International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schekochihin, A.A.; Cowley, S.C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.; Howes, G.G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulent motions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the 'inertial range' above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-field strength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers
Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.
2008-01-01
We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating
Generalized fluid equations for parallel transport in collisional to weakly collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zawaideh, E.S.
1985-01-01
A new set of two-fluid equations which are valid from collisional to weakly collisional limits are derived. Starting from gyrokinetic equations in flux coordinates with no zeroth order drifts, a set of moment equations describing plasma transport along the field lines of a space and time dependent magnetic field are derived. No restriction on the anisotropy of the ion distribution function is imposed. In the highly collisional limit, these equations reduce to those of Braginskii while in the weakly collisional limit, they are similar to the double adiabatic or Chew, Goldberger, and Low (CGL) equations. The new transport equations are used to study the effects of collisionality, magnetic field structure, and plasma anisotropy on plasma parallel transport. Numerical examples comparing these equations with conventional transport equations show that the conventional equations may contain large errors near the sound speed (M approx. = 1). It is also found that plasma anisotropy, which is not included in the conventional equations, is a critical parameter in determining plasma transport in varying magnetic field. The new transport equations are also used to study axial confinement in multiple mirror devices from the strongly to weakly collisional regime. A new ion conduction model was worked out to extend the regime of validity of the transport equations to the low density multiple mirror regime
Weakly nonlinear electron plasma waves in collisional plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecseli, H. L.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Tagare, S. G.
1986-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of a high frequency plasma wave in a weakly magnetized, collisional plasma is considered. In addition to the ponderomotive-force-nonlinearity the nonlinearity due to the heating of the electrons is taken into account. A set of nonlinear equations including the effect...
Weakly Collisional and Collisionless Astrophysical Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berlok, Thomas
are used to study weakly collisional, stratified atmospheres which offer a useful model of the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters. Using linear theory and computer simulations, we study instabilities that feed off thermal and compositional gradients. We find that these instabilities lead to vigorous...... investigate helium mixing in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxy clusters using Braginskii MHD. Secondly, we present a newly developed Vlasov-fluid code which can be used for studying fully collisionless plasmas such as the solar wind and hot accretions flows. The equations of Braginskii MHD...... associated with the ions and is thus well suited for studying collisionless plasmas. We have developed a new 2D-3V Vlasov-fluid code which works by evolving the phase-space density distribution of the ions while treating the electrons as an inertialess fluid. The code uses the particle-incell (PIC) method...
Generalized fluid equations for parallel transport in collisional to weakly collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zawaideh, E.; Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.
1986-01-01
A new set of two-fluid equations that are valid from collisional to weakly collisional limits is derived. Starting from gyrokinetic equations in flux coordinates with no zero-order drifts, a set of moment equations describing plasma transport along the field lines of a space- and time-dependent magnetic field is derived. No restriction on the anisotropy of the ion distribution function is imposed. In the highly collisional limit, these equations reduce to those of Braginskii, while in the weakly collisional limit they are similar to the double adiabatic or Chew, Goldberger, and Low (CGL) equations [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 236, 112 (1956)]. The new set of equations also exhibits a physical singularity at the sound speed. This singularity is used to derive and compute the sound speed. Numerical examples comparing these equations with conventional transport equations show that in the limit where the ratio of the mean free path lambda to the scale length of the magnetic field gradient L/sub B/ approaches zero, there is no significant difference between the solution of the new and conventional transport equations. However, conventional fluid equations, ordinarily expected to be correct to the order (lambda/L/sub B/) 2 , are found to have errors of order (lambda/L/sub u/) 2 = (lambda/L/sub B/) 2 /(1-M 2 ) 2 , where L/sub u/ is the scale length of the flow velocity gradient and M is the Mach number. As such, the conventional equations may contain large errors near the sound speed (Mroughly-equal1)
Diagram of collisional regimes for particle diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.
1995-01-01
This document deals with static stochastic fields, where magnetic lines experience exponential separation and magnetic diffusion. It more particularly focuses on the diffusivity of collisional particles in such a fields and presents a general graph which describes most regimes of collisional and weakly collisional diffusion for guiding centers in a time-independent magnetic field. (TEC). 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
BUOYANCY INSTABILITIES IN A WEAKLY COLLISIONAL INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunz, Matthew W.; Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bogdanovic, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S., E-mail: kunz@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: tamarab@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2012-08-01
The intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is a weakly collisional plasma in which the transport of heat and momentum occurs primarily along magnetic-field lines. Anisotropic heat conduction allows convective instabilities to be driven by temperature gradients of either sign: the magnetothermal instability (MTI) in the outskirts of clusters and the heat-flux buoyancy-driven instability (HBI) in their cooling cores. We employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities, self-consistently including the effects of anisotropic viscosity (i.e., Braginskii pressure anisotropy), anisotropic conduction, and radiative cooling. We find that, in all but the innermost regions of cool-core clusters, anisotropic viscosity significantly impairs the ability of the HBI to reorient magnetic-field lines orthogonal to the temperature gradient. Thus, while radio-mode feedback appears necessary in the central few Multiplication-Sign 10 kpc, heat conduction may be capable of offsetting radiative losses throughout most of a cool core over a significant fraction of the Hubble time. Magnetically aligned cold filaments are then able to form by local thermal instability. Viscous dissipation during cold filament formation produces accompanying hot filaments, which can be searched for in deep Chandra observations of cool-core clusters. In the case of MTI, anisotropic viscosity leads to a nonlinear state with a folded magnetic field structure in which field-line curvature and field strength are anti-correlated. These results demonstrate that, if the HBI and MTI are relevant for shaping the properties of the ICM, one must self-consistently include anisotropic viscosity in order to obtain even qualitatively correct results.
Nonlinear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ottaviani, M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Porcelli, F [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)
1994-07-01
The magnetic reconnection in collisionless regimes, where electron inertia is responsible for the decoupling of the plasma motion from that of the field lines, is discussed. Since the linear theory of m=1 modes breaks down for very small magnetic island widths, a non linear analysis is called for. Thus, the behaviour of a collisionless, 2-D fluid slab model in the limit {rho}/d -> 0, is analyzed. The main result is that, when the island size is larger than the linear layer but smaller than the equilibrium scale length, the reconnection rate exhibits a quasi-explosive time behaviour, during which a current density sub-layer narrower than the skin depth is formed. It is believed that the inclusion of the electron initial term in Ohm`s law opens the possibility to understand the rapidity of relaxation process observed in low collisionality plasmas. 7 refs., 6 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-04-23
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulentmotions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-fieldstrength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Modulational instability of electric helicons in a magnetized collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ashry, M.Y.; Papuashvili, N.A.
1987-06-01
The interaction of a rf electromagnetic wave with a magnetized collisional plasma in the ultra-relativistic case has been investigated to show the effect of the collisions on the modulational instability growth rate. (author). 5 refs
Parametric instabilities in a magnetized and collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phalswal, D R; Dube, A [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics
1980-09-01
The dispersion relation for a magnetized, collisional and hot plasma in the presence of a pump wave is developed for the case where the pump frequency ..omega../sub 0/ is large compared with the cyclotron frequency ..omega..sub(c) and the plasma frequency ..omega..sub(p). Formulae for the growth rate, the damping rate for the free electron plasma wave and the threshold power are derived and discussed numerically under different conditions. It is found that in a hot plasma (for magnetic fields with ..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 1 and 10) the threshold power Psub(T) is less than or greater than that in a cold plamsa for the (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(+) or (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(-) modes respectively. In a weak magnetic field (..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 0.1), Psub(T) does not vary with the direction theta of the magnetic field for the (Re..omega../sub 2/) sub(+) mode. However, Psub(T) for the (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(-) mode is a minimum at theta = 30deg. and 10deg. for ..omega..sub(c)/ ..omega..sub(p) = 1 and 10 respectively, and it becomes very large (10/sup 5/-10/sup 7/ times its value in a cold unmagnetized plasma) for ..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 0.1. The results for the growth are found to be just the reverse of those for the threshold power.
Dynamo transformation of the collisional R-T in a weakly ionized ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
where the interstellar neutrals undergo charge exchange collisions with ions in the solar wind [1]. ... regime of magnetically confined torroidal plasma. The author refutes their ... rate ´7К-М µ for the usual collisional R-T is given as. 7К-М g v Дp.
Laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.
2016-01-01
We present theory and numerical analysis which demonstrate laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under the weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity. Plasma equilibrium density is modified due to the ohmic heating of electrons, the collisions, and the weak relativistic-ponderomotive force during the interaction of a laser pulse with plasmas. First, within one-dimensional analysis, the longitudinal self-compression mechanism is discussed. Three-dimensional analysis (spatiotemporal) of laser pulse propagation is also investigated by coupling the self-compression with the self-focusing. In the regime in which the laser becomes self-focused due to the weak relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity, we provide results for enhanced pulse compression. The results show that the matched interplay between self-focusing and self-compression can improve significantly the temporal profile of the compressed pulse. Enhanced pulse compression can be achieved by optimizing and selecting the parameters such as collision frequency, ion-temperature, and laser intensity.
Laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N., E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, North Campus, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)
2016-05-15
We present theory and numerical analysis which demonstrate laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under the weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity. Plasma equilibrium density is modified due to the ohmic heating of electrons, the collisions, and the weak relativistic-ponderomotive force during the interaction of a laser pulse with plasmas. First, within one-dimensional analysis, the longitudinal self-compression mechanism is discussed. Three-dimensional analysis (spatiotemporal) of laser pulse propagation is also investigated by coupling the self-compression with the self-focusing. In the regime in which the laser becomes self-focused due to the weak relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity, we provide results for enhanced pulse compression. The results show that the matched interplay between self-focusing and self-compression can improve significantly the temporal profile of the compressed pulse. Enhanced pulse compression can be achieved by optimizing and selecting the parameters such as collision frequency, ion-temperature, and laser intensity.
Theory of the collisional presheath in an oblique magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riemann, K.
1994-01-01
In the limit of a small Debye length (λ D →0), the plasma boundary layer in front of a negative absorbing wall is split up into a collision-free planar space charge sheath and a quasineutral presheath, where the ions are accelerated to ion sound speed (Bohm criterion). Usually the presheath mechanism depends decisively on collisional friction of the ions, on ionization, or on geometric ion current concentration. If the ion dynamics in the presheath is dominated by a magnetic field (nearly) parallel to the wall, an additional effect must be considered to provide an ion transport to the wall. The special cases (a) of an ion transport by field lines intersecting the wall at a finite angle and (b) of an ion transport by collisions result in somewhat contradictory conclusions. To get a coherent picture, a hydrodynamic model of the presheath is investigated accounting for an oblique magnetic field and for collisions. The limiting cases (a) and (b) are discussed, and it is shown that (in plane geometry) the presheath ion acceleration depends always on elementary processes. The main effect of a strong magnetic field is to ''compress'' the collisional presheath into a thin layer with a characteristic extension of the ion gyroradius ρ i
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chankin, A. V.; Stangeby, P. C.
2006-01-01
A system of plasma particle and parallel momentum balance equations is derived appropriate for understanding the role of drifts in the edge and for edge modelling, particularly in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks, stellarators and other magnetic confinement devices. The formulation allows for strong collisionality-but also covers the case of weak collisionality and strong drifts, a combination often encountered in the SOL. The most important terms are identified by assessing the magnitude of characteristic velocities and fluxes for the plasma edge region. Explanations of the physical nature of each term are provided. A number of terms that are sometimes not included in edge modelling has been included in the parallel momentum balance equation after detailed analysis of the parallel component of the gradient of the total pressure-stress tensor. This includes terms related to curvature and divergence of the field lines, as well as further contributions coming from viscous forces related mainly to the ion centrifugal drift. All these terms are shown to be roughly of the same order of magnitude as convective momentum fluxes related to drifts and therefore should be included in the momentum balance equation
Resonant absorption of radar waves by a magnetized collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Tong Honghui; Shen Liru; Tang Deli; Qiu Xiaoming
2001-01-01
The propagation of radar waves in a magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. It is found for uniform plasma that: first, the wave attenuation and absorbed power show a peak value, i.e., resonant absorption when the collision frequency f en = 0.1, 0.5, 1 GHz and the wave frequency nears upper hybrid frequency. Secondly, the attenuation, absorbed, and transmitted power curves become flat at f en = 5, 10 Ghz. thirdly, the attenuation and absorbed power increase with plasma density, and the attenuation and the proportion of absorbed power can reach 100 dB and 80%, respectively, at the plasma density n = 10 11 cm -3 . For nonuniform plasma, the peak value of reflected power is larger than that in uniform plasma. So, uniform magnetized plasma is of more benefit to plasma cloaking
Final Scientific/Technical Report: Correlations and Fluctuations in Weakly Collisional Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skiff, Frederick [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
2017-11-15
Plasma is a state of matter that exhibits a very rich range of phenomena. To begin with, plasma is both electrical and mechanical - bringing together theories of particle motion and the electromagnetic field. Furthermore, and especially important for this project, a weakly-collisional plasma, such as is found in high-temperature (fusion energy) experiments on earth and the majority of contexts in space and astrophysics, has many moving parts. For example, sitting in earth’s atmosphere we are immersed in a mechanical wave field (sound), a possibly turbulent fluid motion (wind), and an electromagnetic vector wave field with two polarizations (light). This is already enough to produce a rich range of possibilities. In plasma, the electromagnetic field is coupled to the mechanical motion of the medium because it is ionized. Furthermore, a weakly-collisional plasma supports an infinite number of mechanically independent fluids. Thus, plasmas support an infinite number of independent electromechanical waves. Much has been done to describe plasmas with "reduced models" of various kinds. The goal of this project was to both explore the validity of reduced plasma models that are in use, and to propose and validate new models of plasma motion. The primary means to his end was laboratory experiments employing both electrical probes and laser spectroscopy. Laser spectroscopy enables many techniques which can separate the spectrum of independent fluid motions in the ion phase-space. The choice was to focus on low frequency electrostatic waves because the electron motion is relatively simple, the experiments can be on a spatial scale of a few meters, and all the relevant parameters can be measured with a few lasers systems. No study of this kind had previously been undertaken for the study of plasmas. The validation of theories required that the experimental descriptions be compared with theory and simulation in detail. It was found that even multi-fluid theories leave out a
Dynamics of collisional particles in a fluctuating magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spineanu, F.; Vlad, M.
1995-01-01
The equations of motion of a test particle in a stochastic magnetic field and interacting through collisions with a plasma are Langevin-type equations. Under reasonable assumptions on the statistical properties of the random processes (field and collisional velocity fluctuations), we perform an analytical calculation of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of the particle. The basic nonlinearity in the problem (Lagrangian argument of the random field) yields complicated averages, which we carry out using a functional formalism. The result is expressed as a series, and we find the conditions for its convergence, i.e. the limits of validity of our approach (essentially, we must restrict attention to non-chaotic regimes). Further, employing realistic bounds (spectral cut-off and limited time of observation), we derive an explicit formula for the MSD. We show that from this unique expression, we can obtain several previously known results. (author)
Validity of the Taylor hypothesis for linear kinetic waves in the weakly collisional solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; TenBarge, J. M.
2014-01-01
The interpretation of single-point spacecraft measurements of solar wind turbulence is complicated by the fact that the measurements are made in a frame of reference in relative motion with respect to the turbulent plasma. The Taylor hypothesis—that temporal fluctuations measured by a stationary probe in a rapidly flowing fluid are dominated by the advection of spatial structures in the fluid rest frame—is often assumed to simplify the analysis. But measurements of turbulence in upcoming missions, such as Solar Probe Plus, threaten to violate the Taylor hypothesis, either due to slow flow of the plasma with respect to the spacecraft or to the dispersive nature of the plasma fluctuations at small scales. Assuming that the frequency of the turbulent fluctuations is characterized by the frequency of the linear waves supported by the plasma, we evaluate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis for the linear kinetic wave modes in the weakly collisional solar wind. The analysis predicts that a dissipation range of solar wind turbulence supported by whistler waves is likely to violate the Taylor hypothesis, while one supported by kinetic Alfvén waves is not.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, D.C.; Mayo, R.M.; Caress, R.W.
1997-01-01
A miniature magnetic probe array, consisting of 10 spatially separated coils, has been used to obtain profile information on the time varying magnetic field within the 2.54 cm wide flow channel of the coaxial plasma source experiment (CPS-1) [R. M. Mayo et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 4, 47 (1995)]. The magnetic field data have been used, together with a resistive, Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of applied field distortion by the flowing plasma, to obtain estimates of the microturbulent enhancement to electron collisionality within the CPS-1 flow channel. These measurements provide direct experimental evidence of anomalous electron collisionality, a previously predicted effect in these devices. The anomaly parameter, a=ν an /ν cl , determined both from the distortion of contours of constant magnetic flux, and from local B θ and B z measurements scales with the classical electron magnetization parameter (Ω cl =ω ce /ν e cl ), indicating that collisionality plays a strong role in determining the level of anomalous transport in the plasma. When this anomaly parameter scaling is cast in terms of the ratio ν e cl /ω lh , it is found that the resistivity enhancement scales with ν e cl /ω lh , and becomes significant at ν e cl /ω lh ≤1, suggesting that a lower hybrid drift instability may be the responsible mechanism for enhanced transport. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry
2016-01-01
Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...
Investigation of collisional effects within the bending magnet region of a DIII-D neutral beamline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kessler, D.N.; Hong, R.; Kellman, D.H.
1993-10-01
The region between the pole faces of the DIII-D neutral beamline residual ion bending magnets is an area of transient high gas pressure which may cause beam defocusing and increased heating of beamline internal components due to collisional effects. An investigation of these effects helps in understanding residual ion trajectories and in providing information for studying in the beamline capability for operation with increased pulse duration. Examination of collisional effects, and of the possible existence of space charge blow-up, was carried out by injecting deuterium gas into the region between the magnet pole faces with rates varying from 0 to 18 torr-ell/sec. Thermocouple and waterflow calorimetry data were taken to measure the beamline component heating and beam powder deposition on the magnet pole shields, magnet louvers, ion dump, beam collimators, and calorimeter. Data was also taken at gas flow rates varying from 0 to 25 torr-ell/sec into the neutralizer cell and is compared with the magnet region gas injection data obtained. Results show that both collisional effects and space charge blow-up play a role in magnet region component heating and that neutralizer gas flow sufficiently reduces component heating without incurring unacceptable power losses through collisional effects
Measurement of the Transverse Spitzer Resistivity during Collisional Magnetic Reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trintchouk, F.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Carter, T.A.
2000-01-01
Measurement of the transverse resistivity was carried out in a reconnecting current sheet where the mean free path for the Coulomb collision is smaller than the thickness of the sheet. In a collisional neutral sheet without a guide field, the transverse resistivity is directly related to the reconnection rate. A remarkable agreement is found between the measured resistivity and the classical value derived by L. Spitzer. In his calculation the transverse resistivity for the electrons is higher than the parallel resistivity by a factor of 1.96. The measured values have verified this theory to within 30% errors
Collisional ionization of Na by HBr in weak to strong electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safinya, K.A.; Gallagher, T.F.; Sandner, W.; Gounand, F.
1985-01-01
We report the effect of static electric fields on the collisional ionization of highly excited sodium atoms by HBr. The binding energy dependence of the collisional ionization cross section is measured at zero field and in static electric fields up to that point at which the atom field ionizes. The applied electric field lowers the ionization threshold of the atom from its zero field value. Therefore an atom near the ionization threshold in an electric field is of smaller size than a free field atom with the same binding energy. Thus measuring the binding energy dependence of the cross section at different values of the electric field allows us to study the effects of the physical size of the atom on the cross section. The effect of the electric field was to lower the measured ionization cross section. However, the binding energy dependence of the cross section remains unchanged at the level of our measurement accuracy. The measured cross sections are larger for larger atoms, exhibit a drop with increasing binding energy characteristic of rotational to electronic excitation transfer, and are of order 10 -12 --10 -11 cm 2 . A simple calculation based on dipole (J→ J-1) excitation transfer from the molecule to the atom predicts, with good agreement, the binding energy dependence of the cross section. The electric field dependence of the data however, is not shown in the theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez Laguna, A.; Poedts, S. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lani, A.; Deconinck, H. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Sint-Genesius-Rode (Belgium); Mansour, N. N. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 230-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
2017-06-20
We study magnetic reconnection under chromospheric conditions in five different ionization levels from 0.5% to 50% using a self-consistent two-fluid (ions + neutrals) model that accounts for compressibility, collisional effects, chemical inequilibrium, and anisotropic heat conduction. Results with and without radiation are compared, using two models for the radiative losses: an optically thin radiation loss function, and an approximation of the radiative losses of a plasma with photospheric abundances. The results without radiation show that reconnection occurs faster for the weakly ionized cases as a result of the effect of ambipolar diffusion and fast recombination. The tearing mode instability appears earlier in the low ionized cases and grows rapidly. We find that radiative losses have a stronger effect than was found in previous results as the cooling changes the plasma pressure and the concentration of ions inside the current sheet. This affects the ambipolar diffusion and the chemical equilibrium, resulting in thin current sheets and enhanced reconnection. The results quantify this complex nonlinear interaction by showing that a strong cooling produces faster reconnections than have been found in models without radiation. The results accounting for radiation show timescales and outflows comparable to spicules and chromospheric jets.
Magnetic Field Effects and Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Highly Collisional Plasmas.
Bozeman, Steven Paul
The homogeneity and size of radio frequency (RF) and microwave driven plasmas are often limited by insufficient penetration of the electromagnetic radiation. To investigate increasing the skin depth of the radiation, we consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized plasma immersed in a steady magnetic field where the dominant collision processes are electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions. Retaining both the electron and ion dynamics, we have adapted the theory for cold collisionless plasmas to include the effects of these collisions and obtained the dispersion relation at arbitrary frequency omega for plane waves propagating at arbitrary angles with respect to the magnetic field. We discuss in particular the cases of magnetic field enhanced wave penetration for parallel and perpendicular propagation, examining the experimental parameters which lead to electromagnetic wave propagation beyond the collisional skin depth. Our theory predicts that the most favorable scaling of skin depth with magnetic field occurs for waves propagating nearly parallel to B and for omega << Omega_{rm e} where Omega_{rm e} is the electron cyclotron frequency. The scaling is less favorable for propagation perpendicular to B, but the skin depth does increase for this case as well. Still, to achieve optimal wave penetration, we find that one must design the plasma configuration and antenna geometry so that one generates primarily the appropriate angles of propagation. We have measured plasma wave amplitudes and phases using an RF magnetic probe and densities using Stark line broadening. These measurements were performed in inductively coupled plasmas (ICP's) driven with a standard helical coil, a reverse turn (Stix) coil, and a flat spiral coil. Density measurements were also made in a microwave generated plasma. The RF magnetic probe measurements of wave propagation in a conventional ICP with wave propagation approximately perpendicular to B show an increase in
Matthaeus, W. H.; Yang, Y.; Servidio, S.; Parashar, T.; Chasapis, A.; Roytershteyn, V.
2017-12-01
Turbulence cascade transfers energy from large scale to small scale but what happens once kinetic scales are reached? In a collisional medium, viscosity and resistivity remove fluctuation energy in favor of heat. In the weakly collisional solar wind, (or corona, m-sheath, etc.), the sequence of events must be different. Heating occurs, but through what mechanisms? In standard approaches, dissipation occurs though linear wave modes or instabilities and one seeks to identify them. A complementary view is that cascade leads to several channels of energy conversion, interchange and spatial rearrangement that collectively leads to production of internal energy. Channels may be described using compressible MHD & multispecies Vlasov Maxwell formulations. Key steps are: Conservative rearrangement of energy in space; Parallel incompressible and compressible cascades - conservative rearrangment in scale; electromagnetic work on particles that drives flows, both macroscopic and microscopic; and pressure-stress interactions, both compressive and shear-like, that produces internal energy. Examples given from MHD, PIC simulations and MMS observations. A more subtle issue is how entropy is related to this degeneration (or, "dissipation") of macroscopic, fluid-scale fluctuations. We discuss this in terms of Boltzmann and thermodynamic entropies, and velocity space effects of collisions.
Collisional diffusion in a torus with imperfect magnetic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.B.
1983-03-01
A Hamiltonian forumlation of the guiding-center drift equations is used to investigate the modification of neoclassical diffusion for low collisonality in a toroidal magnetic field with partially destroyed magnetic surfaces. The magnetic field is assumed to be given by the small perturbation of an axisymmetric system. The results are applicable to particle diffusion in realistic confinement systems, midway between axisymmetric and purely stochastic ones. Significant enhancement of electron diffusion over neoclassical rates is found. This increase can be accounted for by the contributions due to the first few island chains in the Fibonacci sequence generated by the zero-order islands, and by associated stochastic domains
Black, Carrie; Germaschewski, Kai; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ng, C. S.
2013-01-01
It has been demonstrated that in the presence of weak collisions, described by the Lenard-Bernstein collision operator, the Landau-damped solutions become true eigenmodes of the system and constitute a complete set. We present numerical results from an Eulerian Vlasov code that incorporates the Lenard-Bernstein collision operator. The effect of the collisions on the numerical recursion phenomenon seen in Vlasov codes is discussed. The code is benchmarked against exact linear eigenmode solutions in the presence of weak collisions, and a spectrum of Landau-damped solutions is determined within the limits of numerical resolution. Tests of the orthogonality and the completeness relation are presented.
Proton temperature-anisotropy-driven instabilities in weakly collisional plasmas: Hybrid simulations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 1 (2015), 305810103/1-305810103/14 ISSN 0022-3778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2023 Grant - others:EU(XE) SHOCK Project No. 284515 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 ; RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetic field * solar wind * mirror instability Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFA-U) Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2015
Proton temperature-anisotropy-driven instabilities in weakly collisional plasmas: Hybrid simulations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-14 ISSN 0022-3778 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetic-field * solar- wind * mirror instability * Langevin representation * Coulomb collisions * nonlinear-theory * fluid model * evolution * turbulence * threshold Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2015 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9525437
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weak collisional and fully ionized dusty plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Sha; Yue, Feng [Shanghai Institute of Spaceflight Control Technology, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wu, Jian [China Research Institute of Radio wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); China Research Institute of Radio wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China)
2016-04-15
The propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully ionized dusty plasmas is the subject of this study. The dielectric relationships for EM waves propagating in a fully ionized dusty plasma was derived from the Boltzmann distribution law, taking into consideration the collision and charging effects of the dust grains. The propagation properties of the EM waves in a dusty plasma were numerically calculated and studied. The study results indicated that the dusty grains with an increased radius and charge were more likely to impede the penetration of EM waves. Dust grains with large radii and high charge cause the attenuation of the EM wave in the dusty plasma. The different density of the dust in the plasma appeared to have no obvious effect on the transmission of the EM waves. The propagation of the EM waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma varies from that in a fully ionized dusty plasma. The results are helpful to analyze the effects of dust in dusty plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for future studies.
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weak collisional and fully ionized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Sha; Yue, Feng; Wu, Jian; Li, Hui
2016-01-01
The propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully ionized dusty plasmas is the subject of this study. The dielectric relationships for EM waves propagating in a fully ionized dusty plasma was derived from the Boltzmann distribution law, taking into consideration the collision and charging effects of the dust grains. The propagation properties of the EM waves in a dusty plasma were numerically calculated and studied. The study results indicated that the dusty grains with an increased radius and charge were more likely to impede the penetration of EM waves. Dust grains with large radii and high charge cause the attenuation of the EM wave in the dusty plasma. The different density of the dust in the plasma appeared to have no obvious effect on the transmission of the EM waves. The propagation of the EM waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma varies from that in a fully ionized dusty plasma. The results are helpful to analyze the effects of dust in dusty plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for future studies.
Generation of poloidal magnetic field in a hot collisional plasma by inverse Faraday effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, M.K.; Lawande, S.V.; Dutta, D.; Sarkar, S.; Khan, M.; Chakraborty, B.
1996-01-01
Generation of poloidal magnetic field in a hot and collisional plasma by an inverse Faraday effect is discussed. This field can either be induced by a circularly polarized laser beam (CPLB) or a plane-polarized laser beam (PPLB). For the CPLB, an average field left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 0 λ∼11.6 MG could be produced in a DT plasma for a high intensity (I 0 =10 22 W/m 2 ) and shorter wavelength (λ=0.35 μm) laser. This field is essentially induced by the field inhomogeneity effect and dominates over that induced by the plasma inhomogeneity effect (left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 2/3 0 λ 7/3 ∼2.42 MG). The collisional and thermal contribution to left-angle Re x right-angle is just negligible for the CPLB. However, in the case of PPLB the poloidal field is generated only for a hot and collisional plasma and can be quite large for a longer wavelength laser (e.g., CO 2 laser, λ=10.6 μm). The collisional effect induces a field left-angle Re x right-angle ∼0.08 kG, which dominates near the turning point and is independent of the laser parameters. However, in the outer cronal region the thermal pressure effect dominates (e.g., left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 5/3 0 λ 4/3 ∼3.0 MG). Further, left-angle Re x right-angle for the p-polarized beam is, in general, relatively smaller than that for the s-polarized beam. Practical implications of these results and their limitations are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
FDTD simulation of radar cross section reduction by a collisional inhomogeneous magnetized plasma
Foroutan, V.; Azarmanesh, M. N.; Foroutan, G.
2018-02-01
The recursive convolution finite difference time domain method is addressed in the scattered field formulation and employed to investigate the bistatic radar cross-section (RCS) of a square conductive plate covered by a collisional inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The RCS is calculated for two different configurations of the magnetic field, i.e., parallel and perpendicular to the plate. The results of numerical simulations show that, for a perpendicularly applied magnetic field, the backscattered RCS is significantly reduced when the magnetic field intensity coincides with the value corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance. By increasing the collision frequency, the resonant absorption is suppressed, but due to enhanced wave penetration and bending, the reduction in the bistatic RCS is improved. At very high collision frequencies, the external magnetic field has no significant impact on the bistatic RCS reduction. Application of a parallel magnetic field has an adverse effect near the electron cyclotron resonance and results in a large and asymmetric RCS profile. But, the problem is resolved by increasing the magnetic field and/or the collision frequency. By choosing proper values of the collision frequency and the magnetic field intensity, a perpendicular magnetic field can be effectively used to reduce the bistatic RCS of a conductive plate.
ELM suppression in low edge collisionality H-mode discharges using n = 3 magnetic perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Evans, T E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Doyle, E J [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Fenstermacher, M E [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Leonard, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Moyer, R A [University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Snyder, P B [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Thomas, P R [CEA Cadarache EURATOM Association, Cadarache (France); West, W P [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Boedo, J A [University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Gohil, P; Jackson, G L; La Haye, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Lasnier, C J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Reimerdes, H [Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Rhodes, T L [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Scoville, J T [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Thomas, D M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Wang, G [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Watkins, J G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Zeng, L [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States)
2005-12-15
Using resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n = 3, we have produced H-mode discharges without edge localized modes (ELMs) which run with constant density and radiated power for periods up to about 2550 ms (17 energy confinement times). These ELM suppression results are achieved at pedestal collisionalities close to those desired for next step burning plasma experiments such as ITER and provide a means of eliminating the rapid erosion of divertor components in such machines which could be caused by giant ELMs. The ELM suppression is due to an enhancement in the edge particle transport which reduces pedestal current density and maximum edge pressure gradient below the threshold for peeling-ballooning modes. These n = 3 magnetic perturbations provide a means of active control of edge plasma transport.
ELM suppression in low edge collisionality H-mode discharges using n = 3 magnetic perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrell, K H; Evans, T E; Doyle, E J; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J; Leonard, A W; Moyer, R A; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Snyder, P B; Thomas, P R; West, W P; Boedo, J A; Garofalo, A M; Gohil, P; Jackson, G L; La Haye, R J; Lasnier, C J; Reimerdes, H; Rhodes, T L; Scoville, J T; Solomon, W M; Thomas, D M; Wang, G; Watkins, J G; Zeng, L
2005-01-01
Using resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n = 3, we have produced H-mode discharges without edge localized modes (ELMs) which run with constant density and radiated power for periods up to about 2550 ms (17 energy confinement times). These ELM suppression results are achieved at pedestal collisionalities close to those desired for next step burning plasma experiments such as ITER and provide a means of eliminating the rapid erosion of divertor components in such machines which could be caused by giant ELMs. The ELM suppression is due to an enhancement in the edge particle transport which reduces pedestal current density and maximum edge pressure gradient below the threshold for peeling-ballooning modes. These n = 3 magnetic perturbations provide a means of active control of edge plasma transport
Collisional effects on interaction potential in complex plasma in presence of magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bezbaruah, Pratikshya, E-mail: pratphd@tezu.ernet.in; Das, Nilakshi [Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)
2016-04-15
Interaction potential in complex plasma with streaming ions is derived analytically in presence of ion-neutral collision and magnetic field. The linear dielectric response function obtained describes the behavior of charged micron sized dust particles in strong collisional limit. A new type of repulsive potential is found to be operative among the dust grains apart from the normal Debye–Hückel potential. The amplitude and shielding length involved in the potential are substantially affected by the parameters describing ion cyclotron frequency, collision frequency among ions and neutrals, and ion streaming. It is also observed that the usual mechanism of ion focusing surrounding the grain is inhibited due to collision. As a result, the attractive wake potential structure is destroyed in the ion flow direction. The horizontal interaction involves only Debye–Hückel potential.
Collisional effects on interaction potential in complex plasma in presence of magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi
2016-01-01
Interaction potential in complex plasma with streaming ions is derived analytically in presence of ion-neutral collision and magnetic field. The linear dielectric response function obtained describes the behavior of charged micron sized dust particles in strong collisional limit. A new type of repulsive potential is found to be operative among the dust grains apart from the normal Debye–Hückel potential. The amplitude and shielding length involved in the potential are substantially affected by the parameters describing ion cyclotron frequency, collision frequency among ions and neutrals, and ion streaming. It is also observed that the usual mechanism of ion focusing surrounding the grain is inhibited due to collision. As a result, the attractive wake potential structure is destroyed in the ion flow direction. The horizontal interaction involves only Debye–Hückel potential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aistov, A.V.; Gavrilenko, V.G.
1996-01-01
The normal incidence of a small-amplitude electromagnetic wave upon a semi-infinite turbulent collisional plasm with an oblique external magnetic field is considered. Within a small-angle-scattering approximation of the radiative transport theory, a system of differential equations is derived for statistical moments of the angular power spectrum of radiation. The dependences of the spectrum centroid, dispersion, and asymmetry on the depth of penetration are studied numerically. The nonmonotonic behavior of the dispersion is revealed, and an increase in the spectrum width with absorption anisotropy is found within some depth interval. It is shown that, at large depths, the direction of the displacement of the spectrum centroid, does not always coincide with the direction of minimum absorption
Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi
2018-05-01
Anomalous diffusion of charged dust grains immersed in a plasma in the presence of strong ion-neutral collision, flowing ions, and a magnetic field has been observed. Molecular Dynamics simulation confirms the deviation from normal diffusion in an ensemble of dust grains probed in laboratory plasma chambers. Collisional effects are significant in governing the nature of diffusion. In order to have a clear idea on the transport of particles in a real experimental situation, the contribution of streaming ions and the magnetic field along with collision is considered through the relevant interaction potential. The nonlinear evolution of Mean Square Displacement is an indication of the modification in particle trajectories due to several effects as mentioned above. It is found that strong collision and ion flow significantly affect the interparticle interaction potential in the presence of the magnetic field and lead to the appearance of the asymmetric type of Debye Hückel (D H) potential. Due to the combined effect of the magnetic field, ion flow, and collision, dusty plasma exhibits a completely novel behavior. The coupling parameter Γ enhances the asymmetric D H type potential arising due to ion flow, and this may drive the system to a disordered state.
Magnetization reversal in weak ferrimagnets and canted antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kageyama, H.; Khomskii, D.I.; Levitin, R.Z.; Markina, M.M.; Okuyama, T.; Uchimoto, T.; Vasil'ev, A.N.
2003-01-01
In some ferrimagnets the total magnetization vanishes at a certain compensation temperature T*. In weak magnetic fields, the magnetization can change sign at T* (the magnetization reversal). Much rarer is observation of ferrimagnetic-like response in canted antiferromagnets, where the weak ferromagnetic moment is due to the tilting of the sublattice magnetizations. The latter phenomenon was observed in nickel (II) formate dihydrate Ni(HCOO) 2 ·2H 2 O. The observed weak magnetic moment increases initially below T N =15.5 K, equals zero at T*=8.5 K and increases again at lowering temperature. The sign of the low-field magnetization at any given temperature is determined by the sample's magnetic prehistory and the signs are opposite to each other at T N
Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagheri, Mehran; Abdikian, Alireza
2014-01-01
We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined
Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lan-Xiang Tian
Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.
Magnetic study of weakly contaminated forest soils
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kapička, Aleš; Jordanova, Neli; Petrovský, Eduard; Podrázský, V.
2003-01-01
Roč. 148, 1/4 (2003), s. 31-44 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : anthropogenic ferrimagnetics * environmental magnetism * soil pollution Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.883, year: 2003
A weak magnetic field inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in SD rats
Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Pan, Y.
2017-12-01
Geomagnetic field is an important barrier that protects life forms on Earth from solar wind and radiation. Paleomagnetic data have well demonstrated that the strength of ancient geomagnetic field was dramatically weakened during a polarity transition. Accumulating evidence has shown that weak magnetic field exposures has serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in organisms. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals' brains which plays a key role in brain function, and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we have investigated the weak magnetic field effects on hippocampal neurogenesis of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, a weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) and the geomagnetic fields (51 μT).The latter is treated as a control condition. SD rats were exposure to the weak magnetic field up to 6 weeks. We measured the changes of newborn nerve cells' proliferation and survival, immature neurons, neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in SD rats. Results showed that, the weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) inhibited their neural stem cells proliferation and significantly reduced the survival of newborn nerve cells, immature neurons and neurons after 2 or 4 weeks continuous treatment (i.e. exposure to weak magnetic field). Moreover, apoptosis tests indicated the weak magnetic field can promote apoptosis of nerve cells in the hippocampus after 4 weeks treatment. Together, our new data indicate that weak magnetic field decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through inhibiting neural stem cells proliferation and promoting apoptosis, which provides useful experimental constraints on better understanding the mechanism of linkage between life and geomagnetic field.
Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Neutrino–photon processes, forbidden in vacuum, can take place in the pres- ence of a thermal ... an external magnetic field, thus, fulfils the dual purpose of inducing an effective. 1241 .... real time formalism of the finite temperature field theory.
Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields
Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang
2015-01-01
How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944
Advances in the measurement of weak magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Damin; Huang Minzhe.
1992-01-01
The state-of-art and general features of instruments for measuring weak magnetic fields (such as the non-directional magnetometer, induced coil magnetometer, proton magnetometer, optical pumping magnetometer, flux-gate magnetometer and superconducting quantum magnetometer) are briefly described. Emphasis is laid on the development of a novel technique used in the flux-gate magnetometer and the liquid nitrogen SQUID. Typical applications of the measuring techniques for weak magnetic fields are given
Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields
Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.
2017-07-01
Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org
Method and apparatus for measuring weak magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
1995-01-01
When measuring weak magnetic fields, a container containing a medium, such as a solution containing a stable radical, is placed in a polarising magnetic field, which is essentially at right angles to the field to be measured. The polarising field is interrupted rapidly, the interruption being...
Hematizadeh, Ayoob; Jazayeri, Seyed Masud; Ghafary, Bijan
2018-02-01
A scheme for excitation of terahertz (THz) radiation is presented by photo mixing of two super-Gaussian laser beams in a rippled density collisional magnetized plasma. Lasers having different frequencies and wave numbers but the same electric fields create a ponderomotive force on the electrons of plasma in the beating frequency. Super-Gaussian laser beam has the exclusive features such as steep gradient in laser intensity distribution, wider cross-section in comparison with Gaussian profiles, which make stronger ponderomotive force and higher THz radiation. The magnetic field is considered oblique to laser beams propagation direction; in this case, depending on the phase matching conditions different mode waves can propagate in plasma. It is found that amplitude and efficiency of the emitted THz radiation not only are sensitive to the beating frequency, collision frequency, and magnetic field strength but to the angle between laser beams and static magnetic field. The efficiency of THz radiation can be optimized in a certain angle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon Jung-Sik; Jung Young-Dae
1999-01-01
Orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p +-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasma are investigated using the semiclassical trajectory method including the close-encounter effects. In weakly coupled plasmas, the electron-ion interaction potential is given by the classical nonspherical Debye-Hueckel model. The semiclassical screened hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method is applied to describe the motion of the projectile electron in order to investigate the variation of the orientation parameter as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and Debye length. A comparison is also given for the hyperbolic-orbit and straight-line trajectory methods. The results show that the orientation parameters obtained by the hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method have maxima and minima for small impact parameter regions. In other words, there are complete 1s→2p +1 (maxima) and complete 1s→2p -1 (minima) transitions for certain impact parameters. These maxima cannot be found using the straight-line trajectory method. The variation of the propensity of the 1s→2p -1 transitions due to the plasma screening effects on the atomic wave functions is also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Motie, Iman [Department of Physics, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bokaeeyan, Mahyar, E-mail: Mehyar9798@gmail.com [Department of Engineering, University of Applied Science and Technology (UAST)-Mohandesan Center, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
A close analysis of dust charging process in the presence of radio frequency (RF) discharge on low pressure and fully ionized plasma for both weak and strong discharge's electric field is considered. When the electromagnetic waves pass throughout fully ionized plasma, the collision frequency of the plasma is derived. Moreover, the disturbed distribution function of plasma particles in the presence of the RF discharge is obtained. In this article, by using the Krook model, we separate the distribution function in two parts, the Maxwellian part and the perturbed part. The perturbed part of distribution can make an extra current, so-called the accretion rate of electron (or ion) current, towards a dust particle as a function of the average electron-ion collision frequency. It is proven that when the potential of dust grains increases, the accretion rate of electron current experiences an exponential reduction. Furthermore, the accretion rate of electron current for a strong electric field is relatively smaller than that for a weak electric field. The reasons are elaborated.
Effect of Weak Magnetic Field on Bacterial Growth
Masood, Samina
Effects of weak magnetic fields are observed on the growth of various bacterial strains. Different sources of a constant magnetic field are used to demonstrate that ion transport in the nutrient broth and bacterial cellular dynamics is perturbed in the presence of weak magnetic field which affects the mobility and absorption of nutrients in cells and hence their doubling rate. The change is obvious after a few hours of exposure and keeps on increasing with time for all the observed species. The growth rate depends on the field strength and the nature of the magnetic field. The field effect varies with the shape and the structure of the bacterial cell wall as well as the concentration of nutrient broth. We closely study the growth of three species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis with the same initial concentrations at the same temperature in the same laboratory environment. Our results indicate that the weak static field of a few gauss after a few hours gives a measurable change in the growth rates of all bacterial species. This shows that the same magnetic field has different effects on different species in the same environment.
ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN WEAKLY IONIZED CHROMOSPHERIC PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.
2015-01-01
Realistic models of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere must take into account that the plasma is partially ionized and that plasma conditions within any two magnetic flux bundles undergoing reconnection may not be the same. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere may occur when newly emerged flux interacts with pre-existing, overlying flux. We present 2.5D simulations of asymmetric reconnection in weakly ionized, reacting plasmas where the magnetic field strengths, ion and neutral densities, and temperatures are different in each upstream region. The plasma and neutral components are evolved separately to allow non-equilibrium ionization. As in previous simulations of chromospheric reconnection, the current sheet thins to the scale of the neutral–ion mean free path and the ion and neutral outflows are strongly coupled. However, the ion and neutral inflows are asymmetrically decoupled. In cases with magnetic asymmetry, a net flow of neutrals through the current sheet from the weak-field (high-density) upstream region into the strong-field upstream region results from a neutral pressure gradient. Consequently, neutrals dragged along with the outflow are more likely to originate from the weak-field region. The Hall effect leads to the development of a characteristic quadrupole magnetic field modified by asymmetry, but the X-point geometry expected during Hall reconnection does not occur. All simulations show the development of plasmoids after an initial laminar phase
Dynamical mass generation in QED with weak magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayala, A.; Rojas, E.; Bashir, A.; Raya, A.
2006-01-01
We study the dynamical generation of masses for fundamental fermions in quenched quantum electrodynamics in the presence of magnetic fields using Schwinger-Dyson equations. We show that, contrary to the case where the magnetic field is strong, in the weak field limit eB << m(0)2, where m(0) is the value of the dynamically generated mass in the absence of the magnetic field, masses are generated above a critical value of the coupling and that this value is the same as in the case with no magnetic field. We carry out a numerical analysis to study the magnetic field dependence of the mass function above critical coupling and show that in this regime the dynamically generated mass and the chiral condensate for the lowest Landau level increase proportionally to (eB)2
Deflection of weakly magnetic materials by superconducting OGMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehm, J.; Gerber, R.; Fletcher, D.; Parker, M.R.
1988-01-01
Applications of a superconducting Open Gradient Magnetic Separator to fractional separation in air of weakly magnetic materials are presented. The dependence of particle deflection of these materials on the magnetic field strength, release location, magnetic susceptibility, particle density and other properties is investigated. The aim is to maximise the deflection of the magnetically stronger component of the feed to facilitate its separation from the particle stream round the magnet. Materials (e.g. CuSO/sub 4/, MnO/sub 2/) with chi/rho- ratios of the order of 7 x 10/sup -8/ m/sup 3//kg have been deflected. The applicability of dry magnetic separation has thus been considerably extended since up to now the separation of such materials has been restricted to High Gradient Magnetic Separation. The dependence of the separation efficiency upon the method of feeding and the influence of the residence time are studied in order to establish the optimum parameters for the recovery of the desired fraction. The experimental results are compared with predictions of a theory that is based upon novel approximative calculations of magnetic fields in which the use of elliptic integrals is avoided
Tearing mode growth in a regime of weak magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riyopoulos, S.; Hazeltine, R.D.
1987-06-01
The nonlinear growth for the m/n ≥ 2 resistive tearing mode is studied in case when the rational surface q(r 0 ) = m/n falls in a regime of weak magnetic shear, q'(r 0 ) ≅ 0. The island width is determined self-consistently from the nonlinear, zero-helicity component of the perturbed magnetic flux that provides the local shear. It is found that the magnetic perturbation keeps growing exponentially in the nonlinear regime on a hybrid resistive-Alfvenic time scale, while the island width and the vorticity grow on a much slower time scale. Accordingly, much faster release of magnetic energy results for modes growing near minima of hollow q profiles
Self-sustained collisional drift-wave turbulence in a sheared magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.D.
1990-01-01
Although collisional drift waves in a sheared slab configuration are linearly damped, it is found that the corresponding turbulence is self-sustaining if initialized at nonlinear amplitude. The influence of the free-energy source represented by the temperature and density gradients on the turbulent system involving bidirectional spectral energy transfer is responsible for this change of regime. Several important features of tokamak edge fluctuations are reproduced by these single-rational-surface nonlinear dynamics. As a result, drift-wave turbulence must still be considered as an underlying dynamic of anomalous transport in tokamak edges
Exploration of the validity of weak magnets as a suitable placebo in trials of magnetic therapy.
Greaves, C J; Harlow, T N
2008-06-01
To investigate whether 50 mT magnetic bracelets would be suitable as a placebo control condition for studying the pain relieving effects of higher strength magnetic bracelets in arthritis. Randomised controlled comparison between groups given either a weak 50 mT or a higher strength 180 mT magnetic bracelets to test. Four arthritis support groups in Devon, UK. One hundred sixteen people with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Beliefs about group allocation and expectation of benefit. There was no significant difference between groups in beliefs about allocation to the 'active magnet' group. Participants were however more likely to have an expectation of benefit (pain relief) with the higher strength magnetic bracelets. Asking about perceived group allocation is not sufficient to rule out placebo effects in trials of magnetic bracelets which use weak magnets as a control condition. There are differences in expectation of benefit between different magnet strengths.
What is the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture for axions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hebecker, Arthur; Henkenjohann, Philipp [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Witkowski, Lukas T. [APC, Universite Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France)
2017-03-15
The electric Weak Gravity Conjecture demands that axions with large decay constant f couple to light instantons. The resulting large instantonic corrections pose problems for natural inflation. We explore an alternative argument based on the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture for axions, which we try to make more precise. Roughly speaking, it demands that the minimally charged string coupled to the dual 2-form-field exists in the effective theory. Most naively, such large-f strings curve space too much to exist as static solutions, thus ruling out large-f axions. More conservatively, one might allow non-static string solutions to play the role of the required charged objects. In this case, topological inflation would save the superplanckian axion. Furthermore, a large-f axion may appear in the low-energy effective theory based on two subplanckian axions in the UV. The resulting effective string is a composite object built from several elementary strings and domain walls. It may or may not satisfy the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture depending on how strictly the latter is interpreted and on the cosmological dynamics of this composite object, which remain to be fully understood. Finally, we recall that large-field brane inflation is naively possible in the codimension-one case. We show how string-theoretic back-reaction closes this apparent loophole of large-f (non-periodic) pseudo-axions. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
The dust characteristics in the collisional plasma sheath at the presence of external magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shourkaei, Hossein Akbarian [AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Plasma Physics Research Group
2015-05-15
The characteristics of dust in a plasma sheath are investigated in the presence of an external magnetic field and taking into account neutral collision forces. By using the fluid model, the continuity and momentum equations of ions and dusts are solved numerically with various magnitudes of collision force. In various magnitude and directions of the magnetic field, the electron and ion density distribution, ion flow velocity, electron potential have been calculated. It is shown that magnetic field has obvious effect on the plasma sheath and the collision force reduces the dust kinetic energy.
Transition from Collisionless to Collisional MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Prateek; Hammett, Gregory W.; Quataert, Eliot
2003-01-01
Recent calculations by Quataert et al. (2002) found that the growth rates of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma can differ significantly from those calculated using MHD. This can be important in hot accretion flows around compact objects. In this paper, we study the transition from the collisionless kinetic regime to the collisional MHD regime, mapping out the dependence of the MRI growth rate on collisionality. A kinetic closure scheme for a magnetized plasma is used that includes the effect of collisions via a BGK operator. The transition to MHD occurs as the mean free path becomes short compared to the parallel wavelength 2*/k(sub)||. In the weak magnetic field regime where the Alfven and MRI frequencies w are small compared to the sound wave frequency k(sub)||c(sub)0, the dynamics are still effectively collisionless even if omega << v, so long as the collision frequency v << k(sub)||c(sub)0; for an accretion flow this requires n less than or approximately equal to *(square root of b). The low collisionality regime not only modifies the MRI growth rate, but also introduces collisionless Landau or Barnes damping of long wavelength modes, which may be important for the nonlinear saturation of the MRI
Multi-critical points in weakly anisotropic magnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basten, J.A.J.
1979-02-01
This report starts with a rather extensive presentation of the concepts and ideas which constitute the basis of the modern theory of static critical phenomena. It is shown how at a critical point the semi-phenomenological concepts of universality and scaling are directly related to the divergence of the correlation length and how they are extended to a calculational method for critical behaviour in Wilson's Renormalization-Group (RG) approach. Subsequently the predictions of the molecular-field and RG-theories on the phase transitions and critical behaviour in weakly anisotropic antiferromagnets are treated. In a magnetic field applied along the easy axis, these materials can display an (H,T) phase diagram which contains either a bicritical point or a tetracritical point. Especially the behaviour close to these multi-critical points, as predicted by the extended-scaling theory, is discussed. (Auth.)
Calculation of effective impedance of polycrystals in weak magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaganova, I.M.
2006-01-01
We present results for the effective surface impedance tensor (EIT) of polycrystals of metals in a weak uniform magnetic field H. The frequency region corresponds to the region in which the local impedance boundary conditions are applicable. We suppose that the resistivity tensor ρ ik (H) of the single crystal grains out of which the polycrystal is composed, is known up to the terms of O(H 2 ). For polycrystals of metals of arbitrary symmetry, the elements of the EIT can be calculated to the same order in H, even if the tensor ρ ik (H) is strongly anisotropic. As examples, we write down the EIT of polycrystals of (i) cubic metals (ii) metals with ellipsoidal Fermi surfaces, and (iii) metals of tetragonal symmetry whose tensor ρ ik (0) is strongly anisotropic. Although polycrystals are metals that are isotropic on average, in the presence of a uniform magnetic field the structure of the EIT is not the same as the structure of the impedance tensor of an isotropic metal with a spherical Fermi surface. The results cannot be improved either by taking into account higher powers of H, or with respect to the anisotropy of the single crystal grains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gunn, J. P.; Fuchs, Vladimír; Kočan, M.
2013-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2013), 045012-045012 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G10072 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * collisions * magnetic field * retarding field analyzer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/55/4/045012/pdf/0741-3335_55_4_045012.pdf
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bliss, D. F; Holmes, A. M; Wang, X; Ma, N; Iseler, G. W
2005-01-01
...) method utilizing a submerged heater. Electromagnetic stirring can be induced in the gallium-antimonide melt just above the crystal growth interface by applying a weak radial electric current in the melt together with a weak axial magnetic field...
Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants
Belyavskaya, N.
In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron
Magnetic-field-dependent microwave absorption in HgSe in weak magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veinger, A. I., E-mail: Anatoly.Veinger@mail.ioffe.ru; Tisnek, T. V.; Kochman, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Okulov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
The low-temperature magnetoresistive effect in the semiconductor HgSe:Fe in weak magnetic fields at microwave frequencies is examined. The negative and positive components of magnetoabsorption based on the magnetoresistive effect in the degenerate conduction band are analyzed. The special features of experiments carried out in the investigated frequency range are noted. The momentum and electron-energy relaxation times are determined from the experimental field and temperature dependences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNamara, D.J.
1977-01-01
The present work is motivated by the desire to better understand solar magnetism. Just as stellar astrophysics and radiative transfer have been coupled in the history of research in physics, so too has the study of radiative transfer of polarized light in magnetic fields and solar magnetism been a history of mutual growth. The Stokes parameters characterize the state of polarization of a beam of radiation. The author considers the changes in polarization, and therefore in the Stokes parameters, due to the transport of a beam through an optically thick medium in a weak magnetic field. The transport equation is derived from a general density matrix equation of motion. This allows the possibility of interference effects arising from the mixing of atomic sublevels in a weak magnetic field to be taken into account. The statistical equilibrium equations are similarly derived. Finally, the coupled system of equations is presented, and the order of magnitude of the interference effects, shown. Collisional effects are not considered. The magnitude of the interference effects in magnetic field measurements of the sun may be evaluated
Investigation of Condensed Media in Weak Fields by the Method of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Davydov, V. V.; Myazin, N. S.; Dudkin, V. I.; Velichko, E. N.
2018-05-01
A compact design of a rapid-response nuclear magnetic spectrometer for investigation of condensed media in weak fields is reported. As a result of investigation of different condensed media, special features of recording a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal in a weak magnetic field from a small volume of the medium under study are established. For the first time the NMR absorption spectra of condensed media in a weak field are collected. Based on the results of experimental studies, the potential of using a compact NMR-spectrometer for condensed media monitoring in a rapid response mode is determined.
Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen
2000-01-01
The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance with...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...... for "superferromagnetism" in which the magnetic anisotropy is included. The coupling between the particles is due to exchange interactions and the interaction strength can be accounted for by just a few exchange bridges between surface atoms in neighboring crystallites....
Properties of a magnetic superconductor with weak magnetization-application to ErNi2B2C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, T.K.; Leung, W.T.
2001-01-01
Using a Ginsburg-Landau free-energy functional, we study the H-T phase diagram of a weak magnetic superconductor, where the magnetization from the magnetic component is marginal in supporting a spontaneous vortex phase. In particular, the competition between the spiral state and spontaneous vortex phase is analysed. Our theory is applied to understand the magnetic properties of ErNi 2 B 2 C. (orig.)
Novel method for detecting weak magnetic fields at low frequencies
González-Martínez, S.; Castillo-Torres, J.; Mendoza-Santos, J. C.; Zamorano-Ulloa, R.
2005-06-01
A low-level-intensity magnetic field detection system has been designed and developed based on the amplification-selection process of signals. This configuration is also very sensitive to magnetic field changes produced by harmonic-like electrical currents transported in finite-length wires. Experimental and theoretical results of magnetic fields detection as low as 10-9T at 120Hz are also presented with an accuracy of around 13%. The assembled equipment is designed to measure an electromotive force induced in a free-magnetic-core coil in order to recover signals which are previously selected, despite the fact that their intensities are much lower than the environment electromagnetic radiation. The prototype has a signal-to-noise ratio of 60dB. This system also presents the advantage for using it as a portable unit of measurement. The concept and prototype may be applied, for example, as a nondestructive method to analyze any corrosion formation in metallic oil pipelines which are subjected to cathodic protection.
SURPRISINGLY WEAK MAGNETISM ON YOUNG ACCRETING BROWN DWARFS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiners, A.; Basri, G.; Christensen, U. R.
2009-01-01
We have measured the surface magnetic flux on four accreting young brown dwarfs and one nonaccreting young very low mass (VLM) star utilizing high-resolution spectra of absorption lines of the FeH molecule. A magnetic field of 1-2 kG had been proposed for one of the brown dwarfs, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) J1207334-393254, because of its similarities to higher mass T Tauri stars as manifested in accretion and the presence of a jet. We do not find clear evidence for a kilogauss field in any of our young brown dwarfs but do find a 2 kG field on the young VLM star. Our 3σ upper limit for the magnetic flux in 2MASS J1207334-393254 just reaches 1 kG. We estimate the magnetic field required for accretion in young brown dwarfs given the observed rotations, and find that fields of only a few hundred gauss are sufficient for magnetospheric accretion. This predicted value is less than our observed upper limit. We conclude that magnetic fields in young brown dwarfs are a factor of 5 or more lower than in young stars of about one solar mass, and in older stars with spectral types similar to our young brown dwarfs. It is interesting that, during the first few million years, the fields scale down with mass in line with what is needed for magnetospheric accretion, yet no such scaling is observed at later ages within the same effective temperature range. This scaling is opposite to the trend in rotation, with shorter rotation periods for very young accreting brown dwarfs compared with accreting solar-mass objects (and very low Rossby numbers in all cases). We speculate that in young objects a deeper intrinsic connection may exist between magnetospheric accretion and magnetic field strength, or that magnetic field generation in brown dwarfs may be less efficient than in stars. Neither of these currently has an easy physical explanation.
Influence of Weak External Magnetic Field on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Fe-based Alloys
Degmová, J.; Sitek, J.
2010-07-01
Nanoperm, Hitperm and Finamet amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys were measured by Mössbauer spectrometry in a weak external magnetic field of 0.5 T. It was shown that the most sensitive parameters of Mössbauer spectra are the intensities of the 2nd and the 5th lines. Rather small changes were observed also in the case of internal magnetic field values. The spectrum of nanocrystalline Nanoperm showed the increase in A23 parameter (ratio of line intensities) from 2.4 to 3.7 and decrease of internal magnetic field from 20 to 19 T for amorphous subspectrum under the influence of magnetic field. Spectrum of nanocrystalline Finemet shown decrease in A23 parameter from 3.5 to 2.6 almost without a change in the internal magnetic field value. In the case of amorphous Nanoperm and Finemet samples, the changes are almost negligible. Hitperm alloy showed the highest sensitivity to the weak magnetic field, when the A23 parameter increased from 0.4 to 2.5 in the external magnetic fields. The A23 parameter of crystalline subspectrum increased from 2.7 to 3.8 and the value of internal magnetic field corresponding to amorphous subspectrum increased from 22 to 24 T. The behavior of nanocrystalline alloys under weak external magnetic field was analyzed within the three-level relaxation model of magnetic dynamics in an assembly of single-domain particles.
THE DECAY OF A WEAK LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kondić, Todor; Hughes, David W.; Tobias, Steven M., E-mail: t.kondic@leeds.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2016-06-01
We investigate the decay of a large-scale magnetic field in the context of incompressible, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. It is well established that a very weak mean field, of strength significantly below equipartition value, induces a small-scale field strong enough to inhibit the process of turbulent magnetic diffusion. In light of ever-increasing computer power, we revisit this problem to investigate fluids and magnetic Reynolds numbers that were previously inaccessible. Furthermore, by exploiting the relation between the turbulent diffusion of the magnetic potential and that of the magnetic field, we are able to calculate the turbulent magnetic diffusivity extremely accurately through the imposition of a uniform mean magnetic field. We confirm the strong dependence of the turbulent diffusivity on the product of the magnetic Reynolds number and the energy of the large-scale magnetic field. We compare our findings with various theoretical descriptions of this process.
Helical magnetic axis configuration combined with l = 1 and weak l = -1 torsatron fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Hitoshi; Saito, Katsunori; Gesso, Hirokazu; Shiina, Shoichi
1989-01-01
The superposition of a relatively weak l = -1 torsatron field on a main l = 1 torsatron field leads to the improvement of the confinement properties due to the formation of a local magnetic well, which results from the local curvature of the helical magnetic axis with a larger excursion in the major radius direction. This l±1 helical magnetic axis system has a comparatively simple, compact coil structure. Here the vacuum configuration properties of l = ±1 system are described. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Pengpeng; Zheng, Xiaojing, E-mail: xjzheng@xidian.edu.cn [School of Mechano-Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071, Shaanxi (China); Jin, Ke [School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071, Shaanxi (China)
2016-04-14
Weak magnetic nondestructive testing (e.g., metal magnetic memory method) concerns the magnetization variation of ferromagnetic materials due to its applied load and a weak magnetic surrounding them. One key issue on these nondestructive technologies is the magnetomechanical effect for quantitative evaluation of magnetization state from stress–strain condition. A representative phenomenological model has been proposed to explain the magnetomechanical effect by Jiles in 1995. However, the Jiles' model has some deficiencies in quantification, for instance, there is a visible difference between theoretical prediction and experimental measurements on stress–magnetization curve, especially in the compression case. Based on the thermodynamic relations and the approach law of irreversible magnetization, a nonlinear coupled model is proposed to improve the quantitative evaluation of the magnetomechanical effect. Excellent agreement has been achieved between the predictions from the present model and previous experimental results. In comparison with Jiles' model, the prediction accuracy is improved greatly by the present model, particularly for the compression case. A detailed study has also been performed to reveal the effects of initial magnetization status, cyclic loading, and demagnetization factor on the magnetomechanical effect. Our theoretical model reveals that the stable weak magnetic signals of nondestructive testing after multiple cyclic loads are attributed to the first few cycles eliminating most of the irreversible magnetization. Remarkably, the existence of demagnetization field can weaken magnetomechanical effect, therefore, significantly reduces the testing capability. This theoretical model can be adopted to quantitatively analyze magnetic memory signals, and then can be applied in weak magnetic nondestructive testing.
Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe
2018-03-01
Full Text Available To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71. This study confirms an earlier work that magnets have no observable effect on red wine.
A neutron depolarization study of magnetic inhomogeneities in weak-link superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuchenko, N.K.; Yagud, R.Z.
1993-01-01
Neutron depolarization measurements in the mixed state of both high-T c and low-T c weak-link superconductors have been carried out. Samples of YBCO, BSCCO, SnMo 6 S 8 and 0.5 Nb-0.5 Ti of different magnetic prehistory were analyzed at temperatures T 4.2 K under applied magnetic fields II <= 16.5 kOe. We ascribe the appearance of magnetic inhomogeneities and their hysteresis behaviour to the interaction between dipole magnetic fields (diamagnetic and paramagnetic ones) and applied magnetic fields
Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?
Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe
2018-01-01
To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71). This study confirms an earlier work that...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Li
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1 and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified the solidification microstructure. It was found that if the drawing speed was lower than 10 μm·s−1, the magnetic field caused extensive macro-segregation in the mushy zone, and a change in the mushy zone length. The magnetic field significantly decreases the size of γ’ and the content of γ-γ’ eutectic. The formation of macro-segregation under a weak magnetic field was attributed to the interdendritic solute transport driven by the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC. The γ’ phase refinement could be attributed to a decrease in nucleation activation energy owing to the magnetic field during solid phase transformation. The change of element segregation is responsible for the content decrease of γ-γ’ eutectic.
Extremely weak magnetic field exposure may inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis of Sprague Dawley rats
Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Xu, H.; Pan, Y.
2016-12-01
Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals brains and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors. Lines of evidences have shown that the magnetic field is an important physics environmental factor influencing many animals' growth and development, and extremely weak magnetic field exposures have been proved having serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in some animals, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we experimentally examined the extremely weak magnetic field effects on neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, an extremely weak magnetic field (≤ 0.5μT) and the geomagnetic fields (strength 31-58μT) as controls. Thirty-two SD rats (3-weeks old) were used in this study. New cell survival in hippocampus was assessed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days after a 7-day intraperitoneal injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Meanwhile, the amounts of immature neurons and mature neurons which are both related to hippocampal neurogenesis, as documented by labeling with doublecortin (DCX) and neuron (NeuN), respectively, were also analyzed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days. Compared with geomagnetic field exposure groups, numbers of BrdU-, DCX-positive cells of DG of hippocampus in tested rats reduces monotonously and more rapidly after 14 days, and NeuN-positive cells significantly decreases after 28days when exposed in the extremely weak magnetic field condition. Our data suggest that the exposure to an extremely weak magnetic field may suppress the neurogenesis in DG of SD rats.
Weak magnetism of Aurivillius-type multiferroic thin films probed by polarized neutron reflectivity
Zhai, Xiaofang; Grutter, Alexander J.; Yun, Yu; Cui, Zhangzhang; Lu, Yalin
2018-04-01
Unambiguous magnetic characterization of room-temperature multiferroic materials remains challenging due in part to the difficulty of distinguishing their very weak ferromagnetism from magnetic impurity phases and other contaminants. In this study, we used polarized neutron reflectivity to probe the magnetization of B i6FeCoT i3O18 and LaB i5FeCoT i3O18 in their epitaxial thin films while eliminating a variety of impurity contributions. Our results show that LaB i5FeCoT i3O18 exhibits a magnetization of about 0.016 ±0.027 μB/Fe -Co pair at room temperature, while the B i6FeCoT i3O18 thin film only exhibits a weak magnetic moment below room temperature, with a saturation magnetization of 0.049 ±0.015 μB/Fe -Co pair at 50 K. This polarized-neutron-reflectivity study places an upper magnetization limit on the matrix material of the magnetically doped Aurivillius oxides and helps to clarify the true mechanism behind the room-temperature magnetic performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.; Pierre, Th.; Zagorodny, A.
2004-01-01
The linear and non-linear properties of global low-frequency oscillations in cylindrical weakly ionized magnetized plasmas are investigated analytically for the conditions of equilibrium plasma rotation. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental observations of rotating plasmas in laboratory devices, such as Mistral and Mirabelle in France, and KIWI in Germany. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Valdés-Bango
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.
Valdés-Bango, F.; Vélez, M.; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Alameda, J. M.; Martín, J. I.
2017-05-01
Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Surgical Implants Made from Weak Magnetic Materials
Gogola, D.; Krafčík, A.; Štrbák, O.; Frollo, I.
2013-08-01
Materials with high magnetic susceptibility cause local inhomogeneities in the main field of the magnetic resonance (MR) tomograph. These inhomogeneities lead to loss of phase coherence, and thus to a rapid loss of signal in the image. In our research we investigated inhomogeneous field of magnetic implants such as magnetic fibers, designed for inner suture during surgery. The magnetic field inhomogeneities were studied at low magnetic planar phantom, which was made from four thin strips of magnetic tape, arranged grid-wise. We optimized the properties of imaging sequences with the aim to find the best setup for magnetic fiber visualization. These fibers can be potentially exploited in surgery for internal stitches. Stitches can be visualized by the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method after surgery. This study shows that the imaging of magnetic implants is possible by using the low field MRI systems, without the use of complicated post processing techniques (e.g., IDEAL).
Novikov, V V; Sheĭman, I M; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E
2014-01-01
It is shown that an exposure of pupae of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor to the combined static (42 μT) and very weak alternating (250 nT) magnetic fields exerts different influence, depending on the frequency of the alternating magnetic field, on duration of metamorphosis processes in these insects. For instance, an exposure of pupae to weak combined magnetic fields, adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for glutaminic acid (4,4 Hz), stimulates metamorphosis process--a transitional stage from pupae to imago lasts shorter. An inhibiting effect was observed when adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for Ca2 (32,2 Hz). At some frequencies this effect is not seen. For instance, an exposure at a frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for K+ (16,5 Hz) exerts no noticeable effect on the duration of the pupal metamorphosis stage.
Magnus force and inertia properties of magnetic vortices in weak ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvezdin, A.K.; Zvezdin, K.A.
2010-01-01
The question of the Magnus force in weak ferromagnets acting on magnetic vortices (Bloch lines), within domain boundary has been investigated and the general formula of the Magnus force has been derived. It is shown that the Magnus force is non-zero in most types domain boundaries and determined by the average sublattice magnetization, Dzyaloshinskii coupling constants and exchange interaction between the sublattices. Generalized expressions have been obtained for the effective Langrangian and Rayleigh functions in weak ferromagnets allowing for their vortex structure. The mass of a vortex was considered and the value m * ∼ 10 -14 g/cm was obtained for YFeO 3 . The dynamic bending of the domain boundary in the presence of a moving vortex has been analyzed. A formula has been obtained, which describes the dependence of the vortex velocity in a motionless domain boundary upon the magnetic-field.
Energy partition, scale by scale, in magnetic Archimedes Coriolis weak wave turbulence.
Salhi, A; Baklouti, F S; Godeferd, F; Lehner, T; Cambon, C
2017-02-01
Magnetic Archimedes Coriolis (MAC) waves are omnipresent in several geophysical and astrophysical flows such as the solar tachocline. In the present study, we use linear spectral theory (LST) and investigate the energy partition, scale by scale, in MAC weak wave turbulence for a Boussinesq fluid. At the scale k^{-1}, the maximal frequencies of magnetic (Alfvén) waves, gravity (Archimedes) waves, and inertial (Coriolis) waves are, respectively, V_{A}k,N, and f. By using the induction potential scalar, which is a Lagrangian invariant for a diffusionless Boussinesq fluid [Salhi et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 026301 (2012)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.026301], we derive a dispersion relation for the three-dimensional MAC waves, generalizing previous ones including that of f-plane MHD "shallow water" waves [Schecter et al., Astrophys. J. 551, L185 (2001)AJLEEY0004-637X10.1086/320027]. A solution for the Fourier amplitude of perturbation fields (velocity, magnetic field, and density) is derived analytically considering a diffusive fluid for which both the magnetic and thermal Prandtl numbers are one. The radial spectrum of kinetic, S_{κ}(k,t), magnetic, S_{m}(k,t), and potential, S_{p}(k,t), energies is determined considering initial isotropic conditions. For magnetic Coriolis (MC) weak wave turbulence, it is shown that, at large scales such that V_{A}k/f≪1, the Alfvén ratio S_{κ}(k,t)/S_{m}(k,t) behaves like k^{-2} if the rotation axis is aligned with the magnetic field, in agreement with previous direct numerical simulations [Favier et al., Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. (2012)] and like k^{-1} if the rotation axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field. At small scales, such that V_{A}k/f≫1, there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and kinetic components. For magnetic Archimedes weak wave turbulence, it is demonstrated that, at large scales, such that (V_{A}k/N≪1), there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and potential components
Low energy constituent quark and pion effective couplings in a weak external magnetic field
Braghin, Fábio L.
2018-03-01
An effective model with pions and constituent quarks in the presence of a weak external background electromagnetic field is derived by starting from a dressed one gluon exchange quark-quark interaction. By applying the auxiliary field and background field methods, the structureless pion limit is considered to extract effective pion and constituent quark couplings in the presence of a weak magnetic field. The leading terms of a large quark and gluon masses expansion are obtained by resolving effective coupling constants which turn out to depend on a weak magnetic field. Two pion field definitions are considered for that. Several relations between the effective coupling constants and parameters can be derived exactly or in the limit of very large quark mass at zero and weak constant magnetic field. Among these ratios, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner and the quark level Goldberger-Treiman relations are obtained. In addition to that, in the pion sector, the leading terms of Chiral Perturbation Theory coupled to the electromagnetic field are recovered. Some numerical estimates are provided for the effective coupling constants and parameters.
Weak correction to the muon magnetic moment in a gauge model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darby, D.; Grammer, G. Jr.
1976-01-01
The weak correction, asub(μ)sup(W), to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is calculated in an SU(2) x U(1) x U(1) gauge model of weak and electromagnetic interactions. The Rsub(xi) gauge is used and Ward-Takahashi identities are utilized in eliminating all xi-dependence before the loop integration is performed. asub(μ)sup(W,expt) places no constraint on the mass of one of the neutral vector mesons, which may be arbitrarily small. (Auth.)
Weak electric and magnetic dipole moments of the τ lepton from azimuthal asymmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez Alvaro, E.
1997-01-01
Measurements of the weak electric dipole moment d τ w and, for the first time, the weak magnetic dipole moment a τ w of the τ lepton using L3 detector at LEP are presented. Azimuthal asymmetries for τ→πν and τ→ρν are used to obtain these measurements. Observed asymmetries are consistent with zero, and the limits set on d τ w and a τ w are vertical stroke d τ w vertical stroke -17 e.cm and vertical stroke a τ w vertical stroke <0.014 at 95% C.L. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, Lee R.; Williams, P. Stephen; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej
2017-01-01
Emerging microfluidic-based cell assays favor label-free red blood cell (RBC) depletion. Magnetic separation of RBC is possible because of the paramagnetism of deoxygenated hemoglobin but the process is slow for open-gradient field configurations. In order to increase the throughput, periodic arrangements of the unit magnets were considered, consisting of commercially available Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets and soft steel flux return pieces. The magnet design is uniquely suitable for multiplexing by magnet tessellation, here meaning the tiling of the magnet assembly cross-sectional plane by periodic repetition of the magnet and the flow channel shapes. The periodic pattern of magnet magnetizations allows a reduction of the magnetic material per channel with minimal distortion of the field cylindrical symmetry inside the magnet apertures. A number of such magnet patterns are investigated for separator performance, size and economy with the goal of designing an open-gradient magnetic separator capable of reducing the RBC number concentration a hundred-fold in 1 mL whole blood per hour. - Highlights: • Simple geometry of commercial, off-the-shelf NdFeB magnet blocks is amenable to generate high fields and open gradients. • Periodic pattern of permanent magnet blocks (tessellation) reduces the number of blocks per separation channel and improves the efficiency of separator design. • Split-flow lateral transport thin (SPLITT) fractionation model predicts 100-fold reduction of red blood cells from 1 mL whole blood sample in 1 h, suitable for laboratory medicine applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moore, Lee R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44195 (United States); Williams, P. Stephen [Cambrian Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Chalmers, Jeffrey J. [William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus 151 W. Woodruff Avenue, OH 43210 (United States); Zborowski, Maciej, E-mail: zborowm@ccf.org [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44195 (United States)
2017-04-01
Emerging microfluidic-based cell assays favor label-free red blood cell (RBC) depletion. Magnetic separation of RBC is possible because of the paramagnetism of deoxygenated hemoglobin but the process is slow for open-gradient field configurations. In order to increase the throughput, periodic arrangements of the unit magnets were considered, consisting of commercially available Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets and soft steel flux return pieces. The magnet design is uniquely suitable for multiplexing by magnet tessellation, here meaning the tiling of the magnet assembly cross-sectional plane by periodic repetition of the magnet and the flow channel shapes. The periodic pattern of magnet magnetizations allows a reduction of the magnetic material per channel with minimal distortion of the field cylindrical symmetry inside the magnet apertures. A number of such magnet patterns are investigated for separator performance, size and economy with the goal of designing an open-gradient magnetic separator capable of reducing the RBC number concentration a hundred-fold in 1 mL whole blood per hour. - Highlights: • Simple geometry of commercial, off-the-shelf NdFeB magnet blocks is amenable to generate high fields and open gradients. • Periodic pattern of permanent magnet blocks (tessellation) reduces the number of blocks per separation channel and improves the efficiency of separator design. • Split-flow lateral transport thin (SPLITT) fractionation model predicts 100-fold reduction of red blood cells from 1 mL whole blood sample in 1 h, suitable for laboratory medicine applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buis, N.
1979-01-01
A large number of experimental results are summarized obtained in an apparatus designed for the measurement of magnetization under high pressures (up to 5k bar gas pressure), at temperatures from 4.2K to room temperature and in magnetic fields up to 5.1 T. Two alloy systems studied were Zr (Fesub(1-x)Cosub(x)) 2 and Y(Fesub(x)Cosub(1-x)) 2 and no consistent picture could be deduced from the large pressure effects on the magnetization. Apparently, one cannot apply the model for weak itinerant ferromagnetism on Zr(Fesub(1-x)Cosub(x)) 2 or a simple giant moment model on Y(Fesub(x)Cosub(1-x)) 2 with small iron content, because the magnetic behaviour of both systems is too complicated. (C.F.)
Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field
Ratushnaya, Valeria
2016-12-17
We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.
Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field
Ratushnaya, Valeria; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-01-01
We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.
Extinction of photoemission of Mn-Doped ZnS nanofluid in weak magnetic field
Vu, Anh-Tuan; Bui, Hong-Van; Pham, Van-Ben; Le, Van-Hong; Hoang, Nam-Nhat
2016-08-01
The observation of extinction of photoluminescence of Mn-doped ZnS nanofluid under applying of weak magnetic field is reported. At a constant field of 270 Gauss and above, the exponential decays of photoluminescent intensity was observed in disregard of field direction. About 50% extinction was achieved after 30 minute magnetization and a total extinction after 1 hour. The memory effect preserved for more than 2 hours at room temperature. This extinction was observed in a system with no clear ferromagnetic behavior.
Superconducting Film Flux Transformer for a Sensor of a Weak Magnetic Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichkitidze, L; Mironyuk, A
2012-01-01
The object of study is a superconducting film flux transformer in the form of a square shaped loop with the tapering operative strip used in a sensor of a weak magnetic field. The magnetosensitive film element based on the giant magnetoresistance effect is overlapped with the tapering operative strip of the flux transformer; it is separated from the latter by the insulator film. It is shown that the topological nanostructuring of the operative strip of the flux transformer increases its gain factor by one or more orders of magnitude, i.e. increases its efficiency, which leads to a significant improvement of important parameters of a magnetic-field sensor.
Self excitation of second harmonic ion-acoustic waves in a weakly magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukabayashi, I.; Yagishita, T.; Nakamura, Y.
1994-01-01
Electrostatic ion-acoustic waves in a weakly magnetized plasma are investigated experimentally. It is observed that finite amplitudes ion acoustic waves excite a new second harmonic wave train behind the initial ion waves excite a new second harmonic wave train behind the initial ion waves in a parallel magnetic field. The excitation of higher harmonic waves can be explained by non-linearity of finite amplitude ion-acoustic waves. The newly excited second harmonics waves satisfy a dispersion relation of the ion-acoustic waves. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs
Chiral-model of weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of octet baryons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubodera, K.; Kohyama, Y.; Tsushima, K.; Yamaguchi, T.
1989-01-01
For baryon spectroscopy, magnetic moments and weak interaction form factors provide valuable information, and the impressive amount of available experimental data on these quantities for the octet baryons invites detailed investigations. The authors of this paper have made extensive studies of the weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of the octet baryons within the framework of the volume-type cloudy-bag model (v-type CBM). The clouds of all octet mesons have been included. Furthermore, we have taken into account in a unified framework various effects that were so far only individually discussed in the literature. Thus, the gluonic effects, center-of-mass (CM0 corrections, and recoil corrections have been included). In this talk, after giving a brief summary of some salient features of the results, we discuss a very interesting application of our model to the problem of the spin content of nucleons
Ion-collecting sphere in a stationary, weakly magnetized plasma with finite shielding length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H
2007-01-01
Collisionless ion collection by a negatively biased stationary spherical probe in a finite shielding length plasma is investigated using the Particle in Cell code SCEPTIC, in the presence of a weak magnetic field B. The overall effect of the magnetic field is to reduce the ion current, linearly in |B| for weak enough fields, with a slope steepness increasing with the electron Debye length. The angular current distribution and space-charge buildup strongly depend on the focusing properties of the probe, hence on its potential and the plasma shielding length. In particular, it is found that the concavity of the ion collection flux distribution can reverse sign when the electron Debye length is comparable to or larger than the probe radius (λ De ∼> r p ), provided the ion temperature is much lower than the probe bias (T i p )
Nonlinear localized excitations in magnets with a weak exchange interaction as a soliton problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gvozdikova, M.V.; Kovalev, A.S.
1998-01-01
The spin dynamics of soliton-like localized excitations in a discrete ferromagnet chain with an easy axis anisotropy and a weak exchange interaction is studied. The connection of these excitations with longwave magnetic solitons is discussed. The localized excitation frequency dependence on exchange interaction is found for a fixed number of spin deviation. It is shown that this dependence modifies essentially when the exchange interaction becomes comparable with an anisotropy value
Optical Orientation of Mn2+ Ions in GaAs in Weak Longitudinal Magnetic Fields
Akimov, I. A.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Sapega, V. F.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.
2011-04-01
We report on optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in bulk GaAs subject to weak longitudinal magnetic fields (B≤100mT). A manganese spin polarization of 25% is directly evaluated by using spin-flip Raman scattering. The dynamical Mn2+ polarization occurs due to the s-d exchange interaction with optically oriented conduction band electrons. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals a nontrivial electron spin dynamics, where the oriented Mn2+ ions tend to stabilize the electron spins.
Magnetic-flux dynamics of high-Tc superconductors in weak magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Il’ichev, E. V.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde
1994-01-01
Aspects of magnetic-flux dynamics in different types of samples of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Ox have been investigated in magnetic fields below 1 Oe and at 77 K. The experiments were carried out in an arrangement including a field coil, a flat sample perpendicular to the field...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smitha, H.N.; Nagendra, K.N.; Sampoorna, M.; Stenflo, J.O.
2013-01-01
An expression for the partial frequency redistribution (PRD) matrix for line scattering in a two-term atom, which includes the J-state interference between its fine structure line components is derived. The influence of collisions (both elastic and inelastic) and an external magnetic field on the scattering process is taken into account. The lower term is assumed to be unpolarized and infinitely sharp. The linear Zeeman regime in which the Zeeman splitting is much smaller than the fine structure splitting is considered. The inelastic collision rates between the different levels are included in our treatment. We account for the depolarization caused by the collisions coupling the fine structure states of the upper term, but neglect the polarization transfer between the fine structure states. When the fine structure splitting goes to zero, we recover the redistribution matrix that represents the scattering on a two-level atom (which exhibits only m-state interference—namely the Hanle effect). The way in which the multipolar index of the scattering atom enters into the expression for the redistribution matrix through the collisional branching ratios is discussed. The properties of the redistribution matrix are explored for a single scattering process for a L=0→1→0 scattering transition with S=1/2 (a hypothetical doublet centered at 5000 Å and 5001 Å). Further, a method for solving the Hanle radiative transfer equation for a two-term atom in the presence of collisions, PRD, and J-state interference is developed. The Stokes profiles emerging from an isothermal constant property medium are computed. -- Highlights: ► Polarized partial frequency redistribution matrix (PRDM) for two-term atom is derived. ► PRDM includes collisions heuristically and magnetic fields in linear Zeeman regime. ► A method to include this PRDM into the radiative transfer equation is presented. ► The transfer equation is solved both for the magnetic and non-magnetic cases. ► The
Parallel Simulation of HGMS of Weakly Magnetic Nanoparticles in Irrotational Flow of Inviscid Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanok Hournkumnuard
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The process of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS using a microferromagnetic wire for capturing weakly magnetic nanoparticles in the irrotational flow of inviscid fluid is simulated by using parallel algorithm developed based on openMP. The two-dimensional problem of particle transport under the influences of magnetic force and fluid flow is considered in an annular domain surrounding the wire with inner radius equal to that of the wire and outer radius equal to various multiples of wire radius. The differential equations governing particle transport are solved numerically as an initial and boundary values problem by using the finite-difference method. Concentration distribution of the particles around the wire is investigated and compared with some previously reported results and shows the good agreement between them. The results show the feasibility of accumulating weakly magnetic nanoparticles in specific regions on the wire surface which is useful for applications in biomedical and environmental works. The speedup of parallel simulation ranges from 1.8 to 21 depending on the number of threads and the domain problem size as well as the number of iterations. With the nature of computing in the application and current multicore technology, it is observed that 4–8 threads are sufficient to obtain the optimized speedup.
Dispersion functions for weakly relativistic magnetized plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaelzer, R.; Schneider, R.S.; Ziebell, L.F.
1995-01-01
The study of wave propagation and absorption inhomogeneous plasmas can be made by using a formulation in which the dielectric properties of the plasma are described by an effective dielectric tensor which incorporates inhomogeneity effects, inserted into a dispersion relation which is formally the same as that of an homogeneous plasma. We have recently utilized this formalism in the study of electron cyclotron absorption in inhomogeneous media, both in the case of homogeneous magnetic field and in the case of inhomogeneous magnetic field. In the present paper we resume the study of the case with inhomogeneous magnetic field, in order to introduce a generalized dispersion function useful for the case of a Maxwellian plasma, and discuss some of its properties. (author). 10 refs
Kinetic electromagnetic instabilities in an ITB plasma with weak magnetic shear
Chen, W.; Yu, D. L.; Ma, R. R.; Shi, P. W.; Li, Y. Y.; Shi, Z. B.; Du, H. R.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, M.; Yu, L. M.; Yuan, B. S.; Li, Y. G.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhong, W. L.; Qiu, Z. Y.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Wei, H. L.; Cao, J. Y.; Song, S. D.; Song, X. M.; Liu, Yi.; Yang, Q. W.; Xu, M.; Duan, X. R.
2018-05-01
Kinetic Alfvén and pressure gradient driven instabilities are very common in magnetized plasmas, both in space and the laboratory. These instabilities will be easily excited by energetic particles (EPs) and/or pressure gradients in present-day fusion and future burning plasmas. This will not only cause the loss and redistribution of the EPs, but also affect plasma confinement and transport. Alfvénic ion temperature gradient (AITG) instabilities with the frequency ω_BAE<ω<ω_TAE and the toroidal mode numbers n=2{-}8 are found to be unstable in NBI internal transport barrier plasmas with weak shear and low pressure gradients, where ω_BAE and ω_TAE are the frequencies of the beta- and toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes, respectively. The measured results are consistent with the general fishbone-like dispersion relation and kinetic ballooning mode equation, and the modes become more unstable the smaller the magnetic shear is in low pressure gradient regions. The interaction between AITG activity and EPs also needs to be investigated with greater attention in fusion plasmas, such as ITER (Tomabechi and The ITER Team 1991 Nucl. Fusion 31 1135), since these fluctuations can be enhanced by weak magnetic shear and EPs.
Global, finite energy, weak solutions for the NLS with rough, time-dependent magnetic potentials
Antonelli, Paolo; Michelangeli, Alessandro; Scandone, Raffaele
2018-04-01
We prove the existence of weak solutions in the space of energy for a class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the presence of a external, rough, time-dependent magnetic potential. Under our assumptions, it is not possible to study the problem by means of usual arguments like resolvent techniques or Fourier integral operators, for example. We use a parabolic regularisation, and we solve the approximating Cauchy problem. This is achieved by obtaining suitable smoothing estimates for the dissipative evolution. The total mass and energy bounds allow to extend the solution globally in time. We then infer sufficient compactness properties in order to produce a global-in-time finite energy weak solution to our original problem.
Effect of weak magnetic field on the grain size of electrodeposited nickel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, M.S.; Gul, N.
2007-01-01
Effect of weak magnetic field on the electro-deposition of nickel onto copper electrode has been investigated. The working conditions were optimized through adjustment of cathodic current density (CCD), deposition time, bath temperature and pH of the medium. For electro-deposition in the absence of magnetic field, the optimum conditions comprised of pH = 4.0+- 0.5, average CCD = 22.5 +- 0.5 mA cm/sup -2/ and bath temperature in the range from 25 to 30 degree C. The same conditions were maintained for the electrodeposition while applying magnetic field of 0.75 kG. The morphological features of the Ni-deposits on copper cathode were compared for the two cases. The applied magnetic field not only enhanced the amount of nickel deposition but also improved the quality of the deposit. Surface morphology of the electro-deposited nickel has been monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the preliminary investigation has shown that the grain size decreased with the applied magnetic field case. One possible explanation to this behavior is the convection flow of cations close to the electrode surface induced by the Lorentz force which also influences the ion-migration. (author)
Weak ferrimagnetism, compensation point and magnetization reversal in Ni(HCOO)2x2H2O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kageyama, H.; Khomskii, D.I.; Levitin, R.Z.; Vasiliev, A.N.
2003-01-01
Nickel (II) format dihydrate Ni(HCOO) 2 x2H 2 O shows peculiar magnetic response at T N =15.5 K. The magnitude of weak magnetic moment increases initially below T N , equals zero at T*=8.5 K and increases again at lowering temperature. The sign of low field magnetization at any given temperature is determined by the sample's magnetic prehistory and the signs are opposite to each other at T N . This behavior suggests that Ni(HCOO) 2 x2H 2 O is a weak ferrimagnet and T* is a compensation point
Toward a measurement of weak magnetism in {sup 6}He decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huyan, X.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O., E-mail: naviliat@nscl.msu.edu; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Hughes, M.; Liddick, S.; Minamisono, K.; Noji, S.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Simon, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (United States); Voytas, P. [Wittenberg University, Department of Physics (United States); Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (United States)
2016-12-15
Sensitive searches for exotic scalar and tensor couplings in nuclear and neutron decays involve precision measurements of the shape of the β-energy spectrum. We have performed a high statistics measurement of the β-energy spectrum in the allowed Gamow-Teller decay of {sup 6}He with the aim to first find evidence of the contribution due to the weak magnetism form factor. We review here the motivation, describe the principle of the measurement, summarize the theoretical corrections to the allowed phase space, and anticipate the expected statistical precision.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Askerov, B. M.; Figarova, R.; Guseynov, G.I.
2012-01-01
Full Text : The transverse magnetoresistance in superlattices with the cosine dispersion law of conduction electrons in a case, when a weak magnetic field in plane of layer at scattering of the charge carriers of impurity ions has been studied. It has been shown that in a quasi-two-dimensional case the magnetoresistance was positive, while in a quasi-three-dimensional case can become negative depending of a degree of mini-band filling. Such behavior of magnetoresistance, apparently, has been related to presence in a mini-band of region with the negative effective mass
Magnetic static and scaling properties of the weak random-axis magnet (DyxY1-x)Al2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gehring, P.M.; Salamon, M.B.; del Moral, A.; Arnaudas, J.I.
1990-01-01
The effects of a random component of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy on the magnetic properties and critical behavior of polycrystalline DyAl 2 have been investigated using dc magnetic measurements. Random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) is produced by site-diluting ferromagnetic DyAl 2 with the nonmagnetic, isomorphic intermetallic YAl 2 . Dilution distorts the cubic Laves-phase unit cell because of a slight lattice mismatch thereby lowering the local crystal symmetry in a random fashion. Additional contributions to the RMA come from spin-orbit scattering by the conduction electrons. Hysteresis loops display little remanence and very small coercive fields, suggesting a weak RMA. This is consistent with estimates of the RMA strength D obtained using an approach of Chudnovsky et al. The magnetization at high temperatures (T>4T c ) is well described by a Curie-Weiss law. The paramagnetic Curie temperatures are positive, implying an average ferromagnetic exchange coupling between Dy ions, and increase with x. The paramagnetic moment shows no evidence of quenching across the series, thus confirming the well-localized nature of the 4f electronic orbitals. Low-field thermal scans of the bulk dc magnetization show no sign of a spontaneous moment for Dy concentrations 0.10≤x≤0.90, yet a sharp increase in the magnetization occurs at a temperature T c that increases with x. A ferromagnetic scaling analysis applied to the line of transitions at T c results in a surprisingly good collapse of the magnetization data. By extension of prior theoretical work of Aharony and Pytte, a direct connection can be made between pure and RMA exponents, which gives remarkable agreement with the experimental values
The effect of an accretion disk on coherent pulsed emission from weakly magnetized neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asaoka, Ikuko; Hoshi, Reiun.
1989-01-01
Using a simple model for hot spots formed on the magnetic polar regions we calculate the X-ray pulse profiles expected from bright low-mass X-ray binaries. We assume that neutron stars in close binary systems are surrounded by accretion disks extending down in the vicinity of their surfaces. Even partial eclipses of a hot spot by the accretion disk change the coherent pulsed fraction and, in some cases, the phase of pulsations by almost 180deg. Coherent pulsations are clearly seen even for sufficiently compact model neutron stars, if the hot spots emit isotropic or fan-beam radiation. In the case of pencil-beam radiation, coherent pulsations are also seen if the cap-opening angle is less than ∼60deg, while the inclination angle is larger than 68deg. Gravitational lensing alone does not smear coherent pulsations in moderately weak magnetized neutron stars in the presence of an absorbing accretion disk. (author)
Cellular target of weak magnetic fields: ionic conduction along actin filaments of microvilli.
Gartzke, Joachim; Lange, Klaus
2002-11-01
The interaction of weak electromagnetic fields (EMF) with living cells is a most important but still unresolved biophysical problem. For this interaction, thermal and other types of noise appear to cause severe restrictions in the action of weak signals on relevant components of the cell. A recently presented general concept of regulation of ion and substrate pathways through microvilli provides a possible theoretical basis for the comprehension of physiological effects of even extremely low magnetic fields. The actin-based core of microfilaments in microvilli is proposed to represent a cellular interaction site for magnetic fields. Both the central role of F-actin in Ca2+ signaling and its polyelectrolyte nature eliciting specific ion conduction properties render the microvillar actin filament bundle an ideal interaction site for magnetic and electric fields. Ion channels at the tip of microvilli are connected with the cytoplasm by a bundle of microfilaments forming a diffusion barrier system. Because of its polyelectrolyte nature, the microfilament core of microvilli allows Ca2+ entry into the cytoplasm via nonlinear cable-like cation conduction through arrays of condensed ion clouds. The interaction of ion clouds with periodically applied EMFs and field-induced cation pumping through the cascade of potential barriers on the F-actin polyelectrolyte follows well-known physical principles of ion-magnetic field (MF) interaction and signal discrimination as described by the stochastic resonance and Brownian motor hypotheses. The proposed interaction mechanism is in accord with our present knowledge about Ca2+ signaling as the biological main target of MFs and the postulated extreme sensitivity for coherent excitation by very low field energies within specific amplitude and frequency windows. Microvillar F-actin bundles shielded by a lipid membrane appear to function like electronic integration devices for signal-to-noise enhancement; the influence of coherent signals
Weak nonlinear analysis of magneto–convection under magnetic field modulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhadauria, B S; Kiran, Palle
2014-01-01
An analytic study of heat transport in an electrically conducting fluid layer is performed under a non-uniform time-dependent magnetic field. The applied vertical magnetic field consists of two parts: a constant part and a time-dependent periodic part, which varies sinusoidally with time. A weakly nonlinear theory has been considered to investigate heat transfer in the fluid layer. The heat transfer coefficient is obtained by deriving the non-autonomous Ginzburg–Landau equation for an amplitude of convection. This amplitude of convection is derived by using NDSolve Mathematica 8, and the results are verified using Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of various system parameters and the effect of each parameter on heat transport is reported in detail. The effect of magnetic Prandtl number Pm, amplitude of modulation δ is to enhance the heat transfer. The Chandrasekhar number Q, modulation frequency ω is to stabilize the system. Further, it is found that magnetic modulation can be used effectively in either enhancing the heat transfer or diminishing it. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moral, A. del; Azanza, María J.
2015-01-01
A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate (“frequency”), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca 2+ Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD–CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD–CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B 0 ≅0.2–15 mT) AC-MF of frequency f M =50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation. - Highlights: • Neuron pair synchronization under low frequency alternating (AC) magnetic field (MF). • Superdiamagnetism and Ca 2+ Coulomb explosion for AC MF effect in synchronized frequency. • Membrane lipid electrical quadrupolar pair interaction as synchronization mechamism. • Good agreement of model with electrophysiological experiments on mollusc Helix neurons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moral, A. del, E-mail: delmoral@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain); Azanza, María J., E-mail: mjazanza@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain)
2015-03-01
A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate (“frequency”), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD–CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD–CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B{sub 0}≅0.2–15 mT) AC-MF of frequency f{sub M}=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation. - Highlights: • Neuron pair synchronization under low frequency alternating (AC) magnetic field (MF). • Superdiamagnetism and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion for AC MF effect in synchronized frequency. • Membrane lipid electrical quadrupolar pair interaction as synchronization mechamism. • Good agreement of model with electrophysiological experiments on mollusc Helix neurons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arroyo-Urena, M.A.; Tavares-Velasco, G. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Puebla, PUE (Mexico); Hernandez-Tome, G. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Puebla, PUE (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico City (Mexico)
2017-04-15
We obtain analytical expressions, both in terms of parametric integrals and Passarino-Veltman scalar functions, for the one-loop contributions to the anomalous weak magnetic dipole moment (AWMDM) of a charged lepton in the framework of the simplest little Higgs model (SLHM). Our results are general and can be useful to compute the weak properties of a charged lepton in other extensions of the standard model (SM). As a by-product we obtain generic contributions to the anomalous magnetic dipole moment (AMDM), which agree with previous results. We then study numerically the potential contributions from this model to the τ lepton AMDM and AWMDM for values of the parameter space consistent with current experimental data. It is found that they depend mainly on the energy scale f at which the global symmetry is broken and the t{sub β} parameter, whereas there is little sensitivity to a mild change in the values of other parameters of the model. While the τ AMDM is of the order of 10{sup -9}, the real (imaginary) part of its AWMDM is of the order of 10{sup -9} (10{sup -10}). These values seem to be out of the reach of the expected experimental sensitivity of future experiments. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Hauyu B., E-mail: chingtaochung@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2017-04-01
We present Submillimeter Array 880 μ m dust polarization observations of six massive dense cores in the DR21 filament. The dust polarization shows complex magnetic field structures in the massive dense cores with sizes of 0.1 pc, in contrast to the ordered magnetic fields of the parsec-scale filament. The major axes of the massive dense cores appear to be aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic fields of the filament, indicating that the parsec-scale magnetic fields play an important role in the formation of the massive dense cores. However, the correlation between the major axes of the cores and the magnetic fields of the cores is less significant, suggesting that during the core formation, the magnetic fields below 0.1 pc scales become less important than the magnetic fields above 0.1 pc scales in supporting a core against gravity. Our analysis of the angular dispersion functions of the observed polarization segments yields a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength of 0.4–1.7 mG for the massive dense cores. We estimate the kinematic, magnetic, and gravitational virial parameters of the filament and the cores. The virial parameters show that the gravitational energy in the filament dominates magnetic and kinematic energies, while the kinematic energy dominates in the cores. Our work suggests that although magnetic fields may play an important role in a collapsing filament, the kinematics arising from gravitational collapse must become more important than magnetic fields during the evolution from filaments to massive dense cores.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morris, D.A.
1988-01-01
We examine contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon from weak-isosinglet squarks found in E 6 superstring models. We find that such contributions are up to 2 orders of magnitude larger than those previously calculated and correspondingly require smaller Yukawa couplings in order to maintain agreement with the measured muon anomalous magnetic moment
Phonons and magnetic excitation correlations in weak ferromagnetic YCrO{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Yogesh; Sahoo, Satyaprakash, E-mail: satya504@gmail.com, E-mail: guptaraj@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu; Perez, William; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: satya504@gmail.com, E-mail: guptaraj@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Mukherjee, Somdutta [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Gupta, Rajeev, E-mail: satya504@gmail.com, E-mail: guptaraj@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Department of Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Garg, Ashish [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Chatterjee, Ratnamala [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India)
2014-05-14
Here, we report the temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic studies on orthorhombically distorted perovskite YCrO{sub 3} over a temperature range of 20–300 K. Temperature dependence of DC-magnetization measurements under field cooled and zero field cooled protocols confirmed a Néel transition at T{sub N} ∼ 142 K. Magnetization isotherms recorded at 125 K show a clear loop opening without any magnetization saturation up to 20 kOe, indicating a coexistence of antiferromagnetic (AFM) and weak ferromagnetic (WFM) phases. Estimation of exchange constants using mean-field approximation further confirm the presence of a complex magnetic phase below T{sub N}. Temperature evolution of Raman line-shape parameters of the selected modes (associated with the octahedral rotation and A(Y)-shift in the unit-cell) reveal an anomalous phonon shift near T{sub N}. An additional phonon anomaly was identified at T{sup *} ∼ 60 K, which could possibly be attributed to the change in the spin dynamics. Moreover, the positive and negative shifts in Raman frequencies between T{sub N} and T{sup *} suggest competing WFM and AFM interactions. A close match between the phonon frequency of B{sub 3g} (3)-octahedral rotation mode with the square of sublattice magnetization between T{sub N} and T{sup *} is indicative of the presence of spin-phonon coupling in multiferroic YCrO{sub 3}.
Kowalska, Patrycja; Peeks, Martin D; Roliński, Tomasz; Anderson, Harry L; Waluk, Jacek
2017-12-13
We compare the absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of a series of porphyrin oligomers - dimer, tetramer, and hexamer - bound in a linear or cyclic fashion. The MCD signal is extremely weak for low energy transitions in the linear oligomers, but it is amplified when the cyclic porphyrin hexamer binds a template, restricting rotational freedom. The appearance of Faraday A terms in the MCD spectra demonstrates the presence of a magnetic moment, and thus, uncompensated electronic current. The value of the excited state magnetic moment estimated from the A term is very low compared with those of monomeric porphyrins, which confirms the nonaromatic character of the cyclic array and the lack of a global ring current in the ground state of the neutral nanoring. DFT calculations predict the absorption and MCD patterns reasonably well, but fail to reproduce the MCD sign inversion observed in substituted monomeric zinc porphyrins ("soft" chromophores). Interestingly, a correct sign pattern is predicted by INDO/S calculations. Analysis of the MCD spectra of the monomeric porphyrin unit allowed us to distinguish between two close-lying lowest energy transitions, which some previous assignments placed further apart. The present results prove the usefulness of MCD not only for deconvolution and assignment of electronic transitions, but also as a sensitive tool for detecting electronic ring currents.
Parametrically induced low-frequency waves in weakly inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesic, S.
1981-01-01
The linear dispersion relation governing the parametric interaction of a lower hybrid pump wave with a weakly-inhomogeneous current carrying hot plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is derived and solved numerically. The stability boundaries are delineated over a wide range in the k-space. The frequency and growth rate of decay instabilities are calculated for plasma parameters relevant to lower hybrid plasma heating experiments. The parametric excitation of drift waves and ion cyclotron current instabilities is discussed. In the low-density plasma region low minimum thresholds and high growth rates are obtained for the pump decay into ion cyclotron and nonresonant quasimodes. The spatial amplification of hot ion Bernstein waves and nonresonant quasimodes dominate in the plasma core (ω 0 /ωsub(LH) < 2). The presented theoretical results are in qualitative agreement with current LH plasma heating experiments. (author)
Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K
2006-01-01
The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here
Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2006-10-15
The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yusuke Imaeda
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In the tandem planet formation regime, planets form at two distinct sites where solid particles are densely accumulated due to the on/off state of the magnetorotational instability (MRI. We found that tandem planet formation can reproduce the solid component distribution of the Solar System and tends to produce a smaller number of large planets through continuous pebble flow into the planet formation sites. In the present paper, we investigate the dependence of tandem planet formation on the vertical magnetic field of the protoplanetary disk. We calculated two cases of Bz=3.4×10−3 G and Bz=3.4×10−5 G at 100 AU as well as the canonical case of Bz=3.4×10−4 G. We found that tandem planet formation holds up well in the case of the strong magnetic field (Bz=3.4×10−3 G. On the other hand, in the case of a weak magnetic field (Bz=3.4×10−5 G at 100 AU, a new regime of planetary growth is realized: the planets grow independently at different places in the dispersed area of the MRI-suppressed region of r=8−30 AU at a lower accretion rate of M˙<10−7.4 M⊙yr−1. We call this the “dispersed planet formation” regime. This may lead to a system with a larger number of smaller planets that gain high eccentricity through mutual collisions.
Weak Static and Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Affect In Vitro Pollen Germination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucietta Betti
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This study concerns the effects of a weak static magnetic field (MF at 10 μT oriented downward, combined with a 16-Hz sinusoidal MF (10 μT, on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa. Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF exposure was carried out by a signal generator unit connected to a copper wire solenoid, inside which samples where placed. Two different kinds of treatment were performed: direct and indirect. In the direct treatment, pollen samples were directly exposed during rehydration, germination, or both. In the indirect treatment, the pollen growth medium was prepared with water aliquots (at standard temperature of 20°C and pH = 6.74 that were exposed before use for 8 or 24 h. The main purpose of our research was to identify a biological marker (in vitro pollen germination in a stressing growth medium without Ca2+ susceptible to the effects of direct or indirect ELF-MF exposure. The working variable was the pollen germination rate, as detected blind after 3 h 30 min by an Axioplan microscope. A directionally consistent recovery of germination percentage was observed both for direct exposure (during germination and both rehydration and germination phases and water-mediated exposure (with water exposed for 24 h and immediately used. Our results suggest that the ELF-MF treatment might partially remove the inhibitory effect caused by the lack of Ca2+ in the culture medium, inducing a release of internal Ca2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of pollen plasma membrane. Although preliminary, findings seem to indicate the in vitro pollen performance as adequate to study the effects of ELF-MFs on living matter.
Effects of weak magnetic fields on post-implantation damage in superconducting oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khait, Y.L.
1996-01-01
Experimentally verifiable effects of weak permanent magnetic fields (PMF's) acting during ion implantation in high-T c superconducting (HTSC) materials at T∼300 K on post-implantation damage (PID) and material parameters are considered. The presence of PMF's of H∼10 3 Oe during ion implantation can enlarge substantially the PID in HTSC materials implanted with ions of moderate energies (e.g. 200-400 keV) and dosage (10 11- 10 12 cm -3 ) at room temperature. The PMF-induced increase in the radiation damage causes the corresponding enhancement in the material resistivity R and reduction in the critical current j cir (measured after the cooling of the HTSC material down to T (L) c after the ion implantation). This is an extension of the PMF effects found experimentally (and explained theoretically) in semiconductors in our previous work. The experimentally verifiable PMF effects on the defect (atomic) migration and radiation damage is a generic consequence of the kinetic electron-related theory of atomic rate processes in solids. The theory links the PMF effects with electron transitions occurring in the nanometer vicinity of atoms overcoming energy barriers which affect exponentially rates of atomic (defect) diffusion. The magnetic field can enhance the number of downward electron transitions that accompany atomic (defect) jumps over energy barriers and synchronize with the jumps. This enhances exponentially the rates of defect migration out of thermal spikes that prevents the defects from fast recombination, and thus, the PMF increases the PID and changes correspondingly R and j cir . (orig.)
Weak electric and magnetic form factors for semileptonic baryon decays in an independent-quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Dash, B.K.; Das, M.
1985-01-01
Weak electric and magnetic form factors for semileptonic baryon decays are calculated in a relativistic quark model based on the Dirac equation with the independent-quark confining potential of the form (1+γ 0 )V(r). The values obtained for (g 2 /g 1 ), for various decay modes in a model with V(r) = a'r 2 , are roughly of the same order as those predicted in the MIT bag model. However in a similar model with V(r) = (a/sup nu+1/r/sup ν/+V 0 ), the (g 2 /g 1 ) values agree with the nonrelativistic results of Donoghue and Holstein. Incorporating phenomenologically the effect of nonzero g 2 in the ratio (g 1 /f 1 ), we have estimated the values for (f 2 /f 1 ) for various semileptonic transitions. It is observed that SU(3)-symmetry breaking does not generate significant departures in (f 2 /f 1 ) values from the corresponding Cabibbo values
Transport and performance in DIII-D discharges with weak or negative central magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenfield, C.M.; Schissel, D.P.; Stallard, B.W.
1996-12-01
Discharges exhibiting the highest plasma energy and fusion reactivity yet realized in the DIII-D tokamak have been produced by combining the benefits of a hollow or weakly sheared central current profile with a high confinement (H-mode) edge. In these discharges, low power neutral beam injection heats the electrons during the initial current ramp, and open-quotes freezes inclose quotes a hollow or flat central current profile. When the neutral beam power is increased, formation of a region of reduced transport and highly peaked profiles in the core often results. Shortly before these plasmas would otherwise disrupt, a transition is triggered from the low (L-mode) to high (H-mode) confinement regimes, thereby broadening the pressure profile and avoiding the disruption. These plasmas continue to evolve until the high performance phase is terminated nondisruptively at much higher β T (ratio of plasma pressure to toroidal magnetic field pressure) than would be attainable with peaked profiles and an L-mode edge. Transport analysis indicates that in this phase, the ion diffusivity is equivalent to that predicted by Chang-Hinton neoclassical theory over the entire plasma volume. This result is consistent with suppression of turbulence by locally enhanced E x B flow shear, and is supported by observations of reduced fluctuations in the plasma. Calculations of performance in these discharges extrapolated to a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture indicates that such plasmas could produce a DT fusion gain Q DT = 0.32
Diffusion in a tokamak with helical magnetic cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, Masahiro
1975-05-01
In a tokamak with helical magnetic cells produced by a resonant helical magnetic field, diffusion in the collisional regime is studied. The diffusion coefficient is greatly enhanced near the resonant surface even for a weak helical magnetic field. A theoretical model for disruptive instabilities based on the enhanced transport due to helical magnetic cells is discussed. This may explain experiments of the tokamak with resonant helical fields qualitatively. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feu, W H M; Villas-Boas, J M; Cury, L A; Guimaraes, P S S; Vieira, G S; Tanaka, R Y; Passaro, A; Pires, M P; Landi, S M; Souza, P L
2009-01-01
A study of magnetotunnelling in weakly coupled multi-quantum wells reveals a new phenomenon which constitutes a kind of memory effect in the sense that the electrical resistance of the sample after application of the magnetic field is different from before and contains the information that a magnetic field was applied previously. The change in the electric field domain configuration triggered by the magnetic field was compared for two samples, one strictly periodic and another with a thicker quantum well inserted into the periodic structure. For applied biases at which two electric field domains are present in the sample, as the magnetic field is increased a succession of discontinuous reductions in the electrical resistance is observed due to the magnetic field-induced rearrangement of the electric field domains, i.e. the domain boundary jumps from well to well as the magnetic field is changed. The memory effect is revealed for the aperiodic structure as the electric field domain configuration triggered by the magnetic field remains stable after the field is reduced back to zero. This effect is related to the multi-stability in the current-voltage characteristics observed in some weakly coupled multi-quantum well structures.
Activating persulfate by Fe⁰ coupling with weak magnetic field: performance and mechanism.
Xiong, Xinmei; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Naiyun; Shen, Jimin; Li, Jialing; Guan, Xiaohong
2014-10-01
Weak magnetic field (WMF) and Fe(0) were proposed to activate PS synergistically (WMF-Fe(0)/PS) to degrade dyes and aromatic contaminants. The removal rates of orange G (OG) by WMF-Fe(0)/PS generally decreased with increasing initial pH (3.0-10.0) and increased with increasing Fe(0) (0.5-3.0 mM) or PS dosages (0.5-3.0 mM). Compared to its counterpart without WMF, the WMF-Fe(0)/PS process could induce a 5.4-28.2 fold enhancement in the removal rate of OG under different conditions. Moreover, the application of WMF significantly enhanced the decolorization rate and the mineralization of OG. The degradation rates of caffeine, 4-nitrophenol, benzotriazole and diuron by Fe(0)/PS were improved by 2.1-11.1 fold due to the superimposed WMF. Compared to many other sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies under similar reaction conditions, WMF-Fe(0)/PS technology could degrade selected organic contaminants with much greater rates. Sulfate radical was identified to be the primary radical species responsible for the OG degradation at pH 7.0 in WMF-Fe(0)/PS process. This study unraveled that the presence of WMF accelerated the corrosion rate of Fe(0) and thus promoted the release of Fe(2+), which induced the increased production of sulfate radicals from PS and promoted the degradation of organic contaminants. Employing WMF to enhance oxidation capacity of Fe(0)/PS is a novel, efficient, promising and environmental-friendly method since it does not need extra energy and costly reagents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Impact of a primordial magnetic field on cosmic microwave background B modes with weak lensing
Yamazaki, Dai G.
2018-05-01
We discuss the manner in which the primordial magnetic field (PMF) suppresses the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B mode due to the weak-lensing (WL) effect. The WL effect depends on the lensing potential (LP) caused by matter perturbations, the distribution of which at cosmological scales is given by the matter power spectrum (MPS). Therefore, the WL effect on the CMB B mode is affected by the MPS. Considering the effect of the ensemble average energy density of the PMF, which we call "the background PMF," on the MPS, the amplitude of MPS is suppressed in the wave number range of k >0.01 h Mpc-1 . The MPS affects the LP and the WL effect in the CMB B mode; however, the PMF can damp this effect. Previous studies of the CMB B mode with the PMF have only considered the vector and tensor modes. These modes boost the CMB B mode in the multipole range of ℓ>1000 , whereas the background PMF damps the CMB B mode owing to the WL effect in the entire multipole range. The matter density in the Universe controls the WL effect. Therefore, when we constrain the PMF and the matter density parameters from cosmological observational data sets, including the CMB B mode, we expect degeneracy between these parameters. The CMB B mode also provides important information on the background gravitational waves, inflation theory, matter density fluctuations, and the structure formations at the cosmological scale through the cosmological parameter search. If we study these topics and correctly constrain the cosmological parameters from cosmological observations, including the CMB B mode, we need to correctly consider the background PMF.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ponomarenko, O.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A new method for relatively simple transformation of weakly magnetic minerals (goethite (α-FeOOH and hematite (α-Fe2O3 into strongly magnetic mineral (magnetite (Fe3O4 was developed. It was shown, that transformation of structure and magnetic characteristics of go ethite and hematite are realized in the presence of starch at relatively low temperatures (in the range of 300—600 °С. Obtained results open up new possibilities for development of effective technologies for oxidized iron ore beneficiation.
Observation of Ion Acoustic Waves Excited by Drift Waves in a Weakly Magnetized Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukabayashi, Isao; Sato, Sugiya; Nakamura, Yoshiharu
2003-01-01
Spontaneous fluctuations excited by drift waves are investigated experimentally in magnetic multi-pole plasma. The magnetic multi-pole has been widely used in DP devices and so on. It was observed that the high level of density fluctuations was generated by the drift instability near a magnetic multi-pole or a dipole magnet. The waves propagate to the middle plasma region forming the envelope train waves
Ageing and memory effects in the weak random anisotropy magnets amorphous NdGdFe and HoGdFe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Toshiaki; Emura, Ai; Hanashima, Koji
2007-01-01
We experimentally examined the ageing phenomena in typical weak random anisotropy magnets (weak RAMs), amorphous NdGdFe and HoGdFe, with a small ratio of the random anisotropy (D) to the ferromagnetic exchange (J) (D/J). These weak RAMs have very long average relaxation time, two or three orders longer than that of spin glasses (SGs) around the transition temperature, and also have a very large ac excitation field (h 0 ) dependence of the ac susceptibility. Measuring the imaginary part of the ac susceptibility at frequency of 0.5 Hz and h 0 of 0.3 Oe by using two temperature-change protocols, we observed the memory and rejuvenation effects as reported in SGs, but the effects are weaker in the present weak RAMs, suggesting that the picture of the hierarchical structure of the free energy space is also effective in weak RAMs as in SGs, but it may have smaller barrier heights than those of SGs
The collisional Penrose process
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2018-06-01
Shortly after the discovery of the Kerr metric in 1963, it was realized that a region existed outside of the black hole's event horizon where no time-like observer could remain stationary. In 1969, Roger Penrose showed that particles within this ergosphere region could possess negative energy, as measured by an observer at infinity. When captured by the horizon, these negative energy particles essentially extract mass and angular momentum from the black hole. While the decay of a single particle within the ergosphere is not a particularly efficient means of energy extraction, the collision of multiple particles can reach arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy in the limit of extremal black hole spin. The resulting particles can escape with high efficiency, potentially serving as a probe of high-energy particle physics as well as general relativity. In this paper, we briefly review the history of the field and highlight a specific astrophysical application of the collisional Penrose process: the potential to enhance annihilation of dark matter particles in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole.
Granqvist, Pehr; Fredrikson, Mats; Unge, Patrik; Hagenfeldt, Andrea; Valind, Sven; Larhammar, Dan; Larsson, Marcus
2005-04-29
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with weak (micro Tesla) complex waveform fields have been claimed to evoke the sensed presence of a sentient being in up to 80% in the general population. These findings have had a questionable neurophysiological foundation as the fields are approximately six orders of magnitude weaker than ordinary TMS fields. Also, no independent replication has been reported. To replicate and extend previous findings, we performed a double-blind experiment (N=89), with a sham-field control group. Personality characteristics indicating suggestibility (absorption, signs of abnormal temporal lobe activity, and a "new age"-lifestyle orientation) were used as predictors. Sensed presence, mystical, and other somatosensory experiences previously reported from the magnetic field stimulation were outcome measures. We found no evidence for any effects of the magnetic fields, neither in the entire group, nor in individuals high in suggestibility. Because the personality characteristics significantly predicted outcomes, suggestibility may account for previously reported effects. Our results strongly question the earlier claims of experiential effects of weak magnetic fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ponomarenko, O.M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available New facility for continuous registration of iron ore magnetization depending on temperature by heating of iron ores upon reducing conditions was created. Facility allows to register the processes of transformation of weakly magnetic minerals into strongly magnetic ones under the influence of reducing agents and temperature, as well as to determine the Curie temperature of the minerals. Using created facility it was shown, that heating of goethite and hematite in the presence of 4 % of starch in the temperature range of 300—650 °С leads to significant increase of magnetization of the samples. X-Ray diffraction confirmed that under indicated conditions the structure of hematite and goethite is transformed into magnetite structure. Obtained results open up new possibilities for the development of effective technologies for oxidized iron ore beneficiation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadooghi, N.; Anaraki, K. Sohrabi
2008-01-01
Using the general structure of the vacuum polarization tensor Π μν (k 0 ,k) in the infrared (IR) limit, k 0 →0, the ring contribution to the QED effective potential at finite temperature and the nonzero magnetic field is determined beyond the static limit, (k 0 →0, k→0). The resulting ring potential is then studied in weak and strong magnetic field limits. In the weak magnetic field limit, at high temperature and for α→0, the improved ring potential consists of a term proportional to T 4 α 5/2 , in addition to the expected T 4 α 3/2 term arising from the static limit. Here, α is the fine structure constant. In the limit of the strong magnetic field, where QED dynamics is dominated by the lowest Landau level, the ring potential includes a novel term consisting of dilogarithmic function (eB)Li 2 (-(2α/π)(eB/m 2 )). Using the ring improved (one-loop) effective potential including the one-loop effective potential and ring potential in the IR limit, the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking of QED is studied at finite temperature and in the presence of the strong magnetic field. The gap equation, the dynamical mass and the critical temperature of QED in the regime of the lowest Landau level dominance are determined in the improved IR as well as in the static limit. For a given value of the magnetic field, the improved ring potential is shown to be more efficient in decreasing the critical temperature arising from the one-loop effective potential.
Gyergyek, T.; Čerček, M.; Jelić, N.; Stanojević, M.
1993-05-01
A potential relaxation instability (PRI) is modulated by an external signal using an additional grid to modulate the radial plasma potential profile in a magnetized plasma column in a linear magnetized discharge plasma device. It is observed that the electrode current oscillations follow the van der Pol equation with an external forcing term, and the linear growth rate of the instability is measured.
Anisotropy of susceptibility in rocks that are magnetically non-linear even in weak fields
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.; Hrouda, F.
2017-01-01
Roč. 19, EGU General Assembly 2017 (2017) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 23.04.2017-28.04.2017, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility * field-dependent susceptibility * second-rank tensor Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-7210-1.pdf
Hadron physics studied at TJNAF with the electro-magnetic and weak probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kox, S.
2005-01-01
This contribution presents general features of the hadron physics program developed at the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory. This is made using the EM and Weak probes provided by the electron beams of the CEBAF accelerator and address mostly the non-perturbative regime of QCD. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piligkos, S.; Slep, L.D.; Weyhermuller, T.
2009-01-01
bands of the minority spin Ni(II) ligand field bands were observed to change sign relative to the parent complex 2. This behavior has been analyzed. The present work hence provides a benchmark study for the application of MCD spectroscopy to weakly interacting transition metal dinners. (C) 2008 Elsevier...
Plasma flow measurement using directional Langmuir probe under weakly ion-magnetized conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagaoka, Kenichi; Okamoto, Atsushi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2000-07-01
It is both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that ion flow velocity at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetic field can be measured with a directional Langmuir probe. Based on the symmetry argument, we show that the effect of magnetic field on directional probe current is exactly canceled in determining the ion flow velocity, and obtain the generalized relation between flow velocity and directional probe currents valid for any flowing direction. The absolute value of the flow velocity is determined by an in situ calibration method of the probe. The applicability limit of the present method to a strongly ion-magnetized plasma is experimentally examined. (author)
Camara, Ibrahima; Tacchi, Silvia; Garnier, Louis-Charles; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Fortuna, Franck; Carlotti, Giovanni; Marangolo, Massimiliano
2017-09-26
The resonant eigenmodes of a nitrogen-implanted iron α'-FeN characterized by weak stripe domains are investigated by Brillouin light scattering and broadband ferromagnetic resonance experiments, assisted by micromagnetic simulations. The spectrum of the dynamic eigenmodes in the presence of the weak stripes is very rich and two different families of modes can be selectively detected using different techniques or different experimental configurations. Attention is paid to the evolution of the mode frequencies and spatial profiles under the application of an external magnetic field, of variable intensity, in the direction parallel or transverse to the stripes. The different evolution of the modes with the external magnetic field is accompanied by a distinctive spatial localization in specific regions, such as the closure domains at the surface of the stripes and the bulk domains localized in the inner part of the stripes. The complementarity of BLS and FMR techniques, based on different selection rules, is found to be a fruitful tool for the study of the wealth of localized mag-netic excitations generally found in nanostructures. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorf, Mikhail A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.
2012-01-01
The design of ion drivers for warm dense matter and high energy density physics applications and heavy ion fusion involves transverse focusing and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams to a small spot size on the target. To facilitate the process, the compression occurs in a long drift section filled with a dense background plasma, which neutralizes the intense beam self-fields. Typically, the ion bunch charge is better neutralized than its current, and as a result a net self-pinching (magnetic) force is produced. The self-pinching effect is of particular practical importance, and is used in various ion driver designs in order to control the transverse beam envelope. In the present work we demonstrate that this radial self-focusing force can be significantly enhanced if a weak (B ∼ 100 G) solenoidal magnetic field is applied inside the neutralized drift section, thus allowing for substantially improved transport. It is shown that in contrast to magnetic self-pinching, the enhanced collective self-focusing has a radial electric field component and occurs as a result of the overcompensation of the beam charge by plasma electrons, whereas the beam current becomes well-neutralized. As the beam leaves the neutralizing drift section, additional transverse focusing can be applied. For instance, in the neutralized drift compression experiments (NDCX) a strong (several Tesla) final focus solenoid is used for this purpose. In the present analysis we propose that the tight final focus in the NDCX experiments may possibly be achieved by using a much weaker (few hundred Gauss) magnetic lens, provided the ion beam carries an equal amount of co-moving neutralizing electrons from the preceding drift section into the lens. In this case the enhanced focusing is provided by the collective electron dynamics strongly affected by a weak applied magnetic field.
Magnetic Excitations in Weakly Coupled Spin Dimers and Chains Material Cu2Fe2Ge4O13
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuda, Takatsugu; Zheludev, Andrey I.; Sales, Brian C.; Imai, S.; Uchinokura, K.; Park, S.
2005-01-01
Magnetic excitations in a weakly coupled spin dimers and chains compound Cu 2 Fe 2 Ge 4 O 13 are measured by inelastic neutron scattering. Both structure factors and dipsersion of low-energy excitations up to 10 meV energy transfer are well described by a semiclassical spin wave theory involving interacting Fe 3+ (S=5/2) chains. Additional dispersionsless excitations are observed at higher energies, at ℎω=24 meV, and associated with singlet-triplet transitions within Cu 2+ dimers. Both types of excitations can be understood by treating weak interactions between the Cu 2+ and Fe 3+ subsystems at the level of the mean-field random phase approximation. However, this simple model fails to account for the measured temperature dependence of the 24 meV mode.
Particle Dynamics around Weakly Magnetized Reissner-Nordström Black Hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamil, Mubasher; Majeed, Bushra; Hussain, Saqib
2015-01-01
Considering the geometry of Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole immersed in magnetic field, we have studied the dynamics of neutral and charged particles. A collision of particles in the inner stable circular orbit is considered and the conditions for the escape of colliding particles from the vicinity of black hole are given. The trajectories of the escaping particle are discussed. Also, the velocity required for this escape is calculated. It is observed that there is more than one stable region if magnetic field is present in the accretion disk of black hole, so the stability of ISCO increases in the presence of magnetic field. Effect of magnetic field on the angular motion of neutral and charged particles is observed graphically.
COLLISIONALLY BORN FAMILY ABOUT 87 SYLVIA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David; Bottke, William F.; Morbidelli, Alessandro
2010-01-01
There are currently more than 1000 multi-opposition objects known in the Cybele population, adjacent and exterior to the asteroid main belt, allowing a more detailed analysis than was previously possible. Searching for collisionally born clusters in this population, we find only one statistically robust case: a family of objects about (87) Sylvia. We use a numerical model to simulate the Sylvia family long-term evolution due to gravitational attraction from planets and thermal (Yarkovsky) effects and to explain its perturbed structure in the orbital element space. This allows us to conclude that the Sylvia family must be at least several hundreds of million years old, in agreement with evolutionary timescales of Sylvia's satellite system. We find it interesting that other large Cybele-zone asteroids with known satellites-(107) Camilla and (121) Hermione-do not have detectable families of collisional fragments about them (this is because we assume that binaries with large primary and small secondary components are necessarily impact generated). Our numerical simulations of synthetic clusters about these asteroids show they would suffer a substantial dynamical depletion by a combined effect of diffusion in numerous weak mean-motion resonances and Yarkovsky forces provided their age is close to ∼4 billion years. However, we also believe that a complete effacement of these two families requires an additional component, very likely due to resonance sweeping or other perturbing effects associated with the late Jupiter's inward migration. We thus propose that both Camilla and Hermione originally had their collisional families, as in the Sylvia case, but they lost them in an evolution that lasted a billion years. Their satellites are the only witnesses of these effaced families.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandran, Benjamin D. G.
2000-01-01
Theoretical studies of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and observations of solar wind fluctuations suggest that MHD turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic at small scales, with smooth variations along the background magnetic field and sharp variations perpendicular to the background field. Turbulence with this anisotropy is inefficient at scattering cosmic rays, and thus the scattering rate ν may be smaller than has been traditionally assumed in diffusion models of Galactic cosmic-ray propagation, at least for cosmic-ray energies E above 1011-1012 eV at which self-confinement is not possible. In this paper, it is shown that Galactic cosmic rays can be effectively confined through magnetic reflection by molecular clouds, even when turbulent scattering is weak. Elmegreen's quasi-fractal model of molecular-cloud structure is used to argue that a typical magnetic field line passes through a molecular cloud complex once every ∼300 pc. Once inside the complex, the field line will in most cases be focused into one or more dense clumps in which the magnetic field can be much stronger than the average field in the intercloud medium (ICM). Cosmic rays following field lines into cloud complexes are most often magnetically reflected back into the ICM, since strong-field regions act as magnetic mirrors. For a broad range of cosmic-ray energies, a cosmic ray initially following some particular field line separates from that field line sufficiently slowly that the cosmic ray can be trapped between neighboring cloud complexes for long periods of time. The suppression of cosmic-ray diffusion due to magnetic trapping is calculated in this paper with the use of phenomenological arguments, asymptotic analysis, and Monte Carlo particle simulations. Formulas for the coefficient of diffusion perpendicular to the Galactic disk are derived for several different parameter regimes within the E-ν plane. In one of these parameter regimes in which scattering is weak, it
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zigman, V.J.; Milic, B.S.
1995-01-01
The dependence of the attenuation of the longitudinal electron Langmuir waves (ω ∼ ω pe ), in collisional weakly ionized, non-magnetized, uniform and steady-state plasmas placed in external d.c. electric field, on the angle θ between the wave vector and the electron drift rvec u is studied on the ground of the kinetic theory and the linear perturbation technique. The collisionless and collisional contributions to the overall attenuation were evaluated separately, as it was shown previously that in certain instances the elastic e - n encounters (with collision frequency ν en , ν en much-lt ω pe ) may attenuate the Langmuir waves more efficiently than the Landau mechanism. More precisely, it was found that, for any fixed value of E 0 /n n , there exists a critical value of the ratio n n /X above which the collisional attenuation prevails
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Gong-Ping; Qin Shuai-Feng; Wang Shou-Yang; Jian Wen-Tian
2013-01-01
The ground states of the ultracold spin-1 atoms trapped in a deep one-dimensional double-well optical superlattice in a weak magnetic field are obtained. It is shown that the ground-state diagrams of the reduced double-well model are remarkably different for the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic condensates. The transition between the singlet state and nematic state is observed for the antiferromagnetic interaction atoms, which can be realized by modulating the tunneling parameter or the quadratic Zeeman energy. An experiment to distinguish the different spin states is suggested. (general)
Collisional drift waves in the H-mode edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, S.
1994-01-01
The stability of the collisional drift wave in a sheared slab geometry is found to be severely restricted at the H-mode edge plasma due to the very steep density gradient. However, a radially varying transverse velocity field is found to play the key role in stability. Velocity profiles usually found in the H-mode plasma stabilize drift waves. On the other hand, velocity profiles corresponding to the L-mode render collisional drift waves unstable even though the magnetic shear continues to play its stabilizing role. (author). 24 refs
Magnetization Reversal through Soliton in a Site-Dependent Weak Ferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kavitha, L.; Sathishkumar, P.; Saravanan, M.; Gopi, D.
2010-06-01
Switching the magnetization of a magnetic bit through flipping of soliton offers the possibility of developing a new innovative approach for data storage technologies. The spin dynamics of a site-dependent ferromagnet with antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is governed by a generalized inhomogeneous higher order nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We demonstrate the magnetization reversal through flipping of soliton in the ferromagnetic medium by solving the two coupled evolution equations for the velocity and amplitude of the soliton using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method numerically. We propose a new approach to induce the flipping behaviour of soliton in the presence of inhomogeneity by tuning the parameter associated with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction which causes the soliton to move with constant velocity and amplitude along the spin lattice. (author)
Measurement of weak magnetic field of corrosion current of isolated corrosion center
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Bardin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A very small magnetic field of corrosion current, of the order of 10−4 Oe, generated by isolated zinc inclusion in a copper platelet placed in electrolyte has been measured for the first time with a highly sensitive giant magneto-impedance magnetometer. The total corrosion current of the inclusion is estimated comparing the measured magnetic field distribution with corresponding theoretical calculation. The estimated value of the total corrosion current turns out to be in reasonable agreement with that one obtained in the standard gravimetric measurement.
MagnetoSperm: A microrobot that navigates using weak magnetic fields
Khalil, I.S.M.; Dijkslag, Herman C.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak
2014-01-01
In this work, a propulsion system similar in motion to a sperm-cell is investigated. This system consists of a structure resembling a sperm-cell with a magnetic head and a flexible tail of 42 μm and 280 μm in length, respectively. The thickness, length, and width of this structure are 5.2 μm, 322
Precise Localization and Control of Catalytic Janus Micromotors using Weak Magnetic Fields
Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak
2015-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the precise localization of spherical Pt-Silica Janus micromotors (diameter 5 mu m) under the influence of controlled magnetic fields. First, we control the motion of the Janus micromotors in two-dimensional (2D) space. The control system achieves precise localization
Effect of site disorder on the magnetic properties of weak itinerant ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Intense scientific activity in the field of metallic (band) magnetism has led to a substan- tial progress in understanding various physical phenomena associated with ... As site disorder increases (i.e., decreasing Ë), a and D(0)/TC increase while ...
Radio-frequency surface resistance of tunmgsten in weak magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bojko, V.V.; Toniya, V.A.
1988-01-01
The surface impedance of single crystal tungsten specimens under anomalous skin effect in a magnetic field H is investigated experimentally. It is found that in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 1 kOe the surface resistance R of tungsten varies in a nonmonotonous manner and experiences several extrema. The position of the latter with respect to magnetic field strength depends on the conduction electron mean free path l, on the roughness of the specimen surface and frequency of the irradiating electromagnetic wave. It is found that such behavior of R(H) is due to variation of the nature of the conduction electron scattering at the metal-external medium interface with increasing H. The geometrical dimensions of the surface roughnesses are determined at which diffuse scattering of the current occurs. The results are compared with the theoretical calculations, and a number of contradictions between the theory and experiments are noted. The effect of the magnetic field of the electromagnetic wave H ∼ on the conductivity of tungsten in the absence of H is studied
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bott-Suzuki, Simon
2014-11-05
We have developed a new experimental platform to study bow-shock formation in plasma flows generated using an inverse wire array z-pinch. We have made significant progress on the analysis of both hydrodynamic and magnetized shocks using this system. The hydrodynamic experiments show formation of a well-defined Mach cone, and highly localized shock strong associated with radiative losses and rapidly cooling over the shock. Magnetized shocks show that the balance of magnetic and ram pressures dominate the evolution of the shock region, generating a low plasma beta void around the target. Manuscripts are in preparation for publication on both these topics. We have also published the development of a novel diagnostic method which allow recovery of interferometry and self-emission data along the same line of sight. Finally, we have carried out work to integrate a kinetic routine with the 3D MHD code Gorgon, however it remains to complete this process. Both undergraduate and graduate students have been involved in both the experimental work and publications.
Molecular gyroscopes and biological effects of weak extremely low-frequency magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binhi, V.N.; Savin, A.V.
2002-01-01
Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields are known to affect biological systems. In many cases, biological effects display 'windows' in biologically effective parameters of the magnetic fields: most dramatic is the fact that the relatively intense magnetic fields sometimes do not cause appreciable effect, while smaller fields of the order of 10-100 μT do. Linear resonant physical processes do not explain the frequency windows in this case. Amplitude window phenomena suggest a nonlinear physical mechanism. Such a nonlinear mechanism has been proposed recently to explain those 'windows'. It considers the quantum-interference effects on the protein-bound substrate ions. Magnetic fields cause an interference of ion quantum states and change the probability of ion-protein dissociation. This ion-interference mechanism predicts specific magnetic-field frequency and amplitude windows within which the biological effects occur. It agrees with a lot of experiments. However, according to the mechanism, the lifetime Γ -1 of ion quantum states within a protein cavity should be of unrealistic value, more than 0.01 s for frequency band 10-100 Hz. In this paper, a biophysical mechanism has been proposed, which (i) retains the attractive features of the ion interference mechanism, i.e., predicts physical characteristics that might be experimentally examined and (ii) uses the principles of gyroscopic motion and removes the necessity to postulate large lifetimes. The mechanism considers the dynamics of the density matrix of the molecular groups, which are attached to the walls of protein cavities by two covalent bonds, i.e., molecular gyroscopes. Numerical computations have shown almost free rotations of the molecular gyroscopes. The relaxation time due to van der Waals forces was about 0.01 s for the cavity size of 28 Aa
Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.; Valyavin, G.; Valeev, A. F.
2017-11-01
Magnetic fields are detected in a few percent of white dwarfs. The number of such magnetic white dwarfs known is now some hundreds. Fields range in strength from a few kG to several hundred MG. Almost all the known magnetic white dwarfs have a mean field modulus ≥1 MG. We are trying to fill a major gap in observational knowledge at the low field limit (≤200 kG) using circular spectro-polarimetry. In this paper we report the discovery and monitoring of strong, periodic magnetic variability in two previously discovered "super-weak field" magnetic white dwarfs, WD 2047+372 and WD 2359-434. WD 2047+372 has a mean longitudinal field that reverses between about -12 and + 15 kG, with a period of 0.243 d, while its mean field modulus appears nearly constant at 60 kG. The observations can be interpreted in terms of a dipolar field tilted with respect to the stellar rotation axis. WD 2359-434 always shows a weak positive longitudinal field with values between about 0 and + 12 kG, varying only weakly with stellar rotation, while the mean field modulus varies between about 50 and 100 kG. The rotation period is found to be 0.112 d using the variable shape of the Hα line core, consistent with available photometry. The field of this star appears to be much more complex than a dipole, and is probably not axisymmetric. Available photometry shows that WD 2359-434 is a light variable with an amplitude of only 0.005 mag; our own photometry shows that if WD 2047+372 is photometrically variable, the amplitude is below about 0.01 mag. These are the first models for magnetic white dwarfs with fields below about 100 kG based on magnetic measurements through the full stellar rotation. They reveal two very different magnetic surface configurations, and that, contrary to simple ohmic decay theory, WD 2359-434 has a much more complex surface field than the much younger WD 2047+372. Based, in part, on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the
Electron transport properties in InAs four-terminal ballistic junctions under weak magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, M.; Fujiwara, K.; Amano, N.; Maemoto, T.; Sasa, S.; Inoue, M.
2009-01-01
We report on the electron transport properties based on ballistic electrons under magnetic fields in four-terminal ballistic junctions fabricated on an InAs/AlGaSb heterostructure. The four-terminal junction structure is composed of two longitudinal stems with two narrow wires slanted with 30 degree from the perpendicular axis. The electron focusing peak was obtained with the bend resistance measurement. Then it was investigated the nonlinear electron transport property of potential difference between longitudinal stems due to ballistic electrons with applying direct current from narrow wires. Observed nonlinearity showed clear rectification effects which have negative polarity regardless of input voltage polarity. Although this nonlinearity was qualitatively changed due to the Lorentz force under magnetic fields, the degradation of ballistic effects on nonlinear properties were observed when the current increased to higher strength. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bube, W.; Michel-Beyerle, M.E.; Haberkorn, R.; Steffens, E.
1977-01-01
The magnetic field (H approximately 50 Oe) dependence of the rhodamine sensitized triplet exciton density in anthracene crystals is influenced by isotopic substitution. This confirms the hyperfine interaction as mechanism explaining the change of the spin multiplicity in the initially formed singlet state of the radical pair. The isotope effect occurs in the sensitizing dye ( 14 N/ 15 N) rather than at the molecular site of the injected charge within the crystal. This can be understood in terms of the high hopping frequency of the charge carriers as compared to the time constant of the hyperfine induced singlet-triplet transition. Since the dye molecules adsorb in an oriented fashion, the angular dependence of the magnetic field modulation of the triplet exciton density can be interpreted without assuming any additional interactions. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Göksu, Cihan
of individual ohmic conductivity values may open up the possibility of creating more realistic and accurate head models, which may ameliorate the simulations and practical use of NIBS techniques. Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT......Knowing the electrical conductivity and current density distribution inside the human brain will be useful in various biomedical applications, i.e. for improving the efficiency of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, the accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG......) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, or localization of pathological tissues. For example, the accuracy of electric field simulations for NIBS techniques is currently reduced by assigning inaccurate ohmic conductivity values taken from literature to different brain tissues. Therefore, the knowledge...
A review on ion–ion plasmas created in weakly magnetized electronegative plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aanesland, A; Bredin, J; Chabert, P
2014-01-01
Ion–Ion plasmas are electronegative plasmas where the electron density is several orders of magnitude lower than the negative ion density. These plasmas have been scarcely observed and investigated since the 1960s and are formed as a transient state of pulsed plasmas or in separate regions in magnetized plasmas. In this review we focus on the latter case of continuous formation of ion–ion plasmas created at the periphery of magnetized plasma columns or downstream localized magnetic barriers. We bring together and review experimental results already published elsewhere and complement them with new results to illustrate the physics important in ion–ion plasma formation and highlight in particular unanswered questions. We show that with a good design the density in the ion–ion region is dropping only by a factor of 2–3 from the initial plasma density. These plasmas can therefore be well suited for various ion source applications when both fluxes or beams of positive and negative ions are desired, and when electrons can cause harmful effects. (paper)
Nonlinear coherent structures of Alfvén wave in a collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jana, Sayanee; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Ghosh, Samiran
2016-01-01
The Alfvén wave dynamics is investigated in the framework of two-fluid approach in a compressible collisional magnetized plasma. In the finite amplitude limit, the dynamics of the nonlinear Alfvén wave is found to be governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation (mKdVB). In this mKdVB equation, the electron inertia is found to act as a source of dispersion, and the electron-ion collision serves as a dissipation. The collisional dissipation is eventually responsible for the Burgers term in mKdVB equation. In the long wavelength limit, this weakly nonlinear Alfvén wave is shown to be governed by a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, these nonlinear equations are analyzed by means of analytical calculation and numerical simulation to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics of the nonlinear wave. Results reveal that nonlinear Alfvén wave exhibits the dissipation mediated shock, envelope, and breather like structures. Numerical simulations also predict the formation of dissipative Alfvénic rogue wave, giant breathers, and rogue wave holes. These results are discussed in the context of the space plasma.
Nonlinear coherent structures of Alfvén wave in a collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jana, Sayanee; Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Ghosh, Samiran [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)
2016-07-15
The Alfvén wave dynamics is investigated in the framework of two-fluid approach in a compressible collisional magnetized plasma. In the finite amplitude limit, the dynamics of the nonlinear Alfvén wave is found to be governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation (mKdVB). In this mKdVB equation, the electron inertia is found to act as a source of dispersion, and the electron-ion collision serves as a dissipation. The collisional dissipation is eventually responsible for the Burgers term in mKdVB equation. In the long wavelength limit, this weakly nonlinear Alfvén wave is shown to be governed by a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, these nonlinear equations are analyzed by means of analytical calculation and numerical simulation to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics of the nonlinear wave. Results reveal that nonlinear Alfvén wave exhibits the dissipation mediated shock, envelope, and breather like structures. Numerical simulations also predict the formation of dissipative Alfvénic rogue wave, giant breathers, and rogue wave holes. These results are discussed in the context of the space plasma.
Not an Oxymoron: Some X-ray Binary Pulsars with Enormous Spinup Rates Reveal Weak Magnetic Fields
Christodoulou, D. M.; Laycock, S. G. T.; Kazanas, D.
2018-05-01
Three high-mass X-ray binaries have been discovered recently exhibiting enormous spinup rates. Conventional accretion theory predicts extremely high surface dipolar magnetic fields that we believe are unphysical. Instead, we propose quite the opposite scenario: some of these pulsars exhibit weak magnetic fields, so much so that their magnetospheres are crushed by the weight of inflowing matter. The enormous spinup rate is achieved before inflowing matter reaches the pulsar's surface as the penetrating inner disk transfers its excess angular momentum to the receding magnetosphere which, in turn, applies a powerful spinup torque to the pulsar. This mechanism also works in reverse: it spins a pulsar down when the magnetosphere expands beyond corotation and finds itself rotating faster than the accretion disk which then exerts a powerful retarding torque to the magnetic field and to the pulsar itself. The above scenaria cannot be accommodated within the context of neutron-star accretion processes occurring near spin equilibrium, thus they constitute a step toward a new theory of extreme (far from equilibrium) accretion phenomena.
Shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma in a weak magnetic field in perturbative QCD: Leading log
Li, Shiyong; Yee, Ho-Ung
2018-03-01
We compute the shear viscosity of two-flavor QCD plasma in an external magnetic field in perturbative QCD at leading log order, assuming that the magnetic field is weak or soft: e B ˜g4log (1 /g )T2. We work in the assumption that the magnetic field is homogeneous and static, and the electrodynamics is nondynamical in a formal limit e →0 while e B is kept fixed. We show that the shear viscosity takes a form η =η ¯(B ¯)T3/(g4log (1 /g )) with a dimensionless function η ¯(B ¯) in terms of a dimensionless variable B ¯=(e B )/(g4log (1 /g )T2). The variable B ¯ corresponds to the relative strength of the effect of cyclotron motions compared to the QCD collisions: B ¯˜lmfp/lcyclo. We provide a full numerical result for the scaled shear viscosity η ¯(B ¯).
An order-by-disorder process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate with a weak magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Gong-Ping; Xu, Lei-Kuan; Qin, Shuai-Feng; Jian, Wen-Tian; Liang, J.-Q.
2013-01-01
We present in this paper a model study on the “order-by-disorder” process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate, which forms a family of incommensurable, spiral degenerate ground states. On the basis of the ordering mechanism of entropic splitting, it is demonstrated that the energy corrections resulting from quantum fluctuations of disorder lift the accidental degeneracy of the cyclic configurations and thus lead to an eventual spiral order called the cyclic order. The order-by-disorder phenomenon is then realized even if the magnetic field exists. Finally, we show that our theoretic observations can be verified experimentally by direct detection of the cyclic order in the 87 Rb condensate of a spin-2 manifold with a weak magnetic field. -- Highlights: •A model for the order-by-disorder process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate is presented. •The second-order quantum fluctuations of the mean-field states are studied. •The energy corrections lift the accidental degeneracy of the cyclic configurations. •The order-by-disorder phenomenon is realized even if a magnetic field exists. •The theoretic observations can be verified experimentally for 87 Rb condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhuchenko, N K; Yagud, R Z [AN SSSR, Leningrad (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki
1993-09-01
Neutron depolarization measurements in the mixed state of both high-T[sub c] and low-T[sub c] weak-link superconductors have been carried out. Samples of YBCO, BSCCO, SnMo[sub 6]S[sub 8] and 0.5 Nb-0.5 Ti of different magnetic prehistory were analyzed at temperatures T 4.2 K under applied magnetic fields II <= 16.5 kOe. We ascribe the appearance of magnetic inhomogeneities and their hysteresis behaviour to the interaction between dipole magnetic fields (diamagnetic and paramagnetic ones) and applied magnetic fields.
Kirschvink, J. L.; Isozaki, Y.
2007-12-01
Despite their importance for biostratigraphy, bituminous, organic-rich limestone has rarely yielded reliable paleomagnetic results, principally due to the weak magnetization levels encountered; NRMs for such samples often start with moments below 10-10Am2 (10-7 emu), and they become unmeasurable or unstable rapidly upon demagnetization. Recently, we have developed a fairly simple and inexpensive automation system for standard paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements that has the additional benefit of using an extremely low-noise sample holder. A vacuum pick-and-put system holds samples at the end a thin-walled quartz-glass tube, moving them between a measurement queue and the sense region of a vertically-aligned superconducting rock magnetometer. The system minimizes the amount of extraneous material introduced into the magnetometer's sense region. With frequent cleaning in strong acid, the glass holder system is capable of reliably measuring samples with moments below 1 pAm2 (10-9 emu), on a DC-SQuID magnetometer system with stable instrument noise of a few hundred fAm2. Signal averaging and clean-lab handling techniques are often needed to achieve this sensitivity, however. To test this system, we collected a series of densely-spaced samples for magnetostratigraphy from two sections in the Middle-Late Permian limestone at Kamura in Kyushu, Japan, which is the remnant of lagoonal sediments formed on an oceanic island atoll (Isozaki et al., 2007). According to fusulinids, the Saraito section spans Wordian time, which should be near the end of the Kiaman Reversed superchron. Similarly, strata at the Kamura section cover late Capitanian to early Wuchiapingian time, which should display a shift from predominantly Normal to Reversed magnetization. Raman spectroscopy suggests no appreciable heating. NRM intensities of the samples range generally between 10-10 and 10-11 Am2, with little change in the vectors either upon low-temperature cycling or alternating
Russell, D. N.; Webb, S. J.
1981-09-01
Respiration of the insect larva, Danaüs archippus, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in log phase has been monitored before and after an oscillatory magnetic insult of 0.005 Gauss rms amplitude and 40 50 min duration. Frequencies used were 10 16 Hz for the insect and 100 200 Hz for the yeast. Depression of as much as 30% in metabolic rate has been found to occur immediately after the field is both imposed and eliminated with a general recovery over the 30-min period thereafter both in and out of the imposed field, although complete recovery to original levels may take much longer. Evidence is given that the response may depend on the frequency pattern used. This data is used to formulate an hypothesis whereby changes in the geomagnetic field variability pattern may act as a biochronometric zeitgeber.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Zhenyu, E-mail: liaozy08@163.com [Tianjin Product Quality Inspection Technology Research Institute, The National Center of Supervision and Inspection for Quality of Food (China); Zhang, Ying [Tianjin University, School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology (China); Su, Lin [Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Eye Institute and School of Optometry and Ophthalmology (China); Chang, Jin; Wang, Hanjie, E-mail: wanghj@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology (China)
2017-02-15
Ochratoxin A (OTA), the most harmful and abundant ochratoxin, is chemically stable and commonly existed in foodstuffs. In this work, upconversion luminescent-magnetic microbeads (UCLMMs) -based cytometric bead array for OTA detection with a less reagent consumption and high sensitivity has been established and optimized. In UCLMMs, upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) for optical code present a weak background noise and no spectral cross talk between the encoding signals and target labels under two excitation conditions to improve detection sensitivity. While the superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) aim for rapid analysis. The results show that the developed method has a sensitivity of 9.553 ppt below HPLC with a 50-μL sample and can be completed in <2 h with good accuracy and high reproducibility. Therefore, different colors of UCLMMs will become a promising assay platform for multiple mycotoxins after further improvement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ying; Su, Lin; Chang, Jin; Wang, Hanjie
2017-01-01
Ochratoxin A (OTA), the most harmful and abundant ochratoxin, is chemically stable and commonly existed in foodstuffs. In this work, upconversion luminescent-magnetic microbeads (UCLMMs) -based cytometric bead array for OTA detection with a less reagent consumption and high sensitivity has been established and optimized. In UCLMMs, upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) for optical code present a weak background noise and no spectral cross talk between the encoding signals and target labels under two excitation conditions to improve detection sensitivity. While the superparamagnetic Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles (Fe_3O_4 NPs) aim for rapid analysis. The results show that the developed method has a sensitivity of 9.553 ppt below HPLC with a 50-μL sample and can be completed in <2 h with good accuracy and high reproducibility. Therefore, different colors of UCLMMs will become a promising assay platform for multiple mycotoxins after further improvement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, K.G.; Benford, G.; Tzach, D.
1983-01-01
Prodigious quantities of microwave energy distributed uniformly across a wide frequency band are observed when a relativistic electron beam (REB) penetrates a plasma. Typical measured values are 20 MW total for Δνapprox. =40 GHz with preliminary observations of bandwidths as large as 100 GHz. An intense annular pulsed REB (Iapprox. =128 kA; rapprox. =3 cm; Δrapprox. =1 cm; 50 nsec FWHM; γapprox. =3) is sent through an unmagnetized or weakly magnetized plasma column (n/sub plasma/approx.10 13 cm -3 ). Beam-to-plasma densities of 0.01 >ω/sub p/ and weak harmonic structure is wholly unanticipated from Langmuir scattering or soliton collapse models. A model of Compton-like boosting of ambient plasma waves by the beam electrons, with collateral emission of high-frequency photons, qualitatively explains these spectra. Power emerges largely in an angle approx.1/γ, as required by Compton mechanisms. As n/sub b//n/sub p/ falls, ω/sub p/-2ω/sub p/ structure and harmonic power ratios consistent with soliton collapse theories appear. With further reduction of n/sub b//n/sub p/ only the ω/sub p/ line persists
Precise Localization and Control of Catalytic Janus Micromotors Using Weak Magnetic Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Islam S. M. Khalil
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We experimentally demonstrate the precise localization of spherical Pt-Silica Janus micromotors (diameter 5 μm under the influence of controlled magnetic fields. First, we control the motion of the Janus micromotors in two-dimensional (2D space. The control system achieves precise localization within an average region-of-convergence of 7 μm. Second, we show that these micromotors provide sufficient propulsion force, allowing them to overcome drag and gravitational forces and move both downwards and upwards. This propulsion is studied by moving the micromotors in three-dimensional (3D space. The micromotors move downwards and upwards at average speeds of 19.1 μm/s and 9.8 μm/s, respectively. Moreover, our closed-loop control system achieves localization in 3D space within an average region-of-convergence of 6.3 μm in diameter. The precise motion control and localization of the Janus micromotors in 2D and 3D spaces provides broad possibilities for nanotechnology applications.
Laosunthara, Ampan; Akatsuka, Hiroshi
2016-09-01
In previous study, we experimentally examined physical properties of supersonic flow of weakly ionized expanding arc-jet plasma through an open magnetic field line (Bmax 0.16T). We found supersonic velocity of helium plasma up to Mach 3 and the space potential drop at the end of the magnets. To understand the plasma in numerical point of view, the flows of ion and neutral are treated by particle-based Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, electron is treated as a fluid. The previous numerical study, we assumed 2 conditions. Ion and electron temperatures were the same (LTE condition). Ion and electron velocities were the same (current-free condition). We found that ion velocity decreased by collision with residual gas molecules (background pressure). We also found that space potential changing with background pressure. In other words, it was indicated that electric field exists and the current-free assumption is not proper. In this study, we add electron continuity and electron momentum equations to obtain electron velocity and space potential. We find that space potential changing with background pressure slightly. It is indicated that electron is essential to space potential formation than ion.
Sun, Yuankui; Guan, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianmin; Meng, Xiaoguang; Xu, Chunhua; Zhou, Gongming
2014-06-17
In this study, a weak magnetic field (WMF), superimposed with a permanent magnet, was utilized to improve ZVI corrosion and thereby enhance As(V)/As(III) removal by ZVI at pHini 3.0-9.0. The experiment with real arsenic-bearing groundwater revealed that WMF could greatly improve arsenic removal by ZVI even in the presence of various cations and anions. The WMF-induced improvement in As(V)/As(III) removal by ZVI should be primarily associated with accelerated ZVI corrosion, as evidenced by the pH variation, Fe(2+) release, and the formation of corrosion products as characterized with X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The arsenic species analysis in solution/solid phases at pHini 3.0 revealed that As(III) oxidation to As(V) in aqueous phase preceded its subsequent sequestration by the newly formed iron (hydr)oxides. However, both As(V) adsorption following As(III) oxidation to As(V) in solution and As(III) adsorption preceding its conversion to As(V) in solid phase were observed at pHini 5.0-9.0. The application of WMF accelerated the transformation of As(III) to As(V) in both aqueous and solid phases at pHini 5.0-9.0 and enhanced the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in solution at pHini 3.0.
Su, Kung-Yi; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Ma, Xiangcheng; Robles, Victor H.
2017-10-01
Using high-resolution simulations with explicit treatment of stellar feedback physics based on the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project, we study how galaxy formation and the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by magnetic fields, anisotropic Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, and sub-grid metal diffusion from unresolved turbulence. We consider controlled simulations of isolated (non-cosmological) galaxies but also a limited set of cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. Although simulations have shown significant effects from these physics with weak or absent stellar feedback, the effects are much weaker than those of stellar feedback when the latter is modelled explicitly. The additional physics have no systematic effect on galactic star formation rates (SFRs). In contrast, removing stellar feedback leads to SFRs being overpredicted by factors of ˜10-100. Without feedback, neither galactic winds nor volume-filling hot-phase gas exist, and discs tend to runaway collapse to ultra-thin scaleheights with unphysically dense clumps congregating at the galactic centre. With stellar feedback, a multi-phase, turbulent medium with galactic fountains and winds is established. At currently achievable resolutions and for the investigated halo mass range 1010-1013 M⊙, the additional physics investigated here (magnetohydrodynamic, conduction, viscosity, metal diffusion) have only weak (˜10 per cent-level) effects on regulating SFR and altering the balance of phases, outflows or the energy in ISM turbulence, consistent with simple equipartition arguments. We conclude that galactic star formation and the ISM are primarily governed by a combination of turbulence, gravitational instabilities and feedback. We add the caveat that active galactic nucleus feedback is not included in the present work.
Triangularity effects on the collisional diffusion for elliptic tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, P.; Castro, E.
2007-01-01
In this conference the effect of ellipticity and triangularity will be analyzed for axisymmetric tokamak in the collisional regime. Analytic forms for the magnetic field cross sections are taken from those derived recently by other authors [1,2]. Analytical results can be obtained in elliptic plasmas with triangularity by using an special system of tokamak coordinates recently published [3-5]. Our results show that triangularities smaller than 0.6, increases confinement for ellipticities in the range 1.2 to 2. This behavior happens for negative and positive triangularities; however this effect is stronger for positive than for negative triangularities. The maximum diffusion velocity is not obtained for zero triangularity, but for small negative triangularities. Ellipticity is also very important in confinement, but the effect of triangularity seems to be more important. High electric inductive field increases confinement, though this field is difficult to modify once the tokamak has been built. The analytic form of the current produced by this field is like that of a weak Ware pinch with an additional factor, which weakens the effect by an order of magnitude. The dependence of the triangularity effect with the Shafranov shift is also analyzed. References 1. - L. L. Lao, S. P. Hirshman, and R. M. Wieland, Phys. Fluids 24, 1431 (1981) 2. - G. O. Ludwig, Plasma Physics Controlled Fusion 37, 633 (1995) 3. - P. Martin, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2915 (2000) 4. - P. Martin, M. G. Haines and E. Castro, Phys. Plasmas 12, 082506 (2005) 5. - P. Martin, E. Castro and M. G. Haines, Phys. Plasmas 12, 102505 (2005)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gunasekara, Nirosha [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 5B4.21 WCM Health Science Centre, 8440-112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7 (Canada); Sykes, Brian, E-mail: brian.sykes@ualberta.ca [Department of Biochemistry, 4-19B Medical Sciences Bldg., University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7 (Canada); Hugh, Judith, E-mail: judithh@ualberta.ca [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 5B4.21 WCM Health Science Centre, 8440-112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7 (Canada)
2012-05-18
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1 binds the Src-SH3 domain potentially triggering Src dependent cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR Spectroscopy was used to monitor MUC1-CD and Src SH3 domain titrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1-CD peptides bind with a low affinity (K{sub d} of 2-3 mM) to a non-canonical site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak interactions may mediate dynamic processes like migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MUC1-CD and Src-SH3 interaction may be a prime target to inhibit cell migration. -- Abstract: Breast cancer causes death through cancer cell migration and subsequent metastasis to distant organs. In vitro, the MUC1 mucin can mediate breast cancer cell migration by binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This migration is dependent on MUC1 cytoplasmic domain (MUC1-CD) activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, possibly through competitive displacement of an inhibitory Src intramolecular SH3 binding. Therefore, we characterized the binding site and affinity of the MUC1-CD for Src-SH3 using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor the titration of the {sup 15}N labeled Src-SH3 domain with synthetic native and mutant peptides of MUC1-CD. The results revealed that the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for the interaction of the native MUC1-CD peptides and Src-SH3 domain was weak with a K{sub d} of 2-3 mM. Notably, the SH3 residues most perturbed upon peptide binding were located outside the usual hydrophobic binding cleft in a previously described alternate binding site on the Src-SH3, suggesting that MUC1-CD binds to a non-canonical site. The binding characteristics outlined here suggest that the interaction between Src-SH3 and MUC1-CD represents a novel weak electrostatic interaction of the type which is increasingly recognized as important in transient and dynamic protein complexes required for cell migration and signal transduction. As such, this
Habets, J.; Zandvoort, H. J. A.; Moll, F. L.; Bartels, L. W.; Vonken, E. P. A.; van Herwaarden, J. A.; Leiner, T.
WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS In patients with enlarging aneurysms of unknown origin after endovascular aneurysm repair, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a weak albumin binding contrast agent has additional diagnostic value for both the detection and determination of the origin of the endoleak.
Ions cross-B collisional diffusion and electromagnetic wave scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomchuk, B.P.; Gresillon, D.
2000-01-01
The calculation is presented of the averaged quadratic displacement of a collisional charged particle in a magnetic field. This calculation is used to obtain the statistical presentation of the electromagnetic field scattered by these particles. These results extend the previous calculations that were restricted to non-magnetized particles (Ornstein equation, Einstein diffusion, etc.). In addition this calculation foresees effects that are absent of the Ornstein equation: a modulation of the averaged quadratic displacement function at the cyclotron frequency and a maximum of the Cross-B diffusion coefficient when the cyclotron frequency is equal to the collision frequency (Bohm diffusion)
Collisionality dependence of Mercier stability in LHD equilibria with bootstrap currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichiguchi, Katsuji.
1997-02-01
The Mercier stability of the plasmas carrying bootstrap currents with different plasma collisionality is studied in the Large Helical Device (LHD). In the LHD configuration, the direction of the bootstrap current depends on the collisionality of the plasma through the change in the sign of the geometrical factor. When the beta value is raised by increasing the density of the plasma with a fixed low temperature, the plasma becomes more collisional and the collisionality approaches the plateau regime. In this case, the bootstrap current can flow in the direction so as to decrease the rotational transform. Then, the large Shafranov shift enhances the magnetic well and the magnetic shear, and therefore, the Mercier stability is improved. On the other hand, when the beta value is raised by increasing the temperature of the plasma with a fixed low density, the plasma collisionality becomes reduced to enter the 1/ν collisionality regime and the bootstrap current flows so that the rotational transform should be increased, which is unfavorable for the Mercier stability. Hence, the beta value should be raised by increasing the density rather than the temperature in order to obtain a high beta plasma. (author)
Shi, X L; Li, C W; Liang, B C; He, K H; Li, X Y
2015-11-30
We investigated weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of primary type I osteoporosis. We selected 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and nine postmenopausal women as controls to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were obtained from controls and patients. Serum protein was extracted with the WCX protein chip system; protein fingerprints were examined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The preprocessed and model construction data were handled by the ProteinChip system. The diagnostic models were established using a genetic arithmetic model combined with a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM model with the highest Youden index was selected. Combinations with the highest accuracy in distinguishing different groups of data were selected as potential biomarkers. From the two groups of serum proteins, 123 cumulative MS protein peaks were selected. Significant intensity differences in the protein peaks of 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were screened. The difference in Youden index between the four groups of protein peaks showed that the highest peaks had mass-to-charge ratios of 8909.047, 8690.658, 13745.48, and 15114.52. A diagnosis model was established with these four markers as the candidates, and the model specificity and sensitivity were found to be 100%. Two groups of specimens in the SVM results on the scatterplot were distinguishable. We established a diagnosis model, and provided a new serological method for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis with high sensitivity and specificity.
Collisional processes in supersymmetric plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czajka, Alina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2011-01-01
Collisional processes in ultrarelativistic N=1 supersymmetric QED plasma are studied and compared to those in an electromagnetic plasma of electrons, positrons and photons. Cross sections of all binary interactions which occur in the supersymmetric plasma at the order of e 4 are computed. Some processes, in particular, the Compton scattering on selectrons, appear to be independent of momentum transfer and thus they are qualitatively different from processes in an electromagnetic plasma. It suggests that the transport properties of the supersymmetric plasma are different than those of its nonsupersymmetric counterpart. Energy loss and momentum broadening of a particle traversing the supersymmetric plasma are discussed in detail and the characteristics are shown to be surprisingly similar to those of QED plasma.
Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.
Candy, J; Belli, E A
2011-06-10
In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.
Collisional transport in nonneutral plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubin, D.H.E.
1999-01-01
Classical transport theory grossly underestimates collisionally-driven cross-field transport for plasmas in the parameter regime of r c D , where r c ≡ v-bar/Ω c , λ D 2 ≡ T/4πe 2 n. In current experiments operating in this regime, cross-field test particle transport is observed to be a factor of 10 larger than the prediction of classical theory. Heat conduction is enhanced by up to 300 times over classical theory, and viscosity is up to 10 4 times larger. New guiding center theories of transport due to long-range collisions have been developed that agree with the measurements. Theory also predicts that emission and absorption of plasma waves may further enhance the thermal conduction and viscosity, providing a possible mechanism for anomalous thermal conductivity in the electron channel of fusion plasmas. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakurabayashi, T.; Hatayama, A.; Bacal, M.
2004-01-01
The effects of the weak magnetic field on the negative ion (H - ) extraction in a negative ion source have been studied by means of a two-dimensional electrostatic particle simulation. A particle-in-cell model is used which simulates the motion of the charged particles in their self-consistent electric field. In addition, the effect of the electron diffusion across the weak magnetic field is taken into account by a simple random-walk model with a step length Δx per time step Δt; Δx=√(2D perpendicular )Δt)·ξ x , where D perpendicular ) and ξ x are the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and normal random numbers. Under this simple diffusion model, the electron diffusion has no significant effects on the H - transport. Most electrons are magnetized by the weak magnetic field and lost along the field line. As a result, more H - ions arrive instead of electrons in the region close to the plasma grid in order to ensure the plasma neutrality
Chesny, David
Magnetic reconnection is the source of many of the most powerful explosions of astrophysical plasmas in the universe. Blazars, magnetars, stellar atmospheres, and planetary magnetic fields have all been shown to be primary sites of strong reconnection events. For studying the fundamental physics behind this process, the solar atmosphere is our most accessible laboratory setting. Magnetic reconnection resulting from non-potential fields leads to plasma heating and particle acceleration, often in the form of explosive activity, contributing to coronal heating and the solar wind. Large-scale non-potential (sigmoid) fields in the solar atmosphere are poorly understood due to their crowded neighborhoods. For the first time, small-scale, non-potential loop structures have been observed in quiet Sun EUV observations. Fourteen unique mini-sigmoid events and three diffuse non-potential loops have been discovered, suggesting a multi-scaled self-similarity in the sigmoid formation process. These events are on the order of 10 arcseconds in length and do not appear in X-ray emissions, where large-scale sigmoids are well documented. We have discovered the first evidence of sigmoidal structuring in EUV bright point phenomena, which are prolific events in the solar atmosphere. Observations of these mini-sigmoids suggest that they are being formed via tether-cutting reconnection, a process observed to occur at active region scales. Thus, tether-cutting is suggested to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere. These dynamics are shown to be a function of the free magnetic energy in the quiet Sun network. Recently, the reconnection process has been reproduced in Earth-based laboratory tokamaks. Easily achievable magnetic field configurations can induce reconnection and result in ion acceleration. Here, magnetic reconnection is utilized as the plasma acceleration mechanism for a theoretical propulsion system. The theory of torsional spine reconnection is shown to result in ion
Zhang, Changxin; Fang, Bin; Wang, Bochong; Zeng, Zhongming
2018-04-01
This paper presents a steady auto-oscillation in a spin-torque oscillator using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a perpendicular polarizer and a perpendicular free layer. As the injected d.c. current varied from 1.5 to 3.0 mA under a weak magnetic field of 290 Oe, the oscillation frequency decreased from 1.85 to 1.3 GHz, and the integrated power increased from 0.1 to 74 pW. A narrow linewidth down to 7 MHz corresponding to a high Q factor of 220 was achieved at 2.7 mA, which was ascribed to the spatial coherent procession of the free layer magnetization. Moreover, the oscillation frequency was quite sensitive to the applied field, about 3.07 MHz/Oe, indicating the potential applications as a weak magnetic field detector. These results suggested that the MgO-based MTJ with perpendicular magnetic easy axis could be helpful for developing spin-torque oscillators with narrow-linewidth and high sensitive.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergeicheva, E. G.; Sosin, S. S.; Prozorova, L. A.; Gu, G. D.; Zaliznyak, I. A.
2017-01-01
We report on an electron spin resonance (ESR) study of a nearly one-dimensional (1D) spin-1/2 chain antiferromagnet, Sr 2 CuO 3 , with extremely weak magnetic ordering. The ESR spectra at T > T N , in the disordered Luttinger-spin-liquid phase, reveal nearly ideal Heisenberg-chain behavior with only a very small, field-independent linewidth, ~1/T. In the ordered state, below T N , we identify field-dependent antiferromagnetic resonance modes, which are well described by pseudo-Goldstone magnons in the model of a collinear biaxial antiferromagnet. Additionally, we observe a major resonant mode with unusual and strongly anisotropic properties, which is not anticipated by the conventional theory of Goldstone spin waves. Lastly, we propose that this unexpected magnetic excitation can be attributed to a field-independent magnon mode renormalized due to its interaction with the high-energy amplitude (Higgs) mode in the regime of weak spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Collisional interaction between metastable neon atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drunen, Wouter Johannes van
2008-07-07
In this thesis, the study of cold gases of neon atoms in different metastable states is described. It contains measurements of the collisional parameters for both the 3s[3/2]{sub 2} and the 3s'[1/2]{sub 0} metastable state and the dependence of the inelastic loss on external fields. Furthermore, the investigation of frequency dependent laser-induced collisions, and the possibility to excite photoassociation resonances is presented. For the measurements described here, neon atoms have been confined in a magnetooptical trap, in a magnetostatic trap, or in an optical dipole trap, respectively. By laser cooling inside the magnetic trap, atomic samples with more than 95 percent occupation of the magnetic substate m{sub J} = +2 could be prepared. They have a typical temperature of 0.5 mK, central densities up to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, and a central phase-space density of up to 2.2.10{sup -7}. After loading the optical dipole trap from the magnetic trap, 2.5.10{sup 6} atoms with typical temperatures of 0.1 mK, and central densities up to 5.10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} were trapped. By evaporative cooling of the atoms in the magnetic trap we could increase the phase-space density by a factor of 200 to 5.10{sup -5}. Investigating the frequency dependence of laser-induced collisions did not reveal an experimental signature for the excitation of photoassociation resonances. For the {sup 3}D{sub 3} line a frequency dependence of laser enhanced Penning ionization was observed. Measurement of the two-body loss coefficient as function of the magnetic field showed a field dependence of the inelastic loss. These losses increase towards both small and large offset fields. The implementation of an optical dipole trap allowed us to trap the {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable state. From the trap loss measurements we determined the two-body loss coefficient of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable state for both bosonic isotopes {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne. For {sup 20}Ne we obtained {beta}=6{sup +5}{sub
Collisional interaction between metastable neon atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drunen, Wouter Johannes van
2008-01-01
In this thesis, the study of cold gases of neon atoms in different metastable states is described. It contains measurements of the collisional parameters for both the 3s[3/2] 2 and the 3s'[1/2] 0 metastable state and the dependence of the inelastic loss on external fields. Furthermore, the investigation of frequency dependent laser-induced collisions, and the possibility to excite photoassociation resonances is presented. For the measurements described here, neon atoms have been confined in a magnetooptical trap, in a magnetostatic trap, or in an optical dipole trap, respectively. By laser cooling inside the magnetic trap, atomic samples with more than 95 percent occupation of the magnetic substate m J = +2 could be prepared. They have a typical temperature of 0.5 mK, central densities up to 10 11 cm -3 , and a central phase-space density of up to 2.2.10 -7 . After loading the optical dipole trap from the magnetic trap, 2.5.10 6 atoms with typical temperatures of 0.1 mK, and central densities up to 5.10 10 cm -3 were trapped. By evaporative cooling of the atoms in the magnetic trap we could increase the phase-space density by a factor of 200 to 5.10 -5 . Investigating the frequency dependence of laser-induced collisions did not reveal an experimental signature for the excitation of photoassociation resonances. For the 3 D 3 line a frequency dependence of laser enhanced Penning ionization was observed. Measurement of the two-body loss coefficient as function of the magnetic field showed a field dependence of the inelastic loss. These losses increase towards both small and large offset fields. The implementation of an optical dipole trap allowed us to trap the 3 P 0 metastable state. From the trap loss measurements we determined the two-body loss coefficient of the 3 P 0 metastable state for both bosonic isotopes 20 Ne and 22 Ne. For 20 Ne we obtained β=6 +5 -4 .10 -10 cm 3 /s and for 22 Ne β = 11 +7 -6 .10 -10 cm 3 /s. (orig.)
Sheath waves, non collisional dampings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marec, Jean Lucien Ernest
1974-01-01
When a metallic conductor is inserted into an ionised gas, an area of electron depletion is formed between the conductor and the plasma: the ionic sheath. Moreover, if the conductor is excited by an electric field, this ionic sheath plays an important role with respect to microwave properties. In this research thesis, the author addresses the range of frequencies smaller than the plasma frequency, and reports the study of resonance phenomena. After a presentation of the problem through a bibliographical study, the author recalls general characteristics of sheath wave propagation and of sheath resonances, and discusses the validity of different hypotheses (for example and among others, electrostatic approximations, cold plasma). Then, the author more particularly addresses theoretical problems related to non collisional dampings: brief bibliographical study, detailed presentation and description of the theoretical model, damping calculation methods. The author then justifies the design and performance of an experiment, indicates measurement methods used to determine plasma characteristics as well as other magnitudes which allow the description of mechanisms of propagation and damping of sheath waves. Experimental results are finally presented with respect to various parameters. The author discusses to which extent the chosen theoretical model is satisfying [fr
Sum rules for collisional processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.
1991-01-01
We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.
2004-04-01
As a first step toward a nonlinear renormalized description of turbulence phenomena in magnetized plasmas, the lowest order quasi-linear description is presented here from a unified point of view for collisionless as well as for collisional plasmas in a constant magnetic field. The quasi-linear approximation is applied to a general kinetic equation obtained previously from the Klimontovich exact equation, by means of a generalised Dupree-Weinstock method. The so-obtained quasi-linear description of electromagnetic turbulence in a magnetoplasma is applied to three separate physical cases: -) weak electrostatic turbulence, -) purely magnetic field fluctuations (the classical quasi-linear results are obtained for cosmic ray diffusion in the 'slab model' of magnetostatic turbulence in the solar wind), and -) collisional kinetic equations of magnetized plasmas. This mathematical technique has allowed us to derive basic kinetic equations for turbulent plasmas and collisional plasmas, respectively in the quasi-linear and Landau approximation. In presence of a magnetic field we have shown that the systematic use of rotation matrices describing the helical particle motion allows for a much more compact derivation than usually performed. Moreover, from the formal analogy between turbulent and collisional plasmas, the results derived here in detail for the turbulent plasmas, can be immediately translated to obtain explicit results for the Landau kinetic equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misguich, J.H
2004-04-01
As a first step toward a nonlinear renormalized description of turbulence phenomena in magnetized plasmas, the lowest order quasi-linear description is presented here from a unified point of view for collisionless as well as for collisional plasmas in a constant magnetic field. The quasi-linear approximation is applied to a general kinetic equation obtained previously from the Klimontovich exact equation, by means of a generalised Dupree-Weinstock method. The so-obtained quasi-linear description of electromagnetic turbulence in a magnetoplasma is applied to three separate physical cases: -) weak electrostatic turbulence, -) purely magnetic field fluctuations (the classical quasi-linear results are obtained for cosmic ray diffusion in the 'slab model' of magnetostatic turbulence in the solar wind), and -) collisional kinetic equations of magnetized plasmas. This mathematical technique has allowed us to derive basic kinetic equations for turbulent plasmas and collisional plasmas, respectively in the quasi-linear and Landau approximation. In presence of a magnetic field we have shown that the systematic use of rotation matrices describing the helical particle motion allows for a much more compact derivation than usually performed. Moreover, from the formal analogy between turbulent and collisional plasmas, the results derived here in detail for the turbulent plasmas, can be immediately translated to obtain explicit results for the Landau kinetic equation.
Pradhan, Somarpita; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy
2015-07-10
We experimentally demonstrate single-mode optical-fiber-beam-deflection configuration for weak magnetic-field-detection using an optimized (low coercive-field) composition of cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Devising a fiber-double-slit type experiment, we measure the surrounding magnetic field through precisely measuring interference-fringe yielding a minimum detectable field ∼100 mT and we procure magnetization data of the sample that fairly predicts SQUID measurement. To improve sensitivity, we incorporate etched single-mode fiber in double-slit arrangement and recorded a minimum detectable field, ∼30 mT. To further improve, we redefine the experiment as modulating fiber-to-fiber light-transmission and demonstrate the minimum field as 2.0 mT. The device will be uniquely suited for electrical or otherwise hazardous environments.
Parametric decay instabilities in an infinite, homogeneous, weakly anisotropic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandal, B.
1976-01-01
The parametric decay of a transverse electromagnetic (em) wave with a frequency close to, but larger than, the electron plasma frequency is investigated for an infinite, homogeneous, weakly magnetoactive plasma. A two-component fluid description is employed, and the damping of the linear plasma waves is introduced phenomenologically to include both Landau and collisional damping. The transverse em wave will decay into a longitudinal electron plasma wave and an em ion-acoustic wave. Only the latter wave is assumed to be affected by the weak, constant magnetic field. The threshold expression for growth of electron plasma waves is equal to that of the isotropic plasma when the em ion-acoustic wave's direction of propagation lies inside a wide double cone, whose axis is along the constant magnetic field. When the em ion-acoustic wave propagates outside this double cone, an additional factor, which depends directly upon the magnetic field, appears in the threshold expression. This factor can, under certain conditions, reduce the threshold for growth of electron plasma waves below that of the isotropic plasma
Wernsdorfer, W.; Bhaduri, S.; Vinslava, A.; Christou, G.
2005-12-01
A Mn4 single-molecule magnet (SMM), with a well-isolated spin ground state of S=9/2 , is used as a model system to study Landau-Zener (LZ) tunneling in the presence of weak intermolecular dipolar and exchange interactions. The anisotropy constants D and B are measured with minor hysteresis loops. A transverse field is used to tune the tunnel splitting over a large range. Using the LZ and inverse LZ method, it is shown that these interactions play an important role in the tunnel rates. Three regions are identified: (i) at small transverse fields, tunneling is dominated by single tunnel transitions, (ii) at intermediate transverse fields, the measured tunnel rates are governed by reshuffling of internal fields, and (iii) at larger transverse fields, the magnetization reversal starts to be influenced by the direct relaxation process, and many-body tunnel events may occur. The hole digging method is used to study the next-nearest-neighbor interactions. At small external fields, it is shown that magnetic ordering occurs which does not quench tunneling. An applied transverse field can increase the ordering rate. Spin-spin cross-relaxations, mediated by dipolar and weak exchange interactions, are proposed to explain additional quantum steps.
Shenar, T.; Oskinova, L. M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Luckas, P.; Hainich, R.; Todt, H.; Hubrig, S.; Sander, A. A. C.; Ilyin, I.; Hamann, W.-R.
2017-10-01
Context. HD 54879 (O9.7 V) is one of a dozen O-stars for which an organized atmospheric magnetic field has been detected. Despite their importance, little is known about the winds and evolution of magnetized massive stars. Aims: To gain insights into the interplay between atmospheres, winds, and magnetic fields of massive stars, we acquired UV and X-ray data of HD 54879 using the Hubble Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton satellite. In addition, 35 optical amateur spectra were secured to study the variability of HD 54879. Methods: A multiwavelength (X-ray to optical) spectral analysis is performed using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code and the xspec software. Results: The photospheric parameters (T∗ = 30.5 kK, log g = 4.0 [cm s-2], log L = 4.45 [L⊙]) are typical for an O9.7 V star. The microturbulent, macroturbulent, and projected rotational velocities are lower than previously suggested (ξph,vmac,vsini ≤ 4 km s-1). An initial mass of 16 M⊙ and an age of 5 Myr are inferred from evolutionary tracks. We derive a mean X-ray emitting temperature of log TX = 6.7 [K] and an X-ray luminosity of LX = 1 × 1032 erg s-1. Short- and long-scale variability is seen in the Hα line, but only a very long period of P ≈ 5 yr could be estimated. Assessing the circumstellar density of HD 54879 using UV spectra, we can roughly estimate the mass-loss rate HD 54879 would have in the absence of a magnetic field as log ṀB = 0 ≈ -9.0 [M⊙ yr-1]. The magnetic field traps the stellar wind up to the Alfvén radius rA ≳ 12 R∗, implying that its true mass-loss rate is log Ṁ ≲ -10.2 [M⊙ yr-1]. Hence, density enhancements around magnetic stars can be exploited to estimate mass-loss rates of non-magnetic stars of similar spectral types, essential for resolving the weak wind problem. Conclusions: Our study confirms that strongly magnetized stars lose little or no mass, and supplies important constraints on the weak-wind problem of massive main sequence
Collisional stripping of planetary crusts
Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.
2018-02-01
Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to
Collisional damping rates for plasma waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tigik, S. F., E-mail: sabrina.tigik@ufrgs.br; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic (“Spitzer”) formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.
IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.
2011-01-01
The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boeni, P.; Tixier, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Endoh, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Shirane, G. [Brookhaven (United States)
1997-09-01
The dispersion of the spin-flip and non-spin-flip excitations in the weak itinerant ferromagnet MnSi have been measured in the ferromagnetic phase using inelastic polarized neutron scattering. Spin wave excitations are well defined at energy transfers as large as 7 meV. The cross section of the non-spin-flip excitations is compatible with a quasielastic response function. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.
Spatial mode structures of electrostatic drift waves in a collisional cylindrical helicon plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.
2004-01-01
In a cylindrical helicon plasma, mode structures of coherent drift waves are studied in the poloidal plane, the plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The mode structures rotate with a constant angular velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift and show significant...... radial bending. The experimental observations are compared with numerical solutions of a linear nonlocal cylindrical model for drift waves [ Ellis , Plasma Phys. 22, 113 (1980) ]. In the numerical model, a transition to bended mode structures is found if the plasma collisionality is increased....... This finding proves that the experimentally observed bended mode structures are the result of high electron collisionality. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mito, S.; Sakurai, H.; Takagi, H.; Inoue, M. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A. V. [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)
2012-04-01
We have investigated the magnetization process of the polycrystalline magnetic garnet films in order to determine the most suitable composition of garnet films for piezoelectrically-driven magneto-optic spatial light modulators (MOSLMs). For experiment, the bismuth-dysprosium-aluminum-substituted yttrium iron (Bi{sub 1.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Y{sub 1.0}Fe{sub 3.1}Al{sub 1.9}O{sub 12}) garnet films were deposited by an RF magnetron sputter and annealed at 700 deg. C in air. The annealing time was varied in a range of several minutes to control the grain size. The saturation magnetization, the remanent magnetization and the composition of the fabricated garnet films slightly changed versus the annealing time. Experiments showed that the coercivity and the grain size increased at longer annealing; the coercivity was larger for films with bigger grains. This work shows that garnet films with smaller coercivity are most suitable for controlling the magnetization of garnet and, correspondingly, the magneto-optical rotation of MOSLM pixels driven by piezoelectrics.
Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2016-03-01
Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, β _0^mid = p_gas / p_B. For 10^5 ≥ β _0^mid ≥ 10 the effective α-viscosity parameter scales as a power law. Dynamo activity persists up to and including β _0^mid = 10^2, at which point the entire vertical column of the disc is magnetic pressure dominated. Still stronger fields result in a highly inhomogeneous disc structure, with large density fluctuations. We show that the turbulent steady state βmid in our simulations is well matched by the analytic model of Begelman et al. describing the creation and buoyant escape of toroidal field, while the vertical structure of the disc can be broadly reproduced using this model. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for observed properties of X-ray binaries.
Collisional drift waves in a plasma with electron temperature inhomogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Hassam, A.B.
1981-01-01
A fluid theory of collisional electrostatic drift waves in a plasma slab with magnetic shear is presented. Both electron temperature and density gradients are included. The equations are solved analytically in all relevant regions of the parameter space defined by the magnetic shear strength and the perpendicular wavelength and explicit expressions for the growth rates are given. For shear strengths appropriate for present-day tokamak discharges the temperature gradient produces potential wells which localize the mode in the electron resistive region, well inside the ion sound turning points. Mode stability arises from a competition between the destabilizing influence of the time dependent thermal force and the stabilizing influence of electron energy dissipation. Convective energy loss is not important for shear parameters of present-day fusion devices
Numerical study of drift-kinetic evolution of collisional plasmas in tori
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beasley, C.O. Jr.; Meier, H.K.; van Rij, W.I.; McCune, J.E.
1976-03-01
Preliminary numerical results for the dynamics of toroidally confined plasmas in the drift-kinetic, Fokker--Planck description are discussed. These solutions were obtained by using the techniques inherent to the collisional plasma model (CPM) described in detail elsewhere. An initial value problem is solved in the local approximation in which collisions and particle dynamics compete in a given magnetic field to set up a quasi-equilibrium. Both the plasma (guiding center) distribution function and many macroscopic quantities of interest are monitored. Good agreement with corresponding but more approximate theories is obtained over a wide range of collisionality, particularly with regard to the neoclassical particle flux. Encouraging confirmation of earlier results for the distribution function is achieved when due account is taken of the differing collisionality of particles with differing energies. These initial results indicate the potential importance of certain non-local effects as well as inclusion of self-consistency between fields and plasma currents and densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, K.G.; Benford, G.; Tzach, D.
1983-01-01
Prodigious quantities of microwave energy are observed uniformly across a wide frequency band when a relativistic electron beam (REB) penetrates a plasma. Measurement calculations are illustrated. A model of Compton-like boosting of ambient plasma waves by beam electrons, with collateral emission of high frequency photons, qualitatively explain the spectra. A transition in spectral behavior is observed from the weak to strong turbulence theories advocated for Type III solar burst radiation, and further into the regime the authors characterize as super-strong REB-plasma interactions
Measurements of long-range enhanced collisional velocity drag through plasma wave damping
Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.
2018-05-01
We present damping measurements of axial plasma waves in magnetized, multispecies ion plasmas. At high temperatures T ≳ 10-2 eV, collisionless Landau damping dominates, whereas, at lower temperatures T ≲ 10-2 eV, the damping arises from interspecies collisional drag, which is dependent on the plasma composition and scales roughly as T-3 /2 . This drag damping is proportional to the rate of parallel collisional slowing, and is found to exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agrees with a new collision theory that includes long-range collisions. Centrifugal mass separation and collisional locking of the species occur at ultra-low temperatures T ≲ 10-3 eV, which reduce the drag damping from the T-3 /2 collisional scaling. These mechanisms are investigated by measuring the damping of higher frequency axial modes, and by measuring the damping in plasmas with a non-equilibrium species profile.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaganovich, I. D., Startsev, E. A., Sefkow, A. B., Davidson, R. C.
2008-10-10
Propagation of an intense charged particle beam pulse through a background plasma is a common problem in astrophysics and plasma applications. The plasma can effectively neutralize the charge and current of the beam pulse, and thus provides a convenient medium for beam transport. The application of a small solenoidal magnetic field can drastically change the self-magnetic and self- electric fields of the beam pulse, thus allowing effective control of the beam transport through the background plasma. An analytic model is developed to describe the self-magnetic field of a finite- length ion beam pulse propagating in a cold background plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field. The analytic studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field starts to infuence the self-electric and self-magnetic fields when ωce > ωpeβb, where ωce = eβ/mec is the electron gyrofrequency, ωpe is the electron plasma frequency, and βb = Vb/c is the ion beam velocity relative to the speed of light. This condition typically holds for relatively small magnetic fields (about 100G). Analytical formulas are derived for the effective radial force acting on the beam ions, which can be used to minimize beam pinching. The results of analytic theory have been verified by comparison with the simulation results obtained from two particle-in-cell codes, which show good agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaganovich, I. D.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Davidson, R. C.
2008-01-01
Propagation of an intense charged particle beam pulse through a background plasma is a common problem in astrophysics and plasma applications. The plasma can effectively neutralize the charge and current of the beam pulse, and thus provides a convenient medium for beam transport. The application of a small solenoidal magnetic field can drastically change the self-magnetic and self- electric fields of the beam pulse, thus allowing effective control of the beam transport through the background plasma. An analytic model is developed to describe the self-magnetic field of a finite-length ion beam pulse propagating in a cold background plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field. The analytic studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field starts to influence the self-electric and self-magnetic fields when ω ce ∼> ω pe β b , where ω ce = eB/m e c is the electron gyrofrequency, ω pe is the electron plasma frequency, and β b = V b /c is the ion beam velocity relative to the speed of light. This condition typically holds for relatively small magnetic fields (about 100G). Analytical formulas are derived for the effective radial force acting on the beam ions, which can be used to minimize beam pinching. The results of analytic theory have been verified by comparison with the simulation results obtained from two particle-in-cell codes, which show good agreement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leite Lopes, J.
1976-01-01
A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parker, David S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2017-06-13
We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large T_{c} value is unlikely.
Parker, David S
2017-06-13
We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large T c value is unlikely.
Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, K. L.
2007-12-01
Single-phase BiFe1-xMnxO3 multiferroic ceramics have been synthesized by rapid liquid phase sintering method to study the influence of Mn substitution on their crystal structure, dielectric, magnetic, and ferroelectric behaviors. From XRD analysis it is seen that Mn substitution does not affect the crystal structure of the BiFe1-xMnxO3 system. An enhancement in magnetization was observed for BiFe1-xMnxO3 ceramics. However, the ferooelectric hysteresis loops were not really saturated, we observed a spontaneous polarization of 10.23μC /cm2 under the applied field of 42kV/cm and remanent polarization of 3.99μC/cm2 for x =0.3 ceramic.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Trávníček, Pavel; Hellinger, Petr; Schiver, D.
2003-01-01
Roč. 679, CP679 (2003), s. 485-488 ISSN 1551-7616. [Solar wind ten. Pisa, 17.06.2002-21.06.2002] Grant - others:ESA(NL) Prodex14529/00/NL/SFe; NSF(US) INT-0010111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : magnetized obstacle * solar wind * global hybrid simulations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyskova, A.S.
1986-01-01
This paper studies the two-dimensional Schrodinger operator H in a periodic magnetic field B(x,y) and in an electric field with periodic potential V(x,y). It is assumed that the functions B(x,y) and V(x,y) are periodic with respect to some lattice in R 2 and that the m agnetic flux through a unit cell is an integral number. The operator H is represented as a direct integral over the two-dimensional torus of the reciprocal lattice of elliptic self-adjoint operators H /sub p1/, /sub p2/ which possess a discrete spectrum lambda /sub j/ (p 1 ,p 2 ), j = 0,1,2.... On the basis of an exactly integrable case - the Schrodinger operator in a constant magnetic field - perturbation theory is used to investigate the typical dispersion laws lambda /sub j/ (p 1 ,p 2 ) and establish their topological characteristics (quantum numbers). A theorem is proved: In the general case, the Schrodinger operator has a coutable number of dispersion laws with arbitrary quantum numbers in no way related to one another or to thflux of the external magnetic field
Kinetic equations for the collisional plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rij, W.I. Van; Meier, H.K.; Beasley, C.O. Jr.; McCune, J.E.
1977-01-01
Using the Collisional Plasma Model (CPM) representation, expressions are derived for the Vlasov operator, both in its general form and in the drift-kinetic approximation following the recursive derivation by Hazeltine. The expressions for the operators give easily calculated couplings between neighbouring components of the CPM representation. Expressions for various macroscopic observables in the drift-kinetics approximation are also given. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wojcicki, S.
1978-11-01
Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.
1983-01-01
The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chanda, R.
1981-01-01
The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efstathiou, K; Lukina, O V [Department of Mathematics, University of Groningen, Groningen 9700 AK (Netherlands); SadovskiI, D A [Departement de physique, Universite du Littoral, 59140 Dunkerque (France)], E-mail: K.Efstathiou@rug.nl, E-mail: O.Lukina@math.rug.nl, E-mail: sadovski@univ-littoral.fr
2009-02-06
We consider perturbations of the hydrogen atom by sufficiently small homogeneous static electric and magnetic fields in near-orthogonal configurations. Normalization of the Keplerian symmetry reveals that in the parameter space such systems belong in a 'zone' of systems close to the 1:1 resonance, the latter corresponding to the exactly orthogonal configuration. Integrable approximations obtained from second normalization of systems in the 1:1 zone are classified into several different qualitative types, many of which possess nontrivial monodromy. We compute monodromy of the complete three-dimensional energy-momentum map, compare the joint quantum spectrum to classical bifurcation diagrams, and show the effect of second normalization to the joint spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, N.G.
1980-01-01
By electro-weak theory is meant the unified field theory that describes both weak and electro-magnetic interactions. The development of a unified electro-weak theory is certainly the most dramatic achievement in theoretical physics to occur in the second half of this century. It puts weak interactions on the same sound theoretical footing as quantum elecrodynamics. Many theorists have contributed to this development, which culminated in the works of Glashow, Weinberg and Salam, who were jointly awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics. Some of the important ideas that contributed to this development are the theory of beta decay formulated by Fermi, Parity violation suggested by Lee and Yang, and incorporated into immensely successful V-A theory of weak interactions by Sudarshan and Marshak. At the same time ideas of gauge invariance were applied to weak interaction by Schwinger, Bludman and Glashow. Weinberg and Salam then went one step further and wrote a theory that is renormalizable, i.e., all higher order corrections are finite, no mean feat for a quantum field theory. The theory had to await the development of the quark model of hadrons for its completion. A description of the electro-weak theory is given
Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional magnetoplasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R., E-mail: mrj.milani@gmail.com [Plasma Physics Research School, NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-07-15
In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a warm plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of warm magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved numerically. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorken, J.D.
1978-01-01
Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies
Kinetic simulation on collisional bounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, S.P.; Sato, Tetsuya; Tomita, Yukihiro; Hatori, Tadatsugu
1998-01-01
A self-consistent kinetic simulation model on collisional bounded plasma is presented. The electric field is given by solving Poisson equation and collisions among particles (including charged particles and neutral particles) are included. The excitation and ionization of neutral particle, and recombination are also contained in the present model. The formation of potential structure near a boundary for a discharge system was used as an application of this model. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, Raju [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Department of Applied Physics, Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Moslehuddin, A.S.M.; Mahmood, Zahid Hasan [Department of Applied Physics, Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, A.K.M. Akther, E-mail: akmhossain@phy.buet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)
2015-03-15
Highlights: • Single phase wurtzite structure was confirmed from XRD analysis. • Weak ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. • Pure semiconducting properties confirmed from temperature dependent conductivity. • Smaller dielectric properties at higher frequency. • Possible potential application in high frequency spintronic devices. - Abstract: In this study the room temperature ferromagnetic behaviour and dielectric properties of ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) have been investigated using nominal chemical composition Zn{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed formation of single phase hexagonal wurtzite structure. An increase in grain size with increasing sintering temperature was observed from scanning electron microscopy. Field dependent DC magnetization values indicated dominant paramagnetic ordering along with a slight ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Frequency dependent complex initial permeability showed some positive values around 12 at room temperature. In dielectric measurement, an increasing trend of complex permittivity, loss tangent and ac conductivity with increasing temperature were observed. The temperature dependent dispersion curves of dielectric properties revealed clear relaxation at higher temperature. Frequency dependent ac conductivity was found to increase with frequency whereas complex permittivity and loss tangent showed an opposite trend.
Koren, S A; Persinger, M A
2002-12-01
In 2002 Persinger, Roll, Tiller, Koren, and Cook considered whether there are physical processes by which recondite information exists within the space and time of objects or events. The stimuli that compose this information might be directly detected within the whole brain without being processed by the typical sensory modalities. We tested the artist Ingo Swann who can reliably draw and describe randomly selected photographs sealed in envelopes in another room. In the present experiment the photographs were immersed continuously in repeated presentations (5 times per sec.) of one of two types of computer-generated complex magnetic field patterns whose intensities were less than 20 nT over most of the area. WINDOWS-generated but not DOS-generated patterns were associated with a marked decrease in Mr. Swann's accuracy. Whereas the DOS software generated exactly the same pattern, WINDOWS software phase-modulated the actual wave form resulting in an infinite bandwidth and complexity. We suggest that information obtained by processes attributed to "paranormal" phenomena have physical correlates that can be masked by weak, infinitely variable magnetic fields.
Fan, Peng; Sun, Yuankui; Qiao, Junlian; Lo, Irene M C; Guan, Xiaohong
2018-02-05
The influence of weak magnetic field (WMF) and tartrate on the oxidation and sequestration of Sb(III) by zerovalent iron (ZVI) was investigated with batch and semi-continuous reactors. The species analysis of antinomy in aqueous solution and solid precipitates implied that both Sb(III) adsorption preceding its conversion to Sb(V) in solid phase and Sb(III) oxidation to Sb(V) preceding its adsorption in aqueous phase occurred in the process of Sb(III) sequestration by ZVI. The application of WMF greatly increased the rate constants of Sb tot (total Sb) and Sb(III) disappearance during Sb(III)-tartrate and uncomplexed-Sb(III) sequestration by ZVI. The enhancing effect of WMF was primarily due to the accelerated ZVI corrosion in the presence of WMF, as evidenced by the influence of WMF on the change of solution and solid properties with reaction. However, tartrate greatly retarded Sb removal by ZVI. It was because tartrate inhibited ZVI corrosion, competed with Sb(III) and Sb(V) for the active surface sites, increased the negative surface charge of the generated iron (hydr)oxides due to its adsorption, and formed soluble complexes with Fe(III). The positive effect of WMF on Sb(III)-tartrate and uncomplexed-Sb(III) removal by ZVI was also verified with a magnetic semi-continuous reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Dong; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu
2017-09-01
The uncertainty principle configures a low bound to the measuring precision for a pair of non-commuting observables, and hence is considerably nontrivial to quantum precision measurement in the field of quantum information theory. In this letter, we consider the entropic uncertainty relation (EUR) in the context of quantum memory in a two-qubit isotropic Heisenberg spin chain. Specifically, we explore the dynamics of EUR in a practical scenario, where two associated nodes of a one-dimensional XXX-spin chain, under an inhomogeneous magnetic field, are connected to a thermal entanglement. We show that the temperature and magnetic field effect can lead to the inflation of the measuring uncertainty, stemming from the reduction of systematic quantum correlation. Notably, we reveal that, firstly, the uncertainty is not fully dependent on the observed quantum correlation of the system; secondly, the dynamical behaviors of the measuring uncertainty are relatively distinct with respect to ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism chains. Meanwhile, we deduce that the measuring uncertainty is dramatically correlated with the mixedness of the system, implying that smaller mixedness tends to reduce the uncertainty. Furthermore, we propose an effective strategy to control the uncertainty of interest by means of quantum weak measurement reversal. Therefore, our work may shed light on the dynamics of the measuring uncertainty in the Heisenberg spin chain, and thus be important to quantum precision measurement in various solid-state systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiquan Li; Kishimoto, Y.; Tuda, T.
2000-01-01
The separate structure of two branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q magnetic surface is analysed and the effects of plasma rotation shears are considered in the weak magnetic shear region. Results show that the separation condition depends on the non-monotonous q profile and the deviation of rational surface from the minimum-q surface. Furthermore, it is found that the diamagnetic rotation shear may suppress the perturbation of the sheared slab η i mode at one side of the minimum-q surface, the poloidal rotation shear from the sheared E-vector x B-vector flow has a similar role to the slab mode structure when it possesses a direction same as the diamagnetic shear. A plausible interrelation between the separate structures of the two branches of the sheared slab mode and the discontinuity or gap of the radially global structure of the drift wave near the minimum-q surface observed in the toroidal particle simulation (Kishimoto Y et al 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 40 A663) is discussed. It seems to support such a viewpoint: the double or/and global branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q surface may become a bridge to connect the radially global structures of the drift wave at two sides of the minimum-q surface and the discontinuity may originate from the separate structures of these slab modes for a flatter q profile. (author)
Persinger, Michael A
2009-01-01
To discern if specific structures of the rat brain contained more foci of lymphocytes following induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and exposures to weak, amplitude-modulated magnetic fields for 6 min once per hour during the scotophase, the residuals between the observed and predicted values for the numbers of foci for 320 structures were obtained. Compared to the brains of sham-field exposed rats, the brains of rats exposed to 7-Hz 50 nT (0.5 mG) amplitude-modulated fields showed more foci within hippocampal structures and the dorsal central grey of the midbrain while those exposed to 7-Hz 500 nT (5 mG) fields showed greater densities within the hypothalamus and optic chiasm. The brains of rats exposed to either the 50 nT or 500 nT amplitude-modulated 40-Hz fields displayed greater densities of foci within the midbrain structures related to rapid eye movement. Most of the enhancements of infiltrations within the magnetic field-exposed rats occurred in structures within periventricular or periaqueductal regions and were both frequency- and intensity-dependent. The specificity and complexity of the configurations of the residuals of the numbers of infiltrated foci following exposures to the different fields suggest that the brain itself may be a "sensory organ" for the detection of these stimuli.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gvozdikov, V M; Taut, M
2009-01-01
We report on analytical and numerical studies of the magnetic quantum oscillations of the diagonal conductivity σ xx in a two-dimensional conductor with a weak square superlattice modulation under conditions of the integer quantum Hall (IQHE) effect. The quantum Hall effect in such a system differs from the conventional IQHE, in which the finite width of the Landau bands is due to disorder only. The superlattice modulation potential yields a fractal splitting of the Landau levels into Hofstadter minibands. For rational flux through a unit cell, the minibands have a finite width and intrinsic dispersion relations. We consider a regime, now accessible experimentally, in which disorder does not wash out the fractal internal gap structure of the Landau bands completely. We found the following distinctions from the conventional IQHE produced by the superlattice: (i) the peaks in diagonal conductivity are split due to the Hofstadter miniband structure of Landau bands; (ii) the number of split peaks in the bunch, their positions and heights depend irregularly on the magnetic field and the Fermi energy; (iii) the gaps between the split Landau bands (and related quantum Hall plateaus) become narrower with the superlattice modulation than without it.
Exact collisional moments for plasma fluid theories
Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero; Lingam, Manasvi
2017-10-01
The velocity-space moments of the often troublesome nonlinear Landau collision operator are expressed exactly in terms of multi-index Hermite-polynomial moments of the distribution functions. The collisional moments are shown to be generated by derivatives of two well-known functions, namely the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd-Trubnikov potentials for a Gaussian distribution. The resulting formula has a nonlinear dependency on the relative mean flow of the colliding species normalised to the root-mean-square of the corresponding thermal velocities, and a bilinear dependency on densities and higher-order velocity moments of the distribution functions, with no restriction on temperature, flow or mass ratio of the species. The result can be applied to both the classic transport theory of plasmas, that relies on the Chapman-Enskog method, as well as to deriving collisional fluid equations that follow Grad's moment approach. As an illustrative example, we provide the collisional ten-moment equations with exact conservation laws for momentum- and energy-transfer rate.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics with a scalar collisional kernel
Almaalol, Dekrayat; Strickland, Michael
2018-04-01
Prior studies of nonequilibrium dynamics using anisotropic hydrodynamics have used the relativistic Anderson-Witting scattering kernel or some variant thereof. In this paper, we make the first study of the impact of using a more realistic scattering kernel. For this purpose, we consider a conformal system undergoing transversally homogenous and boost-invariant Bjorken expansion and take the collisional kernel to be given by the leading order 2 ↔2 scattering kernel in scalar λ ϕ4 . We consider both classical and quantum statistics to assess the impact of Bose enhancement on the dynamics. We also determine the anisotropic nonequilibrium attractor of a system subject to this collisional kernel. We find that, when the near-equilibrium relaxation-times in the Anderson-Witting and scalar collisional kernels are matched, the scalar kernel results in a higher degree of momentum-space anisotropy during the system's evolution, given the same initial conditions. Additionally, we find that taking into account Bose enhancement further increases the dynamically generated momentum-space anisotropy.
Collisional Transport in a Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak -- Beyond the Drift Kinetic Formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, D.A.; White, R.B.
2004-01-01
Calculations of collisional thermal and particle diffusivities in toroidal magnetic plasma confinement devices order the toroidal gyroradius to be small relative to the poloidal gyroradius. This ordering is central to what is usually referred to as neoclassical transport theory. This ordering is incorrect at low aspect ratio, where it can often be the case that the toroidal gyroradius is larger than the poloidal gyroradius. We calculate the correction to the particle and thermal diffusivities at low aspect ratio by comparing the diffusivities as determined by a full orbit code (which we refer to as omni-classical diffusion) with those from a gyroaveraged orbit code (neoclassical diffusion). In typical low aspect ratio devices the omni-classical diffusion can be up to 2.5 times the calculated neoclassical value. We discuss the implications of this work on the analysis of collisional transport in low aspect ratio magnetic confinement experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, G.; Jeon, Y.; Kim, J., E-mail: gypark@nfri.re.kr [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)
2012-09-15
Full text: Control of the edge localized modes (ELMs) is one of the most critical issues for a more successful operation of ITER and the future tokamak fusion reactors. This paper reports ITER relevant simulation results from the XGC0 drift-kinetic code, with respect to the collisionality, plasma density, and rotation dependence of the RMP penetration and the RMP-driven transport in diverted DIII-D geometry with neutral recycling. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental results, and contribute to the physics understanding needed for more confident extrapolation of the present RMP experiments to ITER. It is found that plasma-responded stochasticity becomes weaker as the collisionality gets higher and RMP-driven transport (i.e., density pump-out) is much weaker in the high collisionality case compared with that in the low collisionality one, which is consistent with the recent experimental results on DIII-D and ASDEX-U tokamaks. As for rotation effect, low rotation is found not to affect the stochasticity much in the edge region, while high rotation significantly suppresses the RMPs in the core. The clear difference in RMP behavior between the low and high collisionality regimes can be understood by examining the perturbed current Fourier amplitude profiles within the range of resonant poloidal mode numbers (m = 8 - 15, n = 3). It can be seen that primary shielding currents are strongly concentrated around the steep pedestal region just inside the separatrix, which naturally produces very strong suppression of RMPs there, in low collisionality case. However, in high collisionality case, primary shielding currents are very weak and accumulating toward inner radii leading to the shielding of RMPs further into the plasma. Our kinetic simulation method is also applied to the modeling of RMP ELM control experiments on KSTAR tokamak and the results will be presented together. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, G. Q.; Ma, J.; Weiland, J.; Zang, Q.
2013-01-01
We have made the first drift wave study of particle transport in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)). The results reveal that collisions make the particle flux more inward in the high collisionality regime. This can be traced back to effects that are quadratic in the collision frequency. The particle pinch is due to electron trapping which is not very efficient in the high collisionality regime so the approach to equilibrium is slow. We have included also the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode to give the right electron temperature gradient, since the Trapped Electron Mode (TE mode) is weak in this regime. However, at the ETG mode number ions are Boltzmann distributed so the ETG mode does not give particle transport
Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Quantum Field Theory created by Dirac and used by Fermi to describe weak ... of classical electrodynamics (from which the electric field and magnetic field can be obtained .... Universe. However, thanks to weak interactions, this can be done.
He, Wei-Tao; Liang, Bo-Cheng; Shi, Zhen-Yu; Li, Xu-Yun; Li, Chun-Wen; Shi, Xiao-Lin
2016-01-01
The present study aimed at investigating the weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of osteopenia from ten postmenopausal women and ten postmenopausal women without osteopenia as control group, to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were collected from postmenopausal women with osteopenia and postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. Proteins were extracted from serum samples by weak cation exchange magnetic beads technology, and mass spectra acquisition was done by MALDI-TOF-MS. The visualization and comparison of data sets, statistical peak evaluation, model recognition, and discovery of biomarker candidates were handled by the proteinchip data analysis system software(ZJU-PDAS). The diagnostic models were established using genetic arithmetic based support vector machine (SVM). The SVM result with the highest Youden Index was selected as the model. Combinatorial Peaks having the highest accuracy in distinguishing different samples were selected as potential biomarker. From the two group serum samples, a total of 133 differential features were selected. Ten features with significant intensity differences were screened. In the pair-wise comparisons, processing of MALDI-TOF spectra resulted in the identification of ten differential features between postmenopausal women with osteopenia and postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. The difference of features by Youden index showed that the highest features had a mass to charge ratio of 1699 and 3038 Da. A diagnosis model was established with these two peaks as the candidate marker, and the specificity of the model is 100 %, the sensitivity was 90 % by leave-one-out cross validation test. The two groups of specimens in SVM results on the scatter plot could be clearly distinguished. The peak
Selleri, Franco
2015-01-01
Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.
Nonadiabatic effects in inelastic collisional processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyaev, Andrey K
2009-01-01
The standard adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approach to inelastic collisional processes is revised. It is shown that the widely used standard interpretation of this approach has fundamental limitations leading to physical artefacts or to uncertainties in numerical calculations due to neglecting the electron translation problem. It is demonstrated that the Born-Oppenheimer approach itself does not have such limitations. The particular full quantum solution of the electron translation problem within the Born-Oppenheimer approach by means of the reprojection procedure is discussed in the paper together with the practical applications.
Collisional Penrose process with spinning particles
Mukherjee, Sajal
2018-03-01
In this article, we have investigated collisional Penrose process (CPP) using spinning particles in a Kerr spacetime. Recent studies have shown that the collision between two spinning particles can produce a significantly high energy in the center of mass frame. Here, we explicitly compute the energy extraction and efficiency as measured by an observer at infinity. We consider the colliding particles as well as the escaping particles may contain spins. It has been shown that the energy extraction is larger than the non-spinning case and also their possibility to escape to infinity is wider than the geodesics.
Wavepacket theory of collisional dissociation in molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulander, K.
1980-01-01
An explicit integration scheme is used to solve the time dependent Schroedinger equation for wavepackets which model collisions in the collinear H + H 2 system. A realistic LEPS-type potential energy surface is used. Collision energies considered are above the dissociation threshold and probabilities for collision induced dissociation are reported. Also quantum mechanical state-to-state transition probabilities are generated. These results are compared to extensive classical trajectory calculations performed on this same system. The time evolution of the wavepacket densities is studied to understand the dynamics of the collinear collisional dissociation process
Radionuclide measurements using resonantly enhanced collisional ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.
1987-01-01
This report describes development of a laser-enhanced collisional ionization method for direct radionuclide measurements that are independent of radioactive decay. The technique uses two nitrogen-laser-pumped dye lasers to selectively excite the target isotope to an electronic state near the ionization threshold. The excited actinide atoms then undergo collisions with a buffer gas and are efficiently ionized. The resulting ions can be detected by conventional methods. The attributes of this approach include highly sensitive isotope analysis with relatively inexpensive lasers and a simple vacuum system. 9 refs., 3 figs
Roll, W G; Persinger, M A; Webster, D L; Tiller, S G; Cook, C M
2002-02-01
Experiments were designed to help elucidate the neurophysiological correlates for the experiences reported by Sean Harribance. For most of his life he has routinely experienced "flashes of images" of objects that were hidden and of accurate personal information concerning people with whom he was not familiar. The specificity of details for target pictures of people was correlated positively with the proportion of occipital alpha activity. Results from a complete neuropsychological assessment, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and screening electroencephalography suggested that his experiences were associated with increased activity within the parietal lobe and occipital regions of the right hemisphere. Sensed presences (subjectively localized to his left side) were evoked when weak, magnetic fields, whose temporal structure simulated long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, were applied over his right temporoparietal lobes. These results suggest that the phenomena attributed to paranormal or "extrasensory" processes are correlated quantitatively with morphological and functional anomalies involving the right parietotemporal cortices (or its thalamic inputs) and the hippocampal formation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupret, K.; Delande, D.
1996-01-01
We study the time propagation of an initially localized wave packet for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system, using the open-quote open-quote nonlinear wave-packet dynamics close-quote close-quote [S. Tomsovic and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 664 (1991)], a semiclassical approximation using a local linearization of the wave packet in the vicinity of classical reference trajectories. Several reference trajectories are needed to describe the behavior of the full wave packet. The introduction of action-angle variables allows us to obtain a simple analytic expression for the autocorrelation function, and to show that a universal behavior (quantum collapses, quantum revivals, etc.) is obtained via interferences between the reference trajectories. A connection with the standard WKB approach is established. Finally, we apply the nonlinear wave-packet dynamics to the case of the hydrogen atom in a weak magnetic field, and show that the semiclassical expressions obtained by nonlinear wave-packet dynamics are extremely accurate. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froese, Aaron; Takizuka, Tomonori; Yagi, Masatoshi
2010-01-01
Fluid models are not generally applicable to fusion edge plasmas without external provision of kinetic factors: closure parameters and boundary conditions inside the sheath region. We explain the PARASOL-1D simulation, a particle-in-cell code with a binary collision Monte-Carlo model, and use it to determine four kinetic factors commonly needed in fluid codes. These are the electron and ion heat flux limiting factors, α e and α i , the ion adiabatic index, γ A , and the electron and ion temperature anisotropy, T ‖ /T ⊥ . We survey these factors over a wide range of collisionalities and find that, as predicted, the conductive heat flux is accurately described by the Spitzer-Härm expression in the collisional limit and asymptotes to a constant value in the collisionless limit. However, unique behavior occurs in the weakly collisional regime when the ratio of the mean free path to connection length is 0.1 < λ mfp /L ‖ < 10, when the SOL is between the conduction- and sheath-limited regimes. We find that α e can peak, becoming larger than the collisionless limit, γ A is less than unity, and only the ions are anisotropic. The effects of electron energy radiation and Langevin heating are explored. Finally, the strong deviations of the energy distribution function from Maxwellian in the weakly collisional and collisionless regimes are explained. (author)
Resonantly enhanced collisional ionization measurements of radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.
1986-01-01
The authors developed a new laser technique to analyze for radionuclides at extremely low levels. The technique, called resonantly enhanced collisional ionization (RECI), uses two nitrogen-laser pumped dye lasers to excite the target isotope to a high-energy Rydberg state. Atoms in these Rydberg states (within a few hundred wavenumbers in energy from the ionization threshold) efficiently ionize upon colliding with an inert gas and the ions can be detected by conventional means. The principal advantage of resonantly-enhanced collisional ionization is the extreme sensitivity coupled with its relative simplicity and low cost. Actinides typically have an ionization potential of about 6eV (uranium I.P. = 6.2 eV, plutonium I.P. = 5.7 eV). Two-step laser excitation to a state just below threshold requires wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. They showed that when both steps in the excitation process are resonant steps, relatively low-power lasers can populate the Rydberg state with almost unit efficiency. This is because the resonant excitations have much larger cross-sections than do photoionization processes. They also demonstrated that a few torr of a buffer gas will cause most of the excited-state atoms to be ionized
Collisional model for granular impact dynamics.
Clark, Abram H; Petersen, Alec J; Behringer, Robert P
2014-01-01
When an intruder strikes a granular material from above, the grains exert a stopping force which decelerates and stops the intruder. Many previous studies have used a macroscopic force law, including a drag force which is quadratic in velocity, to characterize the decelerating force on the intruder. However, the microscopic origins of the force-law terms are still a subject of debate. Here, drawing from previous experiments with photoelastic particles, we present a model which describes the velocity-squared force in terms of repeated collisions with clusters of grains. From our high speed photoelastic data, we infer that "clusters" correspond to segments of the strong force network that are excited by the advancing intruder. The model predicts a scaling relation for the velocity-squared drag force that accounts for the intruder shape. Additionally, we show that the collisional model predicts an instability to rotations, which depends on the intruder shape. To test this model, we perform a comprehensive experimental study of the dynamics of two-dimensional granular impacts on beds of photoelastic disks, with different profiles for the leading edge of the intruder. We particularly focus on a simple and useful case for testing shape effects by using triangular-nosed intruders. We show that the collisional model effectively captures the dynamics of intruder deceleration and rotation; i.e., these two dynamical effects can be described as two different manifestations of the same grain-scale physical processes.
Review and limitations of 3D plasma blob modeling with reduced collisional fluid equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angus, Justin R., E-mail: jangus@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Krashenninikov, Sergei I. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
2013-07-15
Recent 3D studies on plasma blobs (coherent structures found in the edge region of magnetic confinement devices) have demonstrated that the drift wave instability can strongly limit the blob’s coherency and cross field convective nature that is predicted by 2D theory. However, the dominant unstable drift wave modes that effect plasma blobs were found to exist in parameter regimes that only marginally satisfied several of the major assumptions considered for the validity of the reduced collisional fluid equations used in the study. Namely, the neglect of electron heat flow, finite electron mean free path effects, and thermal ions. A follow up study demonstrated how the drift wave instability might change if a set of equations that does not suffer from the limitations mentioned above were considered. In the present paper, the results of this later work are used to discuss the limitations on using the collisional fluid equations for 3D studies of plasma blobs.
Bao, Jian; Lau, Calvin; Kuley, Animesh; Lin, Zhihong; Fulton, Daniel; Tajima, Toshiki; Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Team
2017-10-01
Collisional and turbulent transport in a field reversed configuration (FRC) is studied in global particle simulation by using GTC (gyrokinetic toroidal code). The global FRC geometry is incorporated in GTC by using a field-aligned mesh in cylindrical coordinates, which enables global simulation coupling core and scrape-off layer (SOL) across the separatrix. Furthermore, fully kinetic ions are implemented in GTC to treat magnetic-null point in FRC core. Both global simulation coupling core and SOL regions and independent SOL region simulation have been carried out to study turbulence. In this work, the ``logical sheath boundary condition'' is implemented to study parallel transport in the SOL. This method helps to relax time and spatial steps without resolving electron plasma frequency and Debye length, which enables turbulent transports simulation with sheath effects. We will study collisional and turbulent SOL parallel transport with mirror geometry and sheath boundary condition in C2-W divertor.
Diffusion and transport phenomena in a collisional magnetoplasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Boltzmann-transport equation is analytically solved for two-component magnetoplasma using Chapman-Enskog analysis to include collisional diffusion transport having anisotropies in both streaming velocity and temperature components. The modified collisional integrals are analytically solved with flux integrals and ...
Collisional and radiative processes in fluorescent lamps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lister, Graeme G.
2003-01-01
Since electrode life is the major limiting factor in operating fluorescent lamps, many lighting companies have introduced 'electrodeless' fluorescent lamps, using inductively coupled discharges. These lamps often operate at much higher power loadings than standard lamps and numerical models have not been successful in reproducing experimental measurements in the parameter ranges of interest. A comprehensive research program was undertaken to study the fundamental physical processes of these discharges, co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and OSRAM SYLVANIA under the name of ALITE. The program included experiments and modeling of radiation transport, computations of electron-atom and atom-atom cross sections and the first comprehensive power balance studies of a highly loaded fluorescent lamp. Results from the program and their importance to the understanding of the physics of fluorescent lamps are discussed, with particular emphasis on the important collisional and radiative processes. Comparisons between results of experimental measurements and numerical models are presented
Temperature relaxation in collisional non equilibrium plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potapenko, I.F.; Bobylev, A.V.; Azevedo, C.A.; Assis, A.S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1997-12-31
Full text. We study the relaxation of a space uniform plasma composed of electrons and one species of ions. To simplified the consideration, standard approach is usually accepted: the distribution functions are considered to be a Maxwellian with time dependent electron T{sub e}(t) and ion T{sub i}(t) temperatures. This approach imposes a severe restriction on the electron/ion distributions that could be very far from the equilibrium. In the present work the problem is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic Fokker - Planck equation, which is widely used for the description of collisional plasmas. This equation has many applications in plasma physics as an intrinsic part of physical models, both analytical and numerical. A new detailed description of this classical problem of the collisional plasma kinetic theory is given. A deeper examination of the problem shows that the unusual perturbation theory can not be used. The part of the perturbation of the electron distribution has the character of a boundary layer in the neighborhood of small velocities. In this work the boundary layer is thoroughly studied. The correct distribution electron function is given. Nonmonotonic character of the distribution relaxation in the tail region is observed. The corrected formula for temperature equalization is obtained. The comparison of the calculation results with the asymptotic approach is made. We should stress the important role of the completely conservative different scheme used here, which keeps the symmetric properties of the nonlinear exact equation. This allows us to make calculations without numerical error accumulations, except for machine errors. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, P.R.; Becoulet, M.; Evans, T.E.; Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Jackson, G.L.; Haye, R.J. La; Schaffer, M.J.; West, W.P.; Moyer, R.A.; Rhodes, T.L.; Rudakov, D.L.; Watkins, J.G.; Boedo, J.A.; Doyle, E.J.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Lasnier, C.J.; Finken, K.H.; Harris, J.H.; Pretty, D.G.; Masuzaki, S.; Ohyabu, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Wade, M.R.
2005-01-01
Large divertor heat pulses due to Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) have been eliminated reproducibly in DIII-D with small dc currents driven in a simple magnetic perturbation coil. The current required to eliminate all but a few isolated Type-I ELMs, during a coil pulse, is less than 0.4% of plasma current. Modelling shows that the perturbation fields resonate with plasma flux surfaces across most of the pedestal region (0.9 ≤ N ≤ 1.0), when q95 = 3.7±0.2 creating small remnant magnetic islands surrounded by weakly stochastic field lines. The stored energy, N , H-mode quality factor and global energy confinement time are unaltered by the magnetic perturbation. At high collisionality (ν* ∼0.5-1), there is no obvious effect of the perturbation on the edge profiles and yet ELMs are suppressed, nearly completely, for up to 9τ E . At low collisionality (ν* <0.1), there is a density pump-out and complete ELM suppression, reminiscent of the DIIID QH- mode. Other differences, specifically in the resonance condition and the magnetic fluctuations, suggest that different mechanisms are at play in the different collisionality regimes. In addition to a description and interpretation of the DIIID data, the application of this method to ELM control on other machines, such as JET and ITER will be discussed. (author)
Electron Capture Dissociation of Weakly Bound Polypeptide Polycationic Complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haselmann, Kim F; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Budnik, Bogdan A
2002-01-01
as well as specific complexes of modified glycopeptide antibiotics with their target peptide. The weak nature of bonding is substantiated by blackbody infrared dissociation, low-energy collisional excitation and force-field simulations. The results are consistent with a non-ergodic ECD cleavage mechanism.......We have previously reported that, in electron capture dissociation (ECD), rupture of strong intramolecular bonds in weakly bound supramolecular aggregates can proceed without dissociation of weak intermolecular bonds. This is now illustrated on a series of non-specific peptide-peptide dimers...
THE CREATION OF HAUMEA'S COLLISIONAL FAMILY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em
2009-01-01
Recently, the first collisional family was discovered in the Kuiper Belt. The parent body of this family, Haumea, is one of the largest objects in the Kuiper Belt and is orbited by two satellites. It has been proposed that the Haumea family was created from dispersed fragments that resulted from a giant impact. This proposed origin of the Haumea family is however in conflict with the observed velocity dispersion between the family members (∼ 140 m s -1 ) which is significantly less than the escape velocity from Haumea's surface (∼ 900 m s -1 ). In this paper we propose a different formation scenario for Haumea's collisional family. In our scenario the family members are ejected while in orbit around Haumea. This scenario, therefore, naturally gives rise to a lower velocity dispersion among the family members than expected from direct ejection from Haumea's surface. In our scenario Haumea's giant impact forms a single moon that tidally evolves outward until it suffers a destructive collision from which the family is created. We show that this formation scenario yields a velocity dispersion of ∼ 190 m s -1 among the family members which is in good agreement with the observations. We discuss an alternative scenario that consists of the formation and tidal evolution of several satellites that are ejected by collisions with unbound Kuiper Belt objects. However, the formation of the Haumea family in this latter way is difficult to reconcile with the large abundance of Kuiper Belt binaries. We, therefore, favor forming the family by a destructive collision of a single moon of Haumea. The probability for Haumea's initial giant impact in today's Kuiper Belt is less than 10 -3 . In our scenario, however, Haumea's giant impact can occur before the excitation of the Kuiper Belt and the ejection of the family members afterward. This has the advantage that one can preserve the dynamical coherence of the family and explain Haumea's original giant impact, which is several
Feeding supermassive black holes by collisional cascades
Faber, Christian; Dehnen, Walter
2018-05-01
The processes driving gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are still poorly understood. Angular momentum conservation prevents gas within ˜10 pc of the black hole from reaching radii ˜10-3 pc where viscous accretion becomes efficient. Here we present simulations of the collapse of a clumpy shell of swept-up isothermal gas, which is assumed to have formed as a result of feedback from a previous episode of AGN activity. The gas falls towards the SMBH forming clumps and streams, which intersect, collide, and often form a disc. These collisions promote partial cancellations of angular momenta, resulting in further infall and more collisions. This continued collisional cascade generates a tail of gas with sufficiently small angular momenta and provides a viable route for gas inflow to sub-parsec scales. The efficiency of this process hardly depends on details, such as gas temperature, initial virial ratio and power spectrum of the gas distribution, as long as it is not strongly rotating. Adding star formation to this picture might explain the near-simultaneous formation of the S-stars (from tidally disrupted binaries formed in plunging gas streams) and the sub-parsec young stellar disc around Sgr A⋆.
Streaming instabilities in a collisional dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2000-01-01
A pair of low-frequency electrostatic modes, which are very similar to those experimentally observed by Praburam and Goree [Phys. Plasmas 3, 1212 (1996)], are found to exist in a dusty plasma with a significant background neutral pressure and background ion streaming. One of these two modes is the dust-acoustic mode and the other one is a new mode which is due to the combined effects of the ion streaming and ion--neutral collisions. It has been shown that in the absence of the ion streaming, the dust-acoustic mode is damped due to the combined effects of the ion--neutral and dust--neutral collisions and the electron--ion recombination onto the dust grain surface. This result disagrees with Kaw and Singh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 423 (1997)], who reported collisional instability of the dust-acoustic mode in such a dusty plasma. It has also been found that a streaming instability with the growth rate of the order of the dust plasma frequency is triggered when the background ion streaming speed relative to the charged dust particles is comparable or higher than the ion--thermal speed. This point completely agrees with Rosenberg [J. Vac. Soc. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)
Impulsive nature in collisional driven reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitabata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takaya; Sato, Tetsuya.
1995-11-01
Compressible magnetohydrodynamic simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. In the impulsive phase, the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up to more than ten times of the driving rate on the boundary. (author)
The effect of collisionality and diamagnetism on the plasma dynamo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, H.; Yagi, Y.; Hattori, K.; Hirano, Y.; Shimada, T.; Maejima, Y.; Hayase, K.; Almagri, A.F.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.
1995-01-01
Fluctuation-induced dynamo forces are measured over a wide range of electron collisionality in the edge of TPE-1RM20 Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). In the collisionless region the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo alone can sustain the parallel current, while in the collisional region a new dynamo mechanism resulting from the fluctuations in the electron diamagnetic drift becomes dominant. A comprehensive picture of the RFP dynamo emerges by combining with earlier results from MST and REPUTE RFPs
Neoclassical transport in a multiple-helicity torsatron in the low-collisionality (1/#betta#) regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K.C.; Hokin, S.A.
1983-02-01
For a sufficiently high number of field periods (m/iota > l), the magnetic field of a multiple helicity torsatron can be reduced to a simple form such that the second adiabatic invariant J can be calculated. It is found that the particle and the heat fluxes for a multiple helicity torsatron in the low collisionality (1/#betta#) regime have the same geometric dependences. An optimization of both quantities is carried out for a given equilibrium constraint. It is shown that the transport fluxes can be smaller than those of the conventional stellarator by an order of magnitude. The effect of finite plasma beta on the neoclassical fluxes is also studied
Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata.
1977-06-01
The relation between the current generation by RF travelling field and the accompanied power absorption is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gas pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (auth.)
Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata
1978-01-01
The relation between the current generated by RF travelling field and the absorbed power is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gap pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (author)
Gyrokinetic simulations in general geometry and applications to collisional damping of zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Hahm, T.S.; Lee, W.W.; Tang, W.M.; White, R.B.
2000-01-01
A fully three-dimensional gyrokinetic particle code using magnetic coordinates for general geometry has been developed and applied to the investigation of zonal flows dynamics in toroidal ion-temperature-gradient turbulence. Full torus simulation results support the important conclusion that turbulence-driven zonal flows significantly reduce the turbulent transport. Linear collisionless simulations for damping of an initial poloidal flow perturbation exhibit an asymptotic residual flow. The collisional damping of this residual causes the dependence of ion thermal transport on the ion-ion collision frequency even in regimes where the instabilities are collisionless
Parker, Joseph T.
2015-02-03
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015. We study Landau damping in the 1+1D Vlasov-Poisson system using a Fourier-Hermite spectral representation. We describe the propagation of free energy in Fourier-Hermite phase space using forwards and backwards propagating Hermite modes recently developed for gyrokinetic theory. We derive a free energy equation that relates the change in the electric field to the net Hermite flux out of the zeroth Hermite mode. In linear Landau damping, decay in the electric field corresponds to forward propagating Hermite modes; in nonlinear damping, the initial decay is followed by a growth phase characterized by the generation of backwards propagating Hermite modes by the nonlinear term. The free energy content of the backwards propagating modes increases exponentially until balancing that of the forward propagating modes. Thereafter there is no systematic net Hermite flux, so the electric field cannot decay and the nonlinearity effectively suppresses Landau damping. These simulations are performed using the fully-spectral 5D gyrokinetics code SpectroGK, modified to solve the 1+1D Vlasov-Poisson system. This captures Landau damping via Hou-Li filtering in velocity space. Therefore the code is applicable even in regimes where phase mixing and filamentation are dominant.
Dust charging and charge fluctuations in a weakly collisional radio-frequency sheath at low pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piel, Alexander; Schmidt, Christian
2015-01-01
Models for the charging of dust particles in the bulk plasma and in the sheath region are discussed. A new model is proposed that describes collision-enhanced ion currents in the sheath. The collisions result in a substantial reduction of the negative charge of the dust. Experimental data for the dust charge in the sheath can be described by this model when a Bi-Maxwellian electron distribution is taken into account. Expressions for the dust charging rate for all considered models are presented and their influence on the rise of the kinetic dust temperature is discussed
Electron acceleration by electromagnetic irradiation of a weakly-collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karfidov, D.M.; Lukina, N.A.; Sergeychev, K.F.
1989-01-01
In this paper, electron acceleration is investigated experimentally in both a homogeneous and an inhomogeneous plasma. In the first case acceleration is produced by development of a parametric instability, while in the second case acceleration in a plasma resonance field is used. It is demonstrated that multiple electron passes through a resonant field will produce and accelerated electron energy spectrum characterized by the effective temperature. It is established that the electron replacement current flowing in the interaction region between the plasma and a spatially-limited microwave field excites ion-acoustic turbulence in plasma and also produces an anomalously low thermal conductivity and an anomalously high resistivity
The stability of weakly collisional plasmas with thermal and composition gradients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, M.E.; Chakraborty, S.
2013-01-01
and magnitudes of the gradients in the temperature and the mean molecular weight, the plasma can be subject to a wide variety of unstable modes which include modifications to the magnetothermal instability (MTI), the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), and overstable gravity modes previously studied...... in homogeneous media. We also find that there are new modes which are driven by heat conduction and particle diffusion. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our findings for a representative galaxy cluster where helium has sedimented. Our findings suggest that the core insulation that results from...
Parker, Joseph T.; Dellar, Paul J.
2015-01-01
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015. We study Landau damping in the 1+1D Vlasov-Poisson system using a Fourier-Hermite spectral representation. We describe the propagation of free energy in Fourier-Hermite phase space using forwards
Clocking Femtosecond Collisional Dynamics via Resonant X-Ray Spectroscopy
van den Berg, Q. Y.; Fernandez-Tello, E. V.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Chung, H.-K.; Ciricosta, O.; Dakovski, G. L.; Hájková, V.; Hollebon, P.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Minitti, M. P.; Preston, T. R.; de la Varga, A. G.; Vozda, V.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J. S.; Velarde, P.; Vinko, S. M.
2018-02-01
Electron-ion collisional dynamics is of fundamental importance in determining plasma transport properties, nonequilibrium plasma evolution, and electron damage in diffraction imaging applications using bright x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). Here we describe the first experimental measurements of ultrafast electron impact collisional ionization dynamics using resonant core-hole spectroscopy in a solid-density magnesium plasma, created and diagnosed with the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray FEL. By resonantly pumping the 1 s →2 p transition in highly charged ions within an optically thin plasma, we have measured how off-resonance charge states are populated via collisional processes on femtosecond time scales. We present a collisional cross section model that matches our results and demonstrates how the cross sections are enhanced by dense-plasma effects including continuum lowering. Nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium collisional radiative simulations show excellent agreement with the experimental results and provide new insight on collisional ionization and three-body-recombination processes in the dense-plasma regime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez Pascual, M. A.; Paino Belarrinaga, C. L.; Trillo ruiz, M. A.; Ubeda Maeso, A.
2013-07-01
Although several studies have suggested a possible association between exposure to environmental magnetic fields of industrial frequency and semicircular lipoatrophy, a mechanism that justifies the potential action of these fields magnetic on the adipo genesis has not been identified. The study investigated the in vitro action of a field weak magnetic on the adipo genesis of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. (Author)
Collisional drag may lead to disappearance of wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2013-01-01
The inhomogeneity in the magnetic field in a cold electron-ion non-dissipative homogeneous plasma leads to the breaking of lower hybrid modes via phase mixing phenomenon [Maity et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 102302 (2012)]. In this work, we show that an inclusion of collisional drag force in fluid equations may lead to the disappearance of the wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations. The nonlinear analysis in Lagrangian variables provides an expression for a critical value of damping rate, above which spikes in the plasma density profile may disappear. The critical damping rate depends on the perturbation and magnetic field inhomogeneity amplitudes as well as the ratio of the magnetic field inhomogeneity and perturbation scale lengths.
Reconstructing weak values without weak measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johansen, Lars M.
2007-01-01
I propose a scheme for reconstructing the weak value of an observable without the need for weak measurements. The post-selection in weak measurements is replaced by an initial projector measurement. The observable can be measured using any form of interaction, including projective measurements. The reconstruction is effected by measuring the change in the expectation value of the observable due to the projector measurement. The weak value may take nonclassical values if the projector measurement disturbs the expectation value of the observable
Collisional drift fluids and drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.
1995-05-01
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effect of which is extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter is important as concerns charge separation and resulting electric fields which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial for the stability behaviour; it will be discussed via an example. New collisional multispecies drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields in a transparent way conservation of energy and total angular momentum, and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. Their relation to the ideal equations imply, however, also a relation to the ideal Lagrangian of which one can take advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T ν (x)=const. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theories; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. Linear instability is investigated via energy considerations and the implications of taking ohmic resistivity into account are discussed. (orig./WL)
Collisional activation by the fast particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiraoka, Kenzo
1996-01-01
Collisional activation of the matter induced by the bombardment of the fast particle is summarized. The particle with the velocity higher than the Bohr velocity (transit time through 5A shorter than 2.5x10 -16 s) experiences the electronic stopping power when it passes through the matter and induces dense electronic excitations and ionizations which results in the heavy sputtering of the matter. This kind of activation is usefully applied in the PDMS. When the particle velocity becomes lower than the Bohr velocity, the energy is mainly deposited to the matter by the nuclear stopping power, i.e., energy loss is governed by the screened Coulombic collisions of the atoms giving rise to the momentum transfer to the target nuclei. When the transit time of the particle through 5A is between 2.5x10 -16 -10 -14 s, the electronic excitation and ionization take place by the collision. These phenomena are fully utilized in the FAB/SIMS and CID techniques. With the transit time in the range of 10 -14 -2.5x10 -13 s, the velocity is not high enough for the electronic excitation and the particle loses its energy mainly by the vibrational and phonon excitation of the target. This range of the velocity corresponds to that of the massive cluster impact ionization. With the velocity equal to or lower than 2.5x10 -13 s, the energy of the incident particle is consumed mainly by the phonon excitation and the collision results in the modest heating of the colliding interface between the projectile and the target. This range of the velocity is successfully used in the ionized cluster beam technique developed by Takagi of the Kyoto University. (author). 59 refs
Sigmund, P
2003-01-01
Collisional electronic energy-loss straggling has been treated theoretically on the basis of the binary theory of electronic stopping. In view of the absence of a Bloch correction in straggling the range of validity of the theory includes both the classical and the Born regime. The theory incorporates Barkas effect and projectile screening. Shell correction and electron bunching are added on. In the absence of shell corrections the Barkas effect has a dominating influence on straggling, but much of this is wiped out when the shell correction is included. Weak projectile screening tends to noticeably reduce collisional straggling. Sizable bunching effects are found in particular for heavy ions. Comparisons are made with selected results of the experimental and theoretical literature. (authors)
Collisional alignment and orientation of atomic outer shells. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersen, N.; Gallagher, J.W.; Hertel, I.V.
1988-01-01
The study of polarization of atomic radiation emitted after impact excitation has yielded an enormous wealth of detailed information on the mechanism and dynamics of collisional excitation and energy transfer, both in electron and heavy particle impact studies. In these studies, the beam of electrons, ions or fast atoms used to excite the target atoms provides a suitable quantization axis with respect to which the polarization of the fluorescent light of the excited atoms is detected. From these data information on the cross sections for the different magnetic substates of the excited atom is extracted, imparting a great deal of insight into impact mechanisms for both outer and inner shell excitation. It is our aim to provide a comprehensive review including all data available in the literature presented in a standardized and easily accessible fashion. In this review we include only alignment and orientation studies, which have a well-defined planar symmetry, i.e., in which the initial and final relative momentum of the interacting particles are well defined by differential scattering techniques. We do not make a major distinction between heavy-particle and electron impact excitation: In fact, one of our aims is to demonstrate similarities between the two fields from a technical as well as from a conceptual point of view. The review is divided into three parts: This first part (I) deals with direct excitation of atoms by electrons and fast atoms or ions. Section 2 gives an introduction to the general concepts and ideas behind this kind of study and a description of typical experimental setups. Section 3 deals with electron impact excitation of atoms, starting with the simplest case of electron-helium collisions which may be fully described by two parameters, followed by more complex cases such as electron impact excitation of hydrogen and the heavy rare gases. Section 4 describes the results for direct excitation by atomic impact. (orig./AH)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikkelsen, D. R., E-mail: dmikkelsen@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Podpaly, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); AAAS S and T Fellow placed in the Directorate for Engineering, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Ma, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)
2015-06-15
Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.
First-principle description of collisional gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dif-Pradalier, G
2008-10-15
This dissertation starts in chapter 1 with a comprehensive introduction to nuclear fusion, its basic physics, goals and means. It especially defines the concept of a fusion plasma and some of its essential physical properties. The following chapter 2 discusses some fundamental concepts of statistical physics. It introduces the kinetic and the fluid frameworks, compares them and highlights their respective strengths and limitations. The end of the chapter is dedicated to the fluid theory. It presents two new sets of closure relations for fluid equations which retain important pieces of physics, relevant in the weakly collisional tokamak regimes: collective resonances which lead to Landau damping and entropy production. Nonetheless, since the evolution of the turbulence is intrinsically nonlinear and deeply influenced by velocity space effects, a kinetic collisional description is most relevant. First focusing on the kinetic aspect, chapter 3 introduces the so-called gyrokinetic framework along with the numerical solver - the GYSELA code - which will be used throughout this dissertation. Very generically, code solving is an initial value problem. The impact on turbulent nonlinear evolution of out of equilibrium initial conditions is discussed while studying transient flows, self-organizing dynamics and memory effects due to initial conditions. This dissertation introduces an operational definition, now of routine use in the GYSELA code, for the initial state and concludes on the special importance of the accurate calculation of the radial electric field. The GYSELA framework is further extended in chapter 4 to describe Coulomb collisions. The implementation of a collision operator acting on the full distribution function is presented. Its successful confrontation to collisional theory (neoclassical theory) is also shown. GYSELA is now part of the few gyrokinetic codes which can self-consistently address the interplay between turbulence and collisions. While
First-principle description of collisional gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dif-Pradalier, G.
2008-10-01
This dissertation starts in chapter 1 with a comprehensive introduction to nuclear fusion, its basic physics, goals and means. It especially defines the concept of a fusion plasma and some of its essential physical properties. The following chapter 2 discusses some fundamental concepts of statistical physics. It introduces the kinetic and the fluid frameworks, compares them and highlights their respective strengths and limitations. The end of the chapter is dedicated to the fluid theory. It presents two new sets of closure relations for fluid equations which retain important pieces of physics, relevant in the weakly collisional tokamak regimes: collective resonances which lead to Landau damping and entropy production. Nonetheless, since the evolution of the turbulence is intrinsically nonlinear and deeply influenced by velocity space effects, a kinetic collisional description is most relevant. First focusing on the kinetic aspect, chapter 3 introduces the so-called gyrokinetic framework along with the numerical solver - the GYSELA code - which will be used throughout this dissertation. Very generically, code solving is an initial value problem. The impact on turbulent nonlinear evolution of out of equilibrium initial conditions is discussed while studying transient flows, self-organizing dynamics and memory effects due to initial conditions. This dissertation introduces an operational definition, now of routine use in the GYSELA code, for the initial state and concludes on the special importance of the accurate calculation of the radial electric field. The GYSELA framework is further extended in chapter 4 to describe Coulomb collisions. The implementation of a collision operator acting on the full distribution function is presented. Its successful confrontation to collisional theory (neoclassical theory) is also shown. GYSELA is now part of the few gyrokinetic codes which can self-consistently address the interplay between turbulence and collisions. While
Magnetic Reconnection in Strongly Magnetized Regions of the Low Solar Chromosphere
Ni, Lei; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lin, Jun
2018-01-01
Magnetic reconnection in strongly magnetized regions around the temperature minimum region of the low solar atmosphere is studied by employing MHD-based simulations of a partially ionized plasma within a reactive 2.5D multi-fluid model. It is shown that in the absence of magnetic nulls in a low β plasma, the ionized and neutral fluid flows are well-coupled throughout the reconnection region. However, non-equilibrium ionization–recombination dynamics play a critical role in determining the structure of the reconnection region, leading to much lower temperature increases and a faster magnetic reconnection rate as compared to simulations that assume plasma to be in ionization–recombination equilibrium. The rate of ionization of the neutral component of the plasma is always faster than recombination within the current sheet region even when the initial plasma β is as high as {β }0=1.46. When the reconnecting magnetic field is in excess of a kilogauss and the plasma β is lower than 0.0145, the initially weakly ionized plasmas can become fully ionized within the reconnection region and the current sheet can be strongly heated to above 2.5× {10}4 K, even as most of the collisionally dissipated magnetic energy is radiated away. The Hall effect increases the reconnection rate slightly, but in the absence of magnetic nulls it does not result in significant asymmetries or change the characteristics of the reconnection current sheet down to meter scales.
A quiver kinetic formulation of radio frequency heating and confinement in collisional edge plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catto, P.J.; Myra, J.R.
1989-01-01
The near fields in the collisional edge plasma of a radio frequency heated tokamak can cause one or more charged species to oscillate in the applied field with a quiver (or jitter) speed comparable to its thermal speed. By assuming the quiver motion dominates over drifts and gyromotion a completely new kinetic description of the flows in an edge plasma is formulated which retains Coulomb collisions and the relevant atomic processes. Moment equations are employed to obtain a description in which only a lowest order quiver kinetic equation need be solved to evaluate the slow time particle fluxes and current induced by the applied fields. The electron heating by collisional randomization of their quiver motion (inverse bremsstrahlung) is balanced by impact excitation losses since equilibration with the ions is too weak. A model plasma of electrons, neutrals, and a single cold ion species is considered to illustrate the utility of the quiver kinetic formulation. The model predicts local electrostatic potential changes and a local /rvec E//times//rvec B/ convective flux that is of the same magnitude and scaling as would be predicted by Bohm diffusion. 30 refs
Laser plasma physics in shock ignition – transition from collisional to collisionless absorption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klimo O.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Shock Ignition is considered as a relatively robust and efficient approach to inertial confinement fusion. A strong converging shock, which is used to ignite the fuel, is launched by a high power laser pulse with intensity in the range of 1015 − 1016 W/cm2 (at the wavelength of 351 nm. In the lower end of this intensity range the interaction is dominated by collisions while the parametric instabilities are playing a secondary role. This is manifested in a relatively weak reflectivity and efficient electron heating. The interaction is dominated by collective effects at the upper edge of the intensity range. The stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering (SBS and SRS respectively take place in a less dense plasma and cavitation provides an efficient collisionless absorption mechanism. The transition from collisional to collisionless absorption in laser plasma interactions at higher intensities is studied here with the help of large scale one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC simulations. The relation between the collisional and collisionless processes is manifested in the energy spectrum of electrons transporting the absorbed laser energy and in the spectrum of the reflected laser light.
Asteroid collisional history - Effects on sizes and spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, D.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Farinella, P.; Paolicchi, P.; Binzel, R.P.
1989-01-01
The effects of asteroid collisional history on sizes and spins of present-day objects are discussed. Collisional evolution studies indicate that collisions have altered the spin-rates of small bodies, but that the largest asteroids may have retained their primordial rotation rates. Most asteroids larger than 100 km diam have probably been shattered, but have gravitationally recaptured their fragments to form a rubble-pile structure. Large angular momentum asteroids appear to have Maclaurian spheroidal or Jacobi-ellipsoid-like shapes; some of them may have fissioned into binaries. An integrated size and spin collisional evolution model is presented, with two critical parameters: one which determines the spin rates for small fragments resulting from a shattering collision, and the other determines the fraction of impact angular momentum that is retained by the target. 36 refs
Collisional damping of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildirim, S.; Gokalp, A.; Yilmaz, O.; Ayik, S.
2001-01-01
Collisional damping widths of giant monopole and quadrupole excitations for 120 Sn and 208 Pb at zero and finite temperatures are calculated within Thomas-Fermi approximation by employing the microscopic in-medium cross-sections of Li and Machleidt and the phenomenological Skyrme and Gogny forces, and are compared with each other. The results for the collisional widths of giant monopole and quadrupole vibrations at zero temperature as a function of the mass number show that the collisional damping of giant monopole vibrations accounts for about 30 - 40% of the observed widths at zero temperature, while for giant quadrupole vibrations it accounts for only 20 - 30% of the observed widths at zero temperature. (orig.)
Collisional-radiative model for the visible spectrum of W{sup 26+} ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, Xiaobin, E-mail: dingxb@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Liu, Jiaxin [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Koike, Fumihiro [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo, 102-8554 (Japan); Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Dong, Chenzhong [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)
2016-02-22
Plasma diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas by using visible spectrum strongly depends on the knowledge of fundamental atomic properties. A detailed collisional-radiative model of W{sup 26+} ions has been constructed by considering radiative and electron excitation processes, in which the necessary atomic data had been calculated by relativistic configuration interaction method with the implementation of Flexible Atomic Code. The visible spectrum observed at an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) in Shanghai in the range of 332 nm to 392 nm was reproduced by present calculations. Some transition pairs of which the intensity ratio is sensitive to the electron density were selected as potential candidates of plasma diagnostics. Their electron density dependence is theoretically evaluated for the cases of EBIT plasmas and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas.
First Test of Long-Range Collisional Drag via Plasma Wave Damping
Affolter, Matthew
2017-10-01
In magnetized plasmas, the rate of particle collisions is enhanced over classical predictions when the cyclotron radius rc is less than the Debye length λD. Classical theories describe local velocity scattering collisions with impact parameters ρ exchange energy and momentum over the range rc regime, the measured damping rates exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agree with the new long-range enhanced collision theory. The enhanced slowing is most significant for strong magnetization and low temperatures. For example, the slowing of anti-protons at a density of 107 cm-3 and a temperature of 10 K in a 6 T trap is enhanced by a factor of 30. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570 and DOE Grant DE-SC0002451. In collaboration with F. Anderegg, D.H.E. Dubin, and C.F. Driscoll.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafiee, Ezzat, E-mail: ezzat_rafiee@yahoo.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Joshaghani, Mohammad [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadi, Parvaneh Ghaderi-Shekhi [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-06-15
The wicker-like Pd-PVP-Fe (palladium-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-iron) was synthesized by the external magnetic field (EMF). The Pd-based catalyst with nano and the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure was obtained at room temperature without using any additive. The resulting composite was characterized. The results show that EMF has a great influence on morphology, particle size, and crystalline structure of the Pd-PVP-Fe composite. The resulting composite (Pd-PVP-Fe), was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki–Heck reaction while is exposed to EMF with the intensity at 486 µT. The reused catalyst for at least five repeating cycles, shows excellent activity. - Highlights: • The wicker-like Pd-PVP-Fe nanocatalyst was synthesized via external magnetic field. • The resulting catalyst composite was characterized. • The C–C coupling reaction was carried out at magnetic field and room temperature. • Magnetic field affects on the morphology and size of the catalyst. • The catalyst could be reused without significant degradation in activity.
Collisional redistribution effects on x-ray laser saturation behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.J.; Lee, R.W.; London, R.A.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.
1994-06-01
We recently published a detailed summary of our experimental and theoretical research on Ne-like Se x-ray laser line widths, and one of our conclusions was that collisional redistribution rates are likely to have an effect on the saturation behavior of the 206.4 angstrom Se x-ray laser. In this paper we focus on the effects of collisional redistribution on x-ray laser gain coefficients, and discuss ways of including these effects in existing laser line- transfer models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2014-05-15
Global mode stability is studied in high-β National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n = 1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest β{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at β{sub N}∕l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E × B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.
Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.
2012-01-01
The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.
Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)
2012-05-15
The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.
Charging properties of a dust grain in collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrapak, S.A.; Morfill, G.E.; Khrapak, A.G.; D'yachkov, L.G.
2006-01-01
Charging related properties of a small spherical grain immersed in a collisional plasma are investigated. Asymptotic expressions for charging fluxes, grain surface potential, long range electrostatic potential, and the properties of grain charge fluctuations due to the discrete nature of the charging process are obtained. These analytical results are in reasonable agreement with the available results of numerical modeling
The limits of the Bohm criterion in collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentini, H.-B.; Kaiser, D.
2015-01-01
The sheath formation within a low-pressure collisional plasma is analysed by means of a two-fluid model. The Bohm criterion takes into account the effects of the electric field and the inertia of the ions. Numerical results yield that these effects contribute to the space charge formation, only, if the collisionality is lower than a relatively small threshold. It follows that a lower and an upper limit of the drift speed of the ions exist where the effects treated by Bohm can form a sheath. This interval becomes narrower as the collisionality increases and vanishes at the mentioned threshold. Above the threshold, the sheath is mainly created by collisions and the ionisation. Under these conditions, the sheath formation cannot be described by means of Bohm like criteria. In a few references, a so-called upper limit of the Bohm criterion is stated for collisional plasmas where the momentum equation of the ions is taken into account, only. However, the present paper shows that this limit results in an unrealistically steep increase of the space charge density towards the wall, and, therefore, it yields no useful limit of the Bohm velocity
Collisional absorption of two laser beams in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, M.; Acharya, R.
1977-04-01
The collisional absorption of two laser beams is considered by solving the kinetic equation for the plasma electron. Results show that the simultaneous effect of two laser beams on the heating rate is greater as compared with the individual contribution of each laser beam when the two laser beams have a difference of frequencies equal to the plasma frequency
A Collisional Database and Web Service within the Virtual Atomic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MOL-D database is a collection of cross-sections and rate coefficients for specific collisional processes and a web service within the Serbian Virtual Observatory ... Hydrogen and helium molecular ion data are important for calculation of solar and stellar atmosphere models and for radiative transport, as well as for kinetics of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, I.R.
1984-01-01
A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)
Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)
2012-05-15
The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), {chi}{sub ||} , and the perpendicular, {chi}{sub Up-Tack }, conductivities ({chi}{sub ||} /{chi}{sub Up-Tack} may exceed 10{sup 10} in fusion plasmas); (ii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality; and (iii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green's function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geometry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island), weakly chaotic (Devil's staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local parallel closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Mi Jung; Park, Jin Han; Lim, Ki Moon
2007-01-01
We introduce a new class of functions called weakly clopen function which includes the class of almost clopen functions due to Ekici [Ekici E. Generalization of perfectly continuous, regular set-connected and clopen functions. Acta Math Hungar 2005;107:193-206] and is included in the class of weakly continuous functions due to Levine [Levine N. A decomposition of continuity in topological spaces. Am Math Mon 1961;68:44-6]. Some characterizations and several properties concerning weakly clopenness are obtained. Furthermore, relationships among weak clopenness, almost clopenness, clopenness and weak continuity are investigated
Vaidman, L.
2017-10-01
Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.
Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Zhu, Liu-Qin; Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao
2018-01-01
Post-collisional granites are generally generated by partial melting of continental crust during orogenic extension. The occurrence of normal calc-alkaline granites following adakitic granites in a collisional orogen is frequently supposed as a sign of tectonic regime transition from compression to extension, which has been debated yet. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopes, as well as whole-rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes, for Tongbai and Jigongshan post-collisional granitic plutons in the Tongbai orogen. Zircon U-Pb dating yields intrusion ages of ca. 140 and 135 Ma for the Tongbai and Jigongshan plutons, respectively, suggesting they are post-collisional granites. These granites are high-K calc-alkaline series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous with A/CNK ratios of 0.85-1.08. The Tongbai gneissic granites are normal calc-alkaline granite, having variable SiO2 (61.93-76.74 wt%) and Sr/Y (2.9-38.9) and (La/Yb)N (1.7-30.1) ratios with variably negative Eu anomalies (0.41-0.92). They have relatively high initial Sr isotope ratios of 0.707571 to 0.710317, and low εNd(t) (- 15.74 to - 11.09) and εHf(t) (- 17.6 to - 16.9) values. Their Nd and Hf model ages range from 2.2 to 1.8 Ga and 2.3 to 2.2 Ga. On the contrary, the Jigongshan granites show higher SiO2 (66.56-72.11 wt%) and Sr/Y (30.1-182.0) and (La/Yb)N (27.4-91.4) ratios with insignificant Eu anomalies (0.73-1.00), belonging to adakitic granite. They have Isr = 0.707843-0.708366, εNd(t) = - 19.83 to - 17.59, and εHf(t) = - 26.0 to - 23.5. Their Nd and Hf model ages vary from ca. 2.5 to 2.4 Ga and ca. 2.8 to 2.6 Ga. The Tongbai and Jigongshan granites are characterized by mantle-like zircon δ18O values (5.17-5.46‰). These geochemical features suggest that the Tongbai and Jigongshan granites were derived from partial melting of Paleoproterozoic and Archean continental crust, respectively. Fractional crystallization affected the geochemical
Collisional tearing in a field-reversed sheet pinch assuming nonparallel propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quest, K.B.; Coroniti, F.V.
1985-01-01
We examine the linear stability properties of the collisional tearing mode in a reversed-field sheet pinch assuming that the wave vector is not parallel to B, where B is the equilibrium magnetic field. We show that pressure balance in the direction of the equilibrium current requires a nonzero perturbed current component deltaJ/sub z/ that is driven toward tyhe center of the pinch. At the center of the pinch, deltaJ/sub z/ goes to zero, and momentum is balanced by coupling to the ion-acoustic mode. In order to achieve current closure, a large perturbed field-aligned current is generated that is strongly localized about the dissipative tearing layer. The relation of this work to the collisionless case is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, R.E.
1986-01-01
Research on this grant can be divided into two general topics: (1) determination of electron capture cross sections between impurity ions and hydrogen atoms needed for diagnostic studies of magnetic fusion plasmas, and (2) studies into reactions important in neutral beam ion source work. For topic (1) during last year, we completed cross section calculations for B 3+ and Be 2+ on H using the molecular state approach for energies between 50 eV/u and 10 keV/u. At higher energies, 40 keV/u to 140 keV/u, we have completed classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations to determine the nl electron capture cross sections for He 2+ , C 6+ , N 7+ and O 8+ on H collisions. For ion source work, topic (2), collisional studies were completed for negative ion formation in the process H + Na → H - + Na +
Chen, Shao-Guang
falling and till reach the equilibrium of stable spatial charge distribution, which is just the cause of the geomagnetic field and the geo-electric field (the observational value on the earth surface is about 120 V/m downward equivalent to 500000 Coulomb negative charges in the earth surface). All celestial bodies are gravitation sources and attract the molecules and ions in space to its circumference by the gravitation of own and other celestial bodies, e.g., all planets in the solar system have their own atmospheres. Therefore, the origin mechanism of geo-electric and geomagnetic fields caused by gravitation is very universal, at least it is appli-cable to all the planets in the solar system. For planets, the joint result of the gravitations of the planets and the sun makes the negative charges and dipolar charges distributed in the surfaces of the celestial bodies. The quicker the rotation is, the larger the angular momentum U is, then larger the accompanying current and magnetic moment P, it accord a experiential law found by subsistent observational data of all celestial bodies in solar system: P = -G 1/2 U cos θ / c (1), θ is the angle between the net ν 0 flux direction (mark by CMB) and the rotational axis of celestial body (Chen Shao-Guang, Chinese Science Bulletin, 26,233,1981). Uranian and Neptunian P predicted with Eq.(1) in 1981 are about -3.4•1028 Gs•cm3 and 1.9•1028 Gs•cm3 respectively (use new rotate speed measured by Voyager 2). The P measured by Voyager 2 in 1986 and 1989 are about -1.9 •1028 Gs•cm3 and 1.5•1028 Gs•cm3 respectively (the contribution of quadrupole P is converted into the contribution of dipole P alone). The neutron star pos-sesses much high density and rotational speed because of the conservation of the mass and the angular momentum during the course of the formation, then has strong gravity and largerU. From Eq.(1) there is a larger P and extremely strong surface magnetic field in neutron star. The origin mechanism of
Influence of the plasma pedestal parameters on ELM mitigation at low collisionality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leuthold, Nils [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Suttrop, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-07-01
The control of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) is of great importance for future fusion devices in order to provide longevity of the plasma facing components and a better overall plasma performance. In recent magnetic perturbation ELM mitigation experiments in ASDEX Upgrade at low pedestal collisionality, the dependence of ELM losses on pedestal parameters is investigated. It is found that the reduction of the stored energy loss associated with ELMs occurs in correlation with a reduction of edge density and edge pedestal pressure induced by the applied magnetic perturbation (''pedestal pump-out''). Significant ELM mitigation occurs at lowest densities, in a region of pedestal n-T parameter space that has not been accessible in ASDEX Upgrade without magnetic perturbations, and which is occupied by type-IV ELMs in DIII-D. The role of magnetic perturbations for ELM mitigation will be discussed in this context and attempts to counteract the confinement loss by increasing neutral beam injection power or pellet injection increases the ELM energy losses.
Collisional shifts in optical-lattice atom clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Band, Y. B.; Vardi, A.
2006-01-01
We theoretically study the effects of elastic collisions on the determination of frequency standards via Ramsey-fringe spectroscopy in optical-lattice atom clocks. Interparticle interactions of bosonic atoms in multiply occupied lattice sites can cause a linear frequency shift, as well as generate asymmetric Ramsey-fringe patterns and reduce fringe visibility due to interparticle entanglement. We propose a method of reducing these collisional effects in an optical lattice by introducing a phase difference of π between the Ramsey driving fields in adjacent sites. This configuration suppresses site-to-site hopping due to interference of two tunneling pathways, without degrading fringe visibility. Consequently, the probability of double occupancy is reduced, leading to cancellation of collisional shifts
Physics of Collisional Plasmas Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges
Moisan, Michel
2012-01-01
The Physics of Collisional Plasmas deals with the plasma physics of interest to laboratory research and industrial applications, such as lighting, fabrication of microelectronics, destruction of greenhouse gases. Its emphasis is on explaining the physical mechanisms, rather than the detailed mathematical description and theoretical analysis. At the introductory level, it is important to convey the characteristic physical phenomena of plasmas, before addressing the ultimate formalism of kinetic theory, with its microscopic, statistical mechanics approach. To this aim, this text translates the physical phenomena into more tractable equations, using the hydrodynamic model; this considers the plasma as a fluid, in which the macroscopic physical parameters are the statistical averages of the microscopic (individual) parameters. This book is an introduction to the physics of collisional plasmas, as opposed to plasmas in space. It is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering . The first chapter intr...
Collisional dynamics of perturbed particle disks in the solar system
Roberts, W. W.; Stewart, G. R.
1987-01-01
Investigations of the collisional evolution of particulate disks subject to the gravitational perturbation of a more massive particle orbiting within the disk are underway. Both numerical N-body simulations using a novel collision algorithm and analytical kinetic theory are being employed to extend our understanding of perturbed disks in planetary rings and during the formation of the solar system. Particular problems proposed for investigation are: (1) The development and testing of general criteria for a small moonlet to clear a gap and produce observable morphological features in planetary rings; (2) The development of detailed models of collisional damping of the wavy edges observed on the Encke division of Saturn's A ring; and (3) The determination of the extent of runaway growth of the few largest planetesimals during the early stages of planetary accretion.
ADAS tools for collisional-radiative modelling of molecules
Guzmán, F.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H. P.
2013-07-01
New theoretical and computational tools for molecular collisional-radiative models are presented. An application to the hydrogen molecule system has been made. At the same time, a structured database has been created where fundamental cross sections and rates for individual processes as well as derived data (effective coefficients) are stored. Relative populations for the vibrational states of the ground electronic state of H2 are presented and this vibronic resolution model is compared electronic resolution where vibronic transitions are summed over vibrational sub-states. Some new reaction rates are calculated by means of the impact parameter approximation. Computational tools have been developed to automate process and simplify the data assembly. Effective (collisional-radiative) rate coefficients versus temperature and density are presented.
Double layers in a modestly collisional electronegative discharge
Sheridan, T E
1999-01-01
The effect of ion-neutral collisions on the structure and ion flux emanating from a steady-state, planar discharge with two negative components is investigated. The positive ion component is modelled as a cold fluid subject to constant-mobility collisions, while the electrons and negative ions obey Boltzmann relations. The model includes the collisionless limit. When the negative ions are sufficiently cold three types of discharge structures are found. For small negative ion concentrations or high collisionality, the discharge is 'stratified', with an electronegative core and an electropositive edge. For the opposite conditions, the discharge is 'uniform' with the negative ion density remaining significant at the edge of the plasma. Between these cases lies the special case of a double-layer-stratified discharge, where quasi-neutrality is violated at the edge of the electronegative core. Double-layer-stratified solutions are robust in that they persist for moderate collisionality. Numerical solutions for fini...
Diffusive processes in a stochastic magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, H.; Vlad, M.; Vanden Eijnden, E.; Spineanu, F.; Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.
1995-01-01
The statistical representation of a fluctuating (stochastic) magnetic field configuration is studied in detail. The Eulerian correlation functions of the magnetic field are determined, taking into account all geometrical constraints: these objects form a nondiagonal matrix. The Lagrangian correlations, within the reasonable Corrsin approximation, are reduced to a single scalar function, determined by an integral equation. The mean square perpendicular deviation of a geometrical point moving along a perturbed field line is determined by a nonlinear second-order differential equation. The separation of neighboring field lines in a stochastic magnetic field is studied. We find exponentiation lengths of both signs describing, in particular, a decay (on the average) of any initial anisotropy. The vanishing sum of these exponentiation lengths ensures the existence of an invariant which was overlooked in previous works. Next, the separation of a particle's trajectory from the magnetic field line to which it was initially attached is studied by a similar method. Here too an initial phase of exponential separation appears. Assuming the existence of a final diffusive phase, anomalous diffusion coefficients are found for both weakly and strongly collisional limits. The latter is identical to the well known Rechester-Rosenbluth coefficient, which is obtained here by a more quantitative (though not entirely deductive) treatment than in earlier works
Collisional-electron detachment of Cl- on diatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annis, B.K.; Datz, S.
1981-01-01
Recent experimental results for collisional-electron detachment of Cl - by H 2 /D 2 , N 2 , O 2 , NO, and CO are discussed. The emphasis is on angular distributions and energy loss measurements for laboratory energies of a few hundred eV. Evidence for the possibility of bound excited states of N 2 Cl and COCl and the role of target negative-ion resonant states is presented
SCROLL, a superconfiguration collisional radiative model with external radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Klapisch, M.
2000-01-01
A collisional radiative model for calculating non-local thermodynamical-equilibrium (non-LTE) spectra of heavy atoms in hot plasmas has been developed. It takes into account the numerous excited an autoionizing states by using superconfigurations. These are split systematically until the populations converge. The influence of an impinging radiation field has recently been added to the model. The effect can be very important. (author)
Laser spectroscopy of collisionally prepared target species: atomic caesium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, J.-P.; Tremblay, Julien; Knystautas, E.J.; Laperriere, S.C.; Larzilliere, Michel
1989-01-01
Fast ion beam bombardment was used to collisionally prepare a target gas in excited states, to which conventional laser spectroscopy was then applied. The versatility of this method is demonstrated with atomic targets of caesium, for a state of Cs + that is 16 eV above the ground state, as well as for a short-lived state (38 ns) of the neutral atom. The local temperature in the caesium oven is also obtained. (Author)
Energizing and depletion of neutrals by a collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fruchtman, A
2008-01-01
Neutral depletion can significantly affect the steady state of low temperature plasmas. Recent theoretical analyses predicted previously unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless regimes. In this paper we address the effect of the energy deposited in the neutral gas by a collisional plasma. The fraction of power deposited in the neutrals is shown to be independent of the amount of power. The first case we address is of a thermalized neutral gas. It is shown that a low heat conductivity of the neutral gas is followed by a high neutral temperature that results in a high neutral depletion even if the plasma pressure is small. In the second case neutrals are accelerated through charge exchange with ions leading to what we call neutral pumping, which is equivalent to ion pumping in a collisionless plasma. Neutral depletion is found in the second case for both a closed system (no net mass flow) and an open system (a finite mass flow). A thruster that employs a collisional plasma and pumped neutrals is compared with the thruster analyzed before that employs collisionless plasma.
Self-consistent electron transport in collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, R.J.
1982-01-01
A self-consistent scheme has been developed to model electron transport in evolving plasmas of arbitrary classical collisionality. The electrons and ions are treated as either multiple donor-cell fluids, or collisional particles-in-cell. Particle suprathermal electrons scatter off ions, and drag against fluid background thermal electrons. The background electrons undergo ion friction, thermal coupling, and bremsstrahlung. The components move in self-consistent advanced E-fields, obtained by the Implicit Moment Method, which permits Δt >> ω/sub p/ -1 and Δx >> lambda/sub D/ - offering a 10 2 - 10 3 -fold speed-up over older explicit techniques. The fluid description for the background plasma components permits the modeling of transport in systems spanning more than a 10 7 -fold change in density, and encompassing contiguous collisional and collisionless regions. Results are presented from application of the scheme to the modeling of CO 2 laser-generated suprathermal electron transport in expanding thin foils, and in multi-foil target configurations
Compressional heating in magnetized disks neighborhood: from the galactic center to micro-quasars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belmont, Renaud
2005-01-01
Faint, magnetized and energetic plasmas are very common media in Astrophysics. This thesis is dedicated to two specific cases characterized by a thin disk geometry: the Galactic center and the corona of micro-quasars. In both cases, observations show evidence for a faint and very hot plasma (at 100 million and 1 billion degrees) whose origin is unknown; some clues seem also to indicate a strong, large scale bipolar magnetic field. At the Galactic Center, the gas temperature is such that, if it were collisional and mostly composed by hydrogen, it would escape quickly, so that the power required to sustain the related energy losses would be huge. We however show that the specific conditions of this region can lead to form a helium plasma that is confined by the Galactic potential. In this favorable situation, we study a possible heating mechanism based on the high viscosity of the hot plasma and friction with cold molecular clouds flowing in this region. The corona of micro-quasars is a very similar issue but it is probably weakly collisional. In this regime we study a heating by magnetic pumping, by which the resonance between the periodic motion of some coronal ions and the periodic excitation by an instability in the disc itself can energize the corona. We show that this mechanism is inefficient to explain the hot temperature. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Wakasa, Arimitsu
2002-01-01
Electron heat transport in low-collisionality LHD plasma is investigated in order to study the neoclassical transport optimization effect on thermal plasma transport with an optimization level typical of so-called ''advanced stellarators''. In the central region, a higher electron temperature is obtained in the optimized configuration, and transport analysis suggests the considerable effect of neoclassical transport on the electron heat transport assuming the ion-root level of radial electric field. The obtained experimental results support future reactor design in which the neoclassical and/or anomalous transports are reduced by magnetic field optimization in a non-axisymmetric configuration. (author)
Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★
Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro
2017-10-01
We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delorme, J.
1978-01-01
The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr
Rehren, K. -H.
1996-01-01
Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric
Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...
Energy Transfer and Dual Cascade in Kinetic Magnetized Plasma Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plunk, G. G.; Tatsuno, T.
2011-01-01
The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.
Energy Transfer and Dual Cascade in Kinetic Magnetized Plasma Turbulence
Plunk, G. G.; Tatsuno, T.
2011-04-01
The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.
by B. Curé
2011-01-01
The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...
Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites
Nesvorný, David; Alvarellos, Jose L. A.; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F.
2003-07-01
The irregular moons of the Jovian planets are a puzzling part of the solar system inventory. Unlike regular satellites, the irregular moons revolve around planets at large distances in tilted and eccentric orbits. Their origin, which is intimately linked with the origin of the planets themselves, is yet to be explained. Here we report a study of the orbital and collisional evolution of the irregular satellites from times after their formation to the present epoch. The purpose of this study is to find out the features of the observed irregular moons that can be attributed to this evolution and separate them from signatures of the formation process. We numerically integrated ~60,000 test satellite orbits to map orbital locations that are stable on long time intervals. We found that the orbits highly inclined to the ecliptic are unstable due to the effect of the Kozai resonance, which radially stretches them so that satellites either escape from the Hill sphere, collide with massive inner moons, or impact the parent planet. We also found that prograde satellite orbits with large semimajor axes are unstable due to the effect of the evection resonance, which locks the orbit's apocenter to the apparent motion of the Sun around the parent planet. In such a resonance, the effect of solar tides on a resonant moon accumulates at each apocenter passage of the moon, which causes a radially outward drift of its orbital apocenter; once close to the Hill sphere, the moon escapes. By contrast, retrograde moons with large orbital semimajor axes are long-lived. We have developed an analytic model of the distant satellite orbits and used it to explain the results of our numerical experiments. In particular, we analytically studied the effect of the Kozai resonance. We numerically integrated the orbits of the 50 irregular moons (known by 2002 August 16) for 108 yr. All orbits were stable on this time interval and did not show any macroscopic variations that would indicate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walecka, J.D.
1983-01-01
Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model
Collisional width of giant resonances and interplay with Landau damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonasera, A.; Burgio, G.F.; Di Toro, M.; Wolter, H.H.
1989-01-01
We present a semiclassical method to calculate the widths of giant resonances. We solve a mean-field kinetic equation (Vlasov equation) with collision terms treated within the relaxation time approximation to construct a damped strength distribution for collective motions. The relaxation time is evaluated from the time evolution of distortions in the nucleon momentum distribution using a test-particle approach. The importance of an energy dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section is stressed. Results are shown for isoscalar giant quadrupole and octupole motions. A quite important interplay between self-consistent (Landau) and collisional damping is revealed
Collisional effects in He I lines and helium abundances in planetary nebulae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clegg, R.E.S.
1987-01-01
Attention is drawn to new, 19-state quantal calculations for collisional excitation by electron impact in neutral helium. Recommended empirical formulae are given for the collisional contribution to HeI recombination lines such as λλ4471, 5876 A in gaseous nebulae. Collisional ionization of metastable (2 3 S) He I is significant for high-temperature nebulae. Collisional transfers provide significant cooling in nebulae with low heavy-element abundances. Revised mean He/H ratios for three large samples of planetary nebulae are given. (author)
Rydberg atoms in weak magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazantsev, A.P.; Pokrovsky, V.L.; Bergou, J.
1983-01-01
The quadratic Zeeman effect of Rydberg atoms in the framework of perturbation theory is dealt with and a special quasiclassical approximation scheme is applied. The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition is given in terms of complete elliptic integrals. It is shown that part of the spectrum is doubly degenerate, the corresponding states are asymmetric with respect to the Coulomb centre and have a non-zero dipole moment; the rest of the spectrum is nondegenerate, the states are symmetric and their dipole-moment vanishes. The transition from the symmetric to the asymmetric region is similar to a phase transition and it gives an experimental possibility to distinguish between the two types of states. (author)
Lee, T. D.
1970-07-01
While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1979-01-01
The possibility of the production of weak bosons in the proton-antiproton colliding beam facilities which are currently being developed, is discussed. The production, decay and predicted properties of these particles are described. (W.D.L.).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morreeuw, J.P.; Dubroca, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Sangam, A.; Dubroca, B.; Charrier, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, 33 - Talence (France); Sangam, A.; Dubroca, B.; Charrier, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., MAB, 33 - Talence (France)
2006-06-15
The laser interaction with an underdense plasma leads to an anisotropic laser heating of electrons. This temperature anisotropy gradient in turn is the source of an early magnetic field, which has an important effect on the plasma evolution, due to the thermal flux reduction. We describe the temperature anisotropy by an evolution equation including the anisotropy-magnetic field coupling and observe a rather efficient magnetic field generation. However at high anisotropy levels, a small-scale instability emerges, leading to a serious problem in numerical calculations. We introduce the kinetics effects, which fix the problem by the anisotropy diffusion through the heat flux tensor. A constant-coefficient Fokker-Planck model in the 2-dimensional geometry allows us to derive an anisotropy diffusion term. The diffusion coefficient is fitted from the kinetic theory of the collisional anisotropic (Weibel) instability growth rate. Such an anisotropy diffusion term wipes out the unphysical instability without any undesirable smoothing. This diffusion along with the viscosity term leads also to a quite good restitution of the Weibel instability growth rate and to the short wavelength cutoff, even in a weakly collisional situation. This allows us to use such a model to predict the emergence of the Weibel instability as well as its saturation. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turlay, R.
1979-01-01
In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.
2001-01-01
The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system
Weak turbulence theory for beam-plasma interaction
Yoon, Peter H.
2018-01-01
The kinetic theory of weak plasma turbulence, of which Ronald C. Davidson was an important early pioneer [R. C. Davidson, Methods in Nonlinear Plasma Theory, (Academic Press, New York, 1972)], is a venerable and valid theory that may be applicable to a large number of problems in both laboratory and space plasmas. This paper applies the weak turbulence theory to the problem of gentle beam-plasma interaction and Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that the beam-plasma interaction undergoes various stages of physical processes starting from linear instability, to quasilinear saturation, to mode coupling that takes place after the quasilinear stage, followed by a state of quasi-static "turbulent equilibrium." The long term quasi-equilibrium stage is eventually perturbed by binary collisional effects in order to bring the plasma to a thermodynamic equilibrium with increased entropy.
Weak universality in inhomogeneous Ising quantum chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karevski, Dragi
2006-01-01
The Ising quantum chain with arbitrary coupling distribution {λ i } leading to an anisotropic scaling is considered. The smallest gap of the chain is connected to the surface magnetization by the relation Λ 1 = m s ({λ i })m s ({λ -1 i }). For some aperiodic distribution {λ i }, a weak universality of the critical behaviour is found. (letter to the editor)
Ion-sound oscillations in strongly non-isotherm weakly ionized nonuniform hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leleko, Ya.F.; Stepanov, K.N.
2010-01-01
A stationary distribution of strongly non-isotherm weakly ionized hydrogen plasma parameters is obtained in the hydrodynamic approximation in a quasi neutrality region in the transient layer between the plasma and dielectric taking the ionization, charge exchange, diffusion, viscosity, and a self-consistent field potential distribution. The ion-sound oscillation frequency and the collisional damping decrement as functions of the wave vector in the plasma with the obtained parameters are found in the local approximation.
Benoit Curé
2010-01-01
Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...
B. Curé
2012-01-01
The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...
B. Curé
2012-01-01
Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...
Destabilization of hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves in a finite pressure collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, J.T.
1974-01-01
In a finite beta (β = 8πn 0 kT 0 /B 0 2 ) plasma, where the plasma pressure n 0 kT 0 is an appreciable fraction of the confining magnetic field energy-density B 0 2 /8π, density-gradient driven drift waves couple with Alfven waves when the phase velocities of the two waves become comparable. The resulting hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves separate into two branches--a drift mode and an Alfven mode, with both modes exhibiting magnetic field and localized density fluctuations near the coupling point. The dispersion relation of the collisional drift-Alfven wave is derived by using a slab-geometry, two-fluid model which includes finite beta, electron-ion collisions, ion-ion collisions, finite ion larmar radius, temperature fluctuations, and an axial electron current. A hydromagnetic drift mode is found to be unstable in a moderately dense plasma. A localized ''Alfven'' mode is destabilized only with the passage of an axial current along the plasma column. In order to check the theoretical predictions an experiment is performed in a finite-beta plasma of density n 0 = 10 13 -10 15 cm -3 and temperature T/sub e/ approximately T/sub i/ = 1-7 eV. (U.S.)
Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe
2008-01-01
An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 10 2 . The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 10 2 when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 10 2 to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work
GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nesvold, Erika R. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kuchner, Marc J., E-mail: Erika.Nesvold@umbc.edu, E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667 Greenbelt, MD 21230 (United States)
2015-01-10
We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t {sub coll} of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t {sub coll}){sup –0.04}, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M {sub Jup}. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris.
Collisional-radiative model: a plasma spectroscopy theory for experimentalists
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Sawada, Keiji
1997-01-01
The rate equation describing the population n(p) of an excited (and the ground state) level p of ions immersed in plasma is shown. In 1962, the method of quasi-steady state solution (collisional-radiative model) was proposed. Its idea is explained. The coupled differential equations reduce to a set of coupled linear equations for excited levels. The solution of these coupled equations is presented. The equations giving the ionization and recombination of this system of ions under consideration are described in terms of the effective rate coefficients. The collisional-radiative ionization and recombination rate coefficients are expressed in terms of the population coefficients for p > 1. As for ionizing plasma, the excited level populations, the populations, the population distribution among the excited levels, two regimes of the excited levels, the dominant flows of electrons among the levels and so on are shown. As for recombining plasma, the excited level populations, the population distribution among the excited levels, the dominant flows of electrons and so on are shown. Ionization balance plasma may be considered. (K.I.)
GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesvold, Erika R.; Kuchner, Marc J.
2015-01-01
We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t coll ) –0.04 , with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M Jup . We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris
Generation of Suprathermal Electrons by Collective Processes in Collisional Plasma
Tigik, S. F.; Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.
2017-11-01
The ubiquity of high-energy tails in the charged particle velocity distribution functions (VDFs) observed in space plasmas suggests the existence of an underlying process responsible for taking a fraction of the charged particle population out of thermal equilibrium and redistributing it to suprathermal velocity and energy ranges. The present Letter focuses on a new and fundamental physical explanation for the origin of suprathermal electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in a collisional plasma. This process involves a newly discovered electrostatic bremsstrahlung (EB) emission that is effective in a plasma in which binary collisions are present. The steady-state EVDF dictated by such a process corresponds to a Maxwellian core plus a quasi-inverse power-law tail, which is a feature commonly observed in many space plasma environments. In order to demonstrate this, the system of self-consistent particle- and wave-kinetic equations are numerically solved with an initially Maxwellian EVDF and Langmuir wave spectral intensity, which is a state that does not reflect the presence of EB process, and hence not in force balance. The EB term subsequently drives the system to a new force-balanced steady state. After a long integration period it is demonstrated that the initial Langmuir fluctuation spectrum is modified, which in turn distorts the initial Maxwellian EVDF into a VDF that resembles the said core-suprathermal VDF. Such a mechanism may thus be operative at the coronal source region, which is characterized by high collisionality.
Reduction of collisional-radiative models for transient, atomic plasmas
Abrantes, Richard June; Karagozian, Ann; Bilyeu, David; Le, Hai
2017-10-01
Interactions between plasmas and any radiation field, whether by lasers or plasma emissions, introduce many computational challenges. One of these computational challenges involves resolving the atomic physics, which can influence other physical phenomena in the radiated system. In this work, a collisional-radiative (CR) model with reduction capabilities is developed to capture the atomic physics at a reduced computational cost. Although the model is made with any element in mind, the model is currently supplemented by LANL's argon database, which includes the relevant collisional and radiative processes for all of the ionic stages. Using the detailed data set as the true solution, reduction mechanisms in the form of Boltzmann grouping, uniform grouping, and quasi-steady-state (QSS), are implemented to compare against the true solution. Effects on the transient plasma stemming from the grouping methods are compared. Distribution A: Approved for public release; unlimited distribution, PA (Public Affairs) Clearance Number 17449. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), Grant Number 17RQCOR463 (Dr. Jason Marshall).
B. Curé
2012-01-01
The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...
B. Curé
2013-01-01
The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...
Benoit Curé
2010-01-01
The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...
B. Curé
2011-01-01
The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...
Oxygen auroral transition laser system excited by collisional and photolytic energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murray, J.R.; Powell, H.T.; Rhodes, C.K.
1975-06-01
The properties of laser media involving the auroral transition of atomic oxygen and analogous systems are examined. A discussion of the atomic properties, collisional mechanisms, excitation processes, and collisionally induced radiative phenomena is given. Crossing phenomena play a particularly important role in governing the dynamics of the medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.
1990-01-01
New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)
Transient events in bright debris discs: Collisional avalanches revisited
Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.
2018-01-01
Context. A collisional avalanche is set off by the breakup of a large planetesimal, releasing vast amounts of small unbound grains that enter a debris disc located further away from the star, triggering there a collisional chain reaction that could potentially create detectable transient structures. Aims: We investigate this mechanism, using for the first time a fully self-consistent code coupling dynamical and collisional evolutions. We also quantify for the first time the photometric evolution of the system and investigate whether or not avalanches could explain the short-term luminosity variations recently observed in some extremely bright debris discs. Methods: We use the state-of-the-art LIDT-DD code. We consider an avalanche-favoring A6V star, and two set-ups: a "cold disc" case, with a dust release at 10 au and an outer disc extending from 50 to 120 au, and a "warm disc" case with the release at 1 au and a 5-12 au outer disc. We explore, in addition, two key parameters: the density (parameterized by its optical depth τ) of the main outer disc and the amount of dust released by the initial breakup. Results: We find that avalanches could leave detectable structures on resolved images, for both "cold" and "warm" disc cases, in discs with τ of a few 10-3, provided that large dust masses (≳1020-5 × 1022 g) are initially released. The integrated photometric excess due to an avalanche is relatively limited, less than 10% for these released dust masses, peaking in the λ 10-20 μm domain and becoming insignificant beyond 40-50 μm. Contrary to earlier studies, we do not obtain stronger avalanches when increasing τ to higher values. Likewise, we do not observe a significant luminosity deficit, as compared to the pre-avalanche level, after the passage of the avalanche. These two results concur to make avalanches an unlikely explanation for the sharp luminosity drops observed in some extremely bright debris discs. The ideal configuration for observing an
Whistleron gas in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Tzenov, Stephan I.
2005-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of whistler waves in magnetized plasmas is studied. Since the plasmas and beam-plasma systems considered here are assumed to be weakly collisional, the point of reference for the analysis performed in the present paper is the system of hydrodynamic and field equations. The renormalization group method is applied to obtain dynamical equations for the slowly varying amplitudes of whistler waves. Further, it has been shown that the amplitudes of eigenmodes satisfy an infinite system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. In this sense, the whistler eigenmodes form a sort of a gas of interacting quasiparticles, while the slowly varying amplitudes can be considered as dynamical variables heralding the relevant information about the system. An important feature of the approach is that whistler waves do not perturb the initial uniform density of plasma electrons. The plasma response to the induced whistler waves consists in velocity redistribution which follows exactly the behavior of the whistlers. In addition, selection rules governing the nonlinear mode coupling have been derived, which represent another interesting peculiarity of the description presented here
Collisional excitation transfer between Rb(5P) states in 50–3000 Torr of 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sell, J F; Gearba, M A; Patterson, B M; Byrne, D; Jemo, G; Meeter, R; Knize, R J; Lilly, T C
2012-01-01
Measurements of the mixing rates and cross sections for collisional excitation transfer between the 5P 1/2 and 5P 3/2 states of rubidium (Rb) in the presence of 4 He buffer gas are presented. Selected pulses from a high repetition rate, mode-locked femtosecond laser are used to excite either Rb state with the fluorescence due to collisional excitation transfer observed by time-correlated single-photon counting. The time dependence of this fluorescence is fitted to the solution of rate equations which include the mixing rate, atomic lifetimes and any quenching processes. The variation in the mixing rate over a large range of buffer gas densities allows the determination of both the binary collisional transfer cross section and a three-body collisional transfer rate. We do not observe any collisional quenching effects at 4 He pressures up to 6 atm and discuss in detail other systematic effects considered in the experiment. (paper)
B. Curé
2011-01-01
The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....
Startpoints via weak contractions
Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich
2018-01-01
Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.
Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.
2018-05-01
If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
A collisional-radiative average atom model for hot plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozsnyai, B.F.
1996-01-01
A collisional-radiative 'average atom' (AA) model is presented for the calculation of opacities of hot plasmas not in the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The electron impact and radiative rate constants are calculated using the dipole oscillator strengths of the average atom. A key element of the model is the photon escape probability which at present is calculated for a semi infinite slab. The Fermi statistics renders the rate equation for the AA level occupancies nonlinear, which requires iterations until the steady state. AA level occupancies are found. Detailed electronic configurations are built into the model after the self-consistent non-LTE AA state is found. The model shows a continuous transition from the non-LTE to the LTE state depending on the optical thickness of the plasma. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab
Species separation and kinetic effects in collisional plasma shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellei, C., E-mail: bellei1@llnl.gov; Wilks, S. C.; Amendt, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rinderknecht, H.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2014-05-15
The properties of collisional shock waves propagating in uniform plasmas are studied with ion-kinetic calculations, in both slab and spherical geometry and for the case of one and two ion species. Despite the presence of an electric field at the shock front—and in contrast to the case where an interface is initially present [C. Bellei et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 044702 (2013)]—essentially no ion reflection at the shock front is observed due to collisions, with a probability of reflection ≲10{sup −4} for the cases presented. A kinetic two-ion-species spherical convergent shock is studied in detail and compared against an average-species calculation, confirming effects of species separation and differential heating of the ion species at the shock front. The effect of different ion temperatures on the DT and D{sup 3}He fusion reactivity is discussed in the fluid limit and is estimated to be moderately important.
LAD Dissertation Prize Talk: Molecular Collisional Excitation in Astrophysical Environments
Walker, Kyle M.
2017-06-01
While molecular excitation calculations are vital in determining particle velocity distributions, internal state distributions, abundances, and ionization balance in gaseous environments, both theoretical calculations and experimental data for these processes are lacking. Reliable molecular collisional data with the most abundant species - H2, H, He, and electrons - are needed to probe material in astrophysical environments such as nebulae, molecular clouds, comets, and planetary atmospheres. However, excitation calculations with the main collider, H2, are computationally expensive and therefore various approximations are used to obtain unknown rate coefficients. The widely-accepted collider-mass scaling approach is flawed, and alternate scaling techniques based on physical and mathematical principles are presented here. The most up-to-date excitation data are used to model the chemical evolution of primordial species in the Recombination Era and produce accurate non-thermal spectra of the molecules H2+, HD, and H2 in a primordial cloud as it collapses into a first generation star.
Modern methods in collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas
2016-01-01
This book provides a compact yet comprehensive overview of recent developments in collisional-radiative (CR) modeling of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. It describes advances across the entire field, from basic considerations of model completeness to validation and verification of CR models to calculation of plasma kinetic characteristics and spectra in diverse plasmas. Various approaches to CR modeling are presented, together with numerous examples of applications. A number of important topics, such as atomic models for CR modeling, atomic data and its availability and quality, radiation transport, non-Maxwellian effects on plasma emission, ionization potential lowering, and verification and validation of CR models, are thoroughly addressed. Strong emphasis is placed on the most recent developments in the field, such as XFEL spectroscopy. Written by leading international research scientists from a number of key laboratories, the book offers a timely summary of the most recent progress in this area. It ...
Energy-dependent collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited azulene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, J.; Barker, J.R.
1988-01-01
Collisional energy transfer parameters for highly vibrationally excited azulene have been deduced from new infrared fluorescence (IRF) emission lifetime data with an improved calibration relating IRF intensity to vibrational energy [J. Shi, D. Bernfeld, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 88, XXXX (1988), preceding paper]. In addition, data from previous experiments [M. J. Rossi, J. R. Pladziewicz, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6695 (1983)] have been reanalyzed based on the improved calibration. Inversion of the IRF decay curves produced plots of energy decay, which were analyzed to determine , the average energy transferred per collision. Master equation simulations reproduced both the original IRF decays and the deduced energy decays. A third (simple) method of determination agrees well with the other two. The results show to be nearly directly proportional to the vibrational energy of the excited azulene from ∼8000 to 33 000 cm -1 . At high energies, there are indications that the energy dependence may be slightly reduced
A collisional model for plasma immersion ion implantation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vahedi, V.; Lieberman, M.A.; Alves, M.V.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.
1990-01-01
In plasma immersion ion implantation, a target is immersed in a plasma and a series of negative short pulses are applied to it to implant the ions. A new analytical model is being developed for the high pressure regimes in which the motion of the ions is highly collisional. The model provides values for ion flux, average ion velocity at the target, and sheath edge motion as a function of time. These values are being compared with those obtained from simulation and show good agreement. A review is also given (for comparison) of the earlier work done at low pressures, where the motion of ions in the sheath is collisionless, also showing good agreement between analysis and simulation. The simulation code is PDP1 which utilizes particle-in-cell techniques plus Monte-Carlo simulation of electron-neutral (elastic, excitation and ionization) and ion-neutral (scattering and charge-exchange) collisions
Highly Resolved Measurements of a Developing Strong Collisional Plasma Shock
Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P. A.; Higginson, D. P.; Wilks, S. C.; Haberberger, D.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Keenan, B. D.; Vold, E. L.
2018-03-01
The structure of a strong collisional shock front forming in a plasma is directly probed for the first time in laser-driven gas-jet experiments. Thomson scattering of a 526.5 nm probe beam was used to diagnose temperature and ion velocity distribution in a strong shock (M ˜11 ) propagating through a low-density (ρ ˜0.01 mg /cc ) plasma composed of hydrogen. A forward-streaming population of ions traveling in excess of the shock velocity was observed to heat and slow down on an unmoving, unshocked population of cold protons, until ultimately the populations merge and begin to thermalize. Instabilities are observed during the merging, indicating a uniquely plasma-phase process in shock front formation.
Collisional damping of Langmuir waves in the collisionless limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auerbach, S.P.
1977-01-01
Linear Langmuir wave damping by collisions is studied in the limit of collision frequency ν approaching zero. In this limit, collisions are negligible, except in a region in velocity space, the boundary layer, centered about the phase velocity. If kappa, the ratio of the collisional equilibration time in the boundary layer to the Landau damping time, is small, the boundary layer width scales as ν/sup 1/3/, and the perturbed distribution function scales as ν/sup -1/3/. The damping rate is thus independent of ν, although essentially all the damping occurs in the collision-dominated boundary layer. Solution of the Fokker--Planck equation shows that the damping rate is precisely the Landau (collisionless) rate. The damping rate is independent of kappa, although the boundary layer thickness is not
Nonlinear acoustic waves in partially ionized collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, N.N.; Kaup, D.J.; Shukla, P.K.
1991-01-01
Nonlinear propagation of acoustic-type waves in a partially ionized three-component collisional plasma consisting of electrons, ions and neutral particles is investigated. For bidirectional propagation, it is shown that the small- but finite-amplitude waves are governed by the Boussinesq equation, which for unidirectional propagation near the acoustic speed reduces to the usual Korteweg-de Vries equation. For large-amplitude waves, it is demonstrated that the relevant fluid equations are integrable in a stationary frame, and the parameter values for the existence of finite-amplitude solutions are explicitly obtained. In both cases, the different temperatures of the individual species, are taken into account. The relevance of the results to the earth's ionospheric plasma in the lower altitude ranges is pointed out. (author)
Correlations between channel probabilities in collisional dissociation of D3+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abraham, S.; Nir, D.; Rosner, B.
1984-01-01
Measurements of the dissociation of D 3 + ions at 300--600 keV under single- and multiple-collision conditions in Ar- and H 2 -gas targets have been performed. A complete separation of all dissociation channels was achieved, including the neutral channels, which were resolved using a fine-mesh technique. Data analysis in the multiple-collision regime confirms the validity of the rate equations governing the charge exchange processes. In the single-collision region the analysis yields constant relations between channel probabilities. Data rearrangement shows probability factorization and suggests that collisional dissociation is a two-stage process, a fast electron exchange followed by rearrangement and branching to the exit channels
Measurements of weak conversion lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.
1979-01-01
Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line
Benoit Curé
2010-01-01
The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...
B. Curé
MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...
Benoit Curé.
The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...
B. Curé
2013-01-01
The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...
Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M.; Kono, M.; Sato, T.
1998-01-01
In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)
Pressure-induced weak ferromagnetism in uranium dioxide, UO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, H; Kato, H; Tokunaga, Y; Kambe, S; Walstedt, R E; Nakamura, A; Tateiwa, N; Kobayashi, T C
2003-01-01
The dc magnetization of insulating UO 2 under high pressure up to ∼1 GPa has been measured using a piston-cylinder cell. Pressure-induced weak ferromagnetism appeared at low pressure (∼0.2 GPa). Both the remanent magnetization and the coercive force increase as pressure increases. This weak ferromagnetism may come from spin canting or from uncompensated moments around grain boundaries
Introduction to weak interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leite Lopes, J.
An account is first given of the electromagnetic interactions of complex, scalar, vector and spinor fields. It is shown that the electromagnetic field may be considered as a gauge field. Yang-Mills fields and the field theory invariant with respect to the non-Abelian gauge transformation group are then described. The construction, owing to this invariance principle, of conserved isospin currents associated with gauge fields is also demonstrated. This is followed by a historical survey of the development of the weak interaction theory, established at first to describe beta disintegration processes by analogy with electrodynamics. The various stages are mentioned from the discovery of principles and rules and violation of principles, such as those of invariance with respect to spatial reflection and charge conjugation to the formulation of the effective current-current Lagrangian and research on the structure of weak currents [fr
Rakipi, Albert
2006-01-01
Cataloged from PDF version of article. Although the weak 1 failing states have often been deseribed as the single most important problem for the international order s ince the en d of Cold W ar (F .Fukuyaına 2004:92) several dimensions of this phenomenon still remain unexplored. While this phenomenon has been present in the international politics even earlier, only the post Cold W ar period accentuated its relationship with security issues. Following the Cold W ar' s "peacef...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, M.
1988-04-01
Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.
The magnetic centrifugal mass filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.
The magnetic centrifugal mass filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2011-09-15
Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.
Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.
2015-11-01
Over the past 4 years on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL, we have studied obliquely and head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets of an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture. The jets are formed/launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. In successive experimental campaigns, we characterized the (a) evolution of plasma parameters of a single plasma jet as it propagated up to ~ 1 m away from the railgun nozzle, (b) density profiles and 2D morphology of the stagnation layer and oblique shocks that formed between obliquely merging jets, and (c) collisionless interpenetration transitioning to collisional stagnation between head-on-merging jets. Key plasma diagnostics included a fast-framing CCD camera, an 8-chord visible interferometer, a survey spectrometer, and a photodiode array. This talk summarizes the primary results mentioned above, and highlights analyses of inferred post-shock temperatures based on observations of density gradients that we attribute to shock-layer thickness. We also briefly describe more recent PLX experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution with magnetic and viscous effects, and potential future collisionless shock experiments enabled by low-impurity, higher-velocity plasma jets formed by contoured-gap coaxial guns. Supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences and LANL LDRD.
Nee, Sean
2018-05-01
Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.
Stationary magnetic shear reversal during Lower Hybrid experiments in Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Bibet, P.
1996-01-01
Stable and stationary states with hollow current density profiles have been achieved with Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) during Lower Hybrid (LH) wave accessibility experiments. By analysing the bounded propagation domain in phase space which naturally limits the central penetration and absorption of the waves, off-axis LH power deposition has been realized in a reproducible manner. The resulting current density profile modifications have led to a global confinement enhancement attributed to the formation of an internal 'transport barrier' in the central reversed shear region where the electron thermal diffusivity is reduced to its neoclassical collisional level. The multiple-pass LH wave propagation in the weak Landau damping and reversed magnetic shear regime is also investigated in the framework of a statistical theory and the experimental validation of this theory is discussed. (author)
Benoit Curé
The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...
B. Curé
During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...
Hypernuclear weak decay puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbero, C.; Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Krmpotic, F.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Tadic, D.
2002-01-01
A general shell model formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay of the hypernuclei has been developed. It involves a partial wave expansion of the emitted nucleon waves, preserves naturally the antisymmetrization between the escaping particles and the residual core, and contains as a particular case the weak Λ-core coupling formalism. The extreme particle-hole model and the quasiparticle Tamm-Dancoff approximation are explicitly worked out. It is shown that the nuclear structure manifests itself basically through the Pauli principle, and a very simple expression is derived for the neutron- and proton-induced decays rates Γ n and Γ p , which does not involve the spectroscopic factors. We use the standard strangeness-changing weak ΛN→NN transition potential which comprises the exchange of the complete pseudoscalar and vector meson octets (π,η,K,ρ,ω,K * ), taking into account some important parity-violating transition operators that are systematically omitted in the literature. The interplay between different mesons in the decay of Λ 12 C is carefully analyzed. With the commonly used parametrization in the one-meson-exchange model (OMEM), the calculated rate Γ NM =Γ n +Γ p is of the order of the free Λ decay rate Γ 0 (Γ NM th congruent with Γ 0 ) and is consistent with experiments. Yet the measurements of Γ n/p =Γ n /Γ p and of Γ p are not well accounted for by the theory (Γ n/p th p th > or approx. 0.60Γ 0 ). It is suggested that, unless additional degrees of freedom are incorporated, the OMEM parameters should be radically modified
Measurement of weak radioactivity
Theodorsson , P
1996-01-01
This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm
2002-01-01
We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugarbaker, E.
1995-01-01
I review available techniques for extraction of weak interaction rates in nuclei. The case for using hadron charge exchange reactions to estimate such rates is presented and contrasted with alternate methods. Limitations of the (p,n) reaction as a probe of Gamow-Teller strength are considered. Review of recent comparisons between beta-decay studies and (p,n) is made, leading to cautious optimism regarding the final usefulness of (p,n)- derived GT strengths to the field of astrophysics. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Weak Localisation in Clean and Highly Disordered Graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilke, Michael; Massicotte, Mathieu; Whiteway, Eric; Yu, Victor
2013-01-01
We look at the magnetic field induced weak localisation peak of graphene samples with different mobilities. At very low temperatures, low mobility samples exhibit a very broad peak as a function of the magnetic field, in contrast to higher mobility samples, where the weak localisation peak is very sharp. We analyze the experimental data in the context of the localisation length, which allows us to extract, both the localisation length and the phase coherence length of the samples, regardless of their mobilities. This analysis is made possible by the observation that the localisation length undergoes a generic weak localisation dependence with striking universal properties
Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning
You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub
2018-05-01
We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.
Potential around a dust grain in collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moulick, R., E-mail: moulick@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics - Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Guwahati, Assam 782402 (India)
2015-04-15
The ion neutral collision can lead to interesting phenomena in dust charging, totally different from the expectations based on the traditional orbit motion limited theory. The potential around a dust grain is investigated for the collisional plasma considering the presence of ion neutral collisions. Fluid equations are solved for the one dimensional radial coordinate. It is observed that with the gradual increase in ion neutral collision, the potential structure around the dust grain changes its shape and is different from the usual Debye-Hückel potential. The shift however starts from a certain value of ion neutral collision and the electron-ion density varies accordingly. The potential variation is interesting and reconfirms the fact that there exists a region of attraction for negative charges. The collision modeling is done for the full range of plasma, i.e., considering the bulk and the sheath jointly. The potential variation with collision is also shown explicitly and the variation is found to cope up with the earlier observations.
Updated Collisional Ionization Equilibrium Calculated for Optically Thin Plasmas
Savin, Daniel Wolf; Bryans, P.; Badnell, N. R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Laming, J. M.; Mitthumsiri, W.
2010-03-01
Reliably interpreting spectra from electron-ionized cosmic plasmas requires accurate ionization balance calculations for the plasma in question. However, much of the atomic data needed for these calculations have not been generated using modern theoretical methods and their reliability are often highly suspect. We have carried out state-of-the-art calculations of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for the hydrogenic through Na-like ions of all elements from He to Zn as well as for Al-like to Ar-like ions of Fe. We have also carried out state-of-the-art radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficient calculations for the bare through Na-like ions of all elements from H to Zn. Using our data and the recommended electron impact ionization data of Dere (2007), we present improved collisional ionization equilibrium calculations (Bryans et al. 2006, 2009). We compare our calculated fractional ionic abundances using these data with those presented by Mazzotta et al. (1998) for all elements from H to Ni. This work is supported in part by the NASA APRA and SHP SR&T programs.
COLLISIONAL DEBRIS AS LABORATORIES TO STUDY STAR FORMATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boquien, M.; Duc, P.-A.; Wu, Y.; Charmandaris, V.; Lisenfeld, U.; Braine, J.; Brinks, E.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Xu, C. K.
2009-01-01
In this paper we address the question of whether star formation (SF) is driven by local processes or the large-scale environment. To do so, we investigate SF in collisional debris where the gravitational potential well and velocity gradients are shallower and compare our results with previous work on SF in noninteracting spiral and dwarf galaxies. We have performed multiwavelength spectroscopic and imaging observations (from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared) of six interacting systems, identifying a total of 60 star-forming regions in their collision debris. Our analysis indicates that in these regions (1) the emission of the dust is at the expected level for their luminosity and metallicity, (2) the usual tracers of SFR display the typical trend and scatter found in classical star-forming regions, and (3) the extinction and metallicity are not the main parameters governing the scatter in the properties of intergalactic star-forming regions; age effects and variations in the number of stellar populations seem to play an important role. Our work suggests that local properties such as column density and dust content, rather than the large-scale environment seem to drive SF. This means that intergalactic star-forming regions can be used as a reliable tool to study SF.
Electromagnetic-wave absorption by inhomogeneous, collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregoire, D.J.; Santoru, J.; Schumacher, R.W.
1990-01-01
Unmagnetized, collisional plasmas can be used as broadband EM-wave absorbers or refractors. In the absorption process, plasma electrons are first accelerated by the EM-wave fields and then collide with background-gas molecules, thereby transferring energy from the EM waves to the gas. A plasma absorber has several advantages compared to conventional materials. A plasma can be turned on and off very rapidly, thereby switching between absorbing and transparent conditions. Calculations indicate that plasma absorbers can also be tailored to provide broadband absorption (>40 dB) over multiple octaves. The authors have developed a one-dimensional model and a computer code to calculate the net power reflected from a plasma-enclosed EM-wave-reflecting target. They included three contributions to the reflected EM-wave power: reflections from the vacuum-plasma interface; reflections from the bulk plasma volume; and reflection of the attenuated EM wave that is transmitted through the plasma and reflected by the target
Expansion of Collisional Radiative Model for Helium line ratio spectroscopy
Cinquegrani, David; Cooper, Chris; Forest, Cary; Milhone, Jason; Munoz-Borges, Jorge; Schmitz, Oliver; Unterberg, Ezekial
2015-11-01
Helium line ratio spectroscopy is a powerful technique of active plasma edge spectroscopy. It enables reconstruction of plasma edge parameters like electron density and temperature by use of suitable Collisional Radiative Models (CRM). An established approach is successful at moderate plasma densities (~1018m-3 range) and temperature (30-300eV), taking recombination and charge exchange to be negligible. The goal of this work is to experimentally explore limitations of this approach to CRM. For basic validation the Madison Plasma Dynamo eXperiment (MPDX) will be used. MPDX offers a very uniform plasma and spherical symmetry at low temperature (5-20 eV) and low density (1016 -1017m-3) . Initial data from MPDX shows a deviation in CRM results when compared to Langmuir probe data. This discrepancy points to the importance of recombination effects. The validated model is applied to first time measurement of electron density and temperature in front of an ICRH antenna at the TEXTOR tokamak. These measurements are important to understand RF coupling and PMI physics at the antenna limiters. Work supported in part by start up funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at the UW - Madison, USA and NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210.
Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas
Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.
2002-05-01
Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.
HIDING IN THE SHADOWS. II. COLLISIONAL DUST AS EXOPLANET MARKERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobinson, Jack; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Lines, Stefan; Carter, Philip J.; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Teanby, Nick A.
2016-01-01
Observations of the youngest planets (∼1–10 Myr for a transitional disk) will increase the accuracy of our planet formation models. Unfortunately, observations of such planets are challenging and time-consuming to undertake, even in ideal circumstances. Therefore, we propose the determination of a set of markers that can preselect promising exoplanet-hosting candidate disks. To this end, N-body simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of an embedded Jupiter-mass planet on the dynamics of the surrounding planetesimal disk and the resulting creation of second-generation collisional dust. We use a new collision model that allows fragmentation and erosion of planetesimals, and dust-sized fragments are simulated in a post-process step including non-gravitational forces due to stellar radiation and a gaseous protoplanetary disk. Synthetic images from our numerical simulations show a bright double ring at 850 μm for a low-eccentricity planet, whereas a high-eccentricity planet would produce a characteristic inner ring with asymmetries in the disk. In the presence of first-generation primordial dust these markers would be difficult to detect far from the orbit of the embedded planet, but would be detectable inside a gap of planetary origin in a transitional disk
Constraining scalar fields with stellar kinematics and collisional dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Rezzolla, Luciano
2010-01-01
The existence and detection of scalar fields could provide solutions to long-standing puzzles about the nature of dark matter, the dark compact objects at the centre of most galaxies, and other phenomena. Yet, self-interacting scalar fields are very poorly constrained by astronomical observations, leading to great uncertainties in estimates of the mass m φ and the self-interacting coupling constant λ of these fields. To counter this, we have systematically employed available astronomical observations to develop new constraints, considerably restricting this parameter space. In particular, by exploiting precise observations of stellar dynamics at the centre of our Galaxy and assuming that these dynamics can be explained by a single boson star, we determine an upper limit for the boson star compactness and impose significant limits on the values of the properties of possible scalar fields. Requiring the scalar field particle to follow a collisional dark matter model further narrows these constraints. Most importantly, we find that if a scalar dark matter particle does exist, then it cannot account for both the dark-matter halos and the existence of dark compact objects in galactic nuclei
COLLISIONAL GROOMING MODELS OF THE KUIPER BELT DUST CLOUD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher C.
2010-01-01
We modeled the three-dimensional structure of the Kuiper Belt (KB) dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of ∼10 -4 primarily show an azimuthally symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical KB. For models with lower optical depths (10 -6 and 10 -7 ), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's KB dust, and probably other aspects of the solar system dust complex; collisions erase all signs of azimuthal asymmetry from the submillimeter image of the disk at every dust level we considered. The model images switch from being dominated by resonantly trapped small grains ('transport dominated') to being dominated by the birth ring ('collision dominated') when the optical depth reaches a critical value of τ ∼ v/c, where v is the local Keplerian speed.
Collisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud
Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher C.
2010-01-01
We modeled the three-dimensional structure of the Kuiper Belt (KB) dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of approximately 10 (exp -4) primarily show an azimuthally- symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical KB. For models with lower optical depths (10 (exp -6) and 10 (exp-7)), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's KB dust, and probably other aspects of the solar system dust complex; collisions erase all signs of azimuthal asymmetry from the submillimeter image of the disk at every dust level we considered. The model images switch from being dominated by resonantly trapped small grains ("transport dominated") to being dominated by the birth ring ("collision dominated") when the optical depth reaches a critical value of r approximately v/c, where v is the local Keplerian speed.
Boundary conditions for plasma fluid models at the magnetic presheath entrance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loizu, J.; Ricci, P.; Halpern, F. D.; Jolliet, S.
2012-01-01
The proper boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance for plasma fluid turbulence models based on the drift approximation are derived, focusing on a weakly collisional plasma sheath with T i ≪T e and a magnetic field oblique to a totally absorbing wall. First, the location of the magnetic presheath entrance is rigorously derived. Then boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance are analytically deduced for v ||i , v ||e , n, φ, T e , and for the vorticity ω=∇ ⊥ 2 φ. The effects of E × B and diamagnetic drifts on the boundary conditions are also investigated. Kinetic simulations are performed that confirm the analytical results. Finally, the new set of boundary conditions is implemented in a three-dimensional global fluid code for the simulation of plasma turbulence and, as an example, the results of a tokamak scrape-off layer simulation are discussed. The framework presented can be generalized to obtain boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance in more complex scenarios.
Modeling of collisional excited x-ray lasers using short pulse laser pumping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasaki, Akira; Moribayashi, Kengo; Utsumi, Takayuki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
A simple atomic kinetics model of electron collisional excited x-ray lasers has been developed. The model consists of a collisional radiative model using the average ion model (AIM) and a detailed term accounting (DTA) model of Ni-like Ta. An estimate of plasma condition to produce gain in Ni-like Ta ({lambda}=44A) is given. Use of the plasma confined in a cylinder is proposed to preform a uniform high density plasma from 1-D hydrodynamics calculations. (author)
On calculation of collisional angular-momentum mixing of Rydberg states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oreg, J.; Strauss, M.; Hazak, G.
1983-09-01
Exact solutions of the coupled differential equations for collisional mixing probabilities are presented for a sodium-helium system. The results show that complete mixing is not reached in this model. The main contribution to the collisional mixing cross-section of the sodium ''nd'' state comes from impact parameters b within the range n 2 2 . The total cross-sections obtained are in agreement with the experiment. (author)
Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.
2015-06-01
The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.
Benoit Curé
The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...
B. Curé
The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...
Benoit Curé
2013-01-01
Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...
Degenerate four-wave mixing and phase conjugation in a collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Federici, J.F.; Mansfield, D.K.
1986-06-01
Although degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) has many practical applications in the visible regime, no successful attempt has been made to study or demonstrate DFWM for wavelengths longer than 10μm. Recently, Steel and Lam established plasma as a viable DFWM and phase conjugation (PC) medium for infrared, far-infrared, and microwaves. However, their analysis is incomplete since collisional effects were not included. Using a fluid description, our results demonstrate that when collisional absorption is small and the collisional mean-free path is shorter than the nonlinear density grating scale length, collisional heating generates a thermal force which substantially enhances the phase conjugate reflectivity. When the collisional attenuation length becomes comparable to the length of the plasma, the dominant effect is collisional absorption of the pump waves. Numerical estimates of the phase conjugate reflectivity indicate that for modest power levels, gains greater than or equal to1 are possible in the submillimeter to centimeter wavelength range. This suggests that a plasma is a viable PC medium at those long wavelengths. In addition, doubly DFWM is discussed
Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt
Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.
2014-07-01
The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.
Collisional drift fluid equations and implications for drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, Dieter; Correa-Restrepo, Dario
1996-01-01
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effects of which are extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter law is important in relation to charge separation and the resulting electric fields, which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial to the stability behaviour, it will be discussed by means of an example. New collisional multi-species drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields, in a transparent way, conservation of energy and total angular momentum and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The only restriction involved is the validity of the drift approximation; in particular, there are no assumptions restricting the geometry of the system. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in the drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. However, their relation to the ideal equations also implies a relation to the ideal Lagrangian, which can be used to advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T v (x) = constant. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theory; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. (author)
Visco-instability of shear viscoelastic collisional dusty plasma systems
Mahdavi-Gharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.
2018-04-01
In this paper, the stability of Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscoelastic collisional shear-velocity dusty plasmas is studied, using the framework of a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. Motivated by Banerjee et al.'s work (Banerjee et al., New J. Phys., vol. 12 (12), 2010, p. 123031), employing linear perturbation theory as well as the local approximation method in the inhomogeneous direction, the dispersion relations of the Fourier modes are obtained for Newtonian and non-Newtonian dusty plasma systems in the presence of a dust-neutral friction term. The analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the non-Newtonian case shows that the inhomogeneous viscosity force depending on the velocity shear profile can be the genesis of a free energy source which leads the shear system to be unstable. Study of the dust-neutral friction effect on the instability of the considered systems using numerical analysis of the dispersion relation in the Newtonian case demonstrates that the maximum growth rate decreases considerably by increasing the collision frequency in the hydrodynamic regime, while this reduction can be neglected in the kinetic regime. Results show a more significant stabilization role of the dust-neutral friction term in the non-Newtonian cases, through decreasing the maximum growth rate at any fixed wavenumber and construction of the instable wavenumber region. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to study of the time evolution of viscoelastic laboratory environments with externally applied shear; where in these experiments the dust-neutral friction process can play a considerable role.
Spin states of asteroids in the Eos collisional family
Hanuš, J.; Delbo', M.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Ďurech, J.; Cibulková, H.; Pravec, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Behrend, R.; Marchis, F.; Antonini, P.; Arnold, L.; Audejean, M.; Bachschmidt, M.; Bernasconi, L.; Brunetto, L.; Casulli, S.; Dymock, R.; Esseiva, N.; Esteban, M.; Gerteis, O.; de Groot, H.; Gully, H.; Hamanowa, Hiroko; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Krafft, P.; Lehký, M.; Manzini, F.; Michelet, J.; Morelle, E.; Oey, J.; Pilcher, F.; Reignier, F.; Roy, R.; Salom, P. A.; Warner, B. D.
2018-01-01
Eos family was created during a catastrophic impact about 1.3 Gyr ago. Rotation states of individual family members contain information about the history of the whole population. We aim to increase the number of asteroid shape models and rotation states within the Eos collision family, as well as to revise previously published shape models from the literature. Such results can be used to constrain theoretical collisional and evolution models of the family, or to estimate other physical parameters by a thermophysical modeling of the thermal infrared data. We use all available disk-integrated optical data (i.e., classical dense-in-time photometry obtained from public databases and through a large collaboration network as well as sparse-in-time individual measurements from a few sky surveys) as input for the convex inversion method, and derive 3D shape models of asteroids together with their rotation periods and orientations of rotation axes. We present updated shape models for 15 asteroids and new shape model determinations for 16 asteroids. Together with the already published models from the publicly available DAMIT database, we compiled a sample of 56 Eos family members with known shape models that we used in our analysis of physical properties within the family. Rotation states of asteroids smaller than ∼ 20 km are heavily influenced by the YORP effect, whilst the large objects more or less retained their rotation state properties since the family creation. Moreover, we also present a shape model and bulk density of asteroid (423) Diotima, an interloper in the Eos family, based on the disk-resolved data obtained by the Near InfraRed Camera (Nirc2) mounted on the W.M. Keck II telescope.
Model of a source-driven plasma interacting with a wall in an oblique magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahedo, E.; Carralero, D.
2009-01-01
A fluid model of a magnetized source-driven plasma is discussed for regimes with (Debye length)<<(ion Larmor radius)<<(plasma size and collisional mean-free path). Plasma collection by the wall is determined in terms of angle of incidence, magnetic strength, and plasma collisionality. For nonparallel incidence, a three-scale asymptotic analysis reveals a three-region matched structure consisting of a magnetically aligned bulk region, the Chodura layer, and the Debye sheath. Sonic Chodura and Bohm conditions define the singular region transitions. For near-parallel incidence, a separate analysis demonstrates the presence of a diffusive-collisional bulk region followed by a thin collisionless layer, which differs partially from the Chodura layer. A parametric analysis unveils the presence of four regimes depending on plasma collisionality: (1) a collisionless regime, with the magnetically channeled bulk region governed by plasma production; (2) a resistive semicollisional regime, where collisions retard the plasma transport in the bulk region; (3) a diffusive semicollisional regime, where the ExB drift dominates the ion flux in the bulk region; and (4) a collisional regime, where collisions cancel out magnetic effects. At grazing incidence, plasma collection is found to vary nonmonotonically with plasma collisionality. Nonzero Debye-length effects are discussed briefly.
On the kinetic collisional theory of beam-plasma system (relativistic dielectric tensor). Vol. 2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalil, Sh M; Sayed, Y A; Zaki, N G [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)
1996-03-01
Calculation of the dielectric tensor is useful for calculating and oscillations the stability of an inhomogeneous plasma. If the dielectric tensor is known, the problem of oscillations is reduced the derivation of the Maxwellian equations. In this case, there is no need to derive the equations of the motion of charged particles every time. The properties of the plasma, especially those connected to its instability, may be equally well specified through permittivity as through conductivity. The features of plasma instabilities and the plasma dielectric tensor are essentially affected by the presence of collision. Coloumb collisions (C.C.) are very important in the process of no linear saturation of some plasma instabilities (e.g., ion cyclotron instability, electron-ion two stream instability). For C.C., two basic properties are considered; (i) the cross section decreases rapidly as the particle velocity increases, (ii) the dominate contribution arises from a commutative effect of small-angle scattering or small-momentum transfer processes. If allowance is made for C.C. to derive the kinetic wave equations in a homogeneous plasma, it will remove the divergance in the matrix elements describing nonlinear interactions. In this paper, the collisional kinetic wave equation in cylindrical hot plasma is studied. The dielectric and polarizing tensor elements which describes the kinetic relativistic electron beam (REB) interaction with magnetized plasma into consideration the effect of pair C.C. is derived. Most research carried out in this direction has neglected the effect of C.C. In the absence of collisions, a `plauste` is formed on the distribution function, and the adsorption of the energy by the plasma stops. 1 fig.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, C.T.
1980-01-01
Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io
Weak coupling polaron and Landau-Zener scenario: Qubits modeling
Jipdi, M. N.; Tchoffo, M.; Fokou, I. F.; Fai, L. C.; Ateuafack, M. E.
2017-06-01
The paper presents a weak coupling polaron in a spherical dot with magnetic impurities and investigates conditions for which the system mimics a qubit. Particularly, the work focuses on the Landau-Zener (LZ) scenario undergone by the polaron and derives transition coefficients (transition probabilities) as well as selection rules for polaron's transitions. It is proven that, the magnetic impurities drive the polaron to a two-state superposition leading to a qubit structure. We also showed that the symmetry deficiency induced by the magnetic impurities (strong magnetic field) yields to the banishment of transition coefficients with non-stacking states. However, the transition coefficients revived for large confinement frequency (or weak magnetic field) with the orbital quantum numbers escorting transitions. The polaron is then shown to map a qubit independently of the number of relevant states with the transition coefficients lifted as LZ probabilities and given as a function of the electron-phonon coupling constant (Fröhlich constant).
Spectrum of absorption of a weak signal by an atom in a strong field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakaev, D.S.; Vdovin, Y.A.; Ermachenko, V.M.; Yakovlenko, S.I.
1985-01-01
An analysis is made of the spectrum of absorption of a weak probe electromagnetic field by two-level atoms in a strong resonant laser field, undergoing collision with buffer gas atoms. The analysis is made using an approach that allows for the direct influence of a strong electromagnetic field on the dynamics of an elastic collision between an active atom and a buffer gas atom. Rate equations are analyzed for a combined ''atom--strong electromagnetic field'' system (an atom ''dressed'' by the field) allowing for spontaneous and optical collisional transitions, and also for the interaction with the probe field. In the steady-state case, an expression is derived for the electric susceptibility of the medium at the small-signal frequency. This expression contains the rates of the optical collisional transitions that depend nontrivially on the parameters of the strong electromagnetic field. The phenomenological characteristics of optical collisional transitions generally used are only valid at low intensities and for small frequency detunings of the strong electromagnetic field, i.e., in the impact limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, B I; Vedula, Prakash
2013-01-01
An alternative approach for solution of the collisional Boltzmann equation for a lattice architecture is presented. In the proposed method, termed the collisional lattice Boltzmann method (cLBM), the effects of spatial transport are accounted for via a streaming operator, using a lattice framework, and the effects of detailed collisional interactions are accounted for using the full collision operator of the Boltzmann equation. The latter feature is in contrast to the conventional lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) where collisional interactions are modeled via simple equilibrium based relaxation models (e.g. BGK). The underlying distribution function is represented using weights and fixed velocity abscissas according to the lattice structure. These weights are evolved based on constraints on the evolution of generalized moments of velocity according to the collisional Boltzmann equation. It can be shown that the collision integral can be reduced to a summation of elementary integrals, which can be analytically evaluated. The proposed method is validated using studies of canonical microchannel Couette and Poiseuille flows (both body force and pressure driven) and the results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from conventional LBMs and experiments where available. Unlike conventional LBMs, the proposed method does not involve any equilibrium based approximations and hence can be useful for simulation of highly nonequilibrium flows (for a range of Knudsen numbers) using a lattice framework. (paper)
Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval
2013-01-01
Weak value (WV) is a quantum mechanical measurement protocol, proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. It consists of a weak measurement, which is weighed in, conditional on the outcome of a later, strong measurement. Here we define another two-step measurement protocol, null weak value (NVW), and point out its advantages as compared to WV. We present two alternative derivations of NWVs and compare them to the corresponding derivations of WVs.
Weak openness and almost openness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David A. Rose
1984-01-01
Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.
Weak measurements and quantum weak values for NOON states
Rosales-Zárate, L.; Opanchuk, B.; Reid, M. D.
2018-03-01
Quantum weak values arise when the mean outcome of a weak measurement made on certain preselected and postselected quantum systems goes beyond the eigenvalue range for a quantum observable. Here, we propose how to determine quantum weak values for superpositions of states with a macroscopically or mesoscopically distinct mode number, that might be realized as two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate or photonic NOON states. Specifically, we give a model for a weak measurement of the Schwinger spin of a two-mode NOON state, for arbitrary N . The weak measurement arises from a nondestructive measurement of the two-mode occupation number difference, which for atomic NOON states might be realized via phase contrast imaging and the ac Stark effect using an optical meter prepared in a coherent state. The meter-system coupling results in an entangled cat-state. By subsequently evolving the system under the action of a nonlinear Josephson Hamiltonian, we show how postselection leads to quantum weak values, for arbitrary N . Since the weak measurement can be shown to be minimally invasive, the weak values provide a useful strategy for a Leggett-Garg test of N -scopic realism.
Measurement of the Weak Dipole Moments of the $\\tau$ Lepton
Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palit, S; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rind, O; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F
1998-01-01
Using the data collected by the L3 experiment at LEP from 1991 to 1995 at energies around the $\\Zo$ mass, a measurement of the weak anomalous magnetic dipole moment, $a^w_{\\tau}$,~ and of the weak electric dipole moment, $d^w_{\\tau}$, of the $\\tau$ lepton is performed. These quantities are obtained from angular distributions in $e^{+}e^{-}\\rightarrow\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-} \\rightarrow h^{+} \\bar{\
Hypersonic drift-tearing magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2007-01-01
A two-fluid theory of long wavelength, hypersonic, drift-tearing magnetic islands in low-collisionality, low-β plasmas possessing relatively weak magnetic shear is developed. The model assumes both slab geometry and cold ions, and neglects electron temperature and equilibrium current gradient effects. The problem is solved in three asymptotically matched regions. The 'inner region' contains the island. However, the island emits electrostatic drift-acoustic waves that propagate into the surrounding 'intermediate region', where they are absorbed by the plasma. Since the waves carry momentum, the inner region exerts a net force on the intermediate region, and vice versa, giving rise to strong velocity shear in the region immediately surrounding the island. The intermediate region is matched to the surrounding 'outer region', in which ideal magnetohydrodynamic holds. Isolated hypersonic islands propagate with a velocity that lies between those of the unperturbed local ion and electron fluids, but is much closer to the latter. The ion polarization current is stabilizing, and increases with increasing island width. Finally, the hypersonic branch of isolated island solutions ceases to exist above a certain critical island width. Hypersonic islands whose widths exceed the critical width are hypothesized to bifurcate to the so-called 'sonic' solution branch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piper, J; Tatar, O; Gursoy, H; Mesci, B L; Kocbulut, F; Huang, B
2008-01-01
In the Anatolides of Turkey the neotectonic (post collisional) phase of deformation embraces the period since final closure of the southern arm of Neotethys in mid-Miocene times. The Arabian Shield indenter has continued to deform into the weak Anatolian accretionary collage resulting from subduction of this ocean by a combination of differential movement relative to the African Plate and counterclockwise (CCW) rotation. Much of resulting deformation has been accommodated by slip along major transforms comprising the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) and the northward extension of the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ) but has also been distributed as differential block rotations through the zone of weak crust in between. Facets of this deformation comprise crustal thickening and uplift to produce the Anatolian Plateau, establishment of transform faults and tectonic escape as Arabia has continued to impinge into the Anatolian collage. Paleomagnetic analysis of this deformation is facilitated by the widespread distribution of neotectonic volcanism and graben infills, and rotations relative to the Eurasian reference frame are recognised on two scales. Rapid rotation (up to 5 0 /10,000 years) of small fault blocks is identified between master faults along the intracontinental transforms but deformation does not extend away from these zones and shows that seismogenic upper crust is decoupled from a lower continental lithosphere undergoing continuum deformation. The broad area of weak accreted crust between the transforms is dissected into large fault blocks which exhibit much lower rotation rates (mostly 0 /100,000 years) that vary systematically across the Anatolides. Large CCW rotations near the Arabian indenter diminish westwards to become zero then CW near the limit of tectonic escape in western Turkey. The view that the collage has rotated anticlockwise as a single plate, either uniformly or episodically, during the Neotectonic era is
The relationship between collisional phase defect distribution and cascade collapse efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morishita, K.; Heinisch, H.L.; Ishino, S.; Sekimura, N.
1994-01-01
Defect distributions after the collisional phase of cascade damage processes were calculated using the computer simulation code MARLOWE, which is based on the binary collision approximation. The densities of vacant sites were evaluated in defect-dense regions at the end of the collisional phase in simulated ion irradiations of several pure metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mo and W). The vacancy density distributions were compared to the measured cascade collapse efficiencies obtained from low-dose ion irradiations of thin foils reported in the literature to identify the minimum or ''critical'' values of the vacancy densities during the collisional phase corresponding to cascade collapse. The critical densities are generally independent of the cascade energy in the same metal. The relationships between physical properties of the target elements and the critical densities are discussed within the framework of the cascade thermal spike model. ((orig.))
Cancellation of collisional frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks with Rabi spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sangkyung; Park, Chang Yong; Lee, Won-Kyu; Yu, Dai-Hyuk
2016-01-01
We analyze both the s- and p-wave collision induced frequency shifts and propose an over-π pulse scheme to cancel the shifts in optical lattice clocks interrogated by a Rabi pulse. The collisional frequency shifts are analytically solved as a function of the pulse area and the inhomogeneity of the Rabi frequencies. Experimentally measured collisional frequency shifts in an Yb optical lattice clock are in good agreement with the analytical calculations. Based on our analysis, the over-π pulse combined with a small inhomogeneity below 0.1 allows a fractional uncertainty on a level of 10 −18 in both Sr and Yb optical lattice clocks by canceling the collisional frequency shift. (paper)
Computation of the Spitzer function in stellarators and tokamaks with finite collisionality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kernbichler Winfried
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The generalized Spitzer function, which determines the current drive efficiency in toka- maks and stellarators is modelled for finite plasma collisionality with help of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 [1]. The effect of finite collisionality on the global ECCD efficiency in a tokamak is studied using results of the code NEO-2 as input to the ray tracing code TRAVIS [2]. As it is known [3], specific features of the generalized Spitzer function, which are absent in asymptotic (collisionless or highly collisional regimes result in current drive from a symmetric microwave spectrum with respect to parallel wave numbers. Due to this effect the direction of the current may become independent of the microwave beam launch angle in advanced ECCD scenarii (O2 and X3 where due to relatively low optical depth a significant amount of power is absorbed by trapped particles.
Diffusion and transport phenomena in a collisional magnetoplasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
As is well-known in natural plasmas, the jets, solar wind etc. [8,9] the external beam injection along the magnetic field lines contribute to the source of anisotropy. (T ) and operates in a sink ..... The profiles show slow fall and straight saturation.
Weak decays of stable particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, R.M.
1988-09-01
In this article we review recent advances in the field of weak decays and consider their implications for quantum chromodynamics (the theory of strong interactions) and electroweak theory (the combined theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions), which together form the ''Standard Model'' of elementary particles. (author)
Improving a radiative plus collisional energy loss model for application to RHIC and LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wicks, Simon; Gyulassy, Miklos
2007-01-01
With the QGP opacity computed perturbatively and with the global entropy constraints imposed by the observed dN ch /dy ∼ 1000, radiative energy loss alone cannot account for the observed suppression of single non-photonic electrons. Collisional energy loss is comparable in magnitude to radiative loss for both light and heavy jets. Two aspects that significantly affect the collisional energy loss are examined: the role of fluctuations and the effect of introducing a running QCD coupling as opposed to the fixed α s = 0.3 used previously
Collisional history of asteroids - evidence from Vesta and the Hirayama families
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, D.R.; Chapman, C.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Greenberg, R.
1985-01-01
Numerical simulations of the collisional evolution of hypothetical initial asteroid populations have been run which are subject to three constraints: they must evolve to the current asteroid size distribution, preserve Vesta's basaltic crust, and produce at least the observed number of major Hirayama families. A runaway growth initial asteroid population distribution is found to best satisfy these constraints, and a model is developed for the calculation of fragment size distribution in the disruption of large, gravitationally bound bodies in which the material strength is enhanced by hydrostatic self-compression. This model predicts that large asteroids behave as intrinsically strong bodies despite histories of collisional fracture. 51 references
Theoretical Atomic Physics code development II: ACE: Another collisional excitation code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, R.E.H.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Csanak, G.; Mann, J.B.; Cowan, R.D.
1988-12-01
A new computer code for calculating collisional excitation data (collision strengths or cross sections) using a variety of models is described. The code uses data generated by the Cowan Atomic Structure code or CATS for the atomic structure. Collisional data are placed on a random access file and can be displayed in a variety of formats using the Theoretical Atomic Physics Code or TAPS. All of these codes are part of the Theoretical Atomic Physics code development effort at Los Alamos. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab
Electromagnetic current in weak interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, E.
1983-01-01
In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current
Weak values in collision theory
de Castro, Leonardo Andreta; Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Napolitano, Reginaldo de Jesus
2018-05-01
Weak measurements have an increasing number of applications in contemporary quantum mechanics. They were originally described as a weak interaction that slightly entangled the translational degrees of freedom of a particle to its spin, yielding surprising results after post-selection. That description often ignores the kinetic energy of the particle and its movement in three dimensions. Here, we include these elements and re-obtain the weak values within the context of collision theory by two different approaches, and prove that the results are compatible with each other and with the results from the traditional approach. To provide a more complete description, we generalize weak values into weak tensors and use them to provide a more realistic description of the Stern-Gerlach apparatus.
Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, M.
1981-01-01
The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os 189 was 1.4 x 10 - 7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10 - 7 . The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1 + -- 0 + transition in oriented B 12 and N 12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)
Hartman effect and weak measurements that are not really weak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.
2011-01-01
We show that in wave packet tunneling, localization of the transmitted particle amounts to a quantum measurement of the delay it experiences in the barrier. With no external degree of freedom involved, the envelope of the wave packet plays the role of the initial pointer state. Under tunneling conditions such ''self-measurement'' is necessarily weak, and the Hartman effect just reflects the general tendency of weak values to diverge, as postselection in the final state becomes improbable. We also demonstrate that it is a good precision, or a 'not really weak' quantum measurement: no matter how wide the barrier d, it is possible to transmit a wave packet with a width σ small compared to the observed advancement. As is the case with all weak measurements, the probability of transmission rapidly decreases with the ratio σ/d.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oeien, Alf H.
2001-08-01
The component of the ambipolar field along the magnetic field B, though weak, may, acting together with the gravitational field, give rise to along-B ''ambipolar wells'' where light ions (test particles) in the ionosphere in equatorial regions are trapped. We also take into account magnetic field wells, especially in cases when the along-B velocity of test particles are much less than the transverse-B velocities. For heavy ions, or, for light ions high up, when the ambipolar trap ceases to function, the along-B ambipolar- and gravitational field effects may combine with the magnetic field trap to form a double well for the along-B movement of test particles. The magnetic field trap and its contribution to the double well may be nearly stationary for particles obeying the same velocity condition as above even when collisional effects between the test particles and the background plasma are incorporated. Ions trapped in wells like this, may ''feel'' a varying background, for instance because of Earth rotation, that may be incorporated as time-variation of parameters in the along-B motion. An along-B kinetic equation for groups of test particles is solved both for the case of simple wells and for double wells, including time-varying collisional coefficients and additional fields, and in some cases analytic solutions are obtained. Peculiar along-B distribution functions may arise due to the time-dependency of coefficients and to various combinations of collision- and field parameter values. In particular ''breathing'' distributions that alternate between wide and narrow forms in phase-space may arise, and also distributions where strange attractors may play some role.
Do the Pop II field blue stragglers have a collisional origin?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonard, P.J.T.
1993-01-01
The hypothesis that the Pop II field blue stragglers have a collisional origin is considered. It appears unlikely that the majority of these stragglers were formed via collisions, but it is difficult to rule out the possibility that a small, but observable, fraction of them were
Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe
2008-01-01
The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baravian, G.; Bretagne, J.; Godart, J.; Sultan, G.
1975-01-01
The collisional recombination, in the afterglow of a dense plasma, is regarded as a source process for an overpopulation of the high energy tail of the electron velocity distribution function. The perturbation of the distribution function leads to an important enhancement of the fluctuations of the electrostatic field in a narrow range near the plasma frequency ωsub(p). (orig.) [de
Near field imaging of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Momoko; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Sukegawa, Kouta; Lu, Peixiang; Nagashima, Akira; Kato, Yoshiaki
2001-01-01
We observed the spatial profile of the transient collisional excitation Ni-like Ag laser (λ=13.9 nm) for various plasma lengths using the near field imaging method. The gain coefficient of the x-ray laser was estimated as 24 cm -1 . The gain region was a 50 μm crescent shape and included localized high gain areas. (author)
Nonlinear theory of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability in equatorial spread F
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaturvedi, P.K.; Ossakow, S.L.
1977-01-01
The nonlinear behavior of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in equatorial Spread F by including a dominant two-dimensional nonlinearity. It is found that on account of this nonlinearity the instability saturates by generating damped higher spatial harmonics. The saturated power spectrum for the density fluctuations is discussed. A comparison between experimental observations and theory is presented
Characterization of collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray lasers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mocek, Tomáš; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Upcraft, L. M.; Balcou, P.; Breger, P.; Zeitoun, P.; Le Pape, S.; Ros, D.; Klisnick, A.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.; Rus, Bedřich; Wyart, J. F.
2004-01-01
Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 939-944 ISSN 0946-2171 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) 199900086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : X-ray lasers * optical-field-ionization * collisional excitation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.215, year: 2004
Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arun Kumar Pati
Entanglement: Two quantum systems can be in a strongly correlated state even if .... These are resources which can be used to design quantum computer, quantum ...... Weak measurements have found numerous applications starting from the ...
Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedorchuk, Vitalii V
2007-01-01
In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.
Weak interactions and presupernova evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aufderheide, M.B.; State Univ. of New York
1991-01-01
The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and β - decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs
Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin
2006-01-01
We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities
Weakly compact operators and interpolation
Maligranda, Lech
1992-01-01
The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...
Acute muscular weakness in children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avara, Mark J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Bogdanović, Tamara
2013-01-01
The role played by magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is complex. The weakly collisional nature of the ICM leads to thermal conduction that is channeled along field lines. This anisotropic heat conduction profoundly changes the instabilities of the ICM atmosphere, with convective stabilities being driven by temperature gradients of either sign. Here, we employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the local non-linear behavior of the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI) relevant in the cores of cooling-core clusters where the temperature increases with radius. We study a grid of two-dimensional simulations that span a large range of initial magnetic field strengths and numerical resolutions. For very weak initial fields, we recover the previously known result that the HBI wraps the field in the horizontal direction, thereby shutting off the heat flux. However, we find that simulations that begin with intermediate initial field strengths have a qualitatively different behavior, forming HBI-stable filaments that resist field-line wrapping and enable sustained vertical conductive heat flux at a level of 10%-25% of the Spitzer value. While astrophysical conclusions regarding the role of conduction in cooling cores require detailed global models, our local study proves that systems dominated by the HBI do not necessarily quench the conductive heat flux
Nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas is considered. Stimulated scattering mechanisms involving electromagnetic and acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma are investigated. The growth rate and threshold for three-wave decay interactions as well as modulational and filamentation instabilities are presented. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave modulation theory is generalized for weakly ionized collisional magnetoplasmas. Here, the radiation envelope is generally governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Accounting for the dependence of the attachment frequency on the radiation intensity, ponderomotive force, as well as the differential Joule heating nonlinearity, the authors derive the equations for the nonthermal electron density and temperature perturbations. The various nonlinear terms in the electron motion are compared. The problems of self-focusing and wave localization are discussed. The relevance of the investigation to ionospheric modification by powerful electromagnetic waves is pointed out
Critical currents and weak links in melt textured R123
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veal, B. W.; Zhang, H.; Claus, H.; Chen, L.; Paulikas, A. P.; Koshelev, A.; Crabtree, G. W.
2000-01-01
Weak link behavior is studied, using magnetization and Hall probe measurements of ring samples, in welded melt-textured R123 monoliths and in dual-seeded samples with disoriented domains. Techniques for welding samples yield transport currents across the junction that are in excess of 10 4 A/cm 2
On the stability of certain collisional configurations of hydromagnetic flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2010-09-06
We study the flow of a hydromagnetic fluid toward an obstacle in two different cases: when this is a rigid wall or when two plasma masses collide with each other. The magnetic field far from the obstacle is assumed to be aligned with the flow. The diffusivity is taken as low, and a boundary layer approach for the stationary MHD system is considered. The relevant equations turn out to be a generalization of the Falkner-Skan ones, and while analytical solutions are impossible to obtain, a qualitative analysis shows that whenever the size of the Alfven speed far from the interface exceeds the size of the fluid velocity, the system has no nontrivial solutions. The interpretation of this is that in this case disturbances occurring in the boundary layer travel upstream and disturb the boundary conditions at the outer layers.
... by a slipped disk in the spine) Stroke MUSCLE DISEASES Becker muscular dystrophy Dermatomyositis Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) ...
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan
2008-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2008-06-15
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also
Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).
Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida
2013-06-01
Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.
Quantum discord with weak measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Uttam; Pati, Arun Kumar
2014-01-01
Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength
Experimental Verification of the Hall Effect during Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Ren; Masaaki Yamada; Stefan Gerhardt; Hantao Ji; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn
2005-01-01
In this letter we report a clear and unambiguous observation of the out-of-plane quadrupole magnetic field suggested by numerical simulations in the reconnecting current sheet in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). Measurements show that the Hall effect is large in collisionless regime and becomes small as the collisionality increases, indicating that the Hall effect plays an important role in collisionless reconnection
Weak-interacting holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazit, D.; Yee, H.-U.
2008-06-01
We propose a simple prescription for including low-energy weak-interactions into the frame- work of holographic QCD, based on the standard AdS/CFT dictionary of double-trace deformations. As our proposal enables us to calculate various electro-weak observables involving strongly coupled QCD, it opens a new perspective on phenomenological applications of holographic QCD. We illustrate efficiency and usefulness of our method by performing a few exemplar calculations; neutron beta decay, charged pion weak decay, and meson-nucleon parity non-conserving (PNC) couplings. The idea is general enough to be implemented in both Sakai-Sugimoto as well as Hard/Soft Wall models. (author)
Plane waves with weak singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, Justin R.
2003-03-01
We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)
Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, R.E.
1991-01-01
Research on this grant is devoted to the calculation of heavy particle collision cross sections needed for diagnostic studies of magnetic fusion plasmas. This work requires the development and testing of new theoretical methods, with the implementation of benchmarked techniques to collisions pertinent to fusion reactors. Within the last context, we have provided charge-exchange-recombination cross sections to specific n,l-levels for diagnostic studies on TFTR and for major compilations for the IAEA. We have also completed a cross section study related to the planned neutral beam current drive for ITER. In addition, calculations were made to assess the use of He neutral atom angular scattering measurements for JT-60. Also, new theoretical methods have been developed to more accurately calculate cross sections involving either He or H 2 targets and partially stripped multiply-charged ions. Our most recent work concentrates on alpha particle diagnostics and collision processes of ''helium ash'' in burning reactors. Here, we are providing atomic cross section data for the carbon pellet alpha particle diagnostic work at General Atomics and the neutral He beam alpha particle diagnostic under study by the IAEA
Cosmology and the weak interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N ν ∼ 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs
Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence
Zakharov, V E
1997-01-01
This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.
Weak disorder in Fibonacci sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Department of Physics and Center for Molecular Cybernetics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
2006-05-19
We study how weak disorder affects the growth of the Fibonacci series. We introduce a family of stochastic sequences that grow by the normal Fibonacci recursion with probability 1 - {epsilon}, but follow a different recursion rule with a small probability {epsilon}. We focus on the weak disorder limit and obtain the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the typical growth of the sequence elements, using perturbation theory. The limiting distribution for the ratio of consecutive sequence elements is obtained as well. A number of variations to the basic Fibonacci recursion including shift, doubling and copying are considered. (letter to the editor)
Weak interactions at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.
1978-08-01
Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goto, Motoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fujimoto, Takashi
1997-10-01
We have revised the collisional-radiative (CR) model code of neutral helium (T. Fujimoto, JQSRT 21, 1979). The spin-orbit interaction gives rise to mixing of the wavefunctions of the singlet and triplet states. The degree of the mixing depends on the magnetic field, and at the field strength of the level-anticrossings complete mixing, or complete breakdown of the L-S coupling scheme, occurs. We have approximately incorporated this effect into the code. We have reviewed the excitation cross section data for electron impacts. For transitions starting from the ground state, the recent assessment by the group led by Dr. de Heer is judged satisfactory. For transitions from the metastable levels the assessment by the same group appears rather conservative; there remains a question about the cross section values near the threshold. For transitions between different-l levels within the same multiplicity and same n, a semi-empirical formula based on the Born cross section gives a good agreement with experiment. Proton impacts are also considered for these transitions. We compare the new cross sections with those used in the original version. These cross sections for transitions starting from the metastable levels are fitted by analytical formulas and the parameter values are given. We also give parameter values for the excitation rate coefficient for these transitions as well as for transitions starting from the ground state. With all the above revisions incorporated into the CR model code, we have calculated the energy loss rates and the line intensity ratios for the purpose of plasma diagnostics, where the effect of a magnetic field is noted. The calculated population distribution over excited levels are compared with experiment, and a tentative conclusion is drawn concerning the excitation cross section from the metastable level. (author)
Weak localization of seismic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Tiggelen, B.A. van; Campillo, M.
2004-01-01
We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity
Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong
2013-01-01
We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983
Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids
Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.
2017-01-01
This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of
The structure of weak interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zee, A.
1977-01-01
The effect of introducing righthanded currents on the structure of weak interaction is discussed. The ΔI=1/2 rule is in the spotlight. The discussion provides an interesting example in which the so-called Iizuka-Okubo-Zweing rule is not only evaded, but completely negated
Coverings, Networks and Weak Topologies
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dow, A.; Junnila, H.; Pelant, Jan
2006-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 287-320 ISSN 0025-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/97/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Banach spaces * weak topologies * networks topologies Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Weak differentiability of product measures
Heidergott, B.F.; Leahu, H.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study cost functions over a finite collection of random variables. For these types of models, a calculus of differentiation is developed that allows us to obtain a closed-form expression for derivatives where "differentiation" has to be understood in the weak sense. The technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huterer, Dragan
2002-01-01
We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy
Weak pion production from nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and renormalization of weak ∆ properties ... Furthermore, the angular distribution and the energy distribution of ... Here ψα(p ) and u(p) are the Rarita Schwinger and Dirac spinors for ∆ and nucleon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tauhata, L.; Marques, A.
1972-01-01
Energy levels and gamma radiation transitions of Ca 44 are experimentally determined, mainly the weak transition at 564 KeV and 728 KeV. The decay scheme and the method used (coincidence with Ge-Li detector) are also presented [pt