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Sample records for magnetized target fusion

  1. Reactor potential for magnetized target fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, J.E.

    2001-06-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a possible pathway to thermonuclear fusion different from both magnetic fusion and inertial confinement fusion. An imploding cylindrical metal liner compresses a preheated and magnetized plasma configuration until thermonuclear conditions are achieved. In this report the Magnetized Target Fusion concept is evaluated and a zero-dimensional computer model of the plasma, liner and circuit as a connected system is designed. The results of running this code are that thermonuclear conditions are achieved indeed, but only during a very short time. At peak compression the pressure from the compressed plasma and magnetic field is so large reversing the liner implosion into an explosion. The time period of liner motion reversal is termed the dwell time and is crucial to the performance of the fusion system. Parameters as liner thickness and plasma density are certainly of significant importance to the dwell time, but it seems like a reactor based on the MTF principle hardly can become economic if not innovative solutions are introduced. In the report two such solutions are presented as well

  2. Reactor potential for magnetized target fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, J.E

    2001-06-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a possible pathway to thermonuclear fusion different from both magnetic fusion and inertial confinement fusion. An imploding cylindrical metal liner compresses a preheated and magnetized plasma configuration until thermonuclear conditions are achieved. In this report the Magnetized Target Fusion concept is evaluated and a zero-dimensional computer model of the plasma, liner and circuit as a connected system is designed. The results of running this code are that thermonuclear conditions are achieved indeed, but only during a very short time. At peak compression the pressure from the compressed plasma and magnetic field is so large reversing the liner implosion into an explosion. The time period of liner motion reversal is termed the dwell time and is crucial to the performance of the fusion system. Parameters as liner thickness and plasma density are certainly of significant importance to the dwell time, but it seems like a reactor based on the MTF principle hardly can become economic if not innovative solutions are introduced. In the report two such solutions are presented as well.

  3. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  4. Magnetized Target Fusion At General Fusion: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Michel; O'Shea, Peter; Donaldson, Mike; Delage, Michael; Fusion Team, General

    2017-10-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) involves compressing an initial magnetically confined plasma on a timescale faster than the thermal confinement time of the plasma. If near adiabatic compression is achieved, volumetric compression of 350X or more of a 500 eV target plasma would achieve a final plasma temperature exceeding 10 keV. Interesting fusion gains could be achieved provided the compressed plasma has sufficient density and dwell time. General Fusion (GF) is developing a compression system using pneumatic pistons to collapse a cavity formed in liquid metal containing a magnetized plasma target. Low cost driver, straightforward heat extraction, good tritium breeding ratio and excellent neutron protection could lead to a practical power plant. GF (65 employees) has an active plasma R&D program including both full scale and reduced scale plasma experiments and simulation of both. Although pneumatic driven compression of full scale plasmas is the end goal, present compression studies use reduced scale plasmas and chemically accelerated aluminum liners. We will review results from our plasma target development, motivate and review the results of dynamic compression field tests and briefly describe the work to date on the pneumatic driver front.

  5. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Lee, Michael; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For practical applications of magnetized target fusion, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Quasi-spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a quasi-spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). Theoretical analysis and computer modeling of the concept are presented. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the flow parameters in the liner and the target, the impact between the liner and the target plasma can be made to be shockless in the liner or to generate at most a very weak shock in the liner. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Acoustically Driven Magnetized Target Fusion At General Fusion: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Peter; Laberge, M.; Donaldson, M.; Delage, M.; the Fusion Team, General

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) involves compressing an initial magnetically confined plasma of about 1e23 m-3, 100eV, 7 Tesla, 20 cm radius, >100 μsec life with a 1000x volume compression in 100 microseconds. If near adiabatic compression is achieved, the final plasma of 1e26 m-3, 10keV, 700 Tesla, 2 cm radius, confined for 10 μsec would produce interesting fusion energy gain. General Fusion (GF) is developing an acoustic compression system using pneumatic pistons focusing a shock wave on the CT plasma in the center of a 3 m diameter sphere filled with liquid lead-lithium. Low cost driver, straightforward heat extraction, good tritium breeding ratio and excellent neutron protection could lead to a practical power plant. GF (65 employees) has an active plasma R&D program including both full scale and reduced scale plasma experiments and simulation of both. Although acoustic driven compression of full scale plasmas is the end goal, present compression studies use reduced scale plasmas and chemically accelerated Aluminum liners. We will review results from our plasma target development, motivate and review the results of dynamic compression field tests and briefly describe the work to date on the acoustic driver front.

  7. Magnetic compression/magnetized target fusion (MAGO/MTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) was reported in two papers at the First Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. MTF is intermediate between two very different mainline approaches to fusion: Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). The only US MTF experiments in which a target plasma was compressed were the Sandia National Laboratory ''Phi targets''. Despite the very interesting results from that series of experiments, the research was not pursued, and other embodiments of MTF concept such as the Fast Liner were unable to attract the financial support needed for a firm proof of principle. A mapping of the parameter space for MTF showed the significant features of this approach. The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) has an on-going interest in this approach to thermonuclear fusion, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and VNIIEF have done joint target plasma generation experiments relevant to MTF referred to as MAGO (transliteration of the Russian acronym for magnetic compression). The MAGO II experiment appears to have achieved on the order of 200 eV and over 100 KG, so that adiabatic compression with a relatively small convergence could bring the plasma to fusion temperatures. In addition, there are other experiments being pursued for target plasma generation and proof of principle. This paper summarizes the previous reports on MTF and MAGO and presents the progress that has been made over the past three years in creating a target plasma that is suitable for compression to provide a scientific proof of principle experiment for MAGO/MTF

  8. Compression of magnetized target in the magneto-inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzenov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model, numerical method and results of the computer analysis of the compression process and the energy transfer in the target plasma, used in magneto-inertial fusion. The computer simulation of the compression process of magnetized cylindrical target by high-power laser pulse is presented.

  9. Progress In Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Francis Y. C.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Wu, S. T.; Schmidt, George; hide

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC).

  10. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  11. Final report on the Magnetized Target Fusion Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Slough

    2009-09-08

    Nuclear fusion has the potential to satisfy the prodigious power that the world will demand in the future, but it has yet to be harnessed as a practical energy source. The entry of fusion as a viable, competitive source of power has been stymied by the challenge of finding an economical way to provide for the confinement and heating of the plasma fuel. It is the contention here that a simpler path to fusion can be achieved by creating fusion conditions in a different regime at small scale (~ a few cm). One such program now under study, referred to as Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), is directed at obtaining fusion in this high energy density regime by rapidly compressing a compact toroidal plasmoid commonly referred to as a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC). To make fusion practical at this smaller scale, an efficient method for compressing the FRC to fusion gain conditions is required. In one variant of MTF a conducting metal shell is imploded electrically. This radially compresses and heats the FRC plasmoid to fusion conditions. The closed magnetic field in the target plasmoid suppresses the thermal transport to the confining shell, thus lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target. The undertaking to be described in this proposal is to provide a suitable target FRC, as well as a simple and robust method for inserting and stopping the FRC within the imploding liner. The timescale for testing and development can be rapidly accelerated by taking advantage of a new facility funded by the Department of Energy. At this facility, two inductive plasma accelerators (IPA) were constructed and tested. Recent experiments with these IPAs have demonstrated the ability to rapidly form, accelerate and merge two hypervelocity FRCs into a compression chamber. The resultant FRC that was formed was hot (T&ion ~ 400 eV), stationary, and stable with a configuration lifetime several times that necessary for the MTF liner experiments. The accelerator length was less than

  12. Microfabricated Ion Beam Drivers for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Seidl, Peter; Ji, Qing; Ardanuc, Serhan; Miller, Joseph; Lal, Amit; Schenkel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Efficient, low-cost drivers are important for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). Ion beams offer a high degree of control to deliver the required mega joules of driver energy for MTF and they can be matched to several types of magnetized fuel targets, including compact toroids and solid targets. We describe an ion beam driver approach based on the MEQALAC concept (Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator) with many beamlets in an array of micro-fabricated channels. The channels consist of a lattice of electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQ) for focusing and of radio-frequency (RF) electrodes for ion acceleration. Simulations with particle-in-cell and beam envelope codes predict >10x higher current densities compared to state-of-the-art ion accelerators. This increase results from dividing the total ion beam current up into many beamlets to control space charge forces. Focusing elements can be biased taking advantage of high breakdown electric fields in sub-mm structures formed using MEMS techniques (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems). We will present results on ion beam transport and acceleration in MEMS based beamlets. Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  13. Generation and compression of a target plasma for magnetized target fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is intermediate between the two very different approaches to fusion: inertial and magnetic confinement fusion (ICF and MCF). Results from collaboration with a Russian MTF team on their MAGO experiments suggest they have a target plasma suitable for compression to provide an MTF proof of principle. This LDRD project had tow main objectives: first, to provide a computational basis for experimental investigation of an alternative MTF plasma, and second to explore the physics and computational needs for a continuing program. Secondary objectives included analytic and computational support for MTF experiments. The first objective was fulfilled. The second main objective has several facets to be described in the body of this report. Finally, the authors have developed tools for analyzing data collected on the MAGO and LDRD experiments, and have tested them on limited MAGO data

  14. Magnetized target fusion: An ultra high energy approach in an unexplored parameter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is a concept that may lead to practical fusion applications in a variety of settings. However, the crucial first step is to demonstrate that it works as advertised. Among the possibilities for doing this is an ultrahigh energy approach to magnetized target fusion, one powered by explosive pulsed power generators that have become available for application to thermonuclear fusion research. In a collaborative effort between Los Alamos and the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) a very powerful helical generator with explosive power switching has been used to produce an energetic magnetized plasma. Several diagnostics have been fielded to ascertain the properties of this plasma. We are intensively studying the results of the experiments and calculationally analyzing the performance of this experiment

  15. Calculation of fusion gain in fast ignition with magnetic target by relativistic electrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvazian, A.; Javani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fast ignition is a new method for inertial confinement fusion in which the compression and ignition steps are separated. In the first stage, fuel is compressed by laser or ion beams. In the second phase, relativistic electrons are generated by pettawat laser in the fuel. Also, in the second phase 5-35 MeV protons can be generated in the fuel. Electrons or protons can penetrate in to the ultra-dense fuel and deposit their energy in the fuel. More recently, cylindrical rather than spherical fuel chambers with magnetic control in the plasma domain have been also considered. This is called magnetized target fusion. Magnetic field has effects on relativistic electrons energy deposition rate in fuel. In this work, fast ignition method in cylindrical fuel chambers is investigated and transportation of the relativistic electrons and protons is calculated using MCNPX and FLUKA codes with 0.25 and 0.5 tesla magnetic field in single and dual hot spot. Furthermore, the transfer rate of relativistic electrons and high energy protons to the fuel and fusion gain are calculated. The results show that the presence of external magnetic field guarantees higher fusion gain, and relativistic electrons are much more appropriate objects for ignition. Magnetized target fusion in dual hot spot can be considered as an appropriate substitution for the current inertial confinement fusion techniques.

  16. The role of Z-pinches and related configurations in magnetized target fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of a magnetic field within a fusion target is now known as Magnetized Target Fusion in the US and as MAGO (Magnitnoye Obzhatiye, or magnetic compression) in Russia. In contrast to direct, hydrodynamic compression of initially ambient-temperature fuel (e.g., ICF), MTF involves two steps: (a) formation of a warm, magnetized, wall-confined plasma of intermediate density within a fusion target prior to implosion; (b) subsequent quasi-adiabatic compression and heating of the plasma by imploding the confining wall, or pusher. In many ways, MTF can be considered a marriage between the more mature MFE and ICF approaches, and this marriage potentially eliminates some of the hurdles encountered in the other approaches. When compared to ICF, MTF requires lower implosion velocity, lower initial density, significantly lower radial convergence, and larger targets, all of which lead to substantially reduced driver intensity, power, and symmetry requirements. When compared to MFE, MTF does not require a vacuum separating the plasma from the wall, and, in fact, complete magnetic confinement, even if possible, may not be desirable. The higher density of MTF and much shorter confinement times should make magnetized plasma formation a much less difficult step than in MFE. The substantially lower driver requirements and implosion velocity of MTF make z-pinch magnetically driven liners, magnetically imploded by existing modern pulsed power electrical current sources, a leading candidate for the target pusher of an MTF system

  17. Charged particle fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Meeker, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The power, voltage, energy and other requirements of electron and ion beam fusion targets are reviewed. Single shell, multiple shell and magnetically insulated target designs are discussed. Questions of stability are also considered. In particular, it is shown that ion beam targets are stabilized by an energy spread in the ion beam

  18. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF): A Low-Cost Fusion Development Path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Siemon, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Simple transport-based scaling laws are derived to show that a density and time regime intermediate between conventional magnetic confinement and conventional inertial confinement offers attractive reductions in system size and energy when compared to magnetic confinement and attractive reductions in heating power and intensity when compared to inertial confinement. This intermediate parameter space appears to be readily accessible by existing and near term pulsed power technologies. Hence, the technology of the Megagauss conference opens up an attractive path to controlled thermonuclear fusion

  19. Calculation of fusion gain in fast ignition with magnetic target by relativistic electrons and protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvazian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast ignition is a new method for inertial confinement fusion (ICF in which the compression and ignition steps are separated. In the first stage, fuel is compressed by laser or ion beams. In the second phase, relativistic electrons are generated by pettawat laser in the fuel. Also, in the second phase 5-35 MeV protons can be generated in the fuel. Electrons or protons can penetrate in to the ultra-dense fuel and deposit their energy in the fuel . More recently, cylindrical rather than spherical fuel chambers with magnetic control in the plasma domain have been also considered. This is called magnetized target fusion (MTF. Magnetic field has effects on relativistic electrons energy deposition rate in fuel. In this work, fast ignition method in cylindrical fuel chambers is investigated and transportation of the relativistic electrons and protons is calculated using MCNPX and FLUKA codes with 0. 25 and 0. 5 tesla magnetic field in single and dual hot spot. Furthermore, the transfer rate of relativistic electrons and high energy protons to the fuel and fusion gain are calculated. The results show that the presence of external magnetic field guarantees higher fusion gain, and relativistic electrons are much more appropriate objects for ignition. MTF in dual hot spot can be considered as an appropriate substitution for the current ICF techniques.

  20. Enhancing Ignition Probability and Fusion Yield in NIF Indirect Drive Targets with Applied Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. John; Logan, B. Grant; Ho, Darwin; Zimmerman, George; Rhodes, Mark; Blackfield, Donald; Hawkins, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under capsule compression may relax conditions for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive ICF targets. This may allow attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently-performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation. Results of detailed 2D radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction and stabilization of higher-mode RT instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are around 50 T. Off-line testing has been performed of a hohlraum coil and pulsed power supply that could be integrated on NIF; axial fields of 58T were obtained. Given the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by 3-D resistive MHD, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to NIF ICF ignition and burn. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Inertial confinement fusion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    2001-12-01

    A simple, zero-dimensional model describing the temporal behaviour of an imploding-shell, magnetized fuel inertial confinement fusion target is formulated. The addition of a magnetic field to the fuel reduces thermal conduction losses. As a consequence, it might lead to high gains and reduce the driver requirements. This beneficial effect of the magnetic field on thermonuclear gains is confirmed qualitatively by the zero-dimensional model results. Still, the extent of the initial-condition space for which significant gains can occur is not, by far, as large as previously reported. One-dimensional CEA code simulations which confirm this results are also presented. Finally, we suggest to study the approach proposed by Hasegawa. In this scheme, the laser target is not imploded, and the life-time of the plasma can be very much increased. (author)

  2. The plasma formation stage in magnetic compression/magnetized target fusion (MAGO/MTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Chrien, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    In early 1992, emerging governmental policy in the US and Russia began to encourage ''lab-to-lab'' interactions between the All- Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As nuclear weapons stockpiles and design activities were being reduced, highly qualified scientists become for fundamental scientific research of interest to both nations. VNIIEF and LANL found a common interest in the technology and applications of magnetic flux compression, the technique for converting the chemical energy released by high-explosives into intense electrical pulses and intensely concentrated magnetic energy. Motivated originally to evaluate any possible defense applications of flux compression technology, the two teams worked independently for many years, essentially unaware of the others' accomplishments. But, an early US publication stimulated Soviet work, and the Soviets followed with a report of the achievement of 25 MG. During the cold war, a series of conferences on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics became a forum for scientific exchange of ideas and accomplishments. Because of relationships established at the Megagauss conferences, VNIIEF and LANL were able to respond quickly to the initiatives of their respective governments. In late 1992, following the Megagauss VI conference, the two institutions agreed to combine resources to perform a series of experiments that essentially could not be performed by each institution independently. Beginning in September, 1993, the two institutions have performed eleven joint experimental campaigns, either at VNIIEF or at LANL. Megagauss- VII has become the first of the series to include papers with joint US and Russian authorship. In this paper, we review the joint LANL/VNIIEF experimental work that has relevance to a relatively unexplored approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion

  3. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  4. Interfacial Stability of Spherically Converging Plasma Jets for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Wu, S. T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A fusion propulsion scheme has been proposed that makes use of the merging of a spherical distribution of plasma jets to dynamically form a gaseous liner to implode a magnetized target to produce the fusion reaction. In this paper, a study is made of the interfacial stability of the interaction of these jets. Specifically, the Orr-Sommerfeld equation is integrated to obtain the growth rate of a perturbation to the primary flow at the interface between the colliding jets. The results lead to an estimate on the tolerances on the relative flow velocities of the merging plasma jets to form a stable, imploding liner. The results show that the maximum temporal growth rate of the perturbed flow at the jet interface is very small in comparison with the time to full compression of the liner. These data suggest that, as far as the stability of the interface between the merging jets is concerned, the formation of the gaseous liner can withstand velocity variation of the order of 10% between the neighboring jets over the density and temperature ranges investigated.

  5. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  6. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  7. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  8. Magnetic-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    In February 1980, the Director of Energy Research requested that the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) review the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Program. Of particular concern to the DOE was the judicious choice of the next major steps toward demonstration of economic power production from fusion. Of equal concern was the overall soundness of the DOE Magnetic Fusion Program: its pace, scope, and funding profiles. Their finding and recommendations are included

  9. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  10. Electron beam fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    R The behavior of the DT filled gold shells when irradiated by a variety of pulse shapes was studied. In these pulses the power (and beam current) was varied, but the voltage was kept constant at 1 MeV. In general the performance of the target, for a given peak power, was not significantly affected by the pulse shape. Pulses with rise times of up to half the implosion time do not significantly degrade the target performance. The use of the ''optimal pulse'' of laser fusion with a fixed peak power does not appear to improve the performance of these targets. The main function of the ''optimal pulse'' is to produce a large rho r of the target during the thermonuclear burn. In e-beam targets a total rho r of 5--10 g/cm 2 can be obtained without pulse shaping; the problem here is one of achieving high enough temperatures to ignite the DT. (U.S.)

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fusion Guided Targeted Biopsy Evaluated by Transperineal Template Saturation Prostate Biopsy for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezavi, Ashkan; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Donati, Olivio F; Rizzi, Gianluca; Rupp, Niels J; Wettstein, Marian S; Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hermanns, Thomas; Eberli, Daniel

    2018-02-21

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy against that of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy to detect prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 415 men who consecutively presented for prostate biopsy between November 2014 and September 2016 at our tertiary care center. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3 Tesla device without an endorectal coil, followed by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy with the BiopSee® fusion system. Additional fusion guided targeted biopsy was done in men with a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, defined as Likert score 3 to 5. Any Gleason pattern 4 was defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. The detection rates of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion guided targeted biopsy were compared with the detection rate of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy using the McNemar test. We obtained a median of 40 (range 30 to 55) and 3 (range 2 to 4) transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and fusion guided targeted biopsy cores, respectively. Of the 124 patients (29.9%) without a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 32 (25.8%) were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer on transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy. Of the 291 patients (70.1%) with a Likert score of 3 to 5 clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 129 (44.3%) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging fusion guided targeted biopsy, in 176 (60.5%) by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and in 187 (64.3%) by the combined approach. Overall 58 cases (19.9%) of clinically significant prostate cancer would have been missed if fusion guided targeted biopsy had been performed exclusively. The sensitivity of

  12. A comparison of prostate tumor targeting strategies using magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter R; Cool, Derek W; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy aims to reduce the 21-47% false-negative rate of clinical two-dimensional (2D) TRUS-guided systematic biopsy, but continues to yield false-negative results. This may be improved via needle target optimization, accounting for guidance system errors and image registration errors. As an initial step toward the goal of optimized prostate biopsy targeting, we investigated how needle delivery error impacts tumor sampling probability for two targeting strategies. We obtained MRI and 3D TRUS images from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident assessed these MR images and contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding tumor surfaces that were registered to 3D TRUS. The biopsy system's root-mean-squared needle delivery error (RMSE) and systematic error were modeled using an isotropic 3D Gaussian distribution. We investigated two different prostate tumor-targeting strategies using (a) the tumor's centroid and (b) a ring in the lateral-elevational plane. For each simulation, targets were spaced at equal arc lengths on a ring with radius equal to the systematic error magnitude. A total of 1000 biopsy simulations were conducted for each tumor, with RMSE and systematic error magnitudes ranging from 1 to 6 mm. The difference in median tumor sampling probability and probability of obtaining a 50% core involvement was determined for ring vs centroid targeting. Our simulation results indicate that ring targeting outperformed centroid targeting in situations where systematic error exceeds RMSE. In these instances, we observed statistically significant differences showing 1-32% improvement in sampling probability due to ring targeting. Likewise, we observed statistically significant differences showing 1-39% improvement in 50% core involvement probability due to ring targeting. Our results suggest that the optimal targeting scheme for prostate biopsy depends on

  13. Magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in the area of fusion energy include fuel handling, processing, and containment. These studies are closely coordinated with the ORNL Fusion Energy Division. Current experimental studies are concerned with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors, the evaluation and development of techniques for recovering tritium (fuel) from either solid or liquid lithium containing blankets, and the use of deep beds of sorbents as roughing pumps and/or transfer operations. In addition, a small effort is devoted to the support of the ORNL design of The Next Step (TNS) in tokamak reactor development. The more applied studies--vacuum pump development and TNS design--are funded by the DOE/Magnetic Fusion Energy, and the more fundamental studies--blanket recovery and sorption in deep beds--are funded by the DOE/Basic Energy Sciences

  14. Magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review of fusion research during the last 20 years is given. Some highlights of theoretical plasma physics are presented. The role that computational plasma physics is playing in analyzing and understanding the experiments of today is discussed. The magnetic mirror program is reviewed

  15. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or 3 He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied

  16. Magneized target fusion: An overview of the concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) seeks to take advantage of the reduction of thermal conductivity through the application of a strong magneticfield and thereby ease the requirements for reaching fusion conditions in a thermonuclear (TN) fusion fuel. A potentially important benefit of the strong field in the partial trapping of energetic charged particles to enhance energy deposition by the TN fusion reaction products. The essential physics is described. MTF appears to lead to fusion targets that require orders of magnitude less power and intensity for fusion ignition than currently proposed (unmagnetized) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets do, making some very energetic pulsed power drivers attractive for realizing controlled fusion

  17. Inertial fusion reactors and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, J.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The application of magnetic fields of simple configurations and modest strengths to direct target debris ions out of cavities can alleviate recognized shortcomings of several classes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors. Complex fringes of the strong magnetic fields of heavy-ion fusion (HIF) focusing magnets may intrude into reactor cavities and significantly affect the trajectories of target debris ions. The results of an assessment of potential benefits from the use of magnetic fields in ICF reactors and of potential problems with focusing-magnet fields in HIF reactors conducted to set priorities for continuing studies are reported. Computational tools are described and some preliminary results are presented

  18. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  19. Compact magnetic fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.

    1983-12-01

    If the core (first wall, blanket, shield, and magnet coils) of fusion reactor systems could be made smaller in mass and volume for a given net electric power output than is usually predicted for the mainline tokamak/sup 1/ and mirror concepts, the cost of the technological development of the core and the construction of power plants might be significantly reduced. Although progress in plasma physics and engineering approaches should continue to yield improvements in reactor designs, certain physics features of the mainline concepts may prevent major reductions in the size of the core without straining the limits of technology. However, more than a factor of ten reduction in volume and mass of the core, at constant output power, may be possible for a class of toroidal confinement concepts in which the confining magnetic fields are supported more by currents flowing in the plasma than those in the external coils. In spite of this dramatic increase in power density (ratio of total thermal output power to the volume of the core), the design of compact systems need not rely on any materials requirements that are qualitatively more difficult than those proposed for the lower-power-density mainline fusion concepts. In some respects compact systems require less of an extension of existing technology, e.g. magnetics.

  20. Compact magnetic fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    If the core (first wall, blanket, shield, and magnet coils) of fusion reactor systems could be made smaller in mass and volume for a given net electric power output than is usually predicted for the mainline tokamak 1 and mirror concepts, the cost of the technological development of the core and the construction of power plants might be significantly reduced. Although progress in plasma physics and engineering approaches should continue to yield improvements in reactor designs, certain physics features of the mainline concepts may prevent major reductions in the size of the core without straining the limits of technology. However, more than a factor of ten reduction in volume and mass of the core, at constant output power, may be possible for a class of toroidal confinement concepts in which the confining magnetic fields are supported more by currents flowing in the plasma than those in the external coils. In spite of this dramatic increase in power density (ratio of total thermal output power to the volume of the core), the design of compact systems need not rely on any materials requirements that are qualitatively more difficult than those proposed for the lower-power-density mainline fusion concepts. In some respects compact systems require less of an extension of existing technology, e.g. magnetics

  1. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.) [de

  2. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.H.; Hodges, A.J.; Van Sant, J.H.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Hintz, R.E.; Dalder, E.; Baldi, R.; Tatro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is the largest of the mirror program experiments for magnetic fusion energy. It seeks to combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with the most advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from the 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime. Design specifics of the magnet are given

  3. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups

  4. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  5. Comparing Three Different Techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-targeted Prostate Biopsies : A Systematic Review of In-bore versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging-transrectal Ultrasound fusion versus Cognitive Registration. Is There a Preferred Technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegelin, Olivier; Melick, H.H.E.; Hooft, Lotty; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Reitsma, Hans B; Barentsz, Jelle O; Somford, Diederik M

    CONTEXT: The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies (MRI-GB) has changed the paradigm concerning prostate biopsies. Three techniques of MRI-GB are available: (1) in-bore MRI target biopsy (MRI-TB), (2) MRI-transrectal ultrasound fusion (FUS-TB), and (3) cognitive registration

  6. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission → fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ''burner'' far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ''implementation-by-default'' plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant

  7. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    This Plan reflects the present conditions of the energy situation and is consistent with national priorities for the support of basic and applied research. It is realistic in taking advantage of the technical position that the United States has already established in fusion research to make cost-effective progress toward the development of fusion power as a future energy option

  8. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  9. Superconducting magnets for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fusion magnet technology has made spectacular advances in the past decade; to wit, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the Large Coil Project. However, further advances are still required for advanced economical fusion reactors. Higher fields to 14 T and radiation-hardened superconductors and insulators will be necessary. Coupled with high rates of nuclear heating and pulsed losses, the next-generation magnets will need still higher current density, better stability and quench protection. Cable-in-conduit conductors coupled with polyimide insulations and better steels seem to be the appropriate path. Neutron fluences up to 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 in niobium tin are achievable. In the future, other amorphous superconductors could raise these limits further to extend reactor life or decrease the neutron shielding and corresponding reactor size

  10. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion

  11. Environmental development plan: magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health and safety (EH and S) aspects of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program (MFE). Environment is defined to include the environmental, health (occupational and public), and safety aspects

  12. Fusion-product energy loss in inertial confinement fusion plasmas with applications to target burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been proposed as a competitor to magnetic fusion in the drive towards energy production, but ICF target performance still contains many uncertainties. One such area is the energy-loss rate of fusion products. This situation is due in part to the unique plasma parameters encountered in ICF plasmas which are compressed to more than one-thousand times solid density. The work presented here investigates three aspects of this uncertainty

  13. Micromachining of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobby, P.L.; Salzer, L.J.; Day, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Many experiments conducted on today's largest inertial confinement fusion drive lasers require target components with sub-millimeter dimensions, precisions of a micron or less and surface finishes measured in nanometers. For metal and plastic, techniques using direct machining with diamond tools have been developed that yield the desired parts. New techniques that will be discussed include the quick-flip locator, a magnetically held kinematic mount that has allowed the direct machining of millimeter-sized beryllium hemishells whose inside and outside surface are concentric to within 0.25 micron, and an electronic version of a tracer lathe which has produced precise azimuthal variations of less than a micron

  14. Magnetic fusion and project ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called ''International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)'' will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind

  15. Magnetic fusion research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article is a presentation prepared by the Third World Academy of Sciences on magnetic fusion research activity in the developing countries and its connection with the IAEA's own fusion programme. 6 figs, 1 tab

  16. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1995-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  17. Magnetic systems for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1985-02-01

    Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 Tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 Tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France

  18. Fusion Yield Enhancement in Magnetized Laser-Driven Implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P. Y.; Fiksel, G.; Hohenberger, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Enhancement of the ion temperature and fusion yield has been observed in magnetized laser-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA Laser Facility. A spherical CH target with a 10 atm D 2 gas fill was imploded in a polar-drive configuration. A magnetic field of 80 kG was embedded in the target and was subsequently trapped and compressed by the imploding conductive plasma. As a result of the hot-spot magnetization, the electron radial heat losses were suppressed and the observed ion temperature and neutron yield were enhanced by 15% and 30%, respectively.

  19. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  20. Superconductor technology for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustmann, C.H.; Juengst, K.P.; Komarek, P.; Krafft, G.; Krauth, H.; Maier, P.; Ries, G.; Schauer, W.; Schmidt, C.; Seibt, E.; Turowski, P.

    1976-11-01

    The development of advanced suoerconductors for magnets in fusion experiments is an essential problem. In this report the parameters of a big Tokamak magnet system are presented and the resulting constraints for the conductor are given. Comparing this constraints with the state of the art of the magnet and conductor technology, the goals of the needed conductor development are defined. Existing conductor concepts are described. Based on considerations on the main problems (cooling concepts, mechanical stress analysis, stabilization, ac-losses) a concept of an economically feasable and cryogenically stabilized flat cable conductor is developed. Typical parameters of a 10 kA conductor with NbTi at 8 T are given. The experimental investigations needed for the conductor development are discussed. Existing devices for measurements of Isub(c), ac-losses and the behaviour of the conductor under mechanical stress are described and typical experimental results are presented. The need of the completion of the measuring devices and programmes is stressed. The construction of a versatile conductor test facility is proposed. (orig.) [de

  1. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  2. Neutral beams for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, B.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances in forming energetic beams of neutral hydrogen and deuterium atoms have led to a breakthrough in magnetic fusion: neutral beams are now heating plasmas to thermonuclear temperatures, here at LLL and at other laboratories. For example, in our 2XIIB experiment we have injected a 500-A-equivalent current of neutral deuterium atoms at an average energy of 18 keV, producing a dense plasma (10 14 particles/cm 3 ) at thermonuclear energy (14 keV or 160 million kelvins). Currently, LLL and LBL are developing beam energies in the 80- to 120-keV range for our upcoming MFTF experiment, for the TFTR tokamak experiment at Princeton, and for the Doublet III tokamak experiment at General Atomic. These results increase our long-range prospects of producing high-intensity beams of energies in the hundreds or even thousands of kilo-electron-volts, providing us with optimistic extrapolations for realizing power-producing fusion reactors

  3. Magnetic fusion: Environmental Readiness Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Environmental Readiness Documents are prepared periodically to review and evaluate the environmental status of an energy technology during the several phases of development of that technology. Through these documents, the Office of Environment within the Department of Energy provides an independent and objective assessment of the environmental risks and potential impacts associated with the progression of the technology to the next stage of development and with future extensive use of the technology. This Environmental Readiness Document was prepared to assist the Department of Energy in evaluating the readiness of magnetic fusion technology with respect to environmental issues. An effort has been made to identify potential environmental problems that may be encountered based upon current knowledge, proposed and possible new environmental regulations, and the uncertainties inherent in planned environmental research

  4. Automated laser fusion target production concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    A target production concept is described for the production of multilayered cryogenic spherical inertial confinement fusion targets. The facility is to deliver targets to the reactor chamber at rates up to 10 per second and at costs consistent with economic production of power

  5. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses ''generic'' magnetic fusion reactors. The author comments on DT burning magnetic fusion reactor models being possibly operational in the 21st century. Representative parameters from D-T reactor studies are given, as well as a shematic diagram of a generic fusion reactor. Values are given for winding pack current density for existing and future superconducting coils. Topics included are the variation of the cost of electricity (COE), the dependence of the COE on the net electric power of the reactor, and COE formula definitions

  6. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10 4 T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ∼50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter R; Cool, Derek W; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided "fusion" prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm(3) or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each tumor was consistently greater when using

  8. Magneto-inertial Fusion: An Emerging Concept for Inertial Fusion and Dense Plasmas in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thio, Francis Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is given in terms of its technical rationale, scientific goals, vision, research plans, needs, and the research facilities currently available in support of the program. Magneto-inertial fusion is an emerging concept for inertial fusion and a pathway to the study of dense plasmas in ultrahigh magnetic fields (magnetic fields in excess of 500 T). The presence of magnetic field in an inertial fusion target suppresses cross-field thermal transport and potentially could enable more attractive inertial fusion energy systems. A vigorous program in magnetized high energy density laboratory plasmas (HED-LP) addressing the scientific basis of magneto-inertial fusion has been initiated by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy involving a number of universities, government laboratories and private institutions.

  9. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  10. Magnetic-fusion energy and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups

  11. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanSant, J.H.; Kozman, T.A.; Bulmer, R.H.; Ng, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, R.H. Bulmer of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) discussed a proposed tandem-mirror magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the 8th symposium on Engineering Problems in Fusion Research. Since then, Congress has voted funds for expanding LLNL's MFTF to a tandem-mirror facility (designated MFTF-B). The new facility, scheduled for completion by 1985, will seek to achieve two goals: (1) Energy break-even capability (Q or the ratio of fusion energy to plasma heating energy = 1) of mirror fusion, (2) Engineering feasibility of reactor-scale machines. Briefly stated, 22 superconducting magnets contained in a 11-m-diam by 65-m-long vacuum vessel will confine a fusion plasma fueled by 80 axial streaming-plasma guns and over 40 radial neutral beams. We have already completed a preliminary design of this magnet system

  12. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  13. Review of alternative concepts for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Although the Tokamak represents the mainstay of the world's quest for magnetic fusion power, with the tandem mirror serving as a primary backup concept in the US fusion program, a wide range of alternative fusion concepts (AFC's) have been and are being pursued. This review presents a summary of past and present reactor projections of a majority of AFC's. Whenever possible, quantitative results are given

  14. Research Needs for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, Hutch

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear fusion — the process that powers the sun — offers an environmentally benign, intrinsically safe energy source with an abundant supply of low-cost fuel. It is the focus of an international research program, including the ITER fusion collaboration, which involves seven parties representing half the world’s population. The realization of fusion power would change the economics and ecology of energy production as profoundly as petroleum exploitation did two centuries ago. The 21st century finds fusion research in a transformed landscape. The worldwide fusion community broadly agrees that the science has advanced to the point where an aggressive action plan, aimed at the remaining barriers to practical fusion energy, is warranted. At the same time, and largely because of its scientific advance, the program faces new challenges; above all it is challenged to demonstrate the timeliness of its promised benefits. In response to this changed landscape, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) in the US Department of Energy commissioned a number of community-based studies of the key scientific and technical foci of magnetic fusion research. The Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences is a capstone to these studies. In the context of magnetic fusion energy, ReNeW surveyed the issues identified in previous studies, and used them as a starting point to define and characterize the research activities that the advance of fusion as a practical energy source will require. Thus, ReNeW’s task was to identify (1) the scientific and technological research frontiers of the fusion program, and, especially, (2) a set of activities that will most effectively advance those frontiers. (Note that ReNeW was not charged with developing a strategic plan or timeline for the implementation of fusion power.)

  15. Magnetic confinement fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, H.

    1977-03-01

    Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion offers probably the only relatively clean energy solution with completely inexhaustible fuel and unlimited power capacity. The scientific and technological problem consists in magnetically confining a hot, dense plasma (pressure several to hundreds of atmospheres, temperature 10 8 degrees or more) for an appreciable fraction of a second. The scientific and mathematical problem is to describe the behavior, such as confinement, stability, flow, compression, heating, energy transfer and diffusion of this medium in the presence of electromagnetic fields just as we now can for air or steam. Some of the extant theory consists of applications, routine or ingenious, of known mathematical structures in the theory of differential equations and in traditional analysis. Other applications of known mathematical structures offer surprises and new insights: the coordination between sub-supersonic and elliptic-hyperbolic is fractured; supersonic propagation goes upstream; etc. Other completely nonstandard mathematical structures with significant theory are being rapidly uncovered (and somewhat less rapidly understood) such as non-elliptic variational equations and new types of weak solutions. It is these new mathematical structures which one should expect to supply the foundation for the next generation's pure mathematics, if history is a guide. Despite the substantial effort over a period of some twenty years, there are still basic and important scintific and mathematical discoveries to be made, lying just beneath the surface

  16. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Standard identifies safety requirements for magnetic fusion facilities. Safety functions are used to define outcomes that must be achieved to ensure that exposures to radiation, hazardous materials, or other hazards are maintained within acceptable limits. Requirements applicable to magnetic fusion facilities have been derived from Federal law, policy, and other documents. In addition to specific safety requirements, broad direction is given in the form of safety principles that are to be implemented and within which safety can be achieved

  17. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of ∼16 cents per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW e IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level

  18. Spinning targets for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    Several techniques for spinning the ICF targets up prior to or in the course of their compression are suggested. Interference of the rotational shear flow with Rayleigh-Taylor instability is briefly discussed and possible consequences for the target performance are pointed out

  19. Covariance descriptor fusion for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, Huseyin; Binol, Hamidullah; Bal, Abdullah; Yavuz, Fatih

    2016-05-01

    Target detection is one of the most important topics for military or civilian applications. In order to address such detection tasks, hyperspectral imaging sensors provide useful images data containing both spatial and spectral information. Target detection has various challenging scenarios for hyperspectral images. To overcome these challenges, covariance descriptor presents many advantages. Detection capability of the conventional covariance descriptor technique can be improved by fusion methods. In this paper, hyperspectral bands are clustered according to inter-bands correlation. Target detection is then realized by fusion of covariance descriptor results based on the band clusters. The proposed combination technique is denoted Covariance Descriptor Fusion (CDF). The efficiency of the CDF is evaluated by applying to hyperspectral imagery to detect man-made objects. The obtained results show that the CDF presents better performance than the conventional covariance descriptor.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Peter R., E-mail: pmarti46@uwo.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Cool, Derek W. [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada and Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Romagnoli, Cesare [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ward, Aaron D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Peter R.; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm 3 or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each tumor was

  2. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries

  3. Economic potential of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Scientific feasibility of magnetic fusion is no longer seriously in doubt. Rapid advances have been made in both tokamak and mirror research, leading to a demonstration in the TFTR tokamak at Princeton in 1982 and the tandem mirror MFTF-B at Livermore in 1985. Accordingly, the basis is established for an aggressive engineering thrust to develop a reactor within this century. However, care must be taken to guide the fusion program towards an economically and environmentally viable goal. While the fusion fuels are essentially free, capital costs of reactors appear to be at least as large as current power plants. Accordingly, the price of electricity will not decline, and capital availability for reactor constructions will be important. Details of reactor cost projections are discussed and mechanisms suggested for fusion power implementation. Also discussed are some environmental and safety aspects of magnetic fusion

  4. Pacing the US magnetic fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This study addresses the priority and pace of the nation's magnetic fusion research and development program in the context of long-term national energy policy. In particular, the committee interpreted its task as follows: To review the implications of long-term national energy policy for current research and development in magnetic fusion; to identify factors that should enter the further development of such policy to reduce risks associated with the future electricity supply system; to propose criteria applicable to research and develop in electric generation in reaching long-term energy policy goals; to apply these criteria to magnetic fusion and alternative electric generation technologies in order to develop recommendations on the priority pace of the magnetic fusion program; and to present its results in a final report. The most important goals of the US Department of Energy's current Magnetic Fusion Energy Program Plan are to demonstrate the scientific and engineering feasibility of fusion, Demonstrating engineering feasibility will require the design, construction, and operation of an engineering test reactor, which the plan envisions financing through a combination of domestic and international funding. The committee believes that current domestic program funding levels are inadequate to meet even the near-term objectives of the plan

  5. Magnetic fusion energy. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The first chapter of this part describes briefly the DOE policy for fusion energy. Subsequent chapters include: FY 1980 overview - activities of the Office of Fusion Energy; subactivity descriptions (confinement systems, development and technology, applied plasma physics, and reactor projects); field activities (DOE laboratories, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, and commercial firms); commercialization; environmental implications; regional activities; and international programs

  6. Magnetic fusion program summary document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This document outlines the current and planned research, development, and commercialization (RD and C) activities of the Offic of Fusion Energy under the Assistant Secretary for Energy Technology, US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this document is to explain the Office of Fusion Energy's activities to Congress and its committees and to interested members of the public

  7. Driven reconnection in magnetic fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1995-11-01

    Error fields (i.e. small non-axisymmetric perturbations of the magnetic field due to coil misalignments, etc.) are a fact of life in magnetic fusion experiments. What effects do error fields have on plasma confinement? How can any detrimental effects be alleviated? These, and other, questions are explored in detail in this lecture using simple resistive magnetohydrodynamic (resistance MHD) arguments. Although the lecture concentrates on one particular type of magnetic fusion device, namely, the tokamak, the analysis is fairly general and could also be used to examine the effects of error fields on other types of device (e.g. Reversed Field Pinches, Stellerators, etc.)

  8. Physical measurements of inertial-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of inertial-fusion targets has stimulated the development of many new techniques and instruments. This paper reviews the basis for selected target measurement requirements and the development of optical interferometry, optical scattering, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy as applied to target measurement. We summarize the resolution and speed which have been achieved to date, and describe several systems in which these are traded off to fill specific measurement applications. We point out the extent to which present capabilities meet the requirements for target measurement and the key problems which remain to be solved

  9. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities

  10. Accelerated plan to develop magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    We have shown that, despite funding delays since the passage of the Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980, fusion development could still be carried to the point of a demonstration plant by the year 2000 as called for in the Act if funding, now about $365 million per year, were increased to the $1 billion range over the next few years (see Table I). We have also suggested that there may be an economic incentive for the private sector to become in accelerating fusion development on account of the greater stability of energy production costs from fusion. Namely, whereas fossil fuel prices will surely escalate in the course of time, fusion fuel will always be abundantly available at low cost; and fusion technology poses less future risk to the public and the investor compared to conventional nuclear power. In short, once a fusion plant is built, the cost of generating electricity mainly the amortization of the plant capital cost - would be relatively fixed for the life of the plant. In Sec. V, we found that the projected capital cost of fusion plants ($2000 to $4000 per KW/sub e/) would probably be acceptable if fusion plants were available today

  11. LLL magnetic fusion energy program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last 12 months, significant progress has been made in the LLL magnetic fusion energy program. In the 2XIIB experiment, a tenfold improvement was achieved in the plasma confinement factor (the product of plasma density and confinement time), pushed plasma temperature and pressure to values never before reached in a magnetic fusion experiment, and demonstrated--for the first time--plasma startup by neutral beam injection. A new laser-pellet startup technique for Baseball IIT has been successfully tested and is now being incorporated in the experiment. Technological improvements have been realized, such as a breakthrough in fabricating niobium-tin conductors for superconducting magnets. These successes, together with complementary progress in theory and reactor design, have led to a proposal to build the MX facility, which could be on the threshold of a mirror fusion reactor

  12. The international magnetic fusion energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1988-10-06

    In May of 1988, the long tradition of international cooperation in magnetic fusion energy research culminated in the initiation of design work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). If eventually constructed in the 1990s, ITER would be the world's first magnetic fusion reactor. This paper discusses the background events that led to ITER and the present status of the ITER activity. This paper presents a brief summary of the technical, political, and organizational activities that have led to the creation of the ITER design activity. The ITER activity is now the main focus of international cooperation in magnetic fusion research and one of the largest international cooperative efforts in all of science. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  13. The international magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1988, the long tradition of international cooperation in magnetic fusion energy research culminated in the initiation of design work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). If eventually constructed in the 1990s, ITER would be the world's first magnetic fusion reactor. This paper discusses the background events that led to ITER and the present status of the ITER activity. This paper presents a brief summary of the technical, political, and organizational activities that have led to the creation of the ITER design activity. The ITER activity is now the main focus of international cooperation in magnetic fusion research and one of the largest international cooperative efforts in all of science. 2 refs., 12 figs

  14. Externally guided target for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J.M.; Piera, M.

    1996-01-01

    A totally new concept is proposed to reach fusion conditions by externally guided inertial confinement. The acceleration and compression of the fuel is guided by a cannon-like external duct with a conical section ending in a small-size cavity around the central point of the tube. The fuel pellets coming from each cannon mouth collide in the central cavity where the implosion and final compression of the fuel take place. Both the tube material density and its areal density must be much higher than the initial density and areal density of the fuel. The external tube will explode into pieces as a consequence of the inner pressures achieved after the fuel central collision. If the collision is suitably driven, a fusion burst can take place before the tube disassembly. because of the features of the central collision needed to trigger ignition, this concept could be considered as tamped impact fusion. Both the fusion products and the debris from the guide tube are caught by a liquid-lithium curtain surrounding the target. Only two driving beams are necessary. The system can be applied to any type of driver and could use a solid pellet at room temperature as the initial target. 54 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  15. Cermet coatings for magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Cermet coatings consisting of SiC particles in an aluminum matrix were produced by a low pressure chamber plasma spray process. Properties of these coatings are being investigated to evaluate their suitability for use in the next generation of magnetic confinement fusion reactors. Although this preliminary study has focused primarily upon SiC-Al cermets, the deposition process can be adapted to other ceramic-metal combinations. Potential applications for cermet coatings in magnetic fusion devices are presented along with experimental results from thermal tests of candidate coatings. (Auth.)

  16. Fusion and technology: An introduction to the physics and technology of magnetic confinment fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction covering all aspects of magnetic fusion and magnetic fusion technology. Physical property data relevant to fusion technology and a summary of fusion reactor design parameters are provided. Topics covered include: basic properties; equilibrium and transport confinement concepts; plasma heating; plasma wall interaction; magnetics; energy storage and transfer; interaction of radiation with matter; primary energy conversion and tritium breeding blanket; tritium and vacuum; and Fusion Reactor Design

  17. Electrostatics, small particles, and laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The success of any Inertial Confinement Fusion system for the production of useful power depends critically on the production of suitable targets. This is true whether the arrangement is that proposed by Nuckolls et al. or some other arrangement. The target must have characteristics such as material composition, structure, and surface finish which are tailored to the laser pulse length, energy, peak and average power and pulse shape. To provide useful power on a continuous basis, it is likely that the repetition rate will be 1.0 to 10 per second. Thus, in a 24 hour running period 864,000 targets may be necessary and one must be placed at the focal point of the laser every tenth of a second. For economic operation it is necessary that the targets be produced at costs of less than $1.00 per target

  18. 21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device intended for use as a viewing object...

  19. Lower activation materials and magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Bloom, E.E.; Davis, J.W.; Gold, R.E.; Little, R.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, D.L.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactivity in fusion reactors can be effectively controlled by materials selection. The detailed relationship between the use of a material for construction of a magnetic fusion reactor and the material's characteristics important to waste disposal, safety, and system maintainability has been studied. The quantitative levels of radioactivation are presented for many materials and alloys, including the role of impurities, and for various design alternatives. A major outcome has been the development of quantitative definitions to characterize materials based on their radioactivation properties. Another key result is a four-level classification scheme to categorize fusion reactors based on quantitative criteria for waste management, system maintenance, and safety. A recommended minimum goal for fusion reactor development is a reference reactor that (a) meets the requirements for Class C shallow land burial of waste materials, (b) permits limited hands-on maintenance outside the magnet's shield within 2 days of a shutdown, and (c) meets all requirements for engineered safety. The achievement of a fusion reactor with at least the characteristics of the reference reactor is a realistic goal. Therefore, in making design choices or in developing particular materials or alloys for fusion reactor applications, consideration must be given to both the activation characteristics of a material and its engineering practicality for a given application

  20. Magnetic mirror fusion: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Two improved mirror systems, the tandem mirror (TM) and the field-reversed mirror (FRM) are being intensively studied. The twin practical aims of these studies: to improve the economic prospects for mirror fusion power plants and to reduce the size and/or complexity of such plants relative to earlier approaches to magnetic fusion. While at the present time the program emphasis is still strongly oriented toward answering scientific questions, the emphasis is shifting as the data accumulates and as larger facilities - ones with a heavy technological and engineering orientation - are being prepared. The experimental and theoretical progress that led to the new look in mirror fusion research is briefly reviewed, the new TM and the FRM ideas are outlined, and the projected future course of mirror fusion research is discussed

  1. Linear magnetic fusion: summary of Seattle workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The linear-geometry magnetic confinement concept is among the oldest used in the study of high-temperature plasmas. However, it has generally been discounted as a suitable approach for demonstrating controlled thermonuclear fusion because rapid losses from the plasma column ends necessitate very long devices. Further, the losses and how to overcome them have not yet received parametric experimental study, nor do facilities exist with which such definitive experiments could be performed. Nonetheless, the important positive attribute, simplicity, together with the appearance of several ideas for reducing end losses have provided motivation for continued research on linear magnetic fusion (LMF). These motivations led to the LMF workshop, held in Seattle, March 9--11, 1977, which explored the potential of LMF as an alternate approach to fusion. A broad range of LMF aspects were addressed, including radial and axial losses, stability and equilibrium, heating, technology, and reactor considerations. The conclusions drawn at the workshop are summarized

  2. Radiation effects on superconducting fusion magnet components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fusion devices based on the magnetic confinement principle heavily rely on the existence and performance of superconducting magnets and have always significantly contributed to advancing superconductor and magnet technology to their limits. In view of the presently ongoing construction of the tokamak device ITER and the stellerator device Wendelstein 7X and their record breaking parameters concerning size, complexity of design, stored energy, amperage, mechanical and magnetic forces, critical current densities and stability requirements, it is deemed timely to review another critical parameter that is practically unique to these devices, namely the radiation response of all magnet components to the lifetime fluence of fast neutrons and gamma rays produced by the fusion reactions of deuterium and tritium. I will review these radiation effects in turn for the currently employed standard "technical" low temperature superconductors NbTi and Nb 3 Sn, the stabilizing material (Cu) as well as the magnet insulation materials and conclude by discussing the potential of high temperature superconducting materials for future generations of fusion devices, such as DEMO. (author)

  3. International program activities in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The following areas of our international activities in magnetic fusion are briefly described: (1) policy; (2) background; (3) strategy; (4) strategic considerations and concerns; (5) domestic program inplications, and (6) implementation. The current US activities are reviewed. Some of our present program needs are outlined

  4. Radiation considerations for superconducting fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation environment for the magnets is characterized for various conditions expected for tokamak power reactor operation. The radiation levels are translated into radiation effects using available experimental data. The impact of the tradeoffs in radiation shielding and the change in the properties of the superconducting magnets on reactor performance and economics is examined. It is shown that (1) superconducting magnets in fusion reactors will operate at much higher radiation level than was previously anticipated; (2) additional data on radiation damage is required to better accuracy than is presently available in order to accurately quantify the change in properties in the superconducting magnet components; and (3) there is a substantial penalty for increasing (or overestimating) the shielding requirements. A perspective of future tokamak power reactors is presented and questions relating to desirable magnetic field strength and selection of materials for superconducting magnets are briefly examined

  5. Safety issues for superconducting fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Safety issues for future superconducting fusion magnet systems are examined. It is found that safety and failure experience with existing superconducting magnets is not very applicable to predictions as to the safety and reliability of fusion magnets. Such predictions will have to depend on analysis and judgement for many years to come, rather than on accumulated experience. A number of generic potential structural, thermal-hydraulic, and electrical safety problems are identified and analyzed. Prevention of quenches and non-uniform temperature distributions, if quenches should occur, is of great importance, since such events can trigger processes which lead to magnet damage or failure. Engineered safety features will be necessary for fusion magnets. Two of these, an energy dispersion system and external coil containment, appear capable of reducing the probability of coil disruption to very low levels. However, they do not prevent loss of function accidents which are of economic concern. Elaborate detector, temperature equalization, and energy removal systems will be required to minimize the chances of loss of function accidents

  6. Introduction to magnetic fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    Trend of the tokamak reactor design works so far carried out is reviewed, and method of conceptual design for commercial fusion reactor is critically considered concerning the black-box conpepts. System-framework of the engineering of magnetic fusion (commercial) reactor design is proposed as four steps. Based on it the next design studies are recommended in parallel approaches for making real-overcome of reactor material problem, from the view point of technological realization and not from the economical one. Real trials are involved. (author)

  7. Electron Shock Ignition of Inertial Fusion Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, W. L.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; Woo, K.; Hao, L.

    2017-01-01

    Here, it is shown that inertial fusion targets designed with low implosion velocities can be shock ignited using laser–plasma interaction generated hot electrons (hot-e) to obtain high-energy gains. These designs are robust to multimode asymmetries and are predicted to ignite even for significantly distorted implosions. Electron shock ignition requires tens of kilojoules of hot-e, which can only be produced on a large laser facility like the National Ignition Facility, with the laser to hot-e conversion efficiency greater than 10% at laser intensities ~10 16 W/cm 2 .

  8. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer

  9. Target design for heavy ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Metzler, N.

    1981-07-01

    Target design for Heavy Ion Beam Fusion and related physics are discussed. First, a modified version of the Kidder-Bodner model for pellet gain is presented and is used to define the working point (Esub(beam) = 4.8 MJ, Gain 83) for a reactor size target. Secondly, stopping of heavy ions in hot dense plasma is investigated and numerical results for stopping powers and ranges of 10 GeV Bi-ions in Pb, Li, and PbLi-alloy are given. Finally, results of an explicit implosion calculation, using the 1-D code MINIHY, are discussed in detail. The hydrodynamic efficiency is found to be about 5%. Special attention is given to the shock sequence leading to the ignition configuration. Also the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the absorber-pusher interface is estimated. (orig.)

  10. Stress analysis of superconducting magnets for magnetic fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, J.E.; Gray, W.H.; Baudry, T.V.

    1980-01-01

    Superconducting devices involve several factors that normally are not encountered in the structural analysis of more common systems. Several of these factors ae noted and methods for including them in an analysis are cited. To illustrate the state of the analysis art for superconducting magnets, in magnetic fusion reactors, two specific projects are illustrated. They are the Large Coil Program (LCP) and the Engineering Test Facility (ETF).

  11. Stress analysis of superconducting magnets for magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, J.E.; Gray, W.H.; Baudry, T.V.

    1980-01-01

    Superconducting devices involve several factors that normally are not encountered in the structural analysis of more common systems. Several of these factors ae noted and methods for including them in an analysis are cited. To illustrate the state of the analysis art for superconducting magnets, in magnetic fusion reactors, two specific projects are illustrated. They are the Large Coil Program (LCP) and the Engineering Test Facility

  12. Materials program for magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwilsky, K.M.; Cohen, M.M.; Finfgeld, C.R.; Reuther, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Reactor Materials Program is currently operating at a level of $7.8M. The program is divided into four technical areas which cover both short and long term problems. These are: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance, Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies, Plasma-Materials Interaction, and Special Purpose Materials. A description of the program planning process, the continuing management structure, and the resulting documents is presented

  13. Technology-development needs for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Conn, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Steiner, D.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1983-03-01

    The technology-development needs for magnetic fusion have been identified from an assessment of the conceptual design studies which have been performed. A summary of worldwide conceptual design effort is presented. The relative maturity of the various confinement concepts and the intensity and continuity of the design efforts are taken into account in identifying technology development needs. A major conclusion of this study is that there is a high degree of commonality among the technology requirements identified for the various confinement concepts

  14. The physics of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.V.

    1980-01-01

    A personal account is given covering the period April 1956 until the present day of the challenging theoretical problems posed by the controlled release of energy by magnetic confinement fusion. The need to analyse in detail the working of a plasma apparatus or reactor as a function of time is stressed and the application of such analysis to the various thermonuclear devices which have been considered during this period, is examined. (UK)

  15. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E. J.; Park, J. K.; Marmar, E. S.; Ahn, J. W.; Berkery, J. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Canik, J. M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Ferraro, N. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenwald, M.; Kim, K.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lore, J. D.; Menard, J. E.; Nazikian, R.; Shafer, M. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Reiman, A. H.; Rice, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sugiyama, L.; Turnbull, A. D.; Volpe, F.; Wang, Z. R.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10 -4 of the main axisymmetric field, such ''3D'' fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data

  16. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, E. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Park, J. -K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Marmar, E. S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ahn, J. -W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Berkery, J. W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Canik, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ferraro, N. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); King, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazerson, S. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Euratom/CCFE Association; Logan, N. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lore, J. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Menard, J. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Shafer, M. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Reiman, A. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Rice, J. E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Sugiyama, L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Volpe, F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Wang, Z. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wolfe, S. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  17. Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1981-11-01

    Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration

  18. Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1981-11-01

    Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration.

  19. Magnetic mirror fusion systems: Characteristics and distinctive features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A tutorial account is given of the main characteristics and distinctive features of conceptual magnetic fusion systems employing the magnetic mirror principle. These features are related to the potential advantages that mirror-based fusion systems may exhibit for the generation of economic fusion power

  20. Next-Step scientific objectives, targets, and parameters for reversed-field-pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion energy (MFE) systems: Preliminary thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; DiMarco, J.N.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document is the quantitative definition of objectives, targets, and parameters of the Next-Step device to follow the present RFX experiment; this device is given the name RFXNS. Although developed over five years ago, much of the material distilled into the 1988 RFP tactical plan is useful in establishing the goals and parameters of RFXNS. This earlier plan established tentative parameters of an RFP next step based on: predictions of RFP ignition and commercial-reactor devices; and the assumed successful operation of highly complementary RFP experiments RFX and ZTH/CPRF. Programmatic changes and evolution that have occurred since 1988 strongly impact the role and characteristics of an RFXNS: the Los Alamos ZTH/CPRF project and fusion program was terminated in mid-construction for reasons of MFE cost savings and concept focusing; great progress has been made in launching ITER; and reactor projections for the tokamak have increased in detail and variety, but not in commercial promise and competitiveness. A brief status of and perspective from each of the above three points is necessary before the key issues and their implementation to form the basis of the RFXNS definition are given

  1. Reactor potential of the magnetically insulated inertial fusion (MICF) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, T.; Galbraith, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) scheme is examined with regard to its potential as a power-producing reactor. This approach combines the favorable aspects of both magnetic and inertial fusions in that physical containment of the plasma is provided by a metallic shell while thermal insulation of its energy is provided by a strong, self-generated magnetic field. The plasma is created at the core of the target as a result of irradiation of the fuel-coated inner surface by a laser beam that enters through a hole in the spherical shell. The instantaneous magnetic field is generated by the current loops formed by the laser-heated, laser-ablated electrons, and preliminary experimental results at Osaka University have confirmed the presence of such a field. These same experiments have also yielded a Lawson parameter of about 5x10 12 cm -3 sec, and because of these unique properties, the plasma lifetimes in MICF have been shown to be about two orders of magnitude longer than conventional, pusher type inertial fusion schemes. In this paper a quasi one dimensional, time dependent set of particle and energy balance equations for the thermal species, namely, electrons, ions and thermal alphas which also allows for an appropriate set of fast alpha groups is utilized to assess the reactor prospects of a DT-burning MICF system. (author) [pt

  2. Environmental release targets for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulden, W.; Raskob, W.

    2005-01-01

    Within the European fission community, so called European Utility Requirements were developed to define common targets, criteria and evaluation methods for, amongst others, safety, environmental protection and public health with respect to future nuclear fission power plant development. In the case of severe accidents, the objective is to restrict the radiological consequences to the vicinity of the plant, i.e., to avoid early and late countermeasures such as evacuation or relocation of the population, and to restrict food banning to small areas and the first year after the accident. Within the European Fusion Technology Programme, a methodology is being developed in compliance with these European Utility Requirements, to define design requirements for future fusion reactors. First results are presented. Concerning food banning, calculations revealed extremely conservative values for tritium in EU regulations and recommendations. This does not affect assessments for fission reactors, but is an overestimation of the tritium dose impact from ingestion. Therefore, in compliance with scientific justification, considerably higher maximum permissible activity levels for tritium should be considered

  3. Plasma processed coating of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Crane, J.K.; Illige, J.D.; Hatcher, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets have been deposited in an inductively coupled discharge device by plasma polymerization. Two feed gases were used: perfluoro-2-butene, which produced a fluorocarbon coating (CF 1 3 ) with a density of 1.8 g/cc, and trans-2-butene which produced a hydrocarbon coating (CH 1 3 ) with a density of 1.0 g/cc. Uniform pin-hole free films have been deposited to a thickness of up to 30 μm of fluorocarbon and up to 110 μm of hydrocarbon. The effect of process variables on surface smoothness has been investigated. The basic defect in the coating has been found to result from shadowing by a small surface irregularity in an anisotropic coating flux

  4. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-04-11

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an "all-or-none" manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish.

  5. High density, high magnetic field concepts for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    One rather discouraging feature of our conventional approaches to fusion energy is that they do not appear to lend themselves to a small reactor for developmental purposes. This is in contrast with the normal evolution of a new technology which typically proceeds to a full scale commercial plant via a set of graduated steps. Accordingly' several concepts concerned with dense plasma fusion systems are being studied theoretically and experimentally. A common aspect is that they employ: (a) high to very high plasma densities (∼10 16 cm -3 to ∼10 26 cm -3 ) and (b) magnetic fields. If they could be shown to be viable at high fusion Q, they could conceivably lead to compact and inexpensive commercial reactors. At least, their compactness suggests that both proof of principle experiments and development costs will be relatively inexpensive compared with the present conventional approaches. In this paper, the following concepts are considered: (1) The staged Z-pinch, (2) Liner implosion of closed-field-line configurations, (3) Magnetic ''fast'' ignition of inertial fusion targets, (4) The continuous flow Z-pinch

  6. Magnetic fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report on the Department of Energy's Magnetic Fusion Program was requested by the Secretary of Energy. The Panel finds that substantial progress has been made in the three years since the previous ERAB review, although budget constraints have precluded the engineering initiatives recommended in that review and authorized in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 (the Act). Recognizing that the goals of the Act cannot now be met, the Panel recommends that the engineering phase be further postponed in favor of a strong base program in physics and technology, including immediate commitment to a major new tokamak-based device for the investigation of an ignited long-pulse plasma designated in this report as the Burning Core Experiment or BCX. Resources to design such a device could be obtained from within the existing program by redirecting work toward to BCX. At this time it is not possible to assess accurately the potential economic viability of fusion power in the future. The Panel strongly recommends expansion of international collaboration, particularly the joint construction and operation of major new unique facilities, such as the proposed BCX

  7. Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic fusion energy program of India started in the early eighties with the construction of an indigenous tokamak device ADITYA at the Institute for Plasma Research in Gandhinagar. The initial thrust was on fundamental studies related to plasma instabilities and turbulence phenomena but there was also a significant emphasis on technology development in the areas of magnetics, high vacuum, radio-frequency heating and neutral beam technology. The program took a major leap forward in the late nineties with the decision to build a state-of-the-art superconducting tokamak (SST-1) that catapulted India into the mainstream of the international tokamak research effort. The SST experience and the associated technological and human resource development has now earned the country a place in the ITER collaboration as an equal partner with other major nations. Keeping in mind the rapidly growing and enormous energy needs of the future the program has also identified and launched key development projects that can lead us to a DEMO reactor and eventually a Fusion Power Plant in a systematic manner. I will give a brief overview of the early origins, the present status and some of the highlights of the future road map of the Indian Fusion Program. (author)

  8. Particle diagnostics for magnetic fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the subset of diagnostics that relies primarily on the use of particles, and attempts to show how atomic and molecular data play a role in these diagnostics. Discusses passive charge-exchange ion temperature measurements; hydrogen beams for density, ion temperature, q and ZEFF measurements; impurity diagnostics using charge-exchange recombination; plasma electric and magnetic measurements using beams heavier than hydrogen; and alpha particle diagnostics. Points out that as fusion experiments become larger and hotter, most traditional particle diagnostics become difficult because large plasmas are difficult for neutral atoms to penetrate and the gyro-orbits of charged particles need to be larger than typically obtained with present beams to be comparable with the plasma size. Concludes that not only does the current profile affect the plasma stability, but there is a growing opinion that any serious fusion reactor will have to be steady state

  9. Magnet design considerations for Tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.R.; Chen, W.; Thomas, R.

    1976-01-01

    Design problems for superconducting ohmic heating and toroidal field coils for large Tokamak fusion reactors are discussed. The necessity for making these coils superconducting is explained, together with the functions of these coils in a Tokamak reactor. Major problem areas include materials related aspects and mechanical design and cryogenic considerations. Projections and comparisons are made based on existing superconducting magnet technology. The mechanical design of large-scale coils, which can contain the severe electromagnetic loading and stress generated in the winding, are emphasized. Additional major tasks include the development of high current conductors for pulsed applications to be used in fabricating the ohmic heating coils. It is important to note, however, that no insurmountable technical barriers are expected in the course of developing superconducting coils for Tokamak fusion reactors. (Auth.)

  10. Method for mounting laser fusion targets for irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R. Jay; Farnum, Eugene H.; McCall, Gene H.

    1977-07-26

    Methods for preparing laser fusion targets of the ball-and-disk type are disclosed. Such targets are suitable for irradiation with one or two laser beams to produce the requisite uniform compression of the fuel material.

  11. Fusion of a polarized projectile with a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christley, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Thompson, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for a polarized target with both unpolarized and polarized projectiles are studied. Expressions for the observables are given for the case when both nuclei are polarized. Calculations for fusion of an aligned 165 Ho target with 16 O and polarized 7 Li beams are presented

  12. Advanced laser fusion target fabrication research and development proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Fries, R.J.

    1979-05-01

    A research and development program is described that will enable the fabrication of 10 6 targets/day for a laser fusion prototype power reactor in 2007. We give personnel and cost estimates for a generalized laser fusion target that requires the development of several new technologies. The total cost of the program between 1979 and 2007 is $362 million in today's dollars

  13. Magnetic and inertial confinement fusion - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the status of ICF which output is given in terms of number of emitted neutrons and fusion energy as a function of the estimated input energy from the implosion driver. Results from the highest energy laser experiments are summarised. The theoretical targets and the proposed upgrades of NOVA, GEKKO and OMEGA are also shown. The promised ICF paradise will therefore be approached through a process of interpolation between two known extremes. The objectives of this experiment was to produce more than one MW of fusion power in a controlled way, to demonstrate the technology related to tritium usage tritium injection, its tracking, monitoring/recovery and to establish safe procedures for handling tritium in compliance with the regulatory requirements. (A.B)

  14. Indirect drive targets for fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, Peter A.; Miles, Robin R.

    2016-10-11

    A hohlraum for an inertial confinement fusion power plant is disclosed. The hohlraum includes a generally cylindrical exterior surface, and an interior rugby ball-shaped surface. Windows over laser entrance holes at each end of the hohlraum enclose inert gas. Infrared reflectors on opposite sides of the central point reflect fusion chamber heat away from the capsule. P2 shields disposed on the infrared reflectors help assure an enhanced and more uniform x-ray bath for the fusion fuel capsule.

  15. Toward Prostate Cancer Contouring Guidelines on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Dominant Lesion Gross and Clinical Target Volume Coverage Via Accurate Histology Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Eli; Bauman, Glenn S.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Cool, Derek W.; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Kassam, Zahra; Gaed, Mena; Moussa, Madeleine; Gómez, José A.; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chin, Joseph L.; Crukley, Cathie; Haider, Masoom A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Defining prostate cancer (PCa) lesion clinical target volumes (CTVs) for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) could support focal boosting or treatment to improve outcomes or lower morbidity, necessitating appropriate CTV margins for mpMRI-defined gross tumor volumes (GTVs). This study aimed to identify CTV margins yielding 95% coverage of PCa tumors for prospective cases with high likelihood. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five men with biopsy-confirmed clinical stage T1 or T2 PCa underwent pre-prostatectomy mpMRI, yielding T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and apparent diffusion coefficient images. Digitized whole-mount histology was contoured and registered to mpMRI scans (error ≤2 mm). Four observers contoured lesion GTVs on each mpMRI scan. CTVs were defined by isotropic and anisotropic expansion from these GTVs and from multiparametric (unioned) GTVs from 2 to 3 scans. Histologic coverage (proportions of tumor area on co-registered histology inside the CTV, measured for Gleason scores [GSs] ≥6 and ≥7) and prostate sparing (proportions of prostate volume outside the CTV) were measured. Nonparametric histologic-coverage prediction intervals defined minimal margins yielding 95% coverage for prospective cases with 78% to 92% likelihood. Results: On analysis of 72 true-positive tumor detections, 95% coverage margins were 9 to 11 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 8 to 10 mm (GS ≥ 7) for single-sequence GTVs and were 8 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 6 mm (GS ≥ 7) for 3-sequence GTVs, yielding CTVs that spared 47% to 81% of prostate tissue for the majority of tumors. Inclusion of T2-weighted contours increased sparing for multiparametric CTVs with 95% coverage margins for GS ≥6, and inclusion of dynamic contrast-enhanced contours increased sparing for GS ≥7. Anisotropic 95% coverage margins increased the sparing proportions to 71% to 86%. Conclusions: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging–defined GTVs expanded by appropriate margins

  16. Toward Prostate Cancer Contouring Guidelines on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Dominant Lesion Gross and Clinical Target Volume Coverage Via Accurate Histology Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Eli [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Biomedical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bauman, Glenn S., E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.ca [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Romagnoli, Cesare; Cool, Derek W. [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Bastian-Jordan, Matthew [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Queensland Health, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Kassam, Zahra [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Gaed, Mena [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Moussa, Madeleine; Gómez, José A. [Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Pautler, Stephen E.; Chin, Joseph L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Urology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Crukley, Cathie [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Defining prostate cancer (PCa) lesion clinical target volumes (CTVs) for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) could support focal boosting or treatment to improve outcomes or lower morbidity, necessitating appropriate CTV margins for mpMRI-defined gross tumor volumes (GTVs). This study aimed to identify CTV margins yielding 95% coverage of PCa tumors for prospective cases with high likelihood. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five men with biopsy-confirmed clinical stage T1 or T2 PCa underwent pre-prostatectomy mpMRI, yielding T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and apparent diffusion coefficient images. Digitized whole-mount histology was contoured and registered to mpMRI scans (error ≤2 mm). Four observers contoured lesion GTVs on each mpMRI scan. CTVs were defined by isotropic and anisotropic expansion from these GTVs and from multiparametric (unioned) GTVs from 2 to 3 scans. Histologic coverage (proportions of tumor area on co-registered histology inside the CTV, measured for Gleason scores [GSs] ≥6 and ≥7) and prostate sparing (proportions of prostate volume outside the CTV) were measured. Nonparametric histologic-coverage prediction intervals defined minimal margins yielding 95% coverage for prospective cases with 78% to 92% likelihood. Results: On analysis of 72 true-positive tumor detections, 95% coverage margins were 9 to 11 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 8 to 10 mm (GS ≥ 7) for single-sequence GTVs and were 8 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 6 mm (GS ≥ 7) for 3-sequence GTVs, yielding CTVs that spared 47% to 81% of prostate tissue for the majority of tumors. Inclusion of T2-weighted contours increased sparing for multiparametric CTVs with 95% coverage margins for GS ≥6, and inclusion of dynamic contrast-enhanced contours increased sparing for GS ≥7. Anisotropic 95% coverage margins increased the sparing proportions to 71% to 86%. Conclusions: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging–defined GTVs expanded by appropriate margins

  17. Comments on open-ended magnetic systems for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Differentiating characteristics of magnetic confinement systems having externally generated magnetic fields that are ''open'' are listed and discussed in the light of their several potential advantages for fusion power systems. It is pointed out that at this stage of fusion research ''high-Q'' (as deduced from long energy confinement times) is not necessarily the most relevant criterion by which to judge the potential of alternate fusion approaches for the economic generation of fusion power. An example is given of a hypothetical open-geometry fusion power system where low-Q operation is essential to meeting one of its main objectives (low neutron power flux)

  18. Magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Takano, Hirohisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide an electrical-insulatively stabilized magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device, restraining an increase in voltage when plasma current is rapidly changed. Structure: A magnetic field coil comprises coils arranged coaxial with respective vacuum vessels, said coils being wound in positive and reverse polarities so as to form a vertical magnetic field within the plasma. The coils of the positive polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel inside of an axis vertical in section of the annular plasma and are arranged symmetrically up and down of a horizontal axis. On the other hand, the coils of the reverse polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel outside of a vertical axis and arranged symmetrically up and down of the horizontal axis. These positive and reverse polarity coils are alternately connected in series, and lead portions of the coils are connected to a power source by means of connecting wires. In this case, lead positions of the coils are arranged in one direction, and the connecting wires are disposed in closely contact relation to offset magnetic fields formed by the connecting wires each other. (Kawakami, Y.)

  19. LLL magnetic fusion research: the first 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    From its inception, the Laboratory has supported research directed at tapping controlled fusion. Our magnetic fusion energy program--now one of the major elements of the national fusion energy research effort--dates back to the Laboratory's founding in 1952. This article reviews the program's beginnings, progress, and present status in terms of its ultimate goal: to demonstrate a practical and economical means of generating power from controlled fusion reactions

  20. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee report on program strategy for US magnetic fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Berkner, K.H.; Culler, F.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dreyfus, D.A.; Holdren, J.P.; McCrory, R.L.; Parker, R.R.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Siemon, R.E.; Staudhammer, P.; Weitzner, H.

    1992-09-01

    The Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) was charged by the Department of Energy (DOE) with developing recommendations on how best to pursue the goal of a practical magnetic fusion reactor in the context of several budget scenarios covering the period FY 1994-FY 1998. Four budget scenarios were examined, each anchored to the FY 1993 figure of $337.9 million for fusion energy (less $9 million for inertial fusion energy which is not examined here)

  1. Role of supercomputers in magnetic fusion and energy research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1985-06-01

    The importance of computer modeling in magnetic fusion (MFE) and energy research (ER) programs is discussed. The need for the most advanced supercomputers is described, and the role of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center in meeting these needs is explained

  2. Computing for magnetic fusion energy research: The next five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.; Glasser, A.; Sauthoff, N.

    1991-01-01

    This report considers computing needs in magnetic fusion for the next five years. It is the result of two and a half years of effort by representatives of all aspects of the magnetic fusion community. The report also factors in the results of a survey that was distributed to the laboratories and universities that support fusion. There are four areas of computing support discussed: theory, experiment, engineering, and systems

  3. Effect of liner non-uniformity on plasma instabilities in an inverse Z-pinch magnetized target fusion system: liner-on-plasma simulations and comparison with linear stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, P V; Madhavan, S; Chaturvedi, S

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) liner-on-plasma computations have been performed to study the growth of instabilities in a magnetized target fusion system involving the cylindrical compression of an inverse Z-pinch target plasma by a metallic liner. The growth of modes in the plasma can be divided into two phases. During the first phase, the plasma continues to be Kadomtsev stable. The dominant mode in the liner instability is imposed upon the plasma in the form of a growing perturbation. This mode further transfers part of its energy to its harmonics. During the second phase, however, non-uniform implosion of the liner leads to axial variations in plasma quantities near the liner-plasma interface, such that certain regions of the plasma locally violate the Kadomtsev criteria. Further growth ofthe plasma modes is then due to plasma instability. The above numerical study has been complemented with a linear stability analysis for the plasma, the boundary conditions for this analysis being obtained from the liner-on-plasma simulation. The stability of axisymmetric modes in the first phase is found to satisfy the Kadomtsev condition Q 0 1 modes, using equilibrium profiles from the 2D MHD study, shows that their growth rates can exceed those for m=0 by as much as an order of magnitude

  4. Direct-driven target implosion in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. A fuel target alignment error would happen in a fusion reactor; the target alignment error induces heavy ion beam illumination non-uniformity on a target. On the other hand, heavy ion beam accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. First we study the effect of driver irradiation non-uniformity induced by the target alignment error (dz) on the target implosion. We found that dz should be less than about 130 μm for a sufficient fusion energy output. We also optimize the wobbling scheme. The spiral wobbling heavy ion beams would provide a promissing scheme to the uniform beam illumination. (paper)

  5. Software problems in magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, R.

    1982-01-01

    The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic confinement fusion plasma theory, Task 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on a few key tokamak plasma confinement and heating theory issues: extensive development of a new Chapman-Enskog-like fluid/kinetic hybrid approach to deriving rigorously valid fluid moment equations; applications (neoclassical viscous force, instabilities in the banana-plateau collisionality regime, nonlinear gyroviscous force, unified plasma microinstability equations and their implications, semi-collisional presheath modeling, etc.) of this new formalism; interactions of fluctuating bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands; determination of net transport processes and equations for a tokamak; and some other topics (extracting more information from heat-pulse-propagation data, modeling of BES fluctuation data, exploring sawtooth effects on energy confinement in DIII-D, divertor X-point modeling). Recent progress and publications in these areas, and in the management of the local NERSC node and fusion theory DECstation 5000 at UW-Madison are summarized briefly in this report

  7. General principles of magnetic fusion confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    A few of the areas are described in which there is close interaction between atomic/molecular (A and M) and magnetic fusion physics. The comparisons between predictions of neoclassical transport theory and experiment depend on knowledge of ionization and recombination rate coefficients. Modeling of divertor/scrapeoff plasmas requires better low energy charge exchange cross sections for H + A/sup n+/ collisions. The range of validity of neutral beam trapping cross sections must be broadened, both to encompass the energies typical of present injection experiments and to deal with the problem of prompt trapping of highly excited beam atoms at high energy. Plasma fueling models present certain anomalies that could be resolved by calculation and measurement of low energy (<1 keV) charge exchange cross sections

  8. Magnetic field considerations in fusion power plant environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liemohn, H.B.; Lessor, D.L.; Duane, B.H.

    1976-09-01

    A summary of magnetic field production mechanisms and effects is given. Discussions are included on the following areas: (1) stray magnetic and electric fields from tokamaks, (2) methods for reducing magnetic fields, (3) economics of magnetic field reductions, (4) forces on magnetizable objects near magnetic confinement fusion reactors, (5) electric field transients in tokamaks, (6) attenuation and decay of electromagnetic fields, and (7) magnetic field transients from tokamak malfunctions

  9. High temperature superconductor cable concepts for fusion magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078397

    2013-01-01

    Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability as conductor in fusion magnets. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cables is measured; the thermal expansion and conductivity of structure, insulation and filling materials are investigated. High temperature superconductor winding packs for fusion magnets are calculated and compared with corresponding low temperature superconductor cases.

  10. Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.

  11. The Broader Spectrum of Magnetic Configurations for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, S C [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Ryutov, D D [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Over the decades, a large array of magnetic configurations has been studied, producing a huge amount of fusion plasma science. As configurations are developed, information and techniques learned through one configuration influence the development of other configurations. In this way, configurations evolve unexpectedly in response to new information. Configurations that were at a pause can become unstuck by new discoveries, and configurations that appeared promising for fusion energy can become unattractive as new limits are uncovered. The plasma science of fusion energy is sufficiently complex that, as we approach ever closer to practical fusion power, the need for potential contributions of broad research of multiple magnetic configurations remains strong. (author)

  12. Laser fusion target fabrication. Status report, 30 April 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Farnum, E.H.

    1974-11-01

    The laser fusion target fabrication effort at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has been successful in producing targets of the general design requested by, and with a range of parameters acceptable to, the theoretical designers and to the laser/target interaction physics experimentalists. Many novel techniques for handling and measuring the properties of various types of hollow microballoons were developed. (U.S.)

  13. Parametric study of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the derivation of production rate equations has provided the basis for a parametric study. Rate equations describing the production of laser fusion targets have been developed for the purpose of identifying key parameters, attractive production techniques and cost scaling relationships for a commercial target factory

  14. Internal magnetic target of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachurin, V.V.; Kats, M.M.; Kondrat'ev, L.N.; Rogal', A.D.; Rusinov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Proton extraction from a synchrotron by means of an internal target of magnetized iron is described. The particles that are aimed at the target pass directly through it and are deflected by the internal magnetic field of the target in the extraction direction. The general properties of magnetic targets are examined theoretically and a specific devices and results of its testing are described

  15. Progress in fusion technology in the U.S. magnetic fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, R.J.; Beard, D.S.; Haas, G.M.; Stone, P.M.; George, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the major technological achievements that have taken place during the past few years in the U.S. magnetic fusion program which have contributed to the global efforts. The goal has been to establish the scientific and technological base required for fusion energy. To reach this goal the fusion RandD program is focused on four key technical issues: determine the optimum configuration of magnetic confinement systems; determine the properties of burning plasmas; develop materials for fusion systems; and establish the nuclear technology of fusion systems. The objective of the fusion technology efforts has been to develop advanced technologies and provide the necessary support for research of these four issues. This support is provided in a variety of areas such as: high vacuum technology, large magnetic field generation by superconducting and copper coils, high voltage and high current power supplies, electromagnetic wave and particle beam heating systems, plasma fueling, tritium breeding and handling, remote maintenance, energy recovery. The U.S. Fusion Technology Program provides major support or has the primary responsibility in each of the four key technical issues of fusion, as described in the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan of February 1985. This paper has summarized the Technology Program in terms of its activities and progress since the Proceedings of the SOFT Conference in 1984

  16. Radiation resistant organic composites for superconducting fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.

    1993-01-01

    Organic composite materials (usually reinforced by glas fibers: GFRP) are to be used in fusion superconducting magnets as insulating and/or structural materials. The fusion superconducting magnets are operated under radiation environments and hence the radiation induced degradation of magnet components is ought to be estimated. Among the components the organic composite materials were evaluated to be the most radiation sensitive. Consequently the development of radiation resistant organic composite materials is thought one of the 'key' technologies for fusion superconducting magnets. The mechanism of radiation-induced degradation was studied and the degradation of interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) was found to be the intrinsic phenomenon which controlled the overall degradation of organic composite materials. The degradation of ILSS was studied changing matrix resin, reinforcement and type of fabrics. The possible combination of the organic composites for the fusion superconducting magnet will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  18. Dim target detection method based on salient graph fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruo-lan; Shen, Yi-yan; Jiang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Dim target detection is one key problem in digital image processing field. With development of multi-spectrum imaging sensor, it becomes a trend to improve the performance of dim target detection by fusing the information from different spectral images. In this paper, one dim target detection method based on salient graph fusion was proposed. In the method, Gabor filter with multi-direction and contrast filter with multi-scale were combined to construct salient graph from digital image. And then, the maximum salience fusion strategy was designed to fuse the salient graph from different spectral images. Top-hat filter was used to detect dim target from the fusion salient graph. Experimental results show that proposal method improved the probability of target detection and reduced the probability of false alarm on clutter background images.

  19. Magnetic fusion energy and computers: the role of computing in magnetic fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    This report examines the role of computing in the Department of Energy magnetic confinement fusion program. The present status of the MFECC and its associated network is described. The third part of this report examines the role of computer models in the main elements of the fusion program and discusses their dependence on the most advanced scientific computers. A review of requirements at the National MFE Computer Center was conducted in the spring of 1976. The results of this review led to the procurement of the CRAY 1, the most advanced scientific computer available, in the spring of 1978. The utilization of this computer in the MFE program has been very successful and is also described in the third part of the report. A new study of computer requirements for the MFE program was conducted during the spring of 1979 and the results of this analysis are presented in the forth part of this report

  20. Physics and technology of inertial fusion energy targets chambers and drivers. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The third IAEA Technical Meeting on Physics and Technology of Inertial Fusion Energy Targets and Chambers took place 11-13 October 2004 in the Yousung Hotel Daejon, Republic of Korea. The first meeting was held in Madrid, Spain, 7-9 June 2000, and the second one in San Diego, California, 17-19 June 2002. Nuclear fusion has the promise of becoming an abundant energy source with good environmental compatibility. Excellent progress has been made in controlled nuclear fusion research on both magnetic and inertial approaches for plasma confinement. The IAEA plays a pro-active role to catalyze innovation and enhance worldwide commitment to fusion. This is done by creating awareness of the different concepts of magnetic as well as inertial confinement. The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) supports the IAEA in the development of strategies to enhance fusion research in Member States. As part of the recommendations, a technical meeting on the physics and technology of inertial fusion energy (IFE) was proposed in one of the council meetings. The objective of the technical meeting was to contribute to advancing the understanding of targets and chambers for all proposed inertial fusion energy power plant designs. The topics to be covered were: Target design and physics, chamber design and physics, target fabrication injection and Tritium handling, assessment of safety, environment and economy aspect of IFE. It was recognized by the International Advisory Committee that the scope of the meeting should also include fusion drivers. The presentations of the meeting included target and chamber physics and technology for all proposed IFE plant concepts (laser driven, heavy-ion driven, Z-pinches, etc.). The final Research Coordination Meeting of the Coordinated Research Project on Elements of Power Plant Design for Inertial Fusion Energy, including further new results and achievements, followed the technical meeting. Twenty-nine participants from 12 countries participated

  1. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  2. Overview of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Devlopment and Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This publication gives a comprehensive introduction to controlled fusion research. Topics covered in the discussion include the following: (1) fusion system engineering and advanced design, (2) plasma engineering, (3) magnetic systems, (4) materials, (5) environment and safety, and (6) alternate energy applications

  3. Electron and ion beam transport to fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.R.; Baker, L.; Miller, P.A.; Mix, L.P.; Olsen, J.N.; Poukey, J.W.; Wright, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    ICF reactors have been proposed which incorporate a gas-filled chamber to reduce x-ray and debris loading of the first wall. Focused beams of either electrons or ions must be transported efficiently for 2-4 m to a centrally located fusion target. Laser-initiated current-carrying plasma discharge channels provide the guiding magnetic field and the charge- and current-neutralizing medium required for beam propagation. Computational studies of plasma channel formation in air using a 1-D MHD model with multigroup radiation diffusion have provided a good comparison with the expansions velocity and time dependent refractivity profile determined by holographic interferometry. Trajectory calculations have identified a beam expansion mechanism which combines with the usual ohmic dissipation to reduce somewhat the transported beam fluence for electrons. Additional trajectory calculations have been performed for both electrons and light ions to predict the limits on the particle current density which can be delivered to a central target by overlapping the many independently-generated beams. Critical features of the use of plasma channels for transport and overlap of charged particle beams are being tested experimentally with up to twelve electron beams from the Proto II accelerator

  4. Axial magnetic field injection in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Adams, M. B.; Davies, J. R.; Seyler, C. E.

    2017-10-01

    MagLIF is a fusion concept using a Z-pinch implosion to reach thermonuclear fusion. In current experiments, the implosion is driven by the Z-machine using 19 MA of electrical current with a rise time of 100 ns. MagLIF requires an initial axial magnetic field of 30 T to reduce heat losses to the liner wall during compression and to confine alpha particles during fusion burn. This field is generated well before the current ramp starts and needs to penetrate the transmission lines of the pulsed-power generator, as well as the liner itself. Consequently, the axial field rise time must exceed hundreds of microseconds. Any coil capable of being submitted to such a field for that length of time is inevitably bulky. The space required to fit the coil near the liner, increases the inductance of the load. In turn, the total current delivered to the load decreases since the voltage is limited by driver design. Yet, the large amount of current provided by the Z-machine can be used to produce the required 30 T field by tilting the return current posts surrounding the liner, eliminating the need for a separate coil. However, the problem now is the field penetration time, across the liner wall. This paper discusses why skin effect arguments do not hold in the presence of resistivity gradients. Numerical simulations show that fields larger than 30 T can diffuse across the liner wall in less than 60 ns, demonstrating that external coils can be replaced by return current posts with optimal helicity.

  5. Introduction to the controlled nuclear fusion (magnetic containment systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J.A.; Guasp, J.; Martin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic containment systems, their more important features, and their potentiality to became thermonuclear reactors is described. The work is based upon the first part of a set of lectures dedicated to Plasma and Fusion Physics. (author)

  6. Superconducting magnets for toroidal fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.

    1980-01-01

    Fusion reactors will soon be employing superconducting magnets to confine plasma in which deuterium and tritium (D-T) are fused to produce usable energy. At present there is one small confinement experiment with superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils: Tokamak 7 (T-7), in the USSR, which operates at 4 T. By 1983, six different 2.5 x 3.5-m D-shaped coils from six manufacturers in four countries will be assembled in a toroidal array in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing at fields up to 8 T. Soon afterwards ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT-P) will begin operation at Oak Ridge with superconducting TF coils. At the same time there will be tokamaks with superconducting TF coils 2 to 3 m in diameter in the USSR and France. Toroidal field strength in these machines will range from 6 to 9 T. NbTi and Nb 3 Sn, bath cooling and forced flow, cryostable and metastable - various designs are being tried in this period when this new application of superconductivity is growing and maturing

  7. Liquid first walls for magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Liquids (∼7 neutron mean free paths thick) with certain restrictions can probably be used in magnetic fusion designs between the burning plasma and the structural materials of the plant. If this works there are a number of profound advantages: lower the cost of electricity by more than 35%; remove the need to develop first wall materials saving over 4B$ in development costs; reduce the amount and kind of wastes generated in the plant; and permit a wider choice of materials. Evaporated liquid must be efficiently ionized in an edge plasma to prevent penetrating into the burning plasma and diminishing the burn rate. The fraction of evaporated material ionized is estimated to be 0.993 for Li, 0.98 for Flibe and 0.9999 for Li 17 Pb 83 . This ionized vapor would be swept along open field lines into a remote burial chamber. The most practical systems would be those with topological open field lines on the outer surface as is the case of a field reversed configuration (FRC), a Spheromak, a Z-pinch, or a mirror machine. In a Tokamak, including the Spherical Tokamak, the field lines outside the separatrix are restricted to a small volume inside the toroidal coil making for difficulties in introducing the liquid and removing the ionized vapor

  8. Neutron penumbral imaging of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Ress, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a new technique, penumbral coded-aperture imaging, the first neutron images of laser-driven, inertial-confinement fusion targets were obtained. With these images the deuterium-tritium burn region within a compressed target can be measured directly. 4 references, 11 figures

  9. Inertial confinement fusion with direct electric generation by magnetic flux comparession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasche, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    A high-power-density laser-fusion-reactor concept in investigated in which directed kinetic enery imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium--in which the fusion target is centrally located--is maximized. In turn, this kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with, potentially, very high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the concept maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall can be many orders of magnitude less than is typical of D-T fusion reactor concepts

  10. Magnetic linear accelerator (MAGLAC) for hypervelocity acceleration in impact fusion (IF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents considerations on the design of a magnetic linear accelerator suitable as driver for impact fusion. We argue that the proposed approach offers an attractive option to accelerate macroscopic matter to centiluminal velocity suitable for fusion applications. The design goal is to attain a velocity approaching 200 km/sec. Recent results in suitable target design suggest that a velocity in the range of 40-100 km/sec might be sufficient to include fusion. An accelerator in this velocity range can be constructed with current-day technology. We present both design and practical engineering considerations. Future work are outlined and recommended. (orig.)

  11. Neutral beam systems for the magnetic fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, J.W.; Staten, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The attainment of economic, safe fusion power has been described as the most sophisticated scientific problem ever attacked by mankind. The presently established goal of the magnetic fusion program is to develop and demonstrate pure fusion central electric power stations for commercial applications. Neutral beam heating systems are a basic component of the tokamak and mirror experimental fusion plasma confinement devices. The requirements placed upon neutral beam heating systems are reviewed. The neutral beam systems in use or being developed are presented. Finally, the needs of the future are discussed

  12. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS 2 . The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of ±0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification

  13. Trends and developments in magnetic confinement fusion reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Carlson, G.A.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of recent design trends and developments in reactor concepts for magnetic confinement fusion. The paper emphasizes the engineering and technology considerations of commercial fusion reactor concepts. Emphasis is placed on reactors that operate on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. Recent developments in tokamak, mirror, and Elmo Bumpy Torus reactor concepts are described, as well as a survey of recent developments on a wide variety of alternate magnetic fusion reactor concepts. The paper emphasizes recent developments of these concepts within the last two to three years

  14. Generic structural mechanics aspects of fusion magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Structural mechanic requirements for future large superconducting fusion magnets are assessed. Current structural analysis methods and standards do not yet appear sufficient for a complete evaluation of such systems, under all potential operating and accident conditions. Recommendations are made for development of needed structural methods and specialized standards for fusion magnets. These include, among others, better composite structural methods with various failure criteria for metallic, as well as non-metallic materials, coupled thermal-electrical-structural codes, incorporating winding and fabrication effects, and use of probabilistic methods for life prediction. In order to help meet program goals for fusion commericialization, it is recommended that such work be initiated relatively soon. (orig.)

  15. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Volume 2, Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in Vol. 1 of this Standard. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While Vol. 1 is generally applicable in that requirements there apply to a wide range of fusion facilities, this volume is concerned mainly with large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This volume is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment

  16. COST-EFFECTIVE TARGET FABRICATION FOR INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOODIN, D.T; NOBILE, A; SCHROEN, D.G; MAXWELL, J.L; RICKMAN, W.S

    2004-03-01

    A central feature of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. The IFE target fabrication programs are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production, and working closely with target designers to make material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable characteristics. Targets produced for current inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about $2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have found a cost requirement of about $0.25-0.30 each. While four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the paradigm shifts in target fabrication methodologies that will be needed to economically supply targets and presents the results of ''nth-of-a-kind'' plant layouts and concepts for IFE power plant fueling. Our engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for laser-driven and for heavy ion driven IFE

  17. SAR Data Fusion Imaging Method Oriented to Target Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the difficulty for target outlines extracting precisely due to neglect of target scattering characteristic variation during the processing of high-resolution space-borne SAR data, a novel fusion imaging method is proposed oriented to target feature extraction. Firstly, several important aspects that affect target feature extraction and SAR image quality are analyzed, including curved orbit, stop-and-go approximation, atmospheric delay, and high-order residual phase error. Furthermore, the corresponding compensation methods are addressed as well. Based on the analysis, the mathematical model of SAR echo combined with target space-time spectrum is established for explaining the space-time-frequency change rule of target scattering characteristic. Moreover, a fusion imaging strategy and method under high-resolution and ultra-large observation angle range conditions are put forward to improve SAR quality by fusion processing in range-doppler and image domain. Finally, simulations based on typical military targets are used to verify the effectiveness of the fusion imaging method.

  18. Stagnation morphology in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Chandler, G. A.; Glinsky, M. E.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Knapp, P. F.; Martin, M. R.; Peterson, K. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schmit, P. F.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Weis, M. R.; Yu, E. P.

    2017-10-01

    In Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments on the Z facility, an axial current of 15-20 MA is driven through a thick metal cylinder containing axially-magnetized, laser-heated deuterium fuel. The cylinder implodes, further heating the fuel and amplifying the axial B-field. Instabilities, such as magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor, develop on the exterior of the liner and may feed through to the inner surface during the implosion. Monochromatic x-ray emission at stagnation shows the stagnation column is quasi-helical with axial variations in intensity. Recent experiments demonstrated that the stagnation emission structure changed with modifications to the target wall thickness. Additionally, applying a thick dielectric coating to the exterior of the target modified the stagnation column. A new version of the x-ray self-emission diagnostic has been developed to investigate stagnation with higher resolution. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  19. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasche, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    A method for recovering energy in an inertial confinement fusion reactor having a reactor chamber and a sphere forming means positioned above an opening in the reactor chamber is described, comprising: embedding a fusion target fuel capsule having a predetermined yield in the center of a hollow solid lithium tube and subsequently embedding the hollow solid lithium tube in a liquid lithium medium; using the sphere forming means for forming the liquid lithium into a spherical shaped liquid lithium mass having a diameter smaller than the length of the hollow solid lithium tube with the hollow solid lithium tube being positioned along a diameter of the spherical shaped mass, providing the spherical shaped liquid lithium mass with the fusion fuel target capsule and hollow solid lithium tube therein as a freestanding liquid lithium shaped spherical shaped mass without any external means for maintaining the spherical shape by dropping the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass from the sphere forming means into the reactor chamber; producing a magnetic field in the reactor chamber; imploding the target capsule in the reactor chamber to produce fusion energy; absorbing fusion energy in the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass to convert substantially all the fusion energy to shock induced kinetic energy of the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass which expands the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass; and compressing the magnetic field by expansion of the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass and recovering useful energy

  20. Comparative assessment of world research efforts on magnetic confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1990-02-01

    This report presents a comparative assessment of the world's four major research efforts on magnetic confinement fusion, including a comparison of the capabilities in the Soviet Union, the European Community (Western Europe), Japan, and the United States. A comparative evaluation is provided in six areas: tokamak confinement; alternate confinement approaches; plasma technology and engineering; and fusion computations. The panel members are involved actively in fusion-related research, and have extensive experience in previous assessments and reviews of the world's four major fusion programs. Although the world's four major fusion efforts are roughly comparable in overall capabilities, two conclusions of this report are inescapable. First, the Soviet fusion effort is presently the weakest of the four programs in most areas of the assessment. Second, if present trends continue, the United States, once unambiguously the world leader in fusion research, will soon lose its position of leadership to the West European and Japanese fusion programs. Indeed, before the middle 1990s, the upgraded large-tokamak facilities, JT-60U (Japan) and JET (Western Europe), are likely to explore plasma conditions and operating regimes well beyond the capabilities of the TFTR tokamak (United States). In addition, if present trends continue in the areas of fusion nuclear technology and materials, and plasma technology and materials, and plasma technology development, the capabilities of Japan and Western Europe in these areas (both with regard to test facilities and fusion-specific industrial capabilities) will surpass those of the United States by a substantial margin before the middle 1990s

  1. Fusion Plasma Theory: Task 1, Magnetic confinement Fusion Plasma Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on few tokamak plasma confinement issues: applications of our new Chapman-Enskog-like approach for developing hybrid fluid/kinetic descriptions of tokamak plasmas; multi-faceted studies as part of our development of a new interacting island paradigm for the tokamak equilibrium'' and transport; investigations of the resolution power of BES and ECE diagnostics for measuring core plasma fluctuations; and studies of net transport in the presence of fluctuating surfaces. Recent progress and publications in these areas, and in the management of the NERSC node and the fusion theory workstations are summarized briefly in this report

  2. Technology spin-offs from the magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    A description is given of 138 possible spin-offs from the magnetic fusion program. The spin-offs cover the following areas: (1) superconducting magnets, (2) materials technology, (3) vacuum systems, (4) high frequency and high power rf, (5) electronics, (6) plasma diagnostics, (7) computers, and (8) particle beams

  3. An optimized hydrogen target for muon catalyzed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheisari, R., E-mail: gheisari@pgu.ac.i [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the processes involved in muon catalyzed fusion. Muon catalyzed fusion ({mu}CF) is studied in all layers of the solid hydrogen structure H/0.1%T+D{sub 2}+HD. The layer H/T acts as an emitter source of energetic t{mu} atoms, due to the so-called Ramsauer-Townsend effect. These t{mu} atoms are slowed down in the second layer (degrader) and are forced to take place nuclear fusion in HD. The degrader affects time evolution of t{mu} atomic beam. This effect has not been considered until now in {mu}CF-multilayered targets. Due to muon cycling and this effect, considerable reactions occur in the degrader. In our calculations, it is shown that the fusion yield equals 180{+-}1.5. It is possible to separate events that overlap in time.

  4. Use of high temperature superconductors for future fusion magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, W H [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Celentano, G; Della Corte, A [Superconductivity Division, ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Frascati (Italy); Goldacker, W; Heller, R; Komarek, P; Kotzyba, G; Nast, R; Obst, B; Schlachter, S I; Schmidt, C; Zahn, G [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pasztor, G; Wesche, R [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Villingen (Switzerland); Salpietro, E; Vostner, A [European Fusion Development Agreement, Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    With the construction of ITER the feasibility of a fusion machine will be demonstrated. To commercialize fusion it is essential to keep losses as small as possible in future fusion power plants. One major component where losses can be strongly reduced is the cooling system. For example in ITER where efficiency is not a major goal, a cooling power of 64 kW at 4.4 K is foreseen taking more than 20 MW electric power. Considering the size of future commercial fusion machines this consumption of electric power for cooling will even be higher. With a magnet system working at 20 K a fusion machine would work more efficient by a factor of 5-10 with respect to electric power consumption for cryogenics. Even better than that, would be a machine with a magnet system operating at 65 K to 77 K. In this case liquid nitrogen could be used as coolant saving money for investment and operation costs. Such an increase in the operating temperature of the magnet system can be achieved by the use of High- Temperature Superconductors (HTS). In addition the use of HTS would allow much smaller efforts for thermal shielding and alternative thermal insulation concepts may be possible, e.g. for an HTS bus bar system. This contribution will give an overview about status, promises and challenges of HTS conductors on the way to an HTS fusion magnet system beyond ITER. (author)

  5. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhang Jie; Duan Xuru

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

  6. Direct measurement of the impulse in a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Fujioka, Shinsuke; Johzaki, Tomoyuki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan); Mori, Yoshitaka [Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    An experiment is conducted to measure an impulse for demonstrating a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket. The impulse is produced by the interaction between plasma and magnetic field. In the experiment, the system consists of plasma and neodymium permanent magnets. The plasma is created by a single-beam laser aiming at a polystyrene spherical target. The impulse is 1.5 to 2.2 {mu}Ns by means of a pendulum thrust stand, when the laser energy is 0.7 J. Without magnetic field, the measured impulse is found to be zero. These results indicate that the system for generating impulse is working.

  7. Recent developments in laser-fusion target coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Catlett, D.S.; Fossey, D.; Mayer, A.; McCreary, W.J.; Powell, B.W.; Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques to fabricate hollow, spherical, multilayered laser-fusion targets are described. The first is a glow discharge polymerization process for plastic coating. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing Mo/Re alloys is also discussed along with some new techniques for electrodeless plating and for electroplating a wide variety of metals

  8. Electroless or autocatalytic coating of microparticles for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Catlett, D.S.

    1977-04-01

    Use of a novel device for applying uniform metallic coatings to spherical microparticles is described. The apparatus deposits electroless metal coatings on hollow, thin-walled metal or sensitized nonmetallic micromandrels. The apparatus and process were developed for fabrication of microsphere pressure vessels for use as targets in laser-initiated fusion research

  9. Electrolytic coating of microparticles for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Catlett, D.S.

    1977-04-01

    An electroplating apparatus for applying uniform metallic coatings that have excellent surface finishes to discrete microparticles is described. The device is used to electrodeposit metals onto thin-walled metal, metallized glass, or plastic mandrels. The apparatus and process were developed for fabrication of microsphere pressure vessels to be used as targets in laser fusion research

  10. Electrostatic levitation and transport of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Several levitation concepts have been evaluated resulting in the electrostatic quadrupole being chosen as the most universal. A levitator has been constructed to handle laser fusion targets during and between the processing steps. The levitator is based on a quadrupole rail which is segmented to provide electrically controlled transport and confinement along the rail. This device has demonstrated transport both vertical and horizontal of targets with appropriate mass to size ratios and exhibits remarkably stable confinement at atmospheric pressure

  11. Ion tail filling in laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.B.

    1975-06-01

    Thermonuclear burn begins in laser-fusion targets with the collapse of the imploding fuel shell. At this instant the ion velocity distribution is non-Maxwellian, requiring correction to the commonly used computer simulation codes. This correction is computed and compared with that arising from the loss of fast ions in marginal (rho R less than 0.01 gm cm -2 ) targets. (U.S.)

  12. Survey of particle codes in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    In the spring of 1976, the Fusion Plasma Theory Branch of the Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy conducted a survey of all the physics computer codes being supported at that time. The purpose of that survey was to allow DMFE to prepare a description of the codes for distribution to the plasma physics community. This document is the first of several planned and covers those types of codes which treat the plasma as a group of particles

  13. Interaction physics for megajoule laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1992-02-01

    Some little-explored interaction phenomena for targets irradiated with megajoule lasers are considered. Simple estimates show that the laser plasma interaction then occurs in a hot (multi-keV) plasma with density much less than the critical density. In such plasmas, Raman and Brillouin scattering into the forward hemisphere are potentially significant. A simple model shows that Raman forward scattering can be saturated at low levels by ponderomotive detuning. Calculations also illustrate a suppression of ponderomotive filamentation by plasma-induced beam smoothing

  14. Advanced materials: The key to attractive magnetic fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is one of the most attractive central station power sources from the viewpoint of potential safety and environmental impact characteristics. Studies also indicate that fusion can be economically competitive with other options such as fission reactors and fossil-fired power stations. However, to achieve this triad of characteristics we must develop advanced materials with properties tailored for performance in the various fusion reactor systems. This paper discusses the desired characteristics of materials and the status of materials technology in four critical areas: (1) structural material for the first wail and blanket (FWB), (2) plasma-facing materials, (3) materials for superconducting magnets, and (4) ceramics for electrical and structural applications

  15. Advanced materials - the key to attractive magnetic fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is one of the most attractive central station power sources from the viewpoint of potential safety and environmental impact characteristics. Studies also indicate that fusion can be economically competitive with other options such as fission reactors and fossil-fired power stations. However, to achieve this triad of characteristics we must develop advanced materials with properties tailored for performance in the various fusion reactor systems. This paper discusses the desired characteristics of materials and the status of materials technology in four critical areas: (1) structural materials for the first wall and blanket (FWB), (2) plasmafacing materials, (3) materials for superconducting magnets, and (4) ceramics for electrical and structural applications. (author)

  16. The status of the federal magnetic fusion program, or fusion in transition: from science to technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of magnetic fusion is summarized. The science is in place; the application must be made. Government will have to underwrite the risk of the program, but the private sector must manage it. Government officials must be convinced fusion is in the interest of the taxpayer, private sector decision makers that it is commercial. Questions concerning reliability, availability, first cost, safety, environment, and sociology must be asked. Fusion energy is essentially inexhaustible, appears environmentally acceptable, and is one of a very short list of alternatives

  17. FIRE, A Next Step Option for Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The next major frontier in magnetic fusion physics is to explore and understand the strong nonlinear coupling among confinement, MHD stability, self-heating, edge physics, and wave-particle interactions that is fundamental to fusion plasma behavior. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) Design Study has been undertaken to define the lowest cost facility to attain, explore, understand, and optimize magnetically confined fusion-dominated plasmas. The FIRE is envisioned as an extension of the existing Advanced Tokamak Program that could lead to an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The FIRE activities have focused on the physics and engineering assessment of a compact, high-field tokamak with the capability of achieving Q approximately equal to 10 in the ELMy H-mode for a duration of about 1.5 plasma current redistribution times (skin times) during an initial burning-plasma science phase, and the flexibility to add Advanced Tokamak hardware (e.g., lower-hybrid current drive) later. The configuration chosen for FIRE is similar to that of ARIES-RS, the U.S. Fusion Power Plant study utilizing an Advanced Tokamak reactor. The key ''Advanced Tokamak'' features are: strong plasma shaping, double-null pumping divertors, low toroidal field ripple ( 5) for a duration of 1 to 3 current redistribution times

  18. Magnetic and inertial fusion status and development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, D.; Storm, E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled fusion, pursued by investigators in both the magnetic and inertial confinement research programs, continues to be a strong candidate as an intrinsically safe and virtually inexhaustible long-term energy source. We describe the status of magnetic and inertial confinement fusion in terms of the accomplishments made by the research programs for each concept. The improvement in plasma parameters (most frequently discussed in terms of the Tn tau product of ion temperature, T, density, n, and confinement time, tau) can be linked with the construction and operation of experimental facilities. The scientific progress exhibited by larger scale fusion experiments within the US, such as Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Fusion Test Reactor for magnetic studies and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Nova laser for inertial studies, has been optimized by the theoretical advances in plasma and computational physics. Both TFTR and Nova have exhibited ion temperatures in excess of 10 keV at confinement parameters of n tau near 10 13 cm -3 . sec. At slightly lower temperatures (near a few keV), the value of n tau has exceeded 10 14 cm -3 . sec in both devices. Near-term development plans in fusion research include experiments within the US, Europe, and Japan to improve the plasma performance to reach conditions where the rate of fusion energy production equals or exceeds the heating power incident upon the plasma. 9 refs., 7 figs

  19. Magnetic Compression Experiment at General Fusion with Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlea, Carl; Khalzov, Ivan; Hirose, Akira; Xiao, Chijin; Fusion Team, General

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic compression experiment at GF was a repetitive non-destructive test to study plasma physics applicable to Magnetic Target Fusion compression. A spheromak compact torus (CT) is formed with a co-axial gun into a containment region with an hour-glass shaped inner flux conserver, and an insulating outer wall. External coil currents keep the CT off the outer wall (levitation) and then rapidly compress it inwards. The optimal external coil configuration greatly improved both the levitated CT lifetime and the rate of shots with good compressional flux conservation. As confirmed by spectrometer data, the improved levitation field profile reduced plasma impurity levels by suppressing the interaction between plasma and the insulating outer wall during the formation process. We developed an energy and toroidal flux conserving finite element axisymmetric MHD code to study CT formation and compression. The Braginskii MHD equations with anisotropic heat conduction were implemented. To simulate plasma / insulating wall interaction, we couple the vacuum field solution in the insulating region to the full MHD solution in the remainder of the domain. We see good agreement between simulation and experiment results. Partly funded by NSERC and MITACS Accelerate.

  20. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sinars, D. B.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Geissel, M.; Rovang, D. C.; Smith, I. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hess, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 10 12 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm 3 . In these experiments, up to 5 × 10 10 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm 2 , this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 10 10 . An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source

  1. Structural aspects of superconducting fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Lehner, J.; Powell, J.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for studying various static, dynamic, elastic-plastic, and fracture mechanics problems of superconducting magnets are described. Sample solutions are given for the UWMAK-I magnet. Finite element calculations were used

  2. Thermal Studies of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Target during Injection into the Fusion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Havstad, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LeBlanc, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Golosker, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosso, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    The tests of the external heat transfer coefficient suggests that the values used in the numerical analysis for the temperature distribution within the fusion fuel target following flight into the target chamber are probably valid. The tests of the heat transfer phenomena occurring within the target due the rapid heating of the LEH window for the hot gasses within the fusion chamber show that the heat does indeed convect via the internal helium environment of the target towards the capsule and that the pressure in the front compartment of the target adjacent to the LEH window increases such that t bypass venting of the internal helium into the second chamber adjacent to the capsule is needed to prevent rupture of the membranes. The bypass flow is cooled by the hohlraum during this venting. However, the experiments suggest that our internal heat flow calculations may be low by about a factor of 2. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the differences between the experiment and the numerical analysis. Future studies could also possibly bring the test conditions closer to those expected in the fusion chamber to better validate the results. A sacrificial layer will probably be required on the LEH window of the target and this can be used to mitigate any unexpected target heating.

  3. Tandem mirror magnet system for the mirror fusion test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, R.H.; Van Sant, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will be a large magnetic fusion experimental facility containing 22 supercounducting magnets including solenoids and C-coils. State-of-the-art technology will be used extensively to complete this facility before 1985. Niobium titanium superconductor and stainless steel structural cases will be the principle materials of construction. Cooling will be pool boiling and thermosiphon flow of 4.5 K liquid helium. Combined weight of the magnets will be over 1500 tonnes and the stored energy will be over 1600 MJ. Magnetic field strength in some coils will be more than 8 T. Detail design of the magnet system will begin early 1981. Basic requirements and conceptual design are disclosed in this paper

  4. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Non-LTE effects in inertial confinement fusion target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In previous studies of transport processes in inertial confinement fusion target chambers, the radiative properties of the background plasma were calculated under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In this paper, the authors present a study of the equation of state and the radiative properties of high temperature, low-to-moderate density ( 21 cm -3 ) plasmas for the determination of the conditions under which non-LTE effects become important and for an assessment of the importance of non-LTE processes in target chambers during high yield inertial fusion target explosions. For this purpose, two-body (radiative and dielectronic) and three-body (collisional) recombination and de-excitation processes are considered in calculating the steady state ionization and excitation populations. The results of this study indicate that non-LTE processes generally become important at temperatures of > or approx. 1, 10 and 100 eV for plasma densities of 10 18 , 10 19 and 10 21 cm -3 , respectively. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations utilizing the equation of state and the opacities for a non-LTE argon plasma were performed to study the response of a background gas to an inertial fusion target explosion. These calculations indicate that non-LTE processes are often the dominant atomic processes in the background plasma and that they can strongly affect the radiative and shock properties as energy is transported away from the point of the target explosion. (author). 22 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  6. Overview of the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiffen, F.W.; Dowling, R.J.; Marton, W.A.; Eckstrand, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1988 Symposium on Fusion Technology, steady progress has been made in the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. The large US tokamaks have reached new levels of plasma performance with associated improvements in the understanding of transport. The technology support for ongoing and future devices is similarly advancing with notable advances in magnetic, rf heating tubes, pellet injector, plasma interactive materials, tritium handling, structural materials, and system studies. Currently, a high level DOE review of the program is underway to provide recommendations for a strategic plan

  7. Engineering computations at the national magnetic fusion energy computer center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, S.

    1983-01-01

    The National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE). The NMFECC headquarters is located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Its purpose is to apply large-scale computational technology and computing techniques to the problems of controlled thermonuclear research. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC also maintains a large collection of computer codes in mathematics, physics, and engineering that is shared by the entire MFE research community. This review provides a broad perspective of the NMFECC, and a list of available codes at the NMFECC for engineering computations is given

  8. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Each is described under the five categories: Identification and Definition, Possible Safety Effects, Current Practice, Adequacy of Current Practice for Fusion Magnets and Areas Requiring Further Analytical and Experimental Study. Priorities among these areas are suggested; application is made to the Large Coil Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  9. Laser-fusion targets for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Thiessen, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a target having a centrally located substantially spherically configured quantity of solid fuel for implosion by a pulse of laser energy and having no material therein with a Z of over about 13. The improvement consists of: means in spaced apart and non-contiguous relationship surrounding the fuel for at least providing an atmosphere about the fuel for ensuring electron transport around the fuel and enhancing subsequent implosion symmetry of the fuel, the fuel being configured as a hollow shell; the means consisting of at least one outer layer of substantially solid atmosphere forming material having a Z of 1-13. The atmosphere forms material comprising a shell positioned about the fuel defining a space therebetween, the space being filled with He, the fuel and the shell of atmosphere forming material being each composed of DT, the layer of atmosphere forming material being impacted and at least partially exploded by at least one separate and distinct laser prepulse to produce the atmosphere about the fuel prior to implosion of the fuel by the pulse of laser energy

  10. Feasibility study of a magnetic fusion production reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, R. W.

    1986-12-01

    A magnetic fusion reactor can produce 10.8 kg of tritium at a fusion power of only 400 MW —an order of magnitude lower power than that of a fission production reactor. Alternatively, the same fusion reactor can produce 995 kg of plutonium. Either a tokamak or a tandem mirror production plant can be used for this purpose; the cost is estimated at about 1.4 billion (1982 dollars) in either case. (The direct costs are estimated at 1.1 billion.) The production cost is calculated to be 22,000/g for tritium and 260/g for plutonium of quite high purity (1%240Pu). Because of the lack of demonstrated technology, such a plant could not be constructed today without significant risk. However, good progress is being made in fusion technology and, although success in magnetic fusion science and engineering is hard to predict with assurance, it seems possible that the physics basis and much of the needed technology could be demonstrated in facilities now under construction. Most of the remaining technology could be demonstrated in the early 1990s in a fusion test reactor of a few tens of megawatts. If the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program constructs a fusion test reactor of approximately 400 MW of fusion power as a next step in fusion power development, such a facility could be used later as a production reactor in a spinoff application. A construction decision in the late 1980s could result in an operating production reactor in the late 1990s. A magnetic fusion production reactor (MFPR) has four potential advantages over a fission production reactor: (1) no fissile material input is needed; (2) no fissioning exists in the tritium mode and very low fissioning exists in the plutonium mode thus avoiding the meltdown hazard; (3) the cost will probably be lower because of the smaller thermal power required; (4) and no reprocessing plant is needed in the tritium mode. The MFPR also has two disadvantages: (1) it will be more costly to operate because it consumes rather than sells

  11. Preliminary analysis of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the determination of production expressions has provided for the basis of a parametric study. Parameters involving the input and output rate of a process system, processing yield factors, and multiple processing steps and production lines have been used to develop an understanding of their dependence on the rate of target injection for laser fusion. Preliminary results have indicated that a parametric study of this type will be important in the selection of processing methods to be used in the final production scheme of a target factory

  12. Understanding fuel magnetization and mix using secondary nuclear reactions in magneto-inertial fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P F; Knapp, P F; Hansen, S B; Gomez, M R; Hahn, K D; Sinars, D B; Peterson, K J; Slutz, S A; Sefkow, A B; Awe, T J; Harding, E; Jennings, C A; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Cuneo, M E; Geissel, M; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Herrmann, M C; Hess, M H; Johns, O; Lamppa, D C; Martin, M R; McBride, R D; Porter, J L; Robertson, G K; Rochau, G A; Rovang, D C; Ruiz, C L; Savage, M E; Smith, I C; Stygar, W A; Vesey, R A

    2014-10-10

    Magnetizing the fuel in inertial confinement fusion relaxes ignition requirements by reducing thermal conductivity and changing the physics of burn product confinement. Diagnosing the level of fuel magnetization during burn is critical to understanding target performance in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) implosions. In pure deuterium fusion plasma, 1.01 MeV tritons are emitted during deuterium-deuterium fusion and can undergo secondary deuterium-tritium reactions before exiting the fuel. Increasing the fuel magnetization elongates the path lengths through the fuel of some of the tritons, enhancing their probability of reaction. Based on this feature, a method to diagnose fuel magnetization using the ratio of overall deuterium-tritium to deuterium-deuterium neutron yields is developed. Analysis of anisotropies in the secondary neutron energy spectra further constrain the measurement. Secondary reactions also are shown to provide an upper bound for the volumetric fuel-pusher mix in MIF. The analysis is applied to recent MIF experiments [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z Pulsed Power Facility, indicating that significant magnetic confinement of charged burn products was achieved and suggesting a relatively low-mix environment. Both of these are essential features of future ignition-scale MIF designs.

  13. Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musinski, D.L.; Henderson, T.M.; Simms, R.J.; Pattinson, T.R.; Jacobs, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Most current laser-fusion targets consist of hollow spherical glass shells which have been filled with a mixture of gaseous deuterium-tritium fuel. Theoretical considerations suggest that optimum yields can be obtained from these targets if the fuel is condensed as a uniform liquid or solid layer on the inner surface of the glass shell at the time it is irradiated. In principle, this can be accomplished in a straightforward way by cooling the target below the condensation or freezing point of the fuel. In practice, cryogenic targets can appear in routine laser experiments only when the necessary cryogenic technology is reliably integrated into experimental target chambers. Significant progress has been made recently in this field. The authors will discuss the scientific basis and the various technological features of a system which has allowed the successful irradiation of uniform solid-fuel-layer targets

  14. Magnetic fusion energy annual report, July 1975--September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.A.; McGregor, C.K.; Gottlieb, L.

    1976-01-01

    Supporting research activities continued to provide the technical basis for future mirror-confinement experiments. The industrial development of a high-current, high-field, high-current-density Nb 3 Sn conductor was the main goal of the superconducting magnet program. Beam direct conversion was being developed as a means of raising the efficiency of neutral-beam production, and plasma direct conversion was shown to work as predicted. Conceptual designs were completed for various types of power reactors. The neutral-beam program progressed in three areas: experimental work, facility construction, and conceptual design. Experiments on the 14-MeV Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) included participation by experimenters from many different institutions. Methods for processing tritium-contaminated wastes were pursued, as were studies of tritiated methane in stainless-steel vessels, the control of tritium in mirror fusion reactors, and the development of titanium tritide targets for the RTNS. The report period witnessed a rapid maturation in ability to describe theoretically the behavior of ion-cyclotron noise in the 2XIIB and the influence of that noise on the confined plasma. The high beta values achieved in 2XIIB prompted much theoretical analysis of the properties of high-beta equilibria and stability, including those of a field-reversed state. Excellent progress was made on the development of computer codes applicable to magnetic-mirror problems, with emphasis on three-dimensional, finite-beta, guiding-center equilibria, field-reversal, and Fokker-Planck codes

  15. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load.

  16. Concepts for fabrication of inertial fusion energy targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, A. (Arthur), Jr.; Hoffer, J. K. (James K.); Gobby, P. L. (Peter L.); Steckle, W. P. (Warren P.), Jr.; Goodin, D. T. (Daniel T.); Besenbruch, G. E. (Gottfried E.); Schultz, K. R. (Kenneth R.)

    2001-01-01

    Future inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will have a Target Fabrication Facility (TFF) that must produce approximately 500,000 targets per day. To achieve a relatively low cost of electricity, the cost to produce these targets will need to be less than approximately $0.25 per target. In this paper the status on the development of concepts for a TFF to produce targets for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) reactor, such as HYLIFE II, and a laser direct drive fusion reactor such as Sombrero, is discussed. The baseline target that is produced in the HIF TFF is similar to the close-coupled indirect drive target designed by Callahan-Miller and Tabak at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This target consists of a cryogenic hohlraum that is made of a metal case and a variety of metal foams and metal-doped organic foams. The target contains a DT-filled CH capsule. The baseline direct drive target is the design developed by Bodner and coworkers at Naval Research Laboratory. HIF targets can be filled with DT before or after assembly of the capsule into the hohlraum. Assembly of targets before filling allows assembly operations to be done at room temperature, but tritium inventories are much larger due to the large volume that the hohlraum occupies in the fill system. Assembly of targets cold after filling allows substantial reduction in tritium inventory, but this requires assembly of targets at cryogenic temperature. A model being developed to evaluate the tritium inventories associated with each of the assembly and fill options indicates that filling targets before assembling the capsule into the hohlraum, filling at temperatures as high as possible, and reducing dead-volumes in the fill system as much as possible offers the potential to reduce tritium inventories to acceptable levels. Use of enhanced DT ice layering techniques, such as infrared layering can reduce tritium inventories significantly by reducing the layering time and therefore the number of capsules being layered

  17. Stored energy in fusion magnet materials irradiated at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, R.L.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.; Coltman, R.R.

    1989-08-01

    During the power cycle of a fusion reactor, the radiation reaching the superconducting magnet system will produce an accumulation of immobile defects in the magnet materials. During a subsequent warm-up cycle of the magnet system, the defects will become mobile and interact to produce new defect configurations as well as some mutual defect annihilations which generate heat-the release of stored energy. This report presents a brief qualitative discussion of the mechanisms for the production and release of stored energy in irradiated materials, a theoretical analysis of the thermal response of irradiated materials, theoretical analysis of the thermal response of irradiated materials during warm-up, and a discussion of the possible impact of stored energy release on fusion magnet operation 20 refs

  18. Cost assessment of a generic magnetic fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Delene, J.G.; Parsly, L.F.; Ashby, D.E.T.F.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1986-03-01

    A generic reactor model is used to examine the economic viability of generating electricity by magnetic fusion. The simple model uses components that are representative of those used in previous reactor studies of deuterium-tritium-burning tokamaks, stellarators, bumpy tori, reversed-field pinches (RFPs), and tandem mirrors. Conservative costing assumptions are made. The generic reactor is not a tokamak; rather, it is intended to emphasize what is common to all magnetic fusion rectors. The reactor uses a superconducting toroidal coil set to produce the dominant magnetic field. To this extent, it is not as good an approximation to systems such as the RFP in which the main field is produced by a plasma current. The main output of the study is the cost of electricity as a function of the weight and size of the fusion core - blanket, shield, structure, and coils. The model shows that a 1200-MW(e) power plant with a fusion core weight of about 10,000 tonnes should be competitive in the future with fission and fossil plants. Studies of the sensitivity of the model to variations in the assumptions show that this result is not sensitively dependent on any given assumption. Of particular importance is the result that a fusion reactor of this scale may be realized with only moderate advances in physics and technology capabilities

  19. Magnet Design Considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kessel, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); El-Guebaly, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) Fusion Technology Institute; Titus, P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility that provides a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared with ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, i.e., 30 times higher neutron fluence with three orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center with a plasma major radius of 4.8 m and a minor radius of 1.2 m and a peak field of 15.5 T on the toroidal field (TF) coils for the FNSF. Both low-temperature superconductors (LTS) and high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high-performance ternary restacked-rod process Nb3Sn strands for TF magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high-aspect-ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets, but low-activation-jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. The material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.

  20. Magnetically targeted delivery through cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Sahar; Mair, Lamar O.; Chowdhury, Sagar; Nacev, Alek; Hilaman, Ryan; Stepanov, Pavel; Baker-McKee, James; Ijanaten, Said; Koudelka, Christian; English, Bradley; Malik, Pulkit; Weinberg, Irving N.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we have invented a method of delivering drugs deep into articular cartilage with shaped dynamic magnetic fields acting on small metallic magnetic nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol coating and average diameter of 30 nm. It was shown that transport of magnetic nanoparticles through the entire thickness of bovine articular cartilage can be controlled by a combined alternating magnetic field at 100 Hz frequency and static magnetic field of 0.8 tesla (T) generated by 1" dia. x 2" thick permanent magnet. Magnetic nanoparticles transport through bovine articular cartilage samples was investigated at various settings of magnetic field and time durations. Combined application of an alternating magnetic field and the static field gradient resulted in a nearly 50 times increase in magnetic nanoparticles transport in bovine articular cartilage tissue as compared with static field conditions. This method can be applied to locally deliver therapeutic-loaded magnetic nanoparticles deep into articular cartilage to prevent cartilage degeneration and promote cartilage repair in osteoarthritis.

  1. Magnetically targeted delivery through cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Jafari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have invented a method of delivering drugs deep into articular cartilage with shaped dynamic magnetic fields acting on small metallic magnetic nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol coating and average diameter of 30 nm. It was shown that transport of magnetic nanoparticles through the entire thickness of bovine articular cartilage can be controlled by a combined alternating magnetic field at 100 Hz frequency and static magnetic field of 0.8 tesla (T generated by 1" dia. x 2" thick permanent magnet. Magnetic nanoparticles transport through bovine articular cartilage samples was investigated at various settings of magnetic field and time durations. Combined application of an alternating magnetic field and the static field gradient resulted in a nearly 50 times increase in magnetic nanoparticles transport in bovine articular cartilage tissue as compared with static field conditions. This method can be applied to locally deliver therapeutic-loaded magnetic nanoparticles deep into articular cartilage to prevent cartilage degeneration and promote cartilage repair in osteoarthritis.

  2. Thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Brown, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual design studies have been carried out on an integrated fusion/chemical plant system using a Tandem Mirror Reactor fusion energy source to drive the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Water-Splitting Cycle and produce hydrogen as a future feedstock for synthetic fuels. Blanket design studies for the Tandem Mirror Reactor show that several design alternatives are available for providing heat at sufficiently high temperatures to drive the General Atomic Cycle. The concept of a Joule-boosted decomposer is introduced in one of the systems investigated to provide heat electrically for the highest temperature step in the cycle (the SO 3 decomposition step), and thus lower blanket design requirements and costs. Flowsheeting and conceptual process designs have been developed for a complete fusion-driven hydrogen plant, and the information has been used to develop a plot plan for the plant and to estimate hydrogen production costs. Both public and private utility financing approaches have been used to obtain hydrogen production costs of $12-14/GJ based on July 1980 dollars

  3. Coherence imaging spectro-polarimetry for magnetic fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of developments in imaging spectro-polarimetry for magnetic fusion diagnostics. Using various multiplexing strategies, it is possible to construct optical polarization interferometers that deliver images of underlying physical parameters such as flow speed, temperature (Doppler effect) or magnetic pitch angle (motional Stark and Zeeman effects). This paper also describes and presents first results for a new spatial heterodyne interferometric system used for both Doppler and polarization spectroscopy.

  4. Ultrasmooth plasma polymerized coatings for laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Witt, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets were deposited up to 135 μm thick by plasma polymerization onto 140 μm diameter DT filled glass microspheres. Ultrasmooth surfaces (no defect higher than 0.1 μm) were achieved by eliminating particulate contamination. Process generated particles were eliminated by determining the optimum operating conditions of power, gas flow, and pressure, and maintaining these conditions through feedback control. From a study of coating defects grown over known surface irregularities, a quantitative relationship between irregularity size, film thickness, and defect size was determined. This relationship was used to set standards for the maximum microshell surface irregularity tolerable in the production of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon coated laser fusion targets

  5. Metal coatings for laser fusion targets by electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illige, J.D.; Yu, C.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Metal coated laser fusion targets must be dense, uniform spherically symmetric to within a few percent of their diameters and smooth to better than a few tenths of a micron. Electroplating offers some unique advantages including low temperature deposition, a wide choice of elements and substantial industrial plating technology. We have evaluatd electroless and electroplating systems for gold and copper, identified the factors responsible for small grain size, and plated glass microspheres with both metals to achieve smooth surfaces and highly symmetric coatings. We have developed plating cells which sustain the microspheres in continuous random motion during plating. We have established techniques for deposition of the initial conductive adherent layer on the glass microsphere surface. Coatings as thick as 15 μm have been made. The equipment is simple, relatively inexpensive and may be adopted for high volume production of laser fusion targets

  6. Superconducting (radiation hardened) magnets for mirror fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Miller, J.R.; Perkins, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for mirror fusion have evolved considerably since the Baseball II magnet in 1970. Recently, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) yin-yang has been tested to a full field of 7.7 T with radial dimensions representative of a full scale reactor. Now the emphasis has turned to the manufacture of very high field solenoids (choke coils) that are placed between the tandem mirror central cell and the yin-yang anchor-plug set. For MFTF-B the choke coil field reaches 12 T, while in future devices like the MFTF-Upgrade, Fusion Power Demonstration and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) reactor the fields are doubled. Besides developing high fields, the magnets must be radiation hardened. Otherwise, thick neutron shields increase the magnet size to an unacceptable weight and cost. Neutron fluences in superconducting magnets must be increased by an order of magnitude or more. Insulators must withstand 10 10 to 10 11 rads, while magnet stability must be retained after the copper has been exposed to fluence above 10 19 neutrons/cm 2

  7. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: quench detection and energy dump, stationary normal region of conductor, current leads, electrical arcing, electrical shorts, conductor joints, forces from unequal currents, eddy current effects, cryostat rupture, vacuum failure, fringing field and instrumentation for safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  8. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  9. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  10. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates

  11. Polyvinyl alcohol coating of polystyrene inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalai, P.; Lee, M.C.; Crawley, R.L.; Downs, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target made of polystyrene is first levitated in an acoustic field. The surface of the target is then etched using an appropriate solution (e.g., cyclohexane) to enhance the wetting characteristics. A specially prepared polyvinyl alcohol solution is atomized using an acoustic atomizer and deposited on the surface of the target. The solution is air dried to form a thin coating (2 μm) on the target (outside diameter approx.350--850 μm). Thicker coatings are obtained by repeated applications of the coating solution. Preliminary results indicate that uniform coatings may be achievable on the targets with a background surface smoothness in the order of 1000 A

  12. Information management data base for fusion target fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.

    1983-01-01

    A computer-based data management system has been developed to handle data associated with target fabrication processes including glass microballoon characterization, gas filling, materials coating, and storage locations. The system provides automatic data storage and computation, flexible data entry procedures, fast access, automated report generation, and secure data transfer. It resides on a CDC CYBER 175 computer and is compatible with the CDC data base language Query Update, but is based on custom fortran software interacting directly with the CYBER's file management system. The described data base maintains detailed, accurate, and readily available records of fusion targets information

  13. Centralized supercomputer support for magnetic fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, D.; Tull, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    High-speed computers with large memories are vital to magnetic fusion energy research. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), transport, equilibrium, Vlasov, particle, and Fokker-Planck codes that model plasma behavior play an important role in designing experimental hardware and interpreting the resulting data, as well as in advancing plasma theory itself. The size, architecture, and software of supercomputers to run these codes are often the crucial constraints on the benefits such computational modeling can provide. Hence, vector computers such as the CRAY-1 offer a valuable research resource. To meet the computational needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) was established in 1974 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Supercomputers at the central computing facility are linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major fusion laboratories by a satellite communication network. In addition to providing large-scale computing, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes and data among the many fusion researchers in a cost-effective manner

  14. Role of magnetic resonance urography in pediatric renal fusion anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Sherwin S.; Ntoulia, Aikaterini; Khrichenko, Dmitry; Back, Susan J.; Darge, Kassa; Tasian, Gregory E.; Dillman, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Renal fusion is on a spectrum of congenital abnormalities that occur due to disruption of the migration process of the embryonic kidneys from the pelvis to the retroperitoneal renal fossae. Clinically, renal fusion anomalies are often found incidentally and associated with increased risk for complications, such as urinary tract obstruction, infection and urolithiasis. These anomalies are most commonly imaged using ultrasound for anatomical definition and less frequently using renal scintigraphy to quantify differential renal function and assess urinary tract drainage. Functional magnetic resonance urography (fMRU) is an advanced imaging technique that combines the excellent soft-tissue contrast of conventional magnetic resonance (MR) images with the quantitative assessment based on contrast medium uptake and excretion kinetics to provide information on renal function and drainage. fMRU has been shown to be clinically useful in evaluating a number of urological conditions. A highly sensitive and radiation-free imaging modality, fMRU can provide detailed morphological and functional information that can facilitate conservative and/or surgical management of children with renal fusion anomalies. This paper reviews the embryological basis of the different types of renal fusion anomalies, their imaging appearances at fMRU, complications associated with fusion anomalies, and the important role of fMRU in diagnosing and managing children with these anomalies. (orig.)

  15. Role of magnetic resonance urography in pediatric renal fusion anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Sherwin S. [Children' s Mercy Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Ntoulia, Aikaterini; Khrichenko, Dmitry [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Body Imaging, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Back, Susan J.; Darge, Kassa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Body Imaging, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tasian, Gregory E. [University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dillman, Jonathan R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Thoracoabdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Renal fusion is on a spectrum of congenital abnormalities that occur due to disruption of the migration process of the embryonic kidneys from the pelvis to the retroperitoneal renal fossae. Clinically, renal fusion anomalies are often found incidentally and associated with increased risk for complications, such as urinary tract obstruction, infection and urolithiasis. These anomalies are most commonly imaged using ultrasound for anatomical definition and less frequently using renal scintigraphy to quantify differential renal function and assess urinary tract drainage. Functional magnetic resonance urography (fMRU) is an advanced imaging technique that combines the excellent soft-tissue contrast of conventional magnetic resonance (MR) images with the quantitative assessment based on contrast medium uptake and excretion kinetics to provide information on renal function and drainage. fMRU has been shown to be clinically useful in evaluating a number of urological conditions. A highly sensitive and radiation-free imaging modality, fMRU can provide detailed morphological and functional information that can facilitate conservative and/or surgical management of children with renal fusion anomalies. This paper reviews the embryological basis of the different types of renal fusion anomalies, their imaging appearances at fMRU, complications associated with fusion anomalies, and the important role of fMRU in diagnosing and managing children with these anomalies. (orig.)

  16. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems.

  17. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems

  18. Overview of FAR-TECH's magnetic fusion energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Spencer, J. Andrew; Svidzinski, V. A.; Zhao, L.

    2017-10-01

    FAR-TECH, Inc. has been working on magnetic fusion energy research over two-decades. During the years, we have developed unique approaches to help understanding the physics, and resolving issues in magnetic fusion energy. The specific areas of work have been in modeling RF waves in plasmas, MHD modeling and mode-identification, and nano-particle plasma jet and its application to disruption mitigation. Our research highlights in recent years will be presented with examples, specifically, developments of FullWave (Full Wave RF code), PMARS (Parallelized MARS code), and HEM (Hybrid ElectroMagnetic code). In addition, nano-particle plasma-jet (NPPJ) and its application for disruption mitigation will be presented. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  19. Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-05-01

    Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ''closed'' and 'open''. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research

  20. Fabrication and characterization of cryogenic targets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, H.; Kim, K.

    1979-08-01

    A new technique has been developed which is capable of fabricating uniform cryogenic targets for use in inertial confinement fusion. The essence of the technique is to directly wet a target with a cold helium gas jet, which results in freezing of the DT mixture contained in the target. A controlled amount of current is pulsed through a heater wire surrounding the target, giving rise to fast evaporation and refreezing of the DT-condensate into a uniform layer. Experiments, which have been performed with D 2 -filled glass microshells, successfully produce uniform layers of both liquid and solid D 2 inside the glass shells. A set of data illustrating the technique is presented and analyzed

  1. Alternative divertor target concepts for next step fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazul, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    The operational conditions of a divertor target in the next steps of fusion devices are more severe in comparison with ITER. The current divertor designs and technologies have a limited application concerning these conditions, and so new design concepts/technologies are required. The main reasons which practically prevent the use of the traditional motionless solid divertor target are analyzed. We describe several alternative divertor target concepts in this paper. The comparative analysis of these concepts (including the advantages and the drawbacks) is made and the prospects for their practical implementation are prioritized. The concept of the swept divertor target with a liquid metal interlayer between the moving armour and motionless heat-sink is presented in more detail. The critical issues of this design are listed and outlined, and the possible experiments are presented.

  2. Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee report on recommended fusion program priorities and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee recommends a new program strategy with the following principal features: (1) Initiation in FY86 of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX), a moderate-cost tokamak reactor device (less than $1 B PACE) designed to achieve ignition and long-pulse equilibrium burn. Careful trade-off studies are needed before making key design choices in interrelated technology areas. Cost reductions relative to earlier plans can be realized by exploiting new plasma technology, by locating the TFCX at the TFTR site, and by assigning responsibility for complementary reactor engineering tasks to other sectors of the fusion program. (2) Potential utilization of the MFTF Upgrade to provide a cost-effective means for quasi-steady-state testing of blanket and power-system components, complementary to TFCX. This will depend on future assessments of the data base for tandem mirrors. (3) Vigorous pursuit of the broad US base program in magnetic confinement, including new machine starts, where appropriate, at approximately the present total level of support. (4) Utilization of Development and Technology programs in plasma and magnet technology in support of specific hardware requirements of the TFCX and of other major fusion facilities, so as to minimize overall program cost

  3. Large magnetic coils for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Ulbricht, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of research in this field and outlines future tasks and experiments for the Next European Torus (NET). Research and development work accomplished so far permits generation and safe operation of magnetic fields up to 9 T by means of NbTi coils. Fields up to 11 T are feasible if the coils are cooled with superfluid helium at 1.8 K. The potential of the Nb 3 Sn coils promise achievement of magnetic fields between 12 and 13 T. (MM) [de

  4. High temperature superconductors for fusion magnets -influence of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudy, M.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present the results of study of influence of neutron irradiation of high temperature superconductors for fusion magnets. High temperature superconductors (type of YBCO (Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxygen)) are strong candidates to be applied in the next step of fusion devices. Defects induced by fast neutrons are effective pinning centres, which can significantly improve critical current densities and reduce J c anisotropy. Due to induced lattice disorder, T c is reduced. Requirements for ITER (DEMO) are partially achieved at 64 K.

  5. Henipavirus Mediated Membrane Fusion, Virus Entry and Targeted Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar B. Nikolov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paramyxoviridae genus Henipavirus is presently represented by the type species Hendra and Nipah viruses which are both recently emerged zoonotic viral pathogens responsible for repeated outbreaks associated with high morbidity and mortality in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. These enveloped viruses bind and enter host target cells through the coordinated activities of their attachment (G and class I fusion (F envelope glycoproteins. The henipavirus G glycoprotein interacts with host cellular B class ephrins, triggering conformational alterations in G that lead to the activation of the F glycoprotein, which facilitates the membrane fusion process. Using the recently published structures of HeV-G and NiV-G and other paramyxovirus glycoproteins, we review the features of the henipavirus envelope glycoproteins that appear essential for mediating the viral fusion process, including receptor binding, G-F interaction, F activation, with an emphasis on G and the mutations that disrupt viral infectivity. Finally, recent candidate therapeutics for henipavirus-mediated disease are summarized in light of their ability to inhibit HeV and NiV entry by targeting their G and F glycoproteins.

  6. Evaluation of alternate magnetic fusion concepts, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    The objective of this exercise was to evaluate all of the alternate concepts supported by DMFE with regard to: (1) confidence in the physics assumptions; (2) confidence in the development of the requisite technologies; and (3) the desirability of its pure fusion reactor configuration. A primary concern in developing the evaluation technique described in this section was the need to obtain a uniform, critical evaluation. Motivated by this concern, it was decided to have all of the concepts evaluated on the same basis or criteria and to have all concepts evaluated by the same group of experts. The evaluation criteria and procedures which were developed for this purpose are described. The concepts evaluated were the EBT, RFP, TORMAC, field reversing ion rings, linear theta pinch, laser heated solenoid, e-beam heated solenoid, multiple mirrors, fast linear reactor, LINUS, and SURMAC

  7. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2009-07-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  8. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  9. Ultrasmooth plasma polymerized coatings for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Witt, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion were deposited up to 135μm thick by plasma polymerization onto 140 μm diameter DT filled glass microspheres. Ultrasmooth surfaces (no defect higher than 0.1 μm) were achieved by eliminating particulate contamination. Process generated particles were eliminated by determining the optimum operating conditions of power (20 watts), gas flow (0.3 sccm trans-2-butene, 10.0 sccm hydrogen), and pressure (75 millitorr), and maintaining these conditions through feedback control. From a study of coating defects grown over known surface irregularities, a quantitative relationship between irregularity size, film thickness, and defect size was determined. This relationship was used to set standards for the maximum microshell surface irregularity tolerable in the production of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon coated laser fusion targets

  10. On the efficiency of conical targets for laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovskij, A.V.; Korobkin, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages and drawbacks of conical targets (CT) for laser fusion (LF) are discussed. Possibility of the laser power reduction, laser pulse lengthening and neutron yield increase are analyzed for an ideal conical target with absolutely rigid and heat-proof walls as compared to a spherical target of the same mass. A simple theory is suggested which makes it possible to take into account an effect of walls on the fusion process in the conical target with gaseous fuel and heavy shell. Energy losses due to wall deformations and heat conduction are estimated. An influence of these effects on the neutron yield is estimated. CT used in the LF experiments are found to have serious drawbacks in comparison with spherical ones. These drawbacks are connected with the effect of walls on the processes taking place in CT. Analysis of CT, for which the effect of walls is not significant, points up some definite advantages of CT as compared with spherical one. These advantages are the possibility of laser pulse lengthening and laser power reduction in comparison with the irradiation of a sphere of an equal mass. These two positive qualities are connected with the fact that CT has large linear dimensions [ru

  11. Magnetic stochasticity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas chaos of field lines and charged particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullaev, Sadrilla

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically consider the modern aspects of chaotic dynamics of magnetic field lines and charged particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas.  The analytical models describing the generic features of equilibrium magnetic fields and  magnetic perturbations in modern fusion devices are presented. It describes mathematical and physical aspects of onset of chaos, generic properties of the structure of stochastic magnetic fields, transport of charged particles in tokamaks induced by magnetic perturbations, new aspects of particle turbulent transport, etc. The presentation is based on the classical and new unique mathematical tools of Hamiltonian dynamics, like the action--angle formalism, classical perturbation theory, canonical transformations of variables, symplectic mappings, the Poincaré-Melnikov integrals. They are extensively used for analytical studies as well as for numerical simulations of magnetic field lines, particle dynamics, their spatial structures and  statisti...

  12. Construction and testing of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozman, T.; Shimer, D.; VanSant, J.; Zbasnik, J.

    1986-08-01

    This paper describes the construction and testing of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility superconducting magnet set. Construction of the first Yin Yang magnet was started in 1978. And although this particular magnet was later modified, the final construction of these magnets was not completed until 1985. When completed these 42 magnets weighed over 1200 tonnes and had a maximum stored energy of approximately 1200 MJ at full field. Together with power supplies, controls and liquid nitrogen radiation shields the cost of the fabrication of this system was over $100M. General Dynamics/Convair Division was responsible for the system design and the fabrication of 20 of the magnets. This contract was the largest single procurement action at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. During the PACE acceptance tests, the 26 major magnets were operated at full field for more than 24 hours while other MFTF subsystems were tested. From all of the data, the magnets operated to the performance specifications. For physics operation in the future, additional helium and nitrogen leak checking and repair will be necessary. In this report we will discuss the operation and testing of the MFTF Magnet System, the world's largest superconducting magnet set built to date. The topics covered include a schedule of the major events, summary of the fabrication work, summary of the installation work, summary of testing and test results, and lessons learned

  13. History and status of magnetic fusion research; Evolution et statut des recherches sur la fusion controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquinot, J. [CEA Saclay, Cabinet du Haut Commissaire, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-02-15

    Ever since the understanding of the basic process which powers the stars has been elucidated, humanity has been dreaming to master controlled fusion for peaceful purposes. Controlled fusion in a steady state regime must use magnetic confinement of a gas (plasma) heated up to 150 millions degrees. Physics and technology involved in such a state are extremely complex and went through many up and down phases. Nevertheless, the overall progress has been spectacular and a significant amount of energy could be produced in a well controlled manner. On this basis, an international organisation of unprecedented magnitude involving 34 countries has started working in Cadarache for the construction of the ITER project. It aims at the scientific demonstration of controlled fusion at the level of 500 MW and a power gain of 10. (author)

  14. Superconducting magnet radiation limit considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, M.E.; Walstrom, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation limits for fusion reactor magnets have a direct impact on the cost of electricity. For example, reducing the inboard shield by 1 cm saves up to $3 million in the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment cost. The magnet components most sensitive to radiation damage are the superconductor, stabilizer, and insulators. Nuclear heating in the magnet affects the design and also impacts the economic performance of the reactor through increased refrigeration costs. The radiation effects in the different components of the magnet are related, as all of them are determined by the flux level in the magnet. Hence, in efforts to push radiation limits, these effects should be considered simultaneously. Furthermore, the levels of radiation effects that correspond to the optimum nuclear heating determined from economic trade-off analysis will be useful in specifying the fluence, dose, and stabilization limit goals for the magnet development program. In this paper, we review the available irradiation data and assess the need for achieving higher irradiation levels

  15. Heavy ion fusion targets; issues for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, Roger O.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 36 years researchers have suggested and evaluated a large number of target designs for heavy ion inertial fusion. The different target designs can be classified according to their mode of ignition, their method of implosion, and their size. Ignition modes include hot-spot ignition and fast ignition. Methods of implosion include direct drive and indirect drive. Historically there has been significant work on indirectly driven targets with hot-spot ignition. Recently there has been increasing interest in directly driven targets with ion driven fast ignition. In principle, fast ignition might lead to improved target performance. On the other hand, fast ignition imposes stringent requirements on accelerators and beam physics. Furthermore, fast ignition magnifies the importance of a number of traditional target physics issues associated with ion beam energy deposition and fuel preheat. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various classes of targets. It will also discuss some issues that must be resolved to assess the feasibility of ion fast ignition

  16. Target injection and tracking for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Moir, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In an inertial fusion power plant, several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber with speeds of about 100 m s{sup -1}. This speed can be achieved with an acceleration in the range from 1000 to 10 000 m s{sup -2}. The total accuracy of driver beam pointing and target position prediction must be less than {+-}0.6 mm for a 3 mm beam spot radius. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane supporting the capsule in the hohlraum will allow nearly 2000 m s{sup -2} acceleration. The strength of frozen DT in the capsule is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10 000 m s{sup -2} if the DT temperature is less than 17 K. A gas gun is the preferred device for injecting indirect drive targets owing to its simplicity and proven reliability. The amount of gas required for each target (about 10-100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommendced with a cam-operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Slots near the muzzle of the gun barrel are recommended to vent gas and thereby to improve accuracy and to aid gas pumping. Optical target tracking and electronic timing devices can predict target arrival time with sufficient accuracy. Target steering by electrostatic deflection of the in-flight target is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to point the beams actively. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive. An experiment has been designed to develop target injection and to verify the predicted accuracy of sequential injection and tracking of multiple targets. (orig.)

  17. Image fusion for dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Martin O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multivariate imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI have been shown to provide valuable information for medical diagnosis. Even though these techniques provide new information, integrating and evaluating the much wider range of information is a challenging task for the human observer. This task may be assisted with the use of image fusion algorithms. Methods In this paper, image fusion based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA is proposed for the first time. It is demonstrated that a priori knowledge about the data domain can be easily incorporated into the parametrisation of the KPCA, leading to task-oriented visualisations of the multivariate data. The results of the fusion process are compared with those of the well-known and established standard linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA by means of temporal sequences of 3D MRI volumes from six patients who took part in a breast cancer screening study. Results The PCA and KPCA algorithms are able to integrate information from a sequence of MRI volumes into informative gray value or colour images. By incorporating a priori knowledge, the fusion process can be automated and optimised in order to visualise suspicious lesions with high contrast to normal tissue. Conclusion Our machine learning based image fusion approach maps the full signal space of a temporal DCE-MRI sequence to a single meaningful visualisation with good tissue/lesion contrast and thus supports the radiologist during manual image evaluation.

  18. Development of target capsules for muon catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, K.D.; Jones, S.E.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A series of Muon Catalyzed Fusion experiments has been conducted at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility to determine how many fusion reactions one muon would catalyze under various temperature, pressure, contamination, and tritium concentration conditions. Target capsules to contain deuterium and tritium at elevated temperatures and pressures were engineered for a maximum temperature of 540 K (512 0 F) and a maximum pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig). Experimental data collected with these capsules indicated that the number of fusion reactions per muon continued to increase with temperature up to the 540-K design limit. Theory had indicated that the reaction rate should peak at approximately 540 K, but this was not confirmed during the experiments. A second generation of capsules which have a maximum design temperature of 800 K (980 0 F) and a maximum design pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig) has now been engineered. These new capsules will be used to further study the muon catalysis rate versus deuterium-tritium mixture temperature

  19. Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, M.; Kazimi, M.S.; Siu, N.O.; Thome, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs

  20. Laser-start-up system for magnetic mirror fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.; Thomas, S.R.; Denhoy, B.S.; Chargin, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    A CO 2 laser system has been developed at LLL to provide hot start-up plasmas for magnetic mirror fusion experiments. A frozen ammonia pellet is irradiated with a laser power density in excess of 10 13 W/cm 2 in a 50-ns pulse. This system uses commercially available laser systems. Optical components were fabricated both by direct machining and standard techniques. The technologies used in this system are directly applicable to reactor scale systems

  1. The Swedish fusion research programme on magnetic confinement 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1978-02-01

    A review is given on the activities and plans for research on plasma physics and controlled fusion at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, with descriptions and motivations of the research lines being conducted. These activities include investigations on plasma-neutral gas interaction, development of special principles for plasma stabilization, magnetic confinement schemes being based mainly on poloidal fields, as well as the generation, heating, and diagnostics of plasmas being ''impermeable'' to neutral gas. (author)

  2. Dynamic identification of plasma magnetic contour in fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, P.; Trevisan, F.; Cavinato, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method to identify the plasma magnetic contour in fusion machines, when eddy currents are present in the conducting structures surrounding the plasma. The approach presented is based on the integration of an electromagnetic model of the plasma with a lumped parameters model of the conducting structures around the plasma. This approach has been validated against experimental data from RFX, a reversed field pinch machine. (author)

  3. Neutral-beam systems for magnetic-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Neutral beams for magnetic fusion reactors are at an early stage of development, and require considerable effort to make them into the large, reliable, and efficient systems needed for future power plants. To optimize their performance to establish specific goals for component development, systematic analysis of the beamlines is essential. Three ion source characteristics are discussed: arc-cathode life, gas efficiency, and beam divergence, and their significance in a high-energy neutral-beam system is evaluated

  4. Modelling of surface evolution of rough surface on divertor target in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shuyu; Liu, Shengguang; Sun, Jizhong; Kirschner, A.; Kawamura, G.; Tskhakaya, D.; Ding, Rui; Luo, Guangnan; Wang, Dezhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the surface evolution of rough surface on divertor target in fusion devices. • The effects of gyration motion and E × B drift affect 3D angular distribution. • A larger magnetic field angle leads to a reduced net eroded areal density. • The rough surface evolution affects the physical sputtering yield. - Abstract: The 3D Monte-Carlo code SURO has been used to study the surface evolution of rough surface on the divertor target in fusion devices. The edge plasma at divertor region is modelled by the SDPIC code and used as input data for SURO. Coupled with SDPIC, SURO can perform more sophisticated simulations to calculate the local angle and surface evolution of rough surface. The simulation results show that the incident direction of magnetic field, gyration and E × B force has a significant impact on 3D angular distribution of background plasma and accordingly on the erosion of rough surface. The net eroded areal density of rough surface is studied by varying the magnetic field angle with surface normal. The evolution of the microscopic morphology of rough surface can lead to a significant change in the physical sputtering yield

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ''Capabilities Activation'' and ''Capabilities Demonstration'' to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ''Small Glass Shell Deliveries'' and ''Composite Polymer Capsules'' for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ''Onsite Support'' at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ''Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats'' and established ''Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities'' at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ''Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.'' We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process

  6. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  7. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  8. Minimizing scatter-losses during pre-heat for magneto-inertial fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam J.; Awe, Thomas J.; Bliss, David E.; Glinsky, Michael E.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher; Kimmel, Mark W.; Knapp, Patrick; Lewis, Sean M.; Peterson, Kyle; Schollmeier, Marius; Schwarz, Jens; Shores, Jonathon E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Smith, Ian C.; Speas, C. Shane; Vesey, Roger A.; Weis, Matthew R.; Porter, John L.

    2018-02-01

    The size, temporal and spatial shape, and energy content of a laser pulse for the pre-heat phase of magneto-inertial fusion affect the ability to penetrate the window of the laser-entrance-hole and to heat the fuel behind it. High laser intensities and dense targets are subject to laser-plasma-instabilities (LPI), which can lead to an effective loss of pre-heat energy or to pronounced heating of areas that should stay unexposed. While this problem has been the subject of many studies over the last decades, the investigated parameters were typically geared towards traditional laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with densities either at 10% and above or at 1% and below the laser's critical density, electron temperatures of 3-5 keV, and laser powers near (or in excess of) 1 × 1015 W/cm2. In contrast, Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010) and Slutz and Vesey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 025003 (2012)] currently operates at 5% of the laser's critical density using much thicker windows (1.5-3.5 μm) than the sub-micron thick windows of traditional ICF hohlraum targets. This article describes the Pecos target area at Sandia National Laboratories using the Z-Beamlet Laser Facility [Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2421 (2005)] as a platform to study laser induced pre-heat for magneto-inertial fusion targets, and the related progress for Sandia's MagLIF program. Forward and backward scattered light were measured and minimized at larger spatial scales with lower densities, temperatures, and powers compared to LPI studies available in literature.

  9. Costs of magnets for large fusion power reactors: Phase I, cost of superconductors for dc magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.

    1972-01-01

    Projections are made for dc magnet conductor costs for large fusion power reactors. A mature fusion economy is assumed sometime after 2000 A. D. in which approximately 90,000 MW(e) of fusion reactors are constructed/year. State of the art critical current vs. field characteristics for superconductors are used in these projections. Present processing techniques are used as a basis for the design of large plants sized to produce approximately one-half of the conductor needed for the fusion magnets. Multifilamentary Nb-Ti, Pb-Bi in glass fiber, GE Nb 3 Sn tape, Linde plasma sprayed Nb 3 Sn tape, and V 3 Ga tape superconductors are investigated, together with high purity aluminum cryoconductor. Conductor costs include processing costs [capital (equipment plus buildings), labor, and operating] and materials costs. Conductor costs are compared for two sets of material costs: current (1971 A. D.) costs, and projected (after 2000 A. D.) costs. (U.S.)

  10. Summary of existing superconducting magnet experience and its relevance to the safety of fusion magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Allinger, J.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Powell, J.; Prodell, A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of experience with over twenty superconducting magnet systems has been collected through visits to and discussions about existing facilities including, for example, the bubble chamber magnets at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the large superconducting spectrometer at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This summary includes data relating to parameters of these magnets, magnet protection methods, and operating experiences. The information received is organized and presented in the context of its relevance to the safe operation of future, very large superconducting magnet systems for fusion power plants

  11. Investigation of fusion gain in fast ignition with conical targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast ignition is a new scheme for inertial confinement fusion (ICF. In this scheme, at first the interaction of ultraintense laser beam with the hohlraum wall surrounding a capsule containing deuterium-tritium (D-T fuel causes implosion and compression of fuel to high density and then laser produced protons penetrate in the compressed fuel and deposit their energy in it as the ignition hot spot is created. In this paper, following the energy gain of spherical target and considering relationship of the burn fraction to burn duration, we have obtained the energy gain of conical targets characterized by the angle β, and found a hemispherical capsule (β=π/2 has a gain as high as 96% of that of the whole spherical capsule. The results obtained in this study are qualitatively consistent with Atzeni et al.'s studies of simulations.

  12. Premature activation of the paramyxovirus fusion protein before target cell attachment with corruption of the viral fusion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Palermo, Laura M; Yokoyama, Christine C; Orefice, Gianmarco; Fornabaio, Micaela; Sarkar, Aurijit; Kellogg, Glen E; Greengard, Olga; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne

    2011-11-04

    Paramyxoviruses, including the childhood pathogen human parainfluenza virus type 3, enter host cells by fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. This fusion results from the concerted action of its two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion protein (F). The receptor-bound HN triggers F to undergo conformational changes that render it competent to mediate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We proposed that, if the fusion process could be activated prematurely before the virion reaches the target host cell, infection could be prevented. We identified a small molecule that inhibits paramyxovirus entry into target cells and prevents infection. We show here that this compound works by an interaction with HN that results in F-activation prior to receptor binding. The fusion process is thereby prematurely activated, preventing fusion of the viral membrane with target cells and precluding viral entry. This first evidence that activation of a paramyxovirus F can be specifically induced before the virus contacts its target cell suggests a new strategy with broad implications for the design of antiviral agents.

  13. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Li, Yangfang

    2012-01-01

    It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance (∼ 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located ∼1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage

  14. Computing for magnetic fusion energy research: An updated vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, P.; Giarrusso, J.; Davis, S.; Casper, T.

    1993-01-01

    This Fusion Computing Council perspective is written to present the primary of the fusion computing community at the time of publication of the report necessarily as a summary of the information contained in the individual sections. These concerns reflect FCC discussions during final review of contributions from the various working groups and portray our latest information. This report itself should be considered as dynamic, requiring periodic updating in an attempt to track rapid evolution of the computer industry relevant to requirements for magnetic fusion research. The most significant common concern among the Fusion Computing Council working groups is networking capability. All groups see an increasing need for network services due to the use of workstations, distributed computing environments, increased use of graphic services, X-window usage, remote experimental collaborations, remote data access for specific projects and other collaborations. Other areas of concern include support for workstations, enhanced infrastructure to support collaborations, the User Service Centers, NERSC and future massively parallel computers, and FCC sponsored workshops

  15. Status of tritium technology development for magnetic-fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of tritium technology for the magnetic fusion energy program has progressed at a rapid rate over the past two years. The focal points for this development in the United States have been the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos and the FED/INTOR studies supported by the Fusion Engineering Design Center at Oak Ridge. In Canada the Canadian Fusion Fuel Technology Project has been initiated and promises to make significant contributions to the tritium technology program in the next few years. The Japanese government has now approved funding for the Tritium Processing Laboratory at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's Tokai Research Establishment. Construction on this new facility is scheduled to begin in April 1983. This facility will be the center for fusion tritium technology development in Japan. The European Community is currently working on the design of the tritium facility for the Joint European Torus. There is considerable interaction between all of these programs, thus accelerating the overall development of this crucial technology

  16. The role of alpha particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisak, M.; Wilhelmsson, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress in the confinement of hot plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments throughout the world has intensified interest and research in the physics of D-T burning plasmas especially in the wide range of unresolved theoretical as well as experimental questions associated with the role of alpha particles in such devices. In order to review the state-of-the- art in this field, and to identify new issues and problems for further research, the Symposium on the Role of Alpha Particles in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas was held from 24 to 26 June 1986 at Aspenaesgaarden near Goeteborg, Sweden. About 25 leading experts from nine countries attended the Symposium and gave invited talks. The major part of the programme was devoted to alpha-particle effects in tokamaks but some aspects of open systems were also discussed. The possibilities of obtaining ignition in JET and TFTR as well as physics issues for the compact ignition experiments were considered in particular. A special session was devoted to the diagnostics of alpha particles and other fusion products. In this report are summarised some of the highlights of the symposium. (authors)

  17. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s 2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s 2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive

  18. Challenges Surrounding the Injection and Arrival of Targets at LIFE Fusion Chamber Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Spaeth, M; Manes, K; Amendt, P; Tabak, M; Bond, T; Kucheyev, S; Latkowski, J; Loosmore, G; Bliss, E; Baker, K; Bhandarkar, S; Petzoldt, R; Alexander, N; Tillack, M; Holdener, D

    2010-12-01

    IFE target designers must consider several engineering requirements in addition to the physics requirements for successful target implosion. These considerations include low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, the ability of the target to survive the injection into the fusion chamber and arrive in a condition and physical position consistent with proper laser-target interaction and ease of post-implosion debris removal. This article briefly describes these considerations for the Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) targets currently being designed.

  19. Safety concerns for superconducting magnets of upcoming fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    -Several fusion experiments being constructed (Tore Supra) or contemplated (DCT 8, Alcator DCT) feature superconducting coils. These coils introduce the following safety concerns: 1. Internally Cooled Conductor (ICC). ICC's are found to be highly stable against short heat pulses, even when the coolant is stagnant or moving at low steady-state velocity. However, a large heat pulse is certain to quench the conductor. Thus, determining the stability limits is vital. 2. Helium II Cooling. Helium II has both unique advantages as a coolant and unique safety problems. 3. Shorted Turns. In magnets with shorts from operational accidents, the current can switch back and forth between the short and the shorted turns, as those alternatively go normal and superconducting. 4. Hybrid Superconducting-Normal Conducting Coil System. The possibility of unequal currents in the different magnets and thus of unexpected forces on the superconducting magnets is much greater than for an all-superconducting system. Analysis of these problems are presented

  20. Process for manufacture of inertial confinement fusion targets and resulting product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.E.; Wise, K.D.; Wuttke, G.H.; Masnari, N.A.; Rensel, W.B.; Robinson, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A method of manufacturing inertial confinement fusion targets is described which is adaptable for high volume production of low cost targets in a wide variety of sizes. The targets include a spherical pellet of fusion fuel surrounded by a protective concentric shell. (UK)

  1. Fusion performance analysis of plasmas with reversed magnetic shear in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, E.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.V.; McCune, D.C.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Synakowski, E.J.; Goeler, S. von; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    A case for substantial loss of fast ions degrading the performance of tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas [Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)] with reversed magnetic shear (RS) is presented. The principal evidence is obtained from an experiment with short (40 - 70 ms) tritium beam pulses injected into deuterium beam heated RS plasmas [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 924 (1999)]. Modeling of this experiment indicates that up to 40% beam power is lost on a time scale much shorter than the beam - ion slowing down time. Critical parameters which connect modeling and experiment are: The total 14 MeV neutron emission, its radial profile, and the transverse stored energy. The fusion performance of some plasmas with internal transport barriers is further deteriorated by impurity accumulation in the plasma core. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alan G; Gilmore, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ∼10(4) T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (∼10(-10)m(3)) at high plasma densities (∼10(28)m(-3)) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  3. Performance test of personal RF monitor for area monitoring at magnetic confinement fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.; Uda, T.; Wang, J.; Fujiwara, O.

    2012-01-01

    For safety management at a magnetic confinement fusion-test facility, protection from not only ionising radiation, but also non-ionising radiation such as the leakage of static magnetic and electromagnetic fields is an important issue. Accordingly, the use of a commercially available personal RF monitor for multipoint area monitoring is proposed. In this study, the performance of both fast- and slow-type personal RF monitors was investigated by using a transverse electromagnetic cell system. The range of target frequencies was between 10 and 300 MHz, corresponding to the ion cyclotron range of frequency in a fusion device. The personal RF monitor was found to have good linearity, frequency dependence and isotropic response. However, the time constant for the electric field sensor of the slow-type monitor was much longer than that for the fast-type monitor. Considering the time-varying field at the facility, it is found that the fast-type monitor is suitable for multipoint monitoring at magnetic confinement fusion test facilities. (authors)

  4. Charged--particle beam implosion of fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the calculated behavior of fusion targets consisting of solid shells filled with DT gas, irradiated by high power electron or ion beams. The current required for breakeven with gold shells is 500 to 1000 MA, independent of target radius and nearly independent of beam voltage in the 1 / 2 to 1 MeV range. Above 1 MeV the breakeven current increases because of the increased bremsstrahlung production by the beam electrons. By using a diamond ablator and a gold pusher, the breakeven current is reduced to 220 MA. The ion current required for breakeven (about 10 MA of protons) is independent of proton voltage above 10 MeV with gold shell targets. Below 10 MeV the range of the proton becomes too short for efficient coupling, and the required current increases, but the power does not. Various aspects of the symmetry and stability of the implosion are discussed. One finds that the relatively long deposition lengths of electrons result in relatively small growths of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability during the acceleration of the pusher, resulting in a relatively stable implosion

  5. Strategy and progress in the US magnetic fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    The US implements the world's most extensive fusion research program. Most of this activity is concentrated on the Tokamak system (one third of the total budget, not including heating and technology). A large machine, TFTR, is to be started up in 1982. This is to be followed by tritium operation. A machine of the JET follow-on generation, FED, is in the definition phase. In the sector of magnetic confinement, the tandem mirror machine is the most important alternative. Twenty percent of the whole budget is spent on this item. Major programs are under way in the fields of heating and technology, which total some 12% of the whole budget. (orig.) [de

  6. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  7. Magnetic fusion energy. Progress report, January--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Yoshikawa, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of progress in the Irradiation Effects Analysis and Mechanical Performance of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Materials programs and in related programs. The objective of the Irradiation Effects Analysis program is the correlation of effects produced in neutron and charged particle irradiations in order to apply them to fusion reactor environments. Low energy displacement cascades--of intrinsic interest and the least understood component of high energy cascades--are being simulated by computer codes of the dynamical (D), quasi-dynamical (Q-D), and binary collision (BC) types. Fair agreement has been found between D and Q-D for low index focused replacement sequences; substantial differences appeared for a 250 eV high index event. The objective of the Mechanical Performance of MFE Materials program is to establish the effects of fusion reactor irradiation environments on the mechanical properties of candidate first wall materials. A Precision Torsional Creep Apparatus is being developed to permit accelerator studies of irradiation creep and behavior under cyclic conditions. This apparatus has demonstrated the required strain sensitivity, stress control, and thermal stability for long term thermal testing, and that it can be used for cyclic testing

  8. Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul; Terry, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices the best performance often involves some sort of transport barriers to reduce the energy and particle flow from core to edge. Those barriers create gradients in the temperature and density profiles. If gradients in the profiles are too steep that can lead to instabilities and the system collapses. Control of these barriers is therefore an important challenge for fusion devices (burning plasmas). In this work we focus on the dynamics of internal transport barriers. Using a simple 7 field transport model, extensively used for barrier dynamics and control studies, we explore the use of RF heating to control the local gradients and therefore the growth rates and shearing rates for barrier initiation and control in self-heated fusion plasmas. Ion channel barriers can be formed in self-heated plasmas with some NBI heating but electron channel barriers are very sensitive. They can be formed in self-heated plasmas with additional auxiliary heating i.e. NBI and radio-frequency(RF). Using RF heating on both electrons and ions at proper locations, electron channel barriers along with ion channel barriers can be formed and removed demonstrating a control technique. Investigating the role of pellet injection in controlling the barriers is our next goal. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54741.

  9. Cable-in-conduit conductor optimization for fusion magnet applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Kerns, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Careful design of the toroidal-field (TF) and poloidal-field (PF) coils in a tokamak machine using cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) can result in quite high overall winding-pack current densities - even with the high nuclear heat loads that may be imposed in operating a fusion reactor - and thereby help reduce the overall machine size. In our design process, we systematically examined the operational environment of a magnet, e.g., mechanical stresses, current, field, heat load, coolant temperature, and cooldown stresses, to determine the optimum amounts of copper, superconductor, helium, and sheath material for the CICC. This process is being used to design the superconducting magnet systems that comprise the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II). 13 refs., 2 figs

  10. Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship Program: Summary of program activities for calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship program (MFETF) for the 1985 calendar year. The MFETF program has continued to support the mission of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) and its Division of Development and Technology (DDT) by ensuring the availability of appropriately trained engineering manpower needed to implement the OFE/DDT magnetic fusion energy agenda. This program provides training and research opportunities to highly qualified students at DOE-designated academic, private sector, and government magnetic fusion energy institutions. The objectives of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship program are: (1) to provide support for graduate study, training, and research in magnetic fusion energy technology; (2) to ensure an adequate supply of appropriately trained manpower to implement the nation's magnetic fusion energy agenda; (3) to raise the visibility of careers in magnetic fusion energy technology and to encourage students to pursue such careers; and (4) to make national magnetic fusion energy facilities available for manpower training

  11. Inertial confinement fusion target insertion concepts for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, G.J.; Schultz, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be used to demonstrate fusion ignition in a laboratory environment in order to support development of inertial fusion as a potential fusion energy source for civilian use. However, target insertion must first be addressed before inertial fusion can become a practical energy source. Since target insertion systems currently utilized are not suitable for multiple shots in quick succession, insertion concepts involving free-falling and artificially accelerated targets are developed and evaluated against a set of predetermined guidelines. It is shown that a system involving a fast retraction positioner would be suitable. 5 refs., 4 figs

  12. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications, Task A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Singh, A.

    1990-05-01

    This report details progress over the past year in the research program ''Free Electron Lasers with Short Period Wigglers.'' The work is performed jointly by the laboratory for Plasma Research and the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Maryland and is funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy. The goal of the work is the development of an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) scheme for magnetic fusion plasmas such as the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). Our approach is the development of a free electron laser using a sheet electron beam and a short period wiggler magnet. The specific requirements for the heating method include 10 to 30 MW of average power with pulse durations of several seconds to CW at a frequency near 300 GHz (∼600 GHz) in the case of second harmonic (ECRH). Compatible with the experimental nature of the program, radiation frequency flexibility of 30% total bandwidth and 5% rapid dynamic (approx-lt 10 ms) bandwidth is desirable. As the source will eventually be applied to a reactor, priority is placed upon high system efficiency and reliability. Use of established technologies is encouraged where possible

  13. Aspects of safety and reliability for fusion magnet systems first annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.

    1976-01-01

    General systems aspects of fusion magnet safety are examined first, followed by specific detailed analyses covering structural, thermal, electrical, and other aspects of fusion magnet safety. The design examples chosen for analysis are illustrative and are not intended to be definitive, since fusion magnet designs are rapidly evolving. Included is a comprehensive collection of design and operating data relating to the safety of existing superconducting magnet systems. The remainder of the overview lists the main conclusions developed from the work to date. These should be regarded as initial steps. Since this study has concentrated on examining potential safety concerns, it may tend to overemphasize the problems of fusion magnets. In fact, many aspects of fusion magnets are well developed and are consistent with good safety practice. A short summary of the findings of this study is given

  14. Heavy ion inertial fusion: interface between target gain, accelerator phase space and reactor beam transport revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.; Mark, J.W.K.; Yu, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Recently revised estimates of target gain have added additional optimistic inputs to the interface between targets, accelerators and fusion chamber beam transport. But it remains valid that neutralization of the beams in the fusion chamber is useful if ion charge state Z > 1 or if > 1 kA per beamlet is to be propagated. Some engineering and economic considerations favor higher currents

  15. Panel discussion: Future directions in magnetic fusion--comments of John Sheffield, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1992-01-01

    I will discuss two important issues for the US magnetic fusion program: the role of alternate magnetic configurations to the tokamak, and factors which need to be considered in planning the evolution of the US program

  16. Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using pulsed polarimetry for fusion reactor conditions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    A novel diagnostic technique for the remote and nonperturbative sensing of the local magnetic field in reactor relevant plasmas is presented. Pulsed polarimetry [Patent No. 12/150,169 (pending)] combines optical scattering with the Faraday effect. The polarimetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR)-like diagnostic has the potential to be a local B pol diagnostic on ITER and can achieve spatial resolutions of millimeters on high energy density (HED) plasmas using existing lasers. The pulsed polarimetry method is based on nonlocal measurements and subtle effects are introduced that are not present in either cw polarimetry or Thomson scattering LIDAR. Important features include the capability of simultaneously measuring local T e , n e , and B || along the line of sight, a resiliency to refractive effects, a short measurement duration providing near instantaneous data in time, and location for real-time feedback and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities and the realization of a widely applicable internal magnetic field diagnostic for the magnetic fusion energy program. The technique improves for higher n e B || product and higher n e and is well suited for diagnosing the transient plasmas in the HED program. Larger devices such as ITER and DEMO are also better suited to the technique, allowing longer pulse lengths and thereby relaxing key technology constraints making pulsed polarimetry a valuable asset for next step devices. The pulsed polarimetry technique is clarified by way of illustration on the ITER tokamak and plasmas within the magnetized target fusion program within present technological means.

  17. JSME construction standard for superconducting magnets of fusion facilities. Toward the construction of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Yuji; Takahashi, Yukio; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Arata; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Irie, Hirosada; Nakahira, Masataka

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the general view of the construction standard, which the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) has recently set up and published, for superconducting magnet structures to be used in nuclear fusion facilities. The present target of the standard is tokamak-type fusion energy facilities, especially the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor called ITER for short. The standard contains rules for structural materials including cryogenic materials, structural design considering magnetic forces, manufacture including welding and installation, nondestructive testing, pressure proof tests and leak tests of toroidal field magnet structures. The standard covers requirements for structural integrity, deformation control, and leak tightness of all the components of the superconducting magnets and their supports except for superconducting strands and electrical insulators. The standard does not cover deterioration, which may occur in service as a result of corrosion, radiation effects, or instability of material. The standard consists of seven articles and twelve mandatory and non-mandatory appendices to the articles; i.e., (1) Scope, roles and responsibilities, (2) Materials, (3) Structural design, (4) Fabrication and installation, (5) Non-destructive examination, (6) Pressure and leak testing, and (7) Terms used in general requirements. (author)

  18. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux

  19. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1983-08-01

    This report contains background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations. It was developed as part of an environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakeven conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. This report is the principal reference upon which an environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based

  20. Benefits and drawbacks of low magnetic shears on the confinement in magnetic fusion toroidal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firpo, Marie-Christine; Constantinescu, Dana

    2012-10-01

    The issue of confinement in magnetic fusion devices is addressed within a purely magnetic approach. As it is well known, the magnetic field being divergence-free, the equations of its field lines can be cast in Hamiltonian form. Using then some Hamiltonian models for the magnetic field lines, the dual impact of low magnetic shear is demonstrated. Away from resonances, it induces a drastic enhancement of magnetic confinement that favors robust internal transport barriers (ITBs) and turbulence reduction. However, when low-shear occurs for values of the winding of the magnetic field lines close to low-order rationals, the amplitude thresholds of the resonant modes that break internal transport barriers by allowing a radial stochastic transport of the magnetic field lines may be much lower than the ones obtained for strong shear profiles. The approach can be applied to assess the robustness versus magnetic perturbations of general almost-integrable magnetic steady states, including non-axisymmetric ones such as the important single helicity steady states. This analysis puts a constraint on the tolerable mode amplitudes compatible with ITBs and may be proposed as a possible explanation of diverse experimental and numerical signatures of their collapses.

  1. Repetitive laser fusion experiment and operation using a target injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, a collaborative research project on laser fusion development based on a high-speed ignition method using repetitive laser has been carried out with several collaborative research institutes. This paper reports the current state of operation of high repetition laser fusion experiments, such as target introduction and control based on a target injection system that allows free falling under 1 Hz, using a high repetition laser driver that has been under research and development, as well as the measurement of targets that freely fall. The HAMA laser driver that enabled high repetition fusion experiments is a titanium sapphire laser using a diode-pumped solid-state laser KURE-I of green light output as a driver pump light source. In order to carry out high repetition laser fusion experiments, the target injection device allows free falling of deuterated polystyrene solid sphere targets of 1 mm in diameter under 1 Hz. The authors integrated the developed laser and injection system, and succeeded first in the world in making the nuclear fusion reaction continuously by hitting the target to be injected with laser, which is essential technology for future laser nuclear fusion reactor. In order to realize repetition laser fusion experiments, stable laser, target synchronization control, and target position measurement technologies are indispensable. (A.O.)

  2. Incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion versus 14-fragments prostatic biopsy. A prospective controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, Guilherme C.; Falsarella, Priscila M.; Garcia, Rodrigo G.; Queiroz, Marcos R.G.; Lemos, Gustavo C.; Baroni, Ronaldo H.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using real-time multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound (mpMRI-TRUS) fusion to conventional 14-cores biopsy. Uni-institutional, institutional review board (IRB) approved prospective blinded study comparing TRUS-guided random and targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion, in 100 consecutive men. We included men with clinical-laboratorial suspicious for prostate cancer and Likert score ≥ 3 mp-MRI. Patients previously diagnosed with prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were submitted to 14-cores TRUS-guided biopsy (mpMRI data operator-blinded), followed by targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion. There was an overall increase in cancer detection rate, from 56% with random technique to 62% combining targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion; incremental diagnosis was even more relevant for clinically significant lesions (Gleason ≥ 7), diagnosing 10% more clinically significant lesions with fusion biopsy technique. Diagnosis upgrade occurred in 5 patients that would have negative results in random biopsies and had clinically significant tumours with the combined technique, and in 5 patients who had the diagnosis of significant tumours after fusion biopsy and clinically insignificant tumours in random biopsies(p=0.0010). Targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion has incremental diagnostic value in comparison to conventional random biopsy, better detecting clinically significant prostate cancers. (orig.)

  3. Incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion versus 14-fragments prostatic biopsy. A prospective controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, Guilherme C.; Falsarella, Priscila M.; Garcia, Rodrigo G.; Queiroz, Marcos R.G. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Interventional Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lemos, Gustavo C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Urology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo H. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    To compare the incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using real-time multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound (mpMRI-TRUS) fusion to conventional 14-cores biopsy. Uni-institutional, institutional review board (IRB) approved prospective blinded study comparing TRUS-guided random and targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion, in 100 consecutive men. We included men with clinical-laboratorial suspicious for prostate cancer and Likert score ≥ 3 mp-MRI. Patients previously diagnosed with prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were submitted to 14-cores TRUS-guided biopsy (mpMRI data operator-blinded), followed by targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion. There was an overall increase in cancer detection rate, from 56% with random technique to 62% combining targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion; incremental diagnosis was even more relevant for clinically significant lesions (Gleason ≥ 7), diagnosing 10% more clinically significant lesions with fusion biopsy technique. Diagnosis upgrade occurred in 5 patients that would have negative results in random biopsies and had clinically significant tumours with the combined technique, and in 5 patients who had the diagnosis of significant tumours after fusion biopsy and clinically insignificant tumours in random biopsies(p=0.0010). Targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion has incremental diagnostic value in comparison to conventional random biopsy, better detecting clinically significant prostate cancers. (orig.)

  4. FY-2013 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Joint Research Target Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hubbard, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Whyte, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The H-mode confinement regime is characterized by a region of good thermal and particle confinement at the edge of the confined plasma, and has generally been envisioned as the operating regime for ITER and other next step devices. This good confinement is often interrupted, however, by edge-localized instabilities, known as ELMs. On the one hand, these ELMs provide particle and impurity flushing from the plasma core, a beneficial effect facilitating density control and stationary operation. On the other hand, the ELMs result in a substantial fraction of the edge stored energy flowing in bursts to the divertor and first wall; this impulsive thermal loading would result in unacceptable erosion of these material surfaces if it is not arrested. Hence, developing and understanding operating regimes that have the energy confinement of standard H-mode and the stationarity that is provided by ELMs, while at the same time eliminating the impulsive thermal loading of large ELMs, is the focus of the 2013 FES Joint Research Target (JRT): Annual Target: Conduct experiments and analysis on major fusion facilities, to evaluate stationary enhanced confinement regimes without large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), and to improve understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that allow acceptable edge particle transport while maintaining a strong thermal transport barrier. Mechanisms to be investigated can include intrinsic continuous edge plasma modes and externally applied 3D fields. Candidate regimes and techniques have been pioneered by each of the three major US facilities (C-Mod, D3D and NSTX). Coordinated experiments, measurements, and analysis will be carried out to assess and understand the operational space for the regimes. Exploiting the complementary parameters and tools of the devices, joint teams will aim to more closely approach key dimensionless parameters of ITER, and to identify correlations between edge fluctuations and transport. The role of rotation will be

  5. Knudsen and inverse Knudsen layer effect on tail ion distribution and fusion reactivity in inertial confinement fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-01

    A series of reduced models are used to study the fast ion tail in the vicinity of a transition layer between plasmas at disparate temperatures and densities, which is typical of the gas-pusher interface in inertial confinement fusion targets. Emphasis is placed on utilizing progressively more comprehensive models in order to identify the essential physics for computing the fast ion tail at energies comparable to the Gamow peak. The resulting fast ion tail distribution is subsequently used to compute the fusion reactivity as a function of collisionality and temperature. It is found that while the fast ion distribution can be significantly depleted in the hot spot, leading to a reduction of the fusion reactivity in this region, a surplus of fast ions is present in the neighboring cold region. The presence of this fast ion surplus in the neighboring cold region is shown to lead to a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  6. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K.; Hasegawa, A.; Santarius, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The unique advantages of fusion rocket propulsion systems for distant missions are explored using the magnetic dipole configurations as an example. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power performance than nuclear electric fission systems. Possibilities to further increase the specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as is an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 20 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K.; Hasegawa, A.; Santarius, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual design is discussed for a fusion rocket propulsion system based on the magnetic dipole configuration. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Example parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of 1 kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as in an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 21 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Theoretical and numerical studies in magnetic mirror fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to investigate the dependence of neo-classical transport on aspect ratio and on the structure of the magnetic surfaces for general collisionality by use of relaxation models for collisions for a general mixture of electrons and ions. An optimum relaxation frequency will be determined for each transport coefficient by fitting those limiting results available. Simple models of turbulent transport will be added. A general purpose code will be developed, including the resulting transport equations, and made accessible to the fusion community. The results of this code his will be compared with known results. The solutions using the simple relaxation model will be compared with the counterpart results to be obtained by using a Lorentz model for collisions

  9. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, B.C.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  10. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, B. C.; Biter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.

    2007-07-18

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  11. Vibration of fusion reactor components with magnetic damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Amico, Gabriele; Portone, Alfredo [Fusion for Energy – Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – c/Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain); Rubinacci, Guglielmo [Department of Electrical Eng. and Information Technologies, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio, 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Testoni, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.testoni@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy – Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – c/Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the importance of the magnetic damping in the dynamic response of the main plasma facing components of fusion machines, under the strong Lorentz forces due to Vertical Displacement Events. The additional eddy currents due to the vibration of the conducting structures give rise to volume loads acting as damping forces, a kind of viscous damping, being these additional loads proportional to the vibration speed. This effect could play an important role when assessing, for instance, the inertial loads associated to VV movements in case of VDEs. In this paper, we present the results of a novel numerical formulation, in which the field equations are solved by adopting a very effective fully 3D integral formulation, not limited to the analysis of thin shell structures, as already successfully done in several approaches previously published.

  12. High-density-plasma diagnostics in magnetic-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lectures will begin by defining high density in the context of magnetic confinement fusion research and listing some alternative reactor concepts, ranging from n/sub e/ approx. 2 x 10 14 cm -3 to several orders of magnitude greater, that offer potential advantages over the main-line, n/sub e/ approx. 1 x 10 14 cm -3 , Tokamak reactor designs. The high density scalings of several major diagnostic techniques, some favorable and some disadvantageous, will be discussed. Special emphasis will be given to interferometric methods, both electronic and photographic, for which integral n/sub e/dl measurements and associated techniques are accessible with low wavelength lasers. Reactor relevant experience from higher density, smaller dimension devices exists. High density implies high β, which implies economies of scale. The specialized features of high β diagnostics will be discussed

  13. HIV-1 gp41 Fusion Intermediate: A Target for HIV Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungen Pan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5, followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.

  14. Enhancing potency of siRNA targeting fusion genes by optimization outside of target sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Kseniya; Seo, Young-Eun; Tietjen, Gregory T; Cui, Jiajia; Cheng, Christopher J; Saltzman, W Mark

    2015-12-01

    Canonical siRNA design algorithms have become remarkably effective at predicting favorable binding regions within a target mRNA, but in some cases (e.g., a fusion junction site) region choice is restricted. In these instances, alternative approaches are necessary to obtain a highly potent silencing molecule. Here we focus on strategies for rational optimization of two siRNAs that target the junction sites of fusion oncogenes BCR-ABL and TMPRSS2-ERG. We demonstrate that modifying the termini of these siRNAs with a terminal G-U wobble pair or a carefully selected pair of terminal asymmetry-enhancing mismatches can result in an increase in potency at low doses. Importantly, we observed that improvements in silencing at the mRNA level do not necessarily translate to reductions in protein level and/or cell death. Decline in protein level is also heavily influenced by targeted protein half-life, and delivery vehicle toxicity can confound measures of cell death due to silencing. Therefore, for BCR-ABL, which has a long protein half-life that is difficult to overcome using siRNA, we also developed a nontoxic transfection vector: poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) nanoparticles that release siRNA over many days. We show that this system can achieve effective killing of leukemic cells. These findings provide insights into the implications of siRNA sequence for potency and suggest strategies for the design of more effective therapeutic siRNA molecules. Furthermore, this work points to the importance of integrating studies of siRNA design and delivery, while heeding and addressing potential limitations such as restricted targetable mRNA regions, long protein half-lives, and nonspecific toxicities.

  15. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. Panel on Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Magnetic Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, Jill [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Corones, James [Krell Inst., Ames, IA (United States); Batchelor, Donald [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bramley, Randall [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jardin, Stephen [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Krasheninnikov, Sergei [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Laub, Alan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Leboeuf, Jean-Noel [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lindl, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lokke, William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosenbluth, Marshall [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Ross, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schnack, Dalton [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Fusion is potentially an inexhaustible energy source whose exploitation requires a basic understanding of high-temperature plasmas. The development of a science-based predictive capability for fusion-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital role for more than four decades. A combination of the very wide range in temporal and spatial scales, extreme anisotropy, the importance of geometric detail, and the requirement of causality which makes it impossible to parallelize over time, makes this problem one of the most challenging in computational physics. Sophisticated computational models are under development for many individual features of magnetically confined plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. However, full predictive modeling of fusion plasmas will require qualitative improvements and innovations to enable cross coupling of a wider variety of physical processes and to allow solution over a larger range of space and time scales. The exponential growth of computer speed, coupled with the high cost of large-scale experimental facilities, makes an integrated fusion simulation initiative a timely and cost-effective opportunity. Worldwide progress in laboratory fusion experiments provides the basis for a recent FESAC recommendation to proceed with a burning plasma experiment (see FESAC Review of Burning Plasma Physics Report, September 2001). Such an experiment, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world’s energy security. An integrated simulation capability would dramatically enhance the utilization of such a facility and lead to optimization of toroidal fusion plasmas in general. This science-based predictive capability, which was cited in the FESAC

  16. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. Panel on Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Magnetic Fusion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlburg, Jill; Corones, James; Batchelor, Donald; Bramley, Randall; Greenwald, Martin; Jardin, Stephen; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Laub, Alan; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel; Lindl, John; Lokke, William; Rosenbluth, Marshall; Ross, David; Schnack, Dalton

    2002-01-01

    Fusion is potentially an inexhaustible energy source whose exploitation requires a basic understanding of high-temperature plasmas. The development of a science-based predictive capability for fusion-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital role for more than four decades. A combination of the very wide range in temporal and spatial scales, extreme anisotropy, the importance of geometric detail, and the requirement of causality which makes it impossible to parallelize over time, makes this problem one of the most challenging in computational physics. Sophisticated computational models are under development for many individual features of magnetically confined plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. However, full predictive modeling of fusion plasmas will require qualitative improvements and innovations to enable cross coupling of a wider variety of physical processes and to allow solution over a larger range of space and time scales. The exponential growth of computer speed, coupled with the high cost of large-scale experimental facilities, makes an integrated fusion simulation initiative a timely and cost-effective opportunity. Worldwide progress in laboratory fusion experiments provides the basis for a recent FESAC recommendation to proceed with a burning plasma experiment (see FESAC Review of Burning Plasma Physics Report, September 2001). Such an experiment, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world's energy security. An integrated simulation capability would dramatically enhance the utilization of such a facility and lead to optimization of toroidal fusion plasmas in general. This science-based predictive capability, which was cited in the

  17. Fusion Performance of High Magnetic Field Expe-riments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Coppi, B.

    1997-11-01

    High magnetic field machines have the characteristic of operating well within the usual limitations known as density and beta limits. This feature is highlighted in the Ignitor concept thanks to its reference field of up to 13 T on the magnetic axis and its high current densities. The two reference scenarios with plasma currents of 12 MA and 11 MA respectively, are discussed. The ramp time is 4 sec for both scenarios, whereas the following programmed time dependence of the current is different. The results of an extensive series of numerical simulations using an appropriate version of the 1+1/2D JETTO transport code show that in any case optimal fusion performances are reacheable without needing enhancement over the values of the energy replacement time predicted by the most pessimistic scalings (for the so-called L-mode regime). The density is the crucial parameter involved on the path to ignition that can be achieved provided the density rise is carefully programmed. The density profiles can be controlled by the proper use of the pellet injector that is included in the machine design.

  18. Review of compact, alternate concepts for magnetic confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, S.B.; Shmayda, W.T.; Dinner, P.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents a study of compact alternate magnetic confinement fusion experiments and conceptual reactor designs. The purpose of this study is to identify those devices with a potential to burn tritium in the near future. The bulk of the report is made up of a review of the following compact alternates: compact toroids, high power density tokamaks, linear magnetic systems, compact mirrors, reversed field pinches and some miscellaneous concepts. Bumpy toruses and stellarators were initially reviewed but were not pursued since no compact variations were found. Several of the concepts show promise of either burning tritium or evolving into tritium burning devices by the early 1990's: RIGGATRON, Ignitor, OHTE, Frascati Tokamak upgrade, several driven (low or negative net power) mirror experiments and several Reversed Field Pinch experiments that may begin operation around 1990. Of the above only the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade has had funds allocated. Also identified in this report are groups who may have tritium burning experiments in the mid to late 1990's. There is a discussion of the differences between the reviewed devices and the mainline tokamak experiments. This discussion forms the basis of recommendations for R and D aimed at the compact alternates and the applicability of the present CFFTP program to the needs of the compact alternates. These recommendations will be presented in a subsequent report

  19. Computational challenges in magnetic-confinement fusion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, A.; Brunner, S.; Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Ricci, P.; Sauter, O.; Villard, L.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic-fusion plasmas are complex self-organized systems with an extremely wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from the electron-orbit scales (~10-11 s, ~ 10-5 m) to the diffusion time of electrical current through the plasma (~102 s) and the distance along the magnetic field between two solid surfaces in the region that determines the plasma-wall interactions (~100 m). The description of the individual phenomena and of the nonlinear coupling between them involves a hierarchy of models, which, when applied to realistic configurations, require the most advanced numerical techniques and algorithms and the use of state-of-the-art high-performance computers. The common thread of such models resides in the fact that the plasma components are at the same time sources of electromagnetic fields, via the charge and current densities that they generate, and subject to the action of electromagnetic fields. This leads to a wide variety of plasma modes of oscillations that resonate with the particle or fluid motion and makes the plasma dynamics much richer than that of conventional, neutral fluids.

  20. Assessment of contemporary mathematical methods for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treve, Y.M.

    1978-03-01

    The mathematical techniques reviewed have been selected on the basis of their relevance to at least four outstanding theoretical problems of magnetic fusion research, namely: (a) ion heating; (b) particle-wave interactions; (c) stability of magnetic surfaces in real tokamaks; and (d) strong plasma turbulence. These problems have a common feature: they all involve chaotic motions in spite of the perfectly deterministic nature of the mathematical models used for their description. In the first section devoted to Hamiltonian systems we briefly review the essentials of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and discuss the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem and its implications. In section 2 we review the difficulties of the problem of turbulence and present the Ruelle-Takens picture. An example of a dynamical system with a strange attractor is constructed and the Hopf bifurcation theory is discussed. Finally we review the properties of the Lorenz model for the convective instability of an atmospheric layer which is known to have a strange attractor for sufficiently high Rayleigh numbers

  1. Targeted drug delivery to magnetic implants for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellen, Benjamin B.; Forbes, Zachary G.; Halverson, Derek S.; Fridman, Gregory; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert; Friedman, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A new method for locally targeted drug delivery is proposed that employs magnetic implants placed directly in the cardiovascular system to attract injected magnetic carriers. Theoretical simulations and experimental results support the assumption that using magnetic implants in combination with externally applied magnetic field will optimize the delivery of magnetic drug to selected sites within a subject

  2. Early and late HIV-1 membrane fusion events are impaired by sphinganine lipidated peptides that target the fusion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Yoel A; Ashkenazi, Avraham; Viard, Mathias; Porat, Ziv; Blumenthal, Robert; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-07-15

    Lipid-conjugated peptides have advanced the understanding of membrane protein functions and the roles of lipids in the membrane milieu. These lipopeptides modulate various biological systems such as viral fusion. A single function has been suggested for the lipid, binding to the membrane and thus elevating the local concentration of the peptide at the target site. In the present paper, we challenged this argument by exploring in-depth the antiviral mechanism of lipopeptides, which comprise sphinganine, the lipid backbone of DHSM (dihydrosphingomyelin), and an HIV-1 envelope-derived peptide. Surprisingly, we discovered a partnership between the lipid and the peptide that impaired early membrane fusion events by reducing CD4 receptor lateral diffusion and HIV-1 fusion peptide-mediated lipid mixing. Moreover, only the joint function of sphinganine and its conjugate peptide disrupted HIV-1 fusion protein assembly and folding at the later fusion steps. Via imaging techniques we revealed for the first time the direct localization of these lipopeptides to the virus-cell and cell-cell contact sites. Overall, the findings of the present study may suggest lipid-protein interactions in various biological systems and may help uncover a role for elevated DHSM in HIV-1 and its target cell membranes.

  3. Storage and Containment of Nuclear Targets for Pulsed Fission-Fusion Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The combined fission-fusion fuel target is the heart of an engine concept that can open the solar system to fast and efficient human exploration. This is a unique...

  4. Numerical studies of deuterium-tritium ignition in impact-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.; Ribe, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical one-dimensional solution of the Euler equations for an imploding spherical tungsten shell with internal deuterium-tritium gas is applied to study impact-fusion dynamics with parameters of fusion reactor relevance. Thermal conduction and radiative energy loss by the plasma are taken into account, as is heating by fusion generated alpha particles. A variety of target sizes and impact velocities are examined, and scaling laws for fusion yields are deduced which define possible parameters for conceptual commercial impact-fusion power reactors. It is found that shell energies and velocities of about 30 MJ and 110 km/s would be satisfactory. A commercial impact-fusion reactor based on such parameters is discussed

  5. Maximum entropy restoration of laser fusion target x-ray photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Maximum entropy principles were used to analyze the microdensitometer traces of a laser-fusion target photograph. The object is a glowing laser-fusion target microsphere 0.95 cm from a pinhole of radius 2 x 10 -4 cm, the image is 7.2 cm from the pinhole and the photon wavelength is likely to be 6.2 x 10 -8 cm. Some computational aspects of the problem are also considered

  6. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  7. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design

  8. Simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating through a gaseous fusion target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Oliver, B.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Clark, R.E.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    In heavy-ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF), an ion beam is transported several meters through the reactor chamber to the target. This standoff distance mitigates damage to the accelerator from the target explosion. For the high perveance beams and millimeter-scale targets under consideration, the transport method is largely determined by the degree of ion charge and current neutralization in the chamber. This neutralization becomes increasingly difficult as the beam interacts with the ambient chamber environment and strips to higher charge states. Nearly complete neutralization permits neutralized-ballistic transport (main-line HIF transport method), where the ion beam enters the chamber at roughly 3-cm radius and focuses onto the target. In the backup pinched-transport schemes, the beam is first focused outside the chamber before propagating at small radius to the target. With nearly complete charge neutralization, the large beam divergence is contained by a strong magnetic field resulting from roughly 50-kA net current. In assisted-pinched transport, a preformed discharge channel provides the net current and the discharge plasma provides nearly complete charge and current neutralization of the beam. In self-pinched transport, the residual net current results solely from the beam-driven breakdown of the ambient gas. Using hybrid particle-in-cell simulation codes, the behavior of HIF driver-scale beams in these three transport modes is examined. Simulations of neutralized ballistic transport, at a few-mTorr flibe pressure, show excellent neutralization given a preformed or photoionized (from the heated target) plasma. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of assisted-pinch transport in roughly 1-Torr Xe show the importance of attaining >1-μs magnetic diffusion time to limit self-field effects and achieve good transport efficiency. For Xe gas pressures ranging from 10-150 mTorr, calculations predict a robust self-magnetic force sufficient for self

  9. Magnetic fusion program in the United States: an overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Continuing technical progress in magnetic fusion energy research and a coherent national program involving national laboratories, industry and universities has won strong support from the new Department of Energy. This review presents recent technical progress and examines fusion in relation to other long term energy supply options. Fusion is seen as a technology which, because of its apparently minimal environmental impacts and promise of reasonable cost, has a good chance of competing successfully with the other inexhaustible energy sources

  10. Irradiation capsule for testing magnetic fusion reactor first-wall materials at 60 and 2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlin, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    A new type of irradiation capsule has been designed, and a prototype has been tested in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) for low-temperature irradiation of Magnetic Fusion Reactor first-wall materials. The capsule meets the requirements of the joint US/Japanese collaborative fusion reactor materials irradiation program for the irradiation of first-wall fusion reactor materials at 60 and 200 0 C. The design description and results of the prototype capsule performance are presented

  11. Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using pulsed polarimetry for fusion reactor conditions (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger J

    2008-10-01

    A novel diagnostic technique for the remote and nonperturbative sensing of the local magnetic field in reactor relevant plasmas is presented. Pulsed polarimetry [Patent No. 12/150,169 (pending)] combines optical scattering with the Faraday effect. The polarimetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR)-like diagnostic has the potential to be a local B(pol) diagnostic on ITER and can achieve spatial resolutions of millimeters on high energy density (HED) plasmas using existing lasers. The pulsed polarimetry method is based on nonlocal measurements and subtle effects are introduced that are not present in either cw polarimetry or Thomson scattering LIDAR. Important features include the capability of simultaneously measuring local T(e), n(e), and B(parallel) along the line of sight, a resiliency to refractive effects, a short measurement duration providing near instantaneous data in time, and location for real-time feedback and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities and the realization of a widely applicable internal magnetic field diagnostic for the magnetic fusion energy program. The technique improves for higher n(e)B(parallel) product and higher n(e) and is well suited for diagnosing the transient plasmas in the HED program. Larger devices such as ITER and DEMO are also better suited to the technique, allowing longer pulse lengths and thereby relaxing key technology constraints making pulsed polarimetry a valuable asset for next step devices. The pulsed polarimetry technique is clarified by way of illustration on the ITER tokamak and plasmas within the magnetized target fusion program within present technological means.

  12. Assessment of some of the problems in the USA of superconducting magnets for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the general difficulties and problems encountered during the development of the technology of superconductors and superconducting magnets for fusion and expresses some personal concerns

  13. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: mono@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M.; Diem, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington at Seattle, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to {approx}100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  14. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  15. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  16. Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers

  17. Design, construction, and characterization of high-performance membrane fusion devices with target-selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Ayumi; Yamane, Iori; Tsuboi, Mana; Ando, Shun; Matsuda, Kiyomi

    2012-01-31

    Membrane fusion proteins such as the hemagglutinin glycoprotein have target recognition and fusion accelerative domains, where some synergistically working elements are essential for target-selective and highly effective native membrane fusion systems. In this work, novel membrane fusion devices bearing such domains were designed and constructed. We selected a phenylboronic acid derivative as a recognition domain for a sugar-like target and a transmembrane-peptide (Leu-Ala sequence) domain interacting with the target membrane, forming a stable hydrophobic α-helix and accelerating the fusion process. Artificial membrane fusion behavior between the synthetic devices in which pilot and target liposomes were incorporated was characterized by lipid-mixing and inner-leaflet lipid-mixing assays. Consequently, the devices bearing both the recognition and transmembrane domains brought about a remarkable increase in the initial rate for the membrane fusion compared with the devices containing the recognition domain alone. In addition, a weakly acidic pH-responsive device was also constructed by replacing three Leu residues in the transmembrane-peptide domain by Glu residues. The presence of Glu residues made the acidic pH-dependent hydrophobic α-helix formation possible as expected. The target-selective liposome-liposome fusion was accelerated in a weakly acidic pH range when the Glu-substituted device was incorporated in pilot liposomes. The use of this pH-responsive device seems to be a potential strategy for novel applications in a liposome-based delivery system. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Power plant production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the current techniques for fabricating experimental targets appear to be directly extendable to the high-rate, low-cost production of reactor targets. This report describes several new techniques that, in conjunction with the expansion of existing techniques, can constitute a target factory. We have evaluated this concept on the basis of a generalized reactor target design and the projected specifications of reactor-grade targets

  19. MRI/TRUS fusion software-based targeted biopsy: the new standard of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, M; Costa Moretti, T B; Emberton, M; Villers, A; Valerio, M

    2015-09-01

    The advent of multiparametric MRI has made it possible to change the way in which prostate biopsy is done, allowing to direct biopsies to suspicious lesions rather than randomly. The subject of this review relates to a computer-assisted strategy, the MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy, and to its performance compared to the other sampling methods. Different devices with different methods to register MR images to live TRUS are currently in use to allow software-based targeted biopsy. Main clinical indications of MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy are re-biopsy in men with persistent suspicious of prostate cancer after first negative standard biopsy and the follow-up of patients under active surveillance. Some studies have compared MRI/US fusion software-based targeted versus standard biopsy. In men at risk with MRI-suspicious lesion, targeted biopsy consistently detects more men with clinically significant disease as compared to standard biopsy; some studies have also shown decreased detection of insignificant disease. Only two studies directly compared MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy with MRI/US fusion visual targeted biopsy, and the diagnostic ability seems to be in favor of the software approach. To date, no study comparing software-based targeted biopsy against in-bore MRI biopsy is available. The new software-based targeted approach seems to have the characteristics to be added in the standard pathway for achieving accurate risk stratification. Once reproducibility and cost-effectiveness will be verified, the actual issue will be to determine whether MRI/TRUS fusion software-based targeted biopsy represents anadd-on test or a replacement to standard TRUS biopsy.

  20. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  1. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  2. Fusion of magnetic resonance angiography and magnetic resonance imaging for surgical planning for meningioma. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimura, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Arai, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    A fusion technique for magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and MR imaging was developed to help assess the peritumoral angioarchitecture during surgical planning for meningioma. Three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D-TOF) and 3D-spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) datasets were obtained from 10 patients with intracranial meningioma, and fused using newly developed volume registration and visualization software. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images from 3D-TOF MR angiography and axial SPGR MR imaging were displayed at the same time on the monitor. Selecting a vessel on the real-time MIP image indicated the corresponding points on the axial image automatically. Fusion images showed displacement of the anterior cerebral or middle cerebral artery in 7 patients and encasement of the anterior cerebral arteries in I patient, with no relationship between the main arterial trunk and tumor in 2 patients. Fusion of MR angiography and MR imaging can clarify relationships between the intracranial vasculature and meningioma, and may be helpful for surgical planning for meningioma. (author)

  3. Radiation control in fusion plasmas by magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dachicourt, R.

    2012-10-01

    The present work addresses two important issues for the industrial use of fusion: plasma radiation control, as a part of the more general power handling issue, and high density tokamak operation. These two issues will be most critical in the demonstration reactor, called DEMO, intermediate step between ITER and a future commercial reactor. For DEMO, the need to radiate a large fraction of the power so as to limit the peak power load on the divertor will be a key constraint. High confinement will have to be combined with high radiated power fraction, and the required level of plasma purity. The main achievement of this thesis is to have shown experimental evidence of the existence of a stable plasma regime meeting the most critical requirements of a DEMO scenario: an electron density up to 40% above the Greenwald value, together with a fraction of radiated power close to 80%, with a good energy confinement and limited dilution. The plasma is additionally heated with ion cyclotron waves in a central electron heating scenario, featuring alpha particle heating. The original observations reported in this work bring highly valuable new pieces of information both to the physics of the tokamak edge layer and to the construction of an 'integrated operational scenario' required to successfully operate fusion devices. In the way for getting high density plasmas, the new observations involve the following topics. First, the formation of a poloidal asymmetry in the edge electron density profile, with a maximum density located close to toroidal pumped limiter. This asymmetry occurs inside the separatrix, with a constant plasma pressure on magnetic surfaces. Secondly, a correlative decrease of the electron temperature in the same edge region. Thirdly, the excellent coupling capabilities of the ICRH waves, up to a central line averaged electron density of 1.4 times the Greenwald density. Fourthly, a poloidally asymmetric edge radiation region, providing the dissipation of 80% of

  4. Perspectives on the development of fusion power by magnetic confinement, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Committee concludes: that recent progress of the magnetic fusion energy program provides a tangible basis for the belief that the development of fusion power will prove feasible; that the primary near-term objective of the program should now be to demonstrate actual reactor-level conditions; and that the potential long-term benefits of fusion power are sufficiently great to warrant a sustained national effort to advance the fusion power option to the stage of commercial availability at an early time

  5. Initiative taken by India in magnetically confined fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Dhiraj

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing gap between demand and supply of energy in the world. Any attempt to develop new and cleaner sources of energy to meet the future global requirement is welcome. Therefore, it is attractive to think of having fusion as an alternate clean source of energy to contribute in the energy mix towards the second half of the century, with a virtually inexhaustible fuel supply. The environmental impact of fusion would be acceptable and relatively safe. These advantages have driven the world fusion research programme since its inception. Indian progress in fusion science and technology and participation in ITER will be discussed during the talk

  6. Substantial reductions of input energy and peak power requirements in targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Pan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two ways of reducing the requirements of the heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target implosion are described. Compared to estimates of target gain not using these methods, the target input energy and peak power may be reduced by about a factor of two with the use of the hybrid-implosion concept. Another factor of two reduction in input energy may be obtained with the use of spin-polarized DT fuel in the ICF target

  7. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described

  8. Targeting the Conserved Fusion Loop of HAP2 Inhibits the Transmission of Plasmodium berghei and falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Angrisano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Inhibiting transmission of Plasmodium is a central strategy in malarial eradication, and the biological process of gamete fusion during fertilization is a proven target for this approach. The lack of a structure or known molecular function of current anti-malarial vaccine targets has previously been a hindrance in the development of transmission-blocking vaccines. Structure/function studies have indicated that the conserved gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 is a class II viral fusion protein. Here, we demonstrate that targeting a function-critical site of the fusion/cd loop with species-specific antibodies reduces Plasmodium berghei transmission in vivo by 58.9% and in vitro fertilization by up to 89.9%. A corresponding reduction in P. falciparum transmission (75.5%/36.4% reductions in intensity/prevalence is observed in complimentary field studies. These results emphasize conserved mechanisms of fusion in Apicomplexa, while highlighting an approach to design future anti-malarial transmission-blocking vaccines. : Angrisano et al. find that the HAP2 cd-loop can be targeted as an anti-malarial intervention, is immunogenic across multiple plasmodial species, can induce antibodies that specifically recognize the sexual stages of the parasitic life cycle, and can mediate transmission-blocking immunity in the lab and the field. Keywords: HAP2, malaria, transmission, fusion, vaccine

  9. Magnetic fusion energy technology fellowship: Report on survey of institutional coordinators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    In 1980, the Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology (MFET) Fellowship program was established by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, to encourage outstanding students interested in fusion energy technology to continue their education at a qualified graduate school. The basic objective of the MFET Fellowship program is to ensure an adequate supply of scientists in this field by supporting graduate study, training, and research in magnetic fusion energy technology. The program also supports the broader objective of advancing fusion toward the realization of commercially viable energy systems through the research by MFET fellows. The MFET Fellowship program is administered by the Science/Engineering Education Division of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. Guidance for program administration is provided by an academic advisory committee

  10. Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles and their application to magnetic targeting drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guiping; Wang Yongxian

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles barrier is a novel kind of drug delivery system for magnetic targeting drugs, which can effectively deliver the drug to a tumor target site and increase therapeutic benefit, with the side effects minimized. This article summarizes the most outstanding papers on the of magnetic nanoparticles used as the targeting drug's delivery systems. (authors)

  11. Targeted drug delivery to the brain using magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Moos, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Brain capillary endothelial cells denote the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and conjugation of nanoparticles with antibodies that target molecules expressed by these endothelial cells may facilitate their uptake and transport into the brain. Magnetic nanoparticles can be encapsulated in liposomes and carry large molecules with therapeutic potential, for example, siRNA, cDNA and polypeptides. An additional approach to enhance the transport of magnetic nanoparticles across the BBB is the application of extracranially applied magnetic force. Stepwise targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to brain capillary endothelial cells followed by transport through the BBB using magnetic force may prove a novel mechanism for targeted therapy of macromolecules to the brain.

  12. Issues in the commercialization of magnetic fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, A.D.; Willke, T.L.

    1979-12-01

    This study identifies and outlines the issues that must be considered if fusion is to be put into commercial practice. The issues are put into perspective around a consistent framework and a program of study and research is recommended to anticipate and handle the issues for a successful fusion commercialization program

  13. Issues in the commercialization of magnetic fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, A.D.; Willke, T.L.

    1979-12-01

    This study identifies and outlines the issues that must be considered if fusion is to be put into commercial practice. The issues are put into perspective around a consistent framework and a program of study and research is recommended to anticipate and handle the issues for a successful fusion commercialization program. (MOW)

  14. An Efficient Method for Identifying Gene Fusions by Targeted RNA Sequencing from Fresh Frozen and FFPE Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Scolnick

    Full Text Available Fusion genes are known to be key drivers of tumor growth in several types of cancer. Traditionally, detecting fusion genes has been a difficult task based on fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal abnormalities. More recently, RNA sequencing has enabled an increased pace of fusion gene identification. However, RNA-Seq is inefficient for the identification of fusion genes due to the high number of sequencing reads needed to detect the small number of fusion transcripts present in cells of interest. Here we describe a method, Single Primer Enrichment Technology (SPET, for targeted RNA sequencing that is customizable to any target genes, is simple to use, and efficiently detects gene fusions. Using SPET to target 5701 exons of 401 known cancer fusion genes for sequencing, we were able to identify known and previously unreported gene fusions from both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue RNA in both normal tissue and cancer cells.

  15. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  16. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future

  17. Review of target studies for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.D.; Mark, J.W.K.; Pan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    We present an updated set of gain curves for radiation driven ion beam targets. The improved target performance calculated with nuclear spin polarized fuel will also be discussed. We discuss the conditions required for efficient conversion to x-rays of ion beam energy. These requirements are compared with those obtained for lasers. Recent results on symmetry requirements for direct drive ion beam targets are presented

  18. Fusion neutron generation by high-repetitive target injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pellet injection and repetitive laser illumination are key technologies for realizing inertial fusion energy. The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. and Toyota Motor Corporation demonstrate the pellet injection, counter laser beams' engagement and neutron generation. Deuterated polystyrene (CD) bead pellets, after free-falling for a distance of 18 cm at 1 Hz, are successfully engaged by two counter laser beams from a diode-pumped, ultra-intense laser HAMA. The laser energy, pulse duration, wavelength and the intensity are 0.63 J per beam, 104 fs, 811 nm and 4.7 x 10 18 W/cm 2 , respectively. The irradiated pellets produce D (D, n) 3 He-reacted neutrons with a maximum yield of 9.5 x 10 4 /4π sr/shot. A straight channel with 10 μm-diameter is found through the beads. The pellet size is 1 mm. The results indicate potentially useful technologies for the next step in realizing inertial fusion energy. The results are reviewed as well as some oversea activities. (author)

  19. Ignition energy scaling of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1998-01-01

    Scaling of the ignition energy threshold Ε ig with the implosion velocity v im and isentrope parameter α of imploding spherical deuterium-tritium shells is investigated by performing one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation dynamics. We find that the a and b exponents in the power-law approximation Ε ig ∝ α a v im -b depend crucially on the subset of initial configurations chosen to establish the scaling law. When we generate the initial states in the same way as in the Livermore study [W.K. Levedahl and J. D. Lindl, Nucl. Fusion 37 (1997) 165 ], we recover the same scaling, Ε ig ∝ α 1.7 v im -5.5 . If, however, the initial states are generated by rescaling the parent configuration according to the hydrodynamic similarity laws, we obtain a different scaling, Ε ig ∝ α 3 v im -9 , which is very close to the αv im -10 dependence predicted by the simple isobaric model for assembled fuel states. The latter is more favourable that the Livermore scaling when rescaling the fusion capsules to higher implosion velocities, but requires the peak drive pressure to be increased as P ∝ v im 5 . (authors)

  20. Target technologies for laser inertial confinement fusion: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Du Kai

    2013-01-01

    Targets are physical base of the laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) researches. The quality of the targets has extremely important influences on the reliabilities and degree of precision of the ICF experimental results. The characteristics of the ICF targets, such as complexity and microscale, high precision, determine that the target fabrication process must be a system engineering. This paper presents progresses on the fabrication technologies of ICF targets. The existing problem and the future needs of ICF target fabrication technologies are also discussed. (authors)

  1. Cryogenic hydrogen fuel for controlled inertial confinement fusion (formation of reactor-scale cryogenic targets)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Koresheva, E. R., E-mail: elena.koresheva@gmail.com; Krokhin, O. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Osipov, I. E. [Power Efficiency Centre, Inter RAO UES (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    In inertial fusion energy research, considerable attention has recently been focused on low-cost fabrication of a large number of targets by developing a specialized layering module of repeatable operation. The targets must be free-standing, or unmounted. Therefore, the development of a target factory for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is based on methods that can ensure a cost-effective target production with high repeatability. Minimization of the amount of tritium (i.e., minimization of time and space at all production stages) is a necessary condition as well. Additionally, the cryogenic hydrogen fuel inside the targets must have a structure (ultrafine layers—the grain size should be scaled back to the nanometer range) that supports the fuel layer survivability under target injection and transport through the reactor chamber. To meet the above requirements, significant progress has been made at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI) in the technology developed on the basis of rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST), also referred to as the FST layering method. Owing to the research carried out at LPI, unique experience has been gained in the development of the FST-layering module for target fabrication with an ultrafine fuel layer, including a reactor- scale target design. This experience can be used for the development of the next-generation FST-layering module for construction of a prototype of a target factory for power laser facilities and inertial fusion power plants.

  2. Fabrication of cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion targets using target free-fall technique. Report No. 2-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Murphy, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Techniques for fabricating cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets (i.e., spherical shells containing a uniform layer of DT ice) are investigated using target free-fall concept. Detection and characterization of the moving targets are effected by optoelectronic means, of which the principal is an RF ac-interferometer. This interferometer system demonstrates, for the first time, the speed capabilities of the phase-modulation ac-interferometry. New techiques developed for handling, holding, launching, and transporting targets are also described. Results obtained at both room and cryogenic temperatures are presented

  3. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedditch, John, E-mail: john.hedditch@sydney.edu.au; Bowden-Reid, Richard, E-mail: rbow3948@physics.usyd.edu.au; Khachan, Joe, E-mail: joe.khachan@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Whales 2006 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  4. Fatigue effects in insulation materials for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, P.

    2000-12-01

    The mechanical properties of insulation materials for the superconducting magnets of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and future fusion plants, i.e. woven fiber reinforced composites, have been identified as an area of concern for the long-term operation of such magnets. The magnets will be subjected to fast neutron and γ-radiation over their lifetime, which influence the mechanical properties of the insulation materials. The ultimate tensile strength and, above all, the interlaminar shear strength and their performance under dynamic load, corresponding to the pulsed operation of a TOKAMAK-confinement system, are sensitive indicators of material failure in fiber-reinforced laminates especially at cryogenic temperatures. To simulate these conditions, low frequency fatigue measurements at 10 Hz were made at 77 K up to one million cycles. Tension-tension fatigue tests were performed according to ASTM D3479. However, due to the space limitations in all irradiation facilities, the tests have to be done on samples, which are considerably smaller than those required for standard test conditions. The influence of the specimen geometry on the ultimate tensile strength under static and dynamic load conditions was, therefore, investigated on fiber-reinforced plastics. They did not show any systematic trends as long as the sample thickness does not exceed the thickness recommended in ASTM D3479. The double lap shear test method was chosen for the shear experiments because of the symmetry of the specimen geometry under tensile load and the suitability for fatigue tests. Like almost every existing test procedure for the interlaminar shear strength, this test method does not provide for a completely uniform interlaminar shear stress distribution over a sizable region in the test section of the specimen. A scaling program combined with FE-simulations was, therefore, initiated to assess the influence of the length of the test section and of the sample

  5. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendler, B.L.; Buckley, S.R.; Chen, C.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes progress made in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser inertial confinement fusion during 1987. The foam materials are polystyrene, resorcinol-formaldehyde, carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationship of their properties to target specifications are presented. Progress in the creation and testing of prototype targets is also described

  6. Magnetic Induction Machines Embedded in Fusion-Bonded Silicon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, David P; Cros, Florent; Zana, Iulica; Allen, Mark G; Das, Sauparna; Lang, Jeffrey H

    2004-01-01

    ...) within etched and fusion-bonded silicon to form the machine structure. The induction machines were characterized in motoring mode using tethered rotors, and exhibited a maximum measured torque...

  7. Controlled Nuclear Fusion by Magnetic Confinement and ITER

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís

    2005-01-01

    For may years harnessing fusion energy was considered the final solution to the world's energy crisis. ITER is the last step in the elusive quest. This presentation will provide in its various acientific, technological and political aspects.

  8. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  9. Method for selecting hollow microspheres for use in laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay; Havenhill, Jerry W.; Smith, Maurice Lee; Stoltz, Daniel L.

    1976-01-01

    Hollow microspheres having thin and very uniform wall thickness are useful as containers for the deuterium and tritium gas mixture used as a fuel in laser fusion targets. Hollow microspheres are commercially available; however, in commercial lots only a very small number meet the rigid requirements for use in laser fusion targets. Those meeting these requirements may be separated from the unsuitable ones by subjecting the commercial lot to size and density separations and then by subjecting those hollow microspheres thus separated to an external pressurization at which those which are aspherical or which have nonuniform walls are broken and separating the sound hollow microspheres from the broken ones.

  10. Some not such wonderful magnetic fusion facts; and their solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2017-10-01

    The first not such wonderful fusion fact (NSWFF) is that if ITER is successful, it is nowhere near ready to develop into a DEMO. The design Q=10, along with electricity generating efficiency of 1/3 prevents this. Making it smaller and cheaper, increasing the gain by 3 or 4, and the wall loading by an order of magnitude is not a minor detail, it is not at all clear the success with ITER will lead to a similar, pure fusion DEMO. The second NSWFF is that tokamaks are unlikely to improve to the point where they can be effective fusion reactors because their performance is limited by conservative design rules. The third NSWFF is that developing large fusion devices like ITER takes an enormous amount of time and dollars, there are no second chances. The fourth NSWFF is that it is unlikely that alternative confinement configurations will succeed either, at least in this century; they are simply too far behind. There is only a single solution for fusion to become a sustainable, carbon free power source by midcentury or shortly thereafter. This is to develop ITER (assuming it is successful) into a fusion breeder. This work was not supported by any organization, private or public.

  11. Parameter study toward economical magnetic fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoaki; Okano, Kunihiko; Nanahara, Toshiya; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Yamaji, Kenji; Takuma, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    Although the R and D of nuclear fusion reactors has made a steady progress as seen in ITER project, it has become of little doubt that fusion power reactors require hugeness and enormous amount of construction cost as well as surmounting the physics and engineering difficulties. Therefore, it is one of the essential issues to investigate the prospect of realizing fusion power reactors. In this report we investigated the effects of physics and engineering improvements on the economics of ITER-like steady state tokamak fusion reactors using our tokamak system and costing analysis code. With the results of this study, we considered what is the most significant factor for realizing economical competitive fusion reactors. The results show that with the conventional TF coil maximum field (12T), physics progress in β-value (or Troyon coefficient) has the most considerable effect on the reduction of fusion plant COE (Cost of Electricity) while the achievement of H factor = 2-3 and neutron wall load =∼5MW/m 2 is necessary. The results also show that with the improvement of TF coil maximum field, reactors with a high aspect ratio are economically advantageous because of low plasma current driving power while the improvement of current density in the conductors and yield strength of support structures is indispensable. (author)

  12. Large superconducting magnet systems for plasma and fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, W.

    1976-05-01

    Work on superconducting magnet systems and state of the art of superconducting magnet technology are described. Conceptual design consideration and problems of large magnet systems (stability, magnetic forces, cooling modes, safety) are discussed. Recent results of experimental work at Karlsruhe are reported. An outline of American and European programs is given. (orig.) [de

  13. Safety and environmental advantages of using tritium-lean targets for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzeni, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Logan, B. G.; Meier, W. R.; Moir, R. W.; Perkins, L. J.; Sanz, J.

    1999-01-01

    While traditional inertial fusion energy target designs typically use equimolar portions of deuterium and tritium and have areal densities (ρr) of ∼ 3 g/cm 2 , significant safety and environmental (S and E) advantages may be obtained through the use of high-density (ρr ∼ 10 g/cm 2 ) targets with tritium components as low as 0.5%. Such targets would absorb much of the neutron energy within the target and could be self-sufficient from a tritium breeding point of view. Tritium self-sufficiency within the target would free target chamber designers from the need to use lithium-bearing blanket materials, while low inventories within each target would translate into low inventories in target fabrication facilities. Absorption of much of the neutron energy within the target, the extremely low tritium inventories, and the greatly moderated neutron spectrum, make ''tritium-lean'' targets appear quite attractive from an S and E perspective

  14. Superconducting magnets for model ship propulsion and for material tests of a nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Monju, Y.; Tatara, I.; Hamada, M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactors, magnetically levitated trains, and MHD generators, etc., all need a very high magnetic field; which in order to be attained a means the application of superconductors is inevitable. This paper describes the development of ''CRYOZITT'', a superconductor featuring high current density and high mechanical strength. CRYOZITT has already been used in the manufacture of two race-track shaped superconducting magnets, and delivered to highly satisfied customers. (author)

  15. A review on target drug delivery: magnetic microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Chandna; Deepa Batra; Satinder Kakar; Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system aims to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and target the active entity to the site of action. A number of novel drug delivery systems have emerged encompassing various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery, magnetic micro carriers being one of them. Magnetic microsphere is newer approach in pharmaceutical field. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional ra...

  16. Wave heating and the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staten, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Government's support of the fusion program is predicated upon the long-term need for the fusion option in our energy future, as well as the near-term benefits associated with developments on the frontier of science and high technology. As a long-term energy option, magnetic fusion energy has the potential to provide an inexpensive, vast, and secure fuel reserve, to be environmentally clean and safe. It has many potential uses, which include production of central station electricity, fuel for fission reactors, synthetic fuels, and process heat for such applications as desalination of sea water. This paper presents an overview of the U.S. Government program for magnetic fusion energy. The goal and objectives of the U.S. program are reviewed followed by a summary of plasma experiments presently under way and the application of wave heating to these experiments

  17. Binding and Fusion of Extracellular Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane of Their Cell Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Ilaria; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2016-08-09

    Exosomes and ectosomes, extracellular vesicles of two types generated by all cells at multivesicular bodies and the plasma membrane, respectively, play critical roles in physiology and pathology. A key mechanism of their function, analogous for both types of vesicles, is the fusion of their membrane to the plasma membrane of specific target cells, followed by discharge to the cytoplasm of their luminal cargo containing proteins, RNAs, and DNA. Here we summarize the present knowledge about the interactions, binding and fusions of vesicles with the cell plasma membrane. The sequence initiates with dynamic interactions, during which vesicles roll over the plasma membrane, followed by the binding of specific membrane proteins to their cell receptors. Membrane binding is then converted rapidly into fusion by mechanisms analogous to those of retroviruses. Specifically, proteins of the extracellular vesicle membranes are structurally rearranged, and their hydrophobic sequences insert into the target cell plasma membrane which undergoes lipid reorganization, protein restructuring and membrane dimpling. Single fusions are not the only process of vesicle/cell interactions. Upon intracellular reassembly of their luminal cargoes, vesicles can be regenerated, released and fused horizontally to other target cells. Fusions of extracellular vesicles are relevant also for specific therapy processes, now intensely investigated.

  18. Environmental and economic assessments of magnetic and inertial fusion energy reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K.; Oishi, T.; Mori, K.

    2011-10-01

    Global warming due to rapid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the present-day crucial problems, and fusion reactors are expected to be abundant electric power generation systems to reduce human GHG emission amounts. To search for an environmental-friendly and economical fusion reactor system, comparative system studies have been done for several magnetic fusion energy reactors, and have been extended to include inertial fusion energy reactors. We clarify new scaling formulae for the cost of electricity and GHG emission rate with respect to key design parameters, which might be helpful in making a strategy for fusion research development. Comparisons with other conventional electric power generation systems are carried out taking into account the introduction of GHG taxes and the application of the carbon dioxide capture and storage system to fossil power generators.

  19. Direct drive target survival during injection in an inertial fusion energy power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Goodin, D.T.; Nikroo, A.; Stephens, E.; Alexander, N.B.; Gallix, R.; Siegel, N.; Raffray, A.R.; Mau, T.K.; Tillack, M.; Najmabadi, F.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    In inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs, the fuel is a spherical layer of frozen DT contained in a target that is injected at high velocity into the reaction chamber. For direct drive, typically laser beams converge at the centre of the chamber (CC) to compress and heat the target to fusion conditions. To obtain the maximum energy yield from the fusion reaction, the frozen DT layer must be at about 18.5 K and the target must maintain a high degree of spherical symmetry and surface smoothness when it reaches the CC. During its transit in the chamber the cryogenic target is heated by radiation from the hot chamber wall. The target is also heated by convection as it passes through the rarefied fill-gas used to control chamber wall damage by x-rays and debris from the target explosion. This article addresses the temperature limits at the target surface beyond which target uniformity may be damaged. It concentrates on direct drive targets because fuel warm up during injection is not currently thought to be an issue for present indirect drive designs and chamber concepts. Detailed results of parametric radiative and convective heating calculations are presented for direct-drive targets during injection into a dry-wall reaction chamber. The baseline approach to target survival utilizes highly reflective targets along with a substantially lower chamber wall temperature and fill-gas pressure than previously assumed. Recently developed high-Z material coatings with high heat reflectivity are discussed and characterized. The article also presents alternate target protection methods that could be developed if targets with inherent survival features cannot be obtained within a reasonable time span. (author)

  20. Magnetic polymer nanospheres for anticancer drug targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JurIkova, A; Csach, K; Koneracka, M; Zavisova, V; Tomasovicova, N; Lancz, G; Kopcansky, P; Timko, M; Miskuf, J [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Muckova, M, E-mail: akasard@saske.s [Hameln rds a.s., 900 01 Modra (Slovakia)

    2010-01-01

    Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer (PLGA) nanospheres loaded with biocom-patible magnetic fluid as a magnetic carrier and anticancer drug Taxol were prepared by the modified nanoprecipitation method with size of 200-250 nm in diameter. The PLGA polymer was utilized as a capsulation material due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. Taxol as an important anticancer drug was chosen for its significant role against a wide range of tumours. Thermal properties of the drug-polymer system were characterized using thermal analysis methods. It was determined the solubility of Taxol in PLGA nanospheres. Magnetic properties investigated using SQUID magnetometry showed superparamagnetism of the prepared magnetic polymer nanospheres.

  1. Experimental demonstration of ion extraction from magnetic thrust chamber for laser fusion rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoya; Yamamoto, Naoji; Morita, Taichi; Edamoto, Masafumi; Nakashima, Hideki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Mori, Yoshitaka; Johzaki, Tomoyuki

    2018-05-01

    A magnetic thrust chamber is an important system of a laser fusion rocket, in which the plasma kinetic energy is converted into vehicle thrust by a magnetic field. To investigate the plasma extraction from the system, the ions in a plasma are diagnosed outside the system by charge collectors. The results clearly show that the ion extraction does not strongly depend on the magnetic field strength when the energy ratio of magnetic field to plasma is greater than 4.3, and the magnetic field pushes back the plasma to generate a thrust, as previously suggested by numerical simulation and experiments.

  2. Assessment of the critical engineering data needs for the commercialization of magnetic confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of twenty-two recent conceptual fusion reactor designs was conducted to ascertain both generic and specific engineering data needs critical for the commercialization of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). Design experts or advocates for each concept were queried as to the more critical engineering issues and data needs affecting the achievement of commercialization. For each concept, the technical issues were identified and the data needs quantified. Issues and data needs were then ranked based upon the experts' perceptions of the relative importance of each to the concept. The issues encompassed all aspects of the fusion reactor plant design including materials, performance, maintainability, operability, cost, safety and resources

  3. Tritium Aspects of Fueling and Exhaust Pumping in Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    Magnetically confined fusion plasmas generate energy from deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions that produce energetic 3.5 MeV alpha particles and 14 MeV neutrons. Since the DT fusion reaction rate is a strong function of plasma density, an efficient fueling source is needed to maintain high plasma density in such systems. Energetic ions in fusion plasmas are able to escape the confining magnetic fields at a much higher rate than the fusion reactions occur, thus dictating the fueling rate needed. These lost ions become neutralized and need to be pumped away as exhaust gas to be reinjected into the plasma as fuel atoms.The technology to fuel and pump fusion plasmas has to be inherently compatible with the tritium fuel. An ideal holistic solution would couple the pumping and fueling such that the pump exhaust is directly fed back into pellet formation without including impurity gases. This would greatly reduce the processing needs for the exhaust. Concepts to accomplish this are discussed along with the fueling and pumping needs for a DT fusion reactor.

  4. Neutron-irradiation facilities at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source-I for fusion magnet materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The decommissioning of reactor-based neutron sources in the USA has led to the development of a new generation of neutron sources that employ high-energy accelerators. Among the accelerator-based neutron sources presently in operation, the highest-flux source is the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), a user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Neutrons in this source are produced by the interaction of 400 to 500 MeV protons with either of two 238 U target systems. In the Radiation Effects Facility (REF), the 238 U target is surrounded by Pb for neutron generatjion and reflection. The REF has three separate irradiation thimbles. Two thimbles provide irradiation temperatures between that of liquid He and several hundred degrees centigrade. The third thimble operates at ambient temperature. The large irradiation volume, the neutron spectrum and flux, the ability to transfer samples without warm up, and the dedication of the facilities during the irradiation make this ideally suited for radiation damage studies on components for superconducting fusion magnets. Possible experiments for fusion magnet materials are discussed on cyclic irradiation and annealing of stabilizers in a high magnetic field, mechanical tests on organic insulation irradiated at 4 K, and superconductors measured in high fields after irradiation

  5. Magnetic fusion energy materials technology program annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.L.

    1977-09-01

    The objectives of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Materials Technology Program, which is described in this report, are to continue to solve the materials problems of the Fusion Energy Division of ORNL and to meet needs of the national MFE program, directed by the ERDA Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE). This work is a continuation of the program described in previous annual progress reports. The principal areas of work include radiation effects, compatibility studies, materials studies related to the plasma-materials interaction, materials engineering, radiation behavior of superconducting magnet insulation, and mechanical properties of superconducting composites. The level of effort and schedules are consistent with Logic II of the DMFE Program Plan

  6. A remote monitoring system of environmental electromagnetic field in magnetic confinement fusion test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Takami, Shigeyuki; Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    A remote, continuous environmental electromagnetic field monitoring system for use in magnetic confinement fusion test facilities is developed. Using this system, both the static magnetic field and the high frequency electromagnetic field could be measured. The required frequency range of the measurement system is from 25 to 100 MHz for the ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) heating system. The outputs from the measurement instruments are measured simultaneously by custom-built software using a laptop-type personal computer connected to a local area network. In this way, the electromagnetic field strength could be monitored from a control room located about 200 m from the fusion device building. Examples of measurement data from the vicinity of a high-frequency generator and amplifier and the leakage static magnetic field from a fusion test device are presented. (author)

  7. Fusion-based multi-target tracking and localization for intelligent surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we have presented two approaches addressing visual target tracking and localization in complex urban environment. The two techniques presented in this paper are: fusion-based multi-target visual tracking, and multi-target localization via camera calibration. For multi-target tracking, the data fusion concepts of hypothesis generation/evaluation/selection, target-to-target registration, and association are employed. An association matrix is implemented using RGB histograms for associated tracking of multi-targets of interests. Motion segmentation of targets of interest (TOI) from the background was achieved by a Gaussian Mixture Model. Foreground segmentation, on other hand, was achieved by the Connected Components Analysis (CCA) technique. The tracking of individual targets was estimated by fusing two sources of information, the centroid with the spatial gating, and the RGB histogram association matrix. The localization problem is addressed through an effective camera calibration technique using edge modeling for grid mapping (EMGM). A two-stage image pixel to world coordinates mapping technique is introduced that performs coarse and fine location estimation of moving TOIs. In coarse estimation, an approximate neighborhood of the target position is estimated based on nearest 4-neighbor method, and in fine estimation, we use Euclidean interpolation to localize the position within the estimated four neighbors. Both techniques were tested and shown reliable results for tracking and localization of Targets of interests in complex urban environment.

  8. Contribution to the study of superconducting magnetic systems in the frame of fusion projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Artiguelongue, H.; Bej, Z.; Ciazynski, D.; Cloez, H.; Decool, P.; Hertout, P.; Libeyre, P.; Martinez, A.; Nicollet, S.; Rubino, M.; Schild, T.; Verger, J.M.

    2000-02-01

    This report is a presentation of all the 55 publications made by the Magnet Group of the 'Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee' during the 94-99 period. These publications have been made mainly in the frame of EURATOM contracts and task for ITER. This collection deals with most of the dimensioning aspects of large superconducting magnets and hence the field interest is wider than the restricted field of magnets for fusion by magnetic confinement. Whenever it is possible, simple expressions and criteria are given for dimensioning superconducting strands, assembling them to build cables and cooling them by an adapted forced flow cooling. This is hence a major for the understanding of the behaviour of large modern superconducting magnets and provides many tools for design and construction. (author)

  9. Contribution to the study of superconducting magnetic systems in the frame of fusion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Artiguelongue, H.; Bej, Z.; Ciazynski, D.; Cloez, H.; Decool, P.; Hertout, P.; Libeyre, P.; Martinez, A.; Nicollet, S.; Rubino, M.; Schild, T.; Verger, J.M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-02-01

    This report is a presentation of all the 55 publications made by the Magnet Group of the 'Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee' during the 94-99 period. These publications have been made mainly in the frame of EURATOM contracts and task for ITER. This collection deals with most of the dimensioning aspects of large superconducting magnets and hence the field interest is wider than the restricted field of magnets for fusion by magnetic confinement. Whenever it is possible, simple expressions and criteria are given for dimensioning superconducting strands, assembling them to build cables and cooling them by an adapted forced flow cooling. This is hence a major for the understanding of the behaviour of large modern superconducting magnets and provides many tools for design and construction. (author)

  10. Development of high yield strength non-magnetic steels for the equipments of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hidenori; Mukai, Tetsuya; Ohtani, Hiroo; Tsuruki, Takanori; Okada, Yasutaka

    1979-01-01

    Recently, activity of nuclear fusion research and so forth increase the demand of non-magnetic materials for various equipments and structures. For these usage, very low magnetic permeability as well as high strength are required under high magnetic field. Based on fundamental research, middle C-17% Cr-7% Ni-N non-magnetic steel has been developed. The developed steel shows more stable austenite phase and possesses higher yield strength and endurance limit of more than 10 kg/mm 2 , compared with 18% Cr-8% Ni austenitic steel. Also the developed steel has good ductility and toughness in spite of the high yield strength and shows better machinability than usual high Mn non- magnetic steels. The large forgings of this newly developed steel are manufactured in the works for the equipments of nuclear fusion research and confirmed good mechanical properties, high fatigue strength and low permeability. (author)

  11. Magnetic stem cell targeting to the inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T. N.; Straatman, L.; Yanai, A.; Rahmanian, R.; Garnis, C.; Häfeli, U. O.; Poblete, T.; Westerberg, B. D.; Gregory-Evans, K.

    2017-12-01

    Severe sensorineural deafness is often accompanied by a loss of auditory neurons in addition to injury of the cochlear epithelium and hair cell loss. Cochlear implant function however depends on a healthy complement of neurons and their preservation is vital in achieving optimal results. We have developed a technique to target mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to a deafened rat cochlea. We then assessed the neuroprotective effect of systematically delivered MSCs on the survival and function of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). MSCs were labeled with superparamagnetic nanoparticles, injected via the systemic circulation, and targeted using a magnetized cochlea implant and external magnet. Neurotrophic factor concentrations, survival of SGNs, and auditory function were assessed at 1 week and 4 weeks after treatments and compared against multiple control groups. Significant numbers of magnetically targeted MSCs (>30 MSCs/section) were present in the cochlea with accompanied elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor levels (p < 0.001). In addition we saw improved survival of SGNs (approximately 80% survival at 4 weeks). Hearing threshold levels in magnetically targeted rats were found to be significantly better than those of control rats (p < 0.05). These results indicate that magnetic targeting of MSCs to the cochlea can be accomplished with a magnetized cochlear permalloy implant and an external magnet. The targeted stem cells release neurotrophic factors which results in improved SGN survival and hearing recovery. Combining magnetic cell-based therapy and cochlear implantation may improve cochlear implant function in treating deafness.

  12. Cryogenic hydrogen data pertinent to magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    To aid future hydrogen fusion researchers, I have correlated the measured physical and chemical properties of the hydrogens below 30 0 K. I have further estimated these properties for deuterium--deuterium tritide--tritium (D 2 --DT--T 2 ) fusion fuel. My resulting synthesis offers a timely view and review of cryogenic hydrogen properties, plus some hydrogen data to room temperature. My general thrust is for workers new to the field, although my discussion of the scientific background of the material would suit specialists

  13. Influence of the pressure of Fe fundamental amorphous metallic fusions to magnet description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panakhov, T.M; Ahmadov, V.I; Musayev, Z.S

    2011-01-01

    Full tex: Obtaining, exploration and application of amorphous fusions on the basis of iron group magnet metals including amorphous phase non-magnetic additions as silisium and boric playing the role of stabilizer of the amorphous phase is widely used last years. Scientific and technical interest to these objects is connected with their physical property - high mechanical, electric, uncial agreement of corrosion and magnet characteristics. Amorphous alloy Fe58Ni20Si9B13 was selected as the object of research. To set the built-in hysteresis characteristics of magnetic fusion mesh, then the maximum magnetic induction (saturation induction) was appointed to the BS and the residual induction Br. The average distance between the borders as a result of pressure and magnetic characteristics of nano parosities in comparison of the relative change that is to say they are close to each other, with the magnetic characteristics of amorphous fusions nano parosity characteristics indicate that the corellation is between magnetic characteristics and nano parosity characteristics.

  14. Prospects of High Temperature Superconductors for fusion magnets and power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietz, Walter H.; Barth, Christian; Drotziger, Sandra; Goldacker, Wilfried; Heller, Reinhard; Schlachter, Sonja I.; Weiss, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of HTS application in fusion is given. • BSCCO application for current leads is discussed. • Several approaches to come to a high current HTS cable are shown. • Open issues and benefits of REBCO high current HTS cables are discussed. -- Abstract: During the last few years, progress in the field of second-generation High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) was breathtaking. Industry has taken up production of long length coated REBCO conductors with reduced angular dependency on external magnetic field and excellent critical current density jc. Consequently these REBCO tapes are used more and more in power application. For fusion magnets, high current conductors in the kA range are needed to limit the voltage during fast discharge. Several designs for high current cables using High Temperature Superconductors have been proposed. With the REBCO tape performance at hand, the prospects of fusion magnets based on such high current cables are promising. An operation at 4.5 K offers a comfortable temperature margin, more mechanical stability and the possibility to reach even higher fields compared to existing solutions with Nb 3 Sn which could be interesting with respect to DEMO. After a brief overview of HTS use in power application the paper will give an overview of possible use of HTS material for fusion application. Present high current HTS cable designs are reviewed and the potential using such concepts for future fusion magnets is discussed

  15. Fusion an introduction to the physics and technology of magnetic confinement fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    This second edition of a popular textbook is thoroughly revised with around 25% new and updated content.It provides an introduction to both plasma physics and fusion technology at a level that can be understood by advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical sciences and related engineering disciplines.As such, the contents cover various plasma confinement concepts, the support technologies needed to confine the plasma, and the designs of ITER as well as future fusion reactors.With end of chapter problems for use in courses.

  16. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Cook, R.C.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Kong, F.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    We describe progress made during 1986 in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser fusion. The foam materials are polystyrene and resorcinolformaldehyde. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationships of their properties to target specifications are presented. In the final section, we discuss statistical experimental design techniques that are being used to optimize the foams. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Conceptual design considerations and neutronics of lithium fall laser fusion target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Thomson, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Atomics International and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are involved in the conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant incorporating the lithium fall target chamber. In this paper we discuss some of the more important design considerations for the target chamber and evaluate its nuclear performance. Sizing and configuration of the fall, hydraulic effects, and mechanical design considerations are addressed. The nuclear aspects examined include tritium breeding, energy deposition, and radiation damage

  18. Path E alloys: ferritic material development for magnetic fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1980-09-01

    The application of ferritic materials in irradiation environments has received greatly expanded attention in the last few years, both internationally and in the United States. Ferritic materials are found to be resistant to irradiation damage and have in many cases superior properties to those of AISI 316. It has been shown that for magnetic fusion energy applications the low thermal expansion behavior of the ferritic alloy class will result in lower thermal stresses during reactor operation, leading to significantly longer ETF operating lifetimes. The Magnetic Fusion Energy Program therefore now includes a ferritic alloy option for alloy selection and this option has been designated Path E

  19. Consideration on nuclear fusion in plasma by the magnetic confinement as a heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Yoshio

    1990-01-01

    In comparing nuclear fusion in plasma by the magnetic confinement with nuclear fission and chemical reactions, the power density and the function of a heat engine are discussed using a new parameter G introduced as an eigenvalue of a reaction and the value of q introduced to estimate the thermal efficiency of a heat engine. It is shown that the fusion reactor by the magnetic confinement is very difficult to be a modern heat engine because of the lack of some indispensable functions as a modern heat engine. The value of G and q have the important role in the consideration. (author)

  20. SAR Target Recognition Based on Multi-feature Multiple Representation Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinzheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image target recognition algorithm based on multi-feature multiple representation learning classifier fusion. First, it extracts three features from the SAR images, namely principal component analysis, wavelet transform, and Two-Dimensional Slice Zernike Moments (2DSZM features. Second, we harness the sparse representation classifier and the cooperative representation classifier with the above-mentioned features to get six predictive labels. Finally, we adopt classifier fusion to obtain the final recognition decision. We researched three different classifier fusion algorithms in our experiments, and the results demonstrate thatusing Bayesian decision fusion gives thebest recognition performance. The method based on multi-feature multiple representation learning classifier fusion integrates the discrimination of multi-features and combines the sparse and cooperative representation classification performance to gain complementary advantages and to improve recognition accuracy. The experiments are based on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR database,and they demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Technology spinoffs from the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This document briefly describes eight new spin-offs from the fusion program: (1) cray timesharing system, (2) CRT touch panel, (3) magneform, (4) plasma separation process, (5) homopolar resistance welding, (6) plasma diagnostic development, (7) electrodeless microwave lamp, and (8) superconducting energy storage

  2. Distributed ISAR Subimage Fusion of Nonuniform Rotating Target Based on Matching Fourier Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Yaowen; Zhang, Wenpeng

    2018-06-04

    In real applications, the image quality of the conventional monostatic Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) for the maneuvering target is subject to the strong fluctuation of Radar Cross Section (RCS), as the target aspect varies enormously. Meanwhile, the maneuvering target introduces nonuniform rotation after translation motion compensation which degrades the imaging performance of the conventional Fourier Transform (FT)-based method in the cross-range dimension. In this paper, a method which combines the distributed ISAR technique and the Matching Fourier Transform (MFT) is proposed to overcome these problems. Firstly, according to the characteristics of the distributed ISAR, the multiple channel echoes of the nonuniform rotation target from different observation angles can be acquired. Then, by applying the MFT to the echo of each channel, the defocused problem of nonuniform rotation target which is inevitable by using the FT-based imaging method can be avoided. Finally, after preprocessing, scaling and rotation of all subimages, the noncoherent fusion image containing all the RCS information in all channels can be obtained. The accumulation coefficients of all subimages are calculated adaptively according to the their image qualities. Simulation and experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and fusion image with improved recognizability can be obtained. Therefore, by using the distributed ISAR technique and MFT, subimages of high-maneuvering target from different observation angles can be obtained. Meanwhile, by employing the adaptive subimage fusion method, the RCS fluctuation can be alleviated and more recognizable final image can be obtained.

  3. X-ray absorption in characterization of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-11-01

    Many plastic or metal coated targets are opaque, so their thickness and thickness uniformity cannot be obtained by optical means. Therefore, we have built and tested a new system using monochromatic X-ray absorption measurements. This system is also able to perform non-destructive measurements of argon fill pressure in glass microballoons. The X-ray source is a diffraction tube with a chromium target and fine focus (0.4 x 0.8 mm 2 ). Since monochromatic calculations are involved in this method, we use electronic discrimination to isolate the chromium Kα line (5.4 keV) from the bremsstrahlung spectrum. The detectors are xenon-filled proportional counters. The system is composed of two beams (10 μm in diameter), one used as a reference and the other as the measurement arm. A PET desk computer is coupled ot the experiment. We achieved a precision better than 10% for gold layers in the range of 0.1 to 1 μm, and better than 20% for argon pressures in the range of 5 - 13 bars

  4. TOKMINA, Toroidal Magnetic Field Minimization for Tokamak Fusion Reactor. TOKMINA-2, Total Power for Tokamak Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TOKMINA finds the minimum magnetic field, Bm, required at the toroidal coil of a Tokamak type fusion reactor when the input is beta(ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure), q(Kruskal-Shafranov plasma stability factor), and y(ratio of plasma radius to vacuum wall radius: rp/rw) and arrays of PT (total thermal power from both d-t and tritium breeding reactions), Pw (wall loading or power flux) and TB (thickness of blanket), following the method of Golovin, et al. TOKMINA2 finds the total power, PT, of such a fusion reactor, given a specified magnetic field, Bm, at the toroidal coil. 2 - Method of solution: TOKMINA: the aspect ratio(a) is minimized, giving a minimum value for Bm. TOKMINA2: a search is made for PT; the value of PT which minimizes Bm to the required value within 50 Gauss is chosen. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Input arrays presently are dimensioned at 20. This restriction can be overcome by changing a dimension card

  5. Ex vivo investigation of magnetically targeted drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Fukui, S.; Fujimoto, S.; Mishima, F.; Takeda, S.; Izumi, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Fujitani, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2007-01-01

    In conventional systemic drug delivery the drug is administered by intravenous injection; it then travels to the heart from where it is pumped to all regions of the body. When the drug is aimed at a small target region, this method is extremely inefficient and leads to require much larger doses than those being necessary. In order to overcome this problem a number of targeted drug delivery methods are developed. One of these, magnetically targeted drug delivery system (MT-DDS) will be a promising way, which involves binding a drug to small biocompatible magnetic particles, injecting these into the blood stream and using a high gradient magnetic field to pull them out of suspension in the target region. In the present paper, we describe an ex vivo experimental work. It is also reported that navigation and accumulation test of the magnetic particles in the Y-shaped glass tube was performed in order to examine the threshold of the magnetic force for accumulation. It is found that accumulation of the magnetic particles was succeeded in the blood vessel when a permanent magnet was placed at the vicinity of the blood vessel. This result indicates the feasibility of the magnetically drug targeting in the blood vessel

  6. Enhancement of the efficiency of magnetic targeting for drug delivery: Development and evaluation of magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Quanliang; Han Xiaotao; Li Liang

    2011-01-01

    Deep magnetic capture and clinical application are the current trends for magnetic targeted drug delivery system. More promising and possible strategies are needed to overcome the current limitations and further improve the magnetic targeting technique. Recent advances in the development of targeting magnet system show promise in progressing this technology from the laboratory to the clinic. Starting from well-known basic concepts, current limitations of magnetic targeted drug delivery system are analyzed. Meanwhile, the design concepts and evaluations of some effective improvements in magnet system are discussed and reviewed with reference to (i) reasonable design of magnet system; (ii) control modes of magnet system used to generate dynamical magnetic fields; and (iii) magnetic field driving types. - Research Highlights: → The current limitations of MTDDS for deep capture and clinical application are analyzed. → The development of magnet system shows promise in progressing MTDDS to clinical application. → The design concepts and evaluations of improvements in magnet system are reviewed and discussed. → The key to improve magnet system lies in controllable magnets and different excitations.

  7. Magnetic fusion energy and computers. The role of computing in magnetic fusion energy research and development (second edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the structure and uses of the MFE Network and presents a compilation of future computing requirements. Its primary emphasis is on the role of supercomputers in fusion research. One of its key findings is that with the introduction of each successive class of supercomputer, qualitatively improved understanding of fusion processes has been gained. At the same time, even the current Class VI machines severely limit the attainable realism of computer models. Many important problems will require the introduction of Class VII or even larger machines before they can be successfully attacked

  8. Properties of plasma sheath with ion temperature in magnetic fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinyuan; Wang Feng; Sun Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    The plasma sheath properties in a strong magnetic field are investigated in this work using a steady state two-fluid model. The motion of ions is affected heavily by the strong magnetic field in fusion devices; meanwhile, the effect of ion temperature cannot be neglected for the plasma in such devices. A criterion for the plasma sheath in a strong magnetic field, which differs from the well-known Bohm criterion for low temperature plasma sheath, is established theoretically with a fluid model. The fluid model is then solved numerically to obtain detailed sheath information under different ion temperatures, plasma densities, and magnetic field strengths.

  9. Magnetic Probe to Study Plasma Jets for Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-16

    A probe has been constructed to measure the magnetic field of a plasma jet generated by a pulsed plasma rail-gun. The probe consists of two sets of three orthogonally-oriented commercial chip inductors to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field vector at two separate positions in order to give information about the magnetic field evolution within the jet. The strength and evolution of the magnetic field is one of many factors important in evaluating the use of supersonic plasma jets for forming imploding spherical plasma liners as a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion.

  10. Vent rate of superconducting magnets during quench in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    When a superconducting magnet goes normal, resistive heating in the conductor evaporates surrounding LHe, which must be vented. The nature and speed at which the magnet goes normal and He is vented are not subject to rigorous analysis. This paper presents vent data from an existing magnet. An approximate mathematical model is derived and fitted to the data to permit scaling of vent requirements to larger size magnets. The worst case models of the vent employed in Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) cryogenic system design are also presented

  11. Magnetic confinement system using charged ammonia targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Bogdanoff, A.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory

  12. High pressure deuterium-tritium gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Spaletta, H.W.; Ware, A.G.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Hardwick, D.A.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental studies of muon-catalyzed fusion, the density of the hydrogen gas mixture is an important parameter. Catalysis of up to 150 fusions per muon has been observed in deuterium-tritium gas mixtures at liquid hydrogen density; at room temperature, such densities require a target gas pressure of the order of 1000 atmospheres (100 MPa, 15,000 psi). We report here the design considerations for hydrogen gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments that operate at 1000 and 10,000 atmospheres. The 1000 atmosphere high pressure target vessels are fabricated of Type A-286 stainless steel and lined with oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper to provide a barrier to hydrogen permeation of the stainless steel. The 10,000 atmosphere ultrahigh pressure target vessels are made from 18Ni (200 grade) maraging steel and are lined with OFHC copper, again to prevent hydrogen permeation of the steel. In addition to target design features, operating requirements, fabrication procedures, and secondary containment are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Fusion energy research with lasers, direct drive targets, and dry wall chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethian, J.D.; Obenschain, S.P.; Myers, M.

    2003-01-01

    We are carrying out a coordinated, focused effort to develop Laser Inertial Fusion Energy. The key components are developed in concert with one another and the science and engineering issues are addressed concurrently. Significant progress has been made in this program: We are evaluating target designs that show it could be possible to achieve the high gains (>100) needed for a practical fusion system. These have a low density CH foam that is wicked with solid DT, and over coated with a thin high-Z layer. Significant advances have been made with the two types of laser are being developed: Krypton Fluoride (KrF) gas lasers and Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPPSL). Both have the potential to meet the fusion energy requirements for rep-rate, efficiency, durability and cost. This paper also presents the advances in development of chamber operating windows (target survival plus no wall erosion), final optics (aluminum at grazing incidence has high reflectivity and exceeds required laser damage threshold), target fabrication (advanced foams and high Z overcoats), and target injection (new facility for target injection and tracking studies). (author)

  14. Fusion ignition via a magnetically-assisted fast ignition approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, W. -M.; Gibbon, P.; Sheng, Z. -M.; Li, Y. T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made towards laser-driven fusion ignition via different schemes, including direct and indirect central ignition, fast ignition, shock ignition, and impact ignition schemes. However, to reach ignition conditions, there are still various technical and physical challenges to be solved for all these schemes. Here, our multi-dimensional integrated simulation shows that the fast-ignition conditions could be achieved when two 2.8 petawatt heating laser pulses counter-pr...

  15. Superconductors for fusion magnets tested under pulsed field in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Bottura, L.; Katheder, H.; Blau, B.; Rohleder, I.; Vecsey, G.

    1995-01-01

    The SULTAN III test facility has been upgraded with a pair of pulsed field coils to carry out AC losses and stability experiments under full operating loads on large size, fusion conductors for ITER. A fast data aquisition system records the conductor behaviour under fast field transient. The commissioning results of the pulsed coils and instrumentation are critically discussed and the test capability of the set up is assessed. (orig.)

  16. Laser fusion overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1976-01-01

    Because of recent breakthroughs in the target area, and in the glass laser area, the scientific feasibility of laser fusion--and of inertial fusion--may be demonstrated in the early 1980's. Then the development in that time period of a suitable laser (or storage ring or other driving source) would make possible an operational inertial fusion reactor in this century. These are roughly the same time scales as projected by the Tokamak magnetic confinement approach. It thus appears that the 15-20 year earlier start by magnetic confinement fusion may be overcome. Because inertial confinement has been demonstrated, and inertial fusion reactors may operate on smaller scales than Tokamaks, laser fusion may have important technical and economic advantages

  17. The magnetic horn being installed in the CNGS target chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic system that focuses the beam of particles arising from the graphite target of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso project (CNGS) has been installed in its final position in the tunnel.The CNGS secondary beam magnetic system consists of two elements: the horn and the reflector, both acting as focusing lenses for the positively-charged pions and kaons produced by proton interactions in the target.

  18. Joint sparsity based heterogeneous data-level fusion for target detection and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ruixin; Zulch, Peter; Distasio, Marcello; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

    2017-05-01

    Typical surveillance systems employ decision- or feature-level fusion approaches to integrate heterogeneous sensor data, which are sub-optimal and incur information loss. In this paper, we investigate data-level heterogeneous sensor fusion. Since the sensors monitor the common targets of interest, whose states can be determined by only a few parameters, it is reasonable to assume that the measurement domain has a low intrinsic dimensionality. For heterogeneous sensor data, we develop a joint-sparse data-level fusion (JSDLF) approach based on the emerging joint sparse signal recovery techniques by discretizing the target state space. This approach is applied to fuse signals from multiple distributed radio frequency (RF) signal sensors and a video camera for joint target detection and state estimation. The JSDLF approach is data-driven and requires minimum prior information, since there is no need to know the time-varying RF signal amplitudes, or the image intensity of the targets. It can handle non-linearity in the sensor data due to state space discretization and the use of frequency/pixel selection matrices. Furthermore, for a multi-target case with J targets, the JSDLF approach only requires discretization in a single-target state space, instead of discretization in a J-target state space, as in the case of the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) or the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate that the proposed JSDLF approach achieves excellent performance with near real-time accurate target position and velocity estimates.

  19. Targeting to carcinoma cells with chitosan- and starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2009-01-01

    The delivery of hyperthermic thermoseeds to a specific target site with minimal side effects is an important challenge in targeted hyperthermia, which employs magnetic method and functional polymers. An external magnetic field is used to control the site-specific targeting of the magnetic nanoparticles. Polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles can confer a higher affinity to the biological cell membranes. In this study, uncoated, chitosan-coated, and starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized for use as a hyperthermic thermoseed. Each sample was examined with respect to their applications to hyperthermia using XRD, VSM, and FTIR. In addition, the temperature changes under an alternating magnetic field were observed. As in vitro tests, the magnetic responsiveness of chitosan- and starch-coated magnetite was determined by a simple blood vessel model under various intensities of magnetic field. L929 normal cells and KB carcinoma cells were used to examine the cytotoxicity and affinity of each sample using the MTT method. The chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles generated a higher DeltaT of 23 degrees C under an AC magnetic field than the starch-coated magnetite, and the capturing rate of the particles was 96% under an external magnetic field of 0.4 T. The highest viability of L929 cells was 93.7%. Comparing the rate of KB cells capture with the rate of L929 cells capture, the rate of KB cells capture relatively increased with 10.8% in chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Hence, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles are biocompatible and have a selective affinity to KB cells. The targeting of magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia was improved using a controlled magnetic field and a chitosan-coating. Therefore, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles are expected to be promising materials for use in magnetic targeted hyperthermia. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Moving target detection based on temporal-spatial information fusion for infrared image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toing, Wu-qin; Xiong, Jin-yu; Zeng, An-jun; Wu, Xiao-ping; Xu, Hao-peng

    2009-07-01

    Moving target detection and localization is one of the most fundamental tasks in visual surveillance. In this paper, through analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional approaches about moving target detection, a novel approach based on temporal-spatial information fusion is proposed for moving target detection. The proposed method combines the spatial feature in single frame and the temporal properties within multiple frames of an image sequence of moving target. First, the method uses the spatial image segmentation for target separation from background and uses the local temporal variance for extracting targets and wiping off the trail artifact. Second, the logical "and" operator is used to fuse the temporal and spatial information. In the end, to the fusion image sequence, the morphological filtering and blob analysis are used to acquire exact moving target. The algorithm not only requires minimal computation and memory but also quickly adapts to the change of background and environment. Comparing with other methods, such as the KDE, the Mixture of K Gaussians, etc., the simulation results show the proposed method has better validity and higher adaptive for moving target detection, especially in infrared image sequences with complex illumination change, noise change, and so on.

  1. The distribution of BRAF gene fusions in solid tumors and response to targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeffrey S; Wang, Kai; Chmielecki, Juliann; Gay, Laurie; Johnson, Adrienne; Chudnovsky, Jacob; Yelensky, Roman; Lipson, Doron; Ali, Siraj M; Elvin, Julia A; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Roels, Steven; Miller, Vincent A; Nakamura, Brooke N; Gray, Adam; Wong, Michael K; Stephens, Philip J

    2016-02-15

    Although the BRAF V600E base substitution is an approved target for the BRAF inhibitors in melanoma, BRAF gene fusions have not been investigated as anticancer drug targets. In our study, a wide variety of tumors underwent comprehensive genomic profiling for hundreds of known cancer genes using the FoundationOne™ or FoundationOne Heme™ comprehensive genomic profiling assays. BRAF fusions involving the intact in-frame BRAF kinase domain were observed in 55 (0.3%) of 20,573 tumors, across 12 distinct tumor types, including 20 novel BRAF fusions. These comprised 29 unique 5' fusion partners, of which 31% (9) were known and 69% (20) were novel. BRAF fusions included 3% (14/531) of melanomas; 2% (15/701) of gliomas; 1.0% (3/294) of thyroid cancers; 0.3% (3/1,062) pancreatic carcinomas; 0.2% (8/4,013) nonsmall-cell lung cancers and 0.2% (4/2,154) of colorectal cancers, and were enriched in pilocytic (30%) vs. nonpilocytic gliomas (1%; p < 0.0001), Spitzoid (75%) vs. nonSpitzoid melanomas (1%; p = 0.0001), acinar (67%) vs. nonacinar pancreatic cancers (<1%; p < 0.0001) and papillary (3%) vs. nonpapillary thyroid cancers (0%; p < 0.03). Clinical responses to trametinib and sorafenib are presented. In conclusion, BRAF fusions are rare driver alterations in a wide variety of malignant neoplasms, but enriched in Spitzoid melanoma, pilocytic astrocytomas, pancreatic acinar and papillary thyroid cancers. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  2. Design and fabrication of foam-insulated cryogenic target for wet-wall laser fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimatsu, T.; Takeda, T.; Nagai, K.; Mima, K.; Yamanaka, T.

    2003-01-01

    A foam insulated cryogenic target was proposed for use in a future laser fusion reactor with a wet wall. This scheme can protect the solid DT layer from melting due to surface heating by adsorption of metal vapor without significant reduction in the target gain. Design spaces for the injection velocity and the acceptable vapor pressure in the reactor are discussed. Basic technology to fabricate such structure was demonstrated by emulsion process. Concept of a cryogenic fast-ignition target with a gold guiding cone was proposed together with direct injection filling of liquid DT. (author)

  3. First-wall and blanket engineering development for magnetic-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.; Herman, H.; Maroni, V.; Turner, L.; Clemmer, R.; Finn, P.; Johnson, C.; Abdou, M.

    1981-01-01

    A number of programs in the USA concerned with materials and engineering development of the first wall and breeder blanket systems for magnetic-fusion power reactors are described. Argonne National Laboratory has the lead or coordinating role, with many major elements of the research and engineering tests carried out by a number of organizations including industry and other national laboratories

  4. Performance of Hall sensor-based devices for magnetic field diagnosis at fusion reactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolshakova, I.; Ďuran, Ivan; Holyaka, R.; Hristoforou, E.; Marusenkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2007), s. 283-288 ISSN 1546-198X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Galvanomagnetic * Sensor * Fusion Reactor * Magnetic Diagnostics * Radiation Hardness Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2007

  5. Cryogenic Hydrogen Fuel for Controlled Inertial Confinement Fusion (Cryogenic Target Factory Concept Based on FST-Layering Method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Koresheva, E. R.; Koshelev, I. E.; Krokhin, O. N.; Nikitenko, A. I.; Osipov, I. E.

    2017-12-01

    A central element of a power plant based on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a target with cryogenic hydrogen fuel that should be delivered to the center of a reactor chamber with a high accuracy and repetition rate. Therefore, a cryogenic target factory (CTF) is an integral part of any ICF reactor. A promising way to solve this problem consists in the FST layering method developed at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI). This method (rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets) is unique, having no analogs in the world. The further development of FST-layering technologies is implemented in the scope of the LPI program for the creation of a modular CTF and commercialization of the obtained results. In this report, we discuss our concept of CTF (CTF-LPI) that exhibits the following distinctive features: using a FST-layering technology for the elaboration of an in-line production of cryogenic targets, using an effect of quantum levitation of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in magnetic field for noncontacting manipulation, transport, and positioning of the free-standing cryogenic targets, as well as in using a Fourier holography technique for an on-line characterization and tracking of the targets flying into the reactor chamber. The results of original experimental and theoretical investigations performed at LPI indicate that the existing and developing target fabrication capabilities and technologies can be applied to ICF target production. The unique scientific, engineering, and technological base developed in Russia at LPI allows one to make a CTFLPI prototype for mass production of targets and delivery thereof at the required velocity into the ICF reactor chamber.

  6. Directions for reactor target design based on the US heavy ion fusion systems assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.; Dudziak, D.; Magelssen, G.; Zuckerman, D.; Dreimeyer, D.

    1986-01-01

    We studied areas of major uncertainty in target design using the cost of electricity as our figure of merit. Net electric power from the plant was fixed at 1000 MW to eliminate large effects due to economies of scale. The system is relatively insensitive to target gain. Factors of three changes in gain cause only 8 to 12% changes in electricity cost. An increase in the peak power needed to drive targets poses only a small cost risk, but requires many more beamlets be transported to the target. A shortening of the required ion range causes both cost and beamlet difficulties. A factor of 4 decrease in the required range at a fixed driver energy increases electricity cost by 44% and raises the number of beamlets to 240. Finally, the heavy ion fusion system can accommodate large increases in target costs. To address the major uncertainties, target design should concentrate on the understanding requirements for ion range and peak driver power

  7. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, R; Endo, T; Yoshida, H; Norimatsu, T

    2016-01-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre. (paper)

  8. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, R.; Endo, T.; Yoshida, H.; Norimatsu, T.

    2016-03-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre.

  9. DEALS: a maintainable superconducting magnet system for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseih, S.Y.; Danby, G.; Powell, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of demountable superconducting magnet systems has been examined in a design study of a DEALS [Demountable Externally Anchored Low Stress] TF magnet for an HFITR [High Field Ignition Test Reactor] Tokamak device. All parts of the system appear feasible, including the demountable superconducting joints. Measurements on small scale prototype joints indicate that movable pressure contact joints exhibit acceptable electrical, mechanical, and cryogenic performance. Such joints permit a relatively simple support structure and are readily demountable. Assembly and disassembly sequences are described whereby any failed portion of the magnet, or any part of the reactor inside the TF coils can be removed and replaced if necessary

  10. Classical impurity ion confinement in a toroidal magnetized fusion plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S T A; Den Hartog, D J; Caspary, K J; Magee, R M; Mirnov, V V; Chapman, B E; Craig, D; Fiksel, G; Sarff, J S

    2012-03-23

    High-resolution measurements of impurity ion dynamics provide first-time evidence of classical ion confinement in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma. The density profile evolution of fully stripped carbon is measured in MST reversed-field pinch plasmas with reduced magnetic turbulence to assess Coulomb-collisional transport without the neoclassical enhancement from particle drift effects. The impurity density profile evolves to a hollow shape, consistent with the temperature screening mechanism of classical transport. Corroborating methane pellet injection experiments expose the sensitivity of the impurity particle confinement time to the residual magnetic fluctuation amplitude.

  11. Symposium: new trends in unconventional approaches to magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    An extensive review of the meeting is given. The concepts discussed included reverse-field pinches, compact tori, advanced stellarators, multipoles, surface magnetic confinement systems, the bumpy torus, and a collection of mirror-based approaches

  12. Activation of structural alloys in fusion reactor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.; Doran, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Using the REAC2 code system, both short-term and long-term activation were calculated for possible structural and magnet materials at the shield-magnet interface. The flux was taken from the STARFIRE conceptual design and a 30-year lifetime was assumed. Short-term activation does not seem to be a problem. Only materials with large amounts of niobium appear to be a potential problem for long-term activation. 2 tabs

  13. Mechanical design of a magnetic fusion production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanical aspects of a tandem mirror and tokamak concepts for the tritium production mission are compared, and a proposed breeding blanket configuration for each type of reactor is presented in detail, along with a design outline of the complete fusion reaction system. In both cases, the reactor design is developed sufficiently to permit preliminary cost estimates of all components. A qualitative comparison is drawn between both concepts from the view of mechanical design and serviceability, and suggestions are made for technology proof tests on unique mechanical features. Detailed cost breakdowns indicate less than 10% difference in the overall costs of the two reactors

  14. A magnetic method to concentrate and trap biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-11-01

    Magnetoresistive sensors in combination with magnetic particles have been used in biological applications due to, e.g., their small size and high sensitivity. A growing interest is to integrate magnetoresistive sensors with microchannels and electronics to fabricate devices that can perform complex analyses. A major task in such systems is to immobilize magnetic particles on top of the sensor surface, which is required to detect the particles\\' stray field. In the presented work, a bead concentrator, consisting of gold microstructures, at the bottom of a microchannel, is used to attract and move magnetic particles into a trap. The trap is made of a chamber with a gold microstructure underneath and is used to attract and immobilize a defined number of magnetic beads. In order to detect targets, two kinds of solutions were prepared; one containing only superparamagnetic particles, the other one containing beads with the protein Bovine serum albumin as the target and fluorescent markers. Due to the size difference between bare beads and beads with target, less magnetic beads were immobilized inside the volume chamber in case of magnetic beads with target as compared to bare magnetic beads. © 1965-2012 IEEE.

  15. Copper-coated laser-fusion targets using molecular-beam levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocke, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of diagnostic experiments at the Shiva laser fusion facility required targets of glass microspheres coated with 1.5 to 3.0 μm of copper. Previous batch coating efforts using vibration techniques gave poor results due to microsphere sticking and vacuum welding. Molecular Beam Levitation (MBL) represented a noncontact method to produce a sputtered copper coating on a single glassmicrosphere. The coating specifications that were achieved resulted in a copper layer up to 3 μm thick with the allowance of a maximum variation of 10 nm in surface finish and thickness. These techniques developed with the MBL may be applied to sputter coat many soft metals for fusion target applications

  16. Plasma target output from a magnetically augmented, gas-injected, washer-stack plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This article describes a new washer-stack gun design developed for the application of plasma target production for the startup of neutral-beam trapping in a fusion research magnetic confinement system. The gun is a Mo anode type that is D 2 injected and has an auxiliary pulsed magnet for control of plasma-flux mapping. One of the principal features of 2--10-ms duration pulses for gun operation in a suitable magnetic field is the formation of an arc column along magnetic field lines from the gun's central cathode electrode to the vacuum chamber walls (at common anode potential). The primary power output from a 5.0-cm-i.d. gun is typically carried along this arc column by a stream of approximately 2000 A of 50--250-eV electrons. This primary stream of relatively low-density energetic electrons efficiently ionizes the injected gas, forming a quasi-dc source of denser secondary plasma of approx.10 13 /cm 3 at a few eV, which is able to flow or diffuse away along a somewhat larger column of magnetic field lines. In plasma-target production tests on a test stand, a gun operated at a D 2 gas flow of 22 Torr ls -1 yielded 250 A of equivalent plasma flow

  17. Analysis of plasma behavior in a magnetic nozzle of laser fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Yoshihiko; Yoshimi, Naofumi; Nakama, Yuji; Muranaka, Takanobu; Mayumi, Takao; Nakashima, Hideki

    1997-01-01

    A magnetic nozzle concept in a laser fusion rocket is suitable for controlling the fusion plasma flow and it has an advantage that thermalization with wall structures in a thrust chamber can be avoided. Rayleigh-Taylor instability would occur at the surface of expanding plasma and it would lead to the degradation of thrust efficiency, due to diffusion of the plasma through ambient decelerating magnetic field. A 3D hybrid particle-in-cell code has been developed to analyze the plasma instability in the magnetic nozzle. The resultant linear growth rate γ of the instability is found to be 2.96 x 10 6 and it is in good agreement with the theoretical value from conventional Rayleigh Taylor instability. (author)

  18. Mechanical behavior of the mirror fusion test Facility superconducting magnet coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical response to winding and electromagnetic loads of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) superconducting coil pack is presented. The 375-ton (3300 N) MFTF Yin-Yang magnet, presently the world's largest superconducting magnet, is scheduled for acceptance cold-testing in May of 1981. The assembly is made up of two identical coils which together contain over 15 miles (24 km) of superconductor wound in 58 consecutive layers of 24 turns each. Topics associated with mechanical behavior include physical properties of the coil pack and its components, winding pre-load effects, finite element analysis, magnetic load redistribution, and the design impact of predicted conductor motion

  19. First-wall design limitations for linear magnetic fusion (LMF) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryczkowski, G.E.; Krakowski, R.A.; Steinhauer, L.C.; Zumdieck, J.

    1978-01-01

    One approach to the endloss problem in linear magnetic fusion (LMF) uses high magnetic field to reduce the required confinement time. This approach is limited by magnet stresses and bremsstrahlung heating of the first wall; the first-wall thermal-pulsing issue is addressed. Pertinent thermophysical parameters are developed in the context of high-field LMF to identify promising first-wall materials, and thermal fatigue experiments relevant to LMF first walls are reviewed. High-flux first-wall concepts are described which include both solid and evaporating first-wall configurations

  20. Magnetic Multi-Scale Mapping to Characterize Anthropogenic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, P.; Munschy, M.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of buried anthropic objects on construction sites can cause delays and/or dangers for workers and for the public. Indeed, every year 500 tons of Unexploded-ordnance are discovered in France. Magnetic measurements are useful to localize magnetized objects. Moreover, it is the cheapest geophysical method which does not impact environment and which is relatively fast to perform. Fluxgate magnetometers (three components) are used to measure magnetic properties bellow the ground. These magnetic sensors are not absolute, so they need to be calibrated before the onset of the measurements. The advantage is that they allow magnetic compensation of the equipment attached to the sensor. So the choice of this kind sensor gives the opportunity to install the equipment aboard different magnetized supports: boat, quad bike, unmanned aerial vehicle, aircraft,... Indeed, this methodology permits to perform magnetic mapping with different scale and different elevation above ground level. An old French aerial military plant was chosen to perform this multi-scale approach. The advantage of the site is that it contains a lot of different targets with variable sizes and depth, e.g. buildings, unexploded-ordnances of the two world wars, trenches, pipes,… By comparison between the different magnetic anomaly maps at different elevations some of the geometric parameters of the magnetic sources can be characterized. The comparison between measured maps at different elevations and the prolonged map highlights the maximum distance for the target's detection (figure).

  1. Determination of the pr of laser fusion targets using the α-particle TOF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivinsky, V.W.; Lent, E.; Shay, H.D.; Manes, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    A computer code was written to describe the alpha particle energy loss. The problem of a symmetric compression of the DT gas by an exploding microsphere is analyzed. The code calculates the energy spectrum of a Gaussian distribution of alpha particles after passing through the compressed gas and the exploded glass. The calculations are being used to determine design parameters for diagnostic instruments for measuring charged particle energy distributions from laser fusion targets

  2. Resolving key heavy-ion fusion target issues with relativistic heavy-ion research accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators designed for relativistic nuclear research experiments can also be adapted for target research in heavy-ion driver inertial fusion. Needle-shaped plasmas can be created that are adequate for studying basic properties of matter at high energy density. Although the ion range is very long, the specific deposited power nevertheless increases with kinetic energy, as the focus spot can be made smaller and more ions can be accumulated in larger rings

  3. Data fusion for target tracking and classification with wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannetier, Benjamin; Doumerc, Robin; Moras, Julien; Dezert, Jean; Canevet, Loic

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of multiple ground target tracking and classification with information obtained from a unattended wireless sensor network. A multiple target tracking (MTT) algorithm, taking into account road and vegetation information, is proposed based on a centralized architecture. One of the key issue is how to adapt classical MTT approach to satisfy embedded processing. Based on track statistics, the classification algorithm uses estimated location, velocity and acceleration to help to classify targets. The algorithms enables tracking human and vehicles driving both on and off road. We integrate road or trail width and vegetation cover, as constraints in target motion models to improve performance of tracking under constraint with classification fusion. Our algorithm also presents different dynamic models, to palliate the maneuvers of targets. The tracking and classification algorithms are integrated into an operational platform (the fusion node). In order to handle realistic ground target tracking scenarios, we use an autonomous smart computer deposited in the surveillance area. After the calibration step of the heterogeneous sensor network, our system is able to handle real data from a wireless ground sensor network. The performance of system is evaluated in a real exercise for intelligence operation ("hunter hunt" scenario).

  4. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, B A; Nuttall, W J

    2008-01-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H 2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB 2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB 2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb 3 Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB 2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB 2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb 3 Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB 2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB 2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB 2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered

  5. Prostate cancer diagnosis: Efficacy of a simple electromagnetic MRI-TRUS fusion method to target biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelidi, Amina; Ohana, Mickael; Labani, Aïssam; Alemann, Guillaume; Lang, Herve; Roy, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A very simple electromagnetic device for fusion with MRI examination during TRUS guided biopsies increases the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. • This device has advantages: a short time for the fusion registration, no additional cumbersome material and no intense training to be fluent with. • Low or intermediate suspicious area for prostate carcinoma on mpMRI can be due to benign histological abnormalities or high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. - Abstract: Objective: To assess that transrectal ultrasound guidance (TRUS) targeted biopsies (TB) aimed with an easy to use electronic real-time fusion registration device have a higher rate of prostate cancer (PC) detection than standard biopsies (SB). Material and methods: This prospective study included 130 patients referred for TRUS biopsies after suspicious MRI. They underwent 16-core SB and 2 to 3 cores in each MRI suspicious area, using a fusion software. We noted SB and TB positivity for PC and Gleason score (GS). We used the McNemar test to compare SB and TB, with a statistical significance p < 0.05. Results: Among 130 patients, 68.5% had PC. Additional time due to the fusion registration was 3.3 min. One hundred fifteen patients (88.4%) had pathological findings on the histological analysis (prostate cancer n = 89, others n = 26). TB diagnosed PC in 75 patients with negative SB. Positivity rate for PC was significantly higher for TB than SB (p = 0.03). Among highly suspicious MRI lesions, detection rate of histological abnormalities using SB and TB was 96% with 79.7% of PC. Most PC that TB diagnosed alone were clinically significant (86.3%). Conclusion: TRUS biopsies performed with a simple MRI and US electronic fusion is an unrestrainedly method to increase PC diagnosis.

  6. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, David P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Abla, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Burruss, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Feibush, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Fredian, T. W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Goode, M. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Greenwald, M. J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Keahey, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Leggett, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Li, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); McCune, D. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Papka, M. E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Randerson, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Sanderson, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Stillerman, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Thompson, M. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Uram, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wallace, G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  7. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, David P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J. R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T. W.; Goode, M. M.; Greenwald, M. J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D. C.; Papka, M. E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M. R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid(FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP) provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  8. Magnet and conductor developments for the Mirror Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    The conductor development and the magnet design and construction for the MFTF are described. Future plans for the Mirror Program and their influence on the associated superconductor development program are discussed. Included is a summary of the progress being made to develop large, high-field, multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors and the feasibility of building a 12-T yin-yang set of coils for the machine to follow MFTF. In a further look into the future, possible magnetic configurations and requirements for mirror reactors are surveyed

  9. Low-energy nuclear fusion data and their relation to magnetic and laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarmie, N.

    1980-04-01

    The accuracy of the basic fusion data for the T(d,n) 4 He, 3 He(d,p) 4 He, T(t,2n) 4 He, D(d,n) 3 He, and D(d,p)T reactions was investigated in the 10- to 100-keV bombarding energy region, and the effects of inaccuracies on the design of fusion reactors were assessed. The data base for these reactions [particularly, the most critical T(d,n) 4 He reaction] rests on 25-year-old experiments the accuracy (often assumed to be +- 5%) of which has rarely been questioned: yet, in all except the d + d reactions, there are significant differences among data sets. The errors in the basic data sets may be considerably larger than previously expected, and the effect on design calculations should be significant. Much of the trouble apparently lies in the accuracy of the energy measurements, which are difficult at low energies. Systematic errors of up to 50% are possible in the reactivity values of the present T(d,n) 4 He data base. The errors in the reactivity will propagate proportionately into the errors in fusion probabilities in reactor calculations. 3 He(d,p) 4 He reaction cross sections could be in error by as much as 50% in the low-energy region. The D(d,n) 3 He and D(d,p)T cross sections appear to be well known and consistent. The T(t,2n) 4 He cross section is poorly known and may be subject to large systematic errors. Improved absolute measurements for all the reactions in the low bombarding energy region (10 to 100 keV) are needed, but until they are done, the data sets should be left as they are [except for T(t,2n) 4 He data, which could be lowered by about 50%]. The apparent uncertainties of these data sets should be kept in mind. 14 figures

  10. Magnetic fusion with high energy self-colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F.; Maglich, B.; Fisher, A.

    1992-06-01

    Field-reversed configurations of energetic large orbit ions with neutralizing electrons have been proposed as the basis of a fusion reactor. Vlasov equilibria consisting of a ring or an annulus have been investigated. A stability analysis has been carried out for a long thin layer of energetic ions in a low density background plasma. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from tokamaks that energetic ions slow down and diffuse in accordance with classical theory in the presence of large non-thermal fluctuations and anomalous transport of low energy (10 keV) ions. Provided that major instabilities are under control, it seems likely that the design of a reactor featuring energetic self-colliding ion beams can be based on classical theory. In this case a confinement system that is much better than a tokamak is possible. Several methods are described for creating field reversed configurations with intense neutralized ion beams

  11. Magnetic fusion with high energy self-colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restoker, N.; Wessel, F.; Maglich, B.; Fisher, A.

    1993-01-01

    Field-reversed configurations of energetic large orbit ions with neutralizing electrons have been proposed as the basis of a fusion reactor. Vlasov equilibria consisting of a ring or an annulus have been investigated. A stability analysis has been carried out for a long thin layer of energetic ions in a low density background plasma. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from tokamaks that energetic ions slow down and diffuse in accordance with classical theory in the presence of large non-thermal fluctuations and anomalous transport of low energy (10 keV) ions. Provided that major instabilities are under control, it seems likely that the design of a reactor featuring energetic self-colliding ion beams can be based on classical theory. In this case a confinement system that is much better than a tokamak is possible. Several methods are described for creating field reversed configurations with intense neutralized ion beams

  12. Magnetic-gun igniter for controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwin, R.L.; Muller, R.A.; Richter, B.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design for the magnetic gun is given in order to show that the various parameters required turn out to be reasonable (in an engineering sense). An engineering design will necessarily turn out to be far more complex; the purpose of the following calculations is merely to show that the basic idea looks sufficiently good to warrant further work

  13. Mirror fusion test facility magnet system. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Hodges, A.J.; VanSant, J.H.; Dalder, E.N.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Scanlan, R.M.; Shimer, D.W.; Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) magnet description, (2) superconducting manufacture, (3) mechanical behavior of conductor winding, (4) coil winding, (5) thermal analysis, (6) cryogenic system, (7) power supply system, (8) structural analysis, (9) structural finite element analysis refinement, (10) structural case fault analysis, and (11) structural metallurgy

  14. Utilization of a Network of Small Magnetic Confinement Fusion Devices for Mainstream Fusion Research. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2011–2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    The IAEA actively promotes the development of controlled fusion as a source of energy. Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA helps Member States to exchange and establish scientific and technical knowledge required for the design, construction and operation of a fusion reactor. Due to their compactness, flexibility and low operation costs, small fusion devices are a great resource for supporting and accelerating the development of mainstream fusion research on large fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. They play an important role in investigating the physics of controlled fusion, developing innovative technologies and diagnostics, testing new materials, training highly qualified personnel for larger fusion facilities, and supporting educational programmes for young scientists. This publication reports on the research work accomplished within the framework of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Utilization of the Network of Small Magnetic Confinement Fusion Devices for Mainstream Fusion Research, organized and conducted by the IAEA in 2011–2016. The CRP has contributed to the coordination of a network of research institutions, thereby enhancing international collaboration through scientific visits, joint experiments and the exchange of information and equipment. A total of 16 institutions and 14 devices from 13 Member States participated in this CRP (Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Portugal, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the United Kingdom).

  15. Muon catalyzed fusion at very low temperature: A new target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhauser, F.; Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.

    1994-10-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion (μCF) processes are usually studied in gases or liquids. A new target system allows experiments on muonic hydrogen isotopes in solid hydrogen layers at 3K, where processes of the μCF cycle can be separated and the energy dependence of reactions can be measured. Muonic tritium atomic beams with energy of the order of 1 eV have been produced via transfer and emission from solid hydrogen target containing small tritium concentrations. The μt energy distribution overlaps the predicted muonic molecular (dμt) formation resonances. Preliminary time of flight results are shown. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs

  16. Information-management data base for fusion-target fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based data-management system has been developed to handle data associated with target-fabrication processes including glass microballoon characterization, gas filling, materials coating, and storage locations. The system provides automatic data storage and computation, flexible data-entry procedures, fast access, automated report generation, and secure data transfer. It resides on a CDC CYBER 175 computer and is compatible with the CDC data-base-language Query Update, but is based on custom FORTRAN software interacting directly with the CYBER's file-management system. The described data base maintains detailed, accurate, and readily available records of fusion targets information

  17. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  18. A review on target drug delivery: magnetic microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandna

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic microsphere is newer approach in pharmaceutical field. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional radiation methods which use highly penetrating radiation that is absorbed throughout the body. Its use is limited by toxicity and side effects. The aim of the specific targeting is to enhance the efficiency of drug delivery & at the same time to reduce the toxicity & side effects. This kind of delivery system is very much important which localises the drug to the disease site. In this larger amount of freely circulating drug can be replaced by smaller amount of magnetically targeted drug. Magnetic carriers receive magnetic responses to a magnetic field from incorporated materials that are used for magnetic microspheres are chitosan, dextran etc. magnetic microspheres can be prepared from a variety of carrier material. One of the most utilized is serum albumin from human or other appropriate species. Drug release from albumin microspheres can be sustained or controlled by various stabilization procedures generally involving heat or chemical cross-linking of the protein carrier matrix.

  19. Superconducting polarizing magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for the JINR (Dubna) movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T in the centre with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet contains a main solenoidal winding 558 mm long and 206/144 mm in diameters, and compensating and correcting winding placed at its ends. The windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat. The diameter of the 'warm' aperture of the magnet cryostat is 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements, using a NMR-magnetometer are given. A similar magnet constructed at DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay (France), represented a model for the present development. The MPT array is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR (Dubna)

  20. Studies on the robustness of shock-ignited laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzeni, S; Schiavi, A; Marocchino, A

    2011-01-01

    Several aspects of the sensitivity of a shock-ignited inertial fusion target to variation of parameters and errors or imperfections are studied by means of one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical simulations. The study refers to a simple all-DT target, initially proposed for fast ignition (Atzeni et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 7 052702) and subsequently shown to be also suitable for shock ignition (Ribeyre et al 2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 015013). It is shown that the growth of both Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at the ablation front is reduced by laser pulses with an adiabat-shaping picket. An operating window for the parameters of the ignition laser spike is described; the threshold power depends on beam focusing and synchronization with the compression pulse. The time window for spike launch widens with beam power, while the minimum spike energy is independent of spike power. A large parametric scan indicates good tolerance (at the level of a few percent) to target mass and laser power errors. 2D simulations indicate that the strong igniting shock wave plays an important role in reducing deceleration-phase RTI growth. Instead, the high hot-spot convergence ratio (ratio of initial target radius to hot-spot radius at ignition) makes ignition highly sensitive to target mispositioning.

  1. Evaluation of Cytochalasin B-Induced Membrane Vesicles Fusion Specificity with Target Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gomzikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV represent a promising vector system for biomolecules and drug delivery due to their natural origin and participation in intercellular communication. As the quantity of EVs is limited, it was proposed to induce the release of membrane vesicles from the surface of human cells by treatment with cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B-induced membrane vesicles (CIMVs were successfully tested as a vector for delivery of dye, nanoparticles, and a chemotherapeutic. However, it remained unclear whether CIMVs possess fusion specificity with target cells and thus might be used for more targeted delivery of therapeutics. To answer this question, CIMVs were obtained from human prostate cancer PC3 cells. The diameter of obtained CIMVs was 962,13 ± 140,6 nm. We found that there is no statistically significant preference in PC3 CIMVs fusion with target cells of the same type. According to our observations, the greatest impact on CIMVs entry into target cells is by the heterophilic interaction of CIMV membrane receptors with the surface proteins of target cells.

  2. Newly engineered magnetic erythrocytes for sustained and targeted delivery of anti-cancer therapeutic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Cinti

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic chemotherapy of cancer is limited by serious, sometimes life-threatening, side effects that arise from toxicities to sensitive normal cells because the therapies are not selective for malignant cells. So how can they be selectively improved? Alternative pharmaceutical formulations of anti-cancer agents have been investigated in order to improve conventional chemotherapy treatment. These formulations are associated with problems like severe toxic side effects on healthy organs, drug resistance and limited access of the drug to the tumor sites suggested the need to focus on site-specific controlled drug delivery systems. In response to these concerns, we have developed a new drug delivery system based on magnetic erythrocytes engineered with a viral spike fusion protein. This new erythrocyte-based drug delivery system has the potential for magnetic-controlled site-specific localization and highly efficient fusion capability with the targeted cells. Here we show that the erythro-magneto-HA virosomes drug delivery system is able to attach and fuse with the target cells and to efficiently release therapeutic compounds inside the cells. The efficacy of the anti-cancer drug employed is increased and the dose required is 10 time less than that needed with conventional therapy.

  3. Newly Engineered Magnetic Erythrocytes for Sustained and Targeted Delivery of Anti-Cancer Therapeutic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranta, Monia; Naldi, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy of cancer is limited by serious, sometimes life-threatening, side effects that arise from toxicities to sensitive normal cells because the therapies are not selective for malignant cells. So how can they be selectively improved? Alternative pharmaceutical formulations of anti-cancer agents have been investigated in order to improve conventional chemotherapy treatment. These formulations are associated with problems like severe toxic side effects on healthy organs, drug resistance and limited access of the drug to the tumor sites suggested the need to focus on site-specific controlled drug delivery systems. In response to these concerns, we have developed a new drug delivery system based on magnetic erythrocytes engineered with a viral spike fusion protein. This new erythrocyte-based drug delivery system has the potential for magnetic-controlled site-specific localization and highly efficient fusion capability with the targeted cells. Here we show that the erythro-magneto-HA virosomes drug delivery system is able to attach and fuse with the target cells and to efficiently release therapeutic compounds inside the cells. The efficacy of the anti-cancer drug employed is increased and the dose required is 10 time less than that needed with conventional therapy. PMID:21373641

  4. Long-term ETR/INTOR magnet testing in support of the demonstration fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.; Shah, V.N.; Rouhani, S.Z.

    1983-01-01

    This study considers ways that the proposed Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), or the proposed International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR), can be used for magnet performance tests that would be useful for the design and operation of the Demonstration Tokamak Power Plant (DEMO). Such testing must not interfere with the main function of the ETR/INTOR as an integrated fusion reactor. A performance test plan for the ETR/INTOR magnets is proposed and appropriate tests on the magnets is proposed and appropriate tests on the magnets for each phase of the ETR/INTOR operation are described. The suggested tests would verify design requirements and monitor long-term changes due to radiation. This paper also summarizes the design and operational performance of existing superconducting magnets and identifies the known failures and their predominant causes

  5. Production of muons for fusion catalysis in a magnetic mirror configuration. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Chapline, G.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    For muon-catalyzed fusion to be of practical interest, a very efficient means of producing muons must be found. We describe a scheme for producing muons that may be more energy efficient than any heretofore proposed. There are, in particular, some potential advantages of creating muons from collisions of high energy tritons confined in a magnetic mirror configuration. If one could catalyze 200 fusions per muon and employ a uranium blanket that would multiply the neutron energy by a factor of 10, one might produce electricity with an overall plant efficiency (ratio of electric energy produced to nuclear energy released) approaching 30%. One possible near term application of a muon-producing magnetic-mirror scheme would be to build a high-flux neutron source for radiation damage studies. The careful arrangement of triton orbits will result in many of the π - 's being produced near the axis of the magnetic mirror. The pions quickly decay into muons, which are transported into a small (few-cm-diameter) reactor chamber producing approximately 1-MW/m 2 neutron flux on the chamber walls, using a laboratory accelerator and magnetic mirror. The costs of construction and operation of the triton injection accelerator probably introduces most of the uncertainty in the viability of this scheme. If a 10-μA, 600 MeV neutral triton accelerator could be built for less than $100 million and operated cheaply enough, one might well bring muon-catalyzed fusion into practical use

  6. Design and cost evaluation of generic magnetic fusion reactor using the D-D fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    A fusion reactor systems code has been developed to evaluate the economic potential of power generation from a toroidal magnetic fusion reactor using deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fuel. A method similar to that developed by J. Sheffield, of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel was used to model the generic aspects of magnetic fusion reactors. The results of the systems study and cost evaluation show that the cost of electricity produced by a D-D reactor is two times higher than that produced by an equivalent D-T reactor design. The significant finding of the study is that the cost ratio between the D-D and D-T systems can potentially be reduced to 1.5 by improved engineering design and even lower by better physics performance. The absolute costs for both systems at this level are close to the costs for nuclear fission and fossil fuel plants. A design for a magnet reinforced with advanced composite materials is presented as an example of an engineering improvement that could reduce the cost of electricity produced by both reactors. However, since the magnets in the D-D reactor are much larger than in the K-T reactor, the cost ratio of the two systems is significantly reduced

  7. Target design for high fusion yield with the double Z-pinch-driven hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Cuneo, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Bennett, G. R.; Campbell, R. B.; Christenson, P. J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Slutz, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    A key demonstration on the path to inertial fusion energy is the achievement of high fusion yield (hundreds of MJ) and high target gain. Toward this goal, an indirect-drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target involving two Z-pinch x-ray sources heating a central secondary hohlraum is described by Hammer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)]. In subsequent research at Sandia National Laboratories, theoretical/computational models have been developed and an extensive series of validation experiments have been performed to study hohlraum energetics, capsule coupling, and capsule implosion symmetry for this system. These models have been used to design a high-yield Z-pinch-driven ICF target that incorporates the latest experience in capsule design, hohlraum symmetry control, and x-ray production by Z pinches. An x-ray energy output of 9 MJ per pinch, suitably pulse-shaped, is sufficient for this concept to drive 0.3-0.5 GJ capsules. For the first time, integrated two-dimensional (2D) hohlraum/capsule radiation-hydrodynamics simulations have demonstrated adequate hohlraum coupling, time-dependent radiation symmetry control, and the successful implosion, ignition, and burn of a high-yield capsule in the double Z-pinch hohlraum. An important new feature of this target design is mode-selective symmetry control: the use of burn-through shields offset from the capsule that selectively tune certain low-order asymmetry modes (P 2 ,P 4 ) without significantly perturbing higher-order modes and without a significant energy penalty. This paper will describe the capsule and hohlraum design that have produced 0.4-0.5 GJ yields in 2D simulations, provide a preliminary estimate of the Z-pinch load and accelerator requirements necessary to drive the system, and suggest future directions for target design work

  8. Effect of experimentally observed hydrogenic fractionation on inertial confinement fusion ignition target performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenty, P. W.; Wittman, M. D.; Harding, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The need of cryogenic hydrogenic fuels in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition targets has been long been established. Efficient implosion of such targets has mandated keeping the adiabat of the main fuel layer at low levels to ensure drive energies are kept at reasonable minima. The use of cryogenic fuels helps meet this requirement and has therefore become the standard in most ICF ignition designs. To date most theoretical ICF ignition target designs have assumed a homogeneous layer of deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel kept slightly below the triple point. However, recent work has indicated that, as cryogenic fuel layers are formed inside an ICF capsule, isotopic dissociation of the tritium (T), deuterium (D), and DT takes place leading to a 'fractionation' of the final ice layer. This paper will numerically investigate the effects that various scenarios of fractionation have on hot-spot formation, ignition, and burn in ICF ignition target designs

  9. Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Guided Lumbosacral Plexus Block – A Clinical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strid, JM; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial with crossover design. MR datasets will be acquired and uploaded in an advanced US system (Epiq7, Phillips, Amsterdam, Netherlands). All volunteers will receive SSPS blocks with lidocaine added gadolinium contrast guided by US/MR image fusion and by US one week......Background and aims Ultrasound (US) guided lumbosacral plexus block (Supra Sacral Parallel Shift [SSPS]) offers an alternative to general anaesthesia and perioperative analgesia for hip surgery.1 The complex anatomy of the lumbosacral region hampers the accuracy of the block, but it may be improved...... by guidance of US and magnetic resonance (MR) image fusion and real-time 3D electronic needle tip tracking.2 We aim to estimate the effect and the distribution of lidocaine after SSPS guided by US/MR image fusion compared to SSPS guided by ultrasound. Methods Twenty-four healthy volunteers will be included...

  10. Fast magnetic field computation in fusion technology using GPU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiariello, Andrea Gaetano [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Formisano, Alessandro, E-mail: Alessandro.Formisano@unina2.it [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Martone, Raffaele [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The paper deals with high accuracy numerical simulations of high field magnets. ► The porting of existing codes of High Performance Computing architectures allowed to obtain a relevant speedup while not reducing computational accuracy. ► Some examples of applications, referred to ITER-like magnets, are reported. -- Abstract: One of the main issues in the simulation of Tokamaks functioning is the reliable and accurate computation of actual field maps in the plasma chamber. In this paper a tool able to accurately compute magnetic field maps produced by active coils of any 3D shape, wound with high number of conductors, is presented. Under linearity assumption, the coil winding is modeled by means of “sticks”, following each conductor's shape, and the contribution of each stick is computed using high speed Graphic Computing Units (GPU's). Relevant speed enhancements with respect to standard parallel computing environment are achieved in this way.

  11. Fusion plasma theory grant: Task 1, Magnetic confinement fusion plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1989-07-01

    The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on key tokamak plasma confinement and heating theory issues: further development of neoclassical MHD; development of a new fluid/kinetic hybrid model; energy confinement degradation due to macroscopic phenomena in tokamaks; and some other topics (magnetics analysis, coherent structures, presheath structure). Progress and publications in these areas are briefly summarized in this report. 20 refs

  12. Laser-induced extreme magnetic field in nanorod targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécz, Zsolt; Andreev, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The application of nano-structured target surfaces in laser-solid interaction has attracted significant attention in the last few years. Their ability to absorb significantly more laser energy promises a possible route for advancing the currently established laser ion acceleration concepts. However, it is crucial to have a better understanding of field evolution and electron dynamics during laser-matter interactions before the employment of such exotic targets. This paper focuses on the magnetic field generation in nano-forest targets consisting of parallel nanorods grown on plane surfaces. A general scaling law for the self-generated quasi-static magnetic field amplitude is given and it is shown that amplitudes up to 1 MT field are achievable with current technology. Analytical results are supported by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Non-parallel arrangements of nanorods has also been considered which result in the generation of donut-shaped azimuthal magnetic fields in a larger volume.

  13. Cryogenic-laser-fusion target implosion studies performed with the OMEGA uv-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Letzring, S.A.; Verdon, C.P.; Skupsky, S.; Keck, R.L.; Knauer, J.P.; Kremens, R.L.; Bradley, D.K.; Kessler, T.; Delettrez, J.; and others.

    1989-01-01

    A series of direct-drive laser-fusion implosion experiments was performed on cryogenically cooled, DT-filled glass microballoons with the OMEGA 24-beam uv (351-nm) laser system. The targets consisted of glass microballoons having radii of 100 to 150 μm, wall thicknesses of 3 to 7 μm, filled with DT gas at pressures of 75 to 100 atm. The targets were cooled to below the freezing point of DT, in situ, by a cryogenic target system. The targets were irradiated by approximately 1 to 1.2 kJ of uv light in 650-ps Gaussian pulses. The on-target irradiation uniformity was enhanced for these experiments by the use of distributed phase plates, which brought the estimated irradiation nonuniformities to ∼12% (σ rms ). Target performance was diagnosed by an array of x-ray, plasma, and nuclear instruments. The measured target performance showed ∼70% absorption, thermonuclear yields of 10 6 to 10 8 neutrons, and final fuel areal densities of 20 to 40 mg/cm 2 for the optimum targets examined in these experiments. Fuel densities at the time of thermonuclear neutron production, inferred from direct measurements of the fuel areal density, were in the range of 20 to 50 g/cm 3 (100 to 200 times the density of liquid DT) for the optimum targets

  14. Dynamics of magnetic particles in cylindrical Halbach array: implications for magnetic cell separation and drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinec, Peter; Krafcík, Andrej; Babincová, Melánia; Rosenecker, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for therapy and diagnosis are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. In this study, we have theoretically studied motion of magnetic nano- as well as micro-particles in the field of cylindrical Halbach array of permanent magnets. Magnetic flux density was modeled as magnetostatic problem by finite element method and particle motion was described using system of ordinary differential equations--Newton law. Computations were done for nanoparticles Nanomag-D with radius 65 nm, which are often used in magnetic drug targeting, as well as microparticles DynaBeads-M280 with radius 1.4 microm, which can be used for magnetic separation. Analyzing snapshots of trajectories of hundred magnetite particles of each size in the water as well as in the air, we have found that optimally designed magnetic circuits of permanent magnets in quadrupolar Halbach array have substantially shorter capture time than simple blocks of permanent magnets commonly used in experiments, therefore, such a Halbach array may be useful as a potential source of magnetic field for magnetic separation and targeting of magnetic nanoparticles as well as microparticles for delivery of drugs, genes, and cells in various biomedical applications.

  15. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  16. A National Collaboratory To Advance The Science Of High Temperature Plasma Physics For Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Allen R.; Johnson, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  17. Review of heat transfer problems associated with magnetically-confined fusion reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Carlson, G.A.; Cornish, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of possible fusion reactor configurations have revealed a host of interesting and sometimes extremely difficult heat transfer problems. The general requirements imposed on the coolant system for heat removal of the thermonuclear power from the reactor are discussed. In particular, the constraints imposed by the fusion plasma, neutronics, structure and magnetic field environment are described with emphasis on those aspects which are unusual or unique to fusion reactors. Then the particular heat transfer characteristics of various possible coolants including lithium, flibe, boiling alkali metals, and helium are discussed in the context of these general fusion reactor requirements. Some specific areas where further experimental and/or theoretical work is necessary are listed for each coolant along with references to the pertinent research already accomplished. Specialized heat transfer problems of the plasma injection and removal systems are also described. Finally, the challenging heat transfer problems associated with the superconducting magnets are reviewed, and once again some of the key unsolved heat transfer problems are enumerated

  18. Improved prediction of drug-target interactions using regularized least squares integrating with kernel fusion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli, E-mail: ywang@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; Bryant, Stephen H., E-mail: bryant@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    2016-02-25

    Identification of drug-target interactions (DTI) is a central task in drug discovery processes. In this work, a simple but effective regularized least squares integrating with nonlinear kernel fusion (RLS-KF) algorithm is proposed to perform DTI predictions. Using benchmark DTI datasets, our proposed algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art results with area under precision–recall curve (AUPR) of 0.915, 0.925, 0.853 and 0.909 for enzymes, ion channels (IC), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and nuclear receptors (NR) based on 10 fold cross-validation. The performance can further be improved by using a recalculated kernel matrix, especially for the small set of nuclear receptors with AUPR of 0.945. Importantly, most of the top ranked interaction predictions can be validated by experimental data reported in the literature, bioassay results in the PubChem BioAssay database, as well as other previous studies. Our analysis suggests that the proposed RLS-KF is helpful for studying DTI, drug repositioning as well as polypharmacology, and may help to accelerate drug discovery by identifying novel drug targets. - Graphical abstract: Flowchart of the proposed RLS-KF algorithm for drug-target interaction predictions. - Highlights: • A nonlinear kernel fusion algorithm is proposed to perform drug-target interaction predictions. • Performance can further be improved by using the recalculated kernel. • Top predictions can be validated by experimental data.

  19. Improved prediction of drug-target interactions using regularized least squares integrating with kernel fusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of drug-target interactions (DTI) is a central task in drug discovery processes. In this work, a simple but effective regularized least squares integrating with nonlinear kernel fusion (RLS-KF) algorithm is proposed to perform DTI predictions. Using benchmark DTI datasets, our proposed algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art results with area under precision–recall curve (AUPR) of 0.915, 0.925, 0.853 and 0.909 for enzymes, ion channels (IC), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and nuclear receptors (NR) based on 10 fold cross-validation. The performance can further be improved by using a recalculated kernel matrix, especially for the small set of nuclear receptors with AUPR of 0.945. Importantly, most of the top ranked interaction predictions can be validated by experimental data reported in the literature, bioassay results in the PubChem BioAssay database, as well as other previous studies. Our analysis suggests that the proposed RLS-KF is helpful for studying DTI, drug repositioning as well as polypharmacology, and may help to accelerate drug discovery by identifying novel drug targets. - Graphical abstract: Flowchart of the proposed RLS-KF algorithm for drug-target interaction predictions. - Highlights: • A nonlinear kernel fusion algorithm is proposed to perform drug-target interaction predictions. • Performance can further be improved by using the recalculated kernel. • Top predictions can be validated by experimental data.

  20. Numerical simulation of performance of heavy ion inertial confinement fusion target with ellipsoidal chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basin, A.A.; Vatulin, V.V.; Vakhlamova, L.L.; Vinokurov, P.A.; Dement'ev, Yu.A.; Eliseev, G.M.; Ermolovich, V.F.; Morenko, L.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Remizov, G.N.; Romanov, Yu.A.; Ryabikina, N.A.; Skrypnik, S.I.; Skidan, G.I.; Tikhomirov, B.P.; Shagaliev, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    To solve the design problem of an inertial thermonuclear fusion facility requires the united efforts of scientists in various countries. In the field of heavy ion fusion a collaboration between scientists in Germany and Russia is under successful development. VNIIEF possesses advanced software for numerical simulation of the processes in thermonuclear target operation. This paper describes a target design suggested and being studied by scientists of Frankfurt University and GSI which is based on 2D non-stationary calculation of the X-ray energy transport and capsule compression. The target consists of a spherical capsule with DT fuel and an ellipsoidal chamber containment. The ion beam energy is released in two fixed converters located on the chamber axis symmetricall with respect to the capsule. The X-ray field is formed on the capsule surface with a set of special shields. The basic aim of our research is to estimate the effect of gas dynamic expansion of the chamber walls, shields and capsule on the target operation. To increase the reliability of the obtained results and the assessment of probable errors in predicting radiation field parameters and the capsule state, the calculations were accomplished in a kinetic arrangement with various techniques. (orig.)

  1. Neutron irradiation effects on superconducting and stabilizing materials for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, W.

    1984-05-01

    Available low-temperature neutron irradiation data for the superconductors NbTi and Nb 3 Sn and the stabilization materials Cu and Al are collected and maximum tolerable doses for these materials are defined. A neutron flux in a reactor of about 10 9 n/cm 2 s at the magnet position is expected. However, in fusion experiments the flux can be higher by an order of magnitude or more. The energy spectrum is similar to a fission reactor. A fluence of about 10 18 n/cm 2 results during the lifetime of a fusion magnet (about 20 full power years). At this fluence and energy spectrum no severe degradation of the superconducting properties of NbTi and Nb 3 Sn will occur. But the radiation-induced resistivity is for Cu about a twentieth of the room temperature resistivity and a tenth for Al. (orig.) [de

  2. Technology requirements for fusion--fission reactors based on magnetic-mirror confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Technology requirements for mirror hybrid reactors are discussed. The required 120-keV neutral beams can use positive ions. The magnetic fields are 8 T or under and can use NbTi superconductors. The value of Q (where Q is the ratio of fusion power to injection power) should be in the range of 1 to 2 for economic reasons relating to the cost of recirculating power. The wall loading of 14-MeV neutrons should be in the range of 1 to 2 MW/m 2 for economic reasons. Five-times higher wall loading will likely be needed if fusion reactors are to be economical. The magnetic mirror experiments 2XIIB, TMX, and MFTF are described

  3. Fourth annual progress report on special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. The Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits

  4. Determination of the Jet Neutron Rate and Fusion Power using the Magnetic Proton Recoil Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestrand, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis a new independent method has been developed to enable precise measurements of neutron yields and rates from fusion plasmas and thereby determining the fusion power and fusion energy. The new method, together with the associated diagnostics, can provide information of great importance to present and future high fusion yield experiments, such as the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER). The method has been applied to data from high fusion rate experiments from the tritium campaign at JET. By using the count-rate from the Magnetic Proton Recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer the number of neutrons in the spectrometer's line of sight has been calculated. To be able to do this, all relevant factors between the plasma and the instrument have been evaluated. The number of neutrons in the MPR line of sight has been related to the total number of produced neutrons in the plasma by using information on the neutron emission profile. The achieved results have been compared with other JET neutron diagnostic data and the agreement is shown to be very good.

  5. Design study of an indirect cooling superconducting magnet for a fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, Toshiyuki; Hemmi, Tsutomu

    2009-01-01

    The design study of superconducting magnets adapting a new coil winding scheme of an indirect cooling method is reported. The superconducting magnet system for the spherical tokamak (ST), which is proposed to study the steady state plasma experiment with Q - equiv-1, requires high performances with a high current density compared to the ordinal magnet design because of its tight spatial restriction. The superconducting magnet system for the fusion device has been used in the condition of high magnetic field, high electromagnetic force, and high heat load. The pool boiling liquid helium cooling outside of the conductor or the forced flow of supercritical helium cooling inside of the conductor, such as cable-in-conduit conductors, were used so far for the cooling method of the superconducting magnet for a fusion application. The pool cooling magnet has the disadvantages of low mechanical rigidities and low withstand voltages of the coil windings. The forced flow cooling magnet with cable-in-conduit conductors has the disadvantages of the restriction of the coil design because of the path of the electric current must be the same as that of the cooling channel for refrigerant. The path of the electric current and that of the cooling channel for refrigerant can be independently designed by adopting the indirect cooling method that inserts the independent cooling panel in the coil windings and cools the conductor from the outside. Therefore the optimization of the coil windings structure can be attempted. It was shown that the superconducting magnet design of the high current density became possible by the indirect cooling method compared with those of the conventional cooling scheme. (author)

  6. High magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat with 'warm' aperture diameter of 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements using a NMR-magnetometer are given. The MPT set-up is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR, Dubna

  7. Finite element analysis of structural response of superconducting magnet for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.; Prachuktam, S.

    1975-01-01

    In the proposal Tokamak fusion reactor, the superconducting unit consists of an assembly of D-shaped magnets standing vertically and arranged in a toroidal configuration. Each magnet is a composite structure comprised of Nb-22%Ti and Nb-48%Ti, and stabilizing metals such as copper and aluminum or stainless steel held together by reinforced epoxies which also serve as insulators and spacers. The magnets are quite large, typically 15-20 meters in diameter with rectangular cross sections around 0.93x2m. Under static loading condition, the magnet is subjected to dead weight and large magnetic field forces, which may induce high stresses in the structure. Furthermore, additional stresses due to earthquake must also be considered for the design of the component. Both static and dynamic analyses of a typical field magnet have been performed by use of the finite element method. The magnet was assumed to be linearly elastic with equivalent homogeneous material properties. Various finite element models have been considered in order to better represent the structure for a particular loading case. For earthquake analysis, the magnet was assumed to be subjected to 50% of the El Centro 1940 earthquake and the dynamic response was obtained by the displacement spectrum analysis procedure. In the paper, numerical results are presented and the structure behavior of the magnet under static and dynamic loading conditions is discussed

  8. Benefit-analysis of accomplishments from the magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, A.M.; Weinblatt, H.; Hamilton, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Program Analysis to examine benefits from selected accomplishments of DOE's Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Research Program. The study objectives are presented. The MFE-induced innovation and accomplishments which were studied are listed. Finally, the benefit estimation methodology used is described in detail. The next seven chapters document the results of benefit estimation for the MFE accomplishments studied

  9. Analyzing large data sets from XGC1 magnetic fusion simulations using apache spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R. Michael [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-11-21

    Apache Spark is explored as a tool for analyzing large data sets from the magnetic fusion simulation code XGCI. Implementation details of Apache Spark on the NERSC Edison supercomputer are discussed, including binary file reading, and parameter setup. Here, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, k-means clustering, is applied to XGCI particle distribution function data, showing that highly turbulent spatial regions do not have common coherent structures, but rather broad, ring-like structures in velocity space.

  10. Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Image Fusion Supported Transperineal Prostate Biopsy Using the Ginsburg Protocol: Technique, Learning Points, and Biopsy Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nienke; Patruno, Giulio; Wadhwa, Karan; Gaziev, Gabriele; Miano, Roberto; Barrett, Tristan; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Doble, Andrew; Warren, Anne; Bratt, Ola; Kastner, Christof

    2016-08-01

    Prostate biopsy supported by transperineal image fusion has recently been developed as a new method to the improve accuracy of prostate cancer detection. To describe the Ginsburg protocol for transperineal prostate biopsy supported by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) image fusion, provide learning points for its application, and report biopsy results. The article is supplemented by a Surgery in Motion video. This single-centre retrospective outcome study included 534 patients from March 2012 to October 2015. A total of 107 had no previous prostate biopsy, 295 had benign TRUS-guided biopsies, and 159 were on active surveillance for low-risk cancer. A Likert scale reported mpMRI for suspicion of cancer from 1 (no suspicion) to 5 (cancer highly likely). Transperineal biopsies were obtained under general anaesthesia using BiopSee fusion software (Medcom, Darmstadt, Germany). All patients had systematic biopsies, two cores from each of 12 anatomic sectors. Likert 3-5 lesions were targeted with a further two cores per lesion. Any cancer and Gleason score 7-10 cancer on biopsy were noted. Descriptive statistics and positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated. The detection rate of Gleason score 7-10 cancer was similar across clinical groups. Likert scale 3-5 MRI lesions were reported in 378 (71%) of the patients. Cancer was detected in 249 (66%) and Gleason score 7-10 cancer was noted in 157 (42%) of these patients. PPV for detecting 7-10 cancer was 0.15 for Likert score 3, 0.43 for score 4, and 0.63 for score 5. NPV of Likert 1-2 findings was 0.87 for Gleason score 7-10 and 0.97 for Gleason score ≥4+3=7 cancer. Limitations include lack of data on complications. Transperineal prostate biopsy supported by MRI/TRUS image fusion using the Ginsburg protocol yielded high detection rates of Gleason score 7-10 cancer. Because the NPV for excluding Gleason score 7-10 cancer was very

  11. Energy system for the generation of divertor magnetic fields in the PDX fusion research device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turitzin, N.M.

    1975-01-01

    One of the major problems encountered in the development of Tokamak type fusion reactors is the presence of impurities in the plasma. The PDX device is designed to study the operation of poloidal magnetic field divertors and consequent magnetic limiters for controlling and reducing the amount of impurities. A system of coils placed at specific locations produces a required field configuration for the poloidal divertor. This paper describes the system of energy supplies required and the interrelations of field coil currents during plasma current initiation, growth and steady state

  12. Materials studies for magnetic fusion energy applications at low temperatures. VIII. Technical reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    This report contains results of a research progam to produce material property data that will facilitte design and development of cryogenic structures for the superconducting magnets of magnetic fusion energy power plants and prototypes. Research results for 1984 are summarized in an initial ''Highlights of Results'' section and reported in detail in the technical papers that form the main body of this report. The technical papers are presented under four headings reflecting the main program areas: Welding, Nonmetallics, Structural Alloys, and Technology Transfer. Objectives, approaches, and achievements are summarized in an introduction to each program area

  13. Program for development of toroidal superconducting magnets for fusion research, May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, H.M.; Lubell, M.S.

    1975-11-01

    The objective of this program is a tested magnet design which demonstrates the suitability and reliability needed to qualify toroidal superconducting magnets for fusion research devices in a time compatible with the D-T burning experiments time frame. The overall applied development program including tasks, manpower, and cost estimates is detailed here, but for the full toroidal system only the cost and time frame are outlined to show compatibility with the present program. The details of the full toroidal system fall under major device fabrication and will be included in a subsequent document

  14. Energy system for the generation of divertor magnetic fields in the PDX fusion research device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turitzin, N.M.

    1976-05-01

    One of the major problems encountered in the development of Tokamak type fusion reactors is the presence of impurities in the plasma. The PDX device is designed to study the operation of poloidal magnetic field divertors and consequent magnetic limiters for controlling and reducing the amount of impurities. A system of coils placed at specific locations produces a required field configuration for the poloidal divertor. This paper describes the system of energy supplies required and the interrelations of field coil currents during plasma current initiation, growth and steady state

  15. Demountable low stress high field toroidal field magnet system for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Hsieh, D.; Lehner, J.; Suenaga, M.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of superconducting magnet system for large fusion reactors is described. Instead of winding large planar or multi-axis coils, as has been proposed in previous fusion reactor designs, the superconducting coils are made by joining together several prefabricated conductor sections. The joints can be unmade and sections removed if they fail. Conductor sections can be made at a factory and shipped to the reactor site for assembly. The conductor stress level in the assembled coil can be kept small by external support of the coil at a number of points along its perimeter, so that the magnetic forces are transmitted to an external warm reinforcement structure. This warm reinforcement structure can also be the primary containment for the fusion reactor, constructed similar to a PCRV (Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel) used in fission reactors. Low thermal conductivity, high strength supports are used to transfer the magnetic forces to the external reinforcement through a hydraulic system. The hydraulic supports are movable and can be programmed to accommodate thermal contraction and to minimize stress in the superconducting coil. (author)

  16. Demountable low stress high field toroidal field magnet system for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Hsieh, D.; Lehner, J.; Suenaga, M.

    1977-01-01

    A new type of superconducting magnet system for large fusion reactors is described in this report. Instead of winding large planar or multi-axis coils, as has been proposed in previous fusion reactor designs, the superconducting coils are made by joining together several prefabricated conductor sections. The joints can be unmade and sections removed if they fail. Conductor sections can be made at a factory and shipped to the reactor site for assembly. The conductor stress level in the assembled coil can be kept small by external support of the coil at a number of points along its perimeter, so that the magnetic forces are transmitted to an external warm reinforcement structure. This warm reinforcement structure can also be the primary containment for the fusion reactor, constructed similar to a PCRV (Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel) used in fission reactors. Low thermal conductivity, high strength supports are used to transfer the magnetic forces to the external reinforcement through a hydraulic system. The hydraulic supports are movable and can be programmed to accommodate thermal contraction and to minimize stress in the superconducting coil

  17. Special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors. Third annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. It is recognized that there will be numerous materials problems that will arise during the design and construction of large magnetic-fusion energy devices such as the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and Demonstration Reactor (DEMO). Most of these problems will be specific to a particular design or project and are the responsibility of the project, not the Materials and Radiation Effects Branch. Consequently, the Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits

  18. Role of Radio Frequency and Microwaves in Magnetic Fusion Plasma Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon K. Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of electromagnetic (EM waves in magnetic fusion plasma—ranging from radio frequency (RF to microwaves—has been extremely important, and understanding of EM wave propagation and related technology in this field has significantly advanced magnetic fusion plasma research. Auxiliary heating and current drive systems, aided by various forms of high-power RF and microwave sources, have contributed to achieving the required steady-state operation of plasmas with high temperatures (i.e., up to approximately 10 keV; 1 eV = 10000 K that are suitable for future fusion reactors. Here, various resonance values and cut-off characteristics of wave propagation in plasmas with a nonuniform magnetic field are used to optimize the efficiency of heating and current drive systems. In diagnostic applications, passive emissions and active sources in this frequency range are used to measure plasma parameters and dynamics; in particular, measurements of electron cyclotron emissions (ECEs provide profile information regarding electron temperature. Recent developments in state-of-the-art 2D microwave imaging systems that measure fluctuations in electron temperature and density are largely based on ECE. The scattering process, phase delays, reflection/diffraction, and the polarization of actively launched EM waves provide us with the physics of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and transport physics.

  19. Organic insulators and the copper stabilizer for fusion-reactor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    The materials which compose the large composite superconducting fusion reactor magnets are subjected to mechanical stress, neutron and gamma-ray radiation with broad energy spectra, high magnetic fields, and thermal cycling from 4 to 300 K. Of the materials now considered for use in the magnets, results show that the organic insulators and the Cu stabilizer are the most sensitive to this environment. In response to the need for stabilizer data, magnetoresistivity changes were studied in eight variously prepared specimens of Cu throughout five cycles of an alternate neutron irradiation (4.0 K) and annealing (14 h at 307 K) program. The results were combined with those on the radiation behavior of epoxy and polyimide organic insulators to provide a preliminary assessment of their comparative radiation resistance in a typical magnet location of the Experimental Power Reactor

  20. Spatially and temporally resolved x-ray emission from imploding laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Coleman, L.W.; Boyle, M.J.; Phillion, D.W.; Swain, J.E.; Manes, K.R.; Larsen, J.T.

    1976-09-01

    The Livermore 15 psec x-ray streak camera has been used in conjunction with 6 μm diameter pinholes to record well resolved implosion histories of DT filled laser fusion targets. The space-time compression data provide clearly identified implosion velocities, typically 3 x 10 7 cm/sec for two-sided clamshell irradiation of a 70 μm/sup D/, .5 μm wall DT filled glass microshell. Single-sided irradiation results show hydrodynamic convergence at the target center, followed by an asymmetric but two-sided target disassembly. These experiments were performed at the two arm Janus Laser facility, which typically delivered a total of 0.4 TW in a 70 psec pulse for these experiments