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Sample records for magnetoreception elaborate iron

  1. Avian magnetoreception: elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature of birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Falkenberg

    Full Text Available The magnetic field sensors enabling birds to extract orientational information from the Earth's magnetic field have remained enigmatic. Our previously published results from homing pigeons have made us suggest that the iron containing sensory dendrites in the inner dermal lining of the upper beak are a candidate structure for such an avian magnetometer system. Here we show that similar structures occur in two species of migratory birds (garden warbler, Sylvia borin and European robin, Erithacus rubecula and a non-migratory bird, the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus. In all these bird species, histological data have revealed dendrites of similar shape and size, all containing iron minerals within distinct subcellular compartments of nervous terminals of the median branch of the Nervus ophthalmicus. We also used microscopic X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses to identify the involved iron minerals to be almost completely Fe III-oxides. Magnetite (Fe II/III may also occur in these structures, but not as a major Fe constituent. Our data suggest that this complex dendritic system in the beak is a common feature of birds, and that it may form an essential sensory basis for the evolution of at least certain types of magnetic field guided behavior.

  2. Avian magnetoreception: elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Gerald; Fleissner, Gerta; Schuchardt, Kirsten; Kuehbacher, Markus; Thalau, Peter; Mouritsen, Henrik; Heyers, Dominik; Wellenreuther, Gerd; Fleissner, Guenther

    2010-02-16

    The magnetic field sensors enabling birds to extract orientational information from the Earth's magnetic field have remained enigmatic. Our previously published results from homing pigeons have made us suggest that the iron containing sensory dendrites in the inner dermal lining of the upper beak are a candidate structure for such an avian magnetometer system. Here we show that similar structures occur in two species of migratory birds (garden warbler, Sylvia borin and European robin, Erithacus rubecula) and a non-migratory bird, the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). In all these bird species, histological data have revealed dendrites of similar shape and size, all containing iron minerals within distinct subcellular compartments of nervous terminals of the median branch of the Nervus ophthalmicus. We also used microscopic X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses to identify the involved iron minerals to be almost completely Fe III-oxides. Magnetite (Fe II/III) may also occur in these structures, but not as a major Fe constituent. Our data suggest that this complex dendritic system in the beak is a common feature of birds, and that it may form an essential sensory basis for the evolution of at least certain types of magnetic field guided behavior.

  3. On the magnetoreception mechanism in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses a mechanism of avian magnetoreception, which is based on the interaction of magnetite and maghemite micro particles, recently found in subcellular compartments within the sensory dendrites of the upper beak of several bird species. The analysis of forces acting between...... the iron particles shows that the orientation of the external geomagnetic field can significantly change the probability of the mechanosensitive ion channels opening and closing inducing a primary receptor potential via strain-sensitive membrane channels leading to a certain bird orientation effect...

  4. ELABORATION OF MANAGEMENT PLAN OF SOLID WASTE FROM SMALL CAST IRON FOUNDRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mendes Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundry industry contributes to society meeting the demand of metal scrap recycling, but, at the same time, it brings a high risk of environmental impact for its many potentially pollutant wastes. Among these, there are slag and used foundry sand (cold cure molding. Through a survey about the production process of a small cast iron company, the collected data was compiled to determine the organizational setting in terms of generation and segregation of waste. From a complete environmental diagnosis carried out in eight small cast iron foundries, one of them was chosen to be a basis for the elaboration of an industrial solid waste management plan, which is becoming necessary to know and manage the generation of wastes qualitatively and quantitatively. A data assessment about the production process was carried out and compiled to determine the actual organizational scenario. As a result of that, it is possible to create a favorable environment to develop tools for environmental impacts prevention, which will permit the migration for more complex actions on the direction of more efficient process, cleaner production, and internal and external recycling of exceeding materials.

  5. Cryptochrome 2 mediates directional magnetoreception in cockroaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazalová, Olga; Kvíčalová, M.; Válková, T.; Slabý, P.; Bartoš, P.; Netušil, R.; Tomanová, K.; Braeunig, P.; Lee, H.-J.; Šauman, Ivo; Damulewicz, Milena; Provazník, Jan; Pokorný, R.; Doležel, David; Vácha, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 6 (2016), s. 1660-1665 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH14029; GA ČR(CZ) GC13-11908J; GA ČR(CZ) GC206/07/J041 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : magnetoreception * cryptochrome * light spectrum Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  6. Understanding irony: an ERP analysis on the elaboration of acoustic ironic statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amenta Simona

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Irony is part of our daily experience, that is probably the reason why a lot of studies have been trying to define its nature and the way we are able to understand the pragmatic intentions lying behind ironic communication. This study addresses the issue of pragmatic comprehension of language by analysing the differences or similarities in processing ironical and non-ironical language. The aim of the study is specifically to explore neuropsychological correlates (ERPs of irony decoding. 10 subjects listened to 240 sentences presenting a counterfactual vs. non-counterfactual content (counterfactual modality and spoken with ironical vs. neutral prosody (prosody modality. ERPs analysis showed a negative deflection peaking at about 460ms post stimulus onset (N400 for all the conditions. Statistical analyses (repeated measures ANOVA applied to peak amplitudes showed no statistically significant differences between the conditions as a functions of the type of sentence (ironical vs. non ironical and the content of ironical sentences (counterfactual vs. non counterfactual. An increase of N400 related to ironical sentences was observed although no statistical significant differences between ironical and non ironical sentences were found. The absence of an N400 effect may indicate that irony is not treated as a semantic anomaly, thus rejecting the standard pragmatic hypothesis. The observed differences in amplitude could be probably attributed to a higher requirement for the cognitive resources in order to integrate contrasting and complex lexical, prosodic and contextual cues.

  7. Radical-pair based avian magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    Behavioural experiments suggest that migratory birds possess a magnetic compass sensor able to detect the direction of the geomagnetic. One hypothesis for the basis of this remarkable sensory ability is that the coherent quantum spin dynamics of photoinduced radical pair reactions transduces directional magnetic information from the geomagnetic field into changes of reaction yields, possibly involving the photoreceptor cryptochrome in the birds retina. The suggested radical-pair based avian magnetoreception has attracted attention in the field of quantum biology as an example of a biological sensor which might exploit quantum coherences for its biological function. Investigations on such a spin-based sensor have focussed on uncovering the design features for the design of a biomimetic magnetic field sensor. We study the effects of slow fluctuations in the nuclear spin environment on the directional signal. We quantitatively evaluate the robustness of signals under fluctuations on a timescale longer than the lifetime of a radical pair, utilizing two models of radical pairs. Our results suggest design principles for building a radical-pair based compass sensor that is both robust and highly directional sensitive.

  8. Bivalent alkyne-bisphosphonate as clickable and solid anchor to elaborate multifunctional iron oxide nanoparticles with microwave enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guénin, Erwann; Hardouin, Julie; Lalatonne, Yoann; Motte, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    We report the elaboration of clickable superparamagnetic nanoparticles that act as a scaffold for further modifications by click chemistry. This nano platform is easily obtained by coating iron oxide nanoparticle γ-Fe 2 O 3 , with a new bifunctional molecule (1-hydroxy-1-phosphonopent-4-ynyl)phosphonic acid (HMBPyne). The HMBP and the alkyne functions act respectively as anchoring surface group and click chemistry functionality. We evaluate the functionalization of this new “clickable” nanoplateform using Huisgen 1,3-cycloaddition as model reaction and demonstrate the potential of microwave irradiation to increase the grafting yield. The effectiveness of click chemistry for the modification of mNPs is explored with a diverse array of functional species.

  9. Magneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films elaborated by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiar, T.; Payet-Gervy, B.; Blanc-Mignon, M.-F.; Rousseau, J.-J.; Le Berre, M.; Joisten, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are grown by radio frequency magnetron non reactive sputtering system. Thin films are crystallised by heat-treatment to obtain magneto-optical properties. On quartz substrate, the network of cracks observed on the annealed samples can be explained by the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and YIG. Physico-chemical analysis shown that the obtained material has a correct stoichiometry and is crystallised as FCC. The Faraday rotation of thin films is measured with a classical ellipsometric system based on transmission which allows us to obtained an accuracy of 0.01 deg. The variation of Faraday rotation is studied on the one hand versus radio frequency power applied to the cathode during the deposition and on the other hand versus the applied magnetic field. The results are compared with those obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer analysis in perpendicular configuration. A maximum Faraday rotation is observed to be 1900 deg./cm at the wavelength of 594nm for a YIG thin film formed on quartz substrate and annealed at 740 deg. C. The values of the Faraday rotation coefficients obtained in the study versus the wavelength are comparable to those of the literature for the bulk material. In order to eliminate the stress due to the heat-treatment, we made some films on single crystals of gadolinium gallium garnet (111) substrates for which thermal expansion coefficient is near than the YIG one. The material crystallises with no crackles and the Faraday effect is equivalent

  10. A novel concept of Fe-mineral-based magnetoreception: histological and physicochemical data from the upper beak of homing pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleissner, Gerta; Stahl, Branko; Thalau, Peter; Falkenberg, Gerald; Fleissner, Günther

    2007-08-01

    Animals make use of the Earth’s magnetic field for navigation and regulation of vegetative functions; however, the anatomical and physiological basis for the magnetic sense has not been elucidated yet. Our recent results from histology and X-ray analyses support the hypothesis that delicate iron-containing structures in the skin of the upper beak of homing pigeons might serve as a biological magnetometer. Histology has revealed various iron sites within dendrites of the trigeminal nerve, their arrangement along strands of axons, the existence of three dendritic fields in each side of the beak with specific 3D-orientations, and the bilateral symmetry of the whole system. Element mapping by micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis has shown the distribution of iron and its quantities. Micro-synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge-structure spectroscopy has allowed us to unambiguously identify maghemite as the predominating iron mineral (90 vs 10% magnetite). In this paper, we show that iron-based magnetoreception needs the presence of both of these iron minerals, their specific dimensions, shapes, and arrangements in three different subcellular compartments. We suggest that an inherent magnetic enhancement process via an iron-crusted vesicle and the attached chains of iron platelets might be sufficient to account for the sensitivity and specificity required by such a magnetoreceptor. The appropriate alignment between the Earth’s magnetic field and the maghemite bands would induce a multiple attraction of the magnetite bullets perpendicular to the membrane, thus, triggering strain-sensitive membrane channels and a primary receptor potential. Due to its 3D architecture and physicochemical nature, the dendritic system should be able to separately sense the three vector components of the Earth’s local field, simultaneously—allowing birds to detect their geographic position by the magnetic vector, i.e., amplitude and direction of the local magnetic field

  11. Acuity of a Cryptochrome and vision-based magnetoreception system in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mouritsen, Henrik; Schulten, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic compass of birds is embedded in the visual system and it has been hypothesized that the primary sensory mechanism is based on a radical pair reaction. Previous models of magnetoreception have assumed that the radical pair-forming molecules are rigidly fixed in space, and this assumpt......The magnetic compass of birds is embedded in the visual system and it has been hypothesized that the primary sensory mechanism is based on a radical pair reaction. Previous models of magnetoreception have assumed that the radical pair-forming molecules are rigidly fixed in space...... of the radical pair-forming protein needs to be partially constrained, while the other two rotational degrees of freedom do not impact the magnetoreceptive properties of the protein. The result implies that any membrane-associated protein is sufficiently restricted in its motion to function as a radical pair...

  12. Iron-based granules in body of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandacka, P.; Kasparova, B.; Jirásková, Yvonna; Dedkova, K.; Mamulová-Kutláková, K.; Kukutschová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2015), s. 89-99 ISSN 0966-0844 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnetoreception * Bumblebee * Biomineralisation * Iron granules Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2015

  13. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  14. Elaboration of Avogadro law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    In the report on the base of conducted experiments the conclusion about necessity of Avogadro law elaboration is made. It is suggested to add to existing formulation of the law 'In equal volumes of gases at similar pressure and temperature there are equal molecules number' - the elaboration 'and at same spectral content of heat sources'

  15. Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-06-15

    The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth's magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how these lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e. toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e. toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  17. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  18. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  19. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  20. Localisation of the Putative Magnetoreceptive Protein Cryptochrome 1b in the Retinae of Migratory Birds and Homing Pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bolte

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins, we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula, migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe and pigeons (Columba livia. In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism.

  1. Computational reconstruction reveals a candidate magnetic biocompass to be likely irrelevant for magnetoreception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ida; Sjulstok, Emil; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2017-01-01

    is supposedly facilitated through an iron rich polymer complex which couples to multiple cryptochromes. The present investigation aims to independently reconstruct this complex and describe its interaction with Drosophila melanogaster cryptochromes. The polymer complex consists of ISCA1 protein monomers...

  2. Problems of Electromagnetic Filtration of Technological Liquid on the Basis of Iron-Containing Particle Deposition in High-Gradient Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Muradova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for separation of liquid systems are out of use for cleaning liquid products of chemical technology from finely dispersed micro-quantity of iron-containing particles. Majority of these impurities is characterized by magneto-receptive behavior, in other words they exhibit a capability for magnetic precipitation; so application of magnetic precipitating filters shows promise for a removal of such particles.

  3. Light-dependent magnetoreception: orientation behaviour of migratory birds under dim red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2008-10-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds has been shown to be based on radical pair processes and to require light from the short wavelength part of the spectrum up to 565 nm Green. Under dim red light of 645 nm wavelength and 1 mW m(-2) intensity, Australian silvereyes and European robins showed a westerly tendency that did not change between spring and autumn, identifying it as a 'fixed direction' response. A thorough analysis revealed that this orientation did not involve the inclination compass, but was a response based on the polarity of the magnetic field. Furthermore, in contrast to the orientation under short-wavelength light, it could be disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak where iron-containing receptors are located, indicating that it is controlled by these receptors. The similarity of the response under dim red light to the response in total darkness suggests that the two responses may be identical. These findings indicate that the observed 'fixed direction' response under dim red light is fundamentally different from the normal compass orientation, which is based on radical pair processes.

  4. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution leading to positive cognitive outcomes, an...

  5. Interactions between the visual and the magnetoreception system: different effects of bichromatic light regimes on the directional behavior of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Dehe, Lars; Gehring, Dennis; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When magnetic compass orientation of migratory robins was tested, the birds proved well oriented under low intensity monochromatic light of shorter wavelengths up to 565 nm green; from 583 nm yellow onward, they were disoriented. In the present study, we tested robins under bichromatic lights composed (1) of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green and (2) of 565 nm green and 583 nm yellow at two intensities. Under dim blue-green light with a total quantal flux of ca. 8 × 10(15)quanta/sm(2), the birds were well oriented in their migratory direction by their inclination compass; under blue-green light of twice this intensity, their orientation became axial. In both cases, the magnetic directional information was mediated by the radical pair processes in the eye. When green and yellow light were combined, however, the nature of the behavior changed. Under green-yellow light of the higher intensity, the birds showed a 'fixed direction' response that was polar, no longer controlled by the normal inclination compass; under dim green-yellow light, the response became axial. Under these two light conditions, the respective directional information was mediated by the magnetite-based receptors in the skin of the upper beak. Apparently, yellow light leads to a change from one magnetoreception system to the other. How this change is effected is still unknown; it appears to reflect complex interactions between the visual and the two magnetoreception systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-01-01

    improves the wording and clarity of the previous checklist and incorporates recommendations related to topics that have only recently received recognition, such as selective outcome reporting bias. This explanatory and elaboration document-intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination...... of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT 2010 Statement...

  7. Elaboration in the area of plasma technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the Institute of Chemistry the plasma chemical method of forming of fine-dispersed semi-conductors, magnetic and amorphous powders of boron and aluminium nitride was elaborated, the method of aluminium hydride conversion for the receiving of fine-grained magnetic powders and alloys was elaborated

  8. Improving Reasoning and Recall: The Differential Effects of Elaborative Interrogation and Mnemonic Elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-three adolescents with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation were taught reasons for dinosaur extinction. Those taught in a mnemonic elaborative interrogation condition recalled more reasons than did students who received direct teaching. Students in elaborative interrogation and mnemonic elaborative interrogation groups recalled…

  9. About the elaboration of pure uranium dicarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.; Blum, P.; Guinet, Ph.; Spitz, J.

    1963-01-01

    In order to develop methods for the elaboration of as pure as possible uranium dicarbide, the authors report the study of different elaboration processes based on the reaction between uranium and carbon, or between uranium and hydrocarbon, or between uranium oxide and carbon. They finally choose a method which comprises an arc-induced fusion of a mixture of uranium dioxide and carbon. The fusion process is described. The influence of thermal treatments is discussed as well as the graphite electrode carburization

  10. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J. [Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental & Chemical Technology

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  11. Radiotreated cocoa powder for frozen elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Jorge, M.; Alvarez Gil, M.; Prieto Miranda, E.; Morales Valladares, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present papers is to study the possibilities of 2.0 kGy gamma radiotreated cocoa powder to be used in the elaboration of powder mixture for the preparation of chocolate frozen. Three industrial productions were carried out. Microbiological and organoleptic evaluations of the final product were performed. The results showed that the use of radurized cocoa powder in the frozen elaboration is feasible. A good hygienic quality of this product was obtained and no organoleptic alterations were detected [es

  12. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  13. [Elaboration and critical evaluation of clinical guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villar, C

    2015-11-01

    Clinical guidelines are documents to help professionals and patients select the best diagnostic or therapeutic option. Elaborating guidelines requires an efficient literature search and a critical evaluation of the articles found to select the most appropriate ones. After that, the recommendations are formulated and then must be externally evaluated before they can be disseminated. Even when the guidelines are very thorough and rigorous, it is important to know whether they fulfill all the methodological requisites before applying them. With this aim, various scales have been developed to critically appraise guidelines. Of these, the AGREE II instrument is currently the most widely used. This article explains the main steps in elaborating clinical guidelines and the main aspects that should be analyzed to know whether the guidelines are well written. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1996-01-01

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  15. Review of Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion

    OpenAIRE

    藤原, 武弘; 神山, 貴弥

    1989-01-01

    This article mainly introduces Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), proposed by Petty & Cacioppo, that is, a general attitude change theory. ELM posturates two routes to persuasion; central and peripheral route. Attitude change by central route is viewed as resulting from a diligent consideration of the issue-relevant informations presented. On the other hand, attitude change by peripheral route is viewed as resulting from peripheral cues in the persuasion context. Secondly we compare these tw...

  16. Dual elaboration models in attitude change processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines empirical and theoretical developments in research on attitude change in the past 50 years. It focuses the period from 1980 till present as well as cognitive response theories as the dominant theoretical approach in the field. The postulates of Elaboration Likelihood Model, as most-researched representative of dual process theories are studied, based on review of accumulated research evidence. Main research findings are grouped in four basic factors: message source, message content, message recipient and its context. Most influential criticisms of the theory are then presented regarding its empirical base and dual process assumption. Some possible applications and further research perspectives are discussed at the end.

  17. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  18. Grief elaboration in families with handicapped member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, C; Finocchiaro, G; Raciti, L; Alberti, A

    1992-01-01

    Families with handicapped member seem to follow the same five stages (rejection and isolation, anger, dealing with the problem, depression, acceptance) of Kubler-Ross grief elaboration theory while dealing with the narcissistic wound of a handicapped child. Some of these families show a block in one of the stages. The effort of psychotherapy is to remove the block and let them reach the last stage. In this paper families under systemic psychotherapeutic treatment are analyzed, who had in common the birth of a child with low or modest invalidating signs and psychotic or autistic features. The families structure did not show the characteristics of a psychotic family. Nevertheless either one or both parents ignored the evidence of their child disease and they built a "disease-incongrous" wait around the child, trying to push away the painful reality. The authors explain the importance of this approach for the improvement of the autistic traits.

  19. Fluorescence of UO22+ in different acidic media containing cationic and anionic impurities. Application to the elaboration of a very sensitive dosing method of Uranium in solution by fluorimetry and to the study of the kinetics of U-6 reduction by Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkadi, L.

    1990-09-01

    The use of the fluorimetric analysis method in phosphoric medium proved that this method is very sensitive for detecting Uranium traces (10 E-10 M). The dosing can be carried out after a simple calibration of the device and without calling for the addition techniques. The interference of most organic matters is eliminated by the 337 nm exciting radiation. The inhibition of the fluorescence induced by anions and cations is generally resolved by a simple dilution. The nitrates that have a harmful effect on the Uranium fluorescence have been eliminated by successive evaporations. This method, as it has been improved in this work, is applied to the study of U-6 reduction by metallic Iron and Fe-2 in orthophosphoric acid medium in case the absorption spectrophotometry becomes inoperative. 37 figs., 14 tabs., 50 refs. (author)

  20. Stable aesthetic standards delusion: changing 'artistic quality' by elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M

    2014-01-01

    The present study challenges the notion that judgments of artistic quality are based on stable aesthetic standards. We propose that such standards are a delusion and that judgments of artistic quality are the combined result of exposure, elaboration, and discourse. We ran two experiments using elaboration tasks based on the repeated evaluation technique in which different versions of the Mona Lisa had to be elaborated deeply. During the initial task either the version known from the Louvre or an alternative version owned by the Prado was elaborated; during the second task both versions were elaborated in a comparative fashion. After both tasks multiple blends of the two versions had to be evaluated concerning several aesthetic key variables. Judgments of artistic quality of the blends were significantly different depending on the initially elaborated version of the Mona Lisa, indicating experience-based aesthetic processing, which contradicts the notion of stable aesthetic standards.

  1. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Mikulskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation and development of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports, the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system. A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed. Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in the strategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  2. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Astrauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation anddevelopment of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports,the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system.A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed.Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in thestrategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  3. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  4. Depth and Elaboration of Processing in Relation to Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eileen

    1979-01-01

    The recall effectiveness of semantic and phonemic cues was compared to uncover the pattern of deep and elaborate processing in relation to age and experimental treatment. It was concluded that aging results in poor elaboration, especially in inefficient integration of word events with the context of presentation. (Author/CP)

  5. Elaborative Processing in the Korsakoff Syndrome: Context versus Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Using a procedure of Hay and Jacoby [Hay, J. F., & Jacoby, L. L. (1999). "Separating habit and recollection in young and older adults: Effects of elaborative processing and distinctiveness." "Psychology and Aging," 14, 122-134], Korsakoff patients' capacity to encode and retrieve elaborative, semantic information was investigated. Habits were…

  6. Preattentive processing, poststimulus elaboration, and memory for emotionally arousing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migita, Mai; Otani, Hajime; Libkuman, Terry M; Sheffert, Sonya M

    2011-01-01

    Christianson (1992) proposed two mechanisms to explain emotionally enhanced memory: preattentive processing and poststimulus elaboration. Experiment 1 examined these processes by instructing participants to perform (1) a concurrent distractor task, (2) a continuous distractor task, or (3) both while viewing the negatively arousing, positively arousing, and neutral pictures. Recall of negatively arousing pictures showed a small decline in one of the distractor conditions, indicating that elaboration plays a minor role in remembering these pictures. Experiment 2 partially replicated Experiment 1 with an intentional learning instruction to investigate whether participants in Experiment 1 were anticipating a recall test. For all three picture types, recall declined in the continuous distractor task condition, indicating that elaboration played a role, even when the pictures were negatively arousing. Overall, these results were consistent with the notion that remembering negatively valenced stimuli is largely based on preattentive processing with a minor role played by poststimulus elaboration.

  7. Elaboration of Statistics Learning Objects for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tapia Moreno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile learning (m-learning allows a person to study using a mobile computer device anywhere and anytime. In this work we report the elaboration of learning objects for the teaching of introductory statistics using cellular phones.

  8. The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Howard, C; Hedderley, D; Shepherd, R

    1997-12-01

    Factors such as hazard type and source credibility have been identified as important in the establishment of effective strategies for risk communication. The elaboration likelihood model was adapted to investigate the potential impact of hazard type, information source, and persuasive content of information on individual engagement in elaborative, or thoughtful, cognitions about risk messages. One hundred sixty respondents were allocated to one of eight experimental groups, and the effects of source credibility, persuasive content of information and hazard type were systematically varied. The impact of the different factors on beliefs about the information and elaborative processing examined. Low credibility was particularly important in reducing risk perceptions, although persuasive content and hazard type were also influential in determining whether elaborative processing occurred.

  9. Elaboration of invariant safety properties from fault-tree analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Henry , Sébastien; Faure , Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Formal verification of PLC programs using model-checking requires to elaborate previously temporal logic formulae which state in a formal way the properties that must be checked. Unfortunately temporal logic is a formalism totally unknown by automation engineers. This explains why PLC programs developers willing to verify the behavior of their programs are unable to use the existing modelchecking tools. Temporal logic formulae elaboration is a too difficult task. In or...

  10. Menyoal Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) dan Teori Retorika

    OpenAIRE

    Yudi Perbawaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Persuasion is a communication process to establish or change attitudes, which can be understood through theory of Rhetoric and theory of Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). This study elaborates these theories in a Public Lecture series which to persuade the students in choosing their concentration of study. The result shows that in term of persuasion effectiveness it is not quite relevant to separate the message and its source. The quality of source is determined by the quality of ...

  11. Menyoal Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Dan Teori Retorika

    OpenAIRE

    Perbawaningsih, Yudi

    2012-01-01

    : Persuasion is a communication process to establish or change attitudes, which can be understood through theory of Rhetoric and theory of Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). This study elaborates these theories in a Public Lecture series which to persuade the students in choosing their concentration of study. The result shows that in term of persuasion effectiveness it is not quite relevant to separate the message and its source. The quality of source is determined by the quality of the mess...

  12. Production improves memory equivalently following elaborative vs non-elaborative processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; Jonker, Tanya R; MacLeod, Colin M

    2014-01-01

    Words that are read aloud are better remembered than those read silently. Recent research has suggested that, rather than reflecting a benefit for produced items, this production effect may reflect a cost to reading silently in a list containing both aloud and silent items (Bodner, Taikh, & Fawcett, 2013). This cost is argued to occur because silent items are lazily read, receiving less attention than aloud items which require an overt response. We examined the possible role of lazy reading in the production effect by testing whether the effect would be reduced under elaborative encoding, which precludes lazy reading of silent items. Contrary to a lazy reading account, we found that production benefited generated words as much as read words (Experiment 1) and deeply imagined words as much as shallowly imagined words (Experiment 2). We conclude that production stands out as equally distinct-and consequently as equally memorable-regardless of whether it accompanies deep or shallow processing, evidence that is inconsistent with a lazy reading account.

  13. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  15. High resolution micro-XRF maps of iron oxides inside sensory dendrites of putative avian magnetoreceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G; Fleissner, G E; Fleissner, G U E; Schuchardt, K; Kuehbacher, M; Chalmin, E; Janssens, K

    2009-01-01

    Iron mineral containing sensory dendrites in the inner lining of the upper beak of homing pigeons and various bird species are the first candidate structures for an avian magnetic field receptor. A new concept of magnetoreception is based on detailed ultra-structural optical and electron microscopy analyses in combination with synchrotron radiation microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis (micro-XRF) and microscopic X-ray absorption near edge structures (micro-XANES). Several behavioral experiments and first mathematical simulations affirm our avian magnetoreceptor model. The iron minerals inside the dendrites are housed in three different subcellular compartments (bullets, platelets, vesicles), which could be clearly resolved and identified by electron microscopy on ultrathin sections. Micro-XRF and micro-XANES data obtained at HASYLAB beamline L added information about the elemental distribution and Fe speciation, but are averaged over the complete dendrite due to limited spatial resolution. Here we present recently performed micro-XRF maps with sub-micrometer resolution (ESRF ID21), which reveal for the first time subcellular structural information from almost bulk-like dendrite sample material. Due to the thickness of 30 μm the microarchitecture of the dendrites can be considered as undisturbed and artefacts introduced by sectioning might be widely reduced.

  16. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Israeli Navy 'First Arm of the Sea: The Successful Interception of the Iron Dome Rocket .... sky to destroy them whilst in flight to minimise civilian casualties. ..... Including The Moon and Celestial Bodies.53 Demeyere further emphasises the.

  17. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  18. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, A.; Torre O, J. De la; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Bribiesca S, L.

    1990-04-01

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 πβ-γ coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of β particles (∼ 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  19. Knowledge-based support system for requirement elaboration in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements are the seeds of every design activity, but elicitation and formalization of them are not easy tasks. This paper proposes a method to support designers in such requirement elaboration process with a computer. In this method the cognitive work space of designers is modeled by abstraction and structural hierarchies, and supporting functions of knowledge-based requirement elaboration, requirement classification and assessment of contentment status of requirements are provided on this framework. A prototype system was developed and tested using fast breeder reactor design. (author)

  20. Synthesis of hydroxide type sorbents from industry high-iron wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, E.K.; Smirnov, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Article presents the results of studies on possibility of using of technological iron containing wastes for the obtaining of hydroxide type sorbents in granular form. The scheme of technology of synthesis of hydroxide type sorbents from high-iron wastes is elaborated.

  1. Depth and elaboration of processing in relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E

    1979-03-01

    Processing at encoding and retrieval was jointly manipulated, and then the retrieval effectiveness of different cues was directly compared to uncover the relative pattern of deep and elaborate processing in relation to both age and different experimental manipulations. In experiment 1 phonemic and semantic cues were effective retrieval aids for to-be-remembered words in the youngest group; with increasing age, semantic cues decreased in effectiveness more than phonemic cues. These data showed phonemic features to have an importance that is not recognized in the data generated by the typical levels paradigm. When elaboration of the words was induced in Experiment 2 by presenting them in sentences, semantic and context cues were most effective in the youngest group whereas phonemic cues were most effective in the oldest group. Since the pattern of cue effectiveness in the elderly was similar to that in Experiment 1, where the same words were presented alone, it was concluded that aging results in poor elaboration, in particular, in inefficient integration of word events with the context of presentation. These age effects were mimicked in young subjects in Experiment 3 by experimentally restricting encoding time. The present approach uses somewhat modified views of depth and elaboration.

  2. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...

  3. Learning about Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams and Elaborative Interrogation Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections--elaborative interrogation and diagrams--in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 198) read a lesson in one of three questioning…

  4. Elaboration in the area of aluminium containing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the Institute of Chemistry was elaborated the experimental-industrial installation and technology of deep aluminium purification by the methods of zone melting and recrystallization. The developed technology let receive the metal of model A5 N A6 N dependence from number of induction zone passage

  5. Reconceptualizing Social Influence in Counseling: The Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brian W.; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    1989-01-01

    Presents Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion (a reconceptualization of the social influence process) as alternative model of attitude change. Contends ELM unifies conflicting social psychology results and can potentially account for inconsistent research findings in counseling psychology. Provides guidelines on integrating…

  6. Counseling Pretreatment and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesacker, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Results of the application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to a counseling context revealed that more favorable attitudes toward counseling occurred as subjects' ego involvement increased and as intervention quality improved. Counselor credibility affected the degree to which subjects' attitudes reflected argument quality differences.…

  7. Guide for the elaboration of plans to control emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the lines for the elaboration of plans to control emergencies. It includes general aspects for the control of any emergency originated by operational flaws, for the nature or for acts of third, in any industrial installation, working center, public or private building [es

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  10. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  18. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  1. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  2. Application of sorption method on hydroxides for purification of some reactive from iron(III) markings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmonberdiev, A.D.; Khamidov, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    The method of purification of solutions of citric acid, tartaric acid and their salts, potassium hydroxide, potassium nitrate and chloride, sodium perchlorate from iron (III) impurities by means of sorption method on zirconium hydroxide is elaborated. The control of iron(III) content in solutions is conducted by inversion voltammetry method with mercury-graphite electrode. It is defined that complete sorption of iron (III) ions achieves at ph =4÷14.

  3. Elaboration of recycled polyethylene foams reticulated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia M, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work some obtained results are presented to make irradiation tests on recycled polymeric material (polyethylene) as well as mixtures of this with certain additive classes (foaming and reticulating agents) which will be used for the foams elaboration, objective of this work. Two types of foaming basically exist which are elaborated with low density polyethylene base. They are: a) the extruded and, b) the reticulated through ionizing radiation and chemically. Some of the properties that the expanded or foamed polyethylene are: flexibility, resistance, thermal stability, inter medium mechanical properties between the highly flexible foams and rigid among others. All of them determined by the cell type which conform them. Also was carried out the characterization of the obtained material contributing of this manner to diminish the quantity of solid wastes generated. (Author)

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  5. Elaboration and characterisation of plutonium waste reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perolat, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Analysis Methods Establishment Commission (CETAMA) has set up a program for the elaboration and characterisation of plutonium waste reference materials. The object of this program is to give laboratories the possibility to test and calibrate apparatus used in non-destructive methods for the analysis of plutonium waste. The different parameters of this program are presented: - characterisation of plutonium, - type and number of containers, - plutonium distribution inside the different containers, - description of the matrix

  6. ELABORATION OF THE COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF THE PLANETARY PRECESSIONAL TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSTAN Ion

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The specific character of sphere-spatial motion used in the precessional transmissions makes impossible the utilization of involute profiles of classical teeth. This fact requires the elaboration of new non-standard profiles, which in conditions of using the sphere-spatial motion with an immovable point of the satellite would assure constancy transfer function, the multiplicity of the precessional gear and consequently high carrying capacity of the precessional transmission in general.

  7. Penggunaan Elaboration Likelihood Model dalam Menganalisis Penerimaan Teknologi Informasi

    OpenAIRE

    vitrian, vitrian2

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some technology acceptance models in an organization. Thorough analysis of how technology is acceptable help managers make any planning to implement new teachnology and make sure that new technology could enhance organization's performance. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is the one which sheds light on some behavioral factors in acceptance of information technology. The basic tenet of ELM states that human behavior in principle can be influenced through central r...

  8. PROFESSIONAL COMPETITIVE EVOLUTION AND QUANTIFICATION MODELS IN ACCOUNTING SERVICE ELABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe FATACEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article consists in using an assessment framework of the accounting service elaboration. The purpose of this model is the identification and revaluation of an elite group of expert accounts from Romania, which should provide solutions to solve the most complex legal matters in the legal field, in the field of criminal, tax, civil, or commercial clauses making the object of law suits.

  9. PPR: a database for radiologic protection plan elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.; Farias, J.T. de; Batista, D.V.

    2001-01-01

    The Plan of Radiation Protection is a document demanded for Licensing of the Radioactive Installations. It establishes the system of Radioprotection to be implemented by the Service of Radiation Protection. Its main objective is to achieve the requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety constants in the regulations CNEN-NE-3.01 - Basic Guidelines of Radiation Protection and CNEN-NE-3.06 - Requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety for Services of Radiotherapy. The proposal presented here has the aim to easy the development and the uniformity of the elaboration of the Plan of Radiation Protection. Considering the difficulties found by the physicists responsible for the services in developing a Plan of Radiation Protection that contemplate all the necessary requirements, as well as the final analysis accomplished by CNEN, the present project was elaborated. This consists of a software of easy use, developed according to the most modern patterns of programming, allowing to the user to elaborate the Plan of Radiation Protection in agreement with to basic needs of the Installation. Soon the software will be available in the page web of CNEN for download. (author)

  10. Menyoal Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM dan Teori Retorika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Perbawaningsih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Persuasion is a communication process to establish or change attitudes, which can be understood through theory of Rhetoric and theory of Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM. This study elaborates these theories in a Public Lecture series which to persuade the students in choosing their concentration of study. The result shows that in term of persuasion effectiveness it is not quite relevant to separate the message and its source. The quality of source is determined by the quality of the message, and vice versa. Separating the two routes of the persuasion process as described in the ELM theory would not be relevant. Abstrak: Persuasi adalah proses komunikasi untuk membentuk atau mengubah sikap, yang dapat dipahami dengan teori Retorika dan teori Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM. Penelitian ini mengelaborasi teori tersebut dalam Kuliah Umum sebagai sarana mempersuasi mahasiswa untuk memilih konsentrasi studi studi yang didasarkan pada proses pengolahan informasi. Menggunakan metode survey, didapatkan hasil yaitu tidaklah cukup relevan memisahkan pesan dan narasumber dalam melihat efektivitas persuasi. Keduanya menyatu yang berarti bahwa kualitas narasumber ditentukan oleh kualitas pesan yang disampaikannya, dan sebaliknya. Memisahkan proses persuasi dalam dua lajur seperti yang dijelaskan dalam ELM teori menjadi tidak relevan.

  11. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  13. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  14. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new...

  15. Extrusion: An environmentally friendly process for PEMFC membrane elaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.-Y.; Iojoiu, C.; Marechal, M. [LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSEEG, BP 75, F-38402, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Chabert, F.; El Kissi, N. [Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSHMG, BP 53, F-38041, Grenoble (France); Salomon, J.; Mercier, R. [LMOPS UMR CNRS 5041, BP 24, F-69390 Vernaison (France); Piffard, Y. [CNRS Universite de Nantes, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, UMR 6502, BP 32229, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Galiano, H. [CEA, Le Ripault Research Center, BP 16, F-37260, Monts (France)

    2007-12-31

    The paper deals with the use of extrusion to process PEMFC filled and unfilled membranes. Several routes including the sulfonation of filled and unfilled extruded membranes and the extrusion of filled and unfilled ionomers are reported. Thanks to the use of selected water-soluble aid process plasticizers, acid and alkaline forms of sulfonated polyethersulfone were, for the first time, successfully extruded. The extrusion process did not lead to any degradation of the ionomer performances. Decreasing the membrane cost while using environmentally friendly elaboration conditions, it should be helpful to an industrial production. In addition, avoiding filler sedimentation it should allow homogeneous composite membranes to be obtained. (author)

  16. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  20. Changes across age groups in self-choice elaboration effects on incidental memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tomoko

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated age differences in the effects of a self-choice elaboration and an experimenter-provided elaboration on incidental memory. Adults, sixth grade, and second grade subjects chose which of two sentence frames the target fit better in a self-choice elaboration condition. They then judged whether each target made sense in its sentence frame in the experimenter-provided elaboration, then did free recall tests. Only adults recalled better the targets with an image sentence with self-choice elaboration, rather than experimenter-provided elaboration. However, self-choice elaboration was far superior for the recall of targets with nonimage sentences only for second graders. Thus, the effects of self-choice elaboration were determined both by age and by type of sentence frame.

  1. Elaboration in the area of low temperature chlorination of rare-metal crude ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical base of low temperature chlorination of rare-metal crude ore was elaborated. The chemical nature of chlorination process which pass at low temperature was decoded and scientifically elaborated

  2. An OMIC approach to elaborate the antibacterial mechanisms of different alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Fatma Gizem; Sayar, Nihat Alpagu; Sariyar Akbulut, Berna

    2018-05-01

    Plant-derived substances have regained interest in the fight against antibiotic resistance owing to their distinct antimicrobial mechanisms and multi-target properties. With the recent advances in instrumentation and analysis techniques, OMIC approaches are extensively used for target identification and elucidation of the mechanism of phytochemicals in drug discovery. In the current study, RNA sequencing based transcriptional profiling together with global differential protein expression analysis was used to comparatively elaborate the activities and the effects of the plant alkaloids boldine, bulbocapnine, and roemerine along with the well-known antimicrobial alkaloid berberine in Bacillus subtilis cells. The transcriptomic findings were validated by qPCR. Images from scanning electron microscope were obtained to visualize the effects on the whole-cells. The results showed that among the three selected alkaloids, only roemerine possessed antibacterial activity. Unlike berberine, which is susceptible to efflux through multidrug resistance pumps, roemerine accumulated in the cells. This in turn resulted in oxidative stress and building up of reactive oxygen species, which eventually deregulated various pathways such as iron uptake. Treatment with boldine or bulbocapnine slightly affected various metabolic pathways but has not changed the growth patterns at all. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deep-Elaborative Learning of Introductory Management Accounting for Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Freddie; Tan, Kim B.

    2005-01-01

    Research by Choo and Tan (1990; 1995) suggests that accounting students, who engage in deep-elaborative learning, have a better understanding of the course materials. The purposes of this paper are: (1) to describe a deep-elaborative instructional approach (hereafter DEIA) that promotes deep-elaborative learning of introductory management…

  4. The Effects of Levels of Elaboration on Learners' Strategic Processing of Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornisch, Michele; Sperling, Rayne A.; Zeruth, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    In the current work, we examined learners' comprehension when engaged with elaborative processing strategies. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned students to one of five elaborative processing conditions and addressed differences in learners' lower- and higher-order learning outcomes and ability to employ elaborative strategies. Findings…

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  14. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  2. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  6. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  7. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  9. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  10. Elaboration and Validation of the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Aline de Oliveira Meireles; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; do Nascimento, Kleiton Gonçalves; Felix, Márcia Marques dos Santos; Pires, Patrícia da Silva; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to elaborate and validate a checklist to identify compliance with the recommendations for the structure of medication prescriptions, based on the Protocol of the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Method: methodological research, conducted through the validation and reliability analysis process, using a sample of 27 electronic prescriptions. Results: the analyses confirmed the content validity and reliability of the tool. The content validity, obtained by expert assessment, was considered satisfactory as it covered items that represent the compliance with the recommendations regarding the structure of the medication prescriptions. The reliability, assessed through interrater agreement, was excellent (ICC=1.00) and showed perfect agreement (K=1.00). Conclusion: the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist showed to be a valid and reliable tool for the group studied. We hope that this study can contribute to the prevention of adverse events, as well as to the improvement of care quality and safety in medication use. PMID:28793128

  11. Ecofriendly bricks elaborated from coal waste of Moroccan Jerrada Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ez-zaki H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generated during mining is one of the major environmental problems associated with this industrial activity. The best solution to overcome the environmental impact of this waste is to find recycling facilities in mass-produced products that can absorb the large quantities of these available byproducts. The present study shows the feasibility of using the coal waste of Moroccan Jerrada mining in the production of ecological brick. The first step consists of consecutive stages of crushing, grinding and heating at 650°C of the coal waste with a small amount of lime in order to promote the reactive products of elaborated binders. The second step of the process consists of mixing treated coal waste with a small amount of marble dust, sand, gravel, and water, then pressed and dried at room temperature to manufacture a laboratory ecofriendly bricks. The mechanical strength and thermal conductivity are investigated.

  12. A Novel Hall Effect Sensor Using Elaborate Offset Cancellation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlassis N. Petoussis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect is caused by a traverse force that is formed in the electrons or holes of metal element or semiconductor when are polarized by current source and simultaneously all the system it is found vertical in external magnetic field. Result is finally the production of difference of potential (Hall voltage in address vertical in that of current and magnetic field directions. In the present work is presented a new Hall sensor exploiting the former operation. In combination with his pioneering form and using dynamic spinning current technique with an elaborate sequence, it leads to satisfactory results of produced Hall voltage with small noise in a presence of external magnetic field. Anyone can see both the spinning current and anti-Hall technique in the same sensor simultaneously.

  13. Elaboration of titanium nitride coatings by activated reactive evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, Jean

    1978-01-01

    As titanium nitride is a very interesting and promising material for the protection against wear and corrosion of metals and alloys with a low fusion point, and notably steels, this research thesis reports the study of the elaboration of a TiN coating by activated reactive evaporation. In a first part, the author describes deposition processes based on evaporation and their characteristics. He explains the choice of the studied process. He discusses published data and results related to the titanium-nitrogen system. He describes the apparatus and reports the operation mode adjustment, and reports the study of the influence of operating conditions (substrate temperature, nitrogen pressure, evaporation rate, possible use of a discharge) on growth kinetics and on coating properties. A reaction mechanism is then proposed to describe and explain the obtained results [fr

  14. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Krage, L.; Sedmale, G.; Vaiciukyniene, D.

    2013-01-01

    Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50 % of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminium borosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 degree centigrade). In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites) the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia) with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90 % was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA) and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15 - 35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45 - 65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 degree centigrade in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090 - 1100 degree centigrade with the most optimal properties - porosity 38 - 52 %, water absorption 39 -47 % and bulk density 1.35 - 1.67 g/cm 3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35 - 1.1 %, water absorption 0.7 - 2.6 % and bulk density 2.1 - 2.3 g/cm 3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected. (Author)

  15. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  16. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost......We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  19. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  20. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  3. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  4. Changes across age groups in self-choice elaboration and incidental memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Tatsumi, Tomoko

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated differences in the self-choice elaboration and an experimenter-provided elaboration on incidental memory of 7- to 12-yr.-olds. In a self-choice elaboration condition 34 second and 25 sixth graders were asked to choose one of the two sentence frames into which each target could fit more congruously, whereas in an experimenter-provided elaboration they were asked to judge the congruity of each target to each frame. In free recall, sixth graders recalled targets in bizarre sentence frames better than second graders for self-choice elaboration condition. An age difference was not found for the experimenter-provided elaboration. In cued recall self-choice elaboration led to better performance of sixth graders for recalling targets than an experimenter-provided elaboration in both bizarre and common sentence frames. However, the different types of elaboration did not alter the recall of second graders. These results were interpreted as showing that the effectiveness of a self-choice elaboration depends on the subjects' age and the type of sentence.

  5. Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire: elaboration and validation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, José Wicto Pereira; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; de Andrade, Dalton Franscisco

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to elaborate an instrument for the measurement of the interpersonal relationship in nursing care through the Item Response Theory, and the validation thereof. Method: methodological study, which followed the three poles of psychometry: theoretical, empirical and analytical. The Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire was developed in light of the Imogene King’s Interpersonal Conceptual Model and the psychometric properties were studied through the Item Response Theory in a sample of 950 patients attended in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Health Care. Results: the final instrument consisted of 31 items, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.90 and McDonald’s Omega of 0.92. The parameters of the Item Response Theory demonstrated high discrimination in 28 items, being developed a five-level interpretive scale. At the first level, the communication process begins, gaining a wealth of interaction. Subsequent levels demonstrate qualitatively the points of effectiveness of the interpersonal relationship with the involvement of behaviors related to the concepts of transaction and interaction, followed by the concept of role. Conclusion: the instrument was created and proved to be consistent to measure interpersonal relationship in nursing care, as it presented adequate reliability and validity parameters. PMID:29319743

  6. Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire: elaboration and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wicto Pereira Borges

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to elaborate an instrument for the measurement of the interpersonal relationship in nursing care through the Item Response Theory, and the validation thereof. Method: methodological study, which followed the three poles of psychometry: theoretical, empirical and analytical. The Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire was developed in light of the Imogene King’s Interpersonal Conceptual Model and the psychometric properties were studied through the Item Response Theory in a sample of 950 patients attended in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Health Care. Results: the final instrument consisted of 31 items, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.90 and McDonald’s Omega of 0.92. The parameters of the Item Response Theory demonstrated high discrimination in 28 items, being developed a five-level interpretive scale. At the first level, the communication process begins, gaining a wealth of interaction. Subsequent levels demonstrate qualitatively the points of effectiveness of the interpersonal relationship with the involvement of behaviors related to the concepts of transaction and interaction, followed by the concept of role. Conclusion: the instrument was created and proved to be consistent to measure interpersonal relationship in nursing care, as it presented adequate reliability and validity parameters.

  7. Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire: elaboration and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, José Wicto Pereira; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Andrade, Dalton Franscisco de

    2018-01-08

    to elaborate an instrument for the measurement of the interpersonal relationship in nursing care through the Item Response Theory, and the validation thereof. methodological study, which followed the three poles of psychometry: theoretical, empirical and analytical. The Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire was developed in light of the Imogene King's Interpersonal Conceptual Model and the psychometric properties were studied through the Item Response Theory in a sample of 950 patients attended in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Health Care. the final instrument consisted of 31 items, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.90 and McDonald's Omega of 0.92. The parameters of the Item Response Theory demonstrated high discrimination in 28 items, being developed a five-level interpretive scale. At the first level, the communication process begins, gaining a wealth of interaction. Subsequent levels demonstrate qualitatively the points of effectiveness of the interpersonal relationship with the involvement of behaviors related to the concepts of transaction and interaction, followed by the concept of role. the instrument was created and proved to be consistent to measure interpersonal relationship in nursing care, as it presented adequate reliability and validity parameters.

  8. The elaborate plumage in peacocks is not such a drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N

    2014-09-15

    One of the classic examples of an exaggerated sexually selected trait is the elaborate plumage that forms the train in male peafowl Pavo cristatus (peacock). Such ornaments are thought to reduce locomotor performance as a result of their weight and aerodynamic drag, but this cost is unknown. Here, the effect that the train has on take-off flight in peacocks was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the potential and kinetic energies of the body (P(CoM)) in birds with trains and following the train's removal. There was no significant difference between P(CoM) in birds with and without a train. The train incurs drag during take-off; however, while this produces a twofold increase in parasite drag, parasite power only accounts for 0.1% of the total aerodynamic power. The train represented 6.9% of body weight and is expected to increase induced power. The absence of a detectable effect on take-off performance does not necessarily mean that there is no cost associated with possessing such ornate plumage; rather, it suggests that given the variation in take-off performance per se, the magnitude of any effect of the train has little meaningful functional relevance. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Soundscape elaboration from anthrophonic adaptation of community noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy Badai Samodra, FX

    2018-03-01

    Under the situation of an urban environment, noise has been a critical issue in affecting the indoor environment. A reliable approach is required for evaluation of the community noise as one factor of anthrophonic in the urban environment. This research investigates the level of noise exposure from different community noise sources and elaborates the advantage of the noise disadvantages for soundscape innovation. Integrated building element design as a protector for noise control and speech intelligibility compliance using field experiment and MATLAB programming and modeling are also carried out. Meanwhile, for simulation analysis and building acoustic optimization, Sound Reduction-Speech Intelligibility and Reverberation Time are the main parameters for identifying tropical building model as case study object. The results show that the noise control should consider its integration with the other critical issue, thermal control, in an urban environment. The 1.1 second of reverberation time for speech activities and noise reduction more than 28.66 dBA for critical frequency (20 Hz), the speech intelligibility index could be reached more than fair assessment, 0.45. Furthermore, the environmental psychology adaptation result “Close The Opening” as the best method in high noise condition and personal adjustment as the easiest and the most adaptable way.

  10. Aluminosilicate glass thin films elaborated by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thibault [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Saitzek, Sébastien [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Méar, François O., E-mail: francois.mear@univ-lille1.fr [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Blach, Jean-François; Ferri, Anthony [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Huvé, Marielle; Montagne, Lionel [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Successfully deposition of a glassy thin film by PLD. • A good homogeneity and stoichiometry of the coating. • Influence of the deposition temperature on the glassy thin-film structure. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the elaboration of aluminosilicate glass thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition at various temperatures deposition. The amorphous nature of glass thin films was highlighted by Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and no nanocristallites were observed in the glassy matrix. Chemical analysis, obtained with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, showed a good transfer and homogeneous elementary distribution with of chemical species from the target to the film a. Structural studies performed by Infrared Spectroscopy showed that the substrate temperature plays an important role on the bonding configuration of the layers. A slight shift of Si-O modes to larger wavenumber was observed with the synthesis temperature, assigned to a more strained sub-oxide network. Finally, optical properties of thins film measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry are similar to those of the bulk aluminosilicate glass, which indicate a good deposition of aluminosilicate bulk glass.

  11. Elaboration of optical glass-ceramic for frequency doubling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigouroux, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High power laser development required the need of materials with nonlinear properties. Glass materials can be considered as ideal materials as they can be transparent and elaborated in very large dimension. Precipitation of non-centro symmetric crystalline particles in bulk glass leads to a material with bulk nonlinear properties. This glass-ceramic should be then easily integrated in such laser facilities. In this thesis, the results concerning the precipitation of the phase LiNbO 3 in the glassy-matrix 35 Li 2 O - 25 Nb 2 O 5 - 40 SiO 2 are detailed. The crystallization mechanism of this phase is studied through thermal analysis, optical and electronic microscopy as well as in-situ analyses. These studies reveal glass-ceramics are obtained through a precipitation of the lithium niobate crystalline phase in spherulite shape. The nonlinear optical properties are investigated on this materials and an original, isotropic Second Harmonic Generation Signal (SHG) is registered in the bulk glass-ceramic. A complete study using a multi-scale approach allows the correlation between the spherulite structure and the nonlinear optical properties. A mechanism at the origin of the SHG signal is proposed. This leads to a new approach for transparent inorganic materials development for isotropic SHG conversion. (author) [fr

  12. Homogenous reactor, elaborations, not released up to end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibayev, Zh.S.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the nuclear power uses mainly water moderated reactors, where water or heavy water works as neutron inhibitor or coolant, and fuel solid state is situated in reactor core discretely as fuel element packed in fuel assembly. Such fuel composition in solid state reactors leads to rise in price of reactor itself and, of course, many other inconveniences. Firstly, burning out depth is limited; secondary, agents absorbed neutrons are accumulated in fission products, i. e. it leads to poisoning slag derive and thirdly, there are too many outside agents in reactor core in the form of fuel elements and different constructional materials. It worsens neutron balance of reactor. There are many other inconveniences. Specialists understand this problem. They are looking for escaping of difficulty proposing to begin a wide-ranging design, for example, of a new generation of homogeneous reactor especially with salt liquid, liquid metal fuel. But this problem nowadays can not be nearly decided. It is clear enough that within at least 50-100 years the existing monopoly will not change its attitude to use of new elaboration, for example, reactor with salt liquid fuel unless a sharp necessity of opening up not only 1-2 % of uranium in the case of reactors on thermal neutrons or nearby 10-20 % for fast reactors as nowadays but effective use of all potential of nuclear fission energy contained in natural uranium and thorium resources will be realized. In the report the scheme of nuclear reactor with liquid metal or salt liquid is shown. Such approach can be in future one of possible variants of problem solution in effective opening up of all uranium-plutonium energy resource of our planet. The scheme shows only possible allocations of the container and the pipeline. Their proportioning is one of main problems of future elaborations. A mutual allocation of the container and pipelines was carried out in such way, that demand to the last ones where less than to the container

  13. Race of source effects in the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P H; Harkins, S G

    1994-11-01

    In a series of experiments, we investigated the effect of race of source on persuasive communications in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1981, 1986). In Experiment 1, we found no evidence that White participants responded to a Black source as a simple negative cue. Experiment 2 suggested the possibility that exposure to a Black source led to low-involvement message processing. In Experiments 3 and 4, a distraction paradigm was used to test this possibility, and it was found that participants under low involvement were highly motivated to process a message presented by a Black source. In Experiment 5, we found that attitudes toward the source's ethnic group, rather than violations of expectancies, accounted for this processing effect. Taken together, the results of these experiments are consistent with S.L. Gaertner and J.F. Dovidio's (1986) theory of aversive racism, which suggests that Whites, because of a combination of egalitarian values and underlying negative racial attitudes, are very concerned about not appearing unfavorable toward Blacks, leading them to be highly motivated to process messages presented by a source from this group.

  14. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  15. Differentiation of subsequent memory effects between retrieval practice and elaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Rosburg, Timm; Gao, Chuanji; Weber, Christine; Guo, Chunyan

    2017-07-01

    Retrieval practice enhances memory retention more than re-studying. The underlying mechanisms of this retrieval practice effect have remained widely unclear. According to the elaborative retrieval hypothesis, activation of elaborative information occurs to a larger extent during testing than re-studying. In contrast, the episodic context account has suggested that recollecting prior episodic information (especially the temporal context) contributes to memory retention. To adjudicate the distinction between these two accounts, the present study used the classical retrieval practice effect paradigm to compare retrieval practice and elaborative study. In an initial behavioral experiment, retrieval practice produced greater retention than elaboration and re-studying in a one-week delayed test. In a subsequent event-related potential (ERP) experiment, retrieval practice resulted in reliably superior accuracy in the delayed test compared to elaborative study. In the ERPs, a frontally distributed subsequent memory effect (SME), starting at 300ms, occurred in the elaborative study condition, but not in the retrieval practice condition. A parietal SME emerged in the retrieval practice condition from 500 to 700ms, but was absent in the elaborative study condition. After 700ms, a late SME was present in the retrieval practice condition, but not in the elaborative study condition. Moreover, SMEs lasted longer in retrieval practice than in elaboration. The frontal SME in the elaborative study condition might be related to semantic processing or working memory-based elaboration, whereas the parietal and widespread SME in the retrieval practice condition might be associated with episodic recollection processes. These findings contradict the elaborative retrieval theory, and suggest that contextual recollection rather than activation of semantic information contributes to the retrieval practice effect, supporting the episodic context account. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  16. Elaborating on systems thinking in health promotion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria; Wagemakers, Anne-Marie; Saan, Hans; de Hoog, Kees

    2009-03-01

    Health and well-being are the result of a series of complex processes in which an individual interacts with other people and the environment. A systematic approach ensures incorporation of individual, ecological, social and political factors. However, interactions between these factors can be overlooked within a systematical approach. A systemic approach can provide additional information by incorporating interactions and communication. The opportunities of a systems thinking perspective for health promotion were investigated for this paper. Although others have also made attempts to explore systems thinking in the field of health promotion, the implications of systems thinking in practice need attention. Other fields such as agricultural extension studies, organizational studies and development studies provide useful experiences with the use of a systems thinking perspective in practice. Building on experiences from these fields, we give a theoretical background in which processes of social learning and innovation play an important role. From this background, we derive an overview of important concepts for the practical application of a systems thinking perspective. These concepts are the structure of the system, meanings attached to actions, and power relations between actors. To make these concepts more explicit and reduce the theoretical character of systems thinking, we use an illustration to elaborate on these concepts in practice. For this purpose, we describe a health promotion partnership in The Netherlands using the concepts structure, meaning and power relations. We show how a systems perspective increases insight in the functioning of a partnership and how this can facilitate processes of social learning and innovation. This article concludes by identifying future opportunities and challenges in adopting systems thinking for health promotion practice. A systems perspective towards health promotion can help projects reaching a more integral and

  17. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-05-13

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption.

  18. Operationalising elaboration theory for simulation instruction design: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Ng, Gary; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating the Delphi process within the simplifying conditions method (SCM) described in elaboration theory (ET) to identify conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills for novice learners. We generated an initial list of conditions impacting the complexity of lumbar puncture (LP) from key informant interviews (n = 5) and a literature review. Eighteen clinician-educators from six different medical specialties were subsequently recruited as expert panellists. Over three Delphi rounds, these panellists rated: (i) their agreement with the inclusion of the simple version of the conditions in a representative ('epitome') training scenario, and (ii) how much the inverse (complex) version increases LP complexity for a novice. Cronbach's α-values were used to assess inter-rater agreement. All panellists completed Rounds 1 and 2 of the survey and 17 completed Round 3. In Round 1, Cronbach's α-values were 0.89 and 0.94 for conditions that simplify and increase LP complexity, respectively; both values increased to 0.98 in Rounds 2 and 3. With the exception of 'high CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) pressure', panellists agreed with the inclusion of all conditions in the simplest (epitome) training scenario. Panellists rated patient movement, spinal anatomy, patient cooperativeness, body habitus, and the presence or absence of an experienced assistant as having the greatest impact on the complexity of LP. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using expert consensus to establish conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills, and the benefits of incorporating the Delphi method into the SCM. These data can be used to develop and sequence simulation scenarios in a progressively challenging manner. If the theorised learning gains associated with ET are realised, the methods described in this study may be applied to the design of simulation training for other procedural and non-procedural skills

  19. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    breeding territories. In sum, this study reveals elaborate female vocal displays in a species widely depicted as an example of sexual selection for male extravagance, and thus highlights the hidden complexity of female vocalizations.

  20. Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially based on the important overall system paradigm of “Time driven-event driven-parameters change”. Based on this paradigm, it is considered that any affected activity, event or varying environment is intelligently self-recorded inside the system through an incremental consolidity-scaled change in system parameters of the stack-based layering types. Various joint stack-based mathematical and graphical approaches supported by representable case studies are suggested for the identification, extraction, and processing of various stack-based systems changes layering of different classifications and categorizations. Moreover, some selected real life illustrative applications are provided to demonstrate the (infinite stack-based identification and recognition of the change pathway process in the areas of geology, archeology, life sciences, ecology, environmental science, engineering, materials, medicine, biology, sociology, humanities, and other important fields. These case studies and selected applications revealed that there are general similarities of the stack-based layering structures and formations among all the various research fields. Such general similarities clearly demonstrate the global concept of the “fractals-general stacking behavior” of real life systems during their change pathways. Therefore, it is recommended that concentrated efforts should be expedited toward building generic modular stack-based systems or blocks for the mathematical

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  17. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  18. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

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  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  6. Team-Based Learning: Moderating Effects of Metacognitive Elaborative Rehearsal and Middle School History Content Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Scammacca, Nancy; Osman, David J.; Hall, Colby; Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text (PACT) and similar team-based models directly engage and support students in learning situations that require cognitive elaboration as part of the processing of new information. Elaboration is subject to metacognitive control, as well (Karpicke, "Journal of Experimental…

  7. Socialization of Past Event Talk: Cultural Differences in Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schroder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines mother-child reminiscing conversations with respect to variation in use and function of mothers' elaborations, the nature of children's memory elaborations, and the connections between the two, in three Western middle-class cultures where autonomy is valued over relatedness. Mothers participated with their 4-year-old children…

  8. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  9. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  10. The Effects of Elaboration and Rehearsal on Long-Term Retention of Shape Names by Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Elaboration and overt rehearsal are compared as instructional paradigms for memory retention. Superior long-term retention was produced in the elaboration condition when the initial acquisition effects were statistically removed. Short-term data suggest acquisition was complexly affected by experimental condition, I.Q., and task. Elaboration…

  11. The arison data acquisition and elaboration software package running on Hewlett-Packard minicomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantidis, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this article, a data acquisition and elaboration system is described consisting in a PCM data acquisition and a spectrum analyser system and their data elaboration package for reactor safety or other general purposes. Measurements on temperature, noise fluctuations of temperature or other noise analysis dynamics, pressure, etc. Time series and their conversion in engineering units and their statistical and frequency analysis is provided

  12. ATTITUDE-CHANGE FOLLOWING PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION - INTEGRATING SOCIAL JUDGMENT THEORY AND THE ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIERO, FW; DOOSJE, BJ

    1993-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of the perceived extremity of a message and motivation to elaborate upon the process of persuasion. The first goal was to test a model of attitude change relating Social Judgment Theory to the Elaboration Likelihood Model. The second objective was

  13. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  14. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenstrauha, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50% of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminiumborosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 ºC. In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90% was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15–35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45–65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 ºC in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090–1100 ºC with the most optimal properties - porosity 38-52%, water absorption 39–47% and bulk density 1.35–1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35–1.1%, water absorption 0.7–2.6 % and bulk density 2.1–2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM. By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected.Durante la obtención de ciertas fibras de vidrio se generan dos subproductos o residuos principalmente: Lodo de arcilla montmorillonítica capaz de adsorber el 50 % de materia orgánica y un vidrio silicato alumínico con temperatura de reblandecimiento relativamente alta (> 600 ºC. Con el fin de elaborar nuevos

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  2. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  3. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  4. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  7. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  16. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency isn't corrected, it can lead to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood ... Parents Kids Teens Anemia Blood Test: Ferritin (Iron) Iron-Deficiency Anemia Vegetarianism Menstrual Problems Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  19. Group B Streptococcus Induces Neutrophil Recruitment to Gestational Tissues and Elaboration of Extracellular Traps and Nutritional Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothary, Vishesh; Doster, Ryan S.; Rogers, Lisa M.; Kirk, Leslie A.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Haley, Kathryn P.; Manning, Shannon D.; Aronoff, David M.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection. The advent of animal models of chorioamnionitis provides a powerful tool to study host-pathogen relationships in vivo and ex vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response elicited by GBS and evaluate how antimicrobial strategies elaborated by these innate immune cells affect bacteria. Our work using a mouse model of GBS ascending vaginal infection during pregnancy reveals that clinically isolated GBS has the capacity to invade reproductive tissues and elicit host immune responses including infiltration of PMNs within the choriodecidua and placenta during infection, mirroring the human condition. Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin. Exposure of GBS to holo- or apo-forms of lactoferrin reveals that the iron-sequestration activity of lactoferrin represses GBS growth and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data indicate that the mouse model of ascending infection is a useful tool to recapitulate human models of GBS infection during pregnancy. Furthermore, this work reveals that neutrophil extracellular traps ensnare GBS and repress bacterial growth via deposition of antimicrobial molecules, which drive nutritional immunity via metal sequestration strategies. PMID:28217556

  20. Group B Streptococcus Induces Neutrophil Recruitment to Gestational Tissues and Elaboration of Extracellular Traps and Nutritional Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothary, Vishesh; Doster, Ryan S; Rogers, Lisa M; Kirk, Leslie A; Boyd, Kelli L; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Haley, Kathryn P; Manning, Shannon D; Aronoff, David M; Gaddy, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae , or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection. The advent of animal models of chorioamnionitis provides a powerful tool to study host-pathogen relationships in vivo and ex vivo . The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response elicited by GBS and evaluate how antimicrobial strategies elaborated by these innate immune cells affect bacteria. Our work using a mouse model of GBS ascending vaginal infection during pregnancy reveals that clinically isolated GBS has the capacity to invade reproductive tissues and elicit host immune responses including infiltration of PMNs within the choriodecidua and placenta during infection, mirroring the human condition. Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin. Exposure of GBS to holo- or apo-forms of lactoferrin reveals that the iron-sequestration activity of lactoferrin represses GBS growth and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data indicate that the mouse model of ascending infection is a useful tool to recapitulate human models of GBS infection during pregnancy. Furthermore, this work reveals that neutrophil extracellular traps ensnare GBS and repress bacterial growth via deposition of antimicrobial molecules, which drive nutritional immunity via metal sequestration strategies.

  1. Elaboration and Validation of the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Aline de Oliveira Meireles; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; Nascimento, Kleiton Gonçalves do; Felix, Márcia Marques Dos Santos; Pires, Patrícia da Silva; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2017-08-03

    to elaborate and validate a checklist to identify compliance with the recommendations for the structure of medication prescriptions, based on the Protocol of the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. methodological research, conducted through the validation and reliability analysis process, using a sample of 27 electronic prescriptions. the analyses confirmed the content validity and reliability of the tool. The content validity, obtained by expert assessment, was considered satisfactory as it covered items that represent the compliance with the recommendations regarding the structure of the medication prescriptions. The reliability, assessed through interrater agreement, was excellent (ICC=1.00) and showed perfect agreement (K=1.00). the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist showed to be a valid and reliable tool for the group studied. We hope that this study can contribute to the prevention of adverse events, as well as to the improvement of care quality and safety in medication use. elaborar e validar um instrumento tipo checklist para identificar a adesão às recomendações na estrutura das prescrições de medicamentos, a partir do Protocolo do Ministério da Saúde e Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. pesquisa metodológica, conduzida por meio do processo de validade e análise de confiabilidade, com amostra de 27 prescrições eletrônicas. análises realizadas confirmaram a validade de conteúdo e a confiabilidade da versão do instrumento. A validade de conteúdo, obtida por meio da avaliação de juízes, foi considerada satisfatória por contemplar itens que representam a adesão às recomendações na estrutura das prescrições de medicamentos. A confiabilidade, avaliada por interobservadores, apresentou-se excelente (ICC=1,00) e de concordância perfeita (K=1,00). o instrumento Lista de Verificação de Segurança na Prescrição de Medicamentos demonstrou-se válido e confiável para o grupo estudado. Espera

  2. Nuclear-physical methods of technical iron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Mirsagatova, A.A.; Usmanova, M.M.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    The instrumental neutron-activation (INAA) techniques for detecting of regulated (Al, Si, P, S, Mn) and some metallic (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sb, W) impurities in iron with 10 -3 - 10 -5 % discovering limits while using heat and resonance neutrons of nuclear reactor have been carried out. Elaborated INAA techniques have been used on all stages of obtaining of compact material. According to the results the efficient purification of iron is done almost from all mentioned impurities (impurities content in initial iron is 0,01 - 0,5 %), besides Si, Co, Ni, Cu, thus its content in final compact metal is not more than 0,001%. X-ray radiometrical technique of obtaining of Fe in Fe-containing materials with error not more than 1 - 3% has been carried out. (author)

  3. Elaboration of aluminum oxide-based graphite containing castables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ningsheng

    The aim of this work was set to develop effective and practicable new methods to incorporate natural flake graphite (FG) into the Al2O 3 based castables for iron and steel making applications. Three approaches, viz. micro-pelletized graphite (PG), crushed briquette of Al2O3-graphite (BAG) and TiO2 coated graphite (CFG), have been developed to insert flake graphite into Al2O 3 rich Al2O3-SiC based and Al2O 3-MgO based castables. These approaches were put into effect as countermeasures against the problems caused by FG in order: (1) to agglomerate the FG powders so as to decrease the specific surface area; (2) to diminish the density difference by using crushed carbon bonded compact of oxide-FG mixture; (3) to modify the surface of the flake graphite by forming hydrophilic coating; (4) to control the dispersion state of the graphite in the castable to maintain enough bonding strength; and (5) to use appropriate antioxidants to inhibit the oxidation of FG. The whole work was divided into two stages. In stage one, Al2O 3-SiC-C castables were dealt with to compare 4 modes of inserting graphite, i.e., by PG, BAG, CFG and FG. Overall properties were measured, all in correlation with graphite amount and incorporating mode. In stage two, efforts were made to reduce water demand in the Al2O3-MgO castables system. For this purpose, the matrix portion of the castable mixes was extracted and a coaxial double cylinder viscometer was adopted to investigate rheological characteristics of the matrix slurries vs. 4 kinds of deflocculants, through which the best deflocculant and its appropriate amount were found. Efforts were then made to add up to 30% MgO into the castables, using a limited amount of powders (antioxidants, Si, SiC, B4C and ZrB2, were added respectively or in combination. Overall properties of the castables, were investigated in correlation with MgO amount and graphite and antioxidant packages. Optimization work on oxidation and slag resistance was pursued. Finally

  4. Nano-oxide nucleation in a 14Cr-ODS steel elaborated by reactive-inspired ball-milling: Multiscale characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocq, M.; Legendre, F.; Sakasegawa, H.; Radiguet, B.; Cuvilly, F.; Pareige, P.; Mathon, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are promising structural materials for both fusion and fission Generation IV reactors. Indeed, they exhibit excellent mechanical and creep properties and radiation resistance thanks to a fine and dense dispersion of complex nanometric oxides. ODS steels are usually elaborated by ball-milling iron based and yttrium oxide powders and then by thermomechanical treatments. It is expected that ball-milling dissolves yttrium oxides in the metallic matrix and that annealing induces nano-oxide precipitation. However the formation mechanism remains unclear and as a consequence the process is still uncontrolled. In this context, we proposed a new approach based on reactive ball milling of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ), yttria (YFe 3 ) and iron based alloy in a dedicated instrumented ball-milling device. Also, a fine scale characterization, after each step of the process including ball-milling, is performed. A Fe-14Cr-2W-1Ti-0.8Y-0.2O (%wt) ODS steel was synthesized by reactive ball-milling and was characterized at very fine scale in both as-milled and as-annealed state. Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) were combined. After ballmilling, most of Y and O were, as expected, in solution in the ferritic matrix but some complex Y-Ti nano-oxides were also observed, indicating that oxide nucleation can start during ball-milling. With annealing the number of nano-oxides increases. In this presentation, experimental results of APT and SANS will be detailed and compared with what is usually observed in ODS steels elaborated by conventional ball milling. Finally, a formation mechanism of nano-oxides deduced from these results will be proposed. (author)

  5. Iron regulation of the major virulence factors in the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload is known to exacerbate many infectious diseases, and conversely, iron withholding is an important defense strategy for mammalian hosts. Iron is a critical cue for Cryptococcus neoformans because the fungus senses iron to regulate elaboration of the polysaccharide capsule that is the major virulence factor during infection. Excess iron exacerbates experimental cryptococcosis and the prevalence of this disease in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with nutritional and genetic aspects of iron loading in the background of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We demonstrate that the iron-responsive transcription factor Cir1 in Cr. neoformans controls the regulon of genes for iron acquisition such that cir1 mutants are "blind" to changes in external iron levels. Cir1 also controls the known major virulence factors of the pathogen including the capsule, the formation of the anti-oxidant melanin in the cell wall, and the ability to grow at host body temperature. Thus, the fungus is remarkably tuned to perceive iron as part of the disease process, as confirmed by the avirulence of the cir1 mutant; this characteristic of the pathogen may provide opportunities for antifungal treatment.

  6. Recommendations for elaboration, transcultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech, Hearing and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Leandro; Espelt, Albert; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2017-06-08

    to present a guide with recommendations for translation, adaptation, elaboration and process of validation of tests in Speech and Language Pathology. the recommendations were based on international guidelines with a focus on the elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests. the recommendations were grouped into two Charts, one of them with procedures for translation and transcultural adaptation and the other for obtaining evidence of validity, reliability and measures of accuracy of the tests. a guide with norms for the organization and systematization of the process of elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech and Language Pathology was created.

  7. Picture Superiority in Free Recall: The Effects of Organization and Elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Gary H.

    1980-01-01

    Tests the notion that activation in children's semantic memory might best be considered in terms of both between-item and within-item elaboration. Subjects were 192 second, fourth, and sixth graders. (MP)

  8. Note of the 20 December 2016 on the elaboration of regional biomass schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; GESLAIN-LANEELLE, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This official note informs Region prefects on modalities of elaboration of regional biomass schemes, and provides them with data on mobilizable biomass resources at the regional level. It briefly presents the legal framework of the scheme elaboration, the elaboration agenda, and the scope of usages of biomass to be considered within the scheme. It discusses the articulation between regional and national schemes, from a global point of view as well as in terms works of elaboration. It briefly describes how the regional scheme is to be assessed. Appendices present planning and programming elements to be taken into account, elements of explanation for the regional biomass table, institutions represented in the information and orientation committee of the national scheme, and regional biomass tables which contain detailed assessments of the various biomass resources for each French region

  9. ABOUT THE TERMINOLOGY USED DURING ELABORATION OF INNOVATION BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EXPERIMENTAL HAPLOIDY

    OpenAIRE

    KRUGLOVA N.N.

    2017-01-01

    From the standpoint of plant embryology the terminology used during elaboration of innovation biotechnology of experimental haploidy is discussed. It is emphasized that morphogenic processes both in vivo and in vitro are universal.

  10. Methodological aspects to elaborate the management and procedure guides of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, F.; Jimenez Fernandez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The management guides in severe accidents are very important to know the procedures in these accidents. The present articles summarizes the methodological aspects to elaborate the management guides, in order to prevent the severe accidents

  11. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  12. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  13. Emotion processing in the aging brain is modulated by semantic elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchey, Maureen; Bessette-Symons, Brandy; Hayes, Scott M.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward positive versus negative stimuli, and are thought to depend on OAs’ capacity for controlled elaboration. However, the role of semantic elaboration...

  14. Lateral and medial prefrontal contributions to emotion generation by semantic elaboration during episodic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Takumi; Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration. In semantic elaboration, participants imagined background stories related to the pictures. Encoding trials with semantic elaboration were subdivided into conditions in which participants imagined negative, positive, or neutral stories. One week later, memories for target pictures were tested. In behavioral results, memories for target pictures were significantly enhanced by semantic elaboration, compared to passive viewing, and the memory enhancement was more remarkable when negative or positive stories were imagined. fMRI results demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) were greater during the encoding of target pictures with semantic elaboration than those with passive viewing, and that these activations further increased during encoding with semantic elaboration of emotional stories than of neutral stories. Functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus and dmPFC/hippocampus during encoding significantly predicted retrieval accuracies of memories encoded with self-generated emotional stories. These findings suggest that networks including the left inferior frontal region, dmPFC, and hippocampus could contribute to the modulation of memories encoded with the emotion generation.

  15. Training Mothers in Elaborative Reminiscing Enhances Children's Autobiographical Memory and Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal intervention assessed children's memory at 2-1/2 years (short-term posttest; N = 115) and their memory and narrative at 3-1/2 years (long-term posttest; N = 100) as a function of maternal training in elaborative reminiscing when children were 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 years. At both posttests, trained mothers were more elaborative in their…

  16. Increasing the Persuasiveness of Fear Appeals: The Effect of Arousal and Elaboration.

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Punam Anand; Block, Lauren Goldberg

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which messages that prompt low and high levels of fear are likely to be effective. Our premise is that when a low level of fear is ineffective, it is because there is insufficient elaboration of the harmful consequences of engaging in the destructive behavior. By contrast, when appeals arousing high levels of fear are ineffective, it is because too much elaboration on the harmful consequences interferes with processing of the recommended change in behavior....

  17. Participation of industry experts in the elaboration of monographs and chapters of the European Pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ulrich

    2016-10-10

    The European Pharmacopoeia represents an important element in the European regulatory system for medicines. It is elaborated in a co-operation of experts from authorities, academia and industry, assisted by scientific staff from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). This article describes the principles of its elaboration with particular focus on the involvement of industry experts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and construction of a device for elaborate films of Vyns or Cellulose with control thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlan C, F.

    1998-01-01

    This work is a part of the studies about the elaboration of reference radioactive sources, which are done in the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Specially concerns with the elaboration of α-β radioactive sources. The importance of this work is because their applications increase day by day. Medicine, engineering, agriculture and even the arts cannot escape to the influence and impact of the nuclear sciences. But, what are the radioactive sources?, what is a holder of a radioactive source?, why we elaborate holders with special materials?, which is the best technique to elaborate them?. These topics are commented in this work. The material is as follows: the introduction and objective are described in chapter one. The second chapter deals with concepts about atomic and molecular structures, general description of nuclear radiation and their characteristics, comments about radioactive law decay, interaction of the alpha particles with the matter and a short description about surface barrier detectors. The different methods for elaborate a radioactive source holders are described in the chapter three. This same chapter speaks the topic about the elaboration of vyns or cellulose films and a device is proposed for make them; are some methods described how to take measure of their thickness. Chapter four shows the results, analysis and the respective conclusions. (Author)

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore ...... sure to sea water. Uranium in these samples varies ..... Ce oxidation and removal (Elderfield and Greaves. 1982; De Baar et ...

  1. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  2. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Progress in electrochemical synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2014-01-01

    Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles have been emerged as significant nanomaterials due to its extensive range of application in various fields. In this regard, synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with desirable properties and high potential applications are greatly demanded. Therefore, investigation on different iron oxide phases and their magnetic properties along with various commonly used synthetic techniques are remarked and thoroughly described in this review. Electrochemical synthesis as a newfound method with unique advantages is elaborated, followed by design approaches and key parameters to control the properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Additionally, since the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles is as important as its preparation, surface modification issue has been a serious challenge which is comprehensively discussed using different surfactants. Despite the advantages of the electrochemical synthesis method, this technique has been poorly studied and requires deep investigations on effectual parameters such as current density, pH, electrolyte concentration etc. - Highlights: • IONPs are applied in chemical industries, medicine, magnetic storage etc. • Electrochemical synthesis (EC) is convenient, eco-friendly, selective and low-cost. • EC key factors are current density, pH, electrolyte concentration, electrode type. • Organic, inorganic and biological materials can be used to modify IONPs’ surface. • The physicochemical properties of IONPs can be controlled by adding surfactants

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... grams per deciliter (g/dl) for men and less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, ... blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 mmol/L. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your ... very young red blood cells. Peripheral smear to see if your red blood ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ... and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ... Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is the most common treatment ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect ... in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored Cardiovascular Health Study ...

  14. Iron deficiency in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cell and excess iron is stored as ferritin to protect the cell from oxidative ... iron deficiency has negative effects during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, which affects maternal health ... use of undiluted cow's milk and a predominant cow's milk intake in .... on bone marrow smear or biopsy for the definitive diagnosis of.

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Certain conditions or medicines can decrease your body’s ability to absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency ... environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discoveries to improve ... efforts for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that ... This could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia may ... as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation that causes a person’s body to make too much of a hormone ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those ... environments Children who have lead in ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend heart-healthy eating and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more ...

  3. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not ... iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain treatment-related complications ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron ... was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. Now, anemia in older ...

  9. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia. Return to Signs, Symptoms, and Complications to review signs and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency ... NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and ... Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  14. Emotion processing in the aging brain is modulated by semantic elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; Bessette-Symons, Brandy; Hayes, Scott M.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward positive versus negative stimuli, and are thought to depend on OAs’ capacity for controlled elaboration. However, the role of semantic elaboration in mediating valence effects in the aging brain has not yet been explicitly tested. In the present study, YAs and OAs were scanned while they viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures during either a deep, elaborative task or a shallow, perceptual task. FMRI results reveal that emotion-related activity in the amygdala is preserved in aging and insensitive to elaboration demands. This study provides novel evidence that differences in valence processing are modulated by elaboration: relative to YAs, OAs show enhanced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventrolateral PFC in response to positive versus negative stimuli, but only during elaborative processing. These positive valence effects are predicted by individual differences in executive function in OAs for the deep but not shallow task. Finally, psychophysiological interaction analyses reveal age effects on valence-dependent functional connectivity between medial PFC and ventral striatum, as well as age and task effects on medial PFC-retrosplenial cortex interactions. Altogether, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that valence shifts in the aging brain are mediated by controlled processes such as semantic elaboration, self-referential processing, and emotion regulation. PMID:20869375

  15. Emotion processing in the aging brain is modulated by semantic elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; Bessette-Symons, Brandy; Hayes, Scott M; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward positive versus negative stimuli, and are thought to depend on OAs' capacity for controlled elaboration. However, the role of semantic elaboration in mediating valence effects in the aging brain has not yet been explicitly tested. In the present study, YAs and OAs were scanned while they viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures during either a deep, elaborative task or a shallow, perceptual task. fMRI results reveal that emotion-related activity in the amygdala is preserved in aging and insensitive to elaboration demands. This study provides novel evidence that differences in valence processing are modulated by elaboration: relative to YAs, OAs show enhanced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventrolateral PFC in response to positive versus negative stimuli, but only during elaborative processing. These positive valence effects are predicted by individual differences in executive function in OAs for the deep but not shallow task. Finally, psychophysiological interaction analyses reveal age effects on valence-dependent functional connectivity between medial PFC and ventral striatum, as well as age and task effects on medial PFC-retrosplenial cortex interactions. Altogether, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that valence shifts in the aging brain are mediated by controlled processes such as semantic elaboration, self-referential processing, and emotion regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  17. Engagement of the ATEE in the elaboration of regulation texts; L`action de l`atee lors de l`elaboration des textes reglementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacubowiez, I. [ATEE, Association Technique Energie Environnement, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French technical association for energy savings (ATEE) has been involved in the elaboration of regulations concerning efficiency and pollution of medium-power combustion equipment (boilers, engines, dryers, furnaces...), with the aim of promoting energy efficiency and rational utilization of energy. It has thus been involved in the development of a new classification of these equipment with regard to their fuel and energy sources (decree 2910), and decrees on boiler (lower than 50 MW) efficiency, technical inspections, and classification of heat networks

  18. Tradeoff between robustness and elaboration in carotenoid networks produces cycles of avian color diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Morrison, Erin S; Belloni, Virginia; Sanderson, Michael J

    2015-08-20

    Resolution of the link between micro- and macroevolution calls for comparing both processes on the same deterministic landscape, such as genomic, metabolic or fitness networks. We apply this perspective to the evolution of carotenoid pigmentation that produces spectacular diversity in avian colors and show that basic structural properties of the underlying carotenoid metabolic network are reflected in global patterns of elaboration and diversification in color displays. Birds color themselves by consuming and metabolizing several dietary carotenoids from the environment. Such fundamental dependency on the most upstream external compounds should intrinsically constrain sustained evolutionary elongation of multi-step metabolic pathways needed for color elaboration unless the metabolic network gains robustness - the ability to synthesize the same carotenoid from an additional dietary starting point. We found that gains and losses of metabolic robustness were associated with evolutionary cycles of elaboration and stasis in expressed carotenoids in birds. Lack of metabolic robustness constrained lineage's metabolic explorations to the immediate biochemical vicinity of their ecologically distinct dietary carotenoids, whereas gains of robustness repeatedly resulted in sustained elongation of metabolic pathways on evolutionary time scales and corresponding color elaboration. The structural link between length and robustness in metabolic pathways may explain periodic convergence of phylogenetically distant and ecologically distinct species in expressed carotenoid pigmentation; account for stasis in carotenoid colors in some ecological lineages; and show how the connectivity of the underlying metabolic network provides a mechanistic link between microevolutionary elaboration and macroevolutionary diversification.

  19. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Mediates the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Behavioral and Physiological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E. Mark; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socio-emotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on two consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  20. Role of glutaredoxin 3 in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient that is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving iron regulatory genes, intracellular storage, and iron recycling. Dysregulation of these mechanisms often results in either excess tissue iron accumulation (overload) or iron deficiency (anemia). Many bioche...

  1. Theoretical analysis of an iron mineral-based magnetoreceptor model in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Sensing the magnetic field has been established as an essential part of navigation and orientation of various animals for many years. Only recently has the first detailed receptor concept for magnetoreception been published based on histological and physical results. The considered mechanism...

  2. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  3. Elaborated contextual framing is necessary for action-based attitude acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laham, Simon M; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Dix, Jennifer; Wheeler, Melissa; Levis, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Although arm flexion and extension have been implicated as conditioners of attitudes, recent work casts some doubt on the nature and strength of the coupling of these muscle contractions and stimulus evaluation. We propose that the elaborated contextual framing of flexion and extension actions is necessary for attitude acquisition. Results showed that when flexion and extension were disambiguated via elaborated contextual cues (i.e., framed as collect and discard within a foraging context), neutral stimuli processed under flexion were liked more than neutral stimuli processed under extension. However, when unelaborated framing was used (e.g., mere stimulus zooming effects), stimulus evaluation did not differ as a function of muscle contractions. These results suggest that neither arm contractions per se nor unelaborated framings are sufficient for action-based attitude acquisition, but that elaborated framings are necessary.

  4. A framework for elaborating a geological disposal safety case: Main issues to be addressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnus, F.; Gay, D.

    2002-01-01

    International guidance on safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste is being elaborated by IAEA. A comparison of experiences acquired in developing deep repository projects shows that many important issues related to the progressive building of confidence in the safety demonstration of such facilities are commonly addressed by the various organisations involved in radioactive waste management. However, there is still some discrepancies in defining the steps that form the staged elaboration of a safety case. This paper intends to propose a framework for defining the safety case in describing the main issues to be addressed and highlighting questions of consistency between former steps. (author)

  5. Nonlinear generalized synchronization of chaotic systems by pure error dynamics and elaborate nondiagonal Lyapunov function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zhengming; Chang Chingming

    2009-01-01

    By applying pure error dynamics and elaborate nondiagonal Lyapunov function, the nonlinear generalized synchronization is studied in this paper. Instead of current mixed error dynamics in which master state variables and slave state variables are presented, the nonlinear generalized synchronization can be obtained by pure error dynamics without auxiliary numerical simulation. The elaborate nondiagonal Lyapunov function is applied rather than current monotonous square sum Lyapunov function deeply weakening the powerfulness of Lyapunov direct method. Both autonomous and nonautonomous double Mathieu systems are used as examples with numerical simulations.

  6. Sintering by infiltration of loose mixture of powders, a method for metal matrix composite elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, V.; Orban, R.; Colan, H.

    1993-01-01

    Starting from the observation that Sintering by Infiltration of Loose Mixture of Powders confers large possibilities for both complex shaped and of large dimensions Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite components elaboration, its mechanism comparative with those of the classical melt infiltration was investigated. Appropriate measures in order to prevent an excessive hydrostatic flow of the melt and, consequently, reinforcement particle dispersion, as well as to promote wetting in both infiltration and liquid phase sintering stages of the process were established as necessary. Some experimental results in the method application to the fusion tungsten carbide and diamond reinforced metal matrix composite elaboration are, also, presented. (orig.)

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for gastrointestinal bleeding To see if gastrointestinal bleeding is causing your iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order the following procedures to guide treatment . Fecal ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) ... Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility Copyright and Usage No FEAR ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... which causes bleeding in the bowels Frequent blood donation Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small ... the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be at ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

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  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... these usually go away within a day or two. Red blood cell transfusions. These may be used ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... detect signs of iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain ... your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... red blood cells, called hemolysis . Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the ... to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health [NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact ... Email Alerts Receive automatic alerts about NHLBI related news and highlights from ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during ... concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. This can make it hard to ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness ... If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Your ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. ... need 8 mg. Pregnant women need 27 mg. Breastfeeding girls under age 18 need 10 mg while ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to ... to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, ...

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    Full Text Available ... order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about your medical history ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... person’s body to make too much of a hormone called hepcidin. Hepcidin blocks the intestine from taking ... is inflammation, your liver makes more of a hormone called hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways ... from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues ... and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron- ... donate blood frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Frequent blood donation Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or ... boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People ... make it hard to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular heartbeat. This is a ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ... and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to make more red blood ... NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron supplements ... warning signs of serious complications and have a plan Tell your doctor if you have any new ...

  18. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga).......Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing my iron-deficiency anemia? ... deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ...

  5. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... doctor may recommend that you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . View all trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and Working at the ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... duodenum, the first part of the small intestine just beyond the stomach. Even if you have enough ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... clinical trials to improve health, and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to ... common symptom. This can make it hard to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... both full-term and preterm infants. Look for Diagnosis will explain tests and procedures that your doctor ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... improved health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood donors . NHLBI’s Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program , which began in ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View more ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for ... Surgery, upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and Working at the NHLBI Contact and ... to improve health, and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and ... blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors of future health problems in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms. More severe iron-deficiency anemia may cause fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. ... in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular heartbeat. This is a sign of more ... to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technology commercialization through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our support of SBIR/STTR programs is helping advance research in iron- ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... on your age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children ... 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant women need 27 mg. Breastfeeding girls under age ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to learn more about iron-deficiency anemia, our role in research and clinical trials to improve health, ... of Blood Diseases and Resources (DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, unhealthy environments, family ... 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... activity. Older adults, who are more likely to fall, should be especially cautious when resuming activities. Reminders ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding ... of iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including symptomatic female carriers who have heavy menstrual periods, may be ... anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance athletes ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ... when resuming certain activities, such as physical activity. Older adults, who are more likely to fall, should be ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ... heavy menstrual bleeding, your doctor will want to control these other conditions to prevent you from developing ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough hemoglobin-carrying ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron to support the growth of their unborn babies, so their bodies produce more blood. With ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Willebrand disease is an inherited bleeding disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. This makes it ... could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the ... Our support of SBIR/STTR programs is helping advance research in iron-deficiency anemia, in part by ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ... Customer Service/Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... if you experience heavy periods. During pregnancy, after delivery, or when breastfeeding you may be consuming less ... store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues to translate current research into improved health for people with iron- ...

  8. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    including: acid -cleaned filters, filters rinsed with un-amended trace-metal clean seawater, and filters rinsed with the oxalate solution followed by...greatly influenced by the sources of iron to the marine environment, which include riverine input, hydrothermal upwelling, and atmospheric...deposition (Jickells et al, 2005). While the amount of iron introduced to the oceans from riverine and hydrothermal sources is high, precipitation occurs

  9. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  10. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...... anemia....

  11. Elaboration of the Thermodynamic Model of Refining the Converter Bath when Blowing through Three-Tier Oxygen Lance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy G. Chernyatevich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In modern conditions, the BOP-process is the main method of mass use steel product production. At the same time, due to the shortage of high-quality charge materials, resource and energy-saving technologies are particularly relevant. To optimize the BOP-process under modern conditions, it is promising to use improved oxygen lances for top blowing in comparison with known designs. Objective. An important stage in the development of advanced steel production technologies is obtaining information on the thermodynamic model of blowing a converter bath through a three-tier lance with the elaboration of the regularities of oxidation processes within the reaction zone of a 160-ton industrial converter. Methods. The analysis that was carried out has a theoretical nature and is based on the definition of the influence of temperature and pressure on the regularities of oxidation processes within the reaction zones formed when oxygen jets are introduced into the volume of a metal bath, foamed slag-metallic emulsion and waste gases in the working space of the converter. As a thermodynamic parameter, the Gibbs energy was used to estimate the probability of chemical reactions. The pressure effect on the oxidation processes in the converter bath was evaluated in accordance with the Van’t Hoff formula. Results. The thermodynamic features of oxidation processes in the 160-ton BOF bath using a three-tier lance are presented. Primary reaction zone is characterized by the occurrence of oxidation of manganese, silicon, carbon, and iron by gaseous oxygen. In the secondary reaction zone there are chemical reactions of the oxidation of silicon and carbon dissolved in the metal by oxygen, as well as the reduction of iron oxide by carbon. The presence or absence of a slag phase on the melt surface practically does not affect the occurrence probability of chemical transformations within the boundary of primary and secondary reaction zones. The additional

  12. Iron isotope analysis of red and black pigments on pottery in Nasca, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Eerkens, JW; Barfod, GH; Vaughn, KJ; Williams, PR; Lesher, CE

    2014-01-01

    The Nasca culture of the south coast of Peru developed during the first millennium ad and is known internationally for its elaborately decorated polychrome pots. Despite decades of iconographic analysis, little is known about the more technological aspects of Nasca pigment production and application. We present results from a pilot study on iron isotopes as a potential line of inquiry into the differences between red and black pigments in Nasca pigments. As well, we conduct a small firing exp...

  13. Erotic Education: Elaborating a Feminist and Faith-Based Pedagogy for Experiential Learning in Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Rosemary P.

    2010-01-01

    This essay explores intersections among Jesuit, Quaker, and feminist theologies and pedagogies of social justice education in order to propose and elaborate an innovative theoretical and theological framework for experiential learning in religious studies that prioritizes relationality, called erotic education. This essay then applies the…

  14. The Role of Elaboration in the Comprehension and Retention of Prose: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Lynne M.

    1980-01-01

    Recent research in the area of prose comprehension is reviewed, including factors that affect amount of recall, representations of text structures, and use of world knowledge to aid comprehension. The need for more information processing models of comprehension is emphasized. Elaboration is considered important for comprehension and retention.…

  15. A few examples go a long way: Constructing query models from elaborate query formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.; Myaeng, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We address a specific enterprise document search scenario, where the information need is expressed in an elaborate manner. In our scenario, information needs are expressed using a short query (of a few keywords) together with examples of key reference pages. Given this setup, we investigate how the

  16. Discourse, Complexity, Normativity: Tracing the Elaboration of Foucault's Materialist Concept of Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I want to suggest that it is through the elaboration of the concept of discourse that the differences between Foucault and thinkers like Habermas, Hegel and Marx can best be understood. Foucault progressively develops a conception of discourse as a purely historical category that resists all reference to transcendental principles…

  17. Simulations with Elaborated Worked Example Modeling: Beneficial Effects on Schema Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Debra K.; Reinhard, Karl J.; Carter, David O.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Worked examples have been effective in enhancing learning outcomes, especially with novice learners. Most of this research has been conducted in laboratory settings. This study examined the impact of embedding elaborated worked example modeling in a computer simulation practice activity on learning achievement among 39 undergraduate students…

  18. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Program on the Elaborations of Students Working in Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, K.; Janssen, J.J.H.M.; Veenman, S.A.M.; Linden, A.A.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a school improvement program on cooperative learning (CL) with respect to the elaborations of 6th-grade students working in mixed-ability and mixed-sex dyads on 2 cooperative tasks were examined. A posttest-only design with a control group was used to investigate the

  19. Vocabulary Development at Home: A Multimedia Elaborated Picture Supporting Parent-Toddler Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmen, M. C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support this rich home language environment. This study…

  20. Zeus and Trojan advantage: traces of elaborations of the tradition in the Iliad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Verzina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a theoretical model, this article assumes that the poet of the Iliad is aware of the potential inconsistency between the traditional account of the wrath and the version which he elaborates, and shows how the poem manages both according to its expressive and structural purposes.

  1. Elaboration of high-temperature friction polymer material and study of its wear aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gventsadze, L.

    2009-01-01

    High-temperature friction composite material is elaborated and its physical, mechanical and tribologic features are studied. It is shown, that addition to the friction material composition of filling material having nanopores -diatomite-and its modification with polyethilensilan leads to friction materials friction coefficient stability and wear resistance increase at high temperatures (400-600 ℃). (author)

  2. Processing Depth, Elaboration of Encoding, Memory Stores, and Expended Processing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, Michael W.; Eysenck, M. Christine

    1979-01-01

    The effects of several factors on expended processing capacity were measured. Expended processing capacity was greater when information was retrieved from secondary memory than from primary memory, when processing was of a deep, semantic nature than when it was shallow and physical, and when processing was more elaborate. (Author/GDC)

  3. Social justifications for moral emotions: when reasons for disgust are less elaborated than for anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Pascale Sophie; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2011-06-01

    In the present research, we tested the unreasoning disgust hypothesis: moral disgust, in particular in response to a violation of a bodily norm, is less likely than moral anger to be justified with cognitively elaborated reasons. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to explain why they felt anger and disgust toward pedophiles. Participants were more likely to invoke elaborated reasons, versus merely evaluative responses, when explaining their anger, versus disgust. Experiment 2 used a between-participants design; participants explained why they felt either anger or disgust toward seven groups that either violated a sexual or nonsexual norm. Again, elaborated reasons were less prevalent when explaining their disgust versus anger and, in particular, when explaining disgust toward a group that violated a sexual norm. Experiment 3 further established that these findings are due to a lower accessibility of elaborated reasons for bodily disgust, rather than inhibition in using them when provided. From these findings, it can be concluded that communicating external reasons for moral disgust at bodily violations is made more difficult due to the unavailability of those reasons to people.

  4. Elaboration and characterisation of acids catalyst for the obtention of amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemaissia, S.; Zaoui, B.; Nibou, D.

    1997-04-01

    The nuclear energy has shown the interest of aminated substances as solvents for removal and purification. These extractants are generally used in uranium ores treatment processes and several technology fields, specially, in organic and pharmaceutical industries. The present work deals with elaboration and characterization of acidic solid catalyst used in aminated extractants obtaining

  5. Expanding Evolutionary Theory beyond Darwinism with Elaborating, Self-Organizing, and Fractionating Complex Evolutionary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, Lynn S.; Pyle, E. J.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Earth systems increase in complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness with time, driven by tectonic/solar energy that keeps the systems far from equilibrium. The evolution of Earth systems is facilitated by three evolutionary mechanisms: "elaboration," "fractionation," and "self-organization," that share…

  6. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of

  7. Elaborations in the area of complex reprocessing of mineral raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In present time complex using of raw materials has important significance as it connected with solving problems of creating of waste less and ecologically clean technologies. Elaboration and assimilation of waste less technologies has special significance for chemical, mountain-chemical, metallurgical branches of industry. In this part of book author gives several methods of waste less and ecologically clean technologies

  8. Organized mesoporous silica films as templates for the elaboration of organized nanoparticle networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacoin, T; Besson, S; Boilot, J P

    2006-01-01

    Tremendous work achieved in the last 20 years on nanoparticle synthesis has allowed us to study many new physical properties that are found in the nanometre size range. New developments are now expected when considering assemblies of nanoparticles such as 2D or 3D organized arrays. These systems are indeed expected to exhibit original physical properties resulting from particle-particle interactions. Studies in this field are clearly dependent on the elaboration of materials with controlled particle size, organization and interparticle distance. This paper presents a strategy of elaboration that is based on the use of organized mesoporous silica films as templates. These films are made by sol-gel polymerization around surfactant assemblies and further elimination of the surfactant. This provides porous matrices with a pore organization that is the almost perfect replica of the initial micellar structure. The use of such films for the elaboration of organized arrays of nanoparticles is detailed in the case of CdS and Ag particles. The formation of particles inside the pores is achieved through impregnation with precursors that are allowed to diffuse inside the pores. This leads to particles with a size and a spatial arrangement that is directly related to the initial pore structure of the films. This process opens a wide range of investigations due to the relative ease of fabrication over large surfaces and the numerous possibilities offered by the elaboration of porous films with different pore sizes and organizations

  9. Evaluation of Smoking Prevention Television Messages Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from…

  10. Source and Message Factors in Persuasion: A Reply to Stiff's Critique of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Richard E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Answers James Stiff's criticism of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion. Corrects certain misperceptions of the ELM and criticizes Stiff's meta-analysis that compares ELM predictions with those derived from Kahneman's elastic capacity model. Argues that Stiff's presentation of the ELM and the conclusions he draws based on the data…

  11. The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Implications for the Practice of School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Richard E.; Heesacker, Martin; Hughes, Jan N.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a contemporary theory of attitude change, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, and addresses its relevance to school psychology. Claims that a key postulate of ELM is that attitude change results from thoughtful (central route) or nonthoughtful (peripheral route) processes. Illustrations of ELM's utility for school…

  12. Examining Sex Differences in Altering Attitudes About Rape: A Test of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Intervention sought to improve first-year college students' attitudes about rape. Used the Elaboration Likelihood Model to examine men's and women's attitude change process. Found numerous sex differences in ways men and women experienced and changed during and after intervention. Women's attitude showed more lasting change while men's was more…

  13. Application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change to Assertion Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, John M.; Heesacker, Martin

    1993-01-01

    College students (n=113) participated in study comparing effects of elaboration likelihood model (ELM) based assertion workshop with those of typical assertion workshop. ELM-based workshop was significantly better at producing favorable attitude change, greater intention to act assertively, and more favorable evaluations of workshop content.…

  14. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and Proxemic Violations as Peripheral Cues to Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Michael

    This paper provides a literature review of the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) as applied in persuasion. Specifically, the paper addresses distraction with regard to effects on persuasion. In addition, the application of proxemic violations as peripheral cues in message processing is discussed. Finally, the paper proposes to shed new light on…

  15. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  16. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance.A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent–toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  17. The experience on public consultation in the elaboration of nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Iara A.; Pitta, Maria Adelia R.; Pereira, Enneite S.; Wieland, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the process of public consultation followed by the regulatory body, Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN), during the elaboration of nuclear regulations. In this paper, the due legislation on federal administration, law n. 9784/99, is referred to and the procedures established by CNEN for the elaboration of a nuclear regulation are described. The public consultation has the objective of improving the democratization of nuclear regulations elaboration process, allowing the participation of interested parties such as professional associations directly involved, organizations interested in its application and the general public. During the process of elaboration of a nuclear regulation, the basic text is, first of all, discussed and improved by a task group. This group is composed by CNEN's officials and representatives of organizations, enterprises and public agencies involved in the related area. Once the first version of the proposed regulation is ready, it is formally open to consultation and posted at CNEN website for a period of time. The suggestions, therein presented on-line, are analyzed by the task group and the conclusions are also posted at the site; those considered pertinent are incorporated to proposed regulation. As an example, the public consultation results obtained in 2008 with the revision of the CNEN-NN-6.02: Licensing of Radioactive Facilities regulation, are presented. Such results cover two aspects: the analysis of the participants profile and the analysis of the contributions. Public participation in the elaboration of nuclear regulations is a new way for CNEN to know the licensees and public demands, doubts and needs. This tool has demonstrated usefulness and therefore must be maintained by the regulatory body. (author)

  18. Use of software to optimize time and costs in the elaboration of the basic drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to choose areas to implement pipe yards, terminals, campsite, pipeline path and other areas of assistance for the construction and assembly of the pipeline, it is necessary previous location studies to elaborate the basic drawing. However it is not always possible to contract a company registered in aerial survey to elaborate this type of drawing, either for the cost or time, and where the lack of a basic drawing can lead to an erroneous choice or one which reflects an exaggerated estimate or not adequate logistics. In order to minimize costs and optimizing time, without compromising quality, this study proposes the use of software 'virtual globe' type for mapping and geographic location available on the internet to assist in the gathering of geographical, altimetric, hydro graphic, road, environmental, socioeconomic and aerial images, information necessary to elaborate the basic drawing. This article includes a case study of the oil pipeline Cacimbas-Barra do Riacho project and a proposed procedure to be used in the elaboration of basic drawings using data generated using the referred to software. In 2007 the Pipeline Construction and Assembly sector, CMDPI unit of PETROBRAS Engenharia/IETEG/IEDT was designated to select an area of 2 hectares where the pipe storage yard for pipes to be used in the Oil Pipeline Cacimbas- Barra do Riacho in Espirito Santo state would be constructed. The area was chosen following some pre-requisites and using as main resources in the gathering of information necessary to select the area, 'virtual globe' type software and a CAD type software with the capacity to import images and altimetric identification as well as exporting drawing data to the mentioned. The activity, much simpler than hiring an aerial survey, was elaborated surpassing expectations of time-costs besides complying with the necessary technical demands. (author)

  19. An iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic study of titania-supported iron- and iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1992-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that titania-supported iron is reduced by treatment in hydrogen at significantly lower temperatures than corresponding silica- and alumina-supported catalysts. The metallic iron formed under hydrogen at 600deg C is partially converted to carbide by treatment in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In contrast to its alumina- and silica-supported counterparts, the remainder of the titania-supported iron is unchanged by this gaseous mixture. The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of EXAFS show that iron and iridium in the titania-supported iron-iridium catalysts are reduced in hydrogen at even lower temperatures and, after treatment at 600deg C, are predominantly present as the iron-iridium alloy. The treatment of these reduced catalysts in carbon monoxide and hydrogen is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy and EXAFS to induce the segregation of iron from the iron-iridium alloy and its conversion to iron oxide. (orig.)

  20. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication which has short-term and long-term adverse health ramifications for both women and their children. In this review, we critically and systematically evaluate available data examining the risk of GDM associated with dietary iron, iron supplementation, and iron status as measured by blood concentrations of several indicators. We also discuss major methodologic concerns regarding the available epidemiologic studies on iron and GDM. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Mammalian iron metabolism and its control by iron regulatory proteins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cole P.; Shen, Lacy; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2). IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding protein involved in iron uptake, storage, utilization and export. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how IRPs are regulated by iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms and the pathological consequences of IRP2 deficiency in mice. The identification of novel IREs involved in diverse cellular pathways has revealed that the IRP–IRE network extends to processes other than iron homeostasis. A mechanistic understanding of IRP regulation will likely yield important insights into the basis of disorders of iron metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. PMID:22610083

  2. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  3. Absorption of medicamental iron and iron from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reizenstein, P.; Carlmark, B.; Ehn, L.; Forsberg, K.; Hoeglund, S.; Terpstra, T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are reviewed for the measurement of iron absorption. The chemical balance method has been almost entirely supplanted by radioisotope methods, which include notably whole-body counting and measurement of incorporation of radioiron into red cells. A survey is also given of the various conditions that influence iron absorption, including chemical form of iron, amount of iron, accompanying diet. Absorption tests must be conducted under relevant conditions. (author)

  4. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  5. Prediction of reducible soil iron content from iron extraction data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Reeven, van J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Soils contain various iron compounds that differ in solubility, reducibility and extractability. Moreover, the contribution of the various iron compounds to total iron (Fe) and total Fe concentrations differs highly among soils. As a result, the total reducible Fe content can also differ among

  6. Differential-associative processing or example elaboration: Which strategy is best for learning the definitions of related and unrelated concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-10-01

    Definitions of related concepts (e.g., genotype - phenotype ) are prevalent in introductory classes. Consequently, it is important that educators and students know which strategy(s) work best for learning them. This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning definitions of related concepts than was an integrative elaborative strategy, called example elaboration. This outcome occurred even though example elaboration was administered in a naturalistic way (Experiment 1) and students spent more time in the example elaboration condition learning (Experiments 1, 2, 3), and generating pieces of information about the concepts (Experiments 2 and 3). Further, with unrelated concepts ( morpheme-fluid intelligence ), performance was similar regardless if students used differential-associative processing or example elaboration (Experiment 3). Taken as a whole, these results suggest that differential-associative processing is better than example elaboration for learning definitions of related concepts and is as good as example elaboration for learning definitions of unrelated concepts.

  7. Effects of Forward and Backward Contextual Elaboration on Lexical Inferences: Evidence from a Semantic Relatedness Judgment Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical…

  8. Revising Tinto's Interactionalist Theory of Student Departure Through Theory Elaboration: Examining the Role of Organizational Attributes in the Persistence Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Braxton, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A study used theory elaboration to help revise Tinto's interactionalist theory of individual student departure from college to include the effects of organizational attributes on student withdrawal. Results provide strong support for including concepts from organizational theory and suggest future research should use theory elaboration to look for…

  9. Worry, problem elaboration and suppression of imagery: the role of concreteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, J

    1998-01-01

    Both lay concept and scientific theory claim that worry may be helpful for defining and analyzing problems. Recent studies, however, indicate that worrisome problem elaborations are less concrete than worry-free problem elaborations. This challenges the problem solving view of worry because abstract problem analyses are unlikely to lead to concrete problem solutions. Instead the findings support the avoidance theory of worry which claims that worry suppresses aversive imagery. Following research findings in the dual-coding framework [Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston; Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: a dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.], the present article proposes that reduced concreteness may play a central role in the understanding of worry. First, reduced concreteness can explain how worry reduces imagery. Second, it offers an explanation why worrisome problem analyses are unlikely to arrive at solutions. Third, it provides a key for the understanding of worry maintenance.

  10. Elaboration Likelihood Model and an Analysis of the Contexts of Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Kıymalıoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM, which supports the existence of two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral routes, has been one of the major models on persuasion. As the number of studies in the Turkish literature on ELM is limited, a detailed explanation of the model together with a comprehensive literature review was considered to be contributory for this gap. The findings of the review reveal that the model was mostly used in marketing and advertising researches, that the concept most frequently used in elaboration process was involvement, and that argument quality and endorser credibility were the factors most often employed in measuring their effect on the dependant variables. The review provides valuable insights as it presents a holistic view of the model and the variables used in the model.

  11. Regulation imposed to nuclear facility operators for the elaboration of 'waste studies' and 'waste statuses'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) aims at validating the new versions of the guidebook for the elaboration of 'waste studies' for nuclear facilities and of the specifications for the elaboration of 'waste statuses' for nuclear facilities. This paper includes two documents. The first one is a guidebook devoted to nuclear facility operators which fixes the rules of production of waste studies according to the articles 20 to 26 of the inter-ministry by-law from December 31, 1999 (waste zoning conditions and ASN's control modalities). The second document concerns the specifications for the establishment of annual waste statuses according to article 27 of the inter-ministry by-law from December 31, 1999 (rational management of nuclear wastes). (J.S.)

  12. Controlled elaboration of large-area plasmonic substrates by plasma process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliara, A; Despax, B; Makasheva, K; Bonafos, C; Carles, R

    2015-01-01

    Elaboration in a controlled way of large-area and efficient plasmonic substrates is achieved by combining sputtering of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and plasma polymerization of the embedding dielectric matrix in an axially asymmetric, capacitively coupled RF discharge maintained at low gas pressure. The plasma parameters and deposition conditions were optimized according to the optical response of these substrates. Structural and optical characterizations of the samples confirm the process efficiency. The obtained results indicate that to deposit a single layer of large and closely situated AgNPs, a high injected power and short sputtering times must be privileged. The plasma-elaborated plasmonic substrates appear to be very sensitive to any stimuli that affect their plasmonic response. (paper)

  13. [Attitude change toward body image: the role of elaboration on attitude strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, Margarita; Briñol, Pablo; Horcajo, Javier

    2010-02-01

    Attitude change toward body image: The role of elaboration on attitude strength. Attitudes toward body image have been shown to play a central role in the understanding and treating of eating disorders. In the present research, participants' attitudes toward their body image were changed through a persuasive procedure involving high mental elaboration (self-persuasion) or through a less engaging procedure involving less active participation (passive exposure). As expected, participants in these two groups showed more favourable attitudes toward their bodies than those in the control group. Despite that both treatments were equally efficient in changing attitudes, the strength associated with those attitudes was significantly different depending on the amount of thinking involved in the process of change. Specifically, attitudes were stronger in the high rather than low thinking group of treatment. This finding is important because the strength of the attitude may determine the long-term consequences of an intervention.

  14. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy -- how much iron is needed? A randomized dose- response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.......To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy....

  15. Elaboration of procedure for analysis of industrial and economic activities: the experience of LUKoil petroleum company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanov, V.L.; Kirpichev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The research and engineering centre within LUKoil company for economic studies has elaborated a method permitting analysis of production and economic activities of the LUKOIL petroleum production complex. The method envisages the following trends of analysis: general assessment of production and economic activities, analysis of basic production assets, manpower and wages use, net cost of marketable products, the state of finances, as well as specific features in analyzing the activities undertaken by joint ventures

  16. A review of studies on persuasion from the viewpoint of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukada, Hiromi; Kimura, Kenichi; Makino, Koshi; Higuchi, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review studies on persuasion from the viewpoint of the Elaboration Likelihood Model based on Petty & Wegener (1998). The paper consists of the following four parts. 1. Introduction. 2. Multiple roles for persuasion variables. 3. Source variables: (1) credibility (expertise, trustworthiness), (2) attractiveness/likableness, (3) power, (4) additional source factors related to credibility, liking and power (speed of speech, demographic variables, majority/minorit...

  17. Elaboration Likelihood Model and an Analysis of the Contexts of Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Aslıhan Kıymalıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), which supports the existence of two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral routes, has been one of the major models on persuasion. As the number of studies in the Turkish literature on ELM is limited, a detailed explanation of the model together with a comprehensive literature review was considered to be contributory for this gap. The findings of the review reveal that the model was mostly used in marketing and advertising researches, that the concept...

  18. Degree of elaborative processing in two implicit and two explicit memory tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarque, Alfonso; Algarabel González, Salvador; Meseguer, Enrique

    1992-01-01

    The level of elaborative processing made by subjects to pairs of words (read vs. generated) and the degree of relationship between the words of each pair (related, rhymed, or rhymed and related) were manipulated on two explicit tasks (cued recall and recognition) and two implicit tasks (word-stem completion and tachistoscopic word identification) to test the empirical validity of the processing-approach theory (see, e.g., Roediger, 1990a, 1990b; Roediger, Srinivas, & Weldon, 1989) of explicit...

  19. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Chernyak, A.S.; Kostromina, O.N.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Shpeyzer, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  20. Elaboration of Ariane 6 operational concept with a concurrent engineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    David, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014, the ESA Council at Ministerial level has decided to go ahead with the Ariane 6 and Vega-C development programmes. The overarching aim of Ariane 6 is to provide guaranteed access to space for Europe at a competitive price. ESA has the role of Procuring entity and Launch System Architect (LSA). As Launch System Architect, ESA ensures the coherence on the Launcher System and the Launch base in the elaboration of the operational concept. The ambitious High Level R...

  1. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  2. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some of the aesthetic and operational problems associated with iron in water supplies. Iron removal from groundwater is, therefore, a major concern for water supply companies using groundwater sources....

  3. Procedure for the elaboration of extended sources beta and/or gamma emitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1991-12-01

    In the laboratory of radioactive standards they have been come manufacturing punctual sources gauged gamma emitting during several years. Before the demand of extended radioactive homogeneous sources of beta particles emitting, in particular with nuclides that are simultaneously gamma and beta emitting, it was designed a procedure for it elaboration based on the one that we use at the moment for the elaboration of the punctual gamma sources. This procedure consists on the integration of a compact group of this type of sources on a single extended support, sealed one of its faces with a film of transparent material in satisfactory grade to the beta particles. In this work this procedure is described and it is applied in the elaboration of two sources that its were requested by the Laguna Verde Central (CFE), one with area of 20 cm 2 and the other one of 100 cm 2 . The homogeneity, measure as the dispersion of the activities of the aliquot ones distributed in the active surfaces was inside 2%. The percentage of attenuation of the beta particles was also measured by the film (window) with the one that the sources were sealed. (Author)

  4. Elaborating European Pharmacopoeia monographs for biotherapeutic proteins using substances from a single source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, M; Wicks, S; Charton, E

    2016-01-01

    For more than twenty years, the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monographs for biotherapeutic proteins have been elaborated using the multisource approach (Procedure 1), which has led to robust quality standards for many of the first-generation biotherapeutics. In 2008, the Ph. Eur. opened up the way towards an alternative mechanism for the elaboration of monographs (Procedure 4-BIO pilot phase), which is applied to substances still under patent protection, based on a close collaboration with the Innovator company, to ensure a harmonised global standard and strengthen the quality of the upcoming products. This article describes the lessons learned during the P4-BIO pilot phase and addresses the current thinking on monograph elaboration in the field of biotherapeutics. Case studies are described to illustrate the standardisation challenges associated with the complexity of biotherapeutics and of analytical procedures, as well as the approaches that help ensure expectations are met when setting monograph specifications and allow for compatibility with the development of biosimilars. Emphasis is put on monograph flexibility, notably by including tests that measure process-dependent microheterogeneity (e.g. glycosylation) in the Production section of the monograph. The European Pharmacopoeia successfully concluded the pilot phase of the P4-BIO during its 156 th session on 22-23 November 2016.

  5. The Impact of Elaborated Feedback on Competency Assessment of IT Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alexandra TOADER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feedback represents an important component in the process of assessing the competencies of the IT professionals as it allows to evaluate their performance and helps their managers to personalize the learning content according to employees’ needs and profiles. In the current paper we propose a computer-based formative feedback framework that provides personalized feedback for the technical employees. Extensive research has been carried out focusing on formative assessment aspects that includes the elaborate feedback. An online competency assessment tool was designed and it is going to be implemented in order to measure the professionals’ performance in software organizations. The subjects of the study are going to be software developers, working in departments of IT Romanian companies. Their performance is going to be evaluated through the competency-based assessment tool. At the end of the assessment process, an elaborate feedback is provided in order to improve their current level of competency acquired. The current paper reveals the role of the computer-based formative assessment within software organizations as well as the importance of an elaborate feedback that can improve the employees’ knowledge and skills.

  6. Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rosenfeld

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A limited but accumulating body of research and theoretical commentary offers support for core claims of the “institutional-anomie theory” of crime (IAT and points to areas needing further development. In this paper, which focuses on violent crime, we clarify the concept of social institutions, elaborate the cultural component of IAT, derive implications for individual behavior, summarize empirical applications, and propose directions for future research. Drawing on Talcott Parsons, we distinguish the “subjective” and “objective” dimensions of institutional dynamics and discuss their interrelationship. We elaborate on the theory’s cultural component with reference to Durkheim’s distinction between “moral” and “egoistic” individualism and propose that a version of the egoistic type characterizes societies in which the economy dominates the institutional structure, anomie is rampant, and levels of violent crime are high. We also offer a heuristic model of IAT that integrates macro- and individual levels of analysis. Finally, we discuss briefly issues for the further theoretical elaboration of this macro-social perspective on violent crime. Specifically, we call attention to the important tasks of explaining the emergence of economic dominance in the institutional balance of power and of formulating an institutional account for distinctive punishment practices, such as the advent of mass incarceration in the United States.

  7. Estimation of the intrinsic stresses in α-alumina in relation with its elaboration mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boumaza, A.; Djelloul, A.

    2010-01-01

    The specific signatures of α-Al 2 O 3 by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were investigated to estimate the intrinsic stress in this compound according to its elaboration mode. Thus, α-alumina was prepared either by calcination of boehmite or gibbsite and also generated by oxidation of a metallic FeCrAl alloy. FTIR results were mainly supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns that allowed to determine the crystallite size and the strain in the various alpha aluminas. Moreover, the infrared peak at 378.7 cm -1 was used as a reference for stress free α-alumina and the shift of this peak allowed to estimate intrinsic stresses, which were related to the morphology and to the specific surface area of aluminas according to their elaboration mode. These interpretations were confirmed by results obtained by cathodoluminescence experiments. - Graphical abstract: The infrared peak at 378.7 cm -1 was used as a reference for stress free α-alumina and the shift of this peak allowed to estimate intrinsic stresses, which were related to the morphology and to the specific surface area of aluminas according to their elaboration mode.

  8. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  9. Wear resistance of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  10. Iron dominated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided

  11. Iron oxides photochemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesa, M.A.; Litter, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This work was intended to study the light irradiation influence of diverse wave-lengths on iron oxides dissolution in aqueous solutions. The objectives of this work were: the exploration of photochemical processes with the aim of its eventual application in: a) decontamination and chemical cleaning under special conditions; b) materials for solar energy conversion. (Author)

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ages 1 to 3. From ages 4 to 8, children ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) ... We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hemolysis . Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 and 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection. A history of gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight-loss surgery—especially gastric bypass—or gastrectomy. Certain rare ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  17. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeant, C. E-mail: sergeant@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F

    2003-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5{sup '} and 3{sup '} untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Working at the NHLBI Contact and FAQs Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to ... treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or even heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, ... Upper endoscopy to look for bleeding in the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the ... blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ... especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough hemoglobin-carrying red blood cells, your heart has to work harder to move oxygen-rich blood through your ...

  4. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0. ... 14 to 18, boys need 11 mg, while girls need 15 mg. From ages 19 to 50, ... 8 mg. Pregnant women need 27 mg. Breastfeeding girls under age 18 need 10 mg while breastfeeding ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... worse or harder to treat. Tell your doctor what medicines you take, even over-the-counter medicines or other supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stored in their body. This is the largest study to have looked at iron levels in blood donors. Results from the REDS program ... Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources ... Health Study Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program Blood Disorders ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat ...

  10. Iron dominated magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... also take an iron supplement. Follow your doctor’s recommendations and treatments to control any conditions that lead ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0. ... 13, 8 mg. From ages 14 to 18, boys need 11 mg, while girls need 15 mg. From ages 19 to 50, ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have ... our Pernicious Anemia Health Topic to learn more. Bone marrow tests help your doctor see whether your ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and save lives. We are committed to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through ...

  16. Ironing out industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a hazardous waste treatment known as the catalytic extraction process, which also stabilizes and reduces low-level radioactive wastes to a fraction of their original volume, easing their disposal. It uses molten iron and other metals to convert hazardous wastes into useful materials

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how ...

  18. Iron monoxide photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestakov, D. A.; Parker, D. H.; Baklanov, A. V.

    2005-02-01

    The photodissociation of Fe56O was studied by means of the velocity map imaging technique. A molecular beam of iron atoms and iron monoxide molecules was created using an electrical discharge with an iron electrode in a supersonic expansion of molecular oxygen. The ground state iron atom Fe(D45) and FeO concentrations in the molecular beam have been estimated. The dissociation energy of the FeO XΔ5 ground electronic state was found to be D00(FeO )=4.18±0.01eV. The effective absorption cross section of FeO at 252.39nm (vac), leading to the Fe(D45)+O(P3) dissociation channel, is ˜1.2×10-18cm2. A (1+1) resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectrum of Fe56O in the region 39550-39580 cm-1 with rotational structure has been observed, but not assigned. Angular distributions of Fe(D45) and Fe(D35) products for the channel FeO →Fe(D4,35)+O(P3) have been measured at several points in the 210-260nm laser light wavelength region. The anisotropy parameter varies strongly with wavelength for both channels.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron ... anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the body. When your heart has to work harder, this can lead to several conditions: irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias , a heart murmur , an ... chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result in treatments not working as well. Look for Diagnosis will discuss any ...

  1. State of the iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) frequently occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Nevertheless, the condition appears to be both under-diagnosed and undertreated. Regular biochemical screening of patients with IBD for anemia...

  2. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

    2003-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport

  3. Development of iron aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKamey, C.G.; Viswanathan, S.; Goodwin, G.M.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrating that improved engineering ductility (to 10-15% in Fe 3 Al) can be achieved in wrought Fe 3 Al-based iron aluminide alloys through control of composition and microstructure are discussed. Accompanying this improvement has been an increased understanding of the causes for ambient temperature embrittlement in this system. Because of these advances, iron aluminide alloys are being considered for many structural uses, especially for applications where their excellent corrosion resistance is needed. The understanding and control of cast structures are important steps in making iron-aluminide alloys viable engineering materials. This includes understanding the various components of cast structure, their evolution, their properties, their behavior during further processing, and, finally, their effect on mechanical properties. The first phase of the study of cast Fe 3 Al-based alloys characterized the various components of the cast structure in the FA-129 alloy, while the current phase of the research involves characterizing the as-cast mechanical properties of Fe 3 Al-based alloys. The investigation of the room temperature mechanical properties of as-cast Fe 3 Al, including tensile tests in air, oxygen, and water vapor environments is described. Studies have begun to refine the grain size of the cast structure. An investigation of the effect of environmental hydrogen embrittlement on the weldability of wrought alloys was also initiated during this period with the aim of understanding the role of environment in the cold-cracking of iron aluminides

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need 15 mg. From ages 19 to 50, men need 8 mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant women need ... 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI resources Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease ( ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive ...

  6. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Török, B; Thiele, A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well

  7. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaschella, Clara

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron aluminide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneibel, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Iron aluminides with the B2 structure are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant. They are thermodynamically compatible with a wide range of ceramics such as TiC, WC, TiB 2 , and ZrB 2 . In addition, liquid iron aluminides wet these ceramics very well. Therefore, FeAl/ceramic composites may be produced by techniques such as liquid phase sintering of powder mixtures, or pressureless melt infiltration of ceramic powders with liquid FeAl. These techniques, the resulting microstructures, and their advantages as well as limitations are described. Iron aluminide composites can be very strong. Room temperature flexure strengths as high as 1.8 GPa have been observed for FeAl/WC. Substantial gains in strength of elevated temperatures (1,073 K) have also been demonstrated. Above 40 vol.% WC the room temperature flexure strength becomes flaw-limited. This is thought to be due to processing flaws and limited interfacial strength. The fracture toughness of FeAl/WC is unexpectedly high and follows a rule of mixtures. Interestingly, sufficiently thin (<1 microm) FeAl ligaments between adjacent WC particles fracture not by cleavage, but in a ductile manner. For these thin ligaments the dislocation pile-ups formed during deformation are not long enough to nucleate cleavage fracture, and their fracture mode is therefore ductile. For several reasons, this brittle-to-ductile size transition does not improve the fracture toughness of the composites significantly. However, since no cleavage cracks are nucleated in sufficiently thin FeAl ligaments, slow crack growth due to ambient water vapor does not occur. Therefore, as compared to monolithic iron aluminides, environmental embrittlement is dramatically reduced in iron aluminide composites

  9. Effect of dietary iron source and iron status on iron bioavailability tests in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Hendricks, D.G.; Mahoney, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Weanling male rats were made anemic in 7 days by feeding a low iron diet and bleeding. Healthy rats were fed the low iron diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (29 ppm Fe). Each group was subdivided and fed for 10 days on test diets containing about 29 ppm iron that were formulated with meat:spinach mixtures or meat:soy mixtures to provided 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100% of the dietary iron from these sources or from a ferrous sulfate diet. After 3 days on the diets all rats were dosed orally with 2 or 5 micro curries of 59 Fe after a 18 hour fast and refeeding for 1.5 hours. Iron status influenced liver iron, carcass iron, liver radio activity and percent of radioactive dose retained. Diet influenced fecal iron and apparent absorption of iron. In iron bioavailability studies assessment methodology and iron status of the test subject greatly influences the estimates of the value of dietary sources of iron

  10. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the service...

  11. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

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    Won Hee Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. The ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. We previously showed that the GATA factor, Cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melanin and growth at 37°C. We are interested in further defining the mechanisms of iron acquisition from inorganic and host-derived iron sources with the goal of understanding the nutritional adaptation of C. neoformans to the host environment. In this study, we investigated the roles of the HAP3 and HAPX genes in iron utilization and virulence. As in other fungi, the C. neoformans Hap proteins negatively influence the expression of genes encoding respiratory and TCA cycle functions under low-iron conditions. However, we also found that HapX plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of gene expression, including a positive regulatory role in siderophore transporter expression. In addition, HapX also positively regulated the expression of the CIR1 transcript. This situation is in contrast to the negative regulation by HapX of genes encoding GATA iron regulatory factors in Aspergillus nidulans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although both hapX and hap3 mutants were defective in heme utilization in culture, only HapX made a contribution to virulence, and loss of HapX in a strain lacking the high-affinity iron uptake system did not cause further attenuation of disease. Therefore, HapX appears to have a minimal role during infection of mammalian hosts and instead may be an important regulator of environmental iron uptake functions. Overall, these results indicated that C. neoformans employs multiple strategies for iron acquisition during infection.

  13. Lithium Iron Orthosilicate Cathode: Progress and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Jiangfeng [College; amp, Physics (CECMP), Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, PR China; Jiang, Yu [College; amp, Physics (CECMP), Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, PR China; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical; Li, Liang [College; amp, Physics (CECMP), Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, PR China; Lu, Jun [Chemical

    2017-07-18

    The pursuit of cathodes with a high capacity is remarkably driven by the ever increasing demand of high-energy lithium ion batteries in electronics and transportation. In this regard, polyanionic lithium iron orthosilicate (Li2FeSiO4) offers a promising opportunity because it affords a high theoretical capacity of 331 mAh g–1. However, such a high theoretical capacity of Li2FeSiO4 has frequently been compromised in practice because of the extremely low electronic and ionic conductivity. To address this issue, material engineering strategies to boost the Li storage kinetics in Li2FeSiO4 have proven indispensable. In this Perspective, we will briefly present the structural characteristics, intrinsic physicochemical properties, and electrochemical behavior of Li2FeSiO4. We particularly focus on recent materials engineering of silicates, which is implemented mainly through advanced synthetic techniques and elaborate controls. This Perspective highlights the importance of integrating theoretical analysis into experimental implementation to further advance the Li2FeSiO4 materials.

  14. The Iron Age Today

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    Harold Mytum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to investment in walking the landscape, aerial photography, geophysical survey and excavation, there is a baseline of information on the distribution and types of enclosed settlement and examples of high-quality site-based data, often revealing complex site histories. These are our resources from which to extract meaning about the past — but what can actually be said about the Iron Age from all these data? What are the next stages in moving towards greater understanding? And what is the current management and presentation of the Iron Age to the public in Wales? This contribution reviews our current state of knowledge and its uses so that we can develop strategies to improve the data and communicate what it can tell us about the Welsh past.

  15. Ion implantation into iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of implanted ions in iron, the friction characteristics and the corrosion of iron were studied. The distribution of Ni or Cr ions implanted into mild steel was measured. The accelerated voltage was 150 keV, and the beam current density was about 2 microampere/cm 2 . The measurement was made with an ion microanalyzer. The measured distribution was compared with that of LSS theory. Deep invasion of Ni was seen in the measured distribution. The distribution of Cr ions was different from the distribution calculated by the LSS theory. The relative friction coefficient of mild steel varied according to the dose of implanted Cu or N ions, and to the accelerating voltage. Formation of compound metals on the surfaces of metals by ion-implantation was investigated for the purpose to prevent the corrosion of metals. The resistance of mild steel in which Ni ions were implanted was larger than that of mild steel without any treatment. (Kato, T.)

  16. Iron Therapy in Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: Review of Iron Preparations for Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Marcin; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    In patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) correlates with decreased exercise capacity and poor health-related quality of life, and predicts worse outcomes. Both absolute (depleted iron stores) and functional (where iron is unavailable for dedicated tissues) ID can be easily evaluated in patients with HF using standard laboratory tests (assessment of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction has been shown to alleviate HF symptoms and improve exercise capacity and quality of life. In this paper, we provide information on how to diagnose ID in HF. Further we discuss pros and cons of different iron preparations and discuss the results of major trials implementing iron supplementation in HF patients, in order to provide practical guidance for clinicians on how to manage ID in patients with HF.

  17. Elaboration of mini plates with U-Mo for irradiation in a high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, Enrique E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: International new efforts for the reconversion of HEU in research, testing and radioisotopes production reactors, have greatly incremented U-Mo fuels qualification activities. These qualifications require the resolution of undesired interaction at high fluxes between UMo particles and the aluminum matrix in the case of dispersed fuels and the development of U-Mo monolithic fuels. These efforts are being manifested in the planning and execution of additional series of irradiation tests of mini plates and full size plates. Recently, CNEA has elaborated mini plates with different proposals for the irradiation at the ATR reactor (250 MWTH, maximum thermal neutron flux 10 15 n.cm -2 .seg -1 ) at Idaho National Laboratory, USA. Uranium 7% (w/w) molybdenum (U-7Mo) particles were coated with silicon. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of silane and high temperature diffusion of silicon were used. Hydrided, milled and dehydrated (HMD) particles heat treated at 1000 C degrees during four hours and centrifugal atomized powder were coated and the results compared. Mini plates were elaborated with both kinds of particles. Mini plates were also elaborated with U-7Mo and silicon particles dispersed in the aluminium matrix. Monolithic mini plates were also developed by co lamination of U-7Mo with a Zircaloy-4 cladding. The different steps of this process are detailed and the method is shown to be versatile, can be easily scaled up and is performed with small modifications of usual equipment in fuel plants. The irradiation experiment is called RERTR-7A, includes a total of 32 mini plates and it is planed to finalize by mid 2006. (author) [es

  18. Learning terms and definitions: Drawing and the role of elaborative encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Jeffrey D; Meade, Melissa E; Fernandes, Myra A

    2017-09-01

    Traditionally, students adopt the strategy of taking written notes when attending a class or learning from a textbook in educational settings. Informed by previous work showing that learning by doing improves memory performance, we examined whether drawing to-be-remembered definitions from university textbooks would improve later memory, relative to a more typical strategy of rote transcription. Participants were asked to either write out the definition, or to draw a picture representative of the definition. Results indicated that drawing, relative to verbatim writing, conferred a reliable memorial benefit that was robust, even when participants' preexisting familiarity with the terms was included as a covariate (in Experiment 1) or when the to-be-remembered terms and definitions were fictitious, thus removing the influence of familiarity (in Experiment 2). We reasoned that drawing likely facilitates retention at least in part because at encoding, participants must retain and elaborate upon information regarding the meaning of the definition, to translate it into a new form (a picture). This is not the case when participants write out the definitions verbatim. In Experiment 3 we showed that paraphrasing during encoding, which, like drawing and in contrast with verbatim writing, requires self-generated elaboration, led to memory performance that was comparable to drawing. Taken together, results suggest that drawing is a powerful tool which improves memory, and that drawing produces a similar level of retention as does paraphrasing. This suggests that elaborative encoding plays a critical role in the memorial benefit that drawing confers to memory for definitions of academic terms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Modern Approach to the Elaboration and Selection of Strategic Alternatives for Resource Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Kryukov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For many countries and regions (both in Russia and abroad, natural resources are the crucial factor for socio-economic development. The role and significance of natural resources in the economy of different areas substantially depend on the institutional environment, including the resource regime. Today, we have a qualitative complication of conditions for mineral resources exploitation, we start to develop new, non-traditional types of resources, which haven’t been available (or demanded earlier for the economic and technological reasons. The changes in the characteristics of natural objects, as well as the increasing of uncertainty in the resource sector, actualize the search for alternatives of the development of resource-type regions and for the elaboration of appropriate strategies. In new conditions of resource regions, it is necessary to place emphasis on the aspects of expanded specific understanding of inclusiveness. It implies the possibility of active participation of regional authorities in the management and regulation of the mineral complex, as well as their involvement in the development of the association of a wide range of communities. These communities consist of the organizations representing the interests of indigenous peoples as well as professional communities: industry associations, environmental organizations, representatives of the innovation industry. Modern approaches to the elaboration of strategic directions for the resource regions development (primarily based on the development of the mineral industry should be based on sustainable development principles, the principles of inclusiveness and the need for innovations. As a result of the convergence of these characteristics, a new socio-economic concept is formed. This concept can be defined as the harmonious development that is extremely important for the Russian regions. The proposed approach can be used for the elaboration of strategic alternatives of the

  20. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

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    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic