun assembly, where a reciprocating gun barrel forms and chambers cylindrical pellet from the extrusion; pellets are then accelerated with compressed hydrogen gas (pressures up to 125 bar) to velocities -1 have been obtained with 2.1- , 3.4- , and 4.0-mm-diameter pellets. The present apparatus operates at higher firing rates in short bursts; for example, a rate of 6 s -1 for 2 s with the larger pellets. These pellet parameters are in the range applicable for fueling large present-day fusion devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Experimental results are presented, including effects of propellant pressure and barrel length on gun performance

  6. Pneumatic pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Jacobi, D.; Sandmann, W.; Schiedeck, J.; Schilling, H.B.; Weber, G.

    1983-07-01

    Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

  7. Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  8. Combustion Stability Characteristics of the Project Morpheus Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Morehead, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The project Morpheus liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane (LCH4) main engine is a Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed 5,000 lbf-thrust, 4:1 throttling, pressure-fed cryogenic engine using an impinging element injector design. The engine met or exceeded all performance requirements without experiencing any in- ight failures, but the engine exhibited acoustic-coupled combustion instabilities during sea-level ground-based testing. First tangential (1T), rst radial (1R), 1T1R, and higher order modes were triggered by conditions during the Morpheus vehicle derived low chamber pressure startup sequence. The instability was never observed to initiate during mainstage, even at low power levels. Ground-interaction acoustics aggravated the instability in vehicle tests. Analysis of more than 200 hot re tests on the Morpheus vehicle and Stennis Space Center (SSC) test stand showed a relationship between ignition stability and injector/chamber pressure. The instability had the distinct characteristic of initiating at high relative injection pressure drop at low chamber pressure during the start sequence. Data analysis suggests that the two-phase density during engine start results in a high injection velocity, possibly triggering the instabilities predicted by the Hewitt stability curves. Engine ignition instability was successfully mitigated via a higher-chamber pressure start sequence (e.g., 50% power level vs 30%) and operational propellant start temperature limits that maintained \\cold LOX" and \\warm methane" at the engine inlet. The main engine successfully demonstrated 4:1 throttling without chugging during mainstage, but chug instabilities were observed during some engine shutdown sequences at low injector pressure drop, especially during vehicle landing.

  9. Displacement of cryomodule in CADS injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Fengfeng; Wan, Yuqin; Sun, Guozhen; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Juihui; He, Yuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics

    2017-06-15

    As Cryomodule can easily reduce higher power consumption and length of an accelerator and the accelerator can be operated more continuously. The Chinese academy of sciences institute of modern physics is developing an accelerator driven subcritical system (CADS) Injector II. Cryomodules are extremely complex systems, and their design optimization is strongly dependent on the accelerator application for which they are intended.

  10. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  11. Status report on the positive ion injector (PII) for ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkann, G.P.; Added, N.; Billquist, P.; Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.; Markovich, P.; Phillips, D.; Strickhorn, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Positive Ion Injector (PII) is part of the Uranuim upgrade for ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper will include a technical discussion of the Positive Ion Injector (PII) accelerator with its superconducting, niobium, very low-velocity accelerating structures. It will also discuss the current construction schedule of PII, and review an upgrade of the fast- tuning system. 10 refs., 6 figs

  12. Status report on the positive ion injector (PII) for ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkann, G.P.; Added, N.; Billquist, P.; Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.; Markovich, P.; Phillips, D.; Strickhorn, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Positive Ion Injector (PII) is part of the Uranuim upgrade for ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper will include a technical discussion of the Positive Ion Injector (PII) accelerator with its superconducting, niobium, very low-velocity accelerating structures. It will also discuss the current construction schedule of PII, and review an upgrade of the fast- tuning system. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Design and implementation of fast charging circuit for repetitive compact torus injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onchi, T.; McColl, D.; Dreval, M.; Wolfe, S.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2014-01-01

    A novel circuit for compact torus (CT) injector operated at high repetition rates has been developed. The core technology adopted in the present work is to charge a large storage capacitor bank and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). A system consisting of IGBTs and slow banks for the repetitive operation has been developed and installed for each discharge circuit of the University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI). A repetition rate up to 1.7 Hz and a burst of 8 CTs have been achieved

  14. An Experimental Study of Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine with Fuel Injector Malfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper shows the results of the laboratory study on the relation between chosen malfunctions of a fuel injector and composition of exhaust gas from the marine engine. The object of research is a marine 3-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine with an intercooler system. The engine was loaded with a generator and supercharged. The generator was electrically connected to the water resistance. The engine operated with a load between 50 kW and 250 kW at a constant speed. The engine load and speed, parameters of the turbocharger, systems of cooling, fuelling, lubricating and air exchange, were measured. Fuel injection and combustion pressures in all cylinders of the engine were also recorded. Exhaust gas composition was recorded by using a electrochemical gas analyzer. Air pressure, temperature and humidity were also recorded. Emission characteristics of the engine were calculated according to ISO 8178 standard regulations. During the study the engine operated at the technical condition recognized as „working properly” and with simulated fuel injector malfunctions. Simulation of malfunctions consisted in the increasing and decreasing of fuel injector static opening pressure, decalibration of fuel injector holes and clogging 2 neighboring of 9 fuel injector holes on one of 3 engine cylinders.

  15. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  16. Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2003-07-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs.

  17. Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs

  18. Lagrangian Modeling of Evaporating Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions: Effects of Multi-Hole Injector Nozzles With JP-8 Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Lagrangian Modeling of Evaporating Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions: Effects of Multi-Hole Injector Nozzles With JP-8 Surrogates by L...efficiency. In this study, three-dimensional numerical simulations of single and two-hole injector nozzles under diesel conditions are conducted to...numerical simulations of single and two-hole injector nozzles under diesel conditions are conducted to study the spray behavior and the effect of

  19. Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.; Zajec, E.

    1985-05-01

    Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4 + , Ne 3 + , and He 2 + are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4 + beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 π cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. NSLS-II injector commissioning and initial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha, B.; Blum, E.; Bassi, B.; Bengtsson, J.; Blednykh, A.; Buda, S.; Cheng, W.; Choi, J.; Cuppolo, J.; D Alsace, R.; Davidsaver, M.; DeLong, J.; Doom, L.; Durfee, d.; fliller, R.; Fulkerson, M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gardner, C.; Guo, W.; Heese, R.; Hidaka, Y.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kosciuk, B.; Kowalski, S.; Dramer, S.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Louie, W.; Maggipinto, M.; Marino, P.; Mead, J.; Oliva, G.; Padrazo, D.; Pedersen, K.; Podobedov, B.; Rainer, R.; Rose, J.; Santana, M.; Seletskiy, S.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Singh, P.; Smalyuk, V.; Smith, R.; Summers, T.; Tagger, J.; Tian, Y.; Wahl, W.; Wang, G.; Weiner, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.; Yang, X.; Zeitler, E.; Zitvogel, E.; Zuhoski, P.

    2015-05-03

    The injector for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) storage ring consists of a 3 GeV booster synchrotron and a 200 MeV S-band linac. The linac was designed to produce either a single bunch with a charge of 0.5 nC of electrons or a train of bunches up to 300 ns long containing a total charge of 15 nC. The booster was designed to accelerate up to 15 nC each cycle in a train of bunches up to 300 ns long. Linac commissioning was completed in April 2012. Booster commissioning was started in November 2013 and completed in March 2014. All of the significant design goals were satisfied including beam emittance, energy spread, and transport efficiency. While the maximum booster charge accelerated was only 10 nC, this has proven to be more than sufficient for storage ring commissioning and operation. The injector has operated reliably during storage ring operation since then. Results will be presented showing measurements of linac and booster operating parameters achieved during commissioning and initial operation. Operating experience and reliability during the first year of NSLS-II operation will be discussed.

  1. Study liquid length penetration results obtained with a direct acting piezo electric injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, Raul; Gimeno, Jaime; Bardi, Michele; Plazas, Alejandro H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct acting injector capable of controlling needle lift has been used to determine liquid phase penetration. ► The influence of injection pressure, chamber density and chamber temperature have been measured. ► When needle lift is reduced the stabilized liquid length is shortened. ► The relationship between needle lift and liquid length makes needle lift as a new way to control the injection event. - Abstract: A state of the art prototype common rail injector featuring direct control of the needle by means of a piezo stack (direct acting) has been tested. Liquid phase penetration of the sprays in diesel engine-like conditions has been studied via imaging technique in a novel continuous flow test chamber that allows an accurate control on a wide range of thermodynamic conditions (up to 1000 K and 15 MPa). This state of the art injector fitted with a 7-hole nozzle, allows a fully flexible control on the nozzle needle movement, enabling various fuel injection rate typologies. The temporal evolution of the seven sprays has been studied recording movies of the injection event in evaporative conditions via Mie scattering imaging technique and using a high speed camera. The results showed a strong influence of needle position on the stabilized liquid length while the effect of the injection pressure is negligible: the decrease of the needle lift causes a pressure drop in the needle seat and thus a reduction in the effective pressure upstream of the orifices (in the nozzle sac). According to known literature the stabilized liquid-length depends mainly on effective diameter, spray cone-angle and fuel/air properties and does not depend on fuel velocity at the orifice outlet. Therefore, due to small change in the spray cone-angle, higher injection pressures give slightly lower liquid length. However, partial needle lifts has an opposite effect: when needle is partially lifted a dramatic increase of the spray cone-angle and a consequent reduction of

  2. High speed diagnostics for characterization of oxygen / hydrogen rocket injector flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Justin M.

    Temporally-resolved diagnostics are needed to characterize the highly-turbulent flowfields of rocket engine combustors. Two different high speed diagnostic techniques have been applied successfully to study the combustion and mixing characteristics of single-element shear-coaxial injector flowfield in a rocket combustor. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is applied to make in-situ measurements with combusting gas-gas propellants, and high speed imaging incorporating backlighting is applied to combusting and non-combusting liquid-gas and gas-gas propellants. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to make path-integrated temperature and H2O mole fraction measurements in a gaseous oxygen / gaseous hydrogen uni-element rocket chamber with hot background flow. Four mixture conditions were studied at a nominal chamber pressure of 115 psia. Near infrared diode lasers were utilized to target rovibrational transitions of water vapor, which is created through the combustion processes. Both direct absorption spectroscopy and wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by first harmonic (1f-normalized WMS-2 f) techniques were applied, with the harmonic detection technique found to yield the best results. Centerline measurements were made at two axial locations, in the near-injector region and far-field region further downstream. Time-resolved measurements of temperature and H2O mole fraction in the rocket chamber are presented. The TDLAS measurements shows clear differences between the near-injector and downstream measurement locations. Mean path-integrated temperatures and H2O mole fractions in the near-injector region are lower than the downstream measurement location. Fluctuations in path-integrated temperature and H2O mole fraction in the downstream location are significantly greater than the near-injector region. This suggests increased turbulence and larger-scale mixing processes are occurring in the downstream

  3. Design of a repeating pneumatic pellet injector for the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Sparks, D.O.; Foust, C.R.; Gethers, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    A three-barrel pneumatic pellet injector has been developed for plasma fueling of the Joint European Torus (JET). The versatile device consists of three independent machine-gun-like mechanisms that operate at cryogenic temperatures (14 0 K to 20 0 K). Individual high speed extruders provide a continuous supply of solid deuterium to each gun assembly, where a reciprocating breech-side cutting mechanism forms and chambers cylindrical pellets from the extrusion; deuterium pellets are then accelerated in the gun barrels with controlled amounts of compressed hydrogen gas (pressures up to 100 bars) to velocities ≤ 1.5 km/s. The injector features three nominal pellet sizes (2.7 mm, 4.0 mm, and 6.0 mm) and has been tested at repetition rates of 5 Hz, 2.5 Hz, and 1 Hz, respectively. Each gun is capable of operating (individually or simultaneously) at the design repetition rate for 15-second duration pulses (limited only by the capacity of the extruder feed system). A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector operation. 7 refs

  4. ILSE-ESQ injector scaled experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Yu, S.; Grote, D.

    1993-05-01

    A 2 MeV, 800 mA, K + injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ISLE) is under development at LBL. It consists of a 500 keV-1MeV diode preinjector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ). One of the key issues for the ESQ centers around the control of beam aberrations due to the ''energy effect'': in a strong electrostatic quadrupole field, ions at beam edge will have energies very different from those on the axis. The resulting kinematic distortions lead to S-shaped phase spaces, which, if uncorrected, will lead eventually to emittance growth. These beam aberrations can be minimized by increasing the injection energy and/or strengthening the beam focusing. It may also be possible to compensate for the ''energy effect'' by proper shaping of the quadrupoles electrodes. In order to check the physics of the ''energy effect'' of the ESQ design a scaled experiment has been designed that will accommodate the parameters of the source, as well as the voltage limitations, of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE). Since the 500 keV pre-injector delivers a 4 cm converging beam, a quarter-scale experiment will fit the 1 cm converging beam of the SBTE source. Also, a 10 mA beam in SBTE, and the requirement of equal perveance in both systems, forces all the voltages to scale down by a factor 0.054. Results from this experiment and corresponding 3D PIC simulations will be presented

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of 3D Needle Movement on Cavitation and Spray Formation in a Diesel Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandumpala Devassy, B.; Edelbauer, W.; Greif, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation and its effect on spray formation and its dispersion play a crucial role in proper engine combustion and controlled emission. This study focuses on these effects in a typical common rail 6-hole diesel injector accounting for 3D needle movement and flow compressibility effects. Coupled numerical simulations using 1D and 3D CFD codes are used for this investigation. Previous studies in this direction have already presented a detailed structure of the adopted methodology. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study investigates the effect of 3D needle movement and cavitation on the spray formation for pilot and main injection events for a typical diesel engine operating point. The present setup performs a 3D compressible multiphase simulation coupled with a standalone 1D high pressure flow simulation. The simulation proceeds by the mutual communication between 1D and 3D solvers. In this work a typical common rail injector with a mini-sac nozzle is studied. The lateral and radial movement of the needle and its effect on the cavitation generation and the subsequent spray penetration are analyzed. The result indicates the effect of compressibility of the liquid on damping the needle forces, and also the difference in the spray penetration levels due to the asymmetrical flow field. Therefore, this work intends to provide an efficient and user-friendly engineering tool for simulating a complete fuel injector including spray propagation.

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of 3D Needle Movement on Cavitation and Spray Formation in a Diesel Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devassy, B Mandumpala; Edelbauer, W; Greif, D

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation and its effect on spray formation and its dispersion play a crucial role in proper engine combustion and controlled emission. This study focuses on these effects in a typical common rail 6-hole diesel injector accounting for 3D needle movement and flow compressibility effects. Coupled numerical simulations using 1D and 3D CFD codes are used for this investigation. Previous studies in this direction have already presented a detailed structure of the adopted methodology. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study investigates the effect of 3D needle movement and cavitation on the spray formation for pilot and main injection events for a typical diesel engine operating point. The present setup performs a 3D compressible multiphase simulation coupled with a standalone 1D high pressure flow simulation. The simulation proceeds by the mutual communication between 1D and 3D solvers. In this work a typical common rail injector with a mini-sac nozzle is studied. The lateral and radial movement of the needle and its effect on the cavitation generation and the subsequent spray penetration are analyzed. The result indicates the effect of compressibility of the liquid on damping the needle forces, and also the difference in the spray penetration levels due to the asymmetrical flow field. Therefore, this work intends to provide an efficient and user-friendly engineering tool for simulating a complete fuel injector including spray propagation. (paper)

  7. Progress on Lead Photocathodes for Superconducting Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smedley, John; Langner, Jerzy; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Strzyzewski, P

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation of bulk, electroplated and vacuum deposited lead as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the wavelength of the incident light, from 310 nm to 190 nm. Quantum efficiencies of 0.3% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

  8. Time-dependent beam focusing at the DARHT-II injector diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Fawley, W.; Yu, S.

    1999-01-01

    The injector for the second axis of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility (DARHT) is being designed and constructed at LBNL. The injector consists of a single gap diode extracting 2(micro)s, 2kA, 3.2 MeV electron beam from a 6.5 inches diameter thermionic dispenser cathode. The injector is powered through a ceramic column by a Marx generator. We also investigated the possibility of extracting a beam current of 4 kA. The focusing system for the electron beam consists of a Pierce electrostatic focusing electrode at the cathode and three solenoidal focusing magnets positioned between the anode and induction accelerator input. The off-energy components (beam-head) during the 400 ns energy rise time are overfocused, leading to beam envelope mismatch and growth resulting in the possibility of beam hitting the accelerator tube walls. The anode focusing magnets can be tuned to avoid the beam spill in the 2kA case. To allow beam-head control for the 4kA case we are considering the introduction of time-varying magnetic focusing field along the accelerator axis generated by a single-loop solenoid magnet positioned in the anode beam tube. We will present the beam-head dynamics calculations as well as the solenoid design and preliminary feasibility test results

  9. Hot-Fire Test of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Space Launch Mission Injector Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Greg; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task is to hot-fire test an existing Space Launch Mission (SLM) injector that is applicable for all expander cycle engines being considered for the exploration upper stage. The work leverages investment made in FY 2013 that was used to additively manufacture three injectors (fig. 1) all by different vendors..

  10. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  11. Interior flow and near-nozzle spray development in a marine-engine diesel fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J.; Simmank, P.; Matlok, S.; Mayer, S.; Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-04-01

    A consolidated effort at optically characterising flow patterns, in-nozzle cavitation, and near-nozzle jet structure of a marine diesel fuel injector is presented. A combination of several optical techniques was employed to fully transparent injector models, compound metal-glass and full metal injectors. They were all based on a common real-scale dual nozzle hole geometry for a marine two-stroke diesel engine. In a stationary flow rig, flow velocities in the sac-volume and nozzle holes were measured using PIV, and in-nozzle cavitation visualized using high-resolution shadowgraphs. The effect of varying cavitation number was studied and results compared to CFD predictions. In-nozzle cavitation and near-nozzle jet structure during transient operation were visualized simultaneously, using high-speed imaging in an atmospheric pressure spray rig. Near-nozzle spray formation was investigated using ballistic imaging. Finally, the injector geometry was tested on a full-scale marine diesel engine, where the dynamics of near-nozzle jet development was visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy. The range of studies focused on a single common geometry allows a comprehensive survey of phenomena ranging from first inception of cavitation under well-controlled flow conditions to fuel jet structure at real engine conditions.

  12. NSLS 3: Conceptual design report: 750 MeV e+ or e- injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The 750 MeV positron or electron injector is comprised of an electron linear accelerator which accelerates an intense beam of electrons to an energy of about 250 MeV, a positron converter, a second linear accelerator that boosts the final positron energy to 750 MeV, and a damping ring in which radiation damping is used to reduce the emittance of the positron beam for injection into the storage rings. The reasons for the need of a new injector are enumerated. The conceptual design of the system and its component systems are described, as well as project cost, schedule, and manpower requirements

  13. Response of different injector typologies to dwell time variations and a hydraulic analysis of closely-coupled and continuous rate shaping injection schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Mittica, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct and indirect acting injectors are tested considering multiple injections. • The injection fusion threshold is higher for ballistic injectors than for stroke-end limited injectors. • The internal dynamics of the injector is analyzed for closely-coupled double injections. • Different regimes are identified and classified in the short dwell time range. • Innovative rate shaping injection schedules are defined for solenoid injectors. - Abstract: The multiple injection performance of Common Rail injectors has been analyzed at a hydraulic test rig as the dwell time was varied. The dependence of the injected volume on the dwell time has been investigated for direct acting piezoelectric and hydraulically-controlled (or indirect-acting) servo injectors. The injected fuel volumes in the long dwell-time range have been shown to be affected by the pressure waves that travel along the high pressure circuit for hydraulically-controlled servo injectors. On the other hand, the influence of pressure-wave-induced disturbances on multiple injection performance has been shown to be negligible for direct acting piezoelectric injectors. An analysis of closely-coupled injections has been conducted on a solenoid injector. When the dwell time is progressively reduced below a critical value, an increase in the fuel quantity that is injected in the second shot is observed. Injection fusion phenomena occur as the dwell time is diminished below a certain threshold and a maximum in the fuel volume, which is injected during the joint injections, is eventually detected for a very short electric dwell time value close to 100 μs. The cycle-to-cycle dispersion around this dwell time value results to be reduced significantly. A previously developed 1D model of the fuel injection system has been applied to analyze the injector transients. Detailed knowledge of the injection dynamics in the short dwell time region is of fundamental importance to optimize the

  14. Performance test results of ion beam transport for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, M R; Mattoo, S K [Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428, Gujarat (India); Uhlemann, R, E-mail: mukti@ipr.res.i [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute fur Energieforschung IEF-4, Plasmaphysik D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    A neutral beam injector is built at IPR to heat the plasma of SST-1 and its upgrade. It delivers a maximum beam power of 1.7 MW for 55 kV Hydrogen beam or 80 kV Deuterium beam. At lower beam voltage, the delivered power falls to 500 kW at 30 kV Hydrogen beam which is adequate to heat SST-1 plasma ions to {approx} 1 keV. Process of acceleration of ions to the required beam voltage, conversion of ions to neutrals and removal of un-neutralized ions and the beam diagnostic systems occupy a large space. The consequence is that linear extent of the neutral beam injector is at least a few meters. Also, port access provides a very narrow duct. Even a very good injector design and fabrication practices keep beam divergence at a very low but finite value. The result is beam transport becomes an important issue. Since a wide area beam is constructed by hundreds of beam lets, it becomes essential they be focused in such a way that beam transport loss is minimized. Horizontal and vertical focal lengths are two parameters, in addition to beam divergence, which give a description of the beam transport. We have obtained these two parameters for our injector by using beam transport code; making several hundred simulation runs by varying optical parameters of the beam. The selected parameters set has been translated into the engineering features of the extractor grid set of the ion source. Aperture displacement technique is used to secure the horizontal beam focusing at 5.4 m. Combination of both aperture displacement and inclining of two grid halves to {approx} 17 mrad are secured for vertical beam focusing at 7 m from earth grid of the ion source. The gaps between the design, engineered and performance tested values usually arise due to lack of exercising control over fabrication processes or due to inaccuracies in the assumption made in the model calculations of beam optics and beam transport. This has been the case with several injectors, notably with JET injector. To overcome

  15. Interpretation of Core Length in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    interrogating the near field of a number of dense sprays including diesel injectors , aerated liquid jets, solid-cone sprays, impinging-jet sprays and gas...Measurements of Mass Distributions in the Near- Nozzle Region of Sprays form Standard Multi-hole Common-rail Diesel Injection Systems,” 11th Triennial...Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  16. An operator-console system of the photon factory injector LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Kazuo; Abe, Isamu; Furukawa, Kazuro; Kamikubota, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to unify accelerator control systems constructed in different ways. This problem arose in unifying the control systems of the injector linac and the storage ring making up the Photon Factory of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. One easy approach is to unify only the operator consoles; the unified console is connected to both separate control systems using gateways. The operator-console system of the Photon Factory injector linac has been designed and constructed using this approach. It consists of several workstations interconnected via a local-area network, a gateway to the old linac control network and a CATV system for the real-time display of the accelerator status. In this way the linac will be controlled from the control center of the Photon Factory storage ring. (orig.)

  17. Neutral beam injector for 475 keV MARS sloshing ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, D.M.; Hamilton, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    A neutral beam injector system which produces 5 MW of 475 keV D 0 neutrals continuously on target has been designed. The beamline is intended to produce the sloshing ion distribution required in the end plug region of the conceptual MARS tandem mirror commercial reactor. The injector design utilizes the LBL self-extraction negative ion source and Transverse Field Focusing (TFF) accelerator to generate a long, ribbon ion beam. A laser photodetachment neutralizer strips over 90% of the negative ions. Magnetic and neutron shield designs are included to exclude the fringe fields of the end plug and provide low activation by the neutron flux from the target plasma. The use of a TFF accelerator and photodetachment neutralizer produces a total system electrical efficiency of about 63% for this design

  18. Refined beam measurements on the SNS H- injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B. X.; Welton, R. F.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Santana, M.; Stinson, C. M.; Stockli, M. P.

    2017-08-01

    The H- injector for the SNS RFQ accelerator consists of an RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H- ion source and a compact, two-lens electrostatic LEBT. The LEBT output and the RFQ input beam current are measured by deflecting the beam on to an annular plate at the RFQ entrance. Our method and procedure have recently been refined to improve the measurement reliability and accuracy. The new measurements suggest that earlier measurements tended to underestimate the currents by 0-2 mA, but essentially confirm H- beam currents of 50-60 mA being injected into the RFQ. Emittance measurements conducted on a test stand featuring essentially the same H- injector setup show that the normalized rms emittance with 0.5% threshold (99% inclusion of the total beam) is in a range of 0.25-0.4 mm.mrad for a 50-60 mA beam. The RFQ output current is monitored with a BCM toroid. Measurements as well as simulations with the PARMTEQ code indicate an underperforming transmission of the RFQ since around 2012.

  19. Effect on non-condensable gas on steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Y.; Abe, Y.; Iwaki, C.; Narabayashi, T.; Mori, M.; Ohmori, S.

    2004-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. Although non-condensable gases are well known for reducing heat transfer, the effect of the non-condensable gas on the condensation of supersonic steam on high-speed water jet has not been cleared. The present paper presents an experimental study of condensation of supersonic steam around turbulent water jet with model steam injector made by transparent plastic. The experimental apparatus is described. The visual observation was carried out by using high-speed camera. The non-condensable gas effect on the pump performance and flow characteristics are clarified by the image processing technique for the jet shape and gas-liquid interface behavior. (authors)

  20. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  1. Knowledge of allergies and performance in epinephrine auto-injector use: a controlled intervention in preschool teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumeier, Henriette Karoline; Richter, Luca Anne; Neininger, Martina Patrizia; Prenzel, Freerk; Kiess, Wieland; Bertsche, Astrid; Bertsche, Thilo

    2018-04-01

    Epinephrine auto-injectors are used for first aid in anaphylactic emergencies by non-healthcare professionals, e.g., (pre-)school teachers. We developed an education session for preschool teachers addressing allergies, anaphylactic emergencies, and administering auto-injectors. We assessed their attitudes and knowledge in allergies and anaphylactic emergency by a questionnaire and monitored their practical performance in administering auto-injectors before the education session, directly after, and 4-12 weeks after the session. From 75 teachers giving their consent to participate, 81% had children with allergies under their supervision and 3% had already administered medication from an available rescue kit. The knowledge of triggers of allergies increased from 9 to 55% directly and to 33% 4-12 weeks after the session (both p < 0.001, compared to baseline). Directly after the session, the number of teachers who felt well-prepared for an anaphylactic emergency rose from 11 to 88%, which decreased to 79% 4-12 weeks thereafter (each p < 0.001). The number of auto-injector administrations without any drug-related problems increased from 3 to 35% directly after the session and shrunk to 16% 4-12 weeks afterwards (both p < 0.025). A single education session substantially improved preschool teachers' attitudes and knowledge in allergies and anaphylactic emergencies. Additionally, their practical performance in auto-injector administration increased. What is Known: • Food allergies are increasing among children. • The knowledge about allergies and anaphylactic emergencies is poor. What is New: • The proportion of teachers who felt well-prepared for an anaphylactic emergency increased after a single education session. • The proportion of auto-injector administrations without any drug-related problems additionally increased due to an education session.

  2. Response of normal children to influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus vaccine administered by jet injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K; Orr, I; Andersen, M; Arthur, J H; Blakeman, G J

    1977-12-01

    Ninety-seven children six to 10 years old received monovalent influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus vaccine by jet injector. Comparison with groups receiving vaccine intramuscularly revealed that local reactions (tenderness and erythema) were more frequent and more severe in the group vaccinated by jet injector. Antibody response, however, was similar for all groups.

  3. The Impact of Injector-Based Contrast Agent Administration on Bolus Shape and Magnetic Resonance Angiography Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Endrikat, Jan; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    To compare injector-based contrast agent (CA) administration with hand injection in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Gadobutrol was administered in 6 minipigs with 3 protocols: (a) hand injection (one senior technician), (b) hand injection (6 less-experienced technicians), and (c) power injector administration. The arterial bolus shape was quantified by test bolus measurements. A head and neck MRA was performed for quantitative and qualitative comparison of signal enhancement. A significantly shorter time to peak was observed for protocol C, whereas no significant differences between protocols were found for peak height and bolus width. However, for protocol C, these parameters showed a much lower variation. The MRA revealed a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio for injector-based administration. A superimposed strong contrast of the jugular vein was found in 50% of the hand injections. Injector-based CA administration results in a more standardized bolus shape, a higher vascular contrast, and a more robust visualization of target vessels.

  4. The Impact of Injector-Based Contrast Agent Administration on Bolus Shape and Magnetic Resonance Angiography Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Jost

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare injector-based contrast agent (CA administration with hand injection in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA. Methods: Gadobutrol was administered in 6 minipigs with 3 protocols: (a hand injection (one senior technician, (b hand injection (6 less-experienced technicians, and (c power injector administration. The arterial bolus shape was quantified by test bolus measurements. A head and neck MRA was performed for quantitative and qualitative comparison of signal enhancement. Results: A significantly shorter time to peak was observed for protocol C, whereas no significant differences between protocols were found for peak height and bolus width. However, for protocol C, these parameters showed a much lower variation. The MRA revealed a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio for injector-based administration. A superimposed strong contrast of the jugular vein was found in 50% of the hand injections. Conclusions: Injector-based CA administration results in a more standardized bolus shape, a higher vascular contrast, and a more robust visualization of target vessels.

  5. Radiotracer injector: An Industrial Application (RIIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraishah Othman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Fadil Ismail; Nurliyana Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The radiotracer injector is meant for transferring liquid radiotracer in the system for industrial radiotracer application with minimal radiation exposure to the operator. The motivation of its invention is coming from the experience of the workers who are very concern about the radiation safety while handling with the radioactive source. The idea ensuring the operation while handling the radioactive source is fast and safe without interrupting the efficiency and efficacy of the process. Thus, semi automated device assisting with pneumatic technology is applied for its invention. (author)

  6. Recommendation for a injector-cyclotron and ion sources for the acceleration of heavy ions and polarized protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, A.H.; Cronje, P.M.; Du Toit, Z.B.; Nel, W.A.G.; Celliers, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was decided to accelerate both heavy and light ions with the open-sector cyclotron. The injector SPS1, was used for light ions and SPS2 for heavy ions. Provision was also made for the acceleration of polarized neutrons. To enable this, the injector must have an axial injection system. The working of a source of polarized ions and inflectors for an axial injection system is discussed. The limitations of the open-sector cyclotron on the acceleration of heavy ions are also dealt with. The following acceleration/ion source combinations are discussed: i) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=40 injector cyclotron with a Penning ion source, and a stripper between the injector and the open-sector cyclotron and also a source of polarized protons and deuterons; ii) The acceleration/ion source combination with the addition of electron beam ion sources; iii) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=11 injector cyclotron with a electron beam ion source and a source of polarized protons and deuterons

  7. Accuracy of MRI-compatible contrast media injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saake, M; Wuest, W; Becker, S; Uder, M; Janka, R

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the exactness of MRI-compatible contrast media (CM) injectors in an experimental setup and clinical use. Ejected fluid volumes and amounts of CM were quantified for single and double piston injections. The focus was on small volumes, as used in pediatric examination and test-bolus measurements. Samples were collected before and after clinical MRI scans and amounts of CM were measured. For single piston injections the volume differences were minimal (mean difference 0.01  ml). For double piston injections the volume of the first injection was decreased (mean 20.74  ml, target 21.00  ml, p pistons of modern CM injectors work exactly. However, for small CM volumes the injected amount of CM can differ significantly from the target value in both directions. Influence factors are an incomplete elimination of air and exchange processes between the CM and saline chaser in the injection system. • In MRI examinations of children and test-bolus measurements, small amounts of CM are used. • The accuracy of single piston injections is high. • In double piston injections the injected amount of CM can differ significantly from the target value. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Comparison of JP-8 Sprays from a Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector and a Common Rail Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    the oil from the engine to pressurize the fuel for injection. The engine oil passes to an intensifier piston and plunger inside the injector which...pressure. Fuel is supplied to a high pressure pump where the fuel is compressed to increase the pressure. The high pressure fuel is then directed to a...pressurization systems were used during the experiments for this study. The common rail fuel injection system consists of an air driven pump capable of

  9. Three Types of Active Lubrication Systems for the Main Bearings of Reciprocating Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Pulido, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    method (flexible components). The main equations that govern the dynamics of the injection for a hydraulic-actuated, a piezoelectric-actuated and a mechanical-actuated oil injector are presented in this study. The global system is numerically solved using as a case of study a single-cylinder combustion......In the paper the authors investigate three different schemes for the realization of the controllable oil injection system to be couple to the main engine bearings. The use of active lubrication in fluid film bearings helps to enhance the hydrodynamic fluid film by increasing the fluid film...

  10. Dragon-I injector based on the induction voltage adder technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kaizhi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dragon-I injector based on the induction voltage adder technique is introduced. Twelve ferrite loaded induction cells are connected in a series through central conducting stalks to achieve a pulsed voltage higher than 3.5 MV across the diode. Electrons are extracted from the velvet emitter and guided through the anode pipe by the magnets placed inside the cathode and anode shrouds. Measurements at the exit of injector show that, with an electric field of 200  kV/cm near the velvet surface and suitable magnetic field distribution, an electron beam up to 2.8 kA can be obtained with a normalized emittance of 1040π   mm mrad, and energy spread of 2.1% (3σ around the central energy of 3.5 MeV.

  11. The CLIC Positron Capture and Acceleration in the Injector Linac.

    CERN Document Server

    Vivoli, Alessandro; Chehab, Robert; Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Poirier, Freddy; Rinolfi, Louis; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Variola, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The baseline of the CLIC study considers non-polarized e+ for the 3 TeV centre of mass energy. The e+ source is based on the hybrid targets scheme, where a crystal-radiator target is followed by an amorphous-converter target. Simulations have been performed from the exit of the amorphous target up to the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring. Downstream the amorphous target, there is an Adiabatic Matching Device (AMD) followed by a Pre-Injector Linac accelerating the e+ beam up to around 200 MeV. Then a common Injector Linac (for both e+ and e-) accelerates the beams up to 2.86 GeV before being injected into the Pre-Damping Ring. In this note, the characteristics of the AMD and the other sections are described and the beam parameters at the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring are given.

  12. RIIM two-pulse injector experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Jones, E.E.; Hasti, D.E.; Jojola, J.M.; Lehmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    The RADLAC-II foilless diode injector was operated under double pulse conditions utilizing the RIIM accelerator as the test bed. The original RIIM accelerator pulse-power network was modified to provide for the generation, transmission, and delivery to the foilless diode of two distinct voltage pulses with variable interpulse separation from 0 to 2 ms. Two pulse-power assemblies were investigated and will be presented in connection with the diode performance. In both cases, the generated plasma and an excessive neutral gas release, following the first pulse, prevented the diode from producing a second beam pulse for interpulse separations larger than ∼1 μs. 4 refs

  13. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  14. Outgassing measurements and results used in designing the Doublet III Neutral Beam Injector System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, R.M.; Harvey, J.

    1979-11-01

    Material vacuum properties played an important part in designing the Neutral Beam Injector System for General Atomic's Doublet III Tokamak. Low operating vacuum tank pressures were desired to keep re-ionization of the Neutral Beam to a minimum. Plasma contamination was also a major concern, hence stringent material impurity constraints were imposed. Outgassing Rate Measurement and Residual Gas Analyses were performed on different types of materials to determine if their vacuum properties were compatible with the Neutral Beam Injector System requirements

  15. Status report on a dc 130-mA, 75-keV proton injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.; Arvin, A.; Hodgkins, D.

    1997-01-01

    A 110-mA, 75-keV dc proton injector is being developed at Los Alamos. We use a microwave proton source coupled to a two solenoid, space-charge neutralized, low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system. The ion source produces 110-mA proton current at 75 keV using 600 - 800 W of 2.45 GHz input discharge power. Typical proton fraction is 85-90% of the total extracted ion current, and the rms normalized beam emittance after transport through a prototype 2.1 m LEBT is 0.20 (πmm-mrad). Beam space-charge neutralization is measured to be > 98% which enables the solenoid magnetic transport to successfully match the injector beam into a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ). Beam simulations indicate small emittance growth in the proposed 2.8 m low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) LEBT. The LEBT also contains beam diagnostics, steering, and a beam deflector for variable duty factor and accelerator fast protect functions. The injector computer controls and reliability status are also discussed

  16. Conceptual design of a compact absolute valve for the ITER neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Chris [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: chris.m.jones@jet.uk; Waldon, Chris; Martin, David; Watson, Mike [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sonderegger, Kurt; Lenherr, Bruno [VAT Vakuumventile AG, CH-9469 Haag (Switzerland); Andrews, Ian; Mansbridge, Simon [VAT Vacuum Products Ltd., Edmund House, Rugby Road, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire CV32 6EL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The reference design for the ITER neutral beam injectors incorporated a fast shutter to limit tritium migration to the injector vacuum enclosures. In 2005, a need for an 'absolute' isolation valve was identified to facilitate injector maintenance procedures and protect the system from an in-vessel ingress of coolant event (ICE). An outline concept for an all-metal seal valve was developed during 2006, in close cooperation with the Swiss valve manufacturer VAT. During the following year, it became apparent that the length of beamline available for the valve was significantly less than originally envisaged, resulting in a radical revision of the design concept. A casing length of 760 mm has been achieved by means of major changes to the casing structure, plate dimensions, pendulum mechanism and seal actuators. A concept for a seal protection system has been developed to prevent beam line contamination reaching the valve components and to protect the valve plate from surface heating by plasma radiation. The new design concept has been extensively validated by analysis, including a whole-system FE model of the valve.

  17. DESY III, the new proton injector for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmie, G.; Maidment, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a 7.5 GeV/c proton synchrotron, DESY III, which will form part of the injector chain for HERA /1/ is described. Features of the latice and brief details of sub-systems are presented. A selection of parameters and expected time schedule for the accelerator which is at present under construction at the DESY laboratory, Hamburg, are given

  18. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  19. Development of H2 pellet injectors for industrial marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visler, T.

    1988-09-01

    1. Discussion of the construction of injector installation at ETA-BETA II. 2. Production and experience with two different ''pipe-guns''. One for large pellets, diameter/length = 4.5-5 mm/8-20 mm and one for small pellets, diameter/length = 2 mm/3-4 mm. (author) 27 ills., 39 refs

  20. Diagnostics and Identification of Injection Duration of Common Rail Diesel Injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krogerus Tomi R.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the diagnostics and identification of injection duration of common rail (CR diesel pilot injectors of dual-fuel engines. In these pilot injectors, the injected volume is small and the repeatability of the injections and identification of the drifts of the injectors are important factors, which need to be taken into account in achieving good repeatability (shot-to-shot with every cylinder and therefore a well-balanced engine and reduced overall wear. A diagnostics method based on analysis of CR pressure signal with experimental verification results is presented. Using the developed method, the relative duration of injection events can be identified. In the method, the pressure signal during the injection is first extracted after the control of each injection event. After that, the signal is normalized and filtered. Then a derivative of the filtered signal is calculated. Change in the derivative of the filtered signal larger than a predefined threshold indicates an injection event which can be detected and its relative duration can be identified. The efficacy of the proposed diagnostics method is presented with the experimental results, which show that the developed method detects drifts in injection duration and the magnitude of drift. According to the result, ≥ 10 μs change (2%, 500 μs in injection time can be identified.

  1. Diagnostics and Identification of Injection Duration of Common Rail Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Tomi R.; Huhtala, Kalevi J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the diagnostics and identification of injection duration of common rail (CR) diesel pilot injectors of dual-fuel engines. In these pilot injectors, the injected volume is small and the repeatability of the injections and identification of the drifts of the injectors are important factors, which need to be taken into account in achieving good repeatability (shot-to-shot with every cylinder) and therefore a well-balanced engine and reduced overall wear. A diagnostics method based on analysis of CR pressure signal with experimental verification results is presented. Using the developed method, the relative duration of injection events can be identified. In the method, the pressure signal during the injection is first extracted after the control of each injection event. After that, the signal is normalized and filtered. Then a derivative of the filtered signal is calculated. Change in the derivative of the filtered signal larger than a predefined threshold indicates an injection event which can be detected and its relative duration can be identified. The efficacy of the proposed diagnostics method is presented with the experimental results, which show that the developed method detects drifts in injection duration and the magnitude of drift. According to the result, ≥ 10 μs change (2%, 500 μs) in injection time can be identified.

  2. Performance of the PHIN High Charge Photo Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Petrarca, M; Doebert, S; Dabrowski, A; Divall, M; Fedoseev, V; Lebas, N; Lefevre, T; Losito, R; Egger, D; Mete, O

    2010-01-01

    The high charge PHIN photo injector is studied at CERN as an electron source for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) drive beam as an alternative to the present thermionic gun. The objective of PHIN is to demonstrate the feasibility of a laser-based electron source for CLIC. The photo injector operates with a 2.5 cell, 3 GHz RF gun using a Cs2Te photocathode illuminated by UV laser pulses generated by amplifying and frequency quadrupling the signal from a Nd:YLF oscillator running at 1.5GHz. The challenge is to generate a beam structure of 1908 micro bunches with 2.33nC per micro bunch at 1.5GHz leading to a high integrated train charge of 4446nC and nominal beam energy of 5.5MeV with current stability below 1%. In this paper we report and discuss the time resolved transverse and longitudinal beam parameters measurements. The performance of the photo cathodes made at CERN with a peak quantum efficiency of 18 % is shown as well. Laser pointing and amplitude stability results are discussed taking into account correla...

  3. Design problems of a continuous injector of many amperes of MeV deuterium neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1976-10-01

    A continuous injector of many amperes of MeV deuterium neutrals will require high currents of negative deuterium ions to be generated, accelerated and stripped of electrons by methods that are not fully developed. Each of these processes as briefly described in this report, introduce constraints upon the ion optics, beam line pumping, and high voltage stand-off that must be mutually resolved. Although the design of such an injector represents a difficult task, there is no fundamental reason that very high current beams cannot be handled

  4. Operation of the lithium pellet injector during D-T operations on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.W.; Gernhardt, R.C.; Mansfield, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Lithium Pellet Injector is used as an operational tool to condition the vacuum vessel walls prior to and after plasma formation as well as to support diagnostics using the resulting neutral or spectral emissions. This paper addresses the injector operational issues that have been experienced during D-T experimental operations. Reliability enhancements are discussed, such as modification to the pellet magazine, gas purging and exhaust handling. Nuclear boundary line breaks for routine magazine wheel changeout are addressed. Procedures that were developed and utilized to ensure ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) during line breaks are discussed. Lithium loading of the pellet wheel and the special techniques that are required are described

  5. Automatic tuning of the LBL SuperHILAC third-injector transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pines, H.

    1983-03-01

    Testing of a new automatic tuning procedure in an LBL SuperHILAC beam transport line has been conducted with the third injector microcomputer control system. This technique is an advance over the sequential station-by-station automatic tuning method developed for the Bevalac transfer line. The computer now performs steering/focusing adjustments simultaneously on a number of quadrupole and dipole magnets comprising multiple-station sections of the injection line. New magnet currents are computed from equations governing beam optics in a real-time simulation of the beam line. The key to this emittance utilizing the same control magnets and beam profile monitors used for manual tuning of the line. This emittance calculation requires high resolution beam profile measurements using multi-wire profile monitors recently installed in the third injector line.

  6. RF photo-injector beam energy distribution studies by slicing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippetto, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Musumeci, P.; Ronsivalle, C.

    2009-07-01

    The SPARC photo-injector is an R&D facility dedicated to the production of high brightness electron beams for radiation generation via FEL or Thomson scattering processes. It is the prototype injector for the recently approved SPARX project, aiming at the construction in the Frascati/University of Rome Tor Vergata area of a new high brightness electron linac for the generation of SASE-FEL radiation in the 1-10 nm wavelength range. The first phase of the SPARC project has been dedicated to the e-beam source characterization; the beam transverse and longitudinal parameters at the exit of the gun have been measured, and the photo-injector settings optimized to achieve best performance. Several beam dynamics topics have been experimentally studied in this first phase of operation, as, for example, the effect of photocathode driver laser beam shaping and the evolution of the beam transverse emittance. These studies have been made possible by the use of a novel diagnostic tool, the " emittance-meter" which enables the measurement of the transverse beam parameters at different positions along the propagation axis in the very interesting region at the exit of the RF gun. The new idea of extending the e-meter capabilities came out more recently. Information on the beam longitudinal phase space and correlations with the transverse planes can be retrieved by the slicing technique. In this paper, we illustrate the basic concept of the measurement together with simulations that theoretically validate the methodology. Some preliminary results are discussed and explained with the aid of code simulations.

  7. Finding a solution to internal diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, Robert; Quigley, Robert; Panesar, Avtar; Payne, James [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim; Stevens, Andrew [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Internal diesel injector deposits (IDIDs) have caused widespread problems in the automotive industry since around 2005. Modem injectors that have been precisely engineered to operate highly controlled injection strategies are experiencing problems in the field due to deposits that have formed on their critical moving parts, such as the needle and control valve. Problems range from rough idling to a failure to start, when the moving parts become stuck. Early studies showed that the composition of these deposits is variable. In some cases the deposit contained noticeable amounts of sodium carboxylate; these are now generally referred to as 'sodium soaps'. In other incidences the dominant chemical functionality observed was an amide group, and hence these deposits are referred to as 'amide lacquers'. A combination of both types has been observed in many cases and other metals, like calcium, have also been detected. Further studies have shown that the sodium soap type can be formed from specific types of corrosion inhibitors. The source of the amide lacquers is less certain, but there are indications that they originate from specific fuel additives that contain critical levels of low molecular weight species. This paper broadly explores this area of high interest. It will report results on the analysis of deposits and the conditions needed to reproduce both types of IDID in bench engine testing. It will also investigate the types of contaminants that are likely to form IDIDs and explore difference in chemical structure that can lead to pro-fouling, non-fouling and anti-fouling behaviour. It will then show that a deposit control additive, specifically designed to control nozzle tip deposits in modem direct injection diesels, is equally effective in controlling IDIDs; both in terms of prevention and removal. Since IDIDS are formed from multiple sources, some of which are difficult to control in today' s market, the use of a broadly acting fuel

  8. A three-barrel repeating pneumatic pellet injector for plasma fueling of the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.; Gethers, F.E.; Sparks, D.O.

    1987-01-01

    Pellet fueling, the injection of frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at high velocity, has been used to improve plasma performance in various tokamak experiments. In one recent experiment, the repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector was used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This machine gun-like device, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with an objective of steady-state fueling applications, was characterized by a fixed pellet size and a maximum repetition rate of 4 to 6 Hz for several seconds. It was used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into TFTR plasma discharges. In the first experiments, injection of single, large (nominal 4-mm-diam) pellets provided high plasma densities in TFTR (1.8 x 10 14 cm -3 on axis). After a conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-diam) pellets, the pellet injector was operated in the repeating mode to gradually increase the plasma density, injecting up to five pellets on a single machine pulse. This resulted in central plasma densities approaching 4 x 10 14 cm -3 and n tau values of 1.4 x 10 14 cm -3 s. For plasma fueling applications on the Joint European Torus (JET), a pellet injector fashioned after the prototype repeating pneumatic design has been developed. The versatile injector features three repeating guns in a common vacuum enclosure; the guns provide pellets that are 2.7, 4.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter and can operate independently at repetition rates of 5, 2.5, and 1 Hz, respectively. The injector has been installed on JET. A description of the equipment is presented, emphasizing the differences from the original repeating device. Performance characteristics of the three pneumatic guns are also included

  9. NBS-LANL RTM injector installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Ayres, R.L.; Cutler, R.I.; Lindstrom, E.R.; Martin, E.R.; Mohr, D.L.; Penner, S.; Yoder, N.R.; Young, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The injector for the NBS-LANL CW racetrack microtron consists of a 100 KeV electron gun and beam transport line followed by a 5 MeV linac. The function of the gun and transport line, which have been installed at NBS, is to provide a chopped and bunched 100 KeV and up to 0.67 mA dc or pulsed beam of very low transverse emittance for matched insertion into the linac. In this paper the authors present both the design and construction details of the 100 KeV system and the results of preliminary beam tests. The tests conducted thus far show the gun and transport system to be performing well within design specifications

  10. Laser ignition of a multi-injector LOX/methane combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Michael; Manfletti, Chiara; Hardi, Justin; Suslov, Dmitry; Kroupa, Gerhard; Oschwald, Michael

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a test campaign of a laser-ignited combustion chamber with 15 shear coaxial injectors for the propellant combination LOX/methane. 259 ignition tests were performed for sea-level conditions. The igniter based on a monolithic ceramic laser system was directly attached to the combustion chamber and delivered 20 pulses with individual pulse energies of {33.2 ± 0.8 mJ } at 1064 nm wavelength and 2.3 ns FWHM pulse length. The applicability, reliability, and reusability of this ignition technology are demonstrated and the associated challenges during the start-up process induced by the oxygen two-phase flow are formulated. The ignition quality and pressure dynamics are evaluated using 14 dynamic pressure sensors distributed both azimuthally and axially along the combustion chamber wall. The influence of test sequencing on the ignition process is briefly discussed and the relevance of the injection timing of the propellants for the ignition process is described. The flame anchoring and stabilization process, as monitored using an optical probe system close to the injector faceplate connected to photomultiplier elements, is presented. For some of the ignition tests, non-uniform anchoring was detected with no influence onto the anchoring at steady-state conditions. The non-uniform anchoring can be explained by the inhomogeneous, transient injection of the two-phase flow of oxygen across the faceplate. This characteristic is verified by liquid nitrogen cold flow tests that were recorded by high-speed imaging. We conclude that by adapting the ignition sequence, laser ignition by optical breakdown of the propellants within the shear layer of a coaxial shear injector is a reliable ignition technology for LOX/methane combustors without significant over-pressure levels.

  11. Laser ignition of a multi-injector LOX/methane combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Michael; Manfletti, Chiara; Hardi, Justin; Suslov, Dmitry; Kroupa, Gerhard; Oschwald, Michael

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the results of a test campaign of a laser-ignited combustion chamber with 15 shear coaxial injectors for the propellant combination LOX/methane. 259 ignition tests were performed for sea-level conditions. The igniter based on a monolithic ceramic laser system was directly attached to the combustion chamber and delivered 20 pulses with individual pulse energies of {33.2 ± 0.8 mJ } at 1064 nm wavelength and 2.3 ns FWHM pulse length. The applicability, reliability, and reusability of this ignition technology are demonstrated and the associated challenges during the start-up process induced by the oxygen two-phase flow are formulated. The ignition quality and pressure dynamics are evaluated using 14 dynamic pressure sensors distributed both azimuthally and axially along the combustion chamber wall. The influence of test sequencing on the ignition process is briefly discussed and the relevance of the injection timing of the propellants for the ignition process is described. The flame anchoring and stabilization process, as monitored using an optical probe system close to the injector faceplate connected to photomultiplier elements, is presented. For some of the ignition tests, non-uniform anchoring was detected with no influence onto the anchoring at steady-state conditions. The non-uniform anchoring can be explained by the inhomogeneous, transient injection of the two-phase flow of oxygen across the faceplate. This characteristic is verified by liquid nitrogen cold flow tests that were recorded by high-speed imaging. We conclude that by adapting the ignition sequence, laser ignition by optical breakdown of the propellants within the shear layer of a coaxial shear injector is a reliable ignition technology for LOX/methane combustors without significant over-pressure levels.

  12. Deflecting cavity for beam diagnostics at Cornell ERL injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomestnykh, Sergey; Bazarov, Ivan; Shemelin, Valery; Sikora, John; Smolenski, Karl; Veshcherevich, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A single-cell, 1300-MHz, TM110-like mode vertically deflecting cavity is designed and built for beam slice emittance measurements, and to study the temporal response of negative electron affinity photocathodes in the ERL injector at Cornell University. We describe the cavity shape optimization procedure, RF and mechanical design, its performance with beam.

  13. On the formation of string cavitation inside fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B. A.; Gavaises, M.; Mitroglou, N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Garner, C. P.; Long, E. J.; McDavid, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of vortex or `string' cavitation has been visualised in the flow upstream of the injection hole inlet of an automotive-sized optical diesel fuel injector nozzle operating at pressures up to 2,000 bar. Three different nozzle geometries and three-dimensional flow simulations have been employed to describe how, for two adjacent nozzle holes, their relative positions influenced the formation and hole-to-hole interaction of the observed string cavitation vortices. Each hole was shown to contain two counter-rotating vortices: the first extending upstream on axis with the nozzle hole into the nozzle sac volume and the second forming a single `bridging' string linked to the adjacent hole. Steady-state and transient fuel injection conditions were shown to produce significantly different nozzle-flow characteristics with regard to the formation and interaction of these vortices in the geometries tested, with good agreement between the experimental and simulation results being achieved. The study further confirms that the visualised vortices do not cavitate themselves but act as carriers of gas-phase components within the injector flow.

  14. EFFECT OF INJECTOR OPENING PRESSURE ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION OF LPG - METHYL ESTER OF MAHUA OIL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine is injection pressure. Hence in the present work, effect of Injector opening pressure on the performance of the engine was studied.  A four stroke single cylinder engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. Three injector opening pressures (180 bar, 200 bar and 220 bar were considered for the present work. Methyl ester of mahua oil was used as pilot fuel and LPG was used as primary fuel.    From the test results, it was observed that the injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. The higher injector opening pressure results in better atomization and peneatration of methyl ester of mahua oil. The exhaust emissions such as Smoke, unburnt hydro carbon and carbon monoxide of 200 bar is lower than other pressures.

  15. Control and calculation of the titanium sublimation pumping speed and re-ionisation in the MAST neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdams, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The titanium sublimation pumps for the MAST neutral beam injectors are described. • Evaporation regimes are established to give constant pumping speed for the titanium sublimation pumps. • The MCNP code is used to calculate the pumping speeds and gas profiles in the neutral beam injectors. • The gas profiles are then used to calculate the level of re-ionisation in the beamline. - Abstract: A high pumping speed is required in neutral beam injectors to minimise re-ionisation of the neutral beams. The neutral beam injectors on MAST use titanium sublimation pumps. These pumps do not have a constant pumping speed; their pumping speed depends on the gettering surface history and on both the integrated and applied gas load. In this paper we describe a method of maintaining a constant pumping speed, through different evaporation schemes, specifically suitable for operations of the MAST neutral beam injector beamlines for both short and relatively long beam pulses by measurement of the pressure in the beamline. In addition the MCNP code is then used to calculate the pumping speed and gas profile in the beamline by adjusting the input pumping speed to match the measured pressure. This allows the resulting gas profile to be used for calculation of the re-ionisation levels and an example is given

  16. The positive ion injector for ALPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisoffi, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the ALPI upgrading, a new positive ion injector is foreseen in order to be able to accelerate ions with masses of the order of 200 and with high charge states from the velocity of β=0.009 up to β=0.055. The structures chosen for that velocity range are superconducting radio frequency quadrupoles operating at a frequency of 80 MHz, which is the operating frequency of the ALPI low β cavities. The paper describes the current status of the project including beam dynamics, cavity design, beam transfer lines and vacuum, control and cryogenic systems. (orig.)

  17. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T.

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s -1 , chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s -1 , as planned. (author)

  18. Characterization of the external and internal flow structure of an aerated-liquid injector using X-ray radiography and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, Scott J.; Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Carter, Campbell D.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2017-08-02

    In the present study, the internal flowfield of aerated-liquid fuel injectors is examined through x-ray radiography and x-ray fluorescence. An inside-out injector, consisting of a perforated aerating tube within an annular liquid stream, sprays into a quiescent environment at a fixed mass flow rate of water and nitrogen gas. The liquid is doped with bromine (in the form of NaBr) to create an x-ray fluorescence signal. This allows for reasonable absorption and fluorescence signals, and one or both diagnostics can be used to track the liquid distribution. The injector housing is fabricated from beryllium (Be), which allows the internal flowfield to be examined (as Be has relatively low x-ray attenuation coefficient). Two injector geometries are compared, illustrating the effects of aerating orifice size and location on the flow evolution. Time-averaged equivalent pathlength (EPL) and line-of-sight averaged density ρ(y) reveal the formation of the two-phase mixture, showing that the liquid film thickness along the injector walls is a function of the aerating tube geometry, though only upstream of the nozzle. These differences in gas and liquid distribution (between injectors with different aerating tube designs) are suppressed as the mixture traverses the nozzle contraction. The averaged liquid velocity (computed from the density and liquid mass flow rate) reveal a similar trend. This suggests that at least for the current configurations, the plume width, liquid mass distribution, and averaged liquid velocity for the time-averaged external spray are insensitive to the aerating tube geometry.

  19. Characterization of the external and internal flow structure of an aerated-liquid injector using X-ray radiography and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, Scott J. [Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Arnold AFB, TN (United States); Lin, Kuo-Cheng [Taitech, Inc., Beavercreek, OH (United States); Carter, Campbell D. [Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Kastengren, Alan L. [Argonne National Laboratory, X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    In the present study, the internal flowfield of aerated-liquid fuel injectors is examined through X-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence. An inside-out injector, consisting of a perforated aerating tube within an annular liquid stream, sprays into a quiescent environment at a fixed mass flow rate of water and nitrogen gas. The liquid is doped with bromine (in the form of NaBr) to create an X-ray fluorescence signal. This allows for reasonable absorption and fluorescence signals, and one or both diagnostics can be used to track the liquid distribution. The injector housing is fabricated from beryllium (Be), which allows the internal flowfield to be examined (as Be has relatively low X-ray attenuation coefficient). Two injector geometries are compared, illustrating the effects of aerating orifice size and location on the flow evolution. Time-averaged equivalent pathlength and line-of-sight averaged density ρ(y) reveal the formation of the two-phase mixture, showing that the liquid film thickness along the injector walls is a function of the aerating tube geometry, though only upstream of the nozzle. These differences in gas and liquid distribution (between injectors with different aerating tube designs) are suppressed as the mixture traverses the nozzle contraction. The averaged liquid velocity (computed from the density and liquid mass flow rate) reveals a similar trend. This suggests that at least for the current configurations, the plume width, liquid mass distribution, and averaged liquid velocity for the time-averaged external spray are insensitive to the aerating tube geometry. (orig.)

  20. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  1. Beam dynamics simulation of injector for high power CW electron linac in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Yoshio; Toyama, Shin-ichi

    1994-01-01

    The injector consists of a 200 kV DC gun, a RF chopper, a chopper slit, a prebuncher and a buncher. Solenoid coils covered from the exit of gun to accelerating tube 1 except between the RF chopper and chopper slit. Beam trajectories are simulated by PARMELA in order to design the injector. In this report, two simulation results are shown. One is for a beam trajectory from gun to solenoid coils. There is thick concrete wall between gun to RF chopper. Low energy electrons are transported through long solenoid coil area. The other is for a chopper part. The novel chopper system is designed to reduce the emittance growth. (author)

  2. Diagnostics Neutral Beam Injector at the TCV Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Shukaev, A.N.; Bosshard, P.; Duval, B.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kollegov, M.; Kolmogorov, V.V.; Llobet, X.; Pitts, R.A.; Weisen, H.

    2001-10-01

    Within this report we summarize the technical and experimental effort made on diagnostics neutral beam injector (DNBI) which was installed at tokamak TCV last year. Basic components of DNBI are reviewed, its remote control is presented in more detail. Profile and attenuation studies are referred to. First experimental results obtained with DNBI, which led to a decision to upgrade the machine, are discussed in the last section. (author)

  3. Superconducting low-velocity linac for the Argonne positive-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Markovich, P.K.; Zinkann, G.P.; Clifft, B.; Benaroya, R.

    1989-01-01

    A low-velocity superconducting linac has been developed as part of a positive-ion injector system, which is replacing a 9 MV tandem as the injector for the ATLAS accelerator. The linac consists of an independently phased array of resonators, and is designed to accelerate various ions over a velocity range .008 < v/c < .06. The resonator array is formed of four different types of superconducting interdigital structures. The linac is being constructed in three phases, each of which will cover the full velocity range. Successive phases will increase the total accelerating potential and permit heavier ions to be accelerated. Assembly of the first phase was completed in early 1989. In initial tests with beam, a five-resonator array provided approximately 3.5 MV of accelerating potential and operated without difficulty for several hundred hours. The second phase is scheduled for completion in late 1989, and will increase the accelerating potential to more than 8 MV. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching significantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the first part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

  5. Superconducting low-velocity linac for the Argonne positive-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Markovich, P.K.; Zinkann, G.P.; Clifft, B.; Benaroya, R.

    1989-01-01

    A low-velocity superconducting linac has been developed as part of a positive-ion injector system, which is replacing a 9 MV tandem as the injector for the ATLAS accelerator. The linac consists of an independently phased array of resonators, and is designed to accelerate various ions over a velocity range .008 < v/c < .06. The resonator array is formed of four different types of superconducting interdigital structures. The linac is being constructed in three phases, each of which will cover the full velocity range. Successive phases will increase the total accelerating potential and permit heavier ions to be accelerated. Assembly of the first phase was completed in early 1989. In initial tests with beam, a five-resonator array provided approximately 3.5 MV of accelerating potential and operated without difficulty for several hundred hours. The second phase is scheduled for completion in late 1989, and will increase the accelerating potential to more than 8 MV. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The new superconducting positive ion injector for the Legnaro ALPI booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, A.; Bassato, G.; Battistella, A.; Bellato, M.; Bezzon, G.; Bisoffi, G.; Canella, S.; Chiurlotto, M.; Cavenago, F.; Cervellera, F.; Comunian, M.; Cortese, R.; Facco, A.; Favaron, P.; Fortuna, G.; Moisio, M.F.; Palmieri, V.; Pengo, R.; Pisent, A.; Poggi, M.; Porcellato, A.M.; Ziomi, L.; Kulik, I.; Kolomiets, A.; Yaramishev, S.

    1996-01-01

    Following the demand of very heavy ion beams at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro a new injector for ALPI is foreseen. At present ALPI is fed by a 16 MV XTU Tandem providing, routinely, beams up to masses of the order of 90 amu. In order to upgrade the possibilities of the complex and accelerate masses up to 200 amu the novel injector has been designed. The new machine consists of an ECR source on a high voltage platform, capable of 350 kV, followed by two superconducting RFQ resonators operating at 80 MHz and boosting the beam energy up to about 570 keV/amu. Downstream the SRFQ's eight Quarter Wave Resonators similar to the ALPI bulk niobium cavities are foreseen, to reach a proper ALPI injection energy of about 950 keV/amu. This paper describes the project. (author)

  7. A simplified computational fluid-dynamic approach to the oxidizer injector design in hybrid rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Giuseppe D.; Malgieri, Paolo; Carmicino, Carmine; Savino, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Fuel regression rate in hybrid rockets is non-negligibly affected by the oxidizer injection pattern. In this paper a simplified computational approach developed in an attempt to optimize the oxidizer injector design is discussed. Numerical simulations of the thermo-fluid-dynamic field in a hybrid rocket are carried out, with a commercial solver, to investigate into several injection configurations with the aim of increasing the fuel regression rate and minimizing the consumption unevenness, but still favoring the establishment of flow recirculation at the motor head end, which is generated with an axial nozzle injector and has been demonstrated to promote combustion stability, and both larger efficiency and regression rate. All the computations have been performed on the configuration of a lab-scale hybrid rocket motor available at the propulsion laboratory of the University of Naples with typical operating conditions. After a preliminary comparison between the two baseline limiting cases of an axial subsonic nozzle injector and a uniform injection through the prechamber, a parametric analysis has been carried out by varying the oxidizer jet flow divergence angle, as well as the grain port diameter and the oxidizer mass flux to study the effect of the flow divergence on heat transfer distribution over the fuel surface. Some experimental firing test data are presented, and, under the hypothesis that fuel regression rate and surface heat flux are proportional, the measured fuel consumption axial profiles are compared with the predicted surface heat flux showing fairly good agreement, which allowed validating the employed design approach. Finally an optimized injector design is proposed.

  8. Main Injector Particle Production Experiment Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Andre

    2007-01-01

    MIPP (FNAL-E907) is a large acceptance spectrometer to measure hadronic particle production - TPC and wire chambers to measure track parameters - TPC dE/dx, ToF, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov give π/K/p separation up to 100 GeV/c

  9. An induction linac injector for scaled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Pike, C.; Brodzik, D.; Johnson, R.M.; Vanecek, D.; Hewett, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10--18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level. 5 refs., 1 fig

  10. Passive heat removal system with injector-condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soplenkov, K I [All-Russian Inst. of Nuclear Power Plant Operation, Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre of Nuclear Power Safety (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The system described in this paper is a passive system for decay heat removal from WWERs. It operates off the secondary side of the steam generators (SG). Steam is taken from the SG to operate a passive injector pump which causes secondary fluid to be pumped through a heat exchanger. Variants pass either water or steam from the SG through the heat exchanger. There is a passive initiation scheme. The programme for experimental and theoretical validation of the system is described. (author). 8 figs.

  11. Use of individual auto-injector kits ‘IZAS-05’ on the contemporary battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Summary In crisis situations, such as transportation catastrophes, terrorist attacks or contamination with chemical warfare agents, it is crucial to properly organize and sensibly conduct rescue operations. Among chemical warfare agents, the most toxic ones are the derivatives of organophosphorus compounds. An individual auto-injector kit ‘IZAS-05’ contains auto-injectors, which are devices designed for intramuscular administration of drugs in self-aid or buddy-aid on the battlefield. This paper describes in detail the components of the ‘IZAS-05’ kit, as well as its mode of use and possible contraindications. PMID:22207129

  12. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  13. 70 MeV injector auto tuning system handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.E.; Munn, R.W.; Sandels, E.G.

    1976-06-01

    The handbook is in three sections: (1) description and location; (2) operating instructions; and (3) design notes on the tank and debuncher auto tuning systems for the 70 MeV injector. The purpose of the auto tuning system is to maintain the 'tune' of the four tanks and debuncher to within a few Hz, stabilizing against changes of temperature and other physical factors affecting the resonant frequency of the tanks. (U.K.)

  14. Cylinder-Pressure Based Injector Calibration for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    König, Johan

    2008-01-01

    One way of complying with future emission restrictions for diesel engines is to use pressure sensors for improved combustion control. Implementation of pressure sensors into production engines would lead to new possibilities for fuel injection monitoring where one potential use is injector calibration. The scope of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of using pressure sensors for finding the minimal energizing time necessary for fuel injection. This minimal energizing time varies ov...

  15. Development of a prototype neutral injector for T.F.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnal, J.F.; Druaux, J.; Oberson, R.

    1975-12-01

    This study is directly related to the project of T.F.R., plasma heating by fast neutral injection. The prototype injector is described, emphasis being put on the technological solutions that were retained. Experimental results for predicting the performance of the ten sources on T.F.R. are analyzed [fr

  16. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s{sup -1}, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s{sup -1}, as planned. (author).

  17. Radiation levels at CERN's injectors and their impact on electronic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)649218; Brugger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Electronic devices operating in hostile radiation environments, such as those found close to high-energy particle accelerators, can suffer from different types of radiation induced failures. At CERN, the mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its injector chain can give rise to both stochastic and cumulative effects causing radiation induced failures of exposed electronics and materials, thus directly impacting components and system lifetimes, as well as maintenance requirements. With its original focus on the LHC, the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) project has been successfully implementing mitigation actions in order to avoid accelerator downtime due to radiation induced failures on active electronics. In a next step, the emphasis is put on CERN's injector chain, collecting the respective available information about radiation levels, the definition of additional monitoring requirements and a critical analysis of present and future equipment installations. T...

  18. Two-pulse acceleration for BEPCII injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Shilun; Wang Shuhong; Lu Weibin

    2007-01-01

    In order to double the injection rate of positron beam from the linac to the storage ring of BEPC II, a two-pulse generation and acceleration scheme has been proposed. The two-pulse simulation by programs including LIAR, PARMELA, EGUN and TRANSPORT is described first and the method is applied in the beam dynamics studies of BEPC II linac. The experiment of two-pulse acceleration was performed in BEPC II linac and some preliminary results are obtained, which provides a good reference for further upgrading of BEPC II injector linac. (authors)

  19. LINAC4, A New $H^{-}$ Linear Injector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A M; Rossi, C; Vretenar, M

    2004-01-01

    Linac2, the present injector of the CERN PS Booster, limits the performance of the proton accelerator complex because of its low output energy (50 MeV). To remove this bottleneck, a higher energy linac is proposed (called â€ワLinac4†) which will double the brightness and the intensity of the beam delivered by the PSB and ensure the â€ワultimate” beam is available for LHC. Linac4 will deliver H- ions at a kinetic energy of 160 MeV. It is designed to be usable as the front-end of a future multi-GeV multi-MW linear accelerator, the â€ワSuperconducting Proton Linac” (SPL). R&D for Linac4 is now actively taking place with the support of the European Union through the Joint Research Activity HIPPI (â€ワHigh Intensity Pulsed Proton Injectors”), and of three ISTC projects involving three major Russian laboratories (BINP, IHEP and ITEP) and two nuclear centres (VNIIEF and VNIITF). The design of this new accelerator and the on-going developments are described.

  20. MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, R.; Martin, K.; Moibenko, A.; Pfeffer, H.; Wolff, D.; Prieto, P.; Hays, S.

    1995-04-01

    The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing