International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tupper, B.O.J.
1983-01-01
The work of a previous article is extended to show that space-times which are the exact solutions of the field equations for a perfect fluid also may be exact solutions of the field equations for a viscous magnetohydrodynamic fluid. Conditions are found for this equivalence to exist and viscous magnetohydrodynamic solutions are found for a number of known perfect fluid space-times. (author)
Viscosity and Vorticity in Reduced Magneto-Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joseph, Ilon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-08-12
Magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) critically relies on viscous forces in order for an accurate determination of the electric eld. For each charged particle species, the Braginskii viscous tensor for a magnetized plasma has the decomposition into matrices with special symmetries.
Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Cosmology
Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Vlahos, Loukas
2007-09-01
We study the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, both in the Newtonian and the general-relativistic limit, as regards a viscous magnetized fluid of finite conductivity and discuss instability criteria. In addition, we explore the excitation of cosmological perturbations in anisotropic spacetimes, in the presence of an ambient magnetic field. Acoustic, electromagnetic (e/m) and fast-magnetosonic modes, propagating normal to the magnetic field, can be excited, resulting in several implications of cosmological significance.
Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2008-01-01
We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...
Relativistic conformal magneto-hydrodynamics from holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Buchel, Alex
2009-01-01
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study first-order relativistic viscous magneto-hydrodynamics of (2+1)-dimensional conformal magnetic fluids. It is shown that the first order magneto-hydrodynamics constructed following Landau and Lifshitz from the positivity of the entropy production is inconsistent. We propose additional contributions to the entropy motivated dissipative current and, correspondingly, new dissipative transport coefficients. We use the strongly coupled M2-brane plasma in external magnetic field to show that the new magneto-hydrodynamics leads to self-consistent results in the shear and sound wave channels.
Electron and ion magnetohydrodynamic effects in plasma opening switches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossmann, J.M.; DeVore, C.R.; Ottinger, P.F.
1993-01-01
Preliminary results are presented of a numerical code designed to investigate electron and ion magnetohydrodynamic effects in plasma erosion opening switches. The present model is one-dimensional and resolves effects such as the JxB deformation of the plasma, and the penetration of magnetic field either by anomalous resistivity or electron magnetohydrodynamics (Hall effect). Comparisons with exact analytic results and experiment are made
Self-organizing magnetohydrodynamic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T.; Horiuchi, R.; Watanabe, K.; Hayashi, T.; Kusano, K.
1990-09-01
In a resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma, both the magnetic energy and the magnetic helicity dissipate with the resistive time scale. When sufficiently large free magnetic energy does exist, however, an ideal current driven instability is excited whereby magnetic reconnection is driven at a converging point of induced plasma flows which does exist in a bounded compressible plasma. At a reconnection point excess free energy (entropy) is rapidly dissipated by ohmic heating and lost by radiation, while magnetic helicity is completely conserved. The magnetic topology is largely changed by reconnection and a new ordered structure with the same helicity is created. It is discussed that magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the MHD self-organization process. (author)
Radiation-magnetohydrodynamics of fusion plasmas on parallel supercomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasar, O.; Moses, G.A.; Tautges, T.J.
1993-01-01
A parallel computational model to simulate fusion plasmas in the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD) framework is presented. Plasmas are often treated in a fluid dynamics context (magnetohydrodynamics, MHD), but when the flow field is coupled with the radiation field it falls into a more complex category, radiation magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD), where the interaction between the flow field and the radiation field is nonlinear. The solution for the radiation field usually dominates the R-MHD computation. To solve for the radiation field, one usually chooses the S N discrete ordinates method (a deterministic method) rather than the Monte Carlo method if the geometry is not complex. The discrete ordinates method on a massively parallel processor (Intel iPSC/860) is implemented. The speedup is 14 for a run on 16 processors and the performance is 3.7 times better than a single CRAY YMP processor implementation. (orig./DG)
Magneto-hydrodynamical model for plasma
Liu, Ruikuan; Yang, Jiayan
2017-10-01
Based on the Newton's second law and the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field, we establish a new 3-D incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics model for the motion of plasma under the standard Coulomb gauge. By using the Galerkin method, we prove the existence of a global weak solution for this new 3-D model.
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium with spheroidal plasma-vacuum interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, Shobu; Chiyoda, Katsuji; Hirota, Isao.
1983-01-01
The Grad-Shafranov equations for an oblate and a prolate spheroidal plasmas are solved analytically under the assumptions, Bsub(phi) = 0 and dp/dpsi = constant. Here Bsub(phi) is the toroidal magnetic field, p is the kinetic pressure, and psi is the magnetic flux function. The plasmas in magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium are shown to be toroidal. The equilibrium magnetic-field configurations outside the spheroidal plasmas are considerably different from that of a spherical plasma. A line cusp or two point cusps appear outside the oblate or the prolate spheroidal plasma, respectively. (author)
Hall-magnetohydrodynamic waves in flowing ideal incompressible solar-wind plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhelyazkov, I
2010-01-01
It is well established now that the solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the corona and the solar wind, is a highly structured medium. Satellite observations have confirmed the presence of steady flows there. Here, we investigate the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) eigenmodes (kink and sausage surface waves) travelling along an ideal incompressible flowing plasma cylinder (flux tube) surrounded by a flowing plasma environment in the framework of the Hall magnetohydrodynamics. The propagation characteristics of the waves are studied in a reference frame moving with the mass flow outside the tube. In general, the flows change the waves' phase velocities compared with their magnitudes in a static MHD flux tube and the Hall effect extends the number of the possible wave dispersion curves. It turns out that while the kink waves, considered in the context of the standard magnetohydrodynamics, are unstable against the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, they become stable when the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law is taken into account. The sausage waves are stable in both considerations. All results concerning the waves' propagation and their stability/instability status are obtained on the basis of the linearized Hall-magnetohydrodynamic equations and are applicable mainly to the solar wind plasmas.
Viscous potential flow analysis of magnetohydrodynamic interfacial stability through porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obied Allah, M.H.
2013-01-01
In the view of viscous potential flow theory, the hydromagnetic stability of the interface between two infinitely conducting, incompressible plasmas, streaming parallel to the interface and subjected to a constant magnetic field parallel to the streaming direction will be considered. The plasmas are flowing through porous media between two rigid planes and surface tension is taken into account. A general dispersion relation is obtained analytically and solved numerically. For Kelvin-Helmholtz instability problem, the stability criterion is given by a critical value of the relative velocity. On the other hand, a comparison between inviscid and viscous potential flow solutions has been made and it has noticed that viscosity plays a dual role, destabilizing for Rayleigh-Taylor problem and stabilizing for Kelvin-Helmholtz. For Rayleigh-Taylor instability, a new dispersion relation has been obtained in terms of a critical wave number. It has been found that magnetic field, surface tension, and rigid planes have stabilizing effects, whereas critical wave number and porous media have destabilizing effects. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, Colin Stuart [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2015-01-15
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes mixing in plasmas throughout the universe, from micron-scale plasmas in inertial confinement fusion implosions to parsec-scale supernova remnants. The evolution of this interchange instability in a plasma is influenced by the presence of viscosity and magnetic fields, both of which have the potential to stabilize short-wavelength modes. Very few experimental observations of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in plasmas with stabilizing mechanisms are reported in the literature, and those that are reported are in sub-millimeter scale plasmas that are difficult to diagnose. Experimental observations in well-characterized plasmas are important for validation of computational models used to make design predictions for inertial confinement fusion efforts. This dissertation presents observations of instability growth during the interaction between a high Mach-number, initially un-magnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma. A multi-frame fast camera captures Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth while interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to estimate plasma parameters in the vicinity of the collision. As the instability grows, an evolution to longer mode wavelength is observed. Comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model suggest that the observed instability evolution is consistent with both magnetic and viscous stabilization. These data provide the opportunity to benchmark computational models used in astrophysics and fusion research.
Self-gravitational instability of dense degenerate viscous anisotropic plasma with rotation
Sharma, Prerana; Patidar, Archana
2017-12-01
The influence of finite Larmor radius correction, tensor viscosity and uniform rotation on self-gravitational and firehose instabilities is discussed in the framework of the quantum magnetohydrodynamic and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) fluid models. The general dispersion relation is obtained for transverse and longitudinal modes of propagation. In both the modes of propagation the dispersion relation is further analysed with respect to the direction of the rotational axis. In the analytical discussion the axis of rotation is considered in parallel and in the perpendicular direction to the magnetic field. (i) In the transverse mode of propagation, when rotation is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field, the Jeans instability criterion is affected by the rotation, finite Larmor radius (FLR) and quantum parameter but remains unaffected due to the presence of tensor viscosity. The calculated critical Jeans masses for rotating and non-rotating dense degenerate plasma systems are \\odot $ and \\odot $ respectively. It is clear that the presence of rotation enhances the threshold mass of the considered system. (ii) In the case of longitudinal mode of propagation when rotation is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field, Alfvén and viscous self-gravitating modes are obtained. The Alfvén mode is modified by FLR corrections and rotation. The analytical as well as graphical results show that the presence of FLR and rotation play significant roles in stabilizing the growth rate of the firehose instability by suppressing the parallel anisotropic pressure. The viscous self-gravitating mode is significantly affected by tensor viscosity, anisotropic pressure and the quantum parameter while it remains free from rotation and FLR corrections. When the direction of rotation is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the rotation of the considered system coupled the Alfvén and viscous self-gravitating modes to each other. The finding of the present work is applicable to
Magnetohydrodynamics of unsteady viscous fluid on boundary layer past a sliced sphere
Nursalim, Rahmat; Widodo, Basuki; Imron, Chairul
2017-10-01
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is important study in engineering and industrial fields. By study on MHD, we can reach the fluid flow characteristics that can be used to minimize its negative effect to an object. In decades, MHD has been widely studied in various geometry forms and fluid types. The sliced sphere is a geometry form that has not been investigated. In this paper we study magnetohydrodynamics of unsteady viscous fluid on boundary layer past a sliced sphere. Assumed that the fluid is incompressible, there is no magnetic field, there is no electrical voltage, the sliced sphere is fix and there is no barrier around the object. In this paper we focus on velocity profile at stagnation point (x = 0°). Mathematical model is governed by continuity and momentum equation. It is converted to non-dimensional, stream function, and similarity equation. Solution of the mathematical model is obtained by using Keller-Box numerical method. By giving various of slicing angle and various of magnetic parameter we get the simulation results. The simulation results show that increasing the slicing angle causes the velocity profile be steeper. Also, increasing the value of magnetic parameter causes the velocity profile be steeper. On the large slicing angle there is no significant effect of magnetic parameter to velocity profile, and on the high the value of magnetic parameter there is no significant effect of slicing angle to velocity profile.
Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; McWilliams, J.C.; Petviashvili, N.
1994-01-01
A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics based on the Elsaesser variables is developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to those based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected, the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. A statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations is given. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories, but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is presented as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected. A statistical calculation in the canonical ensemble and numerical simulations show that a nonzero large-scale magnetic field is statistically favored, and that the preferred shape of this field is a long, thin tube of flux. Possible applications to a variety of physical phenomena are suggested
Sudden viscous dissipation in compressing plasma turbulence
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel
2015-11-01
Compression of a turbulent plasma or fluid can cause amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the turnover and viscous dissipation times of the turbulent eddies. The consideration of compressing turbulent flows in inviscid fluids has been motivated by the suggestion that amplification of turbulent kinetic energy occurred on experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science Z-Pinch. We demonstrate a sudden viscous dissipation mechanism whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, which further increases the temperature, feeding back to further enhance the dissipation. Application of this mechanism in compression experiments may be advantageous, if the plasma can be kept comparatively cold during much of the compression, reducing radiation and conduction losses, until the plasma suddenly becomes hot. This work was supported by DOE through contract 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836) and by the DTRA.
Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott C.
2010-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a uniform hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with much higher plasma density and total mass, and consequently lower required injection velocit...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Das
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The combined effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on the momentum and thermal transport for the magnetohydrodynamic flow past an inclined plate in both aiding and opposing buoyancy situations have been carried out. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plate. The results show that there are significant effects of pertinent parameters on the flow fields.
The viscous dynamics of a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, B.W.; Simpson, S.W.
1978-01-01
The rotational velocity of a high-density, partially-ionized neon plasma has been calculated as a function of time using a dynamical model in which J x B and viscous forces act on the plasma. The calculation of appropriate transport coefficients is discussed in detail. The model is used to predict measured voltages in a plasma centrifuge experiment. Observations of neon isotope separation in this experiment have been reported in a previous paper (James and Simpson 1976). (author)
Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamak edge plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Wilson, H.R.; Miller, R.L.
1998-01-01
A new formalism for analyzing the magnetohydrodynamic stability of a limiter tokamak edge plasma is developed. Two radially localized, high toroidal mode number n instabilities are studied in detail: a peeling mode and an edge ballooning mode. The peeling mode, driven by edge current density and stabilized by edge pressure gradient, has features which are consistent with several properties of tokamak behavior in the high confinement open-quotes Hclose quotes-mode of operation, and edge localized modes (or ELMs) in particular. The edge ballooning mode, driven by the pressure gradient, is identified; this penetrates ∼n 1/3 rational surfaces into the plasma (rather than ∼n 1/2 , expected from conventional ballooning mode theory). Furthermore, there exists a coupling between these two modes and this coupling provides a picture of the ELM cycle
Variational form for a viscous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, A.; Steinhauer, L.C.; Berk, H.L.
1991-01-01
The variational formulation for a fluid plasma including the parallel and gyroviscosities is developed using the basic approach of Berk et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 2245 (1981)]. The equivalence of the variational problem to the original viscous fluid equations of motion is shown. The theory is developed for an axisymmetric plasma with no magnetic field in the azimuthal direction and therefore applies to field-reversed configurations and axisymmetric mirrors. This theory offers the advantage of describing both parallel and transverse ion kinetic effects within the simplicity afforded by a variational fluid model
Measuring the equations of state in a relaxed magnetohydrodynamic plasma
Kaur, M.; Barbano, L. J.; Suen-Lewis, E. M.; Shrock, J. E.; Light, A. D.; Brown, M. R.; Schaffner, D. A.
2018-01-01
We report measurements of the equations of state of a fully relaxed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) laboratory plasma. Parcels of magnetized plasma, called Taylor states, are formed in a coaxial magnetized plasma gun, and are allowed to relax and drift into a closed flux conserving volume. Density, ion temperature, and magnetic field are measured as a function of time as the Taylor states compress and heat. The theoretically predicted MHD and double adiabatic equations of state are compared to experimental measurements. We find that the MHD equation of state is inconsistent with our data.
Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of a Toroidal Plasma's Separatrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webster, A. J.; Gimblett, C. G.
2009-01-01
Large tokamaks capable of fusion power production such as ITER, should avoid large edge localized modes (ELMs), thought to be triggered by an ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability due to current at the plasma's separatrix boundary. Unlike analytical work in a cylindrical approximation, numerical work finds the modes are stable. The plasma's separatrix might stabilize modes, but makes analytical and numerical work difficult. We generalize a cylindrical model to toroidal separatrix geometry, finding one parameter Δ ' determines stability. The conformal transformation method is generalized to allow nonzero derivatives of a function on a boundary, and calculation of the equilibrium vacuum field allows Δ ' to be found analytically. As a boundary more closely approximates a separatrix, we find the energy principle indicates instability, but the growth rate asymptotes to zero
A Tightly Coupled Non-Equilibrium Magneto-Hydrodynamic Model for Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas
2016-02-29
development a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for Inductively Coupled Radio- Frequency (RF) Plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE...for Inductively Coupled Radio-Frequency (RF) Plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State...Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) torches have wide range of possible applications which include deposition of metal coatings, synthesis of ultra-fine powders
Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.C.
2010-01-01
Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today's magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today's computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.
Thermal radiation from an evolving viscous quark gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitra, Sukanya; Mohanty, Payal; Sarkar, Sourav; Alam, Jan-E
2013-01-01
The effects of viscosity on the space-time evolution of quark gluon plasma produced in nuclear collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies have been studied. The entropy generated due to the viscous motion of the fluid has been taken into account in constraining the initial temperature by the final multiplicity (measured at the freeze-out point). The viscous effects on the photon spectra has been introduced consistently through the evolution dynamics and phase space factors of all the participating partons/hadrons in the production process. In contrast to some of the recent calculations the present work includes the contribution from the hadronic phase. A small change in the transverse momentum (p T ) distribution of photons is observed due to viscous effects. (author)
Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jardin, S C
2010-09-28
Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today’s magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today’s computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.
Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas
2015-01-01
During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity. However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for "old hands" and newcomers alike.
Plasma pressure tensor effects on reconnection: Hybrid and Hall-magnetohydrodynamics simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin Lin; Winske, Dan
2003-01-01
Collisionless reconnection is studied using two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) and Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (Hall-MHD) simulations. Both use the full electron pressure tensor instead of a localized resistivity in Ohm's law to initiate reconnection; an initial perturbation or boundary driving to the equilibrium is used. The initial configurations include one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D current sheets both with and without a guide field. Electron dynamics from the two calculations are compared, and overall agreement is found between the calculations in both reconnection rate and global configuration [L. Yin et al., J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10761 (2001)]. It is shown that the electron drifts in the small-transverse-scale fields near the X point cause the electron motion to decouple from the ion motion, and that reconnection occurs due to electron viscous effects contained in the off-diagonal terms of the electron pressure tensor. Comparing the hybrid and Hall-MHD simulations shows that effects of the off-diagonal terms in the ion pressure tensor, i.e., the ion gyro-radius effects, are necessary in order to model correctly the ion out-of-plane motion. It is shown that these effects can be modeled efficiently in a particle Hall-MHD simulation in which particle ions are used in a predictor/corrector manner to implement ion gyro-radius corrections [L. Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2575 (2002)]. For modeling reconnection in large systems, a new integrated approach is examined in which Hall-MHD calculations using a full electron pressure tensor model is embedded inside a MHD simulation. The embedded simulation of current sheet thinning and reconnection dynamics in a realistic 2-D magnetotail equilibrium exhibits smooth transitions of plasma and field quantities between the two regions, with small-scale physics represented well in the compressed current sheet and in the near-X-point region
Graves, J P; Chapman, I T; Coda, S; Lennholm, M; Albergante, M; Jucker, M
2012-01-10
Virtually collisionless magnetic mirror-trapped energetic ion populations often partially stabilize internally driven magnetohydrodynamic disturbances in the magnetosphere and in toroidal laboratory plasma devices such as the tokamak. This results in less frequent but dangerously enlarged plasma reorganization. Unique to the toroidal magnetic configuration are confined 'circulating' energetic particles that are not mirror trapped. Here we show that a newly discovered effect from hybrid kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic theory has been exploited in sophisticated phase space engineering techniques for controlling stability in the tokamak. These theoretical predictions have been confirmed, and the technique successfully applied in the Joint European Torus. Manipulation of auxiliary ion heating systems can create an asymmetry in the distribution of energetic circulating ions in the velocity orientated along magnetic field lines. We show the first experiments in which large sawtooth collapses have been controlled by this technique, and neoclassical tearing modes avoided, in high-performance reactor-relevant plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K. C.
2007-01-01
In Part I [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1190 (1990)] and Part II [Phys. Plasmas 12, 082508 (2005)], it was emphasized that the equilibrium plasma viscous forces when applied for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are only rigorously valid at the mode rational surface where m-nq=0. Here, m is the poloidal mode number, n is the toroidal mode number, and q is the safety factor. This important fact has been demonstrated explicitly by calculating the viscous forces in the plateau regime in Parts I and II. Here, the effective viscous forces in the banana regime are calculated for MHD modes by solving the linear drift kinetic equation that is driven by the plasma flows first derived in Part I. At the mode rational surface, the equilibrium plasma viscous forces are reproduced. However, it is found that away from the mode rational surface, the viscous forces for MHD modes decrease, a behavior similar to that observed in the viscous forces for the plateau regime. The proper form of the momentum equation that is appropriate for the modeling of the MHD modes is also discussed
Analysis and measurement of property disturbances in a combustion magnetohydrodynamic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simons, T.D.; Mitchner, M.; Eustis, R.H.
1984-01-01
Measurements of propagating pressure and temperature (entropy) waves in a combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator are presented along with a general model which describes how to produce controlled rapid property disturbances in a combustion MHD plasma. The model identifies the principal mechanisms of wave formation and predicts the qualitative and quantitative wave shapes as a function of average plasma and electrical properties but does not describe wave amplification. The model exhibits quantitatively the coupling between the entropy and acoustic waves and the electric current and magnetic field under conditions applicable to MHD power generation
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria and local stability of axisymmetric tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, Y.K.M.; Dory, R.A.; Nelson, D.B.; Sayer, R.O.
1976-07-01
Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are evaluated in terms of the Mercier Stability Criterion. The parameters of interest include poloidal beta (β/sub p/), current and pressure profile widths, D-shaped and doublet plasmas with elongation (sigma) and triangularity (delta), and the aspect ratio (A). For marginal local stability, the critical values of β, plasma current, and the safety factor q with fixed toroidal field at the geometric center of the plasma are obtained. It is shown that for a wide range of profiles in a D-shaped plasma with A = 3, the highest critical β occurs at β/sub p/ = 2.4, sigma = 1.65, and delta = 0.5. If the toroidal field at the coil surface is fixed, the highest critical pressure occurs near A approximately 3 to 4, given reasonable distance between the coils and the plasma edge. Calculations for a Doublet II-A plasma with sigma = 3 show that with similar pressure profile the highest critical β occurs at β/sub p/ = 1 and is 84 percent of the highest critical β for the D-shaped plasmas. Critical values of ohmic heating power density are also found to be comparable for the two plasma shapes. A D-shaped plasma with the above parameters is suggested for use in future high-β tokamak devices
Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Cahyna, Pavel
2013-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 10 (2013), s. 102510-102510 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * edge localized mode * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.249, year: 2013 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/20/10/10.1063/1.4824820
Nonthermal fusion reactor concept based on Hall-effect magnetohydrodynamics plasma theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witalis, E.A.
1988-01-01
The failure of magnetic confinement controlled thermonuclear fusion research to achieve its goal is attributed to its foundation on the incomplete MHD plasma description instead of the more general HMHD (Hall-effect magnetohydrodynamics) theory. The latter allows for a certain magnetic plasma self-confinement under described stringent conditions. A reactor concept based on the formation, acceleration, and forced disintegration of magnetized whirl structures, plasmoids, is proposed. The four conventional MHD theory objections, i.e., absence of dynamo action, fast decay caused by resistivity, non-existence of magnetic self-confinement, and negligible non-thermal fusion yield, are shown not to apply. Support for the scheme from dense plasma focus research is pointed out. (orig.) [de
Energy change of a heavy quark in a viscous quark–gluon plasma with fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Bing-feng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong
2016-01-01
When a heavy quark travels through the quark–gluon plasma, the polarization and fluctuating chromoelectric fields will be produced simultaneously in the plasma. The drag force due to those fields exerting in return on the moving heavy quark will cause energy change to it. Based on the dielectric functions derived from the viscous chromohydrodynamics, we have studied the collisional energy change of a heavy quark traversing the viscous quark–gluon plasma including fluctuations of chromoelectric field. Numerical results indicate that the chromoelectric field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the moving heavy quark. Shear viscosity suppresses the fluctuation-induced energy gain and the viscous suppression effect for the charm quark is much more remarkable than that for the bottom quark. While, the fluctuation energy gain is much smaller than the polarization energy loss in magnitude and the net energy change for the heavy quark is at loss.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimachkov, D.A., E-mail: klimachkovdmitry@gmail.com [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Petrosyan, A.S. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskyi per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation)
2017-01-15
This article deals with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a thin rotating layer of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field. We use the shallow water approximation to describe thin rotating plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field. The MHD shallow water equations with external vertical magnetic field are revised by supplementing them with the equations that are consequences of the magnetic field divergence-free conditions and reveal the existence of third component of the magnetic field in such approximation providing its relation with the horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of a vertical magnetic field significantly changes the dynamics of the wave processes in astrophysical plasma compared to the neutral fluid and plasma layer in a toroidal magnetic field. The equations for the nonlinear wave packets interactions are derived using the asymptotic multiscale method. The equations for three magneto-Poincare waves interactions, for three magnetostrophic waves interactions, for the interactions of two magneto-Poincare waves and for one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave interactions are obtained. The existence of parametric decay and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of parametric decay instabilities: magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare wave and one magnetostrophic wave, magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave. Following mechanisms of parametric amplifications are found: parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave amplification in magnetostrophic wave presence and magnetostrophic wave amplification in magneto-Poincare wave presence. The instabilities growth rates
Multi-scale semi-ideal magnetohydrodynamics of a tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazdenkov, S.; Sato, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kunihiko.
1995-09-01
An analytical model of fast spatial flattening of the toroidal current density and q-profile at the nonlinear stage of (m = 1/n = 1) kink instability of a tokamak plasma is presented. The flattening is shown to be an essentially multi-scale phenomenon which is characterized by, at least, two magnetic Reynolds numbers. The ordinary one, R m , is related with a characteristic radial scale-length, while the other, R m * , corresponds to a characteristic scale-length of plasma inhomogeneity along the magnetic field line. In a highly conducting plasma inside the q = 1 magnetic surface, where q value does not much differ from unity, plasma evolution is governed by a multi-scale non-ideal dynamics characterized by two well-separated magnetic Reynolds numbers, R m and R m * ≡ (1 - q) R m , where R m * - O(1) and R m >> 1. This dynamics consistently explains two seemingly contradictory features recently observed in a numerical simulation [Watanabe et al., 1995]: i) the current profile (q-profile) is flattened in the magnetohydrodynamic time scale within the q = 1 rational surface; ii) the magnetic surface keeps its initial circular shape during this evolution. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamic stability of a plasma confined in a convex poloidal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.
1976-11-01
A plasma confined in a purely poloidal magnetic field with a finite pressure at the boundary and surrounded by a conducting wall can be stabilized against magnetohydrodynamic perturbations even in absence of shear and minimum-average-B properties. To achieve large pressure gradients the average magnetic field has to decrease rapidly outwards. The theory is applied to a 'Spherator' configuration with a purely poloidal magnetic field. (Auth.)
Magnetohydrodynamics and the thermonuclear problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alfven, H [Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
1958-07-01
The importance of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics for the solution of thermonuclear problem is presented in the paper. Methods for capture of a plasma by a magnetic field are discussed. From the study it is concluded that in principle it is possible to shoot heated plasma into a magnetic field and capture it there. A possible method of capturing plasma which is shot into a magnetic field is illustrated. Magnetohydrodynamic research performed during the last decade in Stockholm is presented. Following a long series of investigations of relatively cool plasmas, it has been started a series of experimental investigations on hot plasmas, concentrating on the fundamental properties of the plasma. New ways of the approach to the thermonuclear problem are analysed. Experiments have been with discharges of a few hundred kiloamps to produce fast-moving magnetized plasmas, in order to investigate whether they could be captured by magnetic fields in the discussed way.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dulal Pal
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective heat and mass transfer near a stagnation-point flow over stretching/shrinking sheet of nanofluids is presented in this paper by considering thermal radiation, Ohmic heating, viscous dissipation and heat source/sink parameter effects. Non-similarity method is adopted for the governing basic equations before they are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method using shooting technique. The numerical results are validated by comparing the present results with previously published results. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of some selected governing parameters such as Richardson number, radiation parameter, Schimdt number, Eckert number and magnetic parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WU Renchao
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider three dimensional compressible viscous magnetohydro dynamic equations(MHD with external potentialforce. We first derive the corresponding non-constantstationary solutions. Then we show global well-posedness of the initial value problem for the three dimensional compressible viscous magnetohydrodynamic equations, provided that rescribed initial data is close to the stationary solution.
Quasi-neutral limit for a model of viscous plasma
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Zhang, P.
2010-01-01
Roč. 197, č. 1 (2010), s. 271-295 ISSN 0003-9527 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes- Poisson system * quasi-neutral limit * viscous plasma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.277, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00205-010-0317-7
Stationary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of toroidal plasma in rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Missiato, O.
1986-01-01
The stationary equations of classical magnetohydrodynamics are utilized to study the toroidal motion of a thermonuclear magnetically - confined plasma with toroidal symmetry (Tokamak). In the present work, we considered a purely toroidal stationary rotation and te problem is reduced to studing a second order partial differencial equation of eliptic type Maschke-Perrin. Assuming that the temperature remains constant on the magnetic surfaces, an analitic solution, valid for low Mach numbers (M ≤ 0 .4), was obtained for the above-mentioned equation by means of a technique developed by Pantuso Sudano. From the solution found, we traced graphs for the quantities which described the equilibrium state of the plasma, namely: mass density, pressure, temperature, electric current density and toroidal magnetic field. Finally we compare this analitical model with others works which utilized differents analitical models and numerical simulations. We conclude that the solutions obtained are in good agreement with the previos results. In addition, however, our model contains the results of Sudano-Goes with the additional advantage of employing much simple analitical expressions. (author) [pt
Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingxiu Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.
Plasma tubes becoming collimated as a result of magnetohydrodynamic pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Gunsu S.; Bellan, Paul M.
2010-01-01
Collimated magnetized plasma structures are commonly observed on galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. The Caltech plasma gun produces magnetically driven plasma jets bearing a striking resemblance to astrophysical jets and solar coronal loops by imposing boundary conditions analogous to those plasmas. This paper presents experimental observations of gun-produced plasma jets that support a previously proposed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping model [P. M. Bellan, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1999 (2003)] as a universal collimation mechanism. For any initially flared, magnetized plasma tube with a finite axial current, the model predicts (i) magnetic pumping of plasma particles from a constricted region into a bulged region and (ii) tube collimation if the flow slows down at the bulged region leading to accumulation of mass and thus concentrating the azimuthal magnetic flux frozen in the mass flow (i.e., increasing the pinch force). Time- and space-resolved spectroscopic measurements of gun-produced plasmas have confirmed the highly dynamic nature of the process leading to a collimated state, namely, (i) suprathermal Alfvenic flow (30-50 km/s), (ii) large density amplification from ∼10 17 to ∼10 22 m -3 in an Alfvenic time scale (5-10 μs), and (iii) flow slowing down and mass accumulation at the flow front, the place where the tube collimation occurs according to high-speed camera imaging. These observations are consistent with the predictions of the MHD pumping model, and offer valuable insight into the formation mechanism of laboratory, solar, and astrophysical plasma structures.
Multi-scale semi-ideal magnetohydrodynamics of a tokamak plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazdenkov, S.; Sato, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kunihiko
1995-09-01
An analytical model of fast spatial flattening of the toroidal current density and q-profile at the nonlinear stage of (m = 1/n = 1) kink instability of a tokamak plasma is presented. The flattening is shown to be an essentially multi-scale phenomenon which is characterized by, at least, two magnetic Reynolds numbers. The ordinary one, R{sub m}, is related with a characteristic radial scale-length, while the other, R{sub m}{sup *}, corresponds to a characteristic scale-length of plasma inhomogeneity along the magnetic field line. In a highly conducting plasma inside the q = 1 magnetic surface, where q value does not much differ from unity, plasma evolution is governed by a multi-scale non-ideal dynamics characterized by two well-separated magnetic Reynolds numbers, R{sub m} and R{sub m}{sup *} {identical_to} (1 - q) R{sub m}, where R{sub m}{sup *} - O(1) and R{sub m} >> 1. This dynamics consistently explains two seemingly contradictory features recently observed in a numerical simulation [Watanabe et al., 1995]: (i) the current profile (q-profile) is flattened in the magnetohydrodynamic time scale within the q = 1 rational surface; (ii) the magnetic surface keeps its initial circular shape during this evolution. (author).
Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.
2017-06-01
Recent experiments by Loebner et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1534 (2016)] studied the effect of a hypervelocity jet emanating from a coaxial plasma accelerator incident on target surfaces in an effort to mimic the transient loading created during edge localized mode disruption events in fusion plasmas. In this paper, we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model to simulate plasma jet formation and plasma-surface contact in this coaxial plasma accelerator experiment. The MHD system of equations is spatially discretized using a cell-centered finite volume formulation. The temporal discretization is performed using a fully implicit backward Euler scheme and the resultant stiff system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Newton method. The numerical model is employed to obtain some key insights into the physical processes responsible for the generation of extreme stagnation conditions on the target surfaces. Simulations of the plume (without the target plate) are performed to isolate and study phenomena such as the magnetic pinch effect that is responsible for launching pressure pulses into the jet free stream. The simulations also yield insights into the incipient conditions responsible for producing the pinch, such as the formation of conductive channels. The jet-target impact studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages involved in the plasma-surface interaction. A fast transient stage characterized by a thin normal shock transitions into a pseudo-steady stage that exhibits an extended oblique shock structure. A quadratic scaling of the pinch and stagnation conditions with the total current discharged between the electrodes is in qualitative agreement with the results obtained in the experiments. This also illustrates the dominant contribution of the magnetic pressure term in determining the magnitude of the quantities of interest.
A new linear plasma device for the study of plasma waves in the electron magnetohydrodynamics regime
Joshi, Garima; Ravi, G.; Mukherjee, S.
2018-06-01
A new, user-friendly, linear plasma device has been developed in our laboratory where a quiescent (Δ n/n ≈ 1%), low temperature (1-10 eV), pulsed (3-10 ms) plasma can be produced over a large uniform region of 30-40 cm diameter and 40 cm length. Salient features of the device include the flexibility of tuning the plasma density in the range of 10^{10} to 10^{12} cm^{-3} and capability of scanning the plasma and field parameters in two dimensions with a precision of electromagnetic field parameters by miniature magnetic probes and Rogowski coils. The plasma produced is uniform and essentially unbounded for performing experiments on waves and turbulence. The whole device can be operated single-handedly by undergraduate or graduate students. The device can be opened, serviced, new antennas/probes installed and ready for operation in a matter of hours. Some results on the excitation of electromagnetic structures in the context of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) are also presented to demonstrate the suitability of the device for carrying out such experiments.
Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mushtaq, A. [TPPD, PINSTECH Nilore, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan)
2012-05-15
Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle {theta}, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.
Resonant magnetohydrodynamic waves in high-beta plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruderman, M. S.
2009-01-01
When a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagates in a weakly dissipative inhomogeneous plasma, the resonant interaction of this wave with either local Alfven or slow MHD waves is possible. This interaction occurs at the resonant position where the phase velocity of the global wave coincides with the phase velocity of either Alfven or slow MHD waves. As a result of this interaction a dissipative layer embracing the resonant position is formed, its thickness being proportional to R -1/3 , where R>>1 is the Reynolds number. The wave motion in the resonant layer is characterized by large amplitudes and large gradients. The presence of large gradients causes strong dissipation of the global wave even in very weakly dissipative plasmas. Very often the global wave motion is characterized by the presence of both Alfven and slow resonances. In plasmas with small or moderate plasma beta β, the resonance positions corresponding to the Alfven and slow resonances are well separated, so that the wave motion in the Alfven and slow dissipative layers embracing the Alfven and slow resonant positions, respectively, can be studied separately. However, when β > or approx. R 1/3 , the two resonance positions are so close that the two dissipative layers overlap. In this case, instead of two dissipative layers, there is one mixed Alfven-slow dissipative layer. In this paper the wave motion in such a mixed dissipative layer is studied. It is shown that this motion is a linear superposition of two motions, one corresponding to the Alfven and the other to the slow dissipative layer. The jump of normal velocity across the mixed dissipative layer related to the energy dissipation rate is equal to the sum of two jumps, one that occurs across the Alfven dissipative layer and the other across the slow dissipative layer.
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations for a 5 MJ plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maxon, S.
1983-01-01
This article describes the calculation of the performance of a 5 MJ plasma focus using a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2-D MHD) code. Discusses two configurations, a solid and a hollow anode. Finds an instability in the current sheath of the hollow anode which has the characteristics of the short wave length sausage instability. As the current sheath reaches the axis, the numerical solution is seen to break down. When the numerical solution breaks down, the code shows a splitting of the current sheath (from the axis to the anode) and the loss of a large amount of magnetic energy. Current-sheath stagnation is observed in the hollow anode configuration
Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropy and flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-07-15
We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes pressure anisotropy and general plasma flows. This anisotropic extension to our previous isotropic model is motivated by Sun and Finn's model of relaxed anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our anisotropic extension of MRxMHD reduces to anisotropic ideal MHD with flow. The continuously nested flux surface limit of our MRxMHD model is the first variational principle for anisotropic plasma equilibria with general flow fields.
Schlieren Technique Applied to Magnetohydrodynamic Generator Plasma Torch
Chopra, Nirbhav; Pearcy, Jacob; Jaworski, Michael
2017-10-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators are a promising augmentation to current hydrocarbon based combustion schemes for creating electrical power. In recent years, interest in MHD generators has been revitalized due to advances in a number of technologies such as superconducting magnets, solid-state power electronics and materials science as well as changing economics associated with carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration. We use a multi-wavelength schlieren imaging system to evaluate electron density independently of gas density in a plasma torch under conditions relevant to MHD generators. The sensitivity and resolution of the optical system are evaluated alongside the development of an automated analysis and calibration program in Python. Preliminary analysis shows spatial resolutions less than 1mm and measures an electron density of ne = 1 ×1016 cm-3 in an atmospheric microwave torch. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Theoretical and experimental investigation on magneto-hydrodynamics of plasma window
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, S. Z.; Zhu, K., E-mail: zhukun@pku.edu.cn; Huang, S.; Lu, Y. R.; Yuan, Z. X.; Shi, B. L.; Gan, P. P. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)
2016-01-15
As a new device, plasma window has been designed to use plasma discharge to separate atmosphere from vacuum with high difference of pressure. It has many excellent properties, being able to be used as available passage for ion beam with negligible energy loss, also impervious to radiation damage and thermal damage. Normally beam focusing by accelerators is not that easy to achieve within channel of small cross section. 10 mm diameter plasma window's experimental realization could contribute to its further application in accelerator system. In this paper, 10 mm diameter 60 mm long plasma window has first been designed and managed to generate arc discharge with argon gas experimentally. The result proves that it has the ability to separate at least 28.8 kPa (not the upper limit) from 360 Pa with 50 A direct current and 2.5 kW power supplied. Current increase leads to linear inlet pressure increase obviously, while it has less impact on outlet pressure and voltage, coming to the conclusion that the higher current of plasma discharge, the larger pressure difference it creates. Theoretical analysis of 10 mm diameter plasma window in axis symmetrical configuration using argon also has been provided, in which a numerical 2D FLUENT-based magneto-hydrodynamic simulation model is settled. It has a good agreement with experimental result on voltage and mass flow rate when inlet pressure is increased.
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations for a 5 MJ plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maxon, S.
1979-01-01
The performance of a 5 MJ plasma focus is calculated using our two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2-D MHD) code. Two configurations are discussed, a solid and a hollow anode. In the case of the hollow anode, we find an instability in the current sheath which has the characteristics of the short wave length sausage instability. As the current sheath reaches the axis, the numerical solution is seen to break down. Just before this time, plasma parameters take on the characteristic values rho/rho 0 = 143, kT/sup i/ = 7.4 keV, B/sub theta/ = 4.7 MG, and V/sub z/ = 60 cm/μs for a zone with r = 0.2 mm. When the numerical solution breaks down, the code shows a splitting of the current sheath (from the axis to the anode) and the loss of a large amount of magnetic energy. Current-sheath stagnation is observed in the hollow anode configuration, also
Study of MRI in stratified viscous plasma configuration
Carlevaro, Nakia; Montani, Giovanni; Renzi, Fabrizio
2017-02-01
We analyze the morphology of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) for a stratified viscous plasma disk configuration in differential rotation, taking into account the so-called corotation theorem for the background profile. In order to select the intrinsic Alfvénic nature of MRI, we deal with an incompressible plasma and we adopt a formulation of the local perturbation analysis based on the use of the magnetic flux function as a dynamical variable. Our study outlines, as consequence of the corotation condition, a marked asymmetry of the MRI with respect to the equatorial plane, particularly evident in a complete damping of the instability over a positive critical height on the equatorial plane. We also emphasize how such a feature is already present (although less pronounced) even in the ideal case, restoring a dependence of the MRI on the stratified morphology of the gravitational field.
VISCOUS-LIKE INTERACTION OF THE SOLAR WIND WITH THE PLASMA TAIL OF COMET SWIFT-TUTTLE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Vazquez, Roberto; Perez-de-Tejada, Hector
2010-01-01
We compare the results of the numerical simulation of the viscous-like interaction of the solar wind with the plasma tail of a comet, with velocities of H 2 O+ ions in the tail of comet Swift-Tuttle determined by means of spectroscopic ground-based observations. Our aim is to constrain the value of the basic parameters in the viscous-like interaction model: the effective Reynolds number of the flow and the interspecies coupling timescale. We find that in our simulations the flow rapidly evolves from an arbitrary initial condition to a quasi-steady state for which there is a good agreement between the simulated tailward velocity of H 2 O+ ions and the kinematics derived from the observations. The fiducial case of our model, characterized by a low effective Reynolds number (Re eff ∼ 20) selected on the basis of a comparison to in situ measurements of the plasma flow at comet Halley, yields an excellent fit to the observed kinematics. Given the agreement between model and observations, with no ad hoc assumptions, we believe that this result suggests that viscous-like momentum transport may play an important role in the interaction of the solar wind and the cometary plasma environment.
Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.
1999-01-01
The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)
Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-04-15
We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.
One-Dimensional Problem of a Conducting Viscous Fluid with One Relaxation Time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angail A. Samaan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a magnetohydrodynamic model of boundary-layer equations for conducting viscous fluids. This model is applied to study the effects of free convection currents with thermal relaxation time on the flow of a viscous conducting fluid. The method of the matrix exponential formulation for these equations is introduced. The resulting formulation together with the Laplace transform technique is applied to a variety problems. The effects of a plane distribution of heat sources on the whole and semispace are studied. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically for the problem.
Variational formulation of relaxed and multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics
Dewar, R. L.; Yoshida, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hudson, S. R.
2015-12-01
> Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.
Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, R.J.
1987-01-01
The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada)
2017-05-02
We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the “conventional” magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell’s equations in matter) to those in the “dual” version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panwar, Anuraj; Ryu, Chang-Mo [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, KyungBuk, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-15
The modulational instability and associated rogue structures of a slow magnetosonic wave are investigated for a Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasma. Nonlinear Schrodinger equation is obtained by using the multiple scale method, which shows a modulationally unstable slow magnetosonic mode evolving into bright wavepackets. The dispersive effects induced by the Hall electron current increase with the increase in plasma β and become weaker as the angle of propagation increases. The growth rate of the modulational instability also increases with the increase in plasma β. The growth rate is greatest for the parallel propagation and drops to zero for perpendicular propagation. The envelope wavepacket of a slow magnetosonic is widened with less oscillations as plasma β increases. But the wavepacket becomes slightly narrower and more oscillatory as the angle of propagation increases. Further a non-stationary envelope solution of the Peregrine soliton is analyzed for rogue waves. The Peregrine soliton contracts temporally and expands spatially with increase in plasma β. However, the width of a slow magnetosonic Peregrine soliton decreases both temporally and spatially with increase of the propagation angle.
Relativistic viscous hydrodynamics for heavy-ion collisions with ECHO-QGP
Del Zanna, L; Inghirami, G; Rolando, V; Beraudo, A; De Pace, A; Pagliara, G; Drago, A; Becattini, F
2013-01-01
We present ECHO-QGP, a numerical code for $(3+1)$-dimensional relativistic viscous hydrodynamics designed for the modeling of the space-time evolution of the matter created in high energy nuclear collisions. The code has been built on top of the \\emph{Eulerian Conservative High-Order} astrophysical code for general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics [\\emph{Del Zanna et al., Astron. Astrophys. 473, 11, 2007}] and here it has been upgraded to handle the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. ECHO-QGP features second-order treatment of causal relativistic viscosity effects in both Minkowskian or Bjorken coordinates; partial or complete chemical equilibrium of hadronic species before kinetic freeze-out; initial conditions based on the optical Glauber model, including a Monte-Carlo routine for event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions; a freeze-out procedure based on the Cooper-Frye prescription. The code is extensively validated against several test problems and results always appear accurate, as guaranteed by th...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, Roger B.; McKenzie, David E.; Longcope, Dana W. [Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)
2016-03-01
Supra-arcade fans are highly dynamic structures that form in the region above post-reconnection flare arcades. In these features the plasma density and temperature evolve on the scale of a few seconds, despite the much slower dynamics of the underlying arcade. Further, the motion of supra-arcade plasma plumes appears to be inconsistent with the low-beta conditions that are often assumed to exist in the solar corona. In order to understand the nature of these highly debated structures, it is, therefore, important to investigate the interplay of the magnetic field with the plasma. Here we present a technique for inferring the underlying magnetohydrodynamic processes that might lead to the types of motions seen in supra-arcade structures. Taking as a case study the 2011 October 22 event, we begin with extreme-ultraviolet observations and develop a time-dependent velocity field that is consistent with both continuity and local correlation tracking. We then assimilate this velocity field into a simplified magnetohydrodynamic simulation, which deals simultaneously with regions of high and low signal-to-noise ratio, thereby allowing the magnetic field to evolve self-consistently with the fluid. Ultimately, we extract the missing contributions from the momentum equation in order to estimate the relative strength of the various forcing terms. In this way we are able to make estimates of the plasma beta, as well as predict the spectral character and total power of Alfvén waves radiated from the supra-arcade region.
Magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow over a nonlinearly moving surface: Closed-form solutions
Fang, Tiegang
2014-05-01
In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a nonlinearly (power-law velocity) moving surface is investigated analytically and solutions are presented for a few special conditions. The solutions are obtained in closed forms with hyperbolic functions. The effects of the magnetic, the wall moving, and the mass transpiration parameters are discussed. These solutions are important to show the flow physics as well as to be used as bench mark problems for numerical validation and development of new solution schemes.
Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro
2001-01-01
Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)
Attractors of magnetohydrodynamic flows in an Alfvenic state
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Nunez, Manuel; Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain)
1999-08-13
We present a simplified form of the magnetohydrodynamic system which describes the evolution of a plasma where the small-scale velocity and magnetic field are aligned in the form of Alfven waves, such as happens in several turbulent situations. Bounds on the dimension of the global attractor are found, and are shown to be an improvement of the standard ones for the full magnetohydrodynamic equations. (author)
The infinite interface limit of multiple-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics
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Dennis, G. R.; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2013-03-15
We show the stepped-pressure equilibria that are obtained from a generalization of Taylor relaxation known as multi-region, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRXMHD) are also generalizations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD). We show this by proving that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, MRXMHD reduces to ideal MHD. Numerical convergence studies illustrating this limit are presented.
Sithole, Hloniphile; Mondal, Hiranmoy; Sibanda, Precious
2018-06-01
This study addresses entropy generation in magnetohydrodynamic flow of a second grade nanofluid over a convectively heated stretching sheet with nonlinear thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. The second grade fluid is assumed to be electrically conducting and is permeated by an applied non-uniform magnetic field. We further consider the impact on the fluid properties and the Nusselt number of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and a convective boundary condition. The mathematical equations are solved using the spectral local linearization method. Computations for skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are carried out and displayed in a table. It is observed that the effects of the thermophoresis parameter is to increase the temperature distributions throughout the boundary layer. The entropy generation is enhanced by larger magnetic parameters and increasing Reynolds number. The aim of this manuscript is to pay more attention of entropy generation analysis with heat and fluid flow on second grade nanofluids to improve the system performance. Also the fluid velocity and temperature in the boundary layer region rise significantly for increasing the values of the second grade nanofluid parameter.
Magnetohydrodynamics of neutron star interiors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easson, I.; Pethick, C.J.
1979-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic equations for the charged particles in the fluid interior of a neutron star are derived from the Landau-Boltzmann kinetic equations. It is assumed that the protons are normal and the neutrons are superfluid. The dissipative processes associated with the weak interactions are shown to be negligible except in very hot neutron stars; we neglect them here. Among the topics discussed are: the influence of the neutron-proton nuclear force (Fermi liquid corrections) on the magnetohydrodynamics; the effects of the magnetic field on the pressure, viscosity, and heat conductivity tensors; the plasma equation of state; and the form of the generalized Ohm's law
Shibata, Masaru; Kiuchi, Kenta
2017-06-01
Employing a simplified version of the Israel-Stewart formalism of general-relativistic shear-viscous hydrodynamics, we explore the evolution of a remnant massive neutron star of binary neutron star merger and pay special attention to the resulting gravitational waveforms. We find that for the plausible values of the so-called viscous alpha parameter of the order 10-2 the degree of the differential rotation in the remnant massive neutron star is significantly reduced in the viscous time scale, ≲5 ms . Associated with this, the degree of nonaxisymmetric deformation is also reduced quickly, and as a consequence, the amplitude of quasiperiodic gravitational waves emitted also decays in the viscous time scale. Our results indicate that for modeling the evolution of the merger remnants of binary neutron stars we would have to take into account magnetohydrodynamics effects, which in nature could provide the viscous effects.
Magnetohydrodynamic theory of plasma equilibrium and stability in stellarators: Survey of results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafranov, V.D.
1983-01-01
The main advantage of a stellarator is its capability of steady-state operation. It can be exploited as a reactor if stable plasma confinement can be achieved with #betta#approx.10%. Therefore, this limiting pressure value is a key factor in stellarator development. This paper contains a survey of current ideas on the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability properties of stellarators with sufficiently high pressure. Here, any system of nested toroidal magnetic surfaces generated by external currents is considered a stellarator. Systems produced by helical or equivalent windings, including torsatrons and heliotrons, will be called ordinary stellarators, in contrast to those with spatial axes. It is shown that adequate confinement can be achieved
Entropy Generation in Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convection Flow over an Inclined Stretching Sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Idrees Afridi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This research focuses on entropy generation rate per unit volume in magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over an inclined stretching sheet. Analysis has been performed in the presence of viscous dissipation and non-isothermal boundary conditions. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by an appropriate similarity transformation. The transformed coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are then solved numerically by a shooting technique along with the Runge-Kutta method. Expressions for entropy generation (Ns and Bejan number (Be in the form of dimensionless variables are also obtained. Impact of various physical parameters on the quantities of interest is seen.
Fast surface waves in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhelyazkov, I.; Debosscher, A.; Goossens, M.
1996-01-01
The propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab is studied taking into account the Hall term in the generalized Ohm close-quote s law. It is found that the Hall effect modifies the dispersion characteristics of MHD surface modes when the Hall term scaling length is not negligible (less than, but comparable to the slab thickness). The dispersion relations for both modes have been derived for parallel propagation (along the ambient equilibrium magnetic field lines).The Hall term imposes some limits on the possible wave number range. It turns out that the space distribution of almost all perturbed quantities in sausage and kink surface waves with Hall effect is rather complicated as compared to that of usual fast MHD surface waves. The applicability to solar wind aspects of the results obtained, is briefly discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
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Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro
2010-01-01
Kink instability and the subsequent plasma flow during the sustainment of a coaxial gun spheromak are investigated by three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Analysis of the parallel current density λ profile in the central open column revealed that the n = 1 mode structure plays an important role in the relaxation and current drive. The toroidal flow (v t ≈ 37 km/s) is driven by magnetic reconnection occurring as a result of the helical kink distortion of the central open column during repetitive plasmoid ejection and merging. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2014-05-15
Global mode stability is studied in high-β National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n = 1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest β{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at β{sub N}∕l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E × B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.
Surface wave propagation in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet in flowing environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikka, Himanshu; Kumar, Nagendra; Zhelyazkov, Ivan
2004-01-01
The behavior of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) sausage and kink waves is studied in the presence of steady flow. The influence of the flow both inside and outside the plasma slab is taken into account. The plasma in the environment is considered to be cold and moves with the different flow velocity outside the slab. In the limit of parallel propagation, dispersion relation is derived to discuss the propagation of both the modes. Numerical results for the propagation characteristics are obtained for different Alfvenic Mach number ratios inside and outside the slab. It is found that the dispersion curves for both surface modes, namely, the sausage and kink ones in cold plasma show complexities in their behavior in terms of multivalued portions of the curves. These multivalued portions correspond to the different normalized phase velocities for the same value of Alfvenic Mach number. In contrast to the conventional MHD surface waves which are assumed to be pure surface waves or pseudosurface waves, surface waves are obtained which are bulk waves for very small dimensionless wave numbers, then turn to leaky waves and finally transform to pure surface waves for values of dimensionless wave number greater than one
Maroof, R.; Ali, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.
2015-11-01
Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maroof, R. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)
2015-11-15
Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars.
Gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamics and the associated equilibria
Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.
2017-12-01
The gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, related to the recent paper by W. W. Lee ["Magnetohydrodynamics for collisionless plasmas from the gyrokinetic perspective," Phys. Plasmas 23, 070705 (2016)], and their associated equilibria properties are discussed. This set of equations consists of the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation, the gyrokinetic parallel Ohm's law, and the gyrokinetic Ampere's law as well as the equations of state, which are expressed in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, A , and support both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and the associated currents. The corresponding gyrokinetic MHD equilibria can be reached when ϕ→0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇.(J∥+J⊥)=0 and the associated magnetic islands, if they exist. Examples of simple cylindrical geometry are given. These gyrokinetic MHD equations look quite different from the conventional MHD equations, and their comparisons will be an interesting topic in the future.
Model of an electric field produced by viscous interaction in the plasma sheet of the magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkaev, N.V.
1996-01-01
Two-dimensional model of flow in a plasma layer of magnetotail is considered with account of low viscosity. The general Ohm's law is used for electric current. The role of viscous forces is most sufficient in boundary layers, which expand with moving away along the flow and located along the boundaries of plasma layer and solar wind. Auto model solution, describing the distribution of potential and velocity in boundary layers was obtained. The solution for boundary layers dictates boundary conditions for determination of large-scale distribution of electric potential in plasma layer. 7 refs., 4 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sánchez-Arriaga, G.
2013-01-01
The existence of discontinuities within the double-adiabatic Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is discussed. These solutions are transitional layers where some of the plasma properties change from one equilibrium state to another. Under the assumption of traveling wave solutions with velocity C and propagation angle θ with respect to the ambient magnetic field, the Hall-MHD model reduces to a dynamical system and the waves are heteroclinic orbits joining two different fixed points. The analysis of the fixed points rules out the existence of rotational discontinuities. Simple considerations about the Hamiltonian nature of the system show that, unlike dissipative models, the intermediate shock waves are organized in branches in parameter space, i.e., they occur if a given relationship between θ and C is satisfied. Electron-polarized (ion-polarized) shock waves exhibit, in addition to a reversal of the magnetic field component tangential to the shock front, a maximum (minimum) of the magnetic field amplitude. The jumps of the magnetic field and the relative specific volume between the downstream and the upstream states as a function of the plasma properties are presented. The organization in parameter space of localized structures including in the model the influence of finite Larmor radius is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Li; Liu Zhenxing; Cao Jinbin
2002-01-01
Two-and-one-half-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the multicomponent plasma sheet with the velocity curl term in the magnetic equation are represented. The simulation results can be summarized as follows: (1) There is an oscillation of the plasma sheet with the period on the order of 400 s (Pc 5 range); (2) the magnetic equator is a node of the magnetic field disturbance; (3) the magnetic energy integral varies antiphase with the internal energy integral; (4) disturbed waves have a propagating speed on the order of 10 km/s earthward; (5) the abundance of oxygen ions influences amplitude, period, and dissipation of the plasma sheet oscillation. It is suggested that the compressional Pc 5 waves, which are observed in the plasma sheet close to the magnetic equator, may be caused by the plasma sheet oscillation, or may be generated from the resonance of the plasma sheet oscillation with some Pc 5 perturbation waves coming from the outer magnetosphere
The application of homotopy analysis method for MHD viscous flow due to a shrinking sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sajid, M.; Hayat, T.
2009-01-01
This work is concerned with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous flow due to a shrinking sheet. The cases of two dimensional and axisymmetric shrinking have been discussed. Exact series solution is obtained using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of the obtained series solution is discussed explicitly. The obtained HAM solution is valid for all values of the suction parameter and Hartman number.
Lyapunov stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with axisymmetric toroidal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almaguer, J.A.; Hameiri, E.; Herrera, J.; Holm, D.D.
1988-01-01
Lyapunov stability conditions for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas with mass flow in axisymmetric toroidal geometry are determined in the Eulerian representation. Axisymmetric equilibrium solutions of ideal MHD are associated to critical points of a nonlinearly conserved Lyapunov functional consisting of the sum of the total energy and the following flux-weighted quantities: the circulation along field lines, the angular momentum, the toroidal flux, and the mass content within each flux tube. Conditions sufficient for Lyapunov stability of these equilibria against axisymmetric perturbations are found by taking advantage of the Hamiltonian formalism for ideal MHD. In particular [see Eq. (60)], it is sufficient for Lyapunov stability under linearized dynamics that an axisymmetric equilibrium be subsonic in the appropriate rotating frame, lie in the first elliptic regime of the Bernoulli--Grad--Shafranov (BGS) system of equations, and satisfy one additional, more complicated, condition. Effects of boundary conditions, nonlinearity, and three-dimensionality on MHD stability are also discussed
Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, Jesus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2017-02-14
This researcher participated in the DOE-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling (CEMM), a multi-institutional collaboration led by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Dr. Stephen Jardin as the overall Principal Investigator. This project developed advanced simulation tools to study the non-linear macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas. The collaborative effort focused on the development of two large numerical simulation codes, M3D-C1 and NIMROD, and their application to a wide variety of problems. Dr. Ramos was responsible for theoretical aspects of the project, deriving consistent sets of model equations applicable to weakly collisional plasmas and devising test problems for verification of the numerical codes. This activity was funded for twelve years.
Reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.
1983-04-01
Reduced magnetohydrodynamics consists of a set of simplified fluid equations which has become a principal tool in the interpretation of plasma fluid motions in tokamak experiments. The Hasegawa-Mima equation is applied to the study of electrostatic fluctuations in turbulent plasmas. The relation between thee two nonlinear models is elucidated. It is shown tht both models can be obtained from appropriate limits of a third, inclusive, nonlinear system. The inclusive system is remarkably simple
In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles
Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.
2014-06-01
This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.
Exploring Astrophysical Magnetohydrodynamics in the Laboratory
Manuel, Mario
2014-10-01
Plasma evolution in many astrophysical systems is dominated by magnetohydrodynamics. Specifically of interest to this talk are collimated outflows from accretion systems. Away from the central object, the Euler equations can represent the plasma dynamics well and may be scaled to a laboratory system. We have performed experiments to investigate the effects of a background magnetic field on an otherwise hydrodynamically collimated plasma. Laser-irradiated, cone targets produce hydrodynamically collimated plasma jets and a pulse-powered solenoid provides a constant background magnetic field. The application of this field is shown to completely disrupt the original flow and a new magnetically-collimated, hollow envelope is produced. Results from these experiments and potential implications for their astrophysical analogs will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conn, R.W.; Mau, T.K.; Prinja, A.K.
1983-01-01
A physical model for the space and time evolution of the primary parameters of ordinary and burning tokamak plasmas is described by employing a fluid plasma treatment coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium description, the solution to the appropriate Maxwell equations, and the solution of the linear transport equation describing neutral atom transport in plasmas. The specific problems of plasma heating by ion cyclotron radiofrequency (ICRF) waves and neutral atom transport in the plasma edge and in complicated geometrical components such as divertor channels or pumped limiter structures are analyzed. A theoretical, onedimensional slab model of ICRF heating at ω = 2ω/SUB cD/ is developed and applied to determine the space-time response of tokamak plasmas. Generally, strong single-pass absorption is found for high-density, high (β) plasmas using a low k 11 spectrum (0.05 to 0.1 cm -1 ) although for (β > 1%, electron Landau damping becomes important. Deterministic and Monte Carlo methods to solve the neutral atom transport problem are described. Specific application to determine the spectrum of neutral atoms emerging from the duct of a pump limiter shows it to be hard (mean energy > 20 eV), indicating very incomplete energy thermalization. Uncertainties are identified in the overall problem of dynamic burning plasma analysis caused by the complexity of the problem itself and by uncertainties in fundamental areas such as plasma transport coefficients, stability, and plasma edge physics
EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC POWER GENERATOR UNDER DC ARC PLASMA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayokunle Oluwaseun Ayeleso
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The generation of electric power through the conventional systems (thermal and hydroelectric is no longer sufficient to meet the increasing industrial and commercial usage. Therefore, an alternative energy conversion system is currently being sought. The aim of the presented study is to develop a direct energy conversion system (Magnetohydrodynamics, MHD generator to generate electric power using plasma. Additionally, the generator electric response is investigated based on the Faraday’s principle of electromagnetism and fluid dynamics. For this purpose, a rectangular MHD generator prototype with segmented electrodes was constructed and subjected to continuous plasma from a DC arc source at test facilities available in the Western Cape region (South Africa. Subsequently, the terminal voltages at the middle-electrodes were measured one after another across 1, 100 and 470 Ω load resistors. In all experiments, the absolute time-averages of the measured terminal voltage across each load resistor were similar, which indicates a generation of power. The maximum power of the order 0.203mW was obtained when 1 Ω resistor was connected to the middle-electrodes. Conclusively, these results validate the measurement approach of the MHD generator with segmented electrodes and could be used to design a large MHD unit that can be incorporated to the existing conventional thermal plant to improve their cyclic thermal efficiency.
Nonideal, helical, vortical magnetohydrodynamic steady states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agim, Y.Z.; Montgomery, D.
1991-01-01
The helically-deformed profiles of driven, dissipative magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are constructed through second order in helical amplitude. The resultant plasma configurations are presented in terms of contour plots of magnetic flux function, pressure, current flux function and the mass flux function, along with the stability boundary at which they are expected to appear. For the Wisconsin Phaedrus-T Tokamak, plasma profiles with significant m = 3, n = 1 perturbation seem feasible; for these, the plasma pressure peaks off-axis. For the smaller aspect ratio case, the configuration with m 1,n =1 is thought to be relevant to the density perturbation observed in JET after a pellet injection. (author)
Nonideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and toroidal magnetic confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furth, H.P.
1985-05-01
The marked divergence of experimentally observed plasma instability phenomena from the predictions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics led in the early 1960s to the formulations of finite-resistivity stability theory. Beginning in the 1970s, advanced plasma diagnostics have served to establish a detailed correspondence between the predictions of the finite-resistivity theory and experimental plasma behavior - particularly in the case of the resistive kink mode and the tokamak plasma. Nonlinear resistive-kink phenomena have been found to govern the transport of magnetic flux and plasma energy in the reversed-field pinch. The other predicted finite-resistivity instability modes have been more difficult to identify directly and their implications for toroidal magnetic confinement are still unresolved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotnikov, V.I.; Bauer, B.S.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P.; Fiala, V.
2004-01-01
The development of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas has been studied with a three-dimensional hybrid simulation model. Plasma equilibria without and with axial sheared flow, and with different values of the parameter ε H , which appears as a coefficient before the Hall term in dimensionless nonideal MHD equations, have been considered. Increasing the parameter ε H leads to larger simulation growth rates for both m=0 sausage and m=1 kink modes. The hybrid simulations do however show that axial sheared flow severely curtails the linear and nonlinear development of both sausage and kink instabilities. In these respects, the hybrid simulations are in qualitative agreement with linear Hall MHD results. Moreover, in the nonlinear stage, long wavelength modes dominate the excited wave spectrum when the parameter ε H is small. For the larger value of the parameter ε H , small-scale structures do however develop nonlinearly in the excited wave spectrum at late times
Analysis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations and study of the nonlinear solution bifurcations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morros Tosas, J.
1989-01-01
The nonlinear problems related to the plasma magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are studied. A bifurcation theory is applied and a general magnetohydrodynamic equation is proposed. Scalar functions, a steady magnetic field and a new equation for the velocity field are taken into account. A method allowing the obtention of suitable reduced equations for the instabilities study is described. Toroidal and cylindrical configuration plasmas are studied. In the cylindrical configuration case, analytical calculations are performed and two steady bifurcated solutions are found. In the toroidal configuration case, a suitable reduced equation system is obtained; a qualitative approach of a steady solution bifurcation on a toroidal Kink type geometry is carried out [fr
INHOMOGENEOUS NEARLY INCOMPRESSIBLE DESCRIPTION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.
2010-01-01
The nearly incompressible theory of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is formulated in the presence of a static large-scale inhomogeneous background. The theory is an inhomogeneous generalization of the homogeneous nearly incompressible MHD description of Zank and Matthaeus and a polytropic equation of state is assumed. The theory is primarily developed to describe solar wind turbulence where the assumption of a composition of two-dimensional (2D) and slab turbulence with the dominance of the 2D component has been used for some time. It was however unclear, if in the presence of a large-scale inhomogeneous background, the dominant component will also be mainly 2D and we consider three distinct MHD regimes for the plasma beta β > 1. For regimes appropriate to the solar wind (β 2 s δp is not valid for the leading-order O(M) density fluctuations, and therefore in observational studies, the density fluctuations should not be analyzed through the pressure fluctuations. The pseudosound relation is valid only for higher order O(M 2 ) density fluctuations, and then only for short-length scales and fast timescales. The spectrum of the leading-order density fluctuations should be modeled as k -5/3 in the inertial range, followed by a Bessel function solution K ν (k), where for stationary turbulence ν = 1, in the viscous-convective and diffusion range. Other implications for solar wind turbulence with an emphasis on the evolution of density fluctuations are also discussed.
Self-organization process of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma in the presence of thermal conduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Shao-ping; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya; Watanabe, K.; Hayashi, T.; Todo, Y.; Watanabe, T.H.; Kageyama, A.; Takamaru, H.
1995-12-01
A self-organization process of a magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) plasma with a finite thermal conductivity is investigated by means of a three-dimensional MHD simulation. With no thermal conduction an MHD system self-organizes to a non-Taylor's state in which the electric current perpendicular to the magnetic field remains comparable to the parallel electric current. In the presence of thermal conductivity the perpendicular component of electric current and the nonuniformity of thermal pressure generated by driven reconnection tend to be smoothened. Thus, the self-organized state approaches to a force-free minimum energy state under the influence of thermal conduction. Detailed energy conversion processes are also studied to find that the rapid decay of magnetic energy during the self-organization process is caused not only through the ohmic heating, but also through the work done by the j x B force. (author)
Introduction to magnetohydrodynamics
Thompson, Ian
2016-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plays a crucial role in astrophysics, planetary magnetism, engineering and controlled nuclear fusion. This comprehensive textbook emphasizes physical ideas, rather than mathematical detail, making it accessible to a broad audience. Starting from elementary chapters on fluid mechanics and electromagnetism, it takes the reader all the way through to the latest ideas in more advanced topics, including planetary dynamos, stellar magnetism, fusion plasmas and engineering applications. With the new edition, readers will benefit from additional material on MHD instabilities, planetary dynamos and applications in astrophysics, as well as a whole new chapter on fusion plasma MHD. The development of the material from first principles and its pedagogical style makes this an ideal companion for both undergraduate students and postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering. Elementary knowledge of vector calculus is the only prerequisite.
Environmental Development Plan (EDP): magnetohydrodynamics program, FY 1977
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-03-01
This magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) EDP identifies and examines the environmental, health, and safety issues concerning the development of the ERDA Magnetohydrodynamics Program, the environmental activities needed to resolve these issues, applicable ongoing and completed research, and a time-phased action plan for the evaluation and mitigation of environmental impacts. A schedule for environmental research, assessment, and other activities is laid out. The purpose of the EDP is to identify environmental issues and to specify actions to ensure the environmental acceptability of commercial energy technologies being developed by ERDA. The EDP also will assist in coordinating ERDA's environmental activities with those of other government agencies. This document addresses the following technologies associated with ERDA's MHD program: (1) open-cycle magnetohydrodynamics; (2) closed-cycle plasma magnetohydrodynamics; and (3) closed-cycle liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics. The proposed environmental action plan is designed to meet the following objectives: (1) develop methods for monitoring and measuring emissions; (2) characterize air emissions, water effluents, and solid wastes from MHD; (3) determine potential environmental impacts and health hazards associated with MHD; (4) model pollutant transport and transformation; (5) ensure adequate control of pollutant emissions; (6) identify and minimize occupational health and safety hazards; (7) prepare NEPA compliance documents; and (8) assess the environmental, health, and safety impacts of the commercialized industry. This EDP will be updated and revised annually to take into account the progress of technologies toward commercialization, the environmental work accomplished, and the resolution of outstanding environmental issues concerning the technologies
The application of finite element method for mhd viscous flow over a porous stretching sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmood, R.; Sajid, M.
2007-01-01
This work is concerned with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous flow due to a porous stretching sheet. The similarity solution of the problem is obtained using finite element method. The physical quantities of interest like the fluid velocity and skin friction coefficient is obtained and discussed under the influence of suction parameter and Hartman number. It is evident from the results that MHD can be used to control the boundary layer thickness. (author)
Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brackbill, J.U.
1987-01-01
The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs
Magnetohydrodynamic studies of the strong Focus device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vezin, Robert
1971-01-01
The POTTER magnetohydrodynamic code is used. It consists of a two-dimensional fluid model with two temperatures Te, Ti and transverse transport coefficients for a fully ionized plasma. Applied to the FOCUS geometry used at Limeil, it gives temperatures consistent with the BENNETT law but much lower than those evaluated experimentally by the X-ray absorbing foils technique. (author) [fr
Bifurcated equilibria in centrifugally confined plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamim, I.; Teodorescu, C.; Guzdar, P. N.; Hassam, A. B.; Clary, R.; Ellis, R.; Lunsford, R.
2008-01-01
A bifurcation theory and associated computational model are developed to account for abrupt transitions observed recently on the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)], a supersonically rotating magnetized plasma that relies on centrifugal forces to prevent thermal expansion of plasma along the magnetic field. The observed transitions are from a well-confined, high-rotation state (HR-mode) to a lower-rotation, lesser-confined state (O-mode). A two-dimensional time-dependent magnetohydrodynamics code is used to simulate the dynamical equilibrium states of the MCX configuration. In addition to the expected viscous drag on the core plasma rotation, a momentum loss term is added that models the friction of plasma on the enhanced level of neutrals expected in the vicinity of the insulators at the throats of the magnetic mirror geometry. At small values of the external rotation drive, the plasma is not well-centrifugally confined and hence experiences the drag from near the insulators. Beyond a critical value of the external drive, the system makes an abrupt transition to a well-centrifugally confined state in which the plasma has pulled away from the end insulator plates; more effective centrifugal confinement lowers the plasma mass near the insulators allowing runaway increases in the rotation speed. The well-confined steady state is reached when the external drive is balanced by only the viscosity of the core plasma. A clear hysteresis phenomenon is shown.
Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-04-20
The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...
Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraus, Michael, E-mail: michael.kraus@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: tassi@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.grasso@infm.polito.it [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2016-09-15
Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.
Landau fluid models of collisionless magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snyder, P.B.; Hammett, G.W.; Dorland, W.
1997-01-01
A closed set of fluid moment equations including models of kinetic Landau damping is developed which describes the evolution of collisionless plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic parameter regime. The model is fully electromagnetic and describes the dynamics of both compressional and shear Alfven waves, as well as ion acoustic waves. The model allows for separate parallel and perpendicular pressures p parallel and p perpendicular , and, unlike previous models such as Chew-Goldberger-Low theory, correctly predicts the instability threshold for the mirror instability. Both a simple 3 + 1 moment model and a more accurate 4 + 2 moment model are developed, and both could be useful for numerical simulations of astrophysical and fusion plasmas
Introduction to modern magnetohydrodynamics
Galtier, Sébastien
2016-01-01
Ninety-nine percent of ordinary matter in the Universe is in the form of ionized fluids, or plasmas. The study of the magnetic properties of such electrically conducting fluids, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), has become a central theory in astrophysics, as well as in areas such as engineering and geophysics. This textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to MHD and its recent applications, in nature and in laboratory plasmas; from the machinery of the Sun and galaxies, to the cooling of nuclear reactors and the geodynamo. It exposes advanced undergraduate and graduate students to both classical and modern concepts, making them aware of current research and the ever-widening scope of MHD. Rigorous derivations within the text, supplemented by over 100 illustrations and followed by exercises and worked solutions at the end of each chapter, provide an engaging and practical introduction to the subject and an accessible route into this wide-ranging field.
Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of the NCSX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Guo Yong; Isaev, Maxim Yu; Ku, Long-Poe; Mikhailov, M.; Redi, M.H; Sanchez, Raul; Subbotin, A; Hirshman, Steven Paul; Cooper, W. Anthony; Monticello, D.; Reiman, A.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.
2007-01-01
The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is extensively analyzed using the most advanced three-dimensional MHD codes. It is shown that the NCSX is stable to finite-n MHD modes, including the vertical mode, external kink modes and ballooning modes. However, high-n external kink modes that peak near the plasma edge are found to be weakly unstable. A global calculation shows that finite-n ballooning modes are significantly more stable than the local infinite-n modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Priest, E.R.
1982-01-01
The book serves several purposes. First set of chapters gives a concise general introduction to solar physics. In a second set the basic methods of magnetohydrodynamics are developed. A third set of chapters is an account of current theories for observed phenomena. The book is suitable for a course in solar physics and it also provides a comprehensive review of present magnetohydrodynamical models in solar physics. (SC)
Plasmas: from space to laboratory. 'Introduction to plasma physics' course
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savoini, Philippe
2011-01-01
This course addresses the different basic concepts of plasma physics. After an introduction which addresses the plasma state, basic equations, the different theoretical approaches (orbitals, kinetic, multi-fluid, magnetohydrodynamics), and the different characteristic scales, waves are addressed and presented as a disordered electromagnetism: existence of plasma waves, generalities on waves, relationship of formal dispersion of plasmas, plasma without magnetic field (longitudinal, transverse, or low frequency wave), plasma with magnetic field (parallel, perpendicular, or arbitrary propagation). The next parts present various approaches: the particle-based approach (case of constant and uniform magnetic fields, case of non-uniform magnetic fields), the statistical approach (elements of kinetic theory, the collision phenomenon, the equilibrium state), and the fluid approach (fluid equations according to the multi-fluid theory, comparison with the particle-based approach, presentation of magnetohydrodynamics as the single-fluid model, validity of MHD)
Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence
Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon
2017-11-01
Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the evolution of the flow, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in the study of Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As shown in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Computational modeling of neoclassical and resistive magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1996-01-01
Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of magnetohydrodynamic-type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm close-quote s law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise Δ' stable, albeit once an island width threshold is exceeded. The plasma pressure dynamics and neoclassical tearing growth is shown to be sensitive to the choice of the ratio of the parallel to perpendicular diffusivity (χ parallel /χ perpendicular ). The study is completed with a demonstration and theoretical comparison of the threshold for single helicity neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes, which is described based on parameter scans of the local pressure gradient, the ratio of perpendicular to parallel pressure diffusivities χ perpendicular /χ parallel , and the magnitude of an initial seed magnetic perturbation. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Effects of viscosity on magnetohydrodynamic behaviour during limiter biasing on the CT-6B tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khorshid, P.; Wang, L.; Yang, X.Z.; Feng, C.H.; Ghoranneviss, M.
2005-01-01
Effects of viscosity on magnetohydrodynamics behaviour during limiter biasing in the CT-6B Tokamak has been investigated. The results shown that subsequent to the application of a positive bias, a decrease followed by an increase in the frequency of magnetic field fluctuations was observed. With contribution of viscous force effects in the radial force balance equation for Limiter Biasing, in terms of the nonstationarity model, it allows us to identify the understanding physics responsible for change in the Mirnov oscillations that could be related to poloidal rotation velocity and radial electric field. It could be seen that the time scale of responses to biasing is important. The response of ∇p i , decrease of poloidal rotation velocity, the edge electrostatics and magnetic fluctuations to external field have been investigated. The results shown that momentum balance equation with considering viscous force term can be use for modeling of limiter biasing in the tokamak. (author)
Numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamic processes in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilov, A.F.; Kostomarov, D.P.; Popov, A.M.
The nonlinear motion of plasma in a Tokamak is studied by means of numerically solving two-dimensional [2D] and three-dimensional [3D] systems of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The 2D model is a simplified system of Kadomtsev equations which describes helical movements in incompressible plasma with finite conductivity and a large longitudinal magnetic field. For the helical mode m = 1, the dynamics of internal stripping are studied, and for mode m = 2 the formation and evolution of magnetic islands are studied. The 3D model is a more complete system of MHD equations with allowance for compressibility. The motion of the individual modes in cylindrical and toroidal plasma is studied. Preliminary results have been obtained on the mutual effects of helical modes
Ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of axisymmetric mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Ippolito, D.A.; Hafizi, B.; Myra, J.R.
1982-01-01
The governing partial differential equation for general mode-number pressure-driven ballooning modes in a long-thin, axisymmetric plasma is derived within the context of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. It is shown that the equation reduces in special limits to the Hain--Luest equation, the high-m diffuse p(psi) ballooning equation, and the low-m sharp-boundary equation. A low-β analytic solution of the full partial differential equation is presented for quasiflute modes in an idealized tandem mirror model to elucidate the relationship of the various limiting cases
Collisionless Reconnection in Magnetohydrodynamic and Kinetic Turbulence
Loureiro, Nuno F.; Boldyrev, Stanislav
2017-12-01
It has recently been proposed that the inertial interval in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is terminated at small scales not by a Kolmogorov-like dissipation region, but rather by a new sub-inertial interval mediated by tearing instability. However, many astrophysical plasmas are nearly collisionless so the MHD approximation is not applicable to turbulence at small scales. In this paper, we propose an extension of the theory of reconnection-mediated turbulence to plasmas which are so weakly collisional that the reconnection occurring in the turbulent eddies is caused by electron inertia rather than by resistivity. We find that the transition scale to reconnection-mediated turbulence depends on the plasma beta and on the assumptions of the plasma turbulence model. However, in all of the cases analyzed, the energy spectra in the reconnection-mediated interval range from E({k}\\perp ){{dk}}\\perp \\propto {k}\\perp -8/3{{dk}}\\perp to E({k}\\perp ){{dk}}\\perp \\propto {k}\\perp -3{{dk}}\\perp .
MHD Jeffrey nanofluid past a stretching sheet with viscous dissipation effect
Zokri, S. M.; Arifin, N. S.; Salleh, M. Z.; Kasim, A. R. M.; Mohammad, N. F.; Yusoff, W. N. S. W.
2017-09-01
This study investigates the influence of viscous dissipation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Jeffrey nanofluid over a stretching sheet with convective boundary conditions. The nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations by utilizing the similarity transformation variables. The Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method is used to solve the problem numerically. The numerical solutions obtained are presented graphically for several dimensionless parameters such as Brownian motion, Lewis number and Eckert number on the specified temperature and concentration profiles. It is noted that the temperature profile is accelerated due to increasing values of Brownian motion parameter and Eckert number. In contrast, both the Brownian motion parameter and Lewis number have caused the deceleration in the concentration profiles.
Magnetohydrodynamic cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portugal, R.; Soares, I.D.
1991-01-01
We analyse a class of cosmological models in magnetohydrodynamic regime extending and completing the results of a previous paper. The material content of the models is a perfect fluid plus electromagnetic fields. The fluid is neutral in average but admits an electrical current which satisfies Ohm's law. All models fulfil the physical requirements of near equilibrium thermodynamics and can be favourably used as a more realistic description of the interior of a collapsing star in a magnetohydrodynamic regime with or without a magnetic field. (author)
Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics Simulation of Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, X.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Jardin, S.C.; Lowe, L.L.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.
2001-01-01
Although high-temperature plasmas in laboratory magnetic fusion confinements are sufficiently collisionless that formal fluid closures are difficult to attain, the resistive MHD model has proven, by comparison with experimental data, to be useful for describing the large scale dynamics of magnetized plasmas. Resistive MHD model consists of Faraday's law for the evolution of the magnetic field and Navier-Stokes equation for the plasma flow. These equations are closed by the Ohm's law and an equation of state for the plasma
Hydromagnetic flow of third grade nanofluid with viscous dissipation and flux conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, T. [Faculty of Computing, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S. A., E-mail: ali-qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-08-15
This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic flow of third grade nanofluid with thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Energy equation is considered in the presence of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. Rosseland’s approximation is employed for thermal radiation. The heat and concentration flux conditions are taken into account. The governing nonlinear mathematical expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration are converted into dimensionless expressions via transformations. Series solutions of the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration are developed. Convergence of the constructed solutions is checked out both graphically and numerically. Effects of interesting physical parameters on the temperature and concentration are plotted and discussed in detail. Numerical values of skin-friction coefficient are computed for the hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic flow cases.
Three-dimensional rotational plasma flows near solid surfaces in an axial magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorshunov, N. M., E-mail: gorshunov-nm@nrcki.ru; Potanin, E. P., E-mail: potanin45@yandex.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
A rotational flow of a conducting viscous medium near an extended dielectric disk in a uniform axial magnetic field is analyzed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. An analytical solution to the system of nonlinear differential MHD equations of motion in the boundary layer for the general case of different rotation velocities of the disk and medium is obtained using a modified Slezkin–Targ method. A particular case of a medium rotating near a stationary disk imitating the end surface of a laboratory device is considered. The characteristics of a hydrodynamic flow near the disk surface are calculated within the model of a finite-thickness boundary layer. The influence of the magnetic field on the intensity of the secondary flow is studied. Calculations are performed for a weakly ionized dense plasma flow without allowance for the Hall effect and plasma compressibility. An MHD flow in a rotating cylinder bounded from above by a retarding cap is considered. The results obtained can be used to estimate the influence of the end surfaces on the main azimuthal flow, as well as the intensities of circulating flows in various devices with rotating plasmas, in particular, in plasma centrifuges and laboratory devices designed to study instabilities of rotating plasmas.
Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisnovatyi Kogan, G.S.
1979-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects are reviewed in this paper. First the accretion of the magnetized matter into a single black hole and spectra of radiation are considered. Then the magnetic-field phenomena in the disk accretion, when the black hole is in a pair are discussed. Furthermore, the magnetohydrodynamics phenomena during supernova explosion are considered. Finally the magnetohydrodynamics in the accretion of a neutron star is considered in connection With x-ray sources
Proceedings of the 1. Brazilian Congress on Plasma Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
The 1. Brazilian Congress on Plasma Physics proceedings presents technical papers on magnetohydrodynamics, plasma diagnostic, plasma waves, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities, and astrophysics plasma. (L.C.J.A.)
Effects of causality on the fluidity and viscous horizon of quark-gluon plasma
Rahaman, Mahfuzur; Alam, Jan-e.
2018-05-01
The second-order Israel-Stewart-M u ̈ller relativistic hydrodynamics was applied to study the effects of causality on the acoustic oscillation in relativistic fluid. Causal dispersion relations have been derived with nonvanishing shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, and thermal conductivity at nonzero temperature and baryonic chemical potential. These relations have been used to investigate the fluidity of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at finite temperature (T ). Results of the first-order dissipative hydrodynamics have been obtained as a limiting case of the second-order theory. The effects of the causality on the fluidity near the transition point and on the viscous horizon are found to be significant. We observe that the inclusion of causality increases the value of fluidity measure of QGP near Tc and hence makes the flow strenuous. It was also shown that the inclusion of the large magnetic field in the causal hydrodynamics alters the fluidity of QGP.
Demonstration for novel self-organization theory by three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hosaka, Yasuo; Liang, Jia-Ling.
1993-03-01
It is demonstrated by three-dimensional simulations for resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas with both 'spatially nonuniform resistivity η' and 'uniformη' that the attractor of the dissipative structure in the resistive MHD plasmas is given by ∇ x (ηj) = (α/2)B which is derived from a novel self-organization theory based on the minimum dissipation rate profile. It is shown by the simulations that the attractor is reduced to ∇ x B = λB in the special case with the 'uniformη' and no pressure gradient. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamic power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheindlin, A.E.; Jackson, W.D.; Brzozowski, W.S.; Rietjens, L.H.Th.
1979-01-01
The paper describes research and development in the field of magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology, based on discussions held in the Joint IAEA/UNESCO International Liaison Group on MHD electrical power generation. Research and development programmes on open cycle, closed cycle plasma and liquid-metal MHD are described. Open cycle MHD has now entered the engineering development stage. The paper reviews the results of cycle analyses and economic and environmental evaluations: substantial agreement has been reached on the expected overall performance and necessary component specifications. The achievement in the Soviet Union on the U-25 MHD pilot plant in obtaining full rated electrical power of 20.4 MW is described, as well as long duration testing of the integrated operation of MHD components. Work in the United States on coal-fired MHD generators has shown that, with slagging of the walls, a run time of about one hundred hours at the current density and electric field of a commercial MHD generator has been achieved. Progress obtained in closed cycle plasma and liquid metal MHD is reviewed. Electrical power densities of up to 140 MWe/m 3 and an enthalpy extraction as high as 24 per cent have been achieved in noble gas MHD generator experiments. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khaled S.M.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we re-investigate the problem describing effects of radiation, Joule heating, and viscous dissipation on magnetohydrodynamic Marangoni convection boundary layer over a flat surface with suction/injection. The analytical solution obtained for the reduced system of non-linear-coupled differential equations governing the problem. Laplace transform successfully implemented to get the exact expression for the temperature profile. Furthermore, comparing the current exact results with approximate numerical results obtained using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is introduced. These comparisons declare that the published numerical results agree with the current exact results. In addition, the effects of various parameters on the temperature profile are discussed graphically.
Dilepton production in schematic causal viscous hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Taesoo; Han, Kyong Chol; Ko, Che Ming
2011-01-01
Assuming that in the hot dense matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, the energy density, entropy density, and pressure as well as the azimuthal and space-time rapidity components of the shear tensor are uniform in the direction transversal to the reaction plane, we derive a set of schematic equations from the Isreal-Stewart causal viscous hydrodynamics. These equations are then used to describe the evolution dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions by taking the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of 1/4π for the initial quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase and of 10 times this value for the later hadron-gas (HG) phase. Using the production rate evaluated with particle distributions that take into account the viscous effect, we study dilepton production in central heavy-ion collisions. Compared with results from the ideal hydrodynamics, we find that although the dilepton invariant mass spectra from the two approaches are similar, the transverse momentum spectra are significantly enhanced at high transverse momenta by the viscous effect. We also study the transverse momentum dependence of dileptons produced from QGP for a fixed transverse mass, which is essentially absent in the ideal hydrodynamics, and find that this so-called transverse mass scaling is violated in the viscous hydrodynamics, particularly at high transverse momenta.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.M. Moawad
Full Text Available In this paper, the equilibrium properties of some ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are investigated. The governing equations are taken in the steady state for parallel and non-parallel flow to magnetic filed. The governing equations are reduced to Bernoulli-Grad-Shafranov system. The problem of finding exact equilibria to the governing equations in the presence of incompressible mass flows is studied. Several nonlinear equilibria of the governing equations are obtained with aid of constructed constraints. The obtained results cover several previously configurations and include new considerations about the nonlinearity of magnetic flux stream variables. The possibility of applying the obtained results to magnetic confinement devices are discussed. Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamics, Axisymmetric plasma, Resistivity, Incompressible flows, Exact equilibria, Magnetic confinement devices
ANISOTROPIC INTERMITTENCY OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, K. T.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.
2014-01-01
A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multiexponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas
Solitary magnetohydrodynamic vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silaev, I.I.; Skvortsov, A.T.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on the analytical description of fluid flow by means of localized vortices which is traditional for hydrodynamics, oceanology, plasma physics. Recently it has been widely applied to different structure turbulence models. Considerable results involved have been presented where it was shown that in magnetohydrodynamics alongside with the well-known kinds of localized vortices (e.g. Hill's vortex), which are characterized by quite a weak decrease of disturbed velocity or magnetic field (as a power of the inverse distance from vortex center), the vortices with screening (or solitary vortices) may exist. All disturbed parameters either exponentially vanish or become identically zero in outer region in the latter case. (In a number of papers numerical simulations of such the vortices are presented). Solutions in a form of solitary vortices are of particular interest due to their uniformity and solitonlike behavior. On the basis of these properties one can believe for such structures to occur in real turbulent flows
Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrorsa)
Ryutov, D. D.; Berk, H. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W.; Simonen, T. C.
2011-09-01
Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.
Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Berk, H. L. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Simonen, T. C. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2011-09-15
Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.
Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikhailov, M. I., E-mail: mikhaylov-mi@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Shchepetov, S. V., E-mail: shch@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)
2015-12-15
Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.
General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics
Moortgat, J.B.
2006-01-01
In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast
Viscous modes, isocurvature perturbations and CMB initial conditions
Giovannini, Massimo
2015-01-01
When the predecoupling plasma is thermodinamically reversible its fluctuations are classified in terms of the adiabatic and entropic modes. A different category of physical solutions, so far unexplored, arises when the inhomogeneities of the viscosity coefficients induce computable curvature perturbations. The viscous modes are explicitly illustrated and compared with the conventional isocurvature solutions.
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymmetric systems with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansur, N.L.P.
1986-01-01
A model for studying magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymetrically confined plasma with toroidal rotation, extended to the Grad. Shafranov equation is presented. The expression used for the scalar pressure is modifiec, and the influence of toroidal magnetic field is included, The equation for general motion of axisymetrically confined plasma, particularizing for rotation movements is described. Two cases are compared: one supposes the entropy as a function of poloidal magnetic flux and other supposes the temperature as a function of flux. The equations for these two cases obtaining a simplified expression by others approximations are established. The proposed model is compared with Shibata model, which uses density as function of flux, and with the ideal spheromak model. A set of cases taking in account experimental data is studied. (M.C.K.) [pt
Ideal, steady-state, axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations with flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baransky, Y.A.
1987-01-01
The motivation of this study is to gain additional understanding of the effect of rotation on the equilibrium of a plasma. The axisymmetric equilibria of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with flow have been studied numerically and analytically. A general discussion is provided of previous work on plasmas with flow and comparisons are made to the static model. A variational principle has been derived for the two dimensional problem with comments as to appropriate boundary conditions. An inverse aspect ratio expansion has been used for a study of the toroidal flow equation for both low- and high-β. The inverse aspect ratio expansion has also been used for a study of equations with both poloidal and toroidal flow. An overview is provided of the adaptive finite-difference code which was developed to solve the full equations. (FI)
Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of density-limit disruptions in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleva, R.G.; Drake, J.F.; Denton, R.E.
1990-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which demonstrate that density limit disruptions can be triggered by edge radiation which destabilizes a q = 1 kink followed by a q = 2 tearing mode. A bubble of cold plasma is injected from the edge into the center by the q = 1 kink. The q = 2 mode then broadens the current profile and throws the hot plasma to the wall. The MHD simulations presented are the first to successfully reproduce several key features of density limit disruptions including (1) the rapid drop in the central temperature, (2) the rapid expansion of the current profile, (3) the m = 1 cold bubble which is seen to be injected from the edge into the center during density limit disruptions on JET, and (4) disruptions in sawtoothing discharges. (author)
Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyamoto, Kenro
2000-10-01
The present lecture note was written to fill a gap between text books for undergraduates and specific review articles written by specialists for their young colleagues. The note may be divided in three parts. The first part is on basic characteristics of a plasma in a magnetic field. The second part describes plasma confinement and heating with an emphasis on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. In addition, propagation of plasma waves, plasma heating by electromagnetic waves are given. The third part is devoted to various specific concepts of nuclear fusion. Emphases are placed on toroidal devices, especially on tokamak devices and stellarators. One might feel heavy mathematics glimpsing the present note, especially in the part treating magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Jungyeon
2011-01-01
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.
Cho, Jungyeon
2011-05-13
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macnab, A. I. D.; Milroy, R. D.; Kim, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.
2007-01-01
End-shorting of the open field lines that surround a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is believed to contribute to its observed rotation. In this study, nonlinear extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations were performed that detail the end-shorting process and the resulting spin-up of the FRC. The tangential component of the electric field E T is set to zero at the axial boundaries in an extended MHD model that includes the Hall and ∇P e terms. This shorting of the electric field leads to the generation of toroidal fields on the open field lines, which apply a torque leading to a rotation of the ions on the open field lines. The FRC then gains angular momentum through a viscous transfer from the open field line region. In addition, it is shown that spin-up is still induced when insulating boundaries are assumed
Dynamic and Stagnating Plasma Flow Leading to Magnetic-Flux-Tube Collimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You, S.; Yun, G.S.; Bellan, P.M.
2005-01-01
Highly collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are frequently observed on galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. We propose that a single, universal magnetohydrodynamic pumping process explains why such collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are ubiquitous. Experimental evidence from carefully diagnosed laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets confirms this assertion and is reported here. The magnetohydrodynamic process pumps plasma into a magnetic-flux tube and the stagnation of the resulting flow causes this flux tube to become collimated
Magnetohydrodynamic calculations on pulsar magnetospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brinkmann, W.
1976-01-01
In this paper, the relativistic magnetohydrodynamic is presented in covariant form and applied to some problems in the field of pulsar magnetospheres. In addition, numerical methods to solve the resulting equations of motion are investigated. The theory of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic presented here is valid in the framework of the theory of general relativity, describing the interaction of electromagnetic fields with an ideal fluid. In the two-dimensional case, a Lax-Wendroff method is studied which should be optimally stable with the operator splitting of Strang. In the framework of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic also the model of a stationary aequatorial stellar pulsar wind as well as the parallel rotator is investigated. (orig.) [de
Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics on a moving mesh
Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark; Kannan, Rahul; Mocz, Philip; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker
2018-05-01
In certain astrophysical systems, the commonly employed ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approximation breaks down. Here, we introduce novel explicit and implicit numerical schemes of ohmic resistivity terms in the moving-mesh code AREPO. We include these non-ideal terms for two MHD techniques: the Powell 8-wave formalism and a constrained transport scheme, which evolves the cell-centred magnetic vector potential. We test our implementation against problems of increasing complexity, such as one- and two-dimensional diffusion problems, and the evolution of progressive and stationary Alfvén waves. On these test problems, our implementation recovers the analytic solutions to second-order accuracy. As first applications, we investigate the tearing instability in magnetized plasmas and the gravitational collapse of a rotating magnetized gas cloud. In both systems, resistivity plays a key role. In the former case, it allows for the development of the tearing instability through reconnection of the magnetic field lines. In the latter, the adopted (constant) value of ohmic resistivity has an impact on both the gas distribution around the emerging protostar and the mass loading of magnetically driven outflows. Our new non-ideal MHD implementation opens up the possibility to study magneto-hydrodynamical systems on a moving mesh beyond the ideal MHD approximation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Shweta; Sharma, Prerana [Physics Department, Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain, MP-456010 (India); Kaothekar, Sachin [Physics Department, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain, MP-456664 (India); Chhajlani, R. K., E-mail: sackaothekar@gmail.com [Retired, School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University Ujjain, MP-456010 (India)
2016-10-01
The thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, thermally conducting, and rotating plasma, incorporating finite electrical resistivity, finite electron inertia, and an arbitrary radiative heat-loss function in the presence of finite Larmor radius corrections and Hall current, has been studied. Analysis has been made with the help of linearized magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. A general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis method, and the dispersion relation is discussed for longitudinal propagation and transverse propagation separately. The dispersion relation has been solved numerically to obtain the dependence of the growth rate on the various parameters involved. The conditions of modified thermal instability and stability are discussed in the different cases of interest.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, B. J.; Kruger, S. E.; Hegna, C. C.; Zhu, P.; Snyder, P. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Howell, E. C.
2010-01-01
A linear benchmark between the linear ideal MHD stability codes ELITE [H. R. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1277 (2002)], GATO [L. Bernard et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 24, 377 (1981)], and the extended nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al.., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is undertaken for edge-localized (MHD) instabilities. Two ballooning-unstable, shifted-circle tokamak equilibria are compared where the stability characteristics are varied by changing the equilibrium plasma profiles. The equilibria model an H-mode plasma with a pedestal pressure profile and parallel edge currents. For both equilibria, NIMROD accurately reproduces the transition to instability (the marginally unstable mode), as well as the ideal growth spectrum for a large range of toroidal modes (n=1-20). The results use the compressible MHD model and depend on a precise representation of 'ideal-like' and 'vacuumlike' or 'halo' regions within the code. The halo region is modeled by the introduction of a Lundquist-value profile that transitions from a large to a small value at a flux surface location outside of the pedestal region. To model an ideal-like MHD response in the core and a vacuumlike response outside the transition, separate criteria on the plasma and halo Lundquist values are required. For the benchmarked equilibria the critical Lundquist values are 10 8 and 10 3 for the ideal-like and halo regions, respectively. Notably, this gives a ratio on the order of 10 5 , which is much larger than experimentally measured values using T e values associated with the top of the pedestal and separatrix. Excellent agreement with ELITE and GATO calculations are made when sharp boundary transitions in the resistivity are used and a small amount of physical dissipation is added for conditions very near and below marginal ideal stability.
Non-Taylor magnetohydrodynamic self-organization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Shao-ping; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.
1994-10-01
A self-organization process in a plasma with a finite pressure is investigated by means of a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation. It is demonstrated that a non-Taylor finite β self-organized state is realized in which a perpendicular component of the electric current is generated and the force-free(parallel) current decreases until they reach to almost the same level. The self-organized state is described by an MHD force-balance relation, namely, j perpendicular = B x ∇p/B·B and j parallel = μB where μ is not a constant, and the pressure structure resembles the structure of the toroidal magnetic field intensity. Unless an anomalous perpendicular thermal conduction arises, the plasma cannot relax to a Taylor state but to a non-Taylor (non-force-free) self-organized state. This state becomes more prominent for a weaker resistivity condition. The non-Taylor state has a rather universal property, for example, independence of the initial β value. Another remarkable finding is that the Taylor's conjecture of helicity conservation is, in a strict sense, not valid. The helicity dissipation occurs and its rate slows down critically in accordance with the stepwise relaxation of the magnetic energy. It is confirmed that the driven magnetic reconnection caused by the nonlinearly excited plasma kink flows plays the leading role in all of these key features of the non-Taylor self-organization. (author)
Elements of magnetohydrodynamic stability theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spies, G.O.
1976-11-01
The nonlinear equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics are discussed along with the following topics: (1) static equilibrium, (2) strict linear theory, (3) stability of a system with one degree of freedom, (4) spectrum and variational principles in magnetohydrodynamics, (5) elementary proof of the modified energy principle, (6) sufficient stability criteria, (7) local stability, and (8) normal modes
Performance measurements in 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, D.V.; Cooper, W.A.; Gruber, R.; Schwenn, U.
1989-10-01
The 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability code TERPSICHORE has been designed to take advantage of vector and microtasking capabilities of the latest CRAY computers. To keep the number of operations small most efficient algorithms have been applied in each computational step. The program investigates the stability properties of fusion reactor relevant plasma configurations confined by magnetic fields. For a typical 3D HELIAS configuration that has been considered we obtain an overall performance in excess of 1 Gflops on an eight processor CRAY-YMP machine. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, L.Q.; Hu, L.Q.; Chen, K.Y.; Li, E.Z.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Choi–Williams distribution yields excellent time–frequency resolution for discrete signal. • CWD method provides clear time–frequency pictures of EAST and HT-7 fast MHD events. • CWD method has advantages to wavelets transform scalogram and the short-time Fourier transform spectrogram. • We discuss about how to choose the windows and free parameter of CWD method. -- Abstract: The Choi–Williams distribution is applied to the time–frequency analysis of signals describing rapid magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) modes and events in tokamak plasmas. A comparison is made with Soft X-ray (SXR) signals as well as Mirnov signal that shows the advantages of the Choi–Williams distribution over both continuous wavelets transform scalogram and the short-time Fourier transform spectrogram. Examples of MHD activities in HT-7 and EAST tokamak are shown, namely the onset of coupling tearing modes, high frequency precursors of sawtooth, and low frequency MHD instabilities in edge localized mode (ELM) free in H mode discharge
Multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.
1996-01-01
A recent hydrodynamic theory of multicomponent diffusion in multitemperature gas mixtures [J. D. Ramshaw, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 18, 121 (1993)] is generalized to include the velocity-dependent Lorentz force on charged species in a magnetic field B. This generalization is used to extend a previous treatment of ambipolar diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas [J. D. Ramshaw and C. H. Chang, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 489 (1993)] to situations in which B and the electrical current density are nonzero. General expressions are thereby derived for the species diffusion fluxes, including thermal diffusion, in both single- and two-temperature multicomponent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is shown that the usual zero-field form of the Stefan-Maxwell equations can be preserved in the presence of B by introducing generalized binary diffusion tensors dependent on B. A self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation is presented that provides explicit approximate expressions for the diffusion fluxes. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are exploited to obtain an ideal MHD description in which the electron diffusion coefficients drop out, resistive effects vanish, and the electric field reduces to a particularly simple form. This description should be well suited for numerical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Frutos Alfaro
2017-04-01
Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.
Drummond, James E
1961-01-01
A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa
Compressibility and rotation effects on transport suppression in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshizawa, A.
1996-01-01
Compressibility and rotation effects on turbulent transports in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows under arbitrary mean field are investigated using a Markovianized two-scale statistical approach. Some new aspects of MHD turbulence are pointed out in close relation to plasma compressibility. Special attention is paid to the turbulent electromotive force, which plays a central role in the generation of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. In addition to plasma rotation, the interaction between compressibility and magnetic fields is shown to bring a few factors suppressing MHD fluctuations and, eventually, density and temperature transports, even in the presence of steep mean density and temperature gradients. This finding is discussed in the context of the turbulence-suppression mechanism in the tokamak close-quote s high-confinement modes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Gomez, D. O.
2010-01-01
In this work we numerically test a model of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field: the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic model (RHMHD) derived by [Gomez et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 102303 (2008)] with the addition of weak compressible effects. The main advantage of this model lies in the reduction of computational cost. Nevertheless, up until now the degree of agreement with the original Hall MHD system and the range of validity in a regime of turbulence were not established. In this work direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional Hall MHD turbulence in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field are compared with simulations of the weak compressible RHMHD model. The results show that the degree of agreement is very high (when the different assumptions of RHMHD, such as spectral anisotropy, are satisfied). Nevertheless, when the initial conditions are isotropic but the mean magnetic field is maintained strong, the results differ at the beginning but asymptotically reach a good agreement at relatively short times. We also found evidence that the compressibility still plays a role in the dynamics of these systems, and the weak compressible RHMHD model is able to capture these effects. In conclusion the weak compressible RHMHD model is a valid approximation of the Hall MHD turbulence in the relevant physical context.
Surface wave propagation in steady ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic magnetic slabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miteva, Rossitsa; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Erdelyi, Robert
2003-01-01
This paper studies the dispersion characteristics of sausage and kink surface waves traveling along a plasma layer within the framework of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in steady state. While in a static plasma slab these waves are Alfven ones (their phase velocities are close to the Alfven speed in the layer); in a slab with steady flows they may become super Alfvenic waves. Moreover, there exist two types of waves: forward and backward ones bearing in mind that the flow velocity defines the positive (forward) direction. As a typical representative of a magnetic slab in steady state here is considered a solar wind flux rope with a finite β plasma flow (typically β∼1).The forward sausage surface mode exhibits an increased dispersion at small wave numbers while the forward kink waves become practically non-dispersive. Both backward propagating sausage and kink surface modes show an increased dispersion for large wave numbers
Hall magnetohydrodynamics: Conservation laws and Lyapunov stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, D.D.
1987-01-01
Hall electric fields produce circulating mass flow in confined ideal-fluid plasmas. The conservation laws, Hamiltonian structure, equilibrium state relations, and Lyapunov stability conditions are presented here for ideal Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) in two and three dimensions. The approach here is to use the remarkable array of nonlinear conservation laws for HMHD that follow from its Hamiltonian structure in order to construct explicit Lyapunov functionals for the HMHD equilibrium states. In this way, the Lyapunov stability analysis provides classes of HMHD equilibria that are stable and whose linearized initial-value problems are well posed (in the sense of possessing continuous dependence on initial conditions). Several examples are discussed in both two and three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yi; Guo Gancheng; Zhong Yunze; Xiao Zhenggui
1998-11-01
In HL-1M experiment, multiple pellets were injected into Ohmic discharge, good results for plasma confinement have been achieved. The energy confinement is enhanced by up to 30% over that of usual gas fuelled discharges after a series of pellet injections. The improvement is characterized by a pressure profile that peaks strongly around the central region. It was found that the peakedness depends strongly on penetration length of the pellets, and the characteristics of MHD activity changes with peakedness of pressure profile produced by pellet injection. On the other hand, the central MHD activity plays a key role in limiting the available peaking degree. The improved discharges characterized by a highly peaked pressure profile inside q =1 surface degrade suddenly by a large sawtooth collapse. For deep penetration case, the pressure gradient in the central area becomes steep, the central magnetohydrodynamics activities are strongly affected by pellet injection. The large sawtooth crash tends to have more ideal-like characteristics in magnetic structure, which is usually observed in discharges of higher density and pressure values. The most conspicuous feature is that just at the early stage of the crash, the m = 1 continuous oscillation merges into a very localized pressure perturbation
Nonneutralized charge effects on tokamak edge magnetohydrodynamic stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Linjin; Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Shi, T.H.; Wang, H.Q.
2016-01-01
Owing to the large ion orbits, excessive electrons can accumulate at tokamak edge. We find that the nonneutralized electrons at tokamak edge can contribute an electric compressive stress in the direction parallel to magnetic field by their mutual repulsive force. By extending the Chew–Goldburger–Low theory (Chew et al., 1956 [13]), it is shown that this newly recognized compressive stress can significantly change the plasma average magnetic well, so that a stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic modes in the pedestal can result. This linear stability regime helps to explain why in certain parameter regimes the tokamak high confinement can be rather quiet as observed experimentally.
Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling Cooperative Agreement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sovinec, Carl R.
2008-01-01
The Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) is developing computer simulation models for predicting the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. Over the first phase of support from the Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative, the focus has been on macroscopic dynamics that alter the confinement properties of magnetic field configurations. The ultimate objective is to provide computational capabilities to predict plasma behavior - not unlike computational weather prediction - to optimize performance and to increase the reliability of magnetic confinement for fusion energy. Numerical modeling aids theoretical research by solving complicated mathematical models of plasma behavior including strong nonlinear effects and the influences of geometrical shaping of actual experiments. The numerical modeling itself remains an area of active research, due to challenges associated with simulating multiple temporal and spatial scales. The research summarized in this report spans computational and physical topics associated with state of the art simulation of magnetized plasmas. The tasks performed for this grant are categorized according to whether they are primarily computational, algorithmic, or application-oriented in nature. All involve the development and use of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation, Open Discussion (NIMROD) code, which is described at http://nimrodteam.org. With respect to computation, we have tested and refined methods for solving the large algebraic systems of equations that result from our numerical approximations of the physical model. Collaboration with the Terascale Optimal PDE Solvers (TOPS) SciDAC center led us to the SuperLU-DIST software library for solving large sparse matrices using direct methods on parallel computers. Switching to this solver library boosted NIMROD's performance by a factor of five in typical large nonlinear simulations, which has been publicized
A non-local shell model of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plunian, F [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, Maison des Geosciences, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Stepanov, R [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Korolyov 1, 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)
2007-08-15
We derive a new shell model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in which the energy transfers are not necessarily local. Like the original MHD equations, the model conserves the total energy, magnetic helicity, cross-helicity and volume in phase space (Liouville's theorem) apart from the effects of external forcing, viscous dissipation and magnetic diffusion. The model of hydrodynamic (HD) turbulence is derived from the MHD model setting the magnetic field to zero. In that case the conserved quantities are the kinetic energy and the kinetic helicity. In addition to a statistically stationary state with a Kolmogorov spectrum, the HD model exhibits multiscaling. The anomalous scaling exponents are found to depend on a free parameter {alpha} that measures the non-locality degree of the model. In freely decaying turbulence, the infra-red spectrum also depends on {alpha}. Comparison with theory suggests using {alpha} = -5/2. In MHD turbulence, we investigate the fully developed turbulent dynamo for a wide range of magnetic Prandtl numbers in both kinematic and dynamic cases. Both local and non-local energy transfers are clearly identified.
Elements of plasma kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guasp, J.
1976-01-01
The physical foundations of plasma kinetic equations are exposed inside a series of seminars on plasma and fusion physics. The Vlasov and collisional equations with its application range have been discussed. The momenta equations for the macroscopic magnitudes and the more usual approximations have been obtained: two fluid equations for cold and warm plasmas, magnetohydrodynamic equations and the double-adiabatic theory. (author)
Introduction to Plasma Physics
Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2017-03-01
Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, Sameh E., E-mail: sameh_sci_math@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, South Valley University, Qena (Egypt); Hussein, Ahmed Kadhim, E-mail: ahmedkadhim7474@gmail.com [College of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Babylon University, Babylon City—Hilla (Iraq); Mohammed, H.A. [Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Adegun, I.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin (Nigeria); Zhang, Xiaohui [School of Physics Science and Technology, School of Energy—Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, Jiangsu (China); Kolsi, Lioua [Unite de Metrologie en Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d’Ingenieurs, Monastir (Tunisia); Hasanpour, Arman [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, PO Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sivasankaran, S. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)
2014-01-15
Highlights: • Ha decelerates the flow field. • Ha enhances conduction. • Magnetic field orientation is important. • Radiation parameter important. • Nu decreases as Ha increases. -- Abstract: Numerical two-dimensional analysis using finite difference approach with “line method” is performed on the laminar magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a porous medium to investigate the effects of viscous dissipation and radiation. The enclosure heated from left vertical sidewall and cooled from an opposing right vertical sidewall. The top and bottom walls of the enclosure are considered adiabatic. The flow in the square enclosure is subjected to a uniform magnetic field at various orientation angles (φ = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°). Numerical computations occur at wide ranges of Rayleigh number, viscous dissipation parameter, magnetic field orientation angles, Hartmann number and radiation parameter. Numerical results are presented with the aid of tables and graphical illustrations. The results of the present work explain that the local and average Nusselt numbers at the hot and cold sidewalls increase with increasing the radiation parameter. From the other side, the role of viscous dissipation parameter is to reduce the local and average Nusselt numbers at the hot left wall, while it improves them at the cold right wall. The results are compared with another published results and it found to be in a good agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, D.C.
1986-01-01
We have explored numerical solutions of the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations and of the Strauss equations. In the former case, the emphasis has been on relaxation to force-free, field-reversed states in magnetofluids bounded by rigid conductors; in the latter case, the emphasis has been on disruptions. The competition between dynamic alignment of the velocity fields and magnetic fields and selective decay toward minimum energy states has been explored. Analytical expressions for density fluctuation spectra in MHD turbulence have been derived. Analytical expressions for turbulent MHD resistivities and viscosities have been derived
Magnetohydrodynamic motion of a two-fluid plasma
Burby, J. W.
2017-08-01
The two-fluid Maxwell system couples frictionless electrons and ion fluids via Maxwell's equations. When the frequencies of light waves, Langmuir waves, and single-particle cyclotron motion are scaled to be asymptotically large, the two-fluid Maxwell system becomes a fast-slow dynamical system. This fast-slow system admits a formally exact single-fluid closure that may be computed systematically with any desired order of accuracy through the use of a functional partial differential equation. In the leading order approximation, the closure reproduces magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Higher order truncations of the closure give an infinite hierarchy of extended MHD models that allow for arbitrary mass ratio, as well as perturbative deviations from charge neutrality. The closure is interpreted geometrically as an invariant slow manifold in the infinite-dimensional two-fluid phase space, on which two-fluid motions are free of high-frequency oscillations. This perspective shows that the full closure inherits a Hamiltonian structure from the two-fluid theory. By employing infinite-dimensional Lie transforms, the Poisson bracket for the all-order closure may be obtained in the closed form. Thus, conservative truncations of the single-fluid closure may be obtained by simply truncating the single-fluid Hamiltonian. Moreover, the closed-form expression for the all-order bracket gives explicit expressions for a number of the full closure's conservation laws. Notably, the full closure, as well as any of its Hamiltonian truncations, admits a pair of independent circulation invariants.
The Magnetohydrodynamic Generator A Physics Olympiad Problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Magnetohydrodynamic Generator A Physics Olympiad Problem (2001). Vijay A Singh ... Magnetohydrodynamics; generator; power; efficiency; Faraday's law; Physics Olympiad . Author Affiliations. Vijay A Singh1 Manish Kapoor2. Physics Department Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 208016, India. MPE College ...
Adventures in magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.
1988-03-01
This material was presented in a set of three lectures on October 29 and 30, 1987 at Nagoya University. It was attempted to give an elementary survey of magnetohydrodynamic theory as it applies to toroidal confinement, emphasizing the concept and avoiding the detailed derivation, in hopes that the ideas will be useful for students and researchers just entering the field. In some places, the actual development should be described, so it was decided that it would be worthwhile to give some exact results. Thus the notes are uneven. The author hopes that everyone who looks at this will find something of interest. By a proper breakdown, this lecture consists of four sections: the section on the derivation and justification of the MHD equations, that on the equilibrium problem, that on linearized stability and some comments on nonlinear evolution, magnetic islands and transport. There is still the work to be done with these simple models. The move into some branch of plasma simulation or drift orbit formulation may be done, but this area is worth to spend a professional life, as the tasks are challenging, and the results are satisfying. (Kako, I.) 61 refs
Inertia and ion Landau damping of low-frequency magnetohydrodynamical modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondeson, A.; Chu, M.S.
1996-01-01
The inertia and Landau damping of low-frequency magnetohydrodynamical modes are investigated using the drift-kinetic energy principle for the motion along the magnetic field. Toroidal trapping of the ions decreases the Landau damping and increases the inertia for frequencies below (r/R) 1/2 v thi /qR. The theory is applied to toroidicity-induced Alfvacute en eigenmodes and to resistive wall modes in rotating plasmas. An explanation of the beta-induced Alfvacute en eigenmode is given in terms of the Pfirsch endash Schlueter-like enhancement of inertia at low frequency. The toroidal inertia enhancement also increases the effects of plasma rotation on resistive wall modes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata
Montgomery, David; Doolen, Gary D.
1987-01-01
A generalization of the hexagonal lattice gas model of Frisch, Hasslacher and Pomeau is shown to lead to two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. The method relies on the ideal point-wise conservation law for vector potential.
Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-03-01
A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves
Three-fluid magnetohydrodynamical simulation of plasma focus discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behler, K.; Bruhns, H.
1987-01-01
A two-dimensional, three-fluid code based on the two-fluid Potter code [Methods in Computational Physics (Academic, New York, 1970), Vol. 9, p. 340] was developed for simulating the plasma focus discharge. With this code it is possible to treat the neutral gas in addition to the plasma components and to model the ionization and recombination phenomena. Thus the sheet dynamics in a plasma focus can be studied and effects investigated such as the occurrence of residual gas (or plasma) density behind the current sheet in the run-down phase. This is a prerequisite to the occurrence of leak currents, which are one of the causes limiting the performance of large plasma focus devices. It is shown that fast operating foci with small dimensions behave favorably compared with the ''classical'' Mather focus [Methods of Experimental Physics (Academic, New York, 1971), Vol. 9B, p. 187] with long coaxial electrodes
Minimizing the magnetohydrodynamic potential energy for the current hole region in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, M.S.; Parks, P.B.
2004-01-01
The current hole region in the tokamak has been observed to arise naturally during the development of internal transport barriers. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) potential energy in the current hole region is shown to be determined completely in terms of the displacements at the edge of the current hole. For modes with finite toroidal mode number n≠0, the minimized potential energy is the same as if the current hole region were a vacuum region. For modes with toroidal mode number n=0, the displacement is a superposition of three types of independent displacements: a vertical displacement or displacements that compress only the plasma, or the toroidal field uniformly. Thus for ideal MHD perturbations of plasma with a current hole, the plasma behaves as if it were bordered by an extra ''internal vacuum region.'' The relevance of the present work to computer simulations of plasma with a current hole region is also discussed
Investigation of Plasmas Having Complex, Dynamic Evolving Morphology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellan, Paul M. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
2017-01-03
Three different types of plasmas have been investigated using both experimental and theoretical methods. The first type of plasma is dense, highly ionized, governed by magnetohydrodynamics, and highly dynamic. This plasma is relevant to solar coronal loops, astrophysical jets, and other situations where strong magnetic forces act on the plasma. A well-diagnosed laboratory experiment creates a magnetohydrodynamically driven highly collimated plasma jet. This jet undergoes a kink instability such that it rapidly develops a corkscrew shape. The kink causes lateral acceleration of the jet, and this lateral acceleration drives a Rayleigh-Taylor instability that in turn chokes the current flowing in the jet and causes a magnetic reconnection. The magnetic reconnection causes electron and ion heating as well as emission of whistler waves. This entire sequence of events has been observed, measured in detail, and related to theoretical models. The second type of plasma is a transient rf-produced plasma used as a seed plasma for the magnetohydrodynamic experiments described above. Detailed atomic physics ionization processes have been investigated and modeled. The third type of plasma that has been studied is a dusty plasma where the dust particles are spontaneously growing ice grains. The rapid growth of the ice grains to large size and their highly ordered alignment has been investigated as well as collective motion of the ice grains, including well-defined flows on the surface of nested toroids. In addition to the experimental work described above, several related theoretical models have been developed, most notably a model showing how a complex interaction between gravity and magnetic fields on extremely weakly ionized plasma in an accretion disk provides an electric power source that can drive astrophysical jets associated with the accretion disk. Eighteen papers reporting this work have been published in a wide variety of journals.
Investigation of Plasmas Having Complex, Dynamic Evolving Morphology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellan, Paul M.
2017-01-01
Three different types of plasmas have been investigated using both experimental and theoretical methods. The first type of plasma is dense, highly ionized, governed by magnetohydrodynamics, and highly dynamic. This plasma is relevant to solar coronal loops, astrophysical jets, and other situations where strong magnetic forces act on the plasma. A well-diagnosed laboratory experiment creates a magnetohydrodynamically driven highly collimated plasma jet. This jet undergoes a kink instability such that it rapidly develops a corkscrew shape. The kink causes lateral acceleration of the jet, and this lateral acceleration drives a Rayleigh-Taylor instability that in turn chokes the current flowing in the jet and causes a magnetic reconnection. The magnetic reconnection causes electron and ion heating as well as emission of whistler waves. This entire sequence of events has been observed, measured in detail, and related to theoretical models. The second type of plasma is a transient rf-produced plasma used as a seed plasma for the magnetohydrodynamic experiments described above. Detailed atomic physics ionization processes have been investigated and modeled. The third type of plasma that has been studied is a dusty plasma where the dust particles are spontaneously growing ice grains. The rapid growth of the ice grains to large size and their highly ordered alignment has been investigated as well as collective motion of the ice grains, including well-defined flows on the surface of nested toroids. In addition to the experimental work described above, several related theoretical models have been developed, most notably a model showing how a complex interaction between gravity and magnetic fields on extremely weakly ionized plasma in an accretion disk provides an electric power source that can drive astrophysical jets associated with the accretion disk. Eighteen papers reporting this work have been published in a wide variety of journals.
Effective Ohm's law for a magnetohydrodynamic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayukawa, Naoyuki; Oikawa, Shunichi; Aoki, Yoshiyuki
1991-01-01
Considering that the electrical conductivity of a thermally equilibrium MHD plasma is a strong non-linear function of the gas temperature, the authors first pointed out that the statistically averaged conductivity should be evaluated by the mean temperature as =(1+G)σ( ), where G is given by the third order Taylor expansion with respect to the temperature fluctuation T- and is always positive. Next, in order to obtain a statistically averaged Ohm's law for a turbulent plasma, the correlation (σ'E'> between the conductivity and the electric field fluctuations has been numerically investigated for a plasma with a 1/7th-power average temperature distribution and layered one-dimensional fluctuation between parallel electrodes. It was shown that the correlation is always negative and the averaged current density as well as the plasma resistance is to be corrected appreciably from the values based on the mean temperature. Finally, it was shown that the correction factor / can be evaluated approximately by a 4th-order polynomial of the relative rms temperature fluctuation √ 2 >/ and the relationship is practically insensitive to the variation of the electrode temperature, the boundary-layer thickness and also to the spatial distribution of the fluctuation amplitudes. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooper, W. A.; Brunetti, D.; Duval, B. P.; Faustin, J. M.; Graves, J. P.; Kleiner, A.; Patten, H.; Pfefferlé, D.; Porte, L.; Raghunathan, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Tran, T. M., E-mail: wilfred.cooper@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Swiss Plasma Center (SPC), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2016-04-15
Free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three dimensional deformations of the plasma-vacuum interface are computed for the first time. The structures obtained have the appearance of saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. High edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number n = 1 corrugations for a high edge bootstrap current and larger n distortions when this current is small. Deformations in the plasma boundary region induce a nonaxisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlüter current driving a field-aligned current ribbon consistent with reported experimental observations. A variation in the 3D equilibrium confirms that the n = 1 mode is a kink/peeling structure. We surmise that our calculated equilibrium structures constitute a viable model for the edge harmonic oscillations and outer modes associated with a quiescent H-mode operation in shaped tokamak plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua, T.Q.; Walker, J.S.; Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.
1988-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic flows of liquid metals in rectangular ducts with thin conducting walls in the presence of strong nonuniform transverse magnetic fields are examined. The interaction parameter and Hartmann number are assumed to be large, whereas the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. Under these assumptions, viscous and inertial effects are confined in very thin boundary layers adjacent to the walls. A significant fraction of the fluid flow is concentrated in the boundary layers adjacent to the side walls which are parallel to the magnetic field. This paper describes the analysis and numerical methods for obtaining 3-D solutions for flow parameters outside these layers, without solving explicitly for the layers themselves. Numerical solutions are presented for cases which are relevant to the flows of liquid metals in fusion reactor blankets. Experimental results obtained from the ALEX experiments at Argonne National Laboratory are used to validate the numerical code. In general, the agreement is excellent. 5 refs., 14 figs
Interactions between two magnetohydrodynamic Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, S. H.; Ip, W.-H.
2011-01-01
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) driven by velocity shear is a generator of waves found away from the vicinity of the velocity-shear layers since the fast-mode waves radiated from the surface perturbation can propagate away from the transition layer. Thus the nonlinear evolution associated with KHI is not confined near the velocity-shear layer. To understand the physical processes in multiple velocity-shear layers, the interactions between two KHIs at a pair of tangential discontinuities are studied by two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. It is shown that the interactions between two neighboring velocity-shear layers are dominated by the propagation of the fast-mode waves radiated from KHIs in a nonuniform medium. That is, the fast-mode Mach number of the surface waves M Fy , a key factor of the nonlinear evolution of KHI, will vary with the nonuniform background plasma velocity due to the existence of two neighboring velocity-shear layers. As long as the M Fy observed in the plasma rest frame across the neighboring velocity-shear layer is larger than one, newly formed fast-mode Mach-cone-like (MCL) plane waves generated by the fast-mode waves can be found in this region. As results of the interactions of two KHIs, reflection and distortion of the MCL plane waves generate the turbulence and increase the plasma temperature, which provide possible mechanisms of heating and accelerating local plasma between two neighboring velocity-shear layers.
Analysis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations and study of the nonlinear solution bifurcations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morros Tosas, J.
1989-05-01
The nonlinear saturation of a plasma magnetohydrodynamic instabilities is studied, by means of a bifurcation theory. The work includes: an accurate mathematical method to study the MHD equations, in which the physical content is clear; and the study of the nonlinear solutions of the branch bifurcations, applied to different unstable plasma models. A scalar function representation is proposed for the MHD equations. This representation is characterized by a reference steady magnetic field and by a velocity field, which allow to write the equations for the scalar functions. An approximation method, leading to the obtention of the reduced equations applied in the instability study, is given. The cylindrical or toroidal plasmas are studied by using the nonlinear solutions bifurcation. Concerning the cylindrical plasma, the representation leads to a reduced system which enables the analytical calculations: two different steady bifurcation solutions are obtained. In the case of the toroidal plasma, an appropriate reduced equations system, is obtained. A qualitative approach of the Kink-type steady solution bifurcation, in a toroidal geometry, is performed [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, S.R.
2002-01-01
For stellarators to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands, caused by Pfirsch-Schlueter currents, diamagnetic currents and resonant coil fields, are guaranteed to exist. The challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary full-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the PIES code [Comp. Phys. Comm., 43:157, 1986] which iterates the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to lie in the nullspace of certain measures of engineering acceptability and kink stability. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for NCSX [Phys. Plas., 7:1911, 2000]. (author)
Mode coupling trigger of neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1997-05-01
Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of coupled magnetohydrodynamic - type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm's law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise Δ' stable, albeit once a threshold island width is exceeded. A possible mechanism for exceeding or eliminating this threshold condition is demonstrated based on mode coupling due to toroidicity with a pre-existing instability at the q = 1 surface
The acceleration and propagation of energetic particles in turbulent cosmic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Achterberg, A.
1981-01-01
This thesis concentrates on the acceleration and propagation of energetic particles in turbulent cosmic plasmas. The stochastic acceleration of relativistic electrons by long-wavelength weak magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is considered and a model is discussed that allows the determination of both the electron energy spectrum and the wavenumber spectrum of the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a consistent way. The question of second phase acceleration in large solar flares and the precise form of the force exerted on the background plasma when Alfven waves are generated by fast particles are considered. The energy balance in the shock wave acceleration, the propagation of energetic particles in a high β plasma (β>10 2 ) and sheared flow as a possible source of plasma turbulence for a magnetized plasma with field-aligned flow, are discussed. (Auth./C.F.)
Magnetohydrodynamic stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.
1994-01-01
A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 left angle p right angle /B 2 that is compatible with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability. This value depends on the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near unity, I BS /I P ∼1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal β to be near unity, arepsilonβ P ∼1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during ARIES I, II/IV, and III and PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements in the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies, is also discussed. ((orig.))
Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aladiev, I.T.; Dzhamardzhashvili, V.A.
1981-01-01
This invention relates to the generation of electrical energy by direct conversion from thermal or electrical energy and notably to liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertors. The convertor described in this invention can be successfully used as a source of electrical energy for space vessels, for underwater vessels, for aeronautics and for the generation of electrical energy in thermal or atomic power plants. This liquid metal convertor consists of a heat source, a two phase nozzle, a separator, a steam diffuser and a condenser. These elements are connected together hydraulically in series. The condenser is connected hydraulically to a heat source, a liquid diffuser and a magnetohydrodynamic generator. These elements are interconnected hydraulically to the separator and heat source [fr
Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research
Gill, Richard D
1981-01-01
Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Florinski, V. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Guo, X. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)
2013-04-01
This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florinski, V.; Guo, X.; Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C.
2013-01-01
This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.
Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas
Piel, Alexander
2010-01-01
Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seyler, C. E.; Martin, M. R.
2011-01-01
It is shown that the two-fluid model under a generalized Ohm's law formulation and the resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can both be described as relaxation systems. In the relaxation model, the under-resolved stiff source terms constrain the dynamics of a set of hyperbolic equations to give the correct asymptotic solution. When applied to the collisional two-fluid model, the relaxation of fast time scales associated with displacement current and finite electron mass allows for a natural transition from a system where Ohm's law determines the current density to a system where Ohm's law determines the electric field. This result is used to derive novel algorithms, which allow for multiscale simulation of low and high frequency extended-MHD physics. This relaxation formulation offers an efficient way to implicitly advance the Hall term and naturally simulate a plasma-vacuum interface without invoking phenomenological models. The relaxation model is implemented as an extended-MHD code, which is used to analyze pulsed power loads such as wire arrays and ablating foils. Two-dimensional simulations of pulsed power loads are compared for extended-MHD and MHD. For these simulations, it is also shown that the relaxation model properly recovers the resistive-MHD limit.
Resistive effects on line-tied magnetohydrodynamic modes in cylindrical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delzanno, Gian Luca; Evstatiev, E. G.; Finn, John M.
2007-01-01
An investigation of the effect of resistivity on the linear stability of line-tied magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes is presented in cylindrical geometry, based on the method recently developed in the paper by Evstatiev et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072902 (2006)]. The method uses an expansion of the full solution of the problem in one-dimensional radial eigenfunctions. This method is applied to study sausage modes (m=0, m being the poloidal wavenumber), kink modes (m=1), and m=2 modes. All these modes can be resistively unstable. It is found that m≠0 modes can be unstable below the ideal MHD threshold due to resistive diffusion of the field lines, with growth rates proportional to resistivity. For these resistive modes, there is no indication of tearing, i.e., current sheets or boundary layers due to ideal MHD singularities. That is, resistivity acts globally on the whole plasma column and not in layers. Modes with m=0, on the other hand, can exist as tearing modes if the equilibrium axial magnetic field reverses sign within the plasma
''Reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, D.
1992-01-01
It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of ''reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs
Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas
Piel, Alexander
2017-01-01
The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...
Magnetohydrodynamic Waves and Instabilities in Rotating Tokamak Plasmas
J.W. Haverkort (Willem)
2013-01-01
htmlabstractOne of the most promising ways to achieve controlled nuclear fusion for the commercial production of energy is the tokamak design. In such a device, a hot plasma is confined in a toroidal geometry using magnetic fields. The present generation of tokamaks shows significant plasma
A simple ideal magnetohydrodynamical model of vertical disruption events in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzpatrick, R.
2009-01-01
A simple model of axisymmetric vertical disruption events (VDEs) in tokamaks is presented in which the halo current force exerted on the vacuum vessel is calculated directly from linear, marginally stable, ideal-magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) stability analysis. The basic premise of the model is that the halo current force modifies pressure balance at the edge of the plasma, and therefore also modifies ideal-MHD plasma stability. In order to prevent the ideal vertical instability, responsible for the VDE, from growing on the very short Alfven time scale, the halo current force must adjust itself such that the instability is rendered marginally stable. The model predicts halo currents which are similar in magnitude to those observed experimentally. An approximate nonaxisymmetric version of the model is developed in order to calculate the toroidal peaking factor for the halo current force.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takase, Haruhiko; Senda, Ikuo
1999-01-01
A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation (TSPS) code has been developed for investigating the position and shape control on tokamak plasmas. The analyses of three-dimensional eddy currents on the conducting components around the plasma and the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium are taken into account in this code. The code can analyze the plasma position and shape control during the minor disruption in which the deformation of plasma is not negligible. Using the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) parameters, some examples of calculations are shown in this paper. (author)
Effects of orbit squeezing on neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shaing, K.C.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Chu, M.S.; Bécoulet, M.; Cahyna, Pavel
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 8 (2008), 082505-1-082505-8 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma boundary layers * plasma instability * plasma magnetohydrodynamics * plasma toroidal confinement * plasma transport processes * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2965146
Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.
2009-01-01
The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.
Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of solid-deuterium-initiated Z-pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheehey, P.T.
1994-02-01
Solid-deuterium-initiated Z-pinch experiments are numerically simulated using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model, which includes many important experimental details, such as ''cold-start'' initial conditions, thermal conduction, radiative energy loss, actual discharge current vs. time, and grids of sufficient size and resolution to allow realistic development of the plasma. The alternating-direction-implicit numerical technique used meets the substantial demands presented by such a computational task. Simulations of fiber-initiated experiments show that when the fiber becomes fully ionized rapidly developing m=0 instabilities, which originated in the coronal plasma generated from the ablating fiber, drive intense non-uniform heating and rapid expansion of the plasma column. The possibility that inclusion of additional physical effects would improve stability is explored. Finite-Larmor-radius-ordered Hall and diamagnetic pressure terms in the magnetic field evolution equation, corresponding energy equation terms, and separate ion and electron energy equations are included; these do not change the basic results. Model diagnostics, such as shadowgrams and interferograms, generated from simulation results, are in good agreement with experiment. Two alternative experimental approaches are explored: high-current magnetic implosion of hollow cylindrical deuterium shells, and ''plasma-on-wire'' (POW) implosion of low-density plasma onto a central deuterium fiber. By minimizing instability problems, these techniques may allow attainment of higher temperatures and densities than possible with bare fiber-initiated Z-pinches. Conditions for significant D-D or D-T fusion neutron production may be realizable with these implosion-based approaches
Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Black Hole Accretion
Avara, Mark J.
Black holes embody one of the few, simple, solutions to the Einstein field equations that describe our modern understanding of gravitation. In isolation they are small, dark, and elusive. However, when a gas cloud or star wanders too close, they light up our universe in a way no other cosmic object can. The processes of magnetohydrodynamics which describe the accretion inflow and outflows of plasma around black holes are highly coupled and nonlinear and so require numerical experiments for elucidation. These processes are at the heart of astrophysics since black holes, once they somehow reach super-massive status, influence the evolution of the largest structures in the universe. It has been my goal, with the body of work comprising this thesis, to explore the ways in which the influence of black holes on their surroundings differs from the predictions of standard accretion models. I have especially focused on how magnetization of the greater black hole environment can impact accretion systems.
Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, P.J.; Hazeltine, R.D.
1983-07-01
Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD
Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo theory
Krause, F
2013-01-01
Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory provides a systematic introduction to mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and the dynamo theory, along with the results achieved. Topics covered include turbulence and large-scale structures; general properties of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneity, isotropy, and mirror symmetry of turbulent fields; and turbulent electromotive force in the case of non-vanishing mean flow. The turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion is also considered. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of the gen
Final report. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, D.C.
1998-01-01
This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant's lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.
2015-01-01
Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pankratov, I. M., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Academicheskaya Str. 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhou, R. J., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2015-07-15
Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.
Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.
2015-07-01
Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.
Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.
2018-03-01
The impact of Marangoni convection on dusty Casson fluid boundary layer flow with Joule heating and viscous dissipation aspects is addressed. The surface tension is assumed to vary linearly with temperature. Physical aspects of magnetohydrodynamics and thermal radiation are also accounted. The governing problem is modelled under boundary layer approximations for fluid phase and dust particle phase and then Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method based numeric solutions are established. The momentum and heat transport mechanisms are focused on the result of distinct governing parameters. The Nusselt number is also calculated. It is established that the rate of heat transfer can be enhanced by suspending dust particles in the base fluid. The temperature field of fluid phase and temperature of dust phase are quite reverse for thermal dust parameter. The radiative heat, viscous dissipation and Joule heating aspects are constructive for thermal fields of fluid and dust phases. The velocity of dusty Casson fluid dominates the velocity of dusty fluid while this trend is opposite in the case of temperature. Moreover qualitative behaviour of fluid phase and dust phase temperature/velocity are similar.
Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of Gamble I POS with Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Frese, M.H.; Peterkin, R.E.; Payne, S.S.
1989-01-01
Two dimensional single fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations have been conducted to investigate the effects of the Hall electric field on magnetic field transport in plasma opening switches of the type used on Gamble I. The Hall terms were included in the magnetic field transport equation in the two dimensional simulation code MACH2 through the use of a generalized Ohm's law. Calculations show the Hall terms augment the field transport previously observed to occur through ion fluid motion and diffusion. For modest values of microturbulent collision frequency, board current channels were observed . Results also show the magnetic field transport to be affected by the cathode boundary conditions with the Hall terms included. In all cases center of mass motion was slight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yueqiang; Albanese, R.; Rubinacci, G.; Portone, A.; Villone, F.
2008-01-01
In order to model a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability that strongly couples to external conducting structures (walls and/or coils) in a fusion device, it is often necessary to combine a MHD code solving for the plasma response, with an eddy current code computing the fields and currents of conductors. We present a rigorous proof of the coupling schemes between these two types of codes. One of the coupling schemes has been introduced and implemented in the CARMA code [R. Albanese, Y. Q. Liu, A. Portone, G. Rubinacci, and F. Villone, IEEE Trans. Magn. 44, 1654 (2008); A. Portone, F. Villone, Y. Q. Liu, R. Albanese, and G. Rubinacci, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 085004 (2008)] that couples the MHD code MARS-F[Y. Q. Liu, A. Bondeson, C. M. Fransson, B. Lennartson, and C. Breitholtz, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] and the eddy current code CARIDDI[R. Albanese and G. Rubinacci, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 102, 1 (1998)]. While the coupling schemes are described for a general toroidal geometry, we give the analytical proof for a cylindrical plasma.
Numerical magneto-hydrodynamics for relativistic nuclear collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inghirami, Gabriele [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany); Del Zanna, Luca [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Beraudo, Andrea [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Moghaddam, Mohsen Haddadi [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 397, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Becattini, Francesco [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany)
2016-12-15
We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant 3 + 1 formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. After providing some estimates of the magnetic fields arising in non-central high-energy nuclear collisions, we perform full RMHD simulations of the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fields and discuss the results. In our ideal RMHD setup we find that the magnetic field developing in non-central collisions does not significantly modify the elliptic flow of the final hadrons. However, since there are uncertainties in the description of the pre-equilibrium phase and also in the properties of the medium, a more extensive survey of the possible initial conditions as well as the inclusion of dissipative effects are indeed necessary to validate this preliminary result. (orig.)
Minimum dissipative relaxed states in toroidal plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
organised equi- librium in RFP and tokamak by a deterministic approach to incompressible dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. In an earlier work Kondoh [8] formulated an energy principle including the edge plasma effects for a slightly resistive MHD ...
Observations of magnetohydrodynamic waves on the ground and on a satellite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lanzerotti, L.J.; Fukunishi, H.; Maclennan, C.G.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.
1976-01-01
A comparison is made of magnetohydrodynamic waves observed near the equator on Explorer 45 and at an array of ground stations in the northern hemisphere and at their conjugate station at Siple, Antartica. The data comparisons strongly support the notion that the observed waves can be considered odd mode standing waves in the magnetosphere. This conclusion has important implications for the interpretation of single-point satellite and/or ground measurements of ULF plasma wave phenomena in the magnetosphere. Further, the data comparisons strongly suggest that the overall ULF (approx.5-30 mHz) power levels are quite similar in the magnetosphere and on the ground, at least during the intervals studied
Internal modes in high-temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crew, G.B.
1983-02-01
The linear stability of current-carrying toroidal plamsas is examined to determine the possibility of exciting global internal modes. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory provides a useful framework for the analysis of these modes, which involve a kinking of the central portion of the plasma column. Non-ideal effects can also be important, and these are treated for high-temperature regimes where the plasma is collisionless
Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems
Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris
2017-11-01
Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2014-01-01
The effect of spin induced magnetization and electrical resistivity incorporating the viscosity of the medium is examined on the Jeans instability of quantum magnetoplasma. Formulation of the system is done by using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. The analysis of the problem is carried out by normal mode analysis theory. The general dispersion relation is derived from set of perturbed equations to analyse the growth rate and condition of self-gravitational Jeans instability. To discuss the influence of resistivity, magnetization, and viscosity parameters on Jeans instability, the general dispersion relation is reduced for both transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. In the case of transverse propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be affected by the viscosity, magnetization, resistivity, and magnetic field strength whereas Jeans criterion of instability is modified by the magnetization and quantum parameter. In the longitudinal mode of propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be modified due to the viscosity and quantum correction in which the Jeans condition of instability is influenced only by quantum parameter. The other non-gravitating Alfven mode in this direction is affected by finite electrical resistivity, spin induced magnetization, and viscosity. The numerical study for the growth rate of Jeans instability is carried out for both in the transverse and longitudinal direction of propagation to the magnetic field. The effect of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability in quantum plasma is analysed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, A.; Nakajima, N.
2010-11-01
Effects of flow, finite ion temperature and pressure anisotropy on equilibrium and stability of a high-beta toroidal plasma are studied in the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A set of reduced equilibrium equations for high-beta tokamaks with toroidal and poloidal flow comparable to the poloidal sound velocity is derived in a unified form of single-fluid and Hall MHD models and a two-fluid MHD model with ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) terms. Pressure anisotropy is introduced with equations for the parallel heat flux which are closed by a fluid closure model. It is solved analytically for the single-fluid model and the solutions shows complicated characteristics in the region around the poloidal sound velocity due to pressure anisotropy and the parallel heat flux. Numerical solutions are found by using the finite element method for the two-fluid model with FLR effects in the case of isotropic, adiabatic pressure and indicate the following features of two-fluid equilibria: the isosurfaces of the magnetic flux, the pressure and the ion stream function do not coincide with each other, and the solutions depend on the sign of the radial electric field. Reduced single-fluid MHD equations with time evolution that are consistent with the above equilibria are also derived in order to study their stability. They conserve the energy up to the order required by the equilibria. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawczynski, Charlie; Smolentsev, Sergey; Abdou, Mohamed
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A new induction-based magnetohydrodynamic code was developed using a finite difference method. • The code was benchmarked against purely hydrodynamic and MHD flows for low and finite magnetic Reynolds number. • Possible applications of the new code include liquid-metal MHD flows in the breeder blanket during unsteady events in the plasma. - Abstract: Most numerical analysis performed in the past for MHD flows in liquid-metal blankets were based on the assumption of low magnetic Reynolds number and involved numerical codes that utilized electric potential as the main electromagnetic variable. One limitation of this approach is that such codes cannot be applied to truly unsteady processes, for example, MHD flows of liquid-metal breeder/coolant during unsteady events in plasma, such as major plasma disruptions, edge-localized modes and vertical displacements, when changes in plasmas occur at millisecond timescales. Our newly developed code MOONS (Magnetohydrodynamic Object-Oriented Numerical Solver) uses the magnetic field as the main electromagnetic variable to relax the limitations of the low magnetic Reynolds number approximation for more realistic fusion reactor environments. The new code, written in Fortran, implements a 3D finite-difference method and is capable of simulating multi-material domains. The constrained transport method was implemented to evolve the magnetic field in time and assure that the magnetic field remains solenoidal within machine accuracy at every time step. Various verification tests have been performed including purely hydrodynamic flows and MHD flows at low and finite magnetic Reynolds numbers. Test results have demonstrated very good accuracy against known analytic solutions and other numerical data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawczynski, Charlie; Smolentsev, Sergey, E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu; Abdou, Mohamed
2016-11-01
Highlights: • A new induction-based magnetohydrodynamic code was developed using a finite difference method. • The code was benchmarked against purely hydrodynamic and MHD flows for low and finite magnetic Reynolds number. • Possible applications of the new code include liquid-metal MHD flows in the breeder blanket during unsteady events in the plasma. - Abstract: Most numerical analysis performed in the past for MHD flows in liquid-metal blankets were based on the assumption of low magnetic Reynolds number and involved numerical codes that utilized electric potential as the main electromagnetic variable. One limitation of this approach is that such codes cannot be applied to truly unsteady processes, for example, MHD flows of liquid-metal breeder/coolant during unsteady events in plasma, such as major plasma disruptions, edge-localized modes and vertical displacements, when changes in plasmas occur at millisecond timescales. Our newly developed code MOONS (Magnetohydrodynamic Object-Oriented Numerical Solver) uses the magnetic field as the main electromagnetic variable to relax the limitations of the low magnetic Reynolds number approximation for more realistic fusion reactor environments. The new code, written in Fortran, implements a 3D finite-difference method and is capable of simulating multi-material domains. The constrained transport method was implemented to evolve the magnetic field in time and assure that the magnetic field remains solenoidal within machine accuracy at every time step. Various verification tests have been performed including purely hydrodynamic flows and MHD flows at low and finite magnetic Reynolds numbers. Test results have demonstrated very good accuracy against known analytic solutions and other numerical data.
Wills Plasma Physics Department thirty sixth 6-monthly progress report, July 1 to December 31, 1978
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
Progress is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following ares: plasma sources, hydromagnetic shock waves, rotating plasmas, magnetohydrodynamics, laser diagnostics and far infrared interferometry
Viscous shear in the Kerr metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, M.R.; Lemos, J.P.S.
1988-01-01
Models of viscous flows on to black holes commonly assume a zero-torque boundary condition at the radius of the last stable Keplerian orbit. It is here shown that this condition is wrong. The viscous torque is generally non-zero at both the last stable orbit and the horizon itself. The existence of a non-zero viscous torque at the horizon does not require the transfer of energy or angular momentum across any spacelike distance, and so does not violate causality. Further, in comparison with the viscous torque in the distant, Newtonian regime, the viscous torque on the horizon is often reversed, so that angular momentum is viscously advected inwards rather than outwards. This phenomenon is first suggested by an analysis of the quasi-stationary case, and then demonstrated explicitly for a series of cold, dynamical flows which fall freely from the last stable orbit in the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics. In the steady flows constructed here, the net torque on the hole is always directed in the usual sense; any reversal in the viscous torque is offset by an increase in the convected flux of angular momentum. (author)
Self-similar compression of a magnetized plasma filled liner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felber, F.S.; Liberman, M.A.; Velikovich, A.L.
1985-01-01
New analytic, one-dimensional, self-similar solutions of magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the compression of a magnetized plasma by a thin cylindrical liner are presented. The solutions include several features that have not been included in an earlier self-similar solution of the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. These features are the effects of finite plasma electrical conductivity, induction heating, thermal conductivity and related thermogalvanomagnetic effects, plasma turbulence, and plasma boundary effects. These solutions have been motivated by recent suggestions for production of ultrahigh magnetic fields by new methods. The methods involve radially imploding plasmas in which axial magnetic fields have been entrained. These methods may be capable of producing controlled magnetic fields up to approx. = 100 MG. Specific methods of implosion suggested were by ablative radial acceleration of a liner by a laser and by a gas-puff Z pinch. The model presented here addresses the first of these methods. The solutions derived here are used to estimate magnetic flux losses out of the compression volume, and to indicate conditions under which an impulsively-accelerated, plasma-filled liner may compress an axial magnetic field to large magnitude
Derivation of the Hall and extended magnetohydrodynamics brackets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Avignon, Eric C., E-mail: cavell@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, Philip J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: mlingam@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2016-06-15
There are several plasma models intermediate in complexity between ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and two-fluid theory, with Hall and Extended MHD being two important examples. In this paper, we investigate several aspects of these theories, with the ultimate goal of deriving the noncanonical Poisson brackets used in their Hamiltonian formulations. We present fully Lagrangian actions for each, as opposed to the fully Eulerian, or mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian, actions that have appeared previously. As an important step in this process, we exhibit each theory's two advected fluxes (in analogy to ideal MHD's advected magnetic flux), discovering also that with the correct choice of gauge they have corresponding Lie-dragged potentials resembling the electromagnetic vector potential, and associated conserved helicities. Finally, using the Euler-Lagrange map, we show how to derive the noncanonical Eulerian brackets from canonical Lagrangian ones.
THE TURBULENT DYNAMO IN HIGHLY COMPRESSIBLE SUPERSONIC PLASMAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Federrath, Christoph [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Schober, Jennifer [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bovino, Stefano; Schleicher, Dominik R. G., E-mail: christoph.federrath@anu.edu.au [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2014-12-20
The turbulent dynamo may explain the origin of cosmic magnetism. While the exponential amplification of magnetic fields has been studied for incompressible gases, little is known about dynamo action in highly compressible, supersonic plasmas, such as the interstellar medium of galaxies and the early universe. Here we perform the first quantitative comparison of theoretical models of the dynamo growth rate and saturation level with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of supersonic turbulence with grid resolutions of up to 1024{sup 3} cells. We obtain numerical convergence and find that dynamo action occurs for both low and high magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm = ν/η = 0.1-10 (the ratio of viscous to magnetic dissipation), which had so far only been seen for Pm ≥ 1 in supersonic turbulence. We measure the critical magnetic Reynolds number, Rm{sub crit}=129{sub −31}{sup +43}, showing that the compressible dynamo is almost as efficient as in incompressible gas. Considering the physical conditions of the present and early universe, we conclude that magnetic fields need to be taken into account during structure formation from the early to the present cosmic ages, because they suppress gas fragmentation and drive powerful jets and outflows, both greatly affecting the initial mass function of stars.
Contribution to the resolution of magnetohydrodynamic and magnetostatic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulbe, C.
2007-10-01
Interaction between a plasma and a magnetic field appears and has an important role in various domains such as thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement or astrophysical plasmas for example. In evolution, these interactions are described by the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). At equilibrium, the MHD equations result in the magnetostatic equations involving the magnetic field and the kinetic pressure of the plasma. The magnetostatic equations form a system of 3-dimensional non linear partial differential equations involving a magnetic field and a kinetic plasma pressure. When the pressure is supposed negligible, the magnetic field is known as Beltrami field. In a first time, we propose to solve numerically the Beltrami field problem using a fixed point iterative algorithm associated with finite element methods. This iterative strategy is extended in a second time to the computation of magnetostatic configurations with pressure. In the sequel, we interest in the approximation of ideal MHD equations. This system forms a nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law. We propose to use a finite volume approach, in which fluxes are calculated by a Roe's method on a tetrahedral mesh. Fluxes of the magnetic field are modified in order to satisfy the constraint of divergence free imposed on it. The proposed methods have been implemented in two new 3-dimensional codes called TETRAFFF for equilibrium, and TETRAMHD for MHD. The obtained numerical results confirm the high performance of these methods. (author)
Self-consistent dynamo-like activity in turbulent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Hameiri, E.
1986-05-01
The evolution of turbulent plasmas is investigated within the framework of resistive magnetohydrodynamics. The functional form of the mean electric field is derived for fluctuations generated by tearing and resistive interchange modes. It is shown that a bath of such local and global modes in pinches causes toroidal field-reversal with finite pressure gradients in the plasma
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Biskamp, Dieter
2003-01-01
This book presents an introduction to, and modern account of, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, an active field both in general turbulence theory and in various areas of astrophysics. The book starts by introducing the MHD equations, certain useful approximations and the transition to turbulence. The second part of the book covers incompressible MHD turbulence, the macroscopic aspects connected with the different self-organization processes, the phenomenology of the turbulence spectra, two-point closure theory, and intermittency. The third considers two-dimensional turbulence and compressi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-08-01
This is the first annual report of the MPP pilot project 93MPR05. In this pilot project four research groups with different, complementary backgrounds collaborate with the aim to develop new algorithms and codes to simulate the magnetohydrodynamics of thermonuclear and astrophysical plasmas on massively parallel machines. The expected speed-up is required to simulate the dynamics of the hot plasmas of interest which are characterized by very large magnetic Reynolds numbers and, hence, require high spatial and temporal resolutions (for details see section 1). The four research groups that collaborated to produce the results reported here are: The MHD group of Prof. Dr. J.P. Goedbloed at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen' in Nieuwegein, the group of Prof. Dr. H. van der Vorst at the Mathematics Institute of Utrecht University, the group of Prof. Dr. A.G. Hearn at the Astronomical Institute of Utrecht University, and the group of Dr. Ir. H.J.J. te Riele at the CWI in Amsterdam. The full project team met frequently during this first project year to discuss progress reports, current problems, etc. (see section 2). The main results of the first project year are: - Proof of the scalability of typical linear and nonlinear MHD codes - development and testing of a parallel version of the Arnoldi algorithm - development and testing of alternative methods for solving large non-Hermitian eigenvalue problems - porting of the 3D nonlinear semi-implicit time evolution code HERA to an MPP system. The steps that were scheduled to reach these intended results are given in section 3. (orig./WL)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1994-08-01
This is the first annual report of the MPP pilot project 93MPR05. In this pilot project four research groups with different, complementary backgrounds collaborate with the aim to develop new algorithms and codes to simulate the magnetohydrodynamics of thermonuclear and astrophysical plasmas on massively parallel machines. The expected speed-up is required to simulate the dynamics of the hot plasmas of interest which are characterized by very large magnetic Reynolds numbers and, hence, require high spatial and temporal resolutions (for details see section 1). The four research groups that collaborated to produce the results reported here are: The MHD group of Prof. Dr. J.P. Goedbloed at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics `Rijnhuizen` in Nieuwegein, the group of Prof. Dr. H. van der Vorst at the Mathematics Institute of Utrecht University, the group of Prof. Dr. A.G. Hearn at the Astronomical Institute of Utrecht University, and the group of Dr. Ir. H.J.J. te Riele at the CWI in Amsterdam. The full project team met frequently during this first project year to discuss progress reports, current problems, etc. (see section 2). The main results of the first project year are: - Proof of the scalability of typical linear and nonlinear MHD codes - development and testing of a parallel version of the Arnoldi algorithm - development and testing of alternative methods for solving large non-Hermitian eigenvalue problems - porting of the 3D nonlinear semi-implicit time evolution code HERA to an MPP system. The steps that were scheduled to reach these intended results are given in section 3. (orig./WL).
Relic gravitons and viscous cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cataldo, Mauricio; Mella, Patricio
2006-01-01
Previously it was shown that there exists a class of viscous cosmological models which violate the dominant energy condition for a limited amount of time after which they are smoothly connected to the ordinary radiation era (which preserves the dominant energy conditions). This violation of the dominant energy condition at an early cosmological epoch may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons that might be of experimental relevance. However, the bulk viscosity coefficient of these cosmologies became negative during the ordinary radiation era, and then the entropy of the sources driving the geometry decreases with time. We show that in the presence of viscous sources with a linear barotropic equation of state p=γρ we get viscous cosmological models with positive bulk viscous stress during all their evolution, and hence the matter entropy increases with the expansion time. In other words, in the framework of viscous cosmologies, there exist isotropic models compatible with the standard second law of thermodynamics which also may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2010-01-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations - so-called 'textbook' multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2013-01-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called textbook multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.
A fast, user-friendly code for calculating magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haney, S.W.; Freidberg, J.P.; Solomon, C.J.
1995-01-01
Using variational techniques, we have developed a fast, user-friendly code for computing approximate, but highly accurate fixed boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibria for tokamak plasmas. The variational procedure simplifies the problem---a two-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation---to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. The reduced problem can be readily solved on workstations or personal computers. This allows us to exploit sophisticated graphical user interfaces that make supplying calculation data and viewing results easy. This ease-of-use, along with the semianalytic nature of our calculation, allows researchers to routinely incorporate equilibrium information into their work. It also provides a tool for educators teaching fusion theory. We describe the variational formulation, the speed and accuracy of the computer implementation, and the design and operation of a user-friendly graphical interface
Viscosity in the edge of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stacey, W.M.
1993-05-01
A fluid representation of viscosity has been incorporated into a set of fluid equations that are maximally ordered in the ''short-radial-gradient-scale-length'' (srgsl) ordering that is appropriate for the edge of tokamak plasmas. The srgsl ordering raises viscous drifts and other viscous terms to leading order and fundamentally alters the character of the fluid equations. A leasing order viscous drift is identified. Viscous-driven radial particle and energy fluxes in the scrape-off layer and divertor channel are estimated to have an order unity effect in reducing radial peaking of energy fluxes transported along the field lines to divertor collector plates
Theory and Transport of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Bruno, R. [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)
2017-02-01
The theory of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (NI MHD) was developed largely in the early 1990s, together with an important extension to inhomogeneous flows in 2010. Much of the focus in the earlier work was to understand the apparent incompressibility of the solar wind and other plasma environments, and the relationship of density fluctuations to apparently incompressible manifestations of turbulence in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Further important predictions about the “dimensionality” of solar wind turbulence and its relationship to the plasma beta were made and subsequently confirmed observationally. However, despite the initial success of NI MHD in describing fluctuations in the solar wind, a detailed application to solar wind turbulence has not been undertaken. Here, we use the equations of NI MHD to describe solar wind turbulence, rewriting the NI MHD system in terms of Elsässer variables. Distinct descriptions of 2D and slab turbulence emerge naturally from the Elsässer formulation, as do the nonlinear couplings between 2D and slab components. For plasma beta order 1 or less regions, predictions for 2D and slab spectra result from the NI MHD description, and predictions for the spectral characteristics of density fluctuations can be made. We conclude by presenting a NI MHD formulation describing the transport of majority 2D and minority slab turbulence throughout the solar wind. A preliminary comparison of theory and observations is presented.
Integrated models for plasma/material interaction during loss of plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanein, A.
1998-01-01
A comprehensive computer package, High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS), has been developed to evaluate the damage incurred on plasma-facing materials during loss of plasma confinement. The HEIGHTS package consists of several integrated computer models that follow the start of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the energy deposited. The package includes new models to study turbulent plasma behavior in the SOL and predicts the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. A brief description of the HEIGHTS package and its capabilities are given in this work with emphasis on turbulent plasma behavior in the SOL during disruptions
Magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of Heavy Ion Collisions with ECHO-QGP
Inghirami, G.; Del Zanna, L.; Beraudo, A.; Haddadi Moghaddam, M.; Becattini, F.; Bleicher, M.
2018-05-01
It is believed that very strong magnetic fields may induce many interesting physical effects in the Quark Gluon Plasma, like the Chiral Magnetic Effect, the Chiral Separation Effect, a modification of the critical temperature or changes in the collective flow of the emitted particles. However, in the hydrodynamic numerical simulations of Heavy Ion Collisions the magnetic fields have been either neglected or considered as external fields which evolve independently from the dynamics of the fluid. To address this issue, we recently modified the ECHO-QGP code, including for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields in a consistent way, although in the limit of an infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma (ideal magnetohydrodynamics). In this proceedings paper we illustrate the underlying 3+1 formalisms of the current version of the code and we present the results of its basic preliminary application in a simple case. We conclude with a brief discussion of the possible further developments and future uses of the code, from RHIC to FAIR collision energies.
Wills plasma physics department thirty second 6-monthly progress report 1st July-31st December 1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
Progress is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following topics: plasma sources, hydromagnetic shock waves, rotating plasmas, magnetohydrodynamics, laser diagnostics and far infrared interferometry. (J.R.)
Wills Plasma Physics department thirty first 6-monthly progress report 1st January-30th June 1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
Progress is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following topics: plasma sources, hydromagnetic shock waves, rotating plasmas, magnetohydrodynamics, laser diagnostics and far infrared interferometry. (R.L.)
O(2) Hopf bifurcation of viscous shock waves in a channel
Pogan, Alin; Yao, Jinghua; Zumbrun, Kevin
2015-07-01
Extending work of Texier and Zumbrun in the semilinear non-reflection symmetric case, we study O(2) transverse Hopf bifurcation, or "cellular instability", of viscous shock waves in a channel, for a class of quasilinear hyperbolic-parabolic systems including the equations of thermoviscoelasticity. The main difficulties are to (i) obtain Fréchet differentiability of the time- T solution operator by appropriate hyperbolic-parabolic energy estimates, and (ii) handle O(2) symmetry in the absence of either center manifold reduction (due to lack of spectral gap) or (due to nonstandard quasilinear hyperbolic-parabolic form) the requisite framework for treatment by spatial dynamics on the space of time-periodic functions, the two standard treatments for this problem. The latter issue is resolved by Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction of the time- T map, yielding a four-dimensional problem with O(2) plus approximate S1 symmetry, which we treat "by hand" using direct Implicit Function Theorem arguments. The former is treated by balancing information obtained in Lagrangian coordinates with that from associated constraints. Interestingly, this argument does not apply to gas dynamics or magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), due to the infinite-dimensional family of Lagrangian symmetries corresponding to invariance under arbitrary volume-preserving diffeomorphisms.
A study of shock-associated magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind
Spangler, Steven R.
1992-01-01
Three major topics were addressed, one theoretical and two observational. The topics were: (1) an attempt to understand the evolution of the large-amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the foreshock, using a nonlinear wave equation called the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (henceforth DNLS) as a model, (2) using the extensive set of ISE data to test for the presence of various nonlinear wave processes which might be present, and (3) a study of plasma turbulence in the interstellar medium which might be physically similar to that in the solar wind. For these investigations we used radioastronomical techniques. Good progress was made in each of these areas and a separate discussion of each is given.
Magnetohydrodynamically stable plasma with supercritical current density at the axis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burdakov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Lavrentjev Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marks Avenue, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postupaev, V. V., E-mail: V.V.Postupaev@inp.nsk.su; Sudnikov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Lavrentjev Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova st., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2014-05-15
In this work, an analysis of magnetic perturbations in the GOL-3 experiment is given. In GOL-3, plasma is collectively heated in a multiple-mirror trap by a high-power electron beam. During the beam injection, the beam-plasma interaction maintains a high-level microturbulence. This provides an unusual radial profile of the net current (that consists of the beam current, current of the preliminary discharge, and the return current). The plasma core carries supercritical current density with the safety factor well below unity, but as a whole, the plasma is stable with q(a) ≈ 4. The net plasma current is counter-directed to the beam current; helicities of the magnetic field in the core and at the edge are of different signs. This forms a system with a strong magnetic shear that stabilizes the plasma core in good confinement regimes. We have found that the most pronounced magnetic perturbation is the well-known n = 1, m = 1 mode for both stable and disruptive regimes.
Axisymmetric Plasma Equilibria in General Relativity
Elsässer, Klaus
Axisymmetric plasma equilibria near a rotating black hole are considered within the multifluid description. An isothermal two-component plasma with electrons and positrons or ions is determined by four structure functions and the boundary conditions. These structure functions are the Bernoulli function and the toroidal canonical momentum per mass for each species; they remain arbitrary if no gain and loss processes are considered, in close analogy to the free flux functions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Several simplifying assumptions allow the reduction of the basic equations to one single scalar equation for the stream function χ of positrons or ions, respectively, playing the rôle of the Grad/Shafranov equation in magnetohydrodynamics; in particular, Maxwell's equations can be solved analytically for a quasineutral plasma when both the charge density and the toroidal electric current density are negligible (in contrast to the Tokamak situation). The basic smallness parameter is the ratio of the skin depth of electrons to the scale length of the metric and fluid quantities, and, in the case of an electron-ion plasma, the mass ratio me/mi. The χ-equation can be solved by standard methods, and simple solutions for a Kerr geometry are available; they show characteristic flow patterns, depending on the structure functions and the boundary conditions.
Entropy generation minimization of a MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) flow in a microchannel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibanez, Guillermo [Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas 29000 (Mexico); Cuevas, Sergio [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico)
2010-10-15
The dissipative processes that arise in a microchannel flow subjected to electromagnetic interactions, as occurs in a MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) micropump, are analyzed. The entropy generation rate is used as a tool for the assessment of the intrinsic irreversibilities present in the microchannel owing to viscous friction, heat flow and electric conduction. The flow in a parallel plate microchannel produced by a Lorentz force created by a transverse magnetic field and an injected electric current is considered assuming a thermally fully developed flow and conducting walls of finite thickness. The conjugate heat transfer problem in the fluid and solid walls is solved analytically using thermal boundary conditions of the third kind at the outer surfaces of the walls and continuity of temperature and heat flux across the fluid-wall interfaces. Velocity, temperature and current density fields in the fluid and walls are used to calculate the global entropy generation rate. Conditions under which this quantity is minimized are determined for specific values of the geometrical and physical parameters of the system. The Nusselt number is also calculated and explored for different conditions. Results can be used to determine optimized conditions that lead to a minimum dissipation consistent with the physical constraints demanded by the microdevice. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.; Strickler, D.J.; Hirshman, S.P.; Ku, L-P; Lazarus, E.; Brooks, A.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Boozer, A.H.; Fu, G-Y.; Neilson, G.H.
2003-01-01
For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schluter currents, diamagnetic currents, and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver [Reiman and Greenside, Comp. Phys. Comm. 43 (1986) 157] which iterate s the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Reiman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8 (May 2001) 2083
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.
2003-01-01
For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schlueter currents, diamagnetic currents and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (Reiman and Greenside 1986 Comput. Phys. Commun. 43 157) which iterates the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator eXperiment (Reiman et al 2001 Phys. Plasma 8 2083). (author)
Attractors of dissipative structure in three dissipative fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondoh, Yoshiomi
1993-10-01
A general theory with use of auto-correlations for distributions is presented to derive that realization of coherent structures in general dissipative dynamic systems is equivalent to that of self-organized states with the minimum dissipation rate for instantaneously contained energy. Attractors of dissipative structure are shown to be given by eigenfunctions for dissipative dynamic operators of the dynamic system and to constitute the self-organized and self-similar decay phase. Three typical examples applied to incompressible viscous fluids, to incompressible viscous and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluids and to compressible resistive MHD plasmas are presented to lead to attractors in the three dissipative fluids and to describe a common physical picture of self-organization and bifurcation of the dissipative structure. (author)
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED FILAMENT THREAD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.
2009-01-01
Oscillations and propagating waves are commonly seen in high-resolution observations of filament threads, i.e., the fine-structures of solar filaments/prominences. Since the temperature of prominences is typically of the order of 10 4 K, the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. In this paper, we study the effect of neutrals on the wave propagation in a filament thread modeled as a partially ionized homogeneous magnetic flux tube embedded in an homogeneous and fully ionized coronal plasma. Ohmic and ambipolar magnetic diffusion are considered in the basic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. We numerically compute the eigenfrequencies of kink, slow, and Alfven linear MHD modes and obtain analytical approximations in some cases. We find that the existence of propagating modes is constrained by the presence of critical values of the longitudinal wavenumber. In particular, the lower and upper frequency cutoffs of kink and Alfven waves owe their existence to magnetic diffusion parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field lines, respectively. The slow mode only has a lower frequency cutoff, which is caused by perpendicular magnetic diffusion and is significantly affected by the ionization degree. In addition, ion-neutral collision is the most efficient damping mechanism for short wavelengths, while ohmic diffusion dominates in the long-wavelength regime.
Kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of fast ions and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todo, Y.; Sato, T.
2001-01-01
Particle-magnetohydrodynamic and Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fast ions and toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE modes) have been carried out. Alpha particle losses induced by TAE mode are investigated with particle-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Trapped particles near the passing-trapped boundary in the phase space are also lost appreciably in addition to the counter-passing particles. In Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulation source and slowing-down of fast ions are considered. A coherent pulsating behavior of multiple TAE modes, which occurs in neutral beam injection experiments, is observed when the slowing-down time is much longer than the damping time of the TAE modes and the fast-ion pressure is sufficiently high. For a slowing-down time comparable to the damping time, the TAE modes reach steady saturation levels. (author)
Kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of fast ions and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todo, Y.; Sato, T.
1999-01-01
Particle-magnetohydrodynamic and Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fast ions and toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE modes) have been carried out. Alpha particle losses induced by TAE mode are investigated with particle-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Trapped particles near the passing-trapped boundary in the phase space are also lost appreciably in addition to the counter-passing particles. In Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulation source and slowing-down of fast ions are considered. A coherent pulsating behavior of multiple TAE modes, which occurs in neutral beam injection experiments, is observed when the slowing-down time is much longer than the damping time of the TAE modes and the fast-ion pressure is sufficiently high. For a slowing-down time comparable to the damping time, the TAE modes reach steady saturation levels. (author)
Marti, Sina; Stünitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn
2017-12-01
Rock deformation experiments are performed on fault gouge fabricated from 'Maryland Diabase' rock powder to investigate the transition from dominant brittle to dominant viscous behaviour. At the imposed strain rates of γ˙ = 3 ·10-5 - 3 ·10-6 s-1, the transition is observed in the temperature range of (600 °C < T < 800 °C) at confining pressures of (0.5 GPa ≤ Pc ≤ 1.5 GPa). The transition thereby takes place by a switch from brittle fracturing and cataclastic flow to viscous dissolution-precipitation creep and grain boundary sliding. Mineral reactions and resulting grain size refinement by nucleation are observed to be critical processes for the switch to viscous deformation, i.e., grain size sensitive creep. In the transitional regime, the mechanical response of the sample is a mixed-mode between brittle and viscous rheology and microstructures associated with both brittle and viscous deformation are observed. As grain size reduction by reaction and nucleation is a time dependent process, the brittle-viscous transition is not only a function of T but to a large extent also of microstructural evolution.
Magneto-hydro-dynamic simulation of Edge-Localised-Modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pamela, S.
2010-01-01
In order to produce energy from fusion reactions in a tokamak, the plasma must reach temperatures higher than that of our sun. The operation regime called H-mode enables one to acquire a plasma confinement close to fusion conditions. Due to the formation of a transport barrier at the plasma edge, turbulent transport is reduced, and the total plasma pressure increases, resulting in a strong pressure gradient at the edge. If this pressure gradient, localised at the plasma-vacuum boundary, becomes too steep, a magneto-hydro-dynamic instability is triggered and part of the plasma pressure is lost. This instability, hence called Edge-Localised-Mode, provokes large heat fluxes on some of the plasma-facing components of the machine, which could set operational limits for a tokamak the size of ITER. In order to understand this instability, and to determine the non-linear mechanisms behind the ELMs, the JOREK code is used. The work presented in this thesis is based on MHD simulations of ballooning modes (responsible for ELMs) with the JOREK code. At first, simulations are done for standard plasmas, inspired of experimental machines. In particular, the plasma rotation at equilibrium, in the region of the edge pressure gradient, is studied in order to obtain an analysis of the effects that such a rotation can have on the linear stability of ELMs and on their non-linear evolution. Then, as a second step, simulations are applied to plasmas of the experimental tokamaks JET and MAST (England). This permits the direct comparison of simulation results with experimental observations, with the main goal of improving our global understanding of ELMs. Adding to this physics aspect, the confrontation of the JOREK code with diagnostics of JET and MAST brings to a validation of simulations, which should prove that the simulations which were obtained do correspond to ELM instabilities. This first step towards the validation of the code is crucial concerning the simulation of ELMs in ITER
Advances and Challenges in Computational Plasma Science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.M.; Chan, V.S.
2005-01-01
Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically-confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper with illustrative examples chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and other topics. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blake, B.; Zumbrun, K.; Lafitte, O.
2010-01-01
For the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations of isentropic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with γ-law gas equation of state, γ≥1, and infinite electrical resistivity, we carry out a global analysis categorizing all possible viscous shock profiles. Precisely, we show that the phase portrait of the Crave ling-wave ODE generically consists of either two rest points connected by a viscous Lax profile, or else four rest points, two saddles and two nodes. In the latter configuration, which rest points are connected by profiles depends on the ratio of viscosities, and can involve Lax, over-compressive, or under-compressive shock profiles. Considered as three-dimensional solutions, under-compressive shocks are Lax-type (Alfven) waves. For the monatomic and diatomic cases γ=5/3 and γ=7/5, with standard viscosity ratio for a nonmagnetic gas, we find numerically that the the nodes are connected by a family of over-compressive profiles bounded by Lax profiles connecting saddles to nodes, with no under-compressive shocks occurring. We carry out a systematic numerical Evans function analysis indicating that all of these two-dimensional shock profiles are linearly and nonlinearly stable, both with respect to two- and three-dimensional perturbations. For the same gas constants, but different viscosity ratios, we investigate also cases for which under-compressive shocks appear; these are seen numerically to be stable as well, both with respect to two-dimensional and (in the neutral sense of convergence to nearby Riemann solutions) three-dimensional perturbations. (authors)
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2010-01-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.
2010-09-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Magnetic flux pumping in 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations
Krebs, I.; Jardin, S. C.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Hoelzl, M.; Strumberger, E.; Ferraro, N.
2017-10-01
A self-regulating magnetic flux pumping mechanism in tokamaks that maintains the core safety factor at q ≈1 , thus preventing sawteeth, is analyzed in nonlinear 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the M3D-C1 code. In these simulations, the most important mechanism responsible for the flux pumping is that a saturated (m =1 ,n =1 ) quasi-interchange instability generates an effective negative loop voltage in the plasma center via a dynamo effect. It is shown that sawtoothing is prevented in the simulations if β is sufficiently high to provide the necessary drive for the (m =1 ,n =1 ) instability that generates the dynamo loop voltage. The necessary amount of dynamo loop voltage is determined by the tendency of the current density profile to centrally peak which, in our simulations, is controlled by the peakedness of the applied heat source profile.
Magnetohydrodynamic generation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masai, Tadahisa; Ishibashi, Eiichi; Kojima, Akihiro.
1967-01-01
The present invention relates to a magneto-hydrodynamic generation method which increases the conductivity of active gas and the generated energy. In the conventional method of open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic generation, the working fluid does not possess a favorable electric conductivity since the collision cross section is large when the combustion is carried out in a condition of excess oxygen. Furthermore, combustion under a condition of oxygen shortage is uncapable of completely converting the generated energy. The air preheater or boiler is not sufficient to collect the waste gas resulting in damage and other economic disadvantages. In the present invention, the combustion gas caused by excess fuel in the combuster is supplied to the generator as the working gas, to which air or fully oxidized air is added to be reheated. While incomplete gas used for heat collection is not adequate, the unburned damage may be eliminated by combusting again and increasing the gas temperature and heat collection rate. Furthermore, a diffuser is mounted at the rear side of the generator to decrease the gas combustion rate. Thus, even when directly absorbing the preheated fully oxidized air or the ordinary air, the boiler is free from damage caused by combustion delay or impulsive force. (M. Ishida)
Computer simulation of complexity in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Takaya; Sato, Tetsuya
1998-01-01
By making a comprehensive comparative study of many self-organizing phenomena occurring in magnetohydrodynamics and kinetic plasmas, we came up with a hypothetical grand view of self-organization. This assertion is confirmed by a recent computer simulation for a broader science field, specifically, the structure formation of short polymer chains, where the nature of the interaction is completely different from that of plasmas. It is found that the formation of the global orientation order proceeds stepwise. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamics in rectangular ducts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lenhart, L.
1994-04-01
Magnetohydrodynamic flow in straight ducts or bends is a key issue, which has to be investigated for developing self-cooled liquid metal blankets of fusion reactors. The code presented solves the full set of governing equations and simulates all phenomena of such flows, including inertial effects. The range of application is limited by computer storage only. (orig./WL)
Collins, William
1989-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic wave emission from several localized, periodic, kinematically specified fluid velocity fields are calculated using Lighthill's method for finding the far-field wave forms. The waves propagate through an isothermal and uniform plasma with a constant B field. General properties of the energy flux are illustrated with models of pulsating flux tubes and convective rolls. Interference theory from geometrical optics is used to find the direction of minimum fast-wave emission from multipole sources and slow-wave emission from discontinuous sources. The distribution of total flux in fast and slow waves varies with the ratios of the source dimensions l to the acoustic and Alfven wavelengths.
Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.
1987-07-01
A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1974-11-01
The lectures of a Varenna Summer School about the theme Instabilities and Confinement in toroidal Plasmas are given. The topics included are: high-beta toroidal pinches, non-MHD instabilities and anomalous transport, analogy between turbulent transfer in velocity space and plasma collisioned transport in real space, the magnetohydrodynamic approach of plasma confinement in closed magnetic configurations, properties of isodynamical equilibrium configurations and their generalization, transport theory for toroidal plasmas, plasma physics, low-β toroidal machines, the neoclassical theory of transit time magnetic pumping, radio frequency heating of toroidal plasmas, plasma heating at lower hybrid frequency, RF-plasma heating with L-structures, numerical simulation, dynamical stabilization of low frequency waves in inhomogeneous plasmas, dynamic and feedback stabilization of plasmas and problems with nuclear fusion reactors
Microscopic Motion of Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Components In A Diverted Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaworski, M.A.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Morley, N.B.; Abrams, T.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kugel, H.; Majeski, R.; Ruzic, D.N.
2010-01-01
Liquid metal plasma facing components (PFCs) have been identified as an alternative material for fusion plasma experiments. The use of a liquid conductor where significant magnetic fields are present is considered risky, with the possibility of macroscopic fluid motion and possible ejection into the plasma core. Analysis is carried out on thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) forces caused by temperature gradients in the liquid-container system itself in addition to scrape-off-layer currents interacting with the PFC from a diverted plasma. Capillary effects at the liquid-container interface will be examined which govern droplet ejection criteria. Stability of the interface is determined using linear stability methods. In addition to application to liquidmetal PFCs, thin film liquidmetal effects have application to current and future devices where off-normal events may liquefy portions of the first wall and other plasma facing components.
Non-equilibrium in flowing atmospheric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, J.C.M. de.
1986-01-01
This thesis deals with the fundamental aspects of two different plasmas applied in technological processes. The first one is the cesium seeded argon plasma in a closed cycle Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, the second is the thermal argon plasma in a cascade arc with an imposed flow. In Chapter 2 the influence of non-equilibrium on the mass and energy balances of a plasma is worked out. The general theory presented there can be applied to both the plasma in an MHD generator and to the cascade arc with imposed flow. Introductions to these plasmas are given in the Chapters 3 and 6 respectively. These chapters are both followed by two chapters which treat the theoretical and the experimental investigations. The results are summarized in Chapter 9. (Auth.)
Magnetohydrodynamics cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Tadatsugu.
1990-02-01
There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatori, Tadatsugu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)
1990-03-01
There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author).
Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Tadatsugu
1990-01-01
There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)
The high beta tokamak-extended pulse magnetohydrodynamic mode control research program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maurer, D A; Bialek, J; Byrne, P J; De Bono, B; Levesque, J P; Li, B Q; Mauel, M E; Navratil, G A; Pedersen, T S; Rath, N; Shiraki, D
2011-01-01
The high beta tokamak-extended pulse (HBT-EP) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode control research program is studying ITER relevant internal modular feedback control coil configurations and their impact on kink mode rigidity, advanced digital control algorithms and the effects of plasma rotation and three-dimensional magnetic fields on MHD mode stability. A new segmented adjustable conducting wall has been installed on the HBT-EP and is made up of 20 independent, movable, wall shell segments instrumented with three distinct sets of 40 saddle coils, totaling 120 in-vessel modular feedback control coils. Each internal coil set has been designed with varying toroidal angular coil coverage of 5, 10 and 15 0 , spanning the toroidal angle range of an ITER port plug based internal coil to test resistive wall mode (RWM) interaction and multimode MHD plasma response to such highly localized control fields. In addition, we have implemented 336 new poloidal and radial magnetic sensors to quantify the applied three-dimensional fields of our control coils along with the observed plasma response. This paper describes the design and implementation of the new control shell incorporating these control and sensor coils on the HBT-EP, and the research program plan on the upgraded HBT-EP to understand how best to optimize the use of modular feedback coils to control instability growth near the ideal wall stabilization limit, answer critical questions about the role of plasma rotation in active control of the RWM and the ferritic resistive wall mode, and to improve the performance of MHD control systems used in fusion experiments and future burning plasma systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-31
The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.
Influence of the plasma edge on tokamak performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, H.R.; Connor, J.W.; Field, A.R.; Fielding, S.J.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.; Miller, R.L.
1999-01-01
A number of edge plasma physics phenomena are considered to determine tokamak performance: transport barrier, edge magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, plasma flow. These phenomena are thought to be causally related: a spontaneous increase in the plasma flow (actually, its radial variation) suppresses heat and particle fluxes at the plasma edge, to form a transport barrier; the edge pressure gradient steepens until limited by MHD instabilities, resulting in a temperature pedestal at the top of the steep gradient region; a number of core transport models predict enhanced confinement for higher values of the temperature pedestal. This paper examines these phenomena and their interaction. (author)
Influence of the plasma edge on tokamak performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, H.R.; Connor, J.W.; Field, A.R.; Fielding, S.J.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.; Miller, R.L.
2001-01-01
A number of edge plasma physics phenomena are considered to determine tokamak performance: transport barrier, edge magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, plasma flow. These phenomena are thought to be causally related: a spontaneous increase in the plasma flow (actually, its radial variation) suppresses heat and particle fluxes at the plasma edge, to form a transport barrier; the edge pressure gradient steepens until limited by MHD instabilities, resulting in a temperature pedestal at the top of the steep gradient region; a number of core transport models predict enhanced confinement for higher values of the temperature pedestal. This paper examines these phenomena and their interaction. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ejiri, Akira; Sakakibara, Satoru; Kawahata, Kazuo.
1995-03-01
A new method 'Signal Based Mixing Analysis', to extract the components which are coherent to a certain reference signal from a noisy signal, has been developed. The method is applied to homodyne microwave reflectometry to reconstruct the radial structure of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode in heliotron/torsatron Compact Helical System (CHS) [K. Matsuoka et al. Plasma Phys. Control. Nuclear Fusion Research 1988 Vol. 2, IAEA, Vienna 411 (1989)]. In CHS plasmas, MHD fluctuations measured with magnetic probes show bursts, in which the amplitude and frequency quasi-periodically vary. The signal based mixing analysis uses a set of functions which have the same amplitude and the harmonic frequency as those of the magnetic fluctuations. The product (mixing) of the signal of reflectometer and the functions yields the amplitude and phase of the coherent components. When the plasma density gradually increases, the measuring position moves radially outward. Thus, the radial structure of MHD modes can be obtained by this method. The analysis indicates several peaks and nodes inside the resonance surface of the MHD mode. In addition, the structure does not propagate radially during a burst. (author)
On the existence and uniqueness of dissipative plasma equilibria in a toroidal domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spada, M.; Wobig, H.
1991-06-01
A one-fluid, dissipative magnetohydrodynamic model of plasma equilibrium in a torus is considered. The equations include inertial forces, finte resistivity and viscosity, and a particle source which sustains the pressure gradient in the plasma; viscosity is described by the Braginskii operator. Plasma density, resistivity and viscosity coefficients are assumed to be uniform. A boundary-value problem in a general toroidal domain is formulated, no further assumption on the domain being made besides a sufficient regularity of its boundary. The system of equations is reduced to a problem with unknowns p, v, B (p denotes the scalar pressure, v the flow velocity, B the magnetic field). A functional setting of the equations is established and, generalizing the classical mathematical techniques adopted in the theory of viscous incompressible flow to investigate the solvability of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations, a problem for weak solutions is formulated which is shown to be equivalent to solving a nonlinear equation in a separable Hilbert space. Then, by analysing the Braginskii viscosity in the established functional framework, we find properties which allow to write the above equation as a fixed-point equation. Main results of our analysis are the following: (i) We prove the existence of at least one weak solution if the source is sufficiently small, or viscosity and resistivity sufficiently large; (ii) We obtain an estimate of the solution(s); (iii) We prove that, under a condition of the same kind as that for existence, but more stringent, there exists only one solution; (iv) The well known existence and uniqueness results for the steady-state Navier-Stokes problem are recovered when the magnetic field is set equal to zero. (orig.)
Sound waves in (2+1) dimensional holographic magnetic fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Buchel, Alex; Vazquez, Samuel E.
2008-01-01
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study propagation of sound waves in strongly coupled (2+1) dimensional conformal magnetic fluids. Our computation provides a nontrivial consistency check of the viscous magneto-hydrodynamics of Hartnoll-Kovtun-Mueller-Sachdev to leading order in the external field. Depending on the behavior of the magnetic field in the hydrodynamic limit, we show that it can lead to further attenuation of sound waves in the (2+1) dimensional conformal plasma, or reduce the speed of sound. We present both field theory and dual supergravity descriptions of these phenomena. While to the leading order in momenta the dispersion of the sound waves obtained from the dual supergravity description agrees with the one predicted from field theory, we find a discrepancy at higher order. This suggests that further corrections to HKMS magneto-hydrodynamics are necessary.
One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets. II. Applications
Pitrou, Cyril
2018-04-01
In a companion paper [Phys. Rev. E 97, 043115 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.043115], a formalism allowing to describe viscous fibers as one-dimensional objects was developed. We apply it to the special case of a viscous fluid torus. This allows to highlight the differences with the basic viscous string model and with its viscous rod model extension. In particular, an elliptic deformation of the torus section appears because of surface tension effects, and this cannot be described by viscous string nor viscous rod models. Furthermore, we study the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for periodic deformations around the perfect torus, and we show that the instability is not sufficient to lead to the torus breakup in several droplets before it collapses to a single spherical drop. Conversely, a rotating torus is dynamically attracted toward a stationary solution, around which the instability can develop freely and split the torus in multiple droplets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. C. Chaudhary
2004-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate the hydromagnetic effect on viscous incompressible flow between two horizontal parallel porous flat plates with transverse sinusoidal injection of the fluid at the stationary plate and its corresponding removal by periodic suction through the plate in uniform motion. The flow becomes three dimensional due to this injection/suction velocity. Approximate solutions are obtained for the flow field, the pressure, the skin-friction, the temperature field, and the rate of heat transfer. The dependence of solution on M (Hartmann number and ÃŽÂ» (injection/suction is investigated by the graphs and tables.
Models of the plasma corona formation and stratification of exploding micro-wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, N.B.; Sarkisov, G.S.; Struve, K.W.; McDaniel, D.H.
2005-01-01
There are proposed the models pf plasma corona formation and stratification of a gas-plasma core of exploding micro-wire. The opportunity of use for the description of physical processes in a formed plasma corona of an electronic magnetohydrodynamics is generalized in view of change of particle number as a result of evaporation, ionization and a leaving of electrons on a wire surface. Necessity of the account of influence of a hot plasma corona on stratification of a gas-plasma core was grounded [ru
Rail gun performance and plasma characteristics due to wall ablation
Ray, P. K.
1986-01-01
The experiment of Bauer, et al. (1982) is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics as a Hamiltonian system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, A.
1985-01-01
The equations of ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in the laboratory frame form a noncanonical Hamiltonian system with the same Poisson bracket as for the nonrelativistic system, but with dynamical variables and Hamiltonian obtained via a regular deformation of their nonrelativistic counterparts [fr
Magnetohydrodynamics and fluid dynamics action principles and conservation laws
Webb, Gary
2018-01-01
This text focuses on conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics, gasdynamics and hydrodynamics. A grasp of new conservation laws is essential in fusion and space plasmas, as well as in geophysical fluid dynamics; they can be used to test numerical codes, or to reveal new aspects of the underlying physics, e.g., by identifying the time history of the fluid elements as an important key to understanding fluid vorticity or in investigating the stability of steady flows. The ten Galilean Lie point symmetries of the fundamental action discussed in this book give rise to the conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum and center of mass conservation laws via Noether’s first theorem. The advected invariants are related to fluid relabeling symmetries – so-called diffeomorphisms associated with the Lagrangian map – and are obtained by applying the Euler-Poincare approach to Noether’s second theorem. The book discusses several variants of helicity including kinetic helicity, cross helicity, magnetic helici...
Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, J. C.
2007-01-01
Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.; Rock, A. B.
2016-01-01
The frequency spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as measured on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment is broadband and exhibits a nearly Kolmogorov 5/3 scaling. It features a steepening region which is indicative of dissipation of magnetic fluctuation energy similar to that observed in fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence systems. Two non-spectrum based time-series analysis techniques are implemented on this data set in order to seek other possible signatures of turbulent dissipation beyond just the steepening of fluctuation spectra. Presented here are results for the flatness, permutation entropy, and statistical complexity, each of which exhibits a particular character at spectral steepening scales which can then be compared to the behavior of the frequency spectrum.
Predict-first experimental analysis using automated and integrated magnetohydrodynamic modeling
Lyons, B. C.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Meneghini, O.; Lao, L. L.; Weisberg, D. B.; Belli, E. A.; Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Snyder, P. B.
2018-05-01
An integrated-modeling workflow has been developed for the purpose of performing predict-first analysis of transient-stability experiments. Starting from an existing equilibrium reconstruction from a past experiment, the workflow couples together the EFIT Grad-Shafranov solver [L. Lao et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 968 (2005)], the EPED model for the pedestal structure [P. B. Snyder et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056118 (2009)], and the NEO drift-kinetic-equation solver [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)] (for bootstrap current calculations) in order to generate equilibria with self-consistent pedestal structures as the plasma shape and various scalar parameters (e.g., normalized β, pedestal density, and edge safety factor [q95]) are changed. These equilibria are then analyzed using automated M3D-C1 extended-magnetohydrodynamic modeling [S. C. Jardin et al., Comput. Sci. Discovery 5, 014002 (2012)] to compute the plasma response to three-dimensional magnetic perturbations. This workflow was created in conjunction with a DIII-D experiment examining the effect of triangularity on the 3D plasma response. Several versions of the workflow were developed, and the initial ones were used to help guide experimental planning (e.g., determining the plasma current necessary to maintain the constant edge safety factor in various shapes). Subsequent validation with the experimental results was then used to revise the workflow, ultimately resulting in the complete model presented here. We show that quantitative agreement was achieved between the M3D-C1 plasma response calculated for equilibria generated by the final workflow and equilibria reconstructed from experimental data. A comparison of results from earlier workflows is used to show the importance of properly matching certain experimental parameters in the generated equilibria, including the normalized β, pedestal density, and q95. On the other hand, the details of the pedestal
Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ruchayskiy, Oleg [Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Boyarsky, Alexey [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Fröhlich, Jürg [Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brandenburg, Axel; Schober, Jennifer, E-mail: gary@bgu.ac.il [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2017-09-10
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that the chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.
Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Brandenburg, Axel; Schober, Jennifer
2017-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that the chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.
Highly-viscous microjet induced by an impact
Onuki, Hajime; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki
2017-11-01
Ejection of a liquid microjet with high viscosity is essential for various novel technologies such as 3D printers, printed electronics and bio printers. To generate such a microjet, we focus on utilizing an impulsive force. Thanks to a short-time impact, the viscous dissipation in the liquid can be suppressed, resulting in the ejection of viscous microjets. In this study, we investigate ejection mechanism of the viscous jet experimentally and numerically. The jet velocity decreases with increasing the viscosity of a liquid. Remarkably it is found that all the data of jet velocities normalized by initial velocities of the liquid as a function of Reynolds number, the balance between the inertia force and the viscous force, collapse onto a single master curve.
Wills Plasma Physics Department thirty seventh 6-monthly progress report, January 1 to June 30, 1979
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-07-01
Progress is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following areas: plasma sources, hydromagnetic shock waves, magnetohydrodynamics, laser diagnostics and far infrared interferometry
Variational-moment method for computing magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lao, L.L.
1983-08-01
A fast yet accurate method to compute magnetohydrodynamic equilibria is provided by the variational-moment method, which is similar to the classical Rayleigh-Ritz-Galerkin approximation. The equilibrium solution sought is decomposed into a spectral representation. The partial differential equations describing the equilibrium are then recast into their equivalent variational form and systematically reduced to an optimum finite set of coupled ordinary differential equations. An appropriate spectral decomposition can make the series representing the solution coverge rapidly and hence substantially reduces the amount of computational time involved. The moment method was developed first to compute fixed-boundary inverse equilibria in axisymmetric toroidal geometry, and was demonstrated to be both efficient and accurate. The method since has been generalized to calculate free-boundary axisymmetric equilibria, to include toroidal plasma rotation and pressure anisotropy, and to treat three-dimensional toroidal geometry. In all these formulations, the flux surfaces are assumed to be smooth and nested so that the solutions can be decomposed in Fourier series in inverse coordinates. These recent developments and the advantages and limitations of the moment method are reviewed. The use of alternate coordinates for decomposition is discussed
Linear and nonlinear stability in resistive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tasso, H.
1994-01-01
A sufficient stability condition with respect to purely growing modes is derived for resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Its open-quotes nearnessclose quotes to necessity is analysed. It is found that for physically reasonable approximations the condition is in some sense necessary and sufficient for stability against all modes. This, together with hermiticity makes its analytical and numerical evaluation worthwhile for the optimization of magnetic configurations. Physically motivated test functions are introduced. This leads to simplified versions of the stability functional, which makes its evaluation and minimization more tractable. In the case of special force-free fields the simplified functional reduces to a good approximation of the exact stability functional derived by other means. It turns out that in this case the condition is also sufficient for nonlinear stability. Nonlinear stability in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics is discussed especially in connection with open-quotes unconditionalclose quotes stability and with severe limitations on the Reynolds number. Two examples in magnetohydrodynamics show that the limitations on the Reynolds numbers can be removed but unconditional stability is preserved. Practical stability needs to be treated for limited levels of perturbations or for conditional stability. This implies some knowledge of the basin of attraction of the unperturbed solution, which is a very difficult problem. Finally, a special inertia-caused Hopf bifurcation is identified and the nature of the resulting attractors is discussed. 23 refs
Fusion Plasma Physics and ITER - An Introduction (2/4)
CERN. Geneva
2011-01-01
The second lecture will explore some of the key physics phenomena which govern the behaviour of magnetic fusion plasmas and which have been the subject of intense research during the past 50 years: plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic stability and plasma-wall interactions encompass the major areas of plasma physics which must be understood to assemble an overall description of fusion plasma behaviour. In addition, as fusion plasmas approach the “burning plasma” regime, where internal heating due to fusion products dominates other forms of heating, the physics of the interaction between the α-particles produced by D-T fusion reactions and the thermal “background” plasma becomes significant. This lecture will also introduce the basic physics of fusion plasma production, plasma heating and current drive, and plasma measurements (“diagnostics”).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Sudan, R.N.
1996-01-01
It is observed that the recently developed magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics (AMHD) [Phys. Plasmas 1, 2488 (1994)] is incompatible with Taylor close-quote s theorem, which states that the lowest-energy state of force-free equilibria based on the conservation of the helicity integral is absolutely stable for vanishingly small resistivity. By a modification of the Lagrangian from which AMHD is derived, a modified version of AMHD that is compatible with Taylor close-quote s theorem is obtained. It also provides an energy principle for examining the linear instability of resistive equilibria, which has a great advantage over resistive MHD. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.
Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond
2009-08-01
A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.
A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond
2009-01-01
A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 μg of plasma with density above 10 17 cm -3 to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 μg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, Shobu; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Taguchi, Masayoshi.
1985-08-01
The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states by Hill's vortex model and by the Coulomb-wave-function model are proved to be unstable. New MHD equilibrium configurations are determined by using another model for which dp/dψ = 0 on the magnetic axis. Here p is the pressure and ψ is the flux function. The values of the safety factor on the magnetic axis, q axis , are evaluated for these configurations. The MHD stability of these equilibrium states is investigated by the Mercier criterion. The values of the maximum beta ratio β max are evaluated for this model. The optimized pressure distributions are determined by use of the Mercier criterion and the values of β max are also evaluated for these pressure distributions. The values of β max are shown to be at most 12 %, if the condition q axis < 1 is required. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Khan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The investigation of heat transfer analysis on steady MHD axi-symmetric flow between two infinite stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating is basic objective of this paper. Attention has been focused to acquire the similarity solutions of the equations governing the flow and thermal fields. The transformed boundary value problem is solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. The series solutions are developed and the convergence of these solutions is explicitly discussed. The analytical expressions for fluid velocity, pressure and temperature are constructed and analyzed for various set of parameter values. The numerical values for skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Particular attention is given to the variations of Prandtl and Eckert numbers. We examined that the dimensionless temperature field is enhanced when we increase the values of Eckert number and Prandtl number.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frerichs, H.; Reiter, D.; Schmitz, O.; Cahyna, Pavel; Evans, T.; Feng, Y.; Nardon, E.
2012-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 5 (2012), 052507-052507 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * TEXTOR * divertors * plasma boundary layers * plasma density * plasma magnetohydrodynamics * plasma simulation * plasma temperature * plasma toroidal confinement * plasma transport processes * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.376, year: 2012 http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/phpaen/v19/i5/p052507_s1
Filamented plasmas in laser ablation of solids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Davies, J.R.; Fajardo, M.; Kozlová, Michaela; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich
2009-01-01
Roč. 51, č. 3 (2009), 035013/1-035013/12 ISSN 0741-3335 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 12843 - TUIXS Grant - others:FCT(PT) POCI/FIS/59563/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : magneto-hydrodynamic modelling * perturbation * filaments * x-ray * plasma Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2009
Jusoh, Rahimah; Nazar, Roslinda
2018-04-01
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching/shrinking sheet is studied numerically. Mathematical modelling and analysis are attended in the presence of viscous dissipation. Appropriate similarity transformations are used to reduce the boundary layer equations for momentum, energy and concentration into a set of ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are solved numerically using the built in bvp4c function in Matlab. The numerical and graphical results on the effects of various parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are analyzed and discussed in this paper. The study discovers the existence of dual solutions for a certain range of the suction parameter. The conducted stability analysis reveals that the first solution is stable and feasible, while the second solution is unstable.
The thinning of viscous liquid threads.
Castrejon-Pita, J. Rafael; Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Hutchings, Ian M.
2012-11-01
The thinning neck of dripping droplets is studied experimentally for viscous Newtonian fluids. High speed imaging is used to measure the minimum neck diameter in terms of the time τ to breakup. Mixtures of water and glycerol with viscosities ranging from 20 to 363 mPa s are used to model the Newtonian behavior. The results show the transition from potential to inertial-viscous regimes occurs at the predicted values of ~Oh2. Before this transition the neck contraction rate follows the inviscid scaling law ~τ 2 / 3 . After the transition, the neck thinning tends towards the linear viscous scaling law ~ τ . Project supported by the EPSRC-UK (EP/G029458/1) and Cambridge-KACST.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.
2003-01-01
Particle simulation has played an important role for the recent investigations on turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. In this paper, theoretical and numerical properties of a gyrokinetic plasma as well as its relationship with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are discussed with the ultimate aim of simulating microturbulence in transport time scale using massively parallel computers
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
Time dependent plasma viscosity and relation between neoclassical transport and turbulent transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K.C.
2005-01-01
Time dependent plasma viscosities for asymmetric toroidal plasmas in various collisionality regimes are calculated. It is known that in the symmetric limit the time dependent plasma viscosities accurately describe plasma flow damping rate. Thus, time dependent plasma viscosities are important in modeling the radial electric field of the zonal flow. From the momentum balance equation, it is shown that, at the steady state, the balance of the viscosity force and the momentum source determines the radial electric field of the zonal flow. Thus, for a fixed source, the smaller the viscous force is, the larger the value of the radial electric field is, which in turn suppresses the turbulence fluctuations more and improves turbulence transport. However, the smaller the viscous force also implies the smaller the neoclassical transport fluxes based on the neoclassical flux-force relationship. We thus show that when neoclassical transport fluxes are improved so are the turbulent fluxes in toroidal plasmas. (author)
Rhodes, Tyler J.; Smolentsev, Sergey; Abdou, Mohamed
2018-05-01
Understanding magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena associated with the flow of electrically conducting fluids in complex geometry ducts subject to a strong magnetic field is required to effectively design liquid metal (LM) blankets for fusion reactors. Particularly, accurately predicting the 3D MHD pressure drop and flow distribution is important. To investigate these topics, we simulate a LM MHD flow through an electrically non-conducting prototypic manifold for a wide range of flow and geometry parameters using a 3D MHD solver, HyPerComp incompressible MHD solver for arbitrary geometry. The reference manifold geometry consists of a rectangular feeding duct which suddenly expands such that the duct thickness in the magnetic field direction abruptly increases by a factor rexp. Downstream of the sudden expansion, the LM is distributed into several parallel channels. As a first step in qualifying the flow, a magnitude of the curl of the induced Lorentz force was used to distinguish between inviscid, irrotational core flows and boundary and internal shear layers where inertia and/or viscous forces are important. Scaling laws have been obtained which characterize the 3D MHD pressure drop and flow balancing as a function of the flow parameters and the manifold geometry. Associated Hartmann and Reynolds numbers in the computations were ˜103 and ˜101-103, respectively, while rexp was varied from 4 to 12. An accurate model for the pressure drop was developed for the first time for inertial-electromagnetic and viscous-electromagnetic regimes based on 96 computed cases. Analysis shows that flow balance can be improved by lengthening the distance between the manifold inlet and the entrances of the parallel channels by utilizing the effect of flow transitioning to a quasi-two-dimensional state in the expansion region of the manifold.
Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect
Haverkort, J. W.; de Blank, H. J.
2012-01-01
A radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a rotating
Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect
J.W. Haverkort (Willem); H.J. de Blank
2012-01-01
htmlabstractA radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a
Plasma rotation in plasma centrifuge with an annular gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, H.Y.; Hong, S.H.
1982-01-01
The steady-state rotation of plasma centrifuge is theoretically analyzed to understand the physics of rotating plasma and its feasibility for isotope separation. The centriguge system under consideration consists of an annular gap between coaxial cylindrical anode and cathod in the presence of an externally-applied axial magnetic field. A problem for coupled partial differential equations describing centrifuge fields is formulated on the basis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations. Two-dimensional solutions are found analytically in the form of Fourier-Bessel series. The current density and velocity distributions are discussed in terms of the Hartmann number and the geometrical parameter of the system. At typical conditions, rotational speeds of the plasma up to the order of 10 4 m/sec are achievable, and increase either with increasing Hartmann number, or with increasing ratio of the axial length to the inner radius of the cylinder. In view of much higher speeds of rotation which can be achieved in plasma centrifuge, it is expected that its efficiency is superior to mechanically driven gas centrifuges. (Author)
Multi-fluid Approach to High-frequency Waves in Plasmas. III. Nonlinear Regime and Plasma Heating
Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume
2018-03-01
The multi-fluid modeling of high-frequency waves in partially ionized plasmas has shown that the behavior of magnetohydrodynamic waves in the linear regime is heavily influenced by the collisional interaction between the different species that form the plasma. Here, we go beyond linear theory and study large-amplitude waves in partially ionized plasmas using a nonlinear multi-fluid code. It is known that in fully ionized plasmas, nonlinear Alfvén waves generate density and pressure perturbations. Those nonlinear effects are more pronounced for standing oscillations than for propagating waves. By means of numerical simulations and analytical approximations, we examine how the collisional interaction between ions and neutrals affects the nonlinear evolution. The friction due to collisions dissipates a fraction of the wave energy, which is transformed into heat and consequently raises the temperature of the plasma. As an application, we investigate frictional heating in a plasma with physical conditions akin to those in a quiescent solar prominence.
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability of spheromak with spheroidal plasma-vacuum interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, Shobu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Takimoto, Akio.
1985-05-01
The analytic solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation are obtained for a prolate and an oblate spheroidal plasma by using Hill's vortex model. Effects of a toroidal magnetic field Bsub(phi) on the MHD equilibrium configurations are investigated by using these analytic solutions. When Bsub(phi) is larger than that of the force-free configuration, the spheroidal plasmas in a vacuum magnetic field are shown to be unable in the MHD equilibrium. The several physical quantities on the equilibrium configuration are evaluated. The spheromak plasma is proved to be unstable if dp/d psi not equal 0 and d 2 V/d psi 2 >= 0 on the magnetic axis. Here p is the pressure and V(psi) the volume surrounded by a magnetic surface of psi=const. The equilibrium configurations of the spheroidal plasmas by using Hill's vortex model are shown to satisfy the above conditions, i.e., to be unstable. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability of spheromak with spheroidal plasma-vacuum interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, Shobu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Takimoto, Akio
1985-01-01
The analytic solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation are obtained for a prolate and an oblate spheroidal plasma by using Hill's vortex model. Effects of a toroidal magnetic field Bsub(phi) on the MHD equilibrium configurations are investigated by using these analytic solutions. When Bsub(phi) is stronger than that of the force-free configuration, the spheroidal plasmas in a vacuum magnetic field are shown to be unable in the MHD equilibrium. The several physical quantities on the equilibrium configuration are evaluated. The spheromak plasma is proved to be unstable if dp/d psi not equal 0 and d 2 V/d psi 2 >= 0 on the magnetic axis. Here p is the pressure and V(psi) the volume surrounded by a magnetic surface of psi = const. The equilibrium configurations of the spheroidal plasmas by using Hill's vortex model are shown to satisfy the above conditions, i.e., to be unstable. (author)
Linked tandem mirror configuration as a possible steady state high β plasma container
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1982-04-01
A possibility of achieving steady state high β plasma confinement in toroidal geometry is considered in detail by closing off the ends of tandem mirrors entirely by flux bridges, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure. The key problem of this approach seems to be the magnetic design of magneto-hydrodynamically stabilized, preferentially leaky bridges. (author)
Abstracts of 4. IAEA technical meeting on the theory of plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-05-01
The Fourth IAEA-TM on Theory of Plasma Instabilities provided a forum for open discussion on theoretical and computational physics issues relevant to burning plasma. The meeting covered linear and non-linear theory and simulation of plasma instabilities, including core/edge turbulence, magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) process, high energy particle driven dynamics and their effects on plasma confinement. Special attention was paid to the multi-scale interaction dynamics in better understanding the burning plasma and also to the modeling of such complex physical processes. The meeting also organized a panel session to discuss the prospect of plasma theory and simulation for future fusion research for the ITER ERA. Young scientists were enthusiastically encouraged to enjoy this session which may stimulate the research for the future. The meeting covered the following topics: (1) Overview: State of the art and importance of multi-scale physics for understanding burning plasmas; (2) Linear and nonlinear instabilities and their theoretical/computational methodologies including critical gradient problem and comparison with experiments; (3) Core/edge turbulent transport including momentum transport, turbulence-profile interaction and barrier formation, etc and their theoretical/ computational understandings; (4) Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instability including energetic particle physics and their impact on confinement in burning plasmas; (5) Physics and modeling of multi-scale interactions and their impact on the plasma performance and control. Those topics were discussed with close relevance to key experimental results. A panel session 'Theoretical Plasma Physics for the ITER ERA' was organized under interdisciplinary aspects with other fields such as astrophysics and fluid dynamics. Each of the abstracts available has been indexed separately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.; Dory, R.A.; Aghevli, R.
1977-01-01
The progress during the past year is organized by group efforts and divided into five major areas. The basic tokamak areas and the sections in which their work is summarized are: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, kinetic theory, and transport simulation. The ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) theory work has its own research projects on MHD theory, kinetic theory, and transport simulation. In the plasma engineering area, relevant research work is further developed and synthesized into models that are used in the design of advanced fusion systems--The Next Step (TNS), demonstration fusion reactor (Demo), EBT ignition test, etc. Specific plasma engineering projects on providing the TNS physics basis and the development of the EBT reactor study are discussed. The computing support activities during the past year are summarized
Viscous forces and bulk viscoelasticity near jamming
Baumgarten, K.; Tighe, B.P.
2017-01-01
When weakly jammed packings of soft, viscous, non-Brownian spheres are probed mechanically, they respond with a complex admixture of elastic and viscous effects. While many of these effects are understood for specific, approximate models of the particles' interactions, there are a number of proposed
Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibria in local polar coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clemente, R.A.
1982-01-01
The Grad--Shafranov equation for an ideal magnetohydrodynamic axisymmetric toroidal configuration is solved analytically in a local polar coordinate system using a novel method which produces solutions valid up to the second order in the inverse aspect ratio expansion
Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Alinejad
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.
Approximate Riemann solver for the two-fluid plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shumlak, U.; Loverich, J.
2003-01-01
An algorithm is presented for the simulation of plasma dynamics using the two-fluid plasma model. The two-fluid plasma model is more general than the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model often used for plasma dynamic simulations. The two-fluid equations are derived in divergence form and an approximate Riemann solver is developed to compute the fluxes of the electron and ion fluids at the computational cell interfaces and an upwind characteristic-based solver to compute the electromagnetic fields. The source terms that couple the fluids and fields are treated implicitly to relax the stiffness. The algorithm is validated with the coplanar Riemann problem, Langmuir plasma oscillations, and the electromagnetic shock problem that has been simulated with the MHD plasma model. A numerical dispersion relation is also presented that demonstrates agreement with analytical plasma waves
Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex20 (France); Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hoelzl, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cahyna, P. [Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2013-10-15
The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.
Morgan, K. D.; Jarboe, T. R.; Hossack, A. C.; Chandra, R. N.; Everson, C. J.
2017-12-01
The HIT-SI3 experiment uses a set of inductively driven helicity injectors to apply a non-axisymmetric current drive on the edge of the plasma, driving an axisymmetric spheromak equilibrium in a central confinement volume. These helicity injectors drive a non-axisymmetric perturbation that oscillates in time, with relative temporal phasing of the injectors modifying the mode structure of the applied perturbation. A set of three experimental discharges with different perturbation spectra are modelled using the NIMROD extended magnetohydrodynamics code, and comparisons are made to both magnetic and fluid measurements. These models successfully capture the bulk dynamics of both the perturbation and the equilibrium, though disagreements related to the pressure gradients experimentally measured exist.
Waves and instabilities in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.
1987-01-01
The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations
Magnetohydrodynamic flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Eckert, S.
1995-01-01
The MHD group of the Institute of Safety Research performs basic studies on fluid dynamics and heat/mass transfer in fluids, particularly for electrically conducting fluids (liquid metals) exposed to external magnetic fields (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD). Such a contactless influence on transport phenomena is of principal importance for a variety of applied problems including safety and design aspects in liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, fast reactors, and chemical systems. Any electrically conducting flow can be influenced without any contact by means of an external electromagnetic field. This, of course, can change the known hydromechanically flow patterns considerably. In the following two examples of such magnetic field influence are presented. (orig.)
A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)
2009-08-15
A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 {mu}g of plasma with density above 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 {mu}g has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.
A self-similar magnetohydrodynamic model for ball lightnings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsui, K. H.
2006-01-01
Ball lightning is modeled by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in two-dimensional spherical geometry with azimuthal symmetry. Dynamic evolutions in the radial direction are described by the self-similar evolution function y(t). The plasma pressure, mass density, and magnetic fields are solved in terms of the radial label η. This model gives spherical MHD plasmoids with axisymmetric force-free magnetic field, and spherically symmetric plasma pressure and mass density, which self-consistently determine the polytropic index γ. The spatially oscillating nature of the radial and meridional field structures indicate embedded regions of closed field lines. These regions are named secondary plasmoids, whereas the overall self-similar spherical structure is named the primary plasmoid. According to this model, the time evolution function allows the primary plasmoid expand outward in two modes. The corresponding ejection of the embedded secondary plasmoids results in ball lightning offering an answer as how they come into being. The first is an accelerated expanding mode. This mode appears to fit plasmoids ejected from thundercloud tops with acceleration to ionosphere seen in high altitude atmospheric observations of sprites and blue jets. It also appears to account for midair high-speed ball lightning overtaking airplanes, and ground level high-speed energetic ball lightning. The second is a decelerated expanding mode, and it appears to be compatible to slowly moving ball lightning seen near ground level. The inverse of this second mode corresponds to an accelerated inward collapse, which could bring ball lightning to an end sometimes with a cracking sound
Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazunari Shibata
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence, local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet, and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely, while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vadlamani, Srinath; Kruger, Scott; Austin, Travis
2008-01-01
Extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes are used to model the large, slow-growing instabilities that are projected to limit the performance of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The multiscale nature of the extended MHD equations requires an implicit approach. The current linear solvers needed for the implicit algorithm scale poorly because the resultant matrices are so ill-conditioned. A new solver is needed, especially one that scales to the petascale. The most successful scalable parallel processor solvers to date are multigrid solvers. Applying multigrid techniques to a set of equations whose fundamental modes are dispersive waves is a promising solution to CEMM problems. For the Phase 1, we implemented multigrid preconditioners from the HYPRE project of the Center for Applied Scientific Computing at LLNL via PETSc of the DOE SciDAC TOPS for the real matrix systems of the extended MHD code NIMROD which is a one of the primary modeling codes of the OFES-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) SciDAC. We implemented the multigrid solvers on the fusion test problem that allows for real matrix systems with success, and in the process learned about the details of NIMROD data structures and the difficulties of inverting NIMROD operators. The further success of this project will allow for efficient usage of future petascale computers at the National Leadership Facilities: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. The project will be a collaborative effort between computational plasma physicists and applied mathematicians at Tech-X Corporation, applied mathematicians Front Range Scientific Computations, Inc. (who are collaborators on the HYPRE project), and other computational plasma physicists involved with the CEMM project.
Numerical study of some operating characteristics for argon induction plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebihara, K.
1978-01-01
Some operating characteristics of argon induction plasmas at atmospheric pressure were obtained numerically by using magnetohydrodynamic equations. From these characteristics we can estimate the general dependency of plasma temperatures on operating conditions for induction plasmas. Calculated relationships between the sustaining electric field strength at the plasma surface and the electric power input show the existence of a minimum value of the field strength, the reason for which is revealed by detailed investigation of the calculated radial temperature distributions. Further, it was found that the minimum increases almost linearly with increasing frequency. In addition, characteristics of the Poynting vector and heat conduction loss at the plasma surface were obtained. Some characteristics obtained here give practical information on the electromagnetic field which is necessary to maintain the steady plasmas
Generation of highly-viscous microjets
Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Onuki, Hajime; Oi, Yuto
2015-11-01
An ink-jet printing system (or a liquid-dispensing device) has ecological and cost advantages compared to other printing systems such as offset printing and gravure printing since it requires a small amount of liquids. However, most ink-jet printers are not able to eject high-viscous liquids more than 10 cSt. This limitation severely restricts applications of the ink-jet system. Here we present a novel jet-generation system, discharging jets of high-viscous liquids up to 1,000 cSt. The system employs an impulsive force and converges the force efficiently in order to accelerate the liquid-air interface strongly for generating viscous jets: It consists of a liquid container and a thin tube partially inserted in the liquid. The liquid-air interface inside the thin tube is set deeper than that outside of the tube. We then add an impulsive force on the bottom of the container, leading to the microjet generation inside the thin tube. The pressure field under the impulsive force is estimated using pressure-impulse approach, deriving the jet velocity. The jet velocity is experimentally measured with varying the impulsive force and liquid levels in the tube and the container. It is found that the measured velocities agree with the estimation. Owing to the simple structure of the generation system and an ability for ejecting viscous liquids, it could extend the limits of existing ink-jet printers and may be applicable for next-generation technologies such as 3D printing systems and needle-free injection devices. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26709007.
Formation of cavities in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kravchenko, O.Yu.; Chutov, Yu.Yi.; Yurchuk, M.M.
2003-01-01
The computer modeling of evolution one-dimensional dusty of sheaths which is taking place in unbounded argon plasma will be carried out. For examination the magneto-hydrodynamics equations for particles of a dusty particles and ions,and also equilibrium approach for electrons will be utilized. As a result of the carried out calculations the spatial distributions of parameters of plasma in different instants are obtained. It is shown,that in a series of modes of the dusty particles are collected in layers which separated by areas where dusty particles practically miss. At increasing of concentration of neutral particles this effect disappears owing to action of a frictional force between dusty particles and neutral component of plasma. It is shown,that depending on concentration of plasma the dusty particles can be dilated or be compressed under action of an ion wind force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izzo, V.A.; Jarboe, T.R.
2005-01-01
The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive drive (HIT-SI) [P. E. Sieck, W. T. Hamp, V. A. Izzo, T. R. Jarboe, B. A. Nelson, R. G. O'Neill, A. J. Redd, and R. J. Smith, IEEE Conference Record-Abstracts. 31st IEEE International Conference On Plasma Science (IEEE Catalog No. 04CH37537), 2004, p. 160] is a spheromak driven by steady inductive helicity injection (SIHI) and consists of the toroidally symmetric spheromak confinement region and two nonsymmetric helicity injectors. The three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic code NIMROD [A. H. Glasser, C. R. Sovinec, R. A. Nebel, T. A. Gianakon, S. J. Plimpton, M. S. Chu, and D. D. Schnack, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 41, A747 (1999)] is used to simulate HIT-SI operation, but the code's toroidally symmetric boundary requires a creative treatment of the injectors. Sustained HIT-SI operation is simulated with nonaxisymmetric boundary conditions. In driven simulations at low Lundquist number S no n=0 fields are generated as a result of relaxation of the predominantly n=1 injector fields until the injectors are quickly shut off. At S=500, an n=0 component arises due to relaxation during sustainment. As S is increased further, the ratio of n=0 (equilibrium) fields to n=1 (injector) fields increases. The effects of a thin insulating boundary layer on the plasma decay time are also discussed
HELIOS-CR - A 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacFarlane, J.J.; Golovkin, I.E.; Woodruff, P.R.
2006-01-01
HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers. The energy equations employed include models for laser energy deposition, radiation from external sources, and high-current discharges. Radiative transport can be calculated using either a multi-frequency flux-limited diffusion model, or a multi-frequency, multi-angle short characteristics model. HELIOS-CR supports the use of SESAME equation of state (EOS) tables, PROPACEOS EOS/multi-group opacity data tables, and non-LTE plasma properties computed using the inline CR modeling. Time-, space-, and frequency-dependent results from HELIOS-CR calculations are readily displayed with the HydroPLOT graphics tool. In addition, the results of HELIOS simulations can be post-processed using the SPECT3D Imaging and Spectral Analysis Suite to generate images and spectra that can be directly compared with experimental measurements. The HELIOS-CR package runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX platforms, and includes online documentation. We will discuss the major features of HELIOS-CR, and present example results from simulations
Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection
Guo, H. Y.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Milroy, R. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Yang, X.; Garate, E. G.; Gota, H.; Korepanov, S.; Necas, A.; Roche, T.; Smirnov, A.; Trask, E.
2015-04-01
Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.
Introduction to Plasma Dynamo, Reconnection and Shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-08-30
In our plasma universe, most of what we can observe is composed of ionized gas, or plasma. This plasma is a conducting fluid, which advects magnetic fields when it flows. Magnetic structure occurs from the smallest planetary to the largest cosmic scales. We introduce at a basic level some interesting features of non linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). For example, in our plasma universe, dynamo creates magnetic fields from gravitationally driven flow energy in an electrically conducting medium, and conversely magnetic reconnection annihilates magnetic field and accelerates particles. Shocks occur when flows move faster than the local velocity (sonic or Alfven speed) for the propagation of information. Both reconnection and shocks can accelerate particles, perhaps to gigantic energies, for example as observed with 10{sup 20} eV cosmic rays.
Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets
O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich
2016-11-01
Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.
On the influence of dissipative effects on instabilities of differentially-rotating plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.
2010-01-01
The stability of differentially-rotating cylindrical plasmas in the axial homogeneous magnetic field is studied in the framework of one-fluid dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. The dispersion relation of small-scale axisymmetric perturbations, taking into account the effects of the plasma thermal stratification, its resistivity and its viscosity, is derived. In the limiting cases of negligible resistivity and of negligible viscosity, the criteria of plasma stability are obtained. It is shown that in the case of small viscosity, the azimuthal flow of resistive plasma in the axial magnetic field is unstable due to the buoyancy effect if both the plasma pressure and its entropy either increase or decrease in the radial direction.
Interaction of plasma vortices with resonant particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jovanovic, D.; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1990-01-01
Kinetic effects associated with the electron motion along magnetic field lines in low‐beta plasmas are studied. Using the gyrokinetic description of electrons, a kinetic analog of the reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations is derived, and it is shown that in the strongly nonlinear regime...... particles. The evolution equations indicate the possibility of excitation of plasma vortices by electron beams....... they possess localized solutions in the form of dipolar vortices, which can efficiently interact with resonant electrons. In the adiabatic limit, evolution equations are derived for the vortex parameters, describing exchange of the energy, enstrophy, and of the Poynting vector between the vortex and resonant...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.
1999-01-01
Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called high energy interaction with general heterogeneous target systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanein, A.
1998-01-01
Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCS) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor-cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed
Rapid reconnection in compressible plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heyn, M.F.; Semenov, V.S.
1996-01-01
A study of set-up, propagation, and interaction of non-linear and linear magnetohydrodynamic waves driven by magnetic reconnection is presented. The source term of the waves generated by magnetic reconnection is obtained explicitly in terms of the initial background conditions and the local reconnection electric field. The non-linear solution of the problem found earlier, serves as a basis for formulation and extensive investigation of the corresponding linear initial-boundary value problem of compressible magnetohydrodynamics. In plane geometry, the Green close-quote s function of the problem is obtained and its properties are discussed. For the numerical evaluation it turns out that a specific choice of the integration contour in the complex plane of phase velocities is much more effective than the convolution with the real Green close-quote s function. Many complex effects like intrinsic wave coupling, anisotropic propagation characteristics, generation of surface and side wave modes in a finite beta plasma are retained in this analysis. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Siyao; Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.
2016-01-01
We study the damping processes of both incompressible and compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a partially ionized medium. We start from the linear analysis of MHD waves, applying both single-fluid and two-fluid treatments. The damping rates derived from the linear analysis are then used in determining the damping scales of MHD turbulence. The physical connection between the damping scale of MHD turbulence and the cutoff boundary of linear MHD waves is investigated. We find two branches of slow modes propagating in ions and neutrals, respectively, below the damping scale of slow MHD turbulence, and offer a thorough discussion of their propagation and dissipation behavior. Our analytical results are shown to be applicable in a variety of partially ionized interstellar medium (ISM) phases and the solar chromosphere. The importance of neutral viscosity in damping the Alfvenic turbulence in the interstellar warm neutral medium and the solar chromosphere is demonstrated. As a significant astrophysical utility, we introduce damping effects to the propagation of cosmic rays in partially ionized ISM. The important role of turbulence damping in both transit-time damping and gyroresonance is identified.
Equivalent viscous damping procedure for multi-material systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, H.; Ma, D.
1979-01-01
The inclusion of accurate viscous damping effects in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants is discussed. A procedure to evaluate and use equivalent viscous damping coefficients in conjunction with the substructure method of finite element analysis is outlined in detail
Two-way coupling of magnetohydrodynamic simulations with embedded particle-in-cell simulations
Makwana, K. D.; Keppens, R.; Lapenta, G.
2017-12-01
We describe a method for coupling an embedded domain in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with a particle-in-cell (PIC) method. In this two-way coupling we follow the work of Daldorff et al. (2014) [19] in which the PIC domain receives its initial and boundary conditions from MHD variables (MHD to PIC coupling) while the MHD simulation is updated based on the PIC variables (PIC to MHD coupling). This method can be useful for simulating large plasma systems, where kinetic effects captured by particle-in-cell simulations are localized but affect global dynamics. We describe the numerical implementation of this coupling, its time-stepping algorithm, and its parallelization strategy, emphasizing the novel aspects of it. We test the stability and energy/momentum conservation of this method by simulating a steady-state plasma. We test the dynamics of this coupling by propagating plasma waves through the embedded PIC domain. Coupling with MHD shows satisfactory results for the fast magnetosonic wave, but significant distortion for the circularly polarized Alfvén wave. Coupling with Hall-MHD shows excellent coupling for the whistler wave. We also apply this methodology to simulate a Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) challenge type of reconnection with the diffusion region simulated by PIC coupled to larger scales with MHD and Hall-MHD. In both these cases we see the expected signatures of kinetic reconnection in the PIC domain, implying that this method can be used for reconnection studies.
Temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2010-01-01
The temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is investigated including thermal conductivity. For numerical reasons, an isotropic thermal conductivity is used, even though in a RFP plasma the parallel conductivity is much larger than the perpendicular one so that magnetic field lines tend to become isothermal. The system shows alternating multiple helicity states and quasi-single helicity states. Single-helical-axis states are formed when the amplitude of the dominant mode is above a determined threshold, as observed in experiments. The relation between heat transport and magnetic field topology that is observed in RFP experiments cannot be found in the simulation, since thermal conductivity is independent of the magnetic field. This difficulty should be taken into account in the numerical investigation of the RFP dynamics. In this paper, the first description of the temperature evolution in a compressible MHD simulation of a RFP is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, G.O. Jr.
1982-12-01
The Topolotron is an axisymmetric, toroidal magnetic fusion concept in which two-dimensional effects are important, as well as all three magnetic field components. The particular MHD model employed is basically the one-fluid, two-temperature model using classical Braginskii transport with viscous effects ignored. The model is augmented by Saha-Boltzmann dissociation and partial ionization physics, a simple radiation loss mechanism, and an additional resistivity due to electron-neutral collisions. While retaining all velocity and magnetic field components, the assumption of axisymmetry is made, and the resulting equations are expanded in cylindrical coordinates. The major approximation technique is then applied: spline collocation, which reduces these equations to a set of ordinary differential equations
On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.
2014-01-01
A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy
Unified Ideal Stability Limits for Advanced Tokamak and Spherical Torus Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menard, J.E.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Jardin, S.C.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peng, Y.-K.M.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.J.
2003-01-01
Ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability limits of shaped tokamak plasmas with high bootstrap fraction are systematically determined as a function of plasma aspect ratio. For plasmas with and without wall stabilization of external kink modes, the computed limits are well described by distinct and nearly invariant values of a normalized beta parameter utilizing the total magnetic field energy density inside the plasma. Stability limit data from the low aspect ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment is compared to these theoretical limits and indicates that ideal nonrotating plasma no-wall beta limits have been exceeded in regimes with sufficiently high cylindrical safety factor. These results could impact the choice of aspect ratio in future fusion power plants
Numerical optimization of conical flow waveriders including detailed viscous effects
Bowcutt, Kevin G.; Anderson, John D., Jr.; Capriotti, Diego
1987-01-01
A family of optimized hypersonic waveriders is generated and studied wherein detailed viscous effects are included within the optimization process itself. This is in contrast to previous optimized waverider work, wherein purely inviscid flow is used to obtain the waverider shapes. For the present waveriders, the undersurface is a streamsurface of an inviscid conical flowfield, the upper surface is a streamsurface of the inviscid flow over a tapered cylinder (calculated by the axisymmetric method of characteristics), and the viscous effects are treated by integral solutions of the boundary layer equations. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is included within the viscous calculations. The optimization is carried out using a nonlinear simplex method. The resulting family of viscous hypersonic waveriders yields predicted high values of lift/drag, high enough to break the L/D barrier based on experience with other hypersonic configurations. Moreover, the numerical optimization process for the viscous waveriders results in distinctly different shapes compared to previous work with inviscid-designed waveriders. Also, the fine details of the viscous solution, such as how the shear stress is distributed over the surface, and the location of transition, are crucial to the details of the resulting waverider geometry. Finally, the moment coefficient variations and heat transfer distributions associated with the viscous optimized waveriders are studied.
Evaluation of candidate magnetohydrodynamic materials for the U-02 Phase III test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchant, D.D.; Bates, J.L.
1978-06-01
As part of a cooperative U.S.--U.S.S.R. program, electrode and insulator materials tested at the Westinghouse Electrode Systems Test Facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, were evaluated. From this evaluation materials will be selected for use in the third phase of tests being conducted in the U-02 magnetohydrodynamics test facility in the Soviet Union. Electrode and insulator materials were examined with both an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The cathodes were found to behave differently from the anodes; most notably, the cathodes showed greater potassium interaction. The lanthanum chromite-based electrodes (excluding those fabricated by plasma-spraying) are recommended for testing in the U-02 Phase III test. Hotpressed, fused-grained MgO and sintered MgAl 2 O 4 are recommended as insulator materials. The electrode attachment techniques used in the Westinghouse Tests were inadequate and need to be modified for the U-02 test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Yimin; Hassam, A.B.
2003-01-01
The ideal magnetohydrodynamics stability of a Dean flow plasma supported against centrifugal forces by an axial magnetic field is studied. Only axisymmetric perturbations are allowed for simplicity. Two distinct but coupled destabilization mechanisms are present: flow shear (magnetorotational instability) and magnetic buoyancy (Parker instability). It is shown that the flow shear alone is likely insufficient to destabilize the plasma, but the magnetic buoyancy instability could occur. For a high Mach number (M S ), high Alfven Mach number (M A ) system with M S M A > or approx. πR/a (R/a is the aspect ratio), the Parker instability is unstable for long axial wavelength modes. Implications for the centrifugal confinement approach to magnetic fusion are also discussed
Waves and discontinuities in relativistic and anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cissoko, Mahdy
1975-01-01
This work is devoted to the relativistic study of a non-dissipative anisotropic fluid diagram of infinite conductivity. Such a fluid diagram is constructed in part one. Starting from a macroscopic viewpoint a hydrothermodynamic study of the fluid diagram considered is carried out and the fundamental differential system of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics is deduced. Part two concerns the study of characteristic varieties and propagation of waves for a polytropic anisotropic fluid diagram. Three types of characteristic varieties are revealed: entropy waves (or material waves), magnetosonic waves and Alfven waves. The propagation rates of Alfven and magnetosonic waves are situated with respect to each other. The study of wave cones showed up on the one hand certain special features of wave propagation in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics and on the other hand the hyperbolic nature of differential operators associated with the various waves [fr
Diffusion in a cylindrical plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, J.
1977-04-01
Modern plasma containment devices, such as the Tokamak, employ magnetic fields which are toroidal in shape. They are able to contain a plasma for times approaching a second. Magnetohydrodynamics (M.H.D.) is one of the most attractive theoretical methods for understanding their behaviour, but the equations involved are complex non-linear partial differential equations, and analytic methods are not available for their solution. Numerical methods must be used. A model system of equations representing a cylindrical plasma with no axial variation is considered. It is convenient to introduce a flux function psi for the component of the magnetic field directed around the axis of the cylinder, called the poloidal field, and the M.H.D. equations are rewritten in terms of psi. This produces a set of highly coupled equations describing the evolution of the flux function, the axial field and the plasma pressure. Various steps are taken to gain a better understanding of the properties of these equations. (author)
Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe based on causal viscous theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohan, N.D.J.; Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)
2017-12-15
The evolution of the bulk viscous matter dominated universe has been analysed using the full causal theory for the evolution of the viscous pressure in the context of the recent acceleration of the universe. The form of the viscosity is taken as ξ = αρ{sup 1/2}. We obtained analytical solutions for the Hubble parameter and scale factor of the universe. The model parameters have been computed using the observational data. The evolution of the prominent cosmological parameters was obtained. The age of the universe for the best estimated model parameters is found to be less than observational value. The viscous matter behaves like a stiff fluid in the early phase and evolves to a negative pressure fluid in the later phase. The equation of state is found to be stabilised with value ω > -1. The local as well as generalised second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. The statefinder diagnostic shows that this model is distinct from the standard ΛCDM. One of the marked deviations seen in this model to be compared with the corresponding model using the Eckart approach is that in this model the bulk viscosity decreases with the expansion of the universe, while in the Eckart formalism it increases from negative values in the early universe towards positive values. (orig.)
Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe based on causal viscous theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, N.D.J.; Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K.
2017-01-01
The evolution of the bulk viscous matter dominated universe has been analysed using the full causal theory for the evolution of the viscous pressure in the context of the recent acceleration of the universe. The form of the viscosity is taken as ξ = αρ 1/2 . We obtained analytical solutions for the Hubble parameter and scale factor of the universe. The model parameters have been computed using the observational data. The evolution of the prominent cosmological parameters was obtained. The age of the universe for the best estimated model parameters is found to be less than observational value. The viscous matter behaves like a stiff fluid in the early phase and evolves to a negative pressure fluid in the later phase. The equation of state is found to be stabilised with value ω > -1. The local as well as generalised second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. The statefinder diagnostic shows that this model is distinct from the standard ΛCDM. One of the marked deviations seen in this model to be compared with the corresponding model using the Eckart approach is that in this model the bulk viscosity decreases with the expansion of the universe, while in the Eckart formalism it increases from negative values in the early universe towards positive values. (orig.)
Conditions for sustainment of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dmitruk, P.; Matthaeus, W.H.; Milano, L.J.; Oughton, S.
2001-01-01
In a number of space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence is driven by the supply of wave energy. In the context of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) there are basic physical reasons, associated with conservation of cross helicity, why this kind of driving may be ineffective in sustaining turbulence. Here an investigation is made into some basic requirements for sustaining steady turbulence and dissipation in the context of incompressible MHD in a weakly inhomogeneous open field line region, driven by the supply of unidirectionally propagating waves at a boundary. While such wave driving cannot alone sustain turbulence, the addition of reflection permits sustainment. Another sustainment issue is the action of the nonpropagating or quasi-two dimensional part of the spectrum; this is particularly important in setting up a steady cascade. Thus, details of the wave boundary conditions also affect the ease of sustaining a cascade. Supply of a broadband spectrum of waves can overcome the latter difficulty but not the former, that is, the need for reflections. Implications for coronal heating and other astrophysical applications, as well as simulations, are suggested
Relabeling symmetries in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padhye, N.; Morrison, P.J.
1996-04-01
Lagrangian symmetries and concomitant generalized Bianchi identities associated with the relabeling of fluid elements are found for hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In hydrodynamics relabeling results in Ertel's theorem of conservation of potential vorticity, while in MHD it yields the conservation of cross helicity. The symmetries of the reduction from Lagrangian (material) to Eulerian variables are used to construct the Casimir invariants of the Hamiltonian formalism
Hybrid simulations of current-carrying instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas with sheared axial flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotnikov, Vladimir I.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Bauer, Bruno S.; Hellinger, Petr; Travnicek, Pavel; Fiala, Vladimir; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel
2002-01-01
The development of instabilities in z-pinch plasmas has been studied with three-dimensional (3D) hybrid simulations. Plasma equilibria without and with sheared axial flow have been considered. Results from the linear phase of the hybrid simulations compare well with linear Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations for sausage modes. The hybrid simulations show that sheared axial flow has a stabilizing effect on the development of both sausage and kink modes
BOOK REVIEW: Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamics
Shafranov, V.
1998-08-01
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics by Dieter Biskamp is a thorough introduction to the physics of the most impressive non-linear phenomena that occur in conducting magnetoplasmas. The basic systems, in which non-trivial dynamic processes are observed, accompanied by changes of geometry of the magnetic field and the effects of energy transformation (magnetic energy into kinetic energy or the opposite effect in magnetic dynamos), are the plasma magnetic confinement systems for nuclear fusion and space plasmas, mainly the solar plasma. A significant number of the examples of the dynamic processes considered are taken from laboratory plasmas, for which an experimental check of the theory is possible. Therefore, though the book is intended for researchers and students interested in both laboratory, including nuclear fusion, and astrophysical plasmas, it is most probably closer to the first category of reader. In the Introduction the author notes that unlike the hydrodynamics of non-conducting fluids, where the phenomena caused by rapid fluid motions are the most interesting, for plasmas in a strong magnetic field the quasi-static configurations inside which the local dynamic processes occur are often the most important. Therefore, the reader will also find in this book rather traditional material on the theory of plasma equilibrium and stability in magnetic fields. In addition, it is notable that, as opposed to a linear theory, the non-linear theory, as a rule, cannot give quite definite explanations or predictions of phenomena, and consequently there are in the book many results obtained by consideration of numerical models with the use of supercomputers. The treatment of non-linear dynamics is preceded by Chapters 2 to 4, in which the basics of MHD theory are presented with an emphasis on the role of integral invariants of the magnetic helicity type, a derivation of the reduced MHD equations is given, together with examples of the exact solutions of the equilibrium
Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ...
Introduction to plasma physics with space, laboratory and astrophysical applications
Gurnett, Donald A
2017-01-01
Introducing basic principles of plasma physics and their applications to space, laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, this new edition provides updated material throughout. Topics covered include single-particle motions, kinetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, small amplitude waves in hot and cold plasmas, and collisional effects. New additions include the ponderomotive force, tearing instabilities in resistive plasmas and the magnetorotational instability in accretion disks, charged particle acceleration by shocks, and a more in-depth look at nonlinear phenomena. A broad range of applications are explored: planetary magnetospheres and radiation belts, the confinement and stability of plasmas in fusion devices, the propagation of discontinuities and shock waves in the solar wind, and analysis of various types of plasma waves and instabilities that can occur in planetary magnetospheres and laboratory plasma devices. With step-by-step derivations and self-contained introductions to mathematical methods, this book...
A Simple, Analytical Model of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Pair Plasma
Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetova, Masha; Klimas, Alex
2011-01-01
A set of conservation equations is utilized to derive balance equations in the reconnection diffusion region of a symmetric pair plasma. The reconnection electric field is assumed to have the function to maintain the current density in the diffusion region, and to impart thermal energy to the plasma by means of quasi-viscous dissipation. Using these assumptions it is possible to derive a simple set of equations for diffusion region parameters in dependence on inflow conditions and on plasma compressibility. These equations are solved by means of a simple, iterative, procedure. The solutions show expected features such as dominance of enthalpy flux in the reconnection outflow, as well as combination of adiabatic and quasi-viscous heating. Furthermore, the model predicts a maximum reconnection electric field of E(sup *)=0.4, normalized to the parameters at the inflow edge of the diffusion region.
Nanoconfined ionic liquids: Disentangling electrostatic and viscous forces
Lhermerout, Romain; Perkin, Susan
2018-01-01
Recent reports of surface forces across nanoconfined ionic liquids have revealed the existence of an anomalously long-ranged interaction apparently of electrostatic origin. Ionic liquids are viscous, and therefore it is important to inspect rigorously whether the observed repulsive forces are indeed equilibrium forces or, rather, arise from the viscous force during drainage of the fluid between two confining surfaces. In this paper we present our direct measurements of surface forces between mica sheets approaching in the ionic liquid [C2C1Im ] [NTf2] , exploring three orders of magnitude in approach velocity. Trajectories are systematically fitted by solving the equation of motion, allowing us to disentangle the viscous and equilibrium contributions. First, we find that the drainage obeys classical hydrodynamics with a negative slip boundary condition in the range of the structural force, implying that a nanometer -thick portion of the liquid in the vicinity of the solid surface is composed of ordered molecules that do not contribute to the flow. Second, we show that a long-range static force must indeed be invoked, in addition to the viscous force, in order to describe the data quantitatively. This equilibrium interaction decays exponentially and with decay length in agreement with the screening length reported for the same system in previous studies. In those studies the decay was simply checked to be independent of velocity and measured at a low approach rate, rather than explicitly taking account of viscous effects: we explain why this gives indistinguishable outcomes for the screening length by noting that the viscous force is linear to very good approximation over a wide range of distances.
Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit
Chen, Gui-Qiang; Perepelitsa, Mikhail
2012-12-01
We establish the inviscid limit of the viscous shallow water equations to the Saint-Venant system. For the viscous equations, the viscosity terms are more degenerate when the shallow water is close to the bottom, in comparison with the classical Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic gases; thus, the analysis in our earlier work for the classical Navier-Stokes equations does not apply directly, which require new estimates to deal with the additional degeneracy. We first introduce a notion of entropy solutions to the viscous shallow water equations and develop an approach to establish the global existence of such solutions and their uniform energy-type estimates with respect to the viscosity coefficient. These uniform estimates yield the existence of measure-valued solutions to the Saint-Venant system generated by the viscous solutions. Based on the uniform energy-type estimates and the features of the Saint-Venant system, we further establish that the entropy dissipation measures of the viscous solutions for weak entropy-entropy flux pairs, generated by compactly supported C 2 test-functions, are confined in a compact set in H -1, which yields that the measure-valued solutions are confined by the Tartar-Murat commutator relation. Then, the reduction theorem established in Chen and Perepelitsa [5] for the measure-valued solutions with unbounded support leads to the convergence of the viscous solutions to a finite-energy entropy solution of the Saint-Venant system with finite-energy initial data, which is relative with respect to the different end-states of the bottom topography of the shallow water at infinity. The analysis also applies to the inviscid limit problem for the Saint-Venant system in the presence of friction.
Impact of ultra-viscous drops: air-film gliding and extreme wetting
Langley, Kenneth; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2017-01-01
water drop, the viscous-dominated flow in the thin air layer counteracts the inertia of the drop liquid. For highly viscous drops the viscous stresses within the liquid also affect the interplay between the drop and the gas. Here the drop also forms a
Effect of toroidal plasma flow and flow shear on global MHD modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Jensen, T.H.; Miller, R.L.; Bondeson, A.; Johnson, R.W.; Mauel, M.E.
1995-01-01
The effect of a subsonic toroidal flow on the linear magnetohydrodynamic stability of a tokamak plasma surrounded by an external resistive wall is studied. A complex non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem for the stability of general kink and tearing modes is formulated, solved numerically, and applied to high β tokamaks. Results indicate that toroidal plasma flow, in conjunction with dissipation in the plasma, can open a window of stability for the position of the external wall. In this window, stable plasma beta values can significantly exceed those predicted by the Troyon scaling law with no wall. Computations utilizing experimental data indicate good agreement with observations
Asymptotic study of a magneto-hydro-dynamic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benameur, J.; Ibrahim, S.; Majdoub, M.
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study the convergence of solutions of a Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic system. On the torus T 3 , the proof is based on Schochet's methods, whereas in the case of the whole space R 3 , we use Strichartz's type estimates. (author)
Plasma physics for controlled fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyamoto, K.
2010-01-01
The primary objective of this lecture note is to present the theories and experiments of plasma physics for recent activities of controlled fusion research for graduate and senior undergraduate students. Chapters 1-6 describe the basic knowledge of plasma and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD instabilities limit the beta ratio (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) of confined plasma. Chapters 7-9 provide the kinetic theory of hot plasma and discuss the wave heating and non-inductive current drive. The dispersion relation derived by the kinetic theory are used to discuss plasma waves and perturbed modes. Landau damping is the essential mechanism of plasma heating and the stabilization of perturbation. Landau inverse damping brings the amplification of waves and the destabilization of perturbed modes. Chapter 10 explains the plasma transport due to turbulence, which is the most important and challenging subject for plasma confinement. Theories and simulations including subject of zonal flow are introduced. Chapters 11, 12 and 13 describe the recent activities of tokamak including ITER as well as spherical tokamak, reversed field pinch (RFP) and stellarator including quasi-symmetric configurations. Emphasis has been given to tokamak research since it made the most remarkable progress and the construction phase of 'International Tokamak Experimental Reactor' called ITER has already started. (author)
Relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkelens, H. van.
1984-01-01
This thesis gives a self-contained treatment of the relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma. Here plasma means any mixture containing electrically charged particles. The relativistic Boltzmann equation is linearized for the case of a plasma. The Chapman-Enskog method is elaborated further for transport phenomena. Linear laws for viscous phenomena are derived. Then the collision term in the Boltzmann theory is dealt with. Using the transport equation, a kinetic theory of wave phenomena is developed and the dissipation of hydromagnetic waves in a relativistic plasma is investigated. In the final chapter, it is demonstrated how the relativistic Boltzmann theory can be applied in cosmology. In doing so, expressions are derived for the electric conductivity of the cosmological plasma in the lepton era, the plasma era and the annihilation era. (Auth.)
Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Leclert, G.
2004-01-01
Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal. (authors)
Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.
2004-01-01
Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal
Stover, E. K.; York, T. M.
1971-01-01
The transient pinched plasma column generated in a linear Z-pinch was studied experimentally and analytically. The plasma column was investigated experimentally with several plasma diagnostics; they were: a rapid response pressure transducer, a magnetic field probe, a voltage probe, and discharge luminosity. Axial pressure profiles on the discharge chamber axis were used to identify three characteristic regions of plasma column behavior: (1) strong axial pressure asymmetry noted early in plasma column lifetime, (2) followed by plasma heating in which there is a rapid rise in static pressure, and (3) a slight decrease static pressure before plasma column breakup. Plasma column lifetime was approximately 5 microseconds. The axial pressure asymmetry was attributed to nonsimultaneous pinching of the imploding current sheet along the discharge chamber axis. The rapid heating could be attributed in part to viscous effects introduced by radial gradients in the axial streaming velocity.
Periodic folding of viscous sheets
Ribe, Neil M.
2003-09-01
The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.
Viscous entrainment on hairy surfaces
Nasto, Alice; Brun, P.-T.; Hosoi, A. E.
2018-02-01
Nectar-drinking bats and honeybees have tongues covered with hairlike structures, enhancing their ability to take up viscous nectar by dipping. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we explore the physical mechanisms that govern viscous entrainment in a hairy texture. Hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. We model the liquid trapped within the texture using a Darcy-Brinkmann-like approach and derive the drainage flow solution. The amount of fluid that is entrained is dependent on the viscosity of the fluid, the density of the hairs, and the withdrawal speed. Both experiments and theory reveal an optimal hair density to maximize fluid uptake.
MacGillivray, Jeff T.; Peterkin, Robert E., Jr.
2003-10-01
We have developed a multiblock arbitrary coordinate Hydromagnetics (MACH) code for computing the time-evolution of materials of arbitrary phase (solid, liquid, gas, and plasma) in response to forces that arise from material and magnetic pressures. MACH is a single-fluid, time-dependent, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation environment. The 2 1/2 -dimensional MACH2 and the parallel 3-D MACH3 are widely used in the MHD community to perform accurate simulation of the time evolution of electrically conducting materials in a wide variety of laboratory situations. In this presentation, we discuss simulations of the interaction of an intense laser beam with a solid target in an ambient gas. Of particular interest to us is a laser-supported detonation wave (blast wave) that originates near the surface of the target when the laser intensity is sufficiently large to vaporize target material within the focal spot of the beam. Because the MACH3 simulations are fully three-dimensional, we are able to simulate non-normal laser incidence. A magnetic field is also produced from plasma energy near the edge of the focal spot.
On Equilibria of the Two-fluid Model in Magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frantzeskakis, Dimitri J.; Stratis, Ioannis G.; Yannacopoulos, Athanasios N.
2004-01-01
We show how the equilibria of the two-fluid model in magnetohydrodynamics can be described by the double curl equation and through the study of this equation we study some properties of these equilibria
Convective instability of internal modes in accelerated compressible plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratton, Julio; Gratton, F.T.; Gonzalez, A.G.; Buenos Aires Univ.
1988-01-01
A compact second order differential equation for small amplitude magnetohydrodynamic modes of a plasma stratification in a uniform effective gravity field is derived. The steady state includes non uniform density, mass motion, magnetic shear and non isotropic pressure, given by arbitrary profiles. The perturbation treatment is of the magnetohydrodynamic class, with two closure equations for the time evolution of the pressure, in order to encompass ideal MHD, the Chew, Goldberger and Low, and other non isotropic models. As an application a detailed study of the compressible, convective-gravity modes in the ideal isotropic MHD case is presented. Local criteria for the convective instability are first obtained by means of physically intuitive arguments for unidirectional and for sheared magnetic field. In both instances a rigorous variational energy treatment is then provided. In the second case, a criterion analogous to that of Suydam for the pinch is shown to hold for plasma atmospheres. Global internal modes for an isothermal equilibrium with unidirectional magnetic field are then analysed. Stability criteria and growth rates of the unstable modes are studied. Areas of application of the reported results are indicated. (author)
Asymptotic study of a magneto-hydro-dynamic system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benameur, J [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Monastir (Tunisia); Ibrahim, S [Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Departement de Mathematiques, Bizerte (TN); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: slim.ibrahim@fsb.rnu.tn; Majdoub, M [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Departement de Mathematiques, Tunis (Tunisia)
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study the convergence of solutions of a Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic system. On the torus T{sup 3}, the proof is based on Schochet's methods, whereas in the case of the whole space R{sup 3}, we use Strichartz's type estimates. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torkelsson, U.
1994-04-01
The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks
Intermittency in Hall-magnetohydrodynamics with a strong guide field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez Imazio, P.; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.
2013-01-01
We present a detailed study of intermittency in the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations of compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an external guide field. To solve the equations numerically, a reduced model valid when a strong guide field is present is used. Different values for the ion skin depth are considered in the simulations. The resulting data are analyzed computing field increments in several directions perpendicular to the guide field, and building structure functions and probability density functions. In the magnetohydrodynamic limit, we recover the usual results with the magnetic field being more intermittent than the velocity field. In the presence of the Hall effect, field fluctuations at scales smaller than the ion skin depth show a substantial decrease in the level of intermittency, with close to monofractal scaling
Plasma polarimetry for large Cotton--Mouton and Faraday effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segre, S.E.
1995-01-01
A formalism is presented for treating plasma polarimetry when both the Cotton--Mouton and the Faraday effects are large. For this general case it is shown that, for each measuring chord, up to nine parameters related to the plasma can be determined, instead of the usual single Faraday rotation. These parameters can be measured by a convenient modulation of the polarization state of the input radiation, and they can be used in the reconstruction of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium. Thus, the potential of the polarimetric diagnostic can be significantly increased, and the range of plasma conditions where the latter can be used, is extended. The importance of refraction is discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Kwon, Young-Sam; Lin, Ying-Chieh; Su, Cheng-Fang
2018-04-01
In this paper, we consider the compressible models of magnetohydrodynamic flows giving rise to a variety of mathematical problems in many areas. We derive a rigorous quasi-geostrophic equation governed by magnetic field from the rotational compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows with the well-prepared initial data. It is a first derivation of quasi-geostrophic equation governed by the magnetic field, and the tool is based on the relative entropy method. This paper covers two results: the existence of the unique local strong solution of quasi-geostrophic equation with the good regularity and the derivation of a quasi-geostrophic equation.
PHANTOM: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code
Price, Daniel J.; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris; Tricco, Terrence S.; Toupin, Stéven; Pettitt, Alex; Chan, Conrad; Laibe, Guillaume; Glover, Simon; Dobbs, Clare; Nealon, Rebecca; Liptai, David; Worpel, Hauke; Bonnerot, Clément; Dipierro, Giovanni; Ragusa, Enrico; Federrath, Christoph; Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Forgan, Duncan; Hutchison, Mark; Constantino, Thomas; Ayliffe, Ben; Mentiplay, Daniel; Hirsh, Kieran; Lodato, Giuseppe
2017-09-01
Phantom is a smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code focused on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics. It is modular, and handles sink particles, self-gravity, two fluid and one fluid dust, ISM chemistry and cooling, physical viscosity, non-ideal MHD, and more. Its modular structure makes it easy to add new physics to the code.
ADVECTIVE TRANSPORT OF INTERSTELLAR PLASMA INTO THE HELIOSPHERE ACROSS THE RECONNECTING HELIOPAUSE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strumik, M.; Grzedzielski, S.; Czechowski, A.; Macek, W. M.; Ratkiewicz, R.
2014-01-01
We discuss results of magnetohydrodynamical model simulations of plasma dynamics in the proximity of the heliopause (HP). The model is shown to fit details of the magnetic field variations observed by the Voyager 1 spacecraft during the transition from the heliosphere to the local interstellar medium (LISM). We propose an interpretation of magnetic field structures observed by Voyager 1 in terms of fine-scale physical processes. Our simulations reveal an effective transport mechanism of relatively dense LISM plasma across the reconnecting HP into the heliosphere. The mechanism is associated with annihilation of magnetic sectors in the heliospheric plasma near the HP
Violations of conservation laws in viscous liquid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe
2007-01-01
The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover,......, although particle number conservation applies strictly for any liquid, the solidity of viscous liquids implies that even this conservation law is apparently violated in coarse-grained descriptions of density fluctuations.......The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover...
Plasma physics for controlled fusion
Miyamoto, Kenro
2016-01-01
This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...
On the parallel momentum balance in low pressure plasmas with an inhomogeneous magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyakov, A.I.; Garbet, X.; Bourdelle, C.
2009-01-01
This paper describes the structure of the parallel momentum balance in low pressure plasmas with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The parallel momentum balance equation is derived from magnetohydrodynamic equations by an expansion in the inverse magnetic field 1/B as a small parameter. Contributions of the gyroviscosity and inertia terms are clarified. It is shown that magnetic field curvature leads to important coupling of parallel flow with fluctuations of the electric field and plasma pressure.
Advances in integrated plasma control on DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, M.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Hahn, S.H.; Humphreys, D.A.; In, Y.; Johnson, R.D.; Kim, J.S.; La Haye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Welander, A.S.; Xiao, B.
2007-01-01
The DIII-D advanced tokamak physics program requires extremely high performance from the DIII-D plasma control system, including simultaneous accurate regulation of plasma shape, stored energy, density and divertor characteristics, as well as coordinated suppression of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. To satisfy these demanding control requirements, we apply the integrated plasma control method, consisting of construction of physics-based plasma and system response models, validation of models against operating experiments, design of integrated controllers that operate in concert with one another, simulation of control action against off-line and actual machine control platforms, and optimization through iteration of the design-test loop. The present work describes progress in development of physics models and development and experimental application of new model-based plasma controllers on DIII-D. We also describe the development of the control software, hardware, and model-based control algorithms for the superconducting EAST and KSTAR tokamaks
Magnetized and collimated millimeter scale plasma jets with astrophysical relevance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brady, Parrish C.; Quevedo, Hernan J.; Valanju, Prashant M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, Todd
2012-01-01
Magnetized collimated plasma jets are created in the laboratory to extend our understanding of plasma jet acceleration and collimation mechanisms with particular connection to astrophysical jets. In this study, plasma collimated jets are formed from supersonic unmagnetized flows, mimicking a stellar wind, subject to currents and magnetohydrodynamic forces. It is found that an external poloidal magnetic field, like the ones found anchored to accretion disks, is essential to stabilize the jets against current-driven instabilities. The maximum jet length before instabilities develop is proportional to the field strength and the length threshold agrees well with Kruskal-Shafranov theory. The plasma evolution is modeled qualitatively using MHD theory of current-carrying flux tubes showing that jet acceleration and collimation arise as a result of electromagnetic forces.
A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump
Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.
2005-01-01
This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined
A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump
Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF
2005-01-01
This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a
Magnetohydrodynamic free convection in a strong cross field
Kuiken, H.K.
1970-01-01
The problem of magnetohydrodynamic free convection of an electrically conducting fluid in a strong cross field is investigated. It is solved by using a singular perturbation technique. The solutions presented cover the range of Prandtl numbers from zero to order one. This includes both the important
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe
1999-01-01
Recent NMR experiments on supercooled toluene and glycerol by Hinze and Böhmer show that small rotation angles dominate with only a few large molecular rotations. These results are here interpreted by assuming that viscous liquids are solidlike on short length scales. A characteristic length...
Theory of magnetohydrodynamic waves: The WKB approximation revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, A.
1992-01-01
Past treatments of the eikonal or WKB theory of the propagation of magnetohydrodynamics waves have assumed a strictly isentropic background. IF in fact there is a gradient in the background entropy, then in second order in the WKB ordering, adiabatic fluctuations (in the Lagrangian sense) are not strictly isentropic in the Eulerian sense. This means that in the second order of the WKB expansion, which determines the variation of wave amplitude along rays, the violation of isentropy must be accounted for. The present paper revisits the derivation of the WKB approximation for small-amplitude magnetohydrodynamic waves, allowing for possible spatial variation of the background entropy. The equation of variation of wave amplitude is rederived; it is a bilinear equation which, it turns out, can be recast in the action conservation form. It is shown that this action conservation equation is in fact equivalent to the action conservation law obtained from Lagrangian treatments
Simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling via transpiration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yiu, K.F.C.; Giles, M.B.
1995-01-01
In viscous-inviscid coupling analysis, the direct coupling technique and the inverse coupling technique are commonly adopted. However, stability and convergence of the algorithms derived are usually very unsatisfactory. Here, by using the transpiration technique to simulate the effect of the displacement thickness, a new simultaneous coupling method is derived. The integral boundary layer equations and the full potential equation are chosen to be the viscous-inviscid coupled system. After discretization, the Newton-Raphson technique is proposed to solve the coupled nonlinear system. Several numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. 15 refs., 23 figs
Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.
2015-11-01
Over the past 4 years on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL, we have studied obliquely and head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets of an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture. The jets are formed/launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. In successive experimental campaigns, we characterized the (a) evolution of plasma parameters of a single plasma jet as it propagated up to ~ 1 m away from the railgun nozzle, (b) density profiles and 2D morphology of the stagnation layer and oblique shocks that formed between obliquely merging jets, and (c) collisionless interpenetration transitioning to collisional stagnation between head-on-merging jets. Key plasma diagnostics included a fast-framing CCD camera, an 8-chord visible interferometer, a survey spectrometer, and a photodiode array. This talk summarizes the primary results mentioned above, and highlights analyses of inferred post-shock temperatures based on observations of density gradients that we attribute to shock-layer thickness. We also briefly describe more recent PLX experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution with magnetic and viscous effects, and potential future collisionless shock experiments enabled by low-impurity, higher-velocity plasma jets formed by contoured-gap coaxial guns. Supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences and LANL LDRD.
Modeling of brittle-viscous flow using discrete particles
Thordén Haug, Øystein; Barabasch, Jessica; Virgo, Simon; Souche, Alban; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.
2017-04-01
Many geological processes involve both viscous flow and brittle fractures, e.g. boudinage, folding and magmatic intrusions. Numerical modeling of such viscous-brittle materials poses challenges: one has to account for the discrete fracturing, the continuous viscous flow, the coupling between them, and potential pressure dependence of the flow. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a numerical technique, widely used for studying fracture of geomaterials. However, the implementation of viscous fluid flow in discrete element models is not trivial. In this study, we model quasi-viscous fluid flow behavior using Esys-Particle software (Abe et al., 2004). We build on the methodology of Abe and Urai (2012) where a combination of elastic repulsion and dashpot interactions between the discrete particles is implemented. Several benchmarks are presented to illustrate the material properties. Here, we present extensive, systematic material tests to characterize the rheology of quasi-viscous DEM particle packing. We present two tests: a simple shear test and a channel flow test, both in 2D and 3D. In the simple shear tests, simulations were performed in a box, where the upper wall is moved with a constant velocity in the x-direction, causing shear deformation of the particle assemblage. Here, the boundary conditions are periodic on the sides, with constant forces on the upper and lower walls. In the channel flow tests, a piston pushes a sample through a channel by Poisseuille flow. For both setups, we present the resulting stress-strain relationships over a range of material parameters, confining stress and strain rate. Results show power-law dependence between stress and strain rate, with a non-linear dependence on confining force. The material is strain softening under some conditions (which). Additionally, volumetric strain can be dilatant or compactant, depending on porosity, confining pressure and strain rate. Constitutive relations are implemented in a way that limits the
An investigation of transient pressure and plasma properties in a pinched plasma column. M.S. Thesis
Stover, E. K.; York, T. M.
1971-01-01
The transient pinched plasma column generated in a linear Z-pinch was studied experimentally and analytically. The plasma column was investigated experimentally with the following plasma diagnostics: a special rapid response pressure transducer, a magnetic field probe, a voltage probe and discharge luminosity. Axial pressure profiles on the discharge chamber axis were used to identify three characteristic regions of plasma column behavior; they were in temporal sequence: strong axial pressure asymmetry noted early in plasma column lifetime followed by plasma heating in which there is a rapid rise in static pressure and a slight decrease static pressure before plasma column breakup. Plasma column lifetime was approximately 5 microseconds. The axial pressure asymmetry was attributed to nonsimultaneous pinching of the imploding current sheet along the discharge chamber axis. The rapid heating is attributed in part to viscous effects introduced by radial gradients in the axial streaming velocity. Turbulent heating arising from discharge current excitation of the ion acoustic wave instability is also considered a possible heating mechanism.
Quasi-Simultaneous Viscous-Inviscid Interaction for Transonic Airfoil Flow
Veldman, Arthur E.P.
2005-01-01
Following Prandtl, a viscous-inviscid interaction (VII) method is presented, where the flow field is divided into a viscous shear layer and an inviscid outer region. Their coupling is performed with the quasi-simultaneous approach, making use of an appropriately chosen interaction law. Firstly, an
Numerical evaluation of high energy particle effects in magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.B.; Wu, Y.
1994-03-01
The interaction of high energy ions with magnetohydrodynamic modes is analyzed. A numerical code is developed which evaluates the contribution of the high energy particles to mode stability using orbit averaging of motion in either analytic or numerically generated equilibria through Hamiltonian guiding center equations. A dispersion relation is then used to evaluate the effect of the particles on the linear mode. Generic behavior of the solutions of the dispersion relation is discussed and dominant contributions of different components of the particle distribution function are identified. Numerical convergence of Monte-Carlo simulations is analyzed. The resulting code ORBIT provides an accurate means of comparing experimental results with the predictions of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics. The method can be extended to include self consistent modification of the particle orbits by the mode, and hence the full nonlinear dynamics of the coupled system
On the Energy Spectrum of Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean Carlos Perez
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The energy spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence attracts interest due to its fundamental importance and its relevance for interpreting astrophysical data. Here we present measurements of the energy spectra from a series of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence with a strong guide field and for increasing Reynolds number. The presented simulations, with numerical resolutions up to 2048^{3} mesh points and statistics accumulated over 30 to 150 eddy turnover times, constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the largest statistical sample of steady state magnetohydrodynamics turbulence to date. We study both the balanced case, where the energies associated with Alfvén modes propagating in opposite directions along the guide field, E^{+}(k_{⊥} and E^{-}(k_{⊥}, are equal, and the imbalanced case where the energies are different. In the balanced case, we find that the energy spectrum converges to a power law with exponent -3/2 as the Reynolds number is increased, which is consistent with phenomenological models that include scale-dependent dynamic alignment. For the imbalanced case, with E^{+}>E^{-}, the simulations show that E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2} for all Reynolds numbers considered, while E^{+} has a slightly steeper spectrum at small Re. As the Reynolds number increases, E^{+} flattens. Since E^{±} are pinned at the dissipation scale and anchored at the driving scales, we postulate that at sufficiently high Re the spectra will become parallel in the inertial range and scale as E^{+}∝E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2}. Questions regarding the universality of the spectrum and the value of the “Kolmogorov constant” are discussed.
Seed recovery and regeneration in coal-fired, open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheth, A.C.; Jackson, D.M.; Attig, R.C.
1986-01-01
Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems not only have high cycle efficiency, but they also have an inherent sulfur removal capability. The potassium compound uses as ''seed'' plays a dual role. It 1) increases the electrical conductivity of the plasma needed to produce power in the MHD electrical topping cycle, and 2) reacts with sulfur dioxide to form potassium sulfate, thereby eliminating most of the sulfur oxides from the gaseous effluent. For economical reasons, the spent seed must be recovered, desulfurized and recycled to the MHD power plant. This paper reviews some of the available experimental results and literature relating to SO 2 removal and seed recovery, and will also discuss several potential seed regeneration processes. Three methods of potassium extraction are discussed, i.e., hot aqueous digestion with CA(OH) 2 /NaOH, acid washing, and aqueous extraction. The selected candidate regeneration systems are discussed from the viewpoint of energy and process water requirements and environmental considerations such as waste discharges and emissions of gaseous, particulate and trace element pollutants
Adem, Abdullahi Rashid; Moawad, Salah M.
2018-05-01
In this paper, the steady-state equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamic incompressible flows in axisymmetric domains are investigated. These flows are governed by a second-order elliptic partial differential equation as a type of generalized Grad-Shafranov equation. The problem of finding exact equilibria to the full governing equations in the presence of incompressible mass flows is considered. Two different types of constraints on position variables are presented to construct exact solution classes for several nonlinear cases of the governing equations. Some of the obtained results are checked for their applications to magnetic confinement plasma. Besides, they cover many previous configurations and include new considerations about the nonlinearity of magnetic flux stream variables.
On acceleration of plasmoids in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetotail reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scholer, M.; Hautz, R.
1991-01-01
The formation and acceleration of plasmoids is investigated by two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The initial equilibrium contains a plasma sheet with a northward magnetic field (B z ) component and a tailward pressure gradient. Reconnection is initiated by three different methods: Case A, a constant resistivity is applied everywhere and a tearing mode evolves, case B, a spatially localized resistivity is fixed in the near-Earth region, and case C, the resistivity is allowed to depend on the electrical current density. In case A, the authors obtain the same results as have been presented by Otto et al. (1990): the tearing instability releases the tension of the closed field lines so that the inherent pressure gradient of the two-dimensional system is not balanced anymore. The pressure gradient then sets the plasmoid into motion. Any sling-shot effect of open magnetic field lines is of minor importance. A completely different behavior has been found in cases B and C. In these cases the high-speed flow in the wedge-shaped region tailward of the near-Earth neutral line pushes against the detached plasmoid and drives it tailward. The ideal terms contributing to the acceleration are still only the pressure and the magnetic field term. However, in these cases the pressure is due to the dynamic pressure of the fast outflow from the reconnection region. The outflow in the wedge-shaped region on both sides of the neutral line is due to acceleration of plasma by tangential magnetic stresses at the slow mode shocks extending form the X line
Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics
Früngel, Frank B A
1965-01-01
High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w
Important plasma problems in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, R.M.
1995-01-01
In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos
Modelling and control of a tokamak plasma; Modelisation et commande d`un plasma de tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bremond, S
1995-10-18
Vertically elongated tokamak plasmas, while attractive as regards Lawson criteria, are intrinsically instable. It is found that the open-loop instability dynamics is characterised by the relative value of two dimensionless parameters: the coefficient of inductive coupling between the vessel and the coils, and the coil damping efficiency on the plasma displacement relative to that of the vessel. Applications to Tore Supra -where the instability is due to the iron core attraction- and DIII-D are given. A counter-effect of the vessel, which temporarily reverses the effect of coil control on the plasma displacement, is seen when the inductive coupling is higher than the damping ratio. Precise control of the plasma boundary is necessary if plasma-wall interaction and/or coupling to heating antennas are to be monitored. A positional drift, of a few mm/s, which had been observed in the Tore Supra tokamak, is explained and corrected. A linear plasma shape response model is then derived from magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculation, and proved to be in good agreement with experimental data. An optimal control law is derived, which minimizes an integral quadratic criteria on tracking errors and energy expenditure. This scheme avoids compensating coil currents, and could render local plasma shaping more precise. (authors). 123 refs., 77 figs., 6 tabs., 4 annexes.
Null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we study the null controllability of the viscous Camassa–. Holm equation on the one-dimensional torus. By using a moving distributed control, we obtain that the system is null controllable for a given data with certain regularity. Keywords. Viscous Camassa–Holm equation; null controllability; moving control;.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Jianshan; Luo Jiarong; Shen Biao; Zhao Junyu; Hu Liqun; Zhu Yubao; Xu Guosheng; Asif, M.; Gao Xiang; Wan Baonian
2004-01-01
The normalized performance indicated by the product of β N H 89 >2 was achieved by a combination of the lower hybrid current driving (LHCD) and the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating in the HT-7 tokamak. More than 80% of the plasma current was sustained by the LHCD and the bootstrap current. Large edge pressure gradients were observed. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities were often driven to terminate the discharge or reduce the discharge performance, when the IBW resonant layer was near the rational surface. The resonant layer of the safety factor q=2 is located at 0.6 a with a=27 cm being the minor radius. The width of magnetic island (the poloidal mode number m=2) was about 2 cm. The plasma energy was reduced quickly by 30% by MHD instabilities. The behaviour of MHD instabilities is reported. A large sawtooth activity (m=1) was observed before inducing MHD (m=2)
One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets. I. Theory
Pitrou, Cyril
2018-04-01
We build a general formalism to describe thin viscous jets as one-dimensional objects with an internal structure. We present in full generality the steps needed to describe the viscous jets around their central line, and we argue that the Taylor expansion of all fields around that line is conveniently expressed in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors living in the two dimensions of the fiber sections. We recover the standard results of axisymmetric jets and we report the first and second corrections to the lowest order description, also allowing for a rotational component around the axis of symmetry. When applied to generally curved fibers, the lowest order description corresponds to a viscous string model whose sections are circular. However, when including the first corrections, we find that curved jets generically develop elliptic sections. Several subtle effects imply that the first corrections cannot be described by a rod model since it amounts to selectively discard some corrections. However, in a fast rotating frame, we find that the dominant effects induced by inertial and Coriolis forces should be correctly described by rod models. For completeness, we also recover the constitutive relations for forces and torques in rod models and exhibit a missing term in the lowest order expression of viscous torque. Given that our method is based on tensors, the complexity of all computations has been beaten down by using an appropriate tensor algebra package such as xAct, allowing us to obtain a one-dimensional description of curved viscous jets with all the first order corrections consistently included. Finally, we find a description for straight fibers with elliptic sections as a special case of these results, and recover that ellipticity is dynamically damped by surface tension. An application to toroidal viscous fibers is presented in the companion paper [Pitrou, Phys. Rev. E 97, 043116 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.043116].
Anisotropic plasma with flows in tokamak: Steady state and stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgisonis, V.I.
1996-01-01
An adequate description of equilibrium and stability of anisotropic plasma with macroscopic flows in tokamaks is presented. The Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) approximation is consistently used to analyze anisotropic plasma dynamics. The admissible structure of a stationary flow is found to be the same as in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics with isotropic pressure (MHD), which means an allowance for the same relabeling symmetry as in ideal MHD systems with toroidally nested magnetic surfaces. A generalization of the Grad-Shafranov equation for the case of anisotropic plasma with flows confined in the axisymmetric magnetic field is derived. A variational principle was obtained, which allows for a stability analysis of anisotropic pressure plasma with flows, and takes into account the conservation laws resulting from the relabeling symmetry. This principle covers the previous stability criteria for static CGL plasma and for ideal MHD flows in isotropic plasma as well. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Three-dimensional simulation study of compact toroid injection into magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshio Suzuki; Tomohiko Watanabe; Tetsuya Sato; Takaya Hayashi
1999-01-01
Three-dimensional dynamics of a compact toroid (CT), which is injected into a magnetized target plasma modeling a part of a fusion device is investigated by using magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. It is found that the injected CT penetrates into the device region, suffering from a tilting instability. In this process, magnetic reconnection between the CT magnetic field and the device magnetic field takes place, which disrupts the magnetic configuration of the CT. As a result, the high density plasma confined in the CT magnetic field is locally supplied in the device region. Furthermore, the authors examine the penetration depth of the CT high density plasma. And it is revealed that the CT high density plasma is decelerated by the device magnetic field through the compressional heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.
1988-01-01
A formula is derived for predicting multiprocessing efficiency on Cray supercomputers equipped with the Cray Time-Sharing System (CTSS). The model is applicable to an intensive time-sharing environment. The actual efficiency estimate depends on three factors: the code size, task length, and job mix. The implementation of multitasking in a three-dimensional plasma magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, TEMCO, is discussed. TEMCO solves the primitive one-fluid compressible MHD equations and includes resistive and Hall effects in Ohm's law. Virtually all segments of the main time-integration loop are multitasked. The multiprocessing efficiency model is applied to TEMCO. Excellent agreement is obtained between the actual multiprocessing efficiency and the theoretical prediction
Pulsar Magnetohydrodynamic Winds
Okamoto, Isao; Sigalo, Friday B.
2006-12-01
The acceleration and collimation/decollimation of relativistic magnetocentrifugal winds are discussed concerning a cold plasma from a strongly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron star in a steady axisymmetric state based on ideal magnetohydrodynamics. There exist unipolar inductors associated with the field line angular frequency, α, at the magnetospheric base surface, SB, with a huge potential difference between the poles and the equator, which drive electric current through the pulsar magnetosphere. Any ``current line'' must emanate from one terminal of the unipolar inductor and return to the other, converting the Poynting flux to the kinetic flux of the wind at finite distances. In a plausible field structure satisfying the transfield force-balance equation, the fast surface, SF, must exist somewhere between the subasymptotic and asymptotic domains, i.e., at the innermost point along each field line of the asymptotic domain of \\varpaA2/\\varpi2 ≪ 1, where \\varpiA is the Alfvénic axial distance. The criticality condition at SF yields the Lorentz factor, γF = μ\\varepsilon1/3, and the angular momentum flux, β, as the eigenvalues in terms of the field line angular velocity, α, the mass flux per unit flux tube, η, and one of the Bernoulli integrals, μδ, which are assumed to be specifiable as the boundary conditions at SB. The other Bernoulli integral, μɛ, is related to μδ as μɛ = μδ[1-(α2\\varpiA2/c2)]-1, and both μɛ and \\varpiA2 are eigenvalues to be determined by the criticality condition at SF. Ongoing MHD acceleration is possible in the superfast domain. This fact may be helpful in resolving a discrepancy between the wind theory and the Crab-nebula model. It is argued that the ``anti-collimation theorem'' holds for relativistic winds, based on the curvature of field streamlines determined by the transfield force balance. The ``theorem'' combines with the ``current-closure condition'' as a global condition in the wind zone to produce a
Simulations of the Yawed MEXICO Rotor Using a Viscous-Inviscid Panel Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
In the present work the viscous-inviscid interactive model MIRAS is used to simulate flows past the MEXICO rotor in yawed conditions. The solver is based on an unsteady three-dimensional free wake panel method which uses a strong viscous-inviscid interaction technique to account for the viscous...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Hussey, T.W.; Faehl, R.J.; Boyd, R.W.
1978-01-01
Two-dimensional (r-z) magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the electromagnetic implosion of metallic foil plasmas show, for certain initial configurations, a tendency to develop large-amplitude perturbations characteristic of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability. These perturbations develop at the plasma magnetic field interface for plasma configurations where the density gradient scale length, the characteristic dimension for the instability, is short. The effects on the plasma dynamics of the implosion will be discussed for several initial foil configurations. In general, the growth rates and linear mode structure are found to be influenced by the plasma shell thickness and density gradient scale length, in agreement with theory. The most destructive modes are found to be those with wavelengths of the order of the plasma shell thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Shinji; Watanabe, Tomoko.
1996-08-01
The matching problem in resistive MagnetoHydroDynamic stability analysis by the asymptotic matching method has been reformulated as an initial-boundary value problem for the inner-layer equations describing the plasma dynamics in the thin layer around a rational surface. The third boundary conditions at boundaries of a finite interval are imposed on the inner layer equations in the formulation instead of asymptotic conditions at infinities. The finite difference method for this problem has been applied to model equations whose solutions are known in a closed form. It has been shown that the initial value problem and the associated eigenvalue problem for the model equations can be solved by the finite difference method with numerical stability. The formulation presented here enables the asymptotic matching method to be a practical method for the resistive MHD stability analysis. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamic flow in ducts with discontinuous electrical insulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mistrangelo, C.; Bühler, L.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Liquid metal MHD flows in ducts with flow channel inserts. • Study of the influence of local interruption of electrical insulation. • 3D numerical simulations. - Abstract: In liquid metal blankets the interaction of the moving breeder with the intense magnetic field that confines the fusion plasma results in significant modifications of the velocity distribution and increased pressure drop compared to hydrodynamic flows. Those changes are due to the occurrence of electromagnetic forces that slow down the core flow and which are balanced by large driving pressure heads. The resulting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure losses are proportional to the electric current density induced in the fluid and they can be reduced by electrically decoupling the wall from the liquid metal. For applications to dual coolant blankets it is foreseen to loosely insert electrically insulating liners into the ducts. In long channels the insulation could consist of a number of shorter inserts, which implies a possible local interruption of the insulation. Three dimensional numerical simulations have been performed to investigate MHD flows in electrically well-conducting channels with internal discontinuous insulating inserts. The local jump in the electric conductivity of the duct wall results in induced 3D electric currents and related electromagnetic forces yielding additional pressure losses and increased velocity in boundary layers parallel to the magnetic field.
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics simulation using high-order finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plimpton, Steven James; Schnack, D.D.; Tarditi, A.; Chu, M.S.; Gianakon, T.A.; Kruger, S.E.; Nebel, R.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Sovinec, C.R.; Glasser, A.H.
2005-01-01
A conforming representation composed of 2D finite elements and finite Fourier series is applied to 3D nonlinear non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics using a semi-implicit time-advance. The self-adjoint semi-implicit operator and variational approach to spatial discretization are synergistic and enable simulation in the extremely stiff conditions found in high temperature plasmas without sacrificing the geometric flexibility needed for modeling laboratory experiments. Growth rates for resistive tearing modes with experimentally relevant Lundquist number are computed accurately with time-steps that are large with respect to the global Alfven time and moderate spatial resolution when the finite elements have basis functions of polynomial degree (p) two or larger. An error diffusion method controls the generation of magnetic divergence error. Convergence studies show that this approach is effective for continuous basis functions with p (ge) 2, where the number of test functions for the divergence control terms is less than the number of degrees of freedom in the expansion for vector fields. Anisotropic thermal conduction at realistic ratios of parallel to perpendicular conductivity (x(parallel)/x(perpendicular)) is computed accurately with p (ge) 3 without mesh alignment. A simulation of tearing-mode evolution for a shaped toroidal tokamak equilibrium demonstrates the effectiveness of the algorithm in nonlinear conditions, and its results are used to verify the accuracy of the numerical anisotropic thermal conduction in 3D magnetic topologies.
Bicheng, LI; Zhonghe, JIANG; Jian, LV; Xiang, LI; Bo, RAO; Yonghua, DING
2018-05-01
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of an equilibrium on the J-TEXT tokamak with applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are performed with NIMROD (non-ideal MHD with rotation, open discussion). Numerical simulation of plasma response to RMPs has been developed to investigate magnetic topology, plasma density and rotation profile. The results indicate that the pure applied RMPs can stimulate 2/1 mode as well as 3/1 mode by the toroidal mode coupling, and finally change density profile by particle transport. At the same time, plasma rotation plays an important role during the entire evolution process.
Stability of plasma cylinder with current in a helical plasma flow
Leonovich, Anatoly S.; Kozlov, Daniil A.; Zong, Qiugang
2018-04-01
Stability of a plasma cylinder with a current wrapped by a helical plasma flow is studied. Unstable surface modes of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations develop at the boundary of the cylinder enwrapped by the plasma flow. Unstable eigenmodes can also develop for which the plasma cylinder is a waveguide. The growth rate of the surface modes is much higher than that for the eigenmodes. It is shown that the asymmetric MHD modes in the plasma cylinder are stable if the velocity of the plasma flow is below a certain threshold. Such a plasma flow velocity threshold is absent for the symmetric modes. They are unstable in any arbitrarily slow plasma flows. For all surface modes there is an upper threshold for the flow velocity above which they are stable. The helicity index of the flow around the plasma cylinder significantly affects both the Mach number dependence of the surface wave growth rate and the velocity threshold values. The higher the index, the lower the upper threshold of the velocity jump above which the surface waves become stable. Calculations have been carried out for the growth rates of unstable oscillations in an equilibrium plasma cylinder with current serving as a model of the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) of the Earth's magnetic tail. A tangential discontinuity model is used to simulate the geomagnetic tail boundary. It is shown that the magnetopause in the geotail LLBL is unstable to a surface wave (having the highest growth rate) in low- and medium-speed solar wind flows, but becomes stable to this wave in high-speed flows. However, it can remain weakly unstable to the radiative modes of MHD oscillations.
Degenerate mixing of plasma waves on cold, magnetized single-species plasmas
Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Gould, R. W.
2011-10-01
In the cold-fluid dispersion relation ω =ωp/[1+(k⊥/kz)2]1/2 for Trivelpiece-Gould waves on an infinitely long magnetized plasma cylinder, the transverse and axial wavenumbers appear only in the combination k⊥/kz. As a result, for any frequency ω plasma column, these degenerate waves reflect into one another at the ends; thus, each standing-wave normal mode of the bounded plasma is a mixture of many degenerate waves, not a single standing wave as is often assumed. A striking feature of the many-wave modes is that the short-wavelength waves often add constructively along resonance cones given by dz /dr=±(ωp2/ω2-1)1/2. Also, the presence of short wavelengths in the admixture for a predominantly long-wavelength mode enhances the viscous damping beyond what the single-wave approximation would predict. Here, numerical solutions are obtained for modes of a cylindrical plasma column with rounded ends. Exploiting the fact that the modes of a spheroidal plasma are known analytically (the Dubin modes), a perturbation analysis is used to investigate the mixing of low-order, nearly degenerate Dubin modes caused by small deformations of a plasma spheroid.
Spectral calculations in magnetohydrodynamics using the Jacobi-Davidson method
Belien, A. J. C.; van der Holst, B.; Nool, M.; van der Ploeg, A.; Goedbloed, J. P.
2001-01-01
For the solution of the generalized complex non-Hermitian eigenvalue problems Ax = lambda Bx occurring in the spectral study of linearized resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) a new parallel solver based on the recently developed Jacobi-Davidson [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 17 (1996) 401] method has
A data parallel pseudo-spectral semi-implicit magnetohydrodynamics code
Keppens, R.; Poedts, S.; Meijer, P. M.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Hertzberger, B.; Sloot, P.
1997-01-01
The set of eight nonlinear partial differential equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used for time dependent simulations of three-dimensional (3D) fluid flow in a magnetic field. A data parallel code is presented, which integrates the MHD equations in cylindrical geometry, combining a
Viscous fingering with permeability heterogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, C.; Homsy, G.M.
1992-01-01
Viscous fingering in miscible displacements in the presence of permeability heterogeneities is studied using two-dimensional simulations. The heterogeneities are modeled as stationary random functions of space with finite correlation scale. Both the variance and scale of the heterogeneities are varied over modest ranges. It is found that the fingered zone grows linearly in time in a fashion analogous to that found in homogeneous media by Tan and Homsy [Phys. Fluids 31, 1330 (1988)], indicating a close coupling between viscous fingering on the one hand and flow through preferentially more permeable paths on the other. The growth rate of the mixing zone increases monotonically with the variance of the heterogeneity, as expected, but shows a maximum as the correlation scale is varied. The latter is explained as a ''resonance'' between the natural scale of fingers in homogeneous media and the correlation scale
Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamak plasmas with poloidal mode coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shigueoka, H.; Sakanaka, P.H.
1987-01-01
The stability behavior with respect to internal modes is examined for a class of tokamak equilibria with non-circular cross sections. The surfaces of the constant poloidal magnetic flux ψ (R,Z) are obtained numerically by solving the Grad-Shafranov's equation with a specified shape for the outmost plasma surface. The equation of motion for ideal MHD stability is written in a ortogonal coordinate system (ψ, χ, φ). Th e stability analysis is performance numerically in a truncated set of coupled m (poloidal wave number) equations. The calculations involve no approximations, and so all parameters of the equilibrium solution can be arbitrarily varied. (author) [pt
Hamiltonian closures in fluid models for plasmas
Tassi, Emanuele
2017-11-01
This article reviews recent activity on the Hamiltonian formulation of fluid models for plasmas in the non-dissipative limit, with emphasis on the relations between the fluid closures adopted for the different models and the Hamiltonian structures. The review focuses on results obtained during the last decade, but a few classical results are also described, in order to illustrate connections with the most recent developments. With the hope of making the review accessible not only to specialists in the field, an introduction to the mathematical tools applied in the Hamiltonian formalism for continuum models is provided. Subsequently, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of models based on the magnetohydrodynamics description, including those based on the adiabatic and double adiabatic closure. It is shown how Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems can be applied to impose the incompressibility closure on a magnetohydrodynamic model and how an extended version of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics, accounting for two-fluid effects, is amenable to a Hamiltonian formulation. Hamiltonian reduced fluid models, valid in the presence of a strong magnetic field, are also reviewed. In particular, reduced magnetohydrodynamics and models assuming cold ions and different closures for the electron fluid are discussed. Hamiltonian models relaxing the cold-ion assumption are then introduced. These include models where finite Larmor radius effects are added by means of the gyromap technique, and gyrofluid models. Numerical simulations of Hamiltonian reduced fluid models investigating the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection are illustrated. The last part of the review concerns recent results based on the derivation of closures preserving a Hamiltonian structure, based on the Hamiltonian structure of parent kinetic models. Identification of such closures for fluid models derived from kinetic systems based on the Vlasov and drift-kinetic equations are presented, and
Magnetohydrodynamic cosmologies with a Bertotti-Robinson limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portugal, R.; Soares, I.D.
1986-01-01
A class of cosmological solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations, which have the Bertotti-Robinson model as an asymptotic configuration is presented. The novel feature of the models is the presence of a conductivity current in Maxwell equations characterizing a regime of magnetohydrodynamics. Exact analytical solutions are exhibited and the solutions may be used as the interior model for the collapse of a self-gravitating bounded fluid with electric conductivity. (Author) [pt
Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Azeem
2016-01-01
The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r_i. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number
Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Khan, T. M. Yunus, E-mail: yunus.tatagar@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, BVB College of Engineering & Technology, Hubli (India); Azeem [Dept. of Computer System & Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2016-06-21
The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r{sub i}. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number.
The Energy Balance of Plasma in a Coaxial Plasma Opening Switch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xiang; Wang Younian
2006-01-01
The two-dimensional energy balance in a coaxial plasma opening switch (POS) is studied based on the single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations coupled with the generalized Ohm's law. The energy transfers between the plasma and the magnetic field are considered during the penetration of the magnetic field as the Ohmic heating is included in the energy-balance equation. The focus is on the energy partition between the magnetic-field energy and the dissipated magnetic-field energy in a high-density POS with different rise-in-time electric currents at the generator boundary. The simulation code is tested in two cases: the constant-in-time current case and the linear rise-in-time current case. For the sinusoidally rise-in-time current similar to that of the experiments, it is shown that at the end of the conduction phase the dissipated magnetic-field energy is 36.5% of the input electromagnetic energy, which is consistent with the experimental results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiokawa, Hotaka; Dolence, Joshua C.; Gammie, Charles F.; Noble, Scott C.
2012-01-01
Global, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of non-radiative, magnetized disks are widely used to model accreting black holes. We have performed a convergence study of GRMHD models computed with HARM3D. The models span a factor of four in linear resolution, from 96 × 96 × 64 to 384 × 384 × 256. We consider three diagnostics of convergence: (1) dimensionless shell-averaged quantities such as plasma β; (2) the azimuthal correlation length of fluid variables; and (3) synthetic spectra of the source including synchrotron emission, absorption, and Compton scattering. Shell-averaged temperature is, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution; shell-averaged plasma β decreases steadily with resolution but shows signs of convergence. The azimuthal correlation lengths of density, internal energy, and temperature decrease steadily with resolution but show signs of convergence. In contrast, the azimuthal correlation length of magnetic field decreases nearly linearly with grid size. We argue by analogy with local models, however, that convergence should be achieved with another factor of two in resolution. Synthetic spectra are, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution. The convergence behavior is consistent with that of higher physical resolution local model ( s hearing box ) calculations and with the recent non-relativistic global convergence studies of Hawley et al.
MHD equilibrium of heliotron J plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Kondo, Katsumi; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Hayashi, Takaya
2004-01-01
MHD equilibria of Heliotron J plasma are investigated by using HINT code. By assuming some profiles of the current density, effects of the net toroidal currents on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium are investigated. If the rotational transform can be controlled by the currents, the generation of good flux surfaces is expected. In order to study equilibria with self-consistent bootstrap current, the boozer coordinates are constructed by converged HINT equilibrium as a preliminary study. Obtained spectra are compared with ones of VMEC code and both results are consistent. (author)
Spectroscopic investigation of species separation in opening switch plasmas
Jackson, S. L.; Phipps, D. G.; Richardson, A. S.; Commisso, R. J.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Murphy, D. P.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Boyer, C. N.; Doron, R.; Biswas, S.; Maron, Y.
2015-11-01
Interactions between magnetic fields and current-carrying plasmas that lead to the separation of plasma species in multi-species plasmas are being studied in a plasma opening switch geometry. Several Marshall guns are used to inject single or multi-species plasmas between coaxial conductors connected to the output of the Naval Research Laboratory's Hawk pulsed-power generator. Following injection of the plasma, the generator is used at roughly half power to apply an electrical pulse with a peak current of 450 kA, a peak voltage of 400 kV, and a rise time of 1.2 μs. The resulting magnetic field interacts with the plasma through a combination of field penetration and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pushing that is not well understood but can lead to the separation of plasma species in multi-species plasmas. An ICCD-coupled spectrometer has been used in combination with magnetic probes, a ribbon-beam interferometer, and particle-in-cell (PIC) modeling to diagnose and understand conditions in the plasma from the time it is injected until the end of the conduction phase of the opening switch. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program and the Office of Naval Research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiraishi, J.; Aiba, N.; Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.
2014-01-01
Toroidal rotation effects are self-consistently taken into account not only in the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis but also in the equilibrium calculation. The MHD equilibrium computation is affected by centrifugal force due to the toroidal rotation. To study the toroidal rotation effects on resistive wall modes (RWMs), a new code has been developed. The RWMaC modules, which solve the electromagnetic dynamics in vacuum and the resistive wall, have been implemented in the MINERVA code, which solves the Frieman–Rotenberg equation that describes the linear ideal MHD dynamics in a rotating plasma. It is shown that modification of MHD equilibrium by the centrifugal force significantly reduces growth rates of RWMs with fast rotation in the order of M 2 = 0.1 where M is the Mach number. Moreover, it can open a stable window which does not exist under the assumption that the rotation affects only the linear dynamics. The rotation modifies the equilibrium pressure gradient and current density profiles, which results in the change of potential energy including rotational effects. (paper)
A general comparison between tokamak and stellarator plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuhong Xu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper generally compares the essential features between tokamaks and stellarators, based on previous review work individually made by authors on several specific topics, such as theories, bulk plasma transport and edge divertor physics, along with some recent results. It aims at summarizing the main results and conclusions with regard to the advantages and disadvantages in these two types of magnetic fusion devices. The comparison includes basic magnetic configurations, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD instabilities, operational limits and disruptions, neoclassical and turbulent transport, confinement scaling and isotopic effects, plasma rotation, and edge and divertor physics. Finally, a concept of quasi-symmetric stellarators is briefly referred along with a comparison of future application for fusion reactors.
Bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid model and its asymptotic behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nair, K.R.; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)
2016-10-15
In this paper we consider a flat FLRW universe with bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid as the cosmic component. Considering the bulk viscosity as characterized by a constant bulk viscous coefficient, we analyze the evolution of the Hubble parameter. Type Ia Supernovae data is used for constraining the model and for extracting the constant bulk viscous parameter and present the Hubble parameter. We also present the analysis of the scale factor, equation of state, and deceleration parameter. The model predicts the later time acceleration and is also compatible with the age of the universe as given by the oldest globular clusters. Study of the phase-space behavior of the model shows that a universe dominated by bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid is stable. But the inclusion of a radiation component in addition to the Zel'dovich fluid makes the model unstable. Hence, even though the bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid dominated universe is a feasible one, the model as such fails to predict a prior radiation dominated phase. (orig.)
Viscous dipping, application to the capture of fluids in living organisms
Lechantre, Amandine; Michez, Denis; Damman, Pascal
Some insects, birds and mammals use flower nectar as their energy resources. For this purpose, they developed specific skills to ingest viscous fluids. Depending on the sugar content, i.e., the viscosity, different strategies are observed in vivo. Indeed, butterflies use simple suction for low viscosity nectars; hummingbirds have a tongue made from two thin flexible sheets that bend to form a tube when immersed in a fluid; other animals exhibit in contrast complex papillary structures. We focus on this last method generally used for very viscous nectars. More specifically, bees and bats possess a tongue decorated with microstructures that, according to biologists, would be optimized for fluid capture by viscous dipping. In this talk, we will discuss this assumption by comparing physical models of viscous dipping to in vivo measurements. To mimic the tongue morphology, we used various rod shapes obtained by 3D printing. The influence of the type and size of lateral microstructures was then investigated and used to build a global framework describing viscous dipping for structured rods/tongues.
Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-09-15
The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.
Feedback stabilization of the axisymmetric instability of a deformable tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomphrey, N.; Jardin, S.C.; Ward, D.J.
1989-01-01
The paper presents an analysis of the magnetohydrodynamic stability of the axisymmetric system consisting of a free boundary tokamak plasma with non-circular cross-section, finite resistivity passive conductors, and an active feedback system with magnetic flux pickup loops, a proportional amplifier with gain G and current carrying poloidal field coils. A numerical simulation of the system when G is set to zero identifies flux loop locations which correctly sense the plasma motion. However, when certain of these locations are incorporated into an active feedback scheme, the plasma fails to be stabilized, no matter what value of the gain is chosen. Analysis on the basis of an extended energy principle indicates that this failure is due to the deformability of the plasma cross-section. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.B. Naduvinamani
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The effect of couple stresses on static and dynamic characteristics of exponential slider bearing in the presence of magnetic field considering squeeze action is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The modified magnetohydrodynamic couple stress Reynolds type equation is derived on the basis of Stokes couple stress model and closed form expressions are obtained for static and dynamic character coefficients. Comparing with bearing lubricated with non-conducting Newtonian lubricants, the magnetohydrodynamic couple stress lubrication provides the higher steady load carrying capacity, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient. The exponential bearing shows higher efficiency for small film thickness at higher value of couple stress parameter and Hartmann number.
Stokes’ and Lamb's viscous drag laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eames, I; Klettner, C A
2017-01-01
Since Galileo used his pulse to measure the time period of a swinging chandelier in the 17th century, pendulums have fascinated scientists. It was not until Stokes' (1851 Camb. Phil. Soc. 9 8–106) (whose interest was spurred by the pendulur time pieces of the mid 19th century) treatise on viscous flow that a theoretical framework for the drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number was laid down. Stokes' famous drag law has been used to determine two fundamental physical constants—the charge on an electron and Avogadro's constant—and has been used in theories which have won three Nobel prizes. Considering its illustrious history it is then not surprising that the flow past a sphere and its two-dimensional analog, the flow past a cylinder, form the starting point of teaching flow past a rigid body in undergraduate level fluid mechanics courses. Usually starting with the two-dimensional potential flow past a cylinder, students progress to the three-dimensional potential flow past a sphere. However, when the viscous flow past rigid bodies is taught, the three-dimensional example of a sphere is first introduced, and followed by (but not often), the two-dimensional viscous flow past a cylinder. The reason why viscous flow past a cylinder is generally not taught is because it is usually explained from an asymptotic analysis perspective. In fact, this added mathematical complexity is why the drag on a cylinder was only solved in 1911, 60 years after the drag on a sphere. In this note, we show that the viscous flow past a cylinder can be explained without the need to introduce any asymptotic analysis while still capturing all the physical insight of this classic fluid mechanics problem. (paper)
Generalized Hamiltonians, functional integration and statistics of continuous fluids and plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tasso, H.
1985-05-01
Generalized Hamiltonian formalism including generalized Poisson brackets and Lie-Poisson brackets is presented in Section II. Gyroviscous magnetohydrodynamics is treated as a relevant example in Euler and Clebsch variables. Section III is devoted to a short review of functional integration containing the definition and a discussion of ambiguities and methods of evaluation. The main part of the contribution is given in Section IV, where some of the content of the previous sections is applied to Gibbs statistics of continuous fluids and plasmas. In particular, exact fluctuation spectra are calculated for relevant equations in fluids and plasmas. (orig.)
A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Z; Fries, R J
2017-01-01
Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small. (paper)
A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections
Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.
2017-04-01
Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stahara, S.S.
1986-05-01
This is the final summary report by Resource Management Associates, Inc., of the first year's work under Contract No. NASW-4011 to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work under this initial phase of the contract relates to the preliminary development of a global, 3-D magnetohydrodynamic computational model to quantitatively describe the detailed continuum field and plasma interaction process of the solar wind with cometary and planetary bodies throughout the solar system. The work extends a highly-successful, observationally-verified computational model previously developed by the author, and is appropriate for the global determination of supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flows past planetary obstacles. This report provides a concise description of the problems studied, a summary of all the important research results, and copies of the publications
Three-dimensional attached viscous flow basic principles and theoretical foundations
Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm
2014-01-01
Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases. This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice. The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...
On compressible and piezo-viscous flow in thin porous media.
Pérez-Ràfols, F; Wall, P; Almqvist, A
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study flow through thin porous media as in, e.g. seals or fractures. It is often useful to know the permeability of such systems. In the context of incompressible and iso-viscous fluids, the permeability is the constant of proportionality relating the total flow through the media to the pressure drop. In this work, we show that it is also relevant to define a constant permeability when compressible and/or piezo-viscous fluids are considered. More precisely, we show that the corresponding nonlinear equation describing the flow of any compressible and piezo-viscous fluid can be transformed into a single linear equation. Indeed, this linear equation is the same as the one describing the flow of an incompressible and iso-viscous fluid. By this transformation, the total flow can be expressed as the product of the permeability and a nonlinear function of pressure, which represents a generalized pressure drop.
Constraints on the evolution of black hole spin due to magnetohydrodynamic accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Masaaki; Tomimatsu, Akira
2008-01-01
Stationary and axisymmetric ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion onto a black hole is studied analytically. The accreting plasma ejected from a plasma source with low velocity must be superfast magnetosonic before passing through the event horizon. We work out and apply a trans-fast magnetosonic solution without detailed analysis of the regularity conditions at the magnetosonic point, by introducing the bending angle β of the magnetic field line, which is the ratio of the toroidal and poloidal components of the magnetic field. To accrete onto a black hole, the trans-magnetosonic solution has some restrictions on β, which are related to the field-aligned parameters of the MHD flows. One of the restrictions gives the boundary condition at the event horizon for the inclination of a magnetic field line. We find that this inclination is related to the energy and angular momentum transport to the black hole. Then, we discuss the spin-up/down process of a rotating black hole by cold MHD inflows in a secular evolution time scale. There are two asymptotic states for the spin evolution. One is that the angular velocity of the black hole approaches to that of the magnetic field line, and the other is that the spin-up effect by the positive angular momentum influx and the spin-down effect by the energy influx (as the mass-energy influx) are canceled. We also show that the MHD inflows prevents the evolution to the maximally rotating black hole.
Wall stabilization of high beta plasmas in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, T.S.; Strait, E.J.; Lao, L.L.; Turnbull, A.D.; Burrell, K.H.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Mauel, M.
1995-02-01
Detailed analysis of recent high beta discharges in the DIII-D tokamak demonstrates that the resistive vacuum vessel can provide stabilization of low n magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. The experimental beta values reaching up to β T = 12.6% are more than 30% larger than the maximum stable beta calculated with no wall stabilization. Plasma rotation is essential for stabilization. When the plasma rotation slows sufficiently, unstable modes with the characteristics of the predicted open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes mode are observed. Through slowing of the plasma rotation between the q = 2 and q = 3 surfaces with the application of a non-axisymmetric field, the authors have determined that the rotation at the outer rational surfaces is most important, and that the critical rotation frequency is of the order of Ω/2π = 1 kHz
Nambu brackets in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salazar, Roberto; Kurgansky, Michael V
2010-01-01
Concrete examples of the construction of Nambu brackets for equations of motion (both 3D and 2D) of Boussinesq stratified fluids and also for magnetohydrodynamical equations are given. It serves a generalization of Hamiltonian formulation for the considered equations of motion. Two alternative Nambu formulations are proposed, first by using fluid dynamical (kinetic) helicity and/or enstrophy as constitutive elements and second, by using the existing conservation laws of the governing equation.
Hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids under seismic excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, D.C.
1993-01-01
Hydrodynamic response of liquid-tank systems, such as reactor vessels, spent-fuel pools and liquid storage tanks have been studied extensively in the last decade (Chang et al. 1988; Ma et al. 1991). However, most of the studies are conducted with the assumption of an inviscid fluid. In recent years, the hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids has received increasing attention in high level waste storage tanks containing viscous waste material. This paper presents a numerical study on the hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids in a large 2-D fluid-tank system under seismic excitation. Hydrodynamic responses (i.e. sloshing wave height, fluid pressures, shear stress, etc.) are calculated for a fluid with various viscosities. Four fluid viscosities are considered. They are 1 cp, 120 cp, 1,000 cp and 12,000 cp (1 cp = 1.45 x 10 -7 lb-sec/in 2 ). Note that the liquid sodium of the Liquid-Metal Reactor (LMR) reactor has a viscosity of 1.38 x 10 -5 lb-sec/in 2 (about 95 cp) at an operational temperature of 900 degree F. Section 2 describes the pertinent features of the mathematical model. In Section 3, the fundamental sloshing phenomena of viscous fluid are examined. Sloshing wave height and shear stress for fluid with different viscosities are compared. The conclusions are given in Section 4
Physics options in the plasma code VOA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eltgroth, P.G.
1976-06-01
A two dimensional relativistic plasma physics code has been modified to accomodate general electromagnetic boundary conditions and various approximations of basic physics. The code can treat internal conductors and insulators, imposed electromagnetic fields, the effects of external circuitry and non-equilibrium starting conditions. Particle dynamics options include a full microscopic treatment, fully relaxed electrons, a low frequency electron approximation and a combination of approximations for specified zones. Electromagnetic options include the full wave treatment, an electrostatic approximation and two varieties of magnetohydrodynamic approximations in specified zones
Numerical simulation of energy equation with viscous dissipation for compressible flow over cones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asif, M.; Chughtai, I.R.
1998-01-01
A finite volume discretization technique has been used to solve the energy equation with viscous dissipation. The effects of viscous heat dissipation for Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0, at an angle of attack of 0 degree, over sharp and blunt cones have been studied. Algebraic equations have been solved using line-by-line Tda method. Supersonic flow over cones has been analyzed and discussed with and without considering the viscous dissipation effects. It has been found that the effects of viscous dissipation increase with the increase in Mach number. Viscous dissipation affects the temperature distribution of the body. However, the temperature difference in these cases was insignificant. This may be due to the fact that these analysis have been done at 0 km altitude. (author)
Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoshino, Katsumichi
1990-01-01
Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is one of the intense methods of plasma heating, and which utilizes the collisionless electron-cyclotron-resonance-interaction between the launched electromagnetic waves (called electron cyclotron waves) and electrons which are one of the constituents of the high temperature plasmas. Another constituent, namely the ions which are subject to nuclear fusion, are heated indirectly but strongly and instantly (in about 0.1 s) by the collisions with the ECH-heated electrons in the fusion plasmas. The recent progress on the development of high-power and high-frequency millimeter-wave-source enabled the ECH experiments in the middle size tokamaks such as JFT-2M (Japan), Doublet III (USA), T-10 (USSR) etc., and ECH has been demonstrated to be the sure and intense plasma heating method. The ECH attracts much attention for its remarkable capabilities; to produce plasmas (pre-ionization), to heat plasmas, to drive plasma current for the plasma confinement, and recently especially by the localization and the spatial controllability of its heating zone, which is beneficial for the fine controls of the profiles of plasma parameters (temperature, current density etc.), for the control of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, or for the optimization/improvement of the plasma confinement characteristics. Here, the present status of the ECH studies on tokamak plasmas are reviewed. (author)
Horizontally viscous effects in a tidal basin: extending Taylor's problem
Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.
2009-01-01
The classical problem of Taylor (Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., vol. 20, 1921, pp. 148–181) of Kelvin wave reflection in a semi-enclosed rectangular basin of uniform depth is extended to account for horizontally viscous effects. To this end, we add horizontally viscous terms to the hydrodynamic model
Influence of viscous dissipation and radiation on MHD Couette flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The overall analysis of the study of these parameters in various degrees show an increase in the velocity profile of the fluid, while radiation parameter decreases the temperature profile; viscous dissipation and Reynolds number increase the temperature profile of the fluid. Key word: Couette flow, viscous dissipation, ...
Magnetohydrodynamic helical structures in nominally axisymmetric low-shear tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graves, J P; Brunetti, D; Cooper, W A; Reimerdes, H; Halpern, F; Pochelon, A; Sauter, O; Chapman, I T
2013-01-01
The primary goal of hybrid scenarios in tokamaks is to enable high performance operation with large plasma currents whilst avoiding MHD instabilities. However, if a local minimum in the safety factor is allowed to approach unity, the energy required to overcome stabilizing magnetic field line bending is very small, and as a consequence, large MHD structures can be created, with typically dominant m = n = 1 helical component. If there is no exact q = 1 rational surface the essential character of these modes can be modelled assuming ideal nested magnetic flux surfaces. The methods used to characterize these structures include linear and non-linear ideal MHD stability calculations which evaluate the departure from an axisymmetric plasma state, and also equilibrium calculations using a 3D equilibrium code. While these approaches agree favourably for simulations of ITER relevant hybrid regimes in this paper, the relevance of the ideal MHD model itself is tested through empirical examination of helical states in MAST and TCV. While long lived modes in MAST do not have island structures, some of the continuous mode oscillations exhibited in high elongation experiments in TCV indicate that resistivity may play a role in further weakening the ability of the tokamak core to remain axisymmetric. The simulations and experiments consistently highlight the need to control the safety factor in hybrid scenarios planned for future fusion grade tokamaks such as ITER. (paper)
Notes on the eigensystem of magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roe, P.L.; Balsara, D.S.
1996-01-01
The eigenstructure of the equations governing one-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics is examined, motivated by the wish to exploit it for construction of high-resolution computational algorithms. The results are given in simple forms that avoid indeterminacy or degeneracy whenever possible. The unavoidable indeterminacy near the magnetosonic (or triple umbilic) state is analyzed and shown to cause no difficulty in evaluating a numerical flux function. The structure of wave paths close to this singularity is obtained, and simple expressions are presented for the structure coefficients that govern wave steepening
Scale-lengths and instabilities in magnetized classical and relativistic plasma fluid models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diver, D A; Laing, E W
2015-01-01
The validity of the traditional plasma continuum is predicated on a hierarchy of scale-lengths, with the Debye length being considered to be effectively unresolvable in the continuum limit. In this article, we revisit the strong magnetic field case in which the Larmor radius is comparable or smaller than the Debye length in the classical plasma, and also for a relativistic plasma. Fresh insight into the validity of the continuum assumption in each case is offered, including a fluid limit on the Alfvén speed that may impose restrictions on the validity of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in some solar and fusion contexts. Additional implications concerning the role of the firehose instability are also explored. (paper)
Lagrangian analysis of nonlinear wave-wave interactions in bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, A.R.
1979-01-01
In a weakly turbulent nonlinear wave-supporting medium, one of the important nonlinear processes which may occur is resonant three-wave interaction. Whitham's averaged Lagrangian method provides a general formulation of wave evolution laws which is easily adapted to nonlinear dispersive media. In this thesis, the strength of nonlinear interactions between three coherent, axisymmetric, low frequency, magnetohydrodynamic (Alfven) waves propagating in resonance along a cold cylindrical magnetized plasma column is calculated. Both a uniform and a parabolic density distribution have been considered. To account for a non-zero plasma temperature, pressure effects have been included. Distinctive features of the work are the use of cylindrical geometry, the presence of a finite rather than an infinite axial magnetic field, the treatment of a parabolic density distribution, and the inclusion of both ion and electron contributions in all expressions. Two astrophysical applications of the presented theory have been considered. In the first, the possibility of resonant three-wave coupling between geomagnetic micropulsations, which propagate as Alfven or magnetosonic waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines, has been investigated. The second case is the theory of energy transport through the solar chromosphere by upward propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves, which may then couple to heavily damped waves in the corona, causing the observed excess heating in that region
Diffusion on Viscous Fluids, Existence and Asymptotic Properties of Solutions,
1983-09-01
Matematica - Politecuico di Milano (1982). 11.* P. Secchi "On the Initial Value ProbleM for the Nquations of Notion of Viscous Incompressible Fluids In...of two viscous Incompressible Fluids’, preprint DepartLmento dl matematica - Politecuico di Milano (1982). -15- 11. P. Secchi 00n the XnitiaI Value
Radial magnetic compression in the expelled jet of a plasma deflagration accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loebner, Keith T. K.; Underwood, Thomas C.; Mouratidis, Theodore; Cappelli, Mark A.
2016-01-01
A spectroscopic study of a pulsed plasma deflagration accelerator is carried out that confirms the existence of a strong compression in the emerging jet at the exit plane of the device. An imaging spectrometer is used to collect broadened Hα emission from a transaxial slice of the emerging jet at high spatial resolution, and the radial plasma density profile is computed from Voigt fits of the Abel inverted emissivity profiles. The plasma temperature, determined via Doppler broadening of impurity line emission, is compared against the temperature predictions of a radial magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model applied to the measured density profiles. Empirical scaling laws developed for the plasma density, combined with the measured and predicted temperatures, indicate that a radially equilibrated Z-pinch is formed within the expelled plasma jet at the exit plane during the deflagration process.
Taitano, W. T.; Simakov, A. N.; Chacón, L.; Keenan, B.
2018-05-01
Anomalous thermonuclear yield degradation (i.e., that not describable by single-fluid radiation hydrodynamics) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions is ubiquitously observed in both Omega and National Ignition experiments. Multiple experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the origin of such a degradation. Relative concentration changes of fuel-ion species, as well as kinetically enhanced viscous heating, have been among possible explanations proposed for certain classes of ICF experiments. In this study, we investigate the role of such kinetic plasma effects in detail. To this end, we use the iFP code to perform multi-species ion Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of ICF capsule implosions with the fuel comprising various hydrodynamically equivalent mixtures of deuterium (D) and helium-3 (3He), as in the original Rygg experiments [J. R. Rygg et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. We employ the same computational setup as in O. Larroche [Phys. Plasmas 19, 122706 (2012)], which was the first to simulate the experiments kinetically. However, unlike the Larroche study, and in partial agreement with experimental data, we find a systematic yield degradation in multi-species simulations versus averaged-ion simulations when the D-fuel fraction is decreased. This yield degradation originates in the fuel-ion species stratification induced by plasma shocks, which imprints the imploding system and results in the relocation of the D ions from the core of the capsule to its periphery, thereby reducing the yield relative to a non-separable averaged-ion case. By comparing yields from the averaged-ion kinetic simulations and from the hydrodynamic scaling, we also observe yield variations associated with ion kinetic effects other than fuel-ion stratification, such as ion viscous heating, which is typically neglected in hydrodynamic implosions' simulations. Since our kinetic simulations are driven by hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the
The transverse field Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics
Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi; Pullin, D. I.; Gehre, R. M.
2014-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for the case where the initial magnetic field is unperturbed and aligned with the mean interface location. For this initial condition, the magnetic field lines penetrate the perturbed density interface, forbidding a tangential velocity jump and therefore the presence of a vortex sheet. Through simulation, we find that the vorticity distribution present on the interface immediately after the shock acceleration breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, which transport the vorticity. The interference of these waves as they propagate causes the perturbation amplitude of the interface to oscillate in time. This interface behavior is accurately predicted over a broad range of parameters by an incompressible linearized model derived presently by solving the corresponding impulse driven, linearized initial value problem. Our use of an equilibrium initial condition results in interface motion produced solely by the impulsive acceleration. Nonlinear compressible simulations are used to investigate the behavior of the transverse field magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, and the performance of the incompressible model, over a range of shock strengths, magnetic field strengths, perturbation amplitudes and Atwood numbers.
The transverse field Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics
Wheatley, V.
2014-01-10
The magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for the case where the initial magnetic field is unperturbed and aligned with the mean interface location. For this initial condition, the magnetic field lines penetrate the perturbed density interface, forbidding a tangential velocity jump and therefore the presence of a vortex sheet. Through simulation, we find that the vorticity distribution present on the interface immediately after the shock acceleration breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, which transport the vorticity. The interference of these waves as they propagate causes the perturbation amplitude of the interface to oscillate in time. This interface behavior is accurately predicted over a broad range of parameters by an incompressible linearized model derived presently by solving the corresponding impulse driven, linearized initial value problem. Our use of an equilibrium initial condition results in interface motion produced solely by the impulsive acceleration. Nonlinear compressible simulations are used to investigate the behavior of the transverse field magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, and the performance of the incompressible model, over a range of shock strengths, magnetic field strengths, perturbation amplitudes and Atwood numbers.
Phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez Guerrero, Mauricio
2010-01-01
In this work we investigate phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma. In the first part of this thesis, we formulate phenomenologicalmodels that take into account the momentumspace anisotropy of the system developed during the expansion of the fireball at early-times. By including the proper-time dependence of the parton hard momentum scale, p hard (τ), and the plasma anisotropy parameter, ξ(τ), the proposed models allow us to interpolate from 0+1 pre-equilibrated expansion at early-times to 0+1 ideal hydrodynamics at late times. We study dilepton production as a valuable observable to experimentally determine the isotropization time of the system as well as the degree of anisotropy developed at early-times. We generalize our interpolating models to include the rapidity dependence of p hard and consider its impact on forward dileptons. Next, we discuss how to constrain the onset of hydrodynamics by demanding two requirements of the solutions to the equations of motion of viscous hydrodynamics. We show this explicitly for 0+1 dimensional 2nd-order conformal viscous hydrodynamics and find that the initial conditions are non-trivially constrained. Finally, we demonstrate how to match the initial conditions for 0+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics from pre-equilibrated expansion. We analyze the dependence of the entropy production on the pre-equilibrium phase and discuss limitations of the standard definitions of the non-equilibrium entropy in kinetic theory. (orig.)
Phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez Guerrero, Mauricio
2010-04-30
In this work we investigate phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma. In the first part of this thesis, we formulate phenomenologicalmodels that take into account the momentumspace anisotropy of the system developed during the expansion of the fireball at early-times. By including the proper-time dependence of the parton hard momentum scale, p{sub hard}({tau}), and the plasma anisotropy parameter, {xi}({tau}), the proposed models allow us to interpolate from 0+1 pre-equilibrated expansion at early-times to 0+1 ideal hydrodynamics at late times. We study dilepton production as a valuable observable to experimentally determine the isotropization time of the system as well as the degree of anisotropy developed at early-times. We generalize our interpolating models to include the rapidity dependence of p{sub hard} and consider its impact on forward dileptons. Next, we discuss how to constrain the onset of hydrodynamics by demanding two requirements of the solutions to the equations of motion of viscous hydrodynamics. We show this explicitly for 0+1 dimensional 2nd-order conformal viscous hydrodynamics and find that the initial conditions are non-trivially constrained. Finally, we demonstrate how to match the initial conditions for 0+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics from pre-equilibrated expansion. We analyze the dependence of the entropy production on the pre-equilibrium phase and discuss limitations of the standard definitions of the non-equilibrium entropy in kinetic theory. (orig.)
Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows
Kwak, Dochan
2011-01-01
This monograph is intended as a concise and self-contained guide to practitioners and graduate students for applying approaches in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to real-world problems that require a quantification of viscous incompressible flows. In various projects related to NASA missions, the authors have gained CFD expertise over many years by developing and utilizing tools especially related to viscous incompressible flows. They are looking at CFD from an engineering perspective, which is especially useful when working on real-world applications. From that point of view, CFD requires two major elements, namely methods/algorithm and engineering/physical modeling. As for the methods, CFD research has been performed with great successes. In terms of modeling/simulation, mission applications require a deeper understanding of CFD and flow physics, which has only been debated in technical conferences and to a limited scope. This monograph fills the gap by offering in-depth examples for students and engine...
Reduced, three-dimensional, nonlinear equations for high-β plasmas including toroidal effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmalz, R.
1980-11-01
The resistive MHD equations for toroidal plasma configurations are reduced by expanding to the second order in epsilon, the inverse aspect ratio, allowing for high β = μsub(o)p/B 2 of order epsilon. The result is a closed system of nonlinear, three-dimensional equations where the fast magnetohydrodynamic time scale is eliminated. In particular, the equation for the toroidal velocity remains decoupled. (orig.)
The role of surface currents in plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webster, Anthony J.
2011-01-01
During plasma instabilities, ''surface currents'' can flow at the interface between the plasma and the surrounding vacuum, and in most cases, they are a harmless symptom of the instability that is causing them. Large instabilities can lead to ''disruptions,'' an abrupt termination of the plasma with the potential to damage the machine in which it is contained. For disruptions, the correct calculation of surface currents is thought to be essential for modelling disruptions properly. Recently, however, there has been debate and disagreement about the correct way to calculate surface currents. The purpose of this paper is to clarify as simply as possible the role of surface currents for plasma confinement and to show that a commonly used representation for surface currents σ-vector with σ-vector=∇I and n-vector, I a scalar function, and n-vector the unit normal to the plasma surface, is only appropriate for the calculation of surface currents that are in magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium. Fortunately, this is the situation thought to be of most relevance for disruption calculations.
An empirical investigation of compressibility in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spangler, Steven R.; Spitler, Laura G.
2004-01-01
The density fluctuations which occur in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are an important diagnostic of the turbulent dynamics, and serve as the basis of astrophysical remote sensing measurements. This paper is concerned with the relation between density fluctuations and fluctuations of the magnetic field and velocity. The approach is empirical, utilizing spacecraft observations of slow solar wind turbulence. Sixty-six data intervals of 1 h duration were chosen, in which the solar wind speed was less than 450 km/s, and in which the fluctuations in density and vector magnetic field appeared to be approximately stationary. The parameters of interest were the root-mean-square fluctuations of density and magnetic field, normalized by the respective mean values, ε N ≡ 2 > 0.5 /n 0 and ε B ≡ 2 > 0.5 /B 0 , respectively, where n 0 and B 0 are the mean plasma number density and magnetic field strength. The conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) Consistent with previous investigations, the dependence of the normalized density fluctuation on the normalized magnetic field fluctuation is found to be between linear (ε N =ε B ) and quadratic (ε N =ε B 2 ). (2) The value of R≡ε N /ε B shows a wide range from 4; the median value is 0.46 and the mean is 0.72. (3) Typical normalized fluctuation amplitudes (ε N and ε B ) for records of one hour length (maximum scale size of ≅1.6x10 6 km) are 0.03-0.08 for the density, and 0.04-0.21 for the magnetic field. (4) For most intervals, the magnitude of the perpendicular (to the large scale magnetic field) magnetic field fluctuations exceeds that of the parallel fluctuations by a factor of 3-4. This indicates that the turbulent magnetic field fluctuations are primarily transverse fluctuations. The implications of these results for theories of MHD turbulence, and for the remote sensing of turbulent plasmas such as the corona, the near-Sun solar wind, and the interstellar medium, are discussed
The effect of diffusion in a new viscous continuum traffic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Lei; Li Tong; Shi Zhongke
2010-01-01
In this Letter, we propose a new continuum traffic model with a viscous term. The linear stability condition for viscous shock waves is derived. We derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation near the neutral stability line. Then we investigate the effect of the viscous term by numerical simulations. The results show that viscosity may induce oscillations and the amplitude of the oscillation increases as the viscosity coefficient increases. This agrees with the linear stability condition. The local clusters are compressed by increasing the viscosity coefficient in the cluster study.
The effect of diffusion in a new viscous continuum traffic model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu Lei, E-mail: yuleijk@126.co [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, ShaanXi (China); Li Tong [Department of Mathematics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Shi Zhongke [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, ShaanXi (China)
2010-05-10
In this Letter, we propose a new continuum traffic model with a viscous term. The linear stability condition for viscous shock waves is derived. We derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation near the neutral stability line. Then we investigate the effect of the viscous term by numerical simulations. The results show that viscosity may induce oscillations and the amplitude of the oscillation increases as the viscosity coefficient increases. This agrees with the linear stability condition. The local clusters are compressed by increasing the viscosity coefficient in the cluster study.
Effects of seed magnetic fields on magnetohydrodynamic implosion structure and dynamics
Mostert, W.
2014-12-01
The effects of various seed magnetic fields on the dynamics of cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Here, we present a fundamental investigation of this problem utilizing cylindrical and spherical Riemann problems under three seed field configurations to initialize the implosions. The resulting flows are simulated numerically, revealing rich flow structures, including multiple families of magnetohydrodynamic shocks and rarefactions that interact non-linearly. We fully characterize these flow structures, examine their axi- and spherisymmetry-breaking behaviour, and provide data on asymmetry evolution for different field strengths and driving pressures for each seed field configuration. We find that out of the configurations investigated, a seed field for which the implosion centre is a saddle point in at least one plane exhibits the least degree of asymmetry during implosion.
A fully magnetohydrodynamic simulation of three-dimensional non-null reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pontin, D.I.; Galsgaard, K.; Hornig, G.; Priest, E.R.
2005-01-01
A knowledge of the nature of fully three-dimensional magnetic reconnection is crucial in understanding a great many processes in plasmas. It has been previously shown that in the kinematic regime the evolution of magnetic flux in three-dimensional reconnection is very different from two dimensions. In this paper a numerical fully magnetohydrodynamic simulation is described, in which this evolution is investigated. The reconnection takes place in the absence of a magnetic null point, and the nonideal region is localized in the center of the domain. The effect of differently prescribed resistivities is considered. The magnetic field is stressed by shear boundary motions, and a current concentration grows within the volume. A stagnation-point flow develops, with strong outflow jets emanating from the reconnection region. The behavior of the magnetic flux matches closely that discovered in the kinematic regime. In particular, it is found that no unique field line velocity exists, and that as a result field lines change their connections continually and continuously throughout the nonideal region. In order to describe the motion of magnetic flux within the domain, it is therefore necessary to use two different field line velocities. The importance of a component of the electric field parallel to the magnetic field is also demonstrated
Magnetohydrodynamic stability of spheromak plasma in spheroidal flux conserver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, Shobu; Kamitani, Atsushi.
1985-11-01
The MHD equilibrium configurations of spheromak plasmas in a spheroidal flux conserver are determined by use of a pressure distribution whose derivative dp/dψ vanishes on the magnetic axis, and by use of an optimized distribution. Here p is the pressure and ψ is the flux function. These equilibria are shown to be stable for symmetric modes. The stability for localized modes is investigated by the Mercier criterion. The values of the maximum beta ratio β max are evaluated for both pressure distributions and are shown to become about two times larger by optimization. If the condition, q axis max are found to be less than 30 %. The oblate spheroidal flux conserver is shown to be better than the toroidal conserver with a rectangular cross section from the standpoint of stability. (author)
Numerical modeling of deflagration mode in coaxial plasma guns
Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan
2012-10-01
Pulsed coaxial plasma guns have been used in several applications in the field of space propulsion, nuclear fusion and materials processing. These devices operate in two modes based on the delay between gas injection and breakdown initiation. Larger delay led to the plasma detonation mode where a compression wave in the form of a luminous front propagates from the breech to the muzzle. Shorter delay led to the more efficient deflagration mode characterized by a relatively diffuse plasma with higher resistivity. The overall physics of the discharge in the two modes of operation and in particular the latter remain relatively unexplored. Here we perform a computational modeling study by solving the non-ideal Magneto-hydrodynamics equations for the quasi-neutral plasma in the coaxial plasma gun. A finite volume formulation on an unstructured mesh framework with an implicit scheme is used to do stable computations. The final work will present details of important species in the plasma, particle energies and Mach number at the muzzle. A comparison of the plasma parameters will be made with the experiments reported in ref. [1]. [4pt] [1] F. R. Poehlmann et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 123508 (2010)
Vanishing Shear Viscosity Limit in the Magnetohydrodynamic Equations
Fan, Jishan; Jiang, Song; Nakamura, Gen
2007-03-01
We study an initial boundary value problem for the equations of plane magnetohydrodynamic compressible flows, and prove that as the shear viscosity goes to zero, global weak solutions converge to a solution of the original equations with zero shear viscosity. As a by-product, this paper improves the related results obtained by Frid and Shelukhin for the case when the magnetic effect is neglected.
Three-dimensional viscous fingering of miscible fluids in porous media
Suekane, Tetsuya; Ono, Jei; Hyodo, Akimitsu; Nagatsu, Yuichiro
2017-10-01
Viscous fingering is a flow instability that is induced at the displacement front when a less-viscous fluid (LVF) displaces a more-viscous fluid (MVF). Because of the opaque nature of porous media, most experimental investigations of the structure of viscous fingering and its development in time have been limited to two-dimensional porous media or Hele-Shaw cells. In this study, we investigate the three-dimensional characteristics of viscous fingering in porous media using a microfocused x-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. Similar to two-dimensional experiments, characteristic events such as tip-splitting, shielding, and coalescence were observed in three-dimensional viscous fingering as well. With an increase in the Péclet number at a fixed viscosity ratio, M , the fingers appearing on the interface tend to be fine; however, the locations of the tips of the fingers remain the same for the same injected volume of the LVF. The finger extensions increase in proportion to ln M , and the number of fingers emerging at the initial interface increases with M . This fact agrees qualitatively with linear stability analyses. Within the fingers, the local concentration of NaI, which is needed for the x-ray CT scanner, linearly decreases, whereas it sharply decreases at the tips of the fingers. A locally high Péclet number as well as unsteady motions in lateral directions may enhance the dispersion at the tips of the fingers. As the viscosity ratio increases, the efficiency of each sweep monotonically decreases and reaches an asymptotic state; in addition, the degree of mixing increases with the viscosity ratio. For high flow rates, the asymptotic value of the sweep efficiency is low for high viscosity ratios, while there is no clear dependence of the asymptotic value on the Péclet number.
On spectral scaling laws for incompressible anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galtier, Sebastien; Pouquet, Annick; Mangeney, Andre
2005-01-01
A heuristic model is given for anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics turbulence in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field B 0 e parallel . The model is valid for both moderate and strong B 0 and is able to describe both the strong and weak wave turbulence regimes as well as the transition between them. The main ingredient of the model is the assumption of constant ratio at all scales between the linear wave period and the nonlinear turnover time scale. Contrary to the model of critical balance introduced by Goldreich and Sridhar [Astrophys. J. 438, 763 (1995)], it is not assumed, in addition, that this ratio be equal to unity at all scales. This allows us to make use of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan phenomenology; it is then possible to recover the widely observed anisotropic scaling law k parallel ∝k perpendicular 2/3 between parallel and perpendicular wave numbers (with reference to B 0 e parallel and to obtain for the total-energy spectrum E(k perpendicular ,k parallel )∼k perpendicular -α k parallel -β the universal prediction, 3α+2β=7. In particular, with such a prediction, the weak Alfven wave turbulence constant-flux solution is recovered and, for the first time, a possible explanation to its precursor found numerically by Galtier et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 63, 447 (2000)] is given.
Rotational friction coefficient of a permeable cylinder in a viscous fluid
Wiegel, F.W.
1979-01-01
An exact expression is derived for the rotational friction coefficient of a cylinder of infinite length and constant permeability immersed in an incompressible viscous fluid. An asymptotic expression for the translational friction coefficient of a permeable cylinder moving in a sheet of viscous
An analysis of electro-osmotic and magnetohydrodynamic heat pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, M.A.
1988-01-01
Mechanically simple methods of improving heat transport in heat pipes are investigated. These methods are electro-osmotic and magnetohydrodynamic augmentation. For the electro-osmotic case, a detailed electrokinetic model is used. The electrokinetic model used includes the effects of pore surface curvature and multiple ion diffusivities. The electrokinetic model is extended to approximate the effects of elevated temperature. When the electro-osmotic model is combined with a suitable heat-pipe model, it is found that the electro-osmotic pump should be a thin membrane. Arguments are provided that support the use of a volatile electrolyte. For the magnetohydrodynamic case, a brief investigation is provided. A quasi-one-dimensional hydromagnetic duct flow model is used. This hydromagnetic model is extended to approximate flow effects unique to heat pipes. When combined with a suitable heat pipe model, it is found that there is no performance gain for the case considered. In fact, there are serious pressure-distribution problems that have not been previously recognized. Potential solutions to these pressure-distribution problems are suggested
Results of investigation of magnetohydrodynamic flow round the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkaev, N.V.
1988-01-01
Review of the main results of the study on the Earth magnetosphere quasi-stationary magnetohydrodynamic flow-around by the solar wind is given. The principle attenuation is paid to the problem of magnetic and electric fields calculation in the transition layer and at the magnetosphere boundary. Analysis of kinematic approximation and linear diffusion model is conducted. Existence condition for the magnetic barrier region, where kinematic approximation is inapplicable, is determined. Main properties of the solution - gasokinetic pressure decrease and magnetic pressure increase up to maximum at the numerical integration results of magnetohydrodynamic equations within the magnetic barrier range. Calculation problem of reconnection field at the magnetic barrier background is considered as the next step. It is shown, that the introduction of Petchek reconnection model into the problem solution general diagram allows to obtain at the magnetosphere boundary the values of electric and magnetic fields, compatible with the experiment. Problems, linked with choice of reconnection line direction and Petchek condition generalization for the case of the crossed field reconnection, are considered
Magnetohydrodynamic flow past a circular cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swarup, S.; Sinha, P.C.
1977-01-01
This paper deals with the slow-flow problem of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting fluid past a circular cylinder in an alignment magnetic field. The solutions for the velocity and magnetic fields as sought by the method of matched asymptotic expansions under the assumptions R,Rsub(m) 2 ) and O(R/log M), respectively. (Auth.)
Viscous cosmology in new holographic dark energy model and the cosmic acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, C.P.; Srivastava, Milan
2018-01-01
In this work, we study a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with dark matter and viscous new holographic dark energy. We present four possible solutions of the model depending on the choice of the viscous term. We obtain the evolution of the cosmological quantities such as scale factor, deceleration parameter and transition redshift to observe the effect of viscosity in the evolution. We also emphasis upon the two independent geometrical diagnostics for our model, namely the statefinder and the Om diagnostics. In the first case we study new holographic dark energy model without viscous and obtain power-law expansion of the universe which gives constant deceleration parameter and statefinder parameters. In the limit of the parameter, the model approaches to ΛCDM model. In new holographic dark energy model with viscous, the bulk viscous coefficient is assumed as ζ = ζ 0 + ζ 1 H, where ζ 0 and ζ 1 are constants, and H is the Hubble parameter. In this model, we obtain all possible solutions with viscous term and analyze the expansion history of the universe. We draw the evolution graphs of the scale factor and deceleration parameter. It is observed that the universe transits from deceleration to acceleration for small values of ζ in late time. However, it accelerates very fast from the beginning for large values of ζ. By illustrating the evolutionary trajectories in r - s and r - q planes, we find that our model behaves as an quintessence like for small values of viscous coefficient and a Chaplygin gas like for large values of bulk viscous coefficient at early stage. However, model has close resemblance to that of the ΛCDM cosmology in late time. The Om has positive and negative curvatures for phantom and quintessence models, respectively depending on ζ. Our study shows that the bulk viscosity plays very important role in the expansion history of the universe. (orig.)
Viscous cosmology in new holographic dark energy model and the cosmic acceleration
Singh, C. P.; Srivastava, Milan
2018-03-01
In this work, we study a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with dark matter and viscous new holographic dark energy. We present four possible solutions of the model depending on the choice of the viscous term. We obtain the evolution of the cosmological quantities such as scale factor, deceleration parameter and transition redshift to observe the effect of viscosity in the evolution. We also emphasis upon the two independent geometrical diagnostics for our model, namely the statefinder and the Om diagnostics. In the first case we study new holographic dark energy model without viscous and obtain power-law expansion of the universe which gives constant deceleration parameter and statefinder parameters. In the limit of the parameter, the model approaches to Λ CDM model. In new holographic dark energy model with viscous, the bulk viscous coefficient is assumed as ζ =ζ 0+ζ 1H, where ζ 0 and ζ 1 are constants, and H is the Hubble parameter. In this model, we obtain all possible solutions with viscous term and analyze the expansion history of the universe. We draw the evolution graphs of the scale factor and deceleration parameter. It is observed that the universe transits from deceleration to acceleration for small values of ζ in late time. However, it accelerates very fast from the beginning for large values of ζ . By illustrating the evolutionary trajectories in r-s and r-q planes, we find that our model behaves as an quintessence like for small values of viscous coefficient and a Chaplygin gas like for large values of bulk viscous coefficient at early stage. However, model has close resemblance to that of the Λ CDM cosmology in late time. The Om has positive and negative curvatures for phantom and quintessence models, respectively depending on ζ . Our study shows that the bulk viscosity plays very important role in the expansion history of the universe.
Poloidal variation of viscous forces in the banana collisionality regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.P.; Callen, J.D.
1992-12-01
The poloidal variation of the parallel viscous and heat viscous forces are determined for the first time using a rigorous Chapman- Enskog-like approach that has been developed recently. It is shown that the poloidal variation is approximately proportional to the poloidal distribution of the trapped particles, which are concentrated on the outer edge (large major radius side) of the tokamak
Efficient Simulation of Compressible, Viscous Fluids using Multi-rate Time Integration
Mikida, Cory; Kloeckner, Andreas; Bodony, Daniel
2017-11-01
In the numerical simulation of problems of compressible, viscous fluids with single-rate time integrators, the global timestep used is limited to that of the finest mesh point or fastest physical process. This talk discusses the application of multi-rate Adams-Bashforth (MRAB) integrators to an overset mesh framework to solve compressible viscous fluid problems of varying scale with improved efficiency, with emphasis on the strategy of timescale separation and the application of the resulting numerical method to two sample problems: subsonic viscous flow over a cylinder and a viscous jet in crossflow. The results presented indicate the numerical efficacy of MRAB integrators, outline a number of outstanding code challenges, demonstrate the expected reduction in time enabled by MRAB, and emphasize the need for proper load balancing through spatial decomposition in order for parallel runs to achieve the predicted time-saving benefit. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, under Award Number DE-NA0002374.
Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2015-01-01
A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tesche, F. M; Barnes, P. R; Meliopoulos, A. P
1992-01-01
.... This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP , is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm...
Dynamics of the Energy Transfer to the Load During the Operation of a Plasma Opening Switch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolinsky, Yu.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Felsteiner, J.
1999-01-01
The main efforts of the theoretical and experimental studies related to the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) have been devoted to the understanding of an anomalous fast magnetic field penetration through the plasma. At present this phenomenon can be explained based on the electron magnetohydrodynamic theory.l The second important phenomenon is related with POS opening. Existing models explain POS opening as a result of cut-off of the electron current component in the double layer2 by self-magnetic field of the POS current or by the increase of the Hall potential in the current layer due to ion erosion.3 Nevertheless both models consider POS opening in the region which was preliminary occupied by the plasma. In a recent experiment4 it was shown that the POS opening is related with a fast charged particle flow in the downstream region, namely at the load. In this work we present results of theoretical studies of the phase of the POS operation when the self-magnetic field of the POS current appears at the downstream side of the plasma. Our study has been done within the framework of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic theory. Taking into account the Hall electric field which is responsible for a strong ion acceleration in the axial direction, we found the velocity of the ions. In addition we show, that due to the inductive electric field caused by the motion of the axial current carrying plasma, the velocity of the magnetic field penetration is equal to the Alfven velocity
Dynamic mode decomposition for plasma diagnostics and validation
Taylor, Roy; Kutz, J. Nathan; Morgan, Kyle; Nelson, Brian A.
2018-05-01
We demonstrate the application of the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) for the diagnostic analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetized plasma in resistive magnetohydrodynamics. The DMD method is an ideal spatio-temporal matrix decomposition that correlates spatial features of computational or experimental data while simultaneously associating the spatial activity with periodic temporal behavior. DMD can produce low-rank, reduced order surrogate models that can be used to reconstruct the state of the system with high fidelity. This allows for a reduction in the computational cost and, at the same time, accurate approximations of the problem, even if the data are sparsely sampled. We demonstrate the use of the method on both numerical and experimental data, showing that it is a successful mathematical architecture for characterizing the helicity injected torus with steady inductive (HIT-SI) magnetohydrodynamics. Importantly, the DMD produces interpretable, dominant mode structures, including a stationary mode consistent with our understanding of a HIT-SI spheromak accompanied by a pair of injector-driven modes. In combination, the 3-mode DMD model produces excellent dynamic reconstructions across the domain of analyzed data.
Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winterberg, F. [University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada (United States)
2016-01-15
Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.
APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation