Sample records for magnetized stars global


    Hanasz, Michal; Woltanski, Dominik; Kowalik, Kacper


    We report the first results of the first global galactic-scale cosmic ray (CR)-MHD simulations of CR-driven dynamo. We investigate the dynamics of magnetized interstellar medium (ISM), which is dynamically coupled with CR gas. We assume that exploding stars deposit small-scale, randomly oriented, dipolar magnetic fields into the differentially rotating ISM, together with a portion of CRs, accelerated in supernova shocks. We conduct numerical simulations with the aid of a new parallel MHD code PIERNIK. We find that the initial magnetization of galactic disks by exploding magnetized stars forms favorable conditions for the CR-driven dynamo. We demonstrate that dipolar magnetic fields supplied on small supernova remnant scales can be amplified exponentially by the CR-driven dynamo, to the present equipartition values, and transformed simultaneously to large galactic scales. The resulting magnetic field structure in an evolved galaxy appears spiral in the face-on view and reveals the so-called X-shaped structure in the edge-on view.


    Bychkov, V. D.; Bychkova, L. V.; Madej, J.


    Now it is known about 1212 stars of the main sequence and giants (from them 610 stars - it is chemically peculiarity (CP) stars) for which direct measurements of magnetic fields were spent (Bychkov et al.,2008). Let's consider, what representations were generated about magnetic fields (MT) of stars on the basis of available observations data.

  3. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    Kohler, Susanna


    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  4. Differential rotation in magnetic stars

    Moss, D.


    The possibility that large-scale magnetic fields in stars are the product of a contemporary dynamo situated in the convective stellar core, rather than being a fossil from an earlier stage in the history of the star, is investigated. It is demonstrated that then the envelope will almost inevitably be in a state of differential rotation. Some simple models are constructed to illustrate the magnitude of the effects on the structure of the envelope and magnetic field. It is found that, for models which are relatively rapidly rotating, a modest differential rotation at the surface of the core may increase considerably the ratio of internal to surface field, but only give rise to a small surface differential rotation. (author)

  5. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Sushan Konar


    Sep 12, 2017 ... the material properties of the region where currents supporting the .... 1The evolution of magnetic field in neutron stars, in particular, the question of .... −10, 10. −9, 10. −8. M⊙/yr respec- tively. See Konar & Bhattacharya (1997) for details. Peq ≃ 1.9 ms ..... ported by a grant (SR/WOS-A/PM-1038/2014) from.

  6. The STAR detector magnet subsystem

    Brown, R.L.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.


    The RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) Accelerator currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory will have large detectors at two of its six intersection regions. One of these detectors, known as STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC), weighs 1100 tons and is being built around a large solenoid magnet. The magnet is 7.32 in in diameter, 7.25 m long and utilizes three different sizes of room temperature aluminum coils. The magnet will operate with a field set from 0.25 T to 0.5 T and have a field uniformity of better than 1000 ppm over a portion of its interior region. This paper describes the magnet design, fabrication and assembly requirements and presents the current construction status

  7. Hydromagnetic rotational braking of magnetic stars

    Fleck, R.C. Jr.


    It is suggested that the magnetic Ap stars can be rotationally decelerated to long periods by the braking action of the associated magnetic field on time scales of order 10 7 --10 10 years depending on whether the star's dipole field is aligned perpendicular or parallel to the rotation axis. Rotation includes a toroidal magnetic field in the plasma surrounding a star, and the accompanying magnetic stresses produce a net torque acting to despin the star. These results indicate that it is not necessary to postulate mass loss or mass accretion for this purely hydromagnetic braking effect

  8. Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.


    We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.

  9. Relativistic stars with purely toroidal magnetic fields

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Yoshida, Shijun


    We investigate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic field on the equilibrium structures of the relativistic stars. The basic equations for obtaining equilibrium solutions of relativistic rotating stars containing purely toroidal magnetic fields are derived for the first time. To solve these basic equations numerically, we extend the Cook-Shapiro-Teukolsky scheme for calculating relativistic rotating stars containing no magnetic field to incorporate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic fields. By using the numerical scheme, we then calculate a large number of the equilibrium configurations for a particular distribution of the magnetic field in order to explore the equilibrium properties. We also construct the equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and/or the constant magnetic flux, which model the evolution of an isolated neutron star as it loses angular momentum via the gravitational waves. Important properties of the equilibrium configurations of the magnetized stars obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) For the nonrotating stars, the matter distribution of the stars is prolately distorted due to the toroidal magnetic fields. (2) For the rapidly rotating stars, the shape of the stellar surface becomes oblate because of the centrifugal force. But, the matter distribution deep inside the star is sufficiently prolate for the mean matter distribution of the star to be prolate. (3) The stronger toroidal magnetic fields lead to the mass shedding of the stars at the lower angular velocity. (4) For some equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and magnetic flux, the stars can spin up as they lose angular momentum.

  10. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Lai Dong


    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  11. VLA observations of dwarf M flare stars and magnetic stars

    Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.; Foster, P.


    The VLA has been used to search for 6 cm emission from 16 nearby dwarf M stars, leading to the detection of only one of them - Gliese 735. The dwarf M flare stars AD Leonis and YZ Canis Minoris were also monitored at 6 cm and 20 cm wavelength in order to study variability. Successive oppositely circularly polarized bursts were detected from AD Leo at 6 cm, suggesting the presence of magnetic fields of both magnetic polarities. An impulsive 20-cm burst from YZ CMi preceded slowly varying 6-cm emission. The VLA was also used, unsuccessfully, to search for 6-cm emission from 13 magnetic Ap stars, all of which exhibit kG magnetic fields. Although the Ap magnetic stars have strong dipolar magnetic fields, the failure to detect gyroresonant radiation suggests that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The quiescent microwave emission from GL 735 is probably due to nonthermal radiation, since unusually high (H = 50 kG or greater) surface magnetic fields are inferred under the assumption that the 6-cm radiation is the gyroresonant radiation of thermal electrons.

  12. Neutron stars, magnetic fields, and gravitational waves

    Lamb, F.K.


    The r-modes of rapidly spinning young neutron stars have recently attracted attention as a promising source of detectable gravitational radiation. These neutron stars are expected to have magnetic fields ∼ 10 12 G. The r-mode velocity perturbation causes differential motion of the fluid in the star; this is a kinematic effect. In addition, the radiation-reaction associated with emission of gravitational radiation by r-waves drives additional differential fluid motions; this is a dynamic effect. These differential fluid motions distort the magnetic fields of neutron stars and may therefore play an important role in determining the structure of neutron star magnetic fields. If the stellar field is ∼ 10 16 (Ω/Ω B ) G or stronger, the usual r-modes are no longer normal modes of the star; here Ω and Ω B are the angular velocities of the star and at which mass shedding occurs. Much weaker magnetic fields can prevent gravitational radiation from amplifying the r-modes or damp existing r-mode oscillations on a relatively short timescale by extracting energy from the modes faster than gravitational wave emission can pump energy into them. The onset of proton superconductivity in the cores of newly formed magnetic neutron stars typically increases the effect on the r-modes of the magnetic field in the core by many orders of magnitude. Once the core has become superconducting, magnetic fields of the order of 10 12 G or greater are usually sufficient to damp r-modes that have been excited by emission of gravitational radiation and to suppress any further emission. A rapid drop in the strength of r-mode gravitational radiation from young neutron stars may therefore signal the onset of superconductivity in the core and provide a lower bound on the strength of the magnetic field there. Hence, measurements of r-mode gravitational waves from newly formed neutron stars may provide valuable diagnostic information about magnetic field strengths, cooling processes, and the


    Zhao Bo; Li Zhiyun; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien


    Stars form in dense cores of magnetized molecular clouds. If the magnetic flux threading the cores is dragged into the stars, the stellar field would be orders of magnitude stronger than observed. This well-known 'magnetic flux problem' demands that most of the core magnetic flux be decoupled from the matter that enters the star. We carry out the first exploration of what happens to the decoupled magnetic flux in three dimensions, using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) version of the ENZO adaptive mesh refinement code. The field-matter decoupling is achieved through a sink particle treatment, which is needed to follow the protostellar accretion phase of star formation. We find that the accumulation of the decoupled flux near the accreting protostar leads to a magnetic pressure buildup. The high pressure is released anisotropically along the path of least resistance. It drives a low-density expanding region in which the decoupled magnetic flux is expelled. This decoupling-enabled magnetic structure has never been seen before in three-dimensional MHD simulations of star formation. It generates a strong asymmetry in the protostellar accretion flow, potentially giving a kick to the star. In the presence of an initial core rotation, the structure presents an obstacle to the formation of a rotationally supported disk, in addition to magnetic braking, by acting as a rigid magnetic wall that prevents the rotating gas from completing a full orbit around the central object. We conclude that the decoupled magnetic flux from the stellar matter can strongly affect the protostellar collapse dynamics.

  14. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.


    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  15. Star Trek, Global Capitalism, and Immaterial Labor

    Hassler-Forest, Dan


    As one of the most expansive storyworlds in sf, Star Trek appears to offer an imaginary representation of a post-capitalist utopia. But in the context of global capitalism the franchise’s superficial post-capitalism translates all too easily into a neoliberal fantasy of post-industrial labour and

  16. Electromagnetic fields of rotating magnetized NUT stars

    Ahmedov, B.J.; Khugaev, A.V.; Ahmedov, B.J.


    Full text: Analytic general relativistic expressions for the electromagnetic fields external to a slowly-rotating magnetized NUT star with nonvanishing gravitomagnetic charge have been presented. Solutions for the electric and magnetic fields have been found after separating the Maxwell equations in the external background spacetime of a slowly rotating NUT star into angular and radial parts in the lowest order approximation. The star is considered isolated and in vacuum, with different models for stellar magnetic field: i) monopolar magnetic field and II) dipolar magnetic field aligned with the axis of rotation. We have shown that the general relativistic corrections due to the dragging of reference frames and gravitomagnetic charge are not present in the form of the magnetic fields but emerge only in the form of the electric fields. In particular, we have shown that the frame-dragging and gravitomagnetic charge provide an additional induced electric field which is analogous to the one introduced by the rotation of the star in the flat spacetime limit

  17. Assessing magnetic torques and energy fluxes in close-in star-planet systems

    Strugarek, A


    Planets in close-in orbit interact with the magnetized wind of their hosting star. This magnetic interaction was proposed to be a source for enhanced emissions in the chromosphere of the star, and to participate in setting the migration time-scale of the close-in planet. The efficiency of the magnetic interaction is know to depend on the magnetic properties of the host star, of the planet, and on the magnetic topology of the interaction. We use a global, three-dimensional numerical model of c...

  18. Magnetic fields in beta Cep, SPB, and Be stars

    Schoeller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Briquet, M.; Ilyin, I.


    Recent observational and theoretical results emphasize the potential significance of magnetic fields for structure, evolution, and environment of massive stars. Depending on their spectral and photometric behavior, the upper main-sequence B-type stars are assigned to different groups, such as beta Cep stars and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, He-rich and He-deficient Bp stars, Be stars, BpSi stars, HgMn stars, or normal B-type stars. All these groups are characterized by different magnetic fi...

  19. Disk accretion onto magnetic T Tauri stars

    Koenigl, A.


    The dynamical and radiative consequences of disk accretion onto magnetic T Tauri stars (TTS) are examined using the Ghosh and Lamb model. It is shown that a prolonged disk accretion phase is compatible with the low rotation rates measured in these stars if they possess a kilogauss strength field that disrupts the disk at a distance of a few stellar radii from the center. It is estimated that a steady state in which the net torque exerted on the star is zero can be attained on a time scale that is shorter than the age of the youngest visible TTS. Although the disk does not develop an ordinary shear boundary layer in this case, one can account for the observed UV excess and Balmer emission in terms of the shocks that form at the bottom of the high-latitude magnetic accretion columns on the stellar surface. This picture also provides a natural explanation of some of the puzzling variability properties of stars like DF Tau and RY Lup. YY Ori stars are interpreted as magnetic TTS in which the observer's line of sight is roughly parallel to an accretion column. 37 refs

  20. Gravitomagnetic effect in magnetized neutron stars

    Chatterjee, Debarati [LPC/ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, Caen, 14050 France (France); Chakraborty, Chandrachur [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, 400005 India (India); Bandyopadhyay, Debades, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, 700064 India (India)


    Rotating bodies in General Relativity produce frame dragging, also known as the gravitomagnetic effect in analogy with classical electromagnetism. In this work, we study the effect of magnetic field on the gravitomagnetic effect in neutron stars with poloidal geometry, which is produced as a result of its rotation. We show that the magnetic field has a non-negligible impact on frame dragging. The maximum effect of the magnetic field appears along the polar direction, where the frame-dragging frequency decreases with increase in magnetic field, and along the equatorial direction, where its magnitude increases. For intermediate angles, the effect of the magnetic field decreases, and goes through a minimum for a particular angular value at which magnetic field has no effect on gravitomagnetism. Beyond that particular angle gravitomagnetic effect increases with increasing magnetic field. We try to identify this 'null region' for the case of magnetized neutron stars, both inside and outside, as a function of the magnetic field, and suggest a thought experiment to find the null region of a particular pulsar using the frame dragging effect.

  1. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    in nuclei. The neutrons are expected to form a 3P superfluid and the protons a 1S ... crust are expected to form a lattice; the electrons are free and highly degenerate, .... the reduced magnetic fields in neutron stars processed in binaries,.

  2. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  3. Role of magnetic interactions in neutron stars

    Adhya Souvik Priyam


    Full Text Available In this work, we present a calculation of the non-Fermi liquid correction to the specific heat of magnetized degenerate quark matter present at the core of the neutron star. The role of non-Fermi liquid corrections to the neutrino emissivity has been calculated beyond leading order. We extend our result to the evaluation of the pulsar kick velocity and cooling of the star due to such anomalous corrections and present a comparison with the simple Fermi liquid case.

  4. Cooling Curve of Strange Star in Strong Magnetic Field

    WANG Xiao-Qin; LUO Zhi-Quan


    In this paper, firstly, we investigate the neutrino emissivity from quark Urca process in strong magnetic field. Then, we discuss the heat capacity of strange stars in strong magnetic field. Finally, we give the cooling curve in strong magnetic field. In order to make a comparison, we also give the corresponding cooling curve in the case of null magnetic field. It turns out that strange stars cool faster in strong magnetic field than that without magnetic field.

  5. The period of the magnetic star HD 133 029

    Panov, K.; Schoeneich, W.


    The period of 0.741285 days for the light variability of the magnetic star HD 133 029 was obtained from UBV observations. The observations of the effective magnetic field by Babcock show variations with a period of 0.7447 days. A small change of the period and a slow change of the magnitude of this magnetic star seems to be present. (author)

  6. Magnetic properties of neutron-star matter



    An array of qualitative and quantitative evidence is presented to the effect that neutron-star matter in its ground state is antiferromagnetic rather than ferromagnetic. The energy of pure neutron matter is evaluated as a function of spin polarization by a two-body Jastrow procedure, for densities up to five times that of ordinary nuclear matter. The anti-ferromagnetic state is energetically preferred to states with non-zero spin polarization, and lies considerably lower in energy than the ferromagnetic state. The magnetic susceptibility of the material is calculated as a function of density in the same approximation, with results which are in good agreement with independent estimates.

  7. Magnetic properties of neutron-star matter

    Chao, N.C.


    An array of qualitative and quantitative evidence is presented to the effect that neutron-star matter in its ground state is antiferromagnetic rather than ferromagnetic. The energy of pure neutron matter is evaluated as a function of spin polarization by a two-body Jastrow procedure, for densities up to five times that of ordinary nuclear matter. The anti-ferromagnetic state is energetically preferred to states with non-zero spin polarization, and lies considerably lower in energy than the ferromagnetic state. The magnetic susceptibility of the material is calculated as a function of density in the same approximation, with results which are in good agreement with independent estimates [pt

  8. A search for magnetic fields in Lambda Bootis stars

    Bohlender, D.A.; Landstreet, J.D.


    We have searched a sample of λ Boo stars for magnetic fields similar to those observed in the magnetic Ap and Bp stars, using a Balmer-line Zeeman analyser. Apart from one dubious measurement, no fields are detected in our sample. It appears that magnetic fields of the λ Boo stars, if they exist, are significantly smaller than those found in magnetic upper main-sequence stars of similar spectral type; this conclusion is supported at about the 90 or 95 per cent confidence level by the present data. (author)

  9. Matter and Radiation in Strong Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Lai, D


    Neutron stars are found to possess magnetic fields ranging from 10 8 G to 10 15 G, much larger than achievable in terrestrial laboratories. Understanding the properties of matter and radiative transfer in strong magnetic fields is essential for the proper interpretation of various observations of magnetic neutron stars, including radio pulsars and magnetars. This paper reviews the atomic/molecular physics and condensed matter physics in strong magnetic fields, as well as recent works on modeling radiation from magnetized neutron star atmospheres/surface layers

  10. Global and photospheric physical parameters of active dwarf stars

    Pettersen, B.R.


    Physical parameters (temperature, luminosity, radius, mass and chemical abundance) of the photospheres of red dwarf flare stars and spotted stars are determined for quiescent conditions. The interrelations between these quantities are compared to the results of theoretical investigation for low mass stars. The evolutionary state of flare stars is discussed. Observational results from spectroscopic and photometric methods to determine the rotation of active dwarfs are reviewed. The possibilities of global oscillations in dwarf stars are considered and preliminary results of a photometric search for oscillation in red dwarf luminosities are presented. (orig.)

  11. Neutron stars. [quantum mechanical processes associated with magnetic fields

    Canuto, V.


    Quantum-mechanical processes associated with the presence of high magnetic fields and the effect of such fields on the evolution of neutron stars are reviewed. A technical description of the interior of a neutron star is presented. The neutron star-pulsar relation is reviewed and consideration is given to supernovae explosions, flux conservation in neutron stars, gauge-invariant derivation of the equation of state for a strongly magnetized gas, neutron beta-decay, and the stability condition for a neutron star.

  12. Observational Effects of Magnetism in O Stars: Surface Nitrogen Abundances

    Martins, F.; Escolano, C.; Wade, G. A.; Donati, J. F.; Bouret, J. C.


    Aims. We investigate the surface nitrogen content of the six magnetic O stars known to date as well as of the early B-type star Tau Sco.. We compare these abundances to predictions of evolutionary models to isolate the effects of magnetic field on the transport of elements in stellar interiors. Methods. We conduct a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the ample stars with state-of-the-art atmosphere models. We rely on high signal-to-noise ratio, high resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPADONS at CFHT and NARVAL at TBL. Atmosphere models and synthetic spectra are computed with the code CMFGEN. Values of N/H together with their uncertainties are determined and compared to predictions of evolutionary models. Results. We find that the magnetic stars can be divided into two groups: one with stars displaying no N enrichment (one object); and one with stars most likely showing extra N enrichment (5 objects). For one star (Ori C) no robust conclusion can be drawn due to its young age. The star with no N enrichment is the one with the weakest magnetic field, possibly of dynamo origin. It might be a star having experienced strong magnetic braking under the condition of solid body rotation, but its rotational velocity is still relatively large. The five stars with high N content were probably slow rotators on the zero age main sequence, but they have surface N/H typical of normal O stars, indicating that the presence of a (probably fossil) magnetic field leads to extra enrichment. These stars may have a strong differential rotation inducing shear mixing. Our results shOuld be viewed as a basis on which new theoretical simulations can rely to better understand the effect of magnetism on the evolution of massive stars.

  13. Effective Induction Heating around Strongly Magnetized Stars

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Noack, L.; Lüftinger, T.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Lammer, H.


    Planets that are embedded in the changing magnetic fields of their host stars can experience significant induction heating in their interiors caused by the planet’s orbital motion. For induction heating to be substantial, the planetary orbit has to be inclined with respect to the stellar rotation and dipole axes. Using WX UMa, for which the rotation and magnetic axes are aligned, as an example, we show that for close-in planets on inclined orbits, induction heating can be stronger than the tidal heating occurring inside Jupiter’s satellite Io; namely, it can generate a surface heat flux exceeding 2 W m‑2. An internal heating source of such magnitude can lead to extreme volcanic activity on the planet’s surface, possibly also to internal local magma oceans, and to the formation of a plasma torus around the star aligned with the planetary orbit. A strongly volcanically active planet would eject into space mostly SO2, which would then dissociate into oxygen and sulphur atoms. Young planets would also eject CO2. Oxygen would therefore be the major component of the torus. If the O I column density of the torus exceeds ≈1012 cm‑2, the torus could be revealed by detecting absorption signatures at the position of the strong far-ultraviolet O I triplet at about 1304 Å. We estimate that this condition is satisfied if the O I atoms in the torus escape the system at a velocity smaller than 1–10 km s‑1. These estimates are valid also for a tidally heated planet.

  14. GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. III. Density and Magnetically Regulated Star Formation

    Wu, Benjamin [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tan, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Christie, Duncan [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Van Loo, Sven [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Collins, David, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)


    We study giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions and their ability to trigger star cluster formation. We further develop our three-dimensional magnetized, turbulent, colliding GMC simulations by implementing star formation subgrid models. Two such models are explored: (1) “Density-Regulated,” i.e., fixed efficiency per free-fall time above a set density threshold and (2) “Magnetically Regulated,” i.e., fixed efficiency per free-fall time in regions that are magnetically supercritical. Variations of parameters associated with these models are also explored. In the non-colliding simulations, the overall level of star formation is sensitive to model parameter choices that relate to effective density thresholds. In the GMC collision simulations, the final star formation rates and efficiencies are relatively independent of these parameters. Between the non-colliding and colliding cases, we compare the morphologies of the resulting star clusters, properties of star-forming gas, time evolution of the star formation rate (SFR), spatial clustering of the stars, and resulting kinematics of the stars in comparison to the natal gas. We find that typical collisions, by creating larger amounts of dense gas, trigger earlier and enhanced star formation, resulting in 10 times higher SFRs and efficiencies. The star clusters formed from GMC collisions show greater spatial substructure and more disturbed kinematics.

  15. Effects of magnetic fields on main sequence stars

    Hubbard, E.N.


    A number of effects of low to medium strength ( 2 /8π) magnetic field pressure term so that the only effect of such a field may come from its inhibiting convection in the core. Isochrones of both convective and radiative core models of 2-5 M are presented. In the deep envelope, mixing of partially nuclear processed material driven by rising and falling magnetic flux tubes may be seen. The effects of this mixing will be brought to the surface during the deep convection phase of the star's tenure as a red giant. This model is used to predict a signature for magnetic mixing based on the CNO isotope and abundance ratios. In the outer envelope the gas pressure is low enough that one might expect to see a perturbation of the stellar structure due to the magnetic field pressure itself. This perturbation is calculated under several physical models for intermediate and high mass stars and it is determined that sufficient magnetic field energy may be available in the outer envelope to expand a star by about 20% over its unperturbed radius. Finally the evidence for the existence of non-magnetic neutron stars is considered, concluding that while no non-magnetic neutron stars have ever been positively identified, there is no evidence that prevents the existence of at least as many non-magnetic as magnetic neutron stars

  16. Global helioseismology (WP4.1): From the Sun to the stars & solar analogs

    García, Rafael A.


    Sun-as-a star observations put our star as a reference for stellar observations. Here, I review the activities in which the SPACEINN global seismology team (Working Package WP4.1) has worked during the past 3 years. In particular, we will explain the new deliverables available on the SPACEINN seismic+ portal. Moreover, special attention will be given to surface dynamics (rotation and magnetic fields). After characterizing the rotation and the magnetic properties of around 300 solar-like stars and defining proper metrics for that, we use their seismic properties to characterize 18 solar analogues for which we study their surface magnetic and seismic properties. This allows us to put the Sun into context compared to its siblings.

  17. Global helioseismology (WP4.1: From the Sun to the stars & solar analogs

    García Rafael A.


    Full Text Available Sun-as-a star observations put our star as a reference for stellar observations. Here, I review the activities in which the SPACEINN global seismology team (Working Package WP4.1 has worked during the past 3 years. In particular, we will explain the new deliverables available on the SPACEINN seismic+ portal. Moreover, special attention will be given to surface dynamics (rotation and magnetic fields. After characterizing the rotation and the magnetic properties of around 300 solar-like stars and defining proper metrics for that, we use their seismic properties to characterize 18 solar analogues for which we study their surface magnetic and seismic properties. This allows us to put the Sun into context compared to its siblings.

  18. Simulations of Magnetic Fields in Tidally Disrupted Stars

    Guillochon, James [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McCourt, Michael, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)


    We perform the first magnetohydrodynamical simulations of tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes. We consider stars with both tangled and ordered magnetic fields, for both grazing and deeply disruptive encounters. When the star survives disruption, we find its magnetic field amplifies by a factor of up to 20, but see no evidence for a self-sustaining dynamo that would yield arbitrary field growth. For stars that do not survive, and within the tidal debris streams produced in partial disruptions, we find that the component of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of stretching along the debris stream only decreases slightly with time, eventually resulting in a stream where the magnetic pressure is in equipartition with the gas. Our results suggest that the returning gas in most (if not all) stellar tidal disruptions is already highly magnetized by the time it returns to the black hole.

  19. A search for strong, ordered magnetic fields in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Wade, G. A.; Bagnulo, S.; Drouin, D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Monin, D.


    The origin of magnetic fields in intermediate- and high-mass stars is fundamentally a mystery. Clues towards solving this basic astrophysical problem can likely be found at the pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary stage. With this work, we perform the largest and most sensitive search for magnetic fields in PMS Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars. We seek to determine whether strong, ordered magnetic fields, similar to those of main-sequence Ap/Bp stars, can be detected in these objects, and if so, to determine the intensities, geometrical characteristics, and statistical incidence of such fields. 68 observations of 50 HAeBe stars have been obtained in circularly polarized light using the FORS1 spectropolarimeter at the ESO VLT. An analysis of both Balmer and metallic lines reveals the possible presence of weak longitudinal magnetic fields in photospheric lines of two HAeBe stars, HD 101412 and BF Ori. Results for two additional stars, CPD-53 295 and HD 36112, are suggestive of the presence of magnetic fields, but no firm conclusions can be drawn based on the available data. The intensity of the longitudinal fields detected in HD 101412 and BF Ori suggest that they correspond to globally ordered magnetic fields with surface intensities of order 1 kG. On the other hand, no magnetic field is detected in 4 other HAeBe stars in our sample in which magnetic fields had previously been confirmed. Monte Carlo simulations of the longitudinal field measurements of the undetected stars allow us to place an upper limit of about 300 G on the general presence of aligned magnetic dipole magnetic fields, and of about 500 G on perpendicular dipole fields. Taking into account the results of our survey and other published results, we find that the observed bulk incidence of magnetic HAeBe stars in our sample is 8-12 per cent, in good agreement with that of magnetic main-sequence stars of similar masses. We also find that the rms longitudinal field intensity of magnetically detected HAe

  20. The Role of Magnetic Fields in Star Formation

    Pipher, Judith


    The SOFIA instrument complement makes available the capability to characterize the physical properties (turbulence, dynamics, magnetic field structure and strength, gas density) of the molecular cloud filaments in which stars form.HAWC+, the newest SOFIA instrument, provides a unique opportunity to probe the complex roles that magnetic fields play in the star formation process on spatial scales intermediate to those explored by Planck (5’ scale), to those of ALMA at the smallest spatial scales (powerful tools to further our understanding of the fundamental physics of both low mass and high mass star formation, including the role that magnetic fields play in each.

  1. White-dwarf rotational equilibria in magnetic cataclysmic variable stars

    Warner, B. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Astronomy Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Mathematics); Wickramasinghe, D.T. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Mathematics)


    The magnetic cataclysmic variable stars (polars, intermediate polars and DQ Her stars) are grouped about three lines in the orbital period-spin period diagram. This segregation is shown to be the consequence of competition between braking and accretion torques when combined with the effects of cyclical variations in rate of mass transfer. (author).

  2. Magnetic fields and dense chromospheres in dMe stars

    Mullan, D.J.


    We examine in a semi-quantitative fashion the hypothesis that dense chromospheres of dMe stars are heated by dissipation of hydromagnetic waves. We propose that dMe stars are a set of magnetic stars on the lower main sequence, with strong fields presumably generated by dynamo action in deep convective envelopes. We discuss how the combination of magnetic fields and dense chromospheres in dMe stars provides a consistent interpretation of the following features: 1) The dMe stars which are most likely to be flares stars are those with hydrogen lines in emission. However, it is proposed that in certain conditions, Balmer lines may appear in absorption, and we suggest that 'negative flares' can be explained at least in part by the occurrence of strong absorption in Hα. 2) The propagation of flare-initiated coronal waves can trigger sympathetic stellar flares. 3) Apart from flare activity, emission line strengths in dMe stars must exhibit time variations due to the emergence of new magnetic flux ropes through the stellar surface. 4) The combination of strong magnetic fields with dense chromospheres makes the Faraday rotation measure large enough to have potentially a detectable effect on polarized visible light. 5) It is suggested that grain formation occurs in starspots on dMe stars. (orig./WL) [de

  3. Magnetic fields driven by tidal mixing in radiative stars

    Vidal, Jérémie; Cébron, David; Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Hollerbach, Rainer


    Stellar magnetism plays an important role in stellar evolution theory. Approximatively 10 per cent of observed main sequence (MS) and pre-main-sequence (PMS) radiative stars exhibit surface magnetic fields above the detection limit, raising the question of their origin. These stars host outer radiative envelopes, which are stably stratified. Therefore, they are assumed to be motionless in standard models of stellar structure and evolution. We focus on rapidly rotating, radiative stars which may be prone to the tidal instability, due to an orbital companion. Using direct numerical simulations in a sphere, we study the interplay between a stable stratification and the tidal instability, and assess its dynamo capability. We show that the tidal instability is triggered regardless of the strength of the stratification (Brunt-Väisälä frequency). Furthermore, the tidal instability can lead to both mixing and self-induced magnetic fields in stably stratified layers (provided that the Brunt-Väisälä frequency does not exceed the stellar spin rate in the simulations too much). The application to stars suggests that the resulting magnetic fields could be observable at the stellar surfaces. Indeed, we expect magnetic field strengths up to several Gauss. Consequently, tidally driven dynamos should be considered as a (complementary) dynamo mechanism, possibly operating in radiative MS and PMS stars hosting orbital companions. In particular, tidally driven dynamos may explain the observed magnetism of tidally deformed and rapidly rotating Vega-like stars.

  4. Stellar magnetic activity – Star-Planet Interactions

    Poppenhaeger, K.


    Full Text Available Stellar magnetic activity is an important factor in the formation and evolution of exoplanets. Magnetic phenomena like stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, and high-energy emission affect the exoplanetary atmosphere and its mass loss over time. One major question is whether the magnetic evolution of exoplanet host stars is the same as for stars without planets; tidal and magnetic interactions of a star and its close-in planets may play a role in this. Stellar magnetic activity also shapes our ability to detect exoplanets with different methods in the first place, and therefore we need to understand it properly to derive an accurate estimate of the existing exoplanet population. I will review recent theoretical and observational results, as well as outline some avenues for future progress.

  5. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars.

    Christensen, Ulrich R; Holzwarth, Volkmar; Reiners, Ansgar


    The magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter, along with those of rapidly rotating, low-mass stars, are generated by convection-driven dynamos that may operate similarly (the slowly rotating Sun generates its field through a different dynamo mechanism). The field strengths of planets and stars vary over three orders of magnitude, but the critical factor causing that variation has hitherto been unclear. Here we report an extension of a scaling law derived from geodynamo models to rapidly rotating stars that have strong density stratification. The unifying principle in the scaling law is that the energy flux available for generating the magnetic field sets the field strength. Our scaling law fits the observed field strengths of Earth, Jupiter, young contracting stars and rapidly rotating low-mass stars, despite vast differences in the physical conditions of the objects. We predict that the field strengths of rapidly rotating brown dwarfs and massive extrasolar planets are high enough to make them observable.

  6. Broad-band linear polarization and magnetic intensification in rotating magnetic stars

    Degl'Innocenti, M.L.; Calamai, G.; Degl'Innocenti, E.L.; Patriarchi, P.


    Magnetic intensification is proposed as a mechanism to explain the general features of the variable broad-band linear polarization emerging from rotating magnetic stars. This mechanism is studied in detail, and some efforts are made to investigate the wide variety of polarization diagrams that can result from it. Theoretical results are compared with direct observations of the variable magnetic star 53 Cam to determine its geometric and magnetic configuration

  7. Surface structure of quark stars with magnetic fields

    We investigate the impact of magnetic fields on the electron distribution of the electrosphere of quark stars. For moderately strong magnetic fields of ∼ 1013 G, quantization effects are generally weak due to the large number density of electrons at surface, but can nevertheless affect the photon emission properties of quark ...

  8. Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields

    The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic field. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean field theory is taken and extended to ...

  9. Magnetic fields of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Hubrig S.


    Full Text Available We report on the status of our spectropolarimetric studies of Herbig Ae/Be stars carried out during the last years. The magnetic field geometries of these stars, investigated with spectropolarimetric time series, can likely be described by centred dipoles with polar magnetic field strengths of several hundred Gauss. A number of Herbig Ae/Be stars with detected magnetic fields have recently been observed with X-shooter in the visible and the near-IR, as well as with the high-resolution near-IR spectrograph CRIRES. These observations are of great importance to understand the relation between the magnetic field topology and the physics of the accretion flow and the accretion disk gas emission.


    Staff, Jan E.; Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent; Ouyed, Rachid


    We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B ≤ 10 13 G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude α sat , the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

  11. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    Oksala, M. E.; Grunhut, J. H.; Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C. A. H.; Campagnolo, J. C. N.; Souza, T. B.


    Magnetospheric observational proxies are used for indirect detection of magnetic fields in hot stars in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelength ranges. To determine the viability of infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines as a magnetic diagnostic for these stars, we have obtained low-resolution (R~ 1200), near-IR spectra of the known magnetic B2V stars HR 5907 and HR 7355, taken with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (OSIRIS) attached to the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. Both stars show definite variable emission features in IR hydrogen lines of the Brackett series, with similar properties as those found in optical spectra, including the derived location of the detected magnetospheric plasma. These features also have the added advantage of a lowered contribution of stellar flux at these wavelengths, making circumstellar material more easily detectable. IR diagnostics will be useful for the future study of magnetic hot stars, to detect and analyze lower-density environments, and to detect magnetic candidates in areas obscured from UV and optical observations, increasing the number of known magnetic stars to determine basic formation properties and investigate the origin of their magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  12. Photometric investigation of the magnetic star 53 Camelopardalis

    Muciek, M.; Gertner, J.; North, P.; Rufener, F.


    New photometric results obtained in the Geneva system are presented for the star 53 Cam. Earlier photometric results obtained in another system are used as well to show the existence of about four ''null-wavelength regions'' between 3400 and 7700 A and to draw the pseudocontinuum of this star. Assuming axisymmetry about the magnetic axis, a simple model of brightness and equivalent width distribution on the surface of the star are proposed. The distribution of the intensity of the γ 5200 depression is given and a slight inhomogeneity of the distribution of effective temperature is suggested. 28 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  13. Magnetic field effects on the crust structure of neutron stars

    Franzon, B.; Negreiros, R.; Schramm, S.


    We study the effects of high magnetic fields on the structure and on the geometry of the crust in neutron stars. We find that the crust geometry is substantially modified by the magnetic field inside the star. We build stationary and axis-symmetric magnetized stellar models by using well-known equations of state to describe the neutron star crust, namely, the Skyrme model for the inner crust and the Baym-Pethick-Sutherland equation of state for the outer crust. We show that the magnetic field has a dual role, contributing to the crust deformation via the electromagnetic interaction (manifested in this case as the Lorentz force) and by contributing to curvature due to the energy stored in it. We also study a direct consequence of the crust deformation due to the magnetic field: the thermal relaxation time. This quantity, which is of great importance to the thermal evolution of neutron stars, is sensitive to the crust properties, and, as such, we show that it may be strongly affected by the magnetic field.

  14. Magnetized color flavor locked state and compact stars

    Felipe, R Gonzalez; Martinez, A Perez


    The stability of the color flavor locked phase in the presence of a strong magnetic field is investigated within the phenomenological MIT bag model, taking into account the variation of the strange quark mass, the baryon density, the magnetic field, as well as the bag and gap parameters. It is found that the minimum value of the energy per baryon in a color flavor locked state at vanishing pressure is lower than the corresponding one for unpaired magnetized strange quark matter and, as the magnetic field increases, the energy per baryon decreases. This implies that magnetized color flavor locked matter is more stable and could become the ground state inside neutron stars. The mass-radius relation for such stars is also studied.

  15. HD 66051: the first eclipsing binary hosting an early-type magnetic star

    Kochukhov, O.; Johnston, C.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.


    Early-type magnetic stars are rarely found in close binary systems. No such objects were known in eclipsing binaries prior to this study. Here we investigated the eclipsing, spectroscopic double-lined binary HD 66051, which exhibits out-of-eclipse photometric variations suggestive of surface brightness inhomogeneities typical of early-type magnetic stars. Using a new set of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations, we discovered a weak magnetic field on the primary and found intrinsic, element-dependent variability in its spectral lines. The magnetic field structure of the primary is dominated by a nearly axisymmetric dipolar component with a polar field strength Bd ≈ 600 G and an inclination with respect to the rotation axis of βd = 13°. A weaker quadrupolar component is also likely to be present. We combined the radial velocity measurements derived from our spectra with archival optical photometry to determine fundamental masses (3.16 and 1.75 M⊙) and radii (2.78 and 1.39 R⊙) with a 1-3% precision. We also obtained a refined estimate of the effective temperatures (13000 and 9000 K) and studied chemical abundances for both components with the help of disentangled spectra. We demonstrate that the primary component of HD 66051 is a typical late-B magnetic chemically peculiar star with a non-uniform surface chemical abundance distribution. It is not an HgMn-type star as suggested by recent studies. The secondary is a metallic-line star showing neither a strong, global magnetic field nor intrinsic spectral variability. Fundamental parameters provided by our work for this interesting system open unique possibilities for probing interior structure, studying atomic diffusion, and constraining binary star evolution.

  16. Rotation and magnetism in intermediate-mass stars

    Quentin, Léo G.; Tout, Christopher A.


    Rotation and magnetism are increasingly recognized as important phenomena in stellar evolution. Surface magnetic fields from a few to 20 000 G have been observed and models have suggested that magnetohydrodynamic transport of angular momentum and chemical composition could explain the peculiar composition of some stars. Stellar remnants such as white dwarfs have been observed with fields from a few to more than 109 G. We investigate the origin of and the evolution, on thermal and nuclear rather than dynamical time-scales, of an averaged large-scale magnetic field throughout a star's life and its coupling to stellar rotation. Large-scale magnetic fields sustained until late stages of stellar evolution with conservation of magnetic flux could explain the very high fields observed in white dwarfs. We include these effects in the Cambridge stellar evolution code using three time-dependant advection-diffusion equations coupled to the structural and composition equations of stars to model the evolution of angular momentum and the two components of the magnetic field. We present the evolution in various cases for a 3 M_{⊙} star from the beginning to the late stages of its life. Our particular model assumes that turbulent motions, including convection, favour small-scale field at the expense of large-scale field. As a result, the large-scale field concentrates in radiative zones of the star and so is exchanged between the core and the envelope of the star as it evolves. The field is sustained until the end of the asymptotic giant branch, when it concentrates in the degenerate core.


    Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Réville, V.; Matt, S. P.


    Magnetic interactions between a star and a close-in planet are postulated to be a source of enhanced emissions and to play a role in the secular evolution of the orbital system. Close-in planets generally orbit in the sub-alfvénic region of the stellar wind, which leads to efficient transfers of energy and angular momentum between the star and the planet. We model the magnetic interactions occurring in close-in star–planet systems with three-dimensional, global, compressible magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of a planet orbiting in a self-consistent stellar wind. We focus on the cases of magnetized planets and explore three representative magnetic configurations. The Poynting flux originating from the magnetic interactions is an energy source for enhanced emissions in star–planet systems. Our results suggest a simple geometrical explanation for ubiquitous on/off enhanced emissions associated with close-in planets, and confirm that the Poynting fluxes can reach powers of the order of 10 19 W. Close-in planets are also shown to migrate due to magnetic torques for sufficiently strong stellar wind magnetic fields. The topology of the interaction significantly modifies the shape of the magnetic obstacle that leads to magnetic torques. As a consequence, the torques can vary by at least an order of magnitude as the magnetic topology of the interaction varies


    Strugarek, A. [Département de physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Brun, A. S.; Réville, V. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Université Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Matt, S. P., E-mail: [Astrophysics group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)


    Magnetic interactions between a star and a close-in planet are postulated to be a source of enhanced emissions and to play a role in the secular evolution of the orbital system. Close-in planets generally orbit in the sub-alfvénic region of the stellar wind, which leads to efficient transfers of energy and angular momentum between the star and the planet. We model the magnetic interactions occurring in close-in star–planet systems with three-dimensional, global, compressible magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of a planet orbiting in a self-consistent stellar wind. We focus on the cases of magnetized planets and explore three representative magnetic configurations. The Poynting flux originating from the magnetic interactions is an energy source for enhanced emissions in star–planet systems. Our results suggest a simple geometrical explanation for ubiquitous on/off enhanced emissions associated with close-in planets, and confirm that the Poynting fluxes can reach powers of the order of 10{sup 19} W. Close-in planets are also shown to migrate due to magnetic torques for sufficiently strong stellar wind magnetic fields. The topology of the interaction significantly modifies the shape of the magnetic obstacle that leads to magnetic torques. As a consequence, the torques can vary by at least an order of magnitude as the magnetic topology of the interaction varies.

  19. Accretion of matter onto highly magnetized neutron stars: Final report, July 1-September 30, 1985

    Hernquist, L.


    A final report is given of two research projects dealing with magnetic fields of neutron stars. These are the modulation of thermal x-rays from cooling neutron stars and plasma instabilities in neutron star accretion columns

  20. Winds of Massive Magnetic Stars: Interacting Fields and Flow

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.


    We present results of 3D numerical simulations of magnetically confined, radiatively driven stellar winds of massive stars, conducted using the astrophysical MHD code Pluto, with a focus on understanding the rotational variability of radio and sub-mm emission. Radiative driving is implemented according to the Castor, Abbott and Klein theory of radiatively driven winds. Many magnetic massive stars posses a magnetic axis which is inclined with respect to the rotational axis. This misalignment leads to a complex wind structure as magnetic confinement, centrifugal acceleration and radiative driving act to channel the circumstellar plasma into a warped disk whose observable properties should be apparent in multiple wavelengths. This structure is analysed to calculate free-free thermal radio emission and determine the characteristic intensity maps and radio light curves.


    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.


    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres

  2. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    Oksala, M.E.; Grunhut, J.H.; Kraus, Michaela; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C.A.H.; Condori, J.C.; Souza, C. T.


    Roč. 578, June (2015), A112/1-A112/4 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-21373S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * magnetic field * circumstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  3. Mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars

    Martinez, A Perez; Paret, D Manreza


    We review the stability of magnetized strange quark matter (MSQM) within the phenomenological MIT bag model, taking into account the variation of the relevant input parameters, namely, the strange quark mass, baryon density, magnetic field and bag parameter. A comparison with magnetized asymmetric quark matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium as well as with strange quark matter (SQM) is presented. We obtain that the energy per baryon for MSQM decreases as the magnetic field increases, and its minimum value at vanishing pressure is lower than the value found for SQM, which implies that MSQM is more stable than non-magnetized SQM. The mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars is also obtained in this framework.

  4. Spectropolarimetry of magnetic stars. IV. The crossover effect.

    Mathys, G.


    This paper is devoted to the study of the crossover effect in magnetic Ap stars. It is shown that this effect can be measured by the second order moment about their centre of the profiles of spectral lines recorded in the Stokes parameter V. The interpretation of these measurements in terms of magnetic field is developed. It is shown that one can derive from them a quantity called the mean asymmetry of the longitudinal magnetic field, which is the first moment of the component of the magnetic field along the line of sight, about the plane defined by the line of sight and the stellar rotation axis. The consistency of the determination of this quantity with that of the mean longitudinal magnetic field from measurements of wavelength shifts of lines between right and left circular polarization is demonstrated. This technique of analysis is applied to observations of a sample of 29 stars, among which 10 have a detectable crossover effect. For 8 of them, the available observational data allow the study of the variations of the asymmetry of the longitudinal field with rotation phase. In most cases, this variation is sinusoidal and essentially symmetric about 0, and it occurs in quadrature with the variation of the mean longitudinal field. A more complex behaviour is definitely observed in HD 147010 and HD 175362, where the variation of the asymmetry of the longitudinal field is better represented by the superposition of two sinusoids, one with the rotation frequency of the star, and the other with twice that frequency.

  5. Thomson scattering in magnetic fields. [of white dwarf stars

    Whitney, Barbara


    The equation of transfer in Thomson scattering atmospheres with magnetic fields is solved using Monte Carlo methods. Two cases, a plane parallel atmosphere with a magnetic field perpendicular to the atmosphere, and a dipole star, are investigated. The wavelength dependence of polarization from plane-parallel atmosphere is qualitatively similar to that observed in the magnetic white dwarf Grw+70 deg 8247, and the field strength determined by the calculation, 320 MG, is quantitatively similar to that determined from the line spectrum. The dipole model does not resemble the data as well as the single plane-parallel atmosphere.


    Weber, Maria A.; Browning, Matthew K., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom)


    Many fully convective stars exhibit a wide variety of surface magnetism, including starspots and chromospheric activity. The manner by which bundles of magnetic field traverse portions of the convection zone to emerge at the stellar surface is not especially well understood. In the solar context, some insight into this process has been gleaned by regarding the magnetism as consisting partly of idealized thin flux tubes (TFTs). Here we present the results of a large set of TFT simulations in a rotating spherical domain of convective flows representative of a 0.3 M {sub ⊙} main-sequence star. This is the first study to investigate how individual flux tubes in such a star might rise under the combined influence of buoyancy, convection, and differential rotation. A time-dependent hydrodynamic convective flow field, taken from separate 3D simulations calculated with the anelastic equations, impacts the flux tube as it rises. Convective motions modulate the shape of the initially buoyant flux ring, promoting localized rising loops. Flux tubes in fully convective stars have a tendency to rise nearly parallel to the rotation axis. However, the presence of strong differential rotation allows some initially low-latitude flux tubes of moderate strength to develop rising loops that emerge in the near-equatorial region. Magnetic pumping suppresses the global rise of the flux tube most efficiently in the deeper interior and at lower latitudes. The results of these simulations aim to provide a link between dynamo-generated magnetic fields, fluid motions, and observations of starspots for fully convective stars.

  7. Tidal and magnetic interactions in close binary stars

    Campbell, C.G.


    The thesis investigates the nature of non-synchronous motions in members of close binary stars under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields existing in these systems, and the evolution of such motions in different classes of binaries. Largely convective stars are considered and a solution is found for the fluid flow associated with the non-synchronous rotation of such a secondary in a close binary system, taking tidal and rotational forces into account. The tidal velocity field is calculated for a low mass white dwarf secondary star in a twin - degenerate binary. It is found that the synchronisation times can be comparable to the lifetime of the binary so that some asynchronism may remain present. (U.K.)

  8. STAR/SVT alignment within a finite magnetic field

    Barannikova, O.Yu.; Belaga, V.V.; Ososkov, G.A.; Panebrattsev, Yu.A.; Bellweid, R.K.; Pruneau, C.A.; Wilson, W.K.


    We report on the development of SVT (Silicon Vertex Tracker) software for the purpose of the SVT and TPC (Time Projection Chamber) relative alignment as well as the internal alignment of the SVT components. The alignment procedure described complements the internal SVT alignment procedure discussed in Star Note 356. It involves track reconstruction in both the Star TPC and SVT for the calibration of the SVT geometry in the presence of a finite magnetic field. This new software has been integrated under the package SAL already running under STAR. Both the implementation and the performance of the alignment algorithm are described. We find that the current software implementation in SAL should enable a very satisfactory internal SVT alignment as well as an excellent SVT to TPC relative alignment

  9. Gravitational waves from color-magnetic "mountains" in neutron stars.

    Glampedakis, K; Jones, D I; Samuelsson, L


    Neutron stars may harbor the true ground state of matter in the form of strange quark matter. If present, this type of matter is expected to be a color superconductor, a consequence of quark pairing with respect to the color and flavor degrees of freedom. The stellar magnetic field threading the quark core becomes a color-magnetic admixture and, in the event that superconductivity is of type II, leads to the formation of color-magnetic vortices. In this Letter, we show that the volume-averaged color-magnetic vortex tension force should naturally lead to a significant degree of nonaxisymmetry in systems such as radio pulsars. We show that gravitational radiation from such color-magnetic "mountains" in young pulsars, such as the Crab and Vela, could be observable by the future Einstein Telescope, thus, becoming a probe of paired quark matter in neutron stars. The detectability threshold can be pushed up toward the sensitivity level of Advanced LIGO if we invoke an interior magnetic field about a factor ten stronger than the surface polar field.

  10. Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines: Magnetic field determinations from Stokes I and V spectra⋆

    Mathys, G.


    Context. Some Ap stars that have a strong enough magnetic field and a sufficiently low v sini show spectral lines resolved into their magnetically split components. Aims: We present the results of a systematic study of the magnetic fields and other properties of those stars. Methods: This study is based on 271 new measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus ⟨ B ⟩ of 43 stars, 231 determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field ⟨ Bz ⟩ and of the crossover ⟨ Xz ⟩ of 34 stars, and 229 determinations of the mean quadratic magnetic field ⟨ Bq ⟩ of 33 stars. Those data were used to derive new values or meaningful lower limits of the rotation periods Prot of 21 stars. Variation curves of the mean field modulus were characterised for 25 stars, the variations of the longitudinal field were characterised for 16 stars, and the variations of the crossover and of the quadratic field were characterised for 8 stars. Our data are complemented by magnetic measurements from the literature for 41 additional stars with magnetically resolved lines. Phase coverage is sufficient to define the curve of variation of ⟨ B ⟩ for 2 of these stars. Published data were also used to characterise the ⟨ Bz ⟩ curves of variation for 10 more stars. Furthermore, we present 1297 radial velocity measurements of the 43 Ap stars in our sample that have magnetically resolved lines. Nine of these stars are spectroscopic binaries for which new orbital elements were derived. Results: The existence of a cut-off at the low end of the distribution of the phase-averaged mean magnetic field moduli ⟨ B ⟩ av of the Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines, at about 2.8 kG, is confirmed. This reflects the probable existence of a gap in the distribution of the magnetic field strengths in slowly rotating Ap stars, below which there is a separate population of stars with fields weaker than 2 kG. In more than half of the stars with magnetically resolved lines that have a

  11. Magnetic field of massive chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Yakunin, I. A.


    Spectropolarimetric observations of 55 chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association were obtained at the 6 m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the aim of searching for the presence of stellar magnetic fields. We found 8 new magnetic stars in addition to 20 previously known objects. The frequency of chemically peculiar A and B-type stars among normal A and B-type stars and the frequency of magnetic stars among all chemically peculiar stars decreases with age in the Orion OB1 association.

  12. Fallback accretion onto magnetized neutron stars and the hidden magnetic field model

    Torres, A; Cerdá-Durán, P; Font, J A


    The observation of several neutron stars with relatively low values of the surface magnetic field found in supernova remnants has led in recent years to controversial interpretations. A possible explanation is the slow rotation of the proto-neutron star at birth which is unable to amplify its magnetic field to typical pulsar levels. An alternative possibility, the hidden magnetic field scenario, seems to be favoured over the previous one due to the observation of three low magnetic field magnetars. This scenario considers the accretion of the fallback of the supernova debris onto the neutron star as the responsible for the observed low magnetic field. In this work, we have studied under which conditions the magnetic field of a neutron star can be buried into the crust due to an accreting fluid. We have considered a simplified toy model in general relativity to estimate the balance between the incoming accretion flow an the magnetosphere. We conclude that the burial is possible for values of the surface magnetic field below 10 13 G. The preliminary results reported in this paper for simplified polytropic models should be confirmed using a more realistic thermodynamical setup. (paper)

  13. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.


    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.


    De la Chevrotiere, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Quebec (CRAQ), C. P. 6128, succ. centre-ville, Montreal (Quebec) H3C 3J7 (Canada); Collaboration: MiMeS Collaboration


    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. We also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the {approx}0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B {approx} 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.


    De la Chevrotière, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J.


    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. We also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the ∼0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B ∼ 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.

  16. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. II. Fully convective main-sequence stars

    Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)


    We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.

  17. The magnetic early B-type stars I: magnetometry and rotation

    Shultz, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; MiMeS Collaboration; BinaMIcS Collaboration


    The rotational and magnetic properties of many magnetic hot stars are poorly characterized, therefore the Magnetism in Massive Stars and Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars collaborations have collected extensive high-dispersion spectropolarimetric data sets of these targets. We present longitudinal magnetic field measurements for 52 early B-type stars (B5-B0), with which we attempt to determine their rotational periods Prot. Supplemented with high-resolution spectroscopy, low-resolution Dominion Astrophysical Observatory circular spectropolarimetry, and archival Hipparcos photometry, we determined Prot for 10 stars, leaving only five stars for which Prot could not be determined. Rotational ephemerides for 14 stars were refined via comparison of new to historical magnetic measurements. The distribution of Prot is very similar to that observed for the cooler Ap/Bp stars. We also measured v sin i and vmac for all stars. Comparison to non-magnetic stars shows that v sin i is much lower for magnetic stars, an expected consequence of magnetic braking. We also find evidence that vmac is lower for magnetic stars. Least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted using single-element masks revealed widespread, systematic discrepancies in between different elements: this effect is apparent only for chemically peculiar stars, suggesting it is a consequence of chemical spots. Sinusoidal fits to H line measurements (which should be minimally affected by chemical spots), yielded evidence of surface magnetic fields more complex than simple dipoles in six stars for which this has not previously been reported; however, in all six cases, the second- and third-order amplitudes are small relative to the first-order (dipolar) amplitudes.

  18. NICER observations of highly magnetized neutron stars: Initial results

    Enoto, Teruaki; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Nynka, Melania; Kaspi, Victoria; Harding, Alice; Guver, Tolga; Lewandowska, Natalia; Majid, Walid; Ho, Wynn C. G.; NICER Team


    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) was launched on June 3, 2017, and attached to the International Space Station. The large effective area of NICER in soft X-rays makes it a powerful tool not only for its primary science objective (diagnostics of the nuclear equation state) but also for studying neutron stars of various classes. As one of the NICER science working groups, the Magnetars and Magnetospheres (M&M) team coordinates monitoring and target of opportunity (ToO) observations of magnetized neutron stars, including magnetars, high-B pulsars, X-ray dim isolated neutron stars, and young rotation-powered pulsars. The M&M working group has performed simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the Crab and Vela pulsars, ToO observations of the active anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61, and a monitoring campaign for the transient magnetar SGR 0501+4516. Here we summarize the current status and initial results of the M&M group.


    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R.; Brown, B. P.; Soderblom, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Hall, J. C.; Basu, S.


    The active K2 dwarf ε Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in ε Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 ± 0.03 years and 12.7 ± 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Böhm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of ε Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.


    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, C1428EHA-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Brown, B. P. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Soderblom, D. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Henry, T. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); Hall, J. C. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Basu, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)


    The active K2 dwarf {epsilon} Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in {epsilon} Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 {+-} 0.03 years and 12.7 {+-} 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Boehm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of {epsilon} Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.

  1. A self-consistent study of magnetic field effects on hybrid stars

    Dexheimer, V; Franzon, B; Schramm, S


    It is understood that strong magnetic fields affect the structure of neutron stars. Nevertheless, many calculations for magnetized neutron stars are still being performed using symmetric solutions of Einstein’s equations. In this conference proceeding, we review why this is not the correct procedure and we also discuss the effects of magnetic fields on the stellar population and temperature profiles. (paper)

  2. A magnetic study of spotted UV Ceti flare stars and related late-type dwarfs

    Vogt, S. S.


    A multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer has been used to investigate the magnetic nature of the spotted UV Ceti flare stars. Magnetic observations were obtained on a sample of 19 program objects, of which 5 were currently spotted dKe-dMe stars, 7 were normal dK-dM stars, 7 were UV Ceti flare stars, and 1 was a possible post-T Tauri star. Contrary to most previously published observations and theoretical expectations, no magnetic fields were detected on any of these objects from either the absorption lines or the H-alpha emission line down to an observational uncertainty level of 100-160 gauss (standard deviation).

  3. Particle acceleration at the magnetic poles of a neutron star

    Jones, P.B.


    The magnetic conversion of a photon in a neutron star magnetosphere near one of the magnetic poles is followed by acceleration of the electron and positron to ultra-relativistic energies. The positron moves along open magnetic flux lines to the light cylinder. The electron incident on the stellar surface produces an electromagnetic shower. Following a comment by Cheng and Ruderman (Astrophys.J.;214:598 (1977)), an order of magnitude estimate has been made of the spectrum of backward moving photons created in the electron shower. The most important source of photons is shown to be the formation of the giant dipole state in Fe 56 . Under the assumption that the surface magnetic flux density exceeds 10 12 G, the photons have, with high probability, mean free paths for magnetic conversion in the magnetosphere of 1 4 cm. An equation for the maximum acceleratin potential has been obtained in a one-dimensional model of pair creation and electron multiplication based on this photon source. The model has been applied to the phenomenon of subpulse drift in pulsars. The plasma accelerated at the magnetic pole has three components; positrons, protons and light nuclei (Z < approximately 6) formed by spallation, and iron group nuclei. Equations determining their relative fluxes have been found. The light nuclei include those with Z = 3 to 5, usually considered to be present in galactic cosmic rays only as a result of the interaction of heavier nuclei with the interstellar medium. (author)

  4. Turbulence, transport and confinement: from tokamaks to star magnetism

    Strugarek, Antoine


    This thesis is part of the general study of self-organization in hot and magnetized plasmas. We focus our work on two specific objects: stars and tokamaks. We use first principle numerical simulations to study turbulence, transport and confinement in these plasmas. The first part of this thesis introduces the main characteristics of stellar and tokamak plasmas. The reasons for studying them together are properly detailed. The second part is focused on stellar aspects. We study the interactions between the 3D turbulent motions in the solar convection zone with an internal magnetic field in the tachocline (the transition region between the instable and stable zones in the Sun). The tachocline is a very thin layer (less than five percent of the solar radius) that acts as a transport barrier of angular momentum. We show that such an internal magnetic field is not likely to explain the observed thickness of the tachocline and we give some insights on how to find alternative mechanisms to constrain it. We also explore the effect of the environment of star on its structure. We develop a methodology to study the influence of stellar wind and of the magnetic coupling of a star with its orbiting planets. We use the same methodology to analyse the magnetic interaction between a stellar wind and a planetary magnetosphere that acts as a transport barrier of matter. Then, the third part is dedicated to fusion oriented research. We present a numerical investigation on the experimental mechanisms that lead to the development of transport barriers in the plasma. These barriers are particularly important for the design of high performance fusion devices. The creation of transport barriers is obtained in turbulent first principle simulations for the very first time. The collaboration between the two scientific teams lead to the results presented in the fourth part of this thesis. An original spectral method is developed to analyse the saturation of stellar convective dynamos and of

  5. Dirac’s magnetic monopole and the Kontsevich star product

    Soloviev, M. A.


    We examine relationships between various quantization schemes for an electrically charged particle in the field of a magnetic monopole. Quantization maps are defined in invariant geometrical terms, appropriate to the case of nontrivial topology, and are constructed for two operator representations. In the first setting, the quantum operators act on the Hilbert space of sections of a nontrivial complex line bundle associated with the Hopf bundle, whereas the second approach uses instead a quaternionic Hilbert module of sections of a trivial quaternionic line bundle. We show that these two quantizations are naturally related by a bundle morphism and, as a consequence, induce the same phase-space star product. We obtain explicit expressions for the integral kernels of star-products corresponding to various operator orderings and calculate their asymptotic expansions up to the third order in the Planck constant \\hbar . We also show that the differential form of the magnetic Weyl product corresponding to the symmetric ordering agrees completely with the Kontsevich formula for deformation quantization of Poisson structures and can be represented by Kontsevich’s graphs.

  6. Streams and magnetic fields in surface layers of Ap-stars

    Dolginov, A.Z.; Urpin, V.A.


    Magnetic field generation of Ap-stars is considered. It is shown that in the surface layers of Ap-stars inhomogeneity of chemical composition produces a strong magnetic field. Velocities of possible circulation of stellar matter are estimated. It is shown that circulation does not prevent the process of the magnetic field generation. It needs the order of million years, for arranging the stationary magnetic field in surface layers

  7. Origin and Evolution of Magnetic Field in PMS Stars: Influence of Rotation and Structural Changes

    Emeriau-Viard, Constance; Brun, Allan Sacha, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay CEA/DSM—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/DAp CEA Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)


    During stellar evolution, especially in the pre-main-sequence phase, stellar structure and rotation evolve significantly, causing major changes in the dynamics and global flows of the star. We wish to assess the consequences of these changes on stellar dynamo, internal magnetic field topology, and activity level. To do so, we have performed a series of 3D HD and MHD simulations with the ASH code. We choose five different models characterized by the radius of their radiative zone following an evolutionary track computed by a 1D stellar evolution code. These models characterized stellar evolution from 1 to 50 Myr. By introducing a seed magnetic field in the fully convective model and spreading its evolved state through all four remaining cases, we observe systematic variations in the dynamical properties and magnetic field amplitude and topology of the models. The five MHD simulations develop a strong dynamo field that can reach an equipartition state between the kinetic and magnetic energies and even superequipartition levels in the faster-rotating cases. We find that the magnetic field amplitude increases as it evolves toward the zero-age main sequence. Moreover, the magnetic field topology becomes more complex, with a decreasing axisymmetric component and a nonaxisymmetric one becoming predominant. The dipolar components decrease as the rotation rate and the size of the radiative core increase. The magnetic fields possess a mixed poloidal-toroidal topology with no obvious dominant component. Moreover, the relaxation of the vestige dynamo magnetic field within the radiative core is found to satisfy MHD stability criteria. Hence, it does not experience a global reconfiguration but slowly relaxes by retaining its mixed stable poloidal-toroidal topology.

  8. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    Cheng, A.F.


    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora

  9. Crustal Magnetic Field Anomalies and Global Tectonics

    Storetvedt, Karsten


    A wide variety of evidence suggests that the ruling isochron (geomagnetic polarity versus age) hypothesis of marine magnetic lineations has no merit - undermining therefore one of the central tenets of plate tectonics. Instead, variable induction by the ambient geomagnetic field is likely to be the principal agent for mega-scale crustal magnetic features - in both oceanic and continental settings. This revitalizes the fault-controlled susceptibility-contrast model of marine magnetic lineations, originally proposed in the late 1960s. Thus, the marine magnetic 'striping' may be ascribed to tectonic shearing and related, but variable, disintegration of the original iron-oxide mineralogy, having developed primarily along one of the two pan-global sets of orthogonal fractures and faults. In this way, fault zones (having the more advanced mineral alteration) would be characterized by relatively low susceptibility, while more moderately affected crustal sections (located between principal fault zones) would be likely to have less altered oxide mineralogy and therefore higher magnetic susceptibility. On this basis, induction by the present geomagnetic field is likely to produce oscillating magnetic field anomalies with axis along the principal shear grain. The modus operandi of the alternative magneto-tectonic interpretation is inertia-driven wrenching of the global Alpine age palaeo-lithosphere - triggered by changes in Earth's rotation. Increasing sub-crustal loss to the upper mantle during the Upper Mesozoic had left the ensuing Alpine Earth in a tectonically unstable state. Thus, sub-crustal eclogitization and associated gravity-driven delamination to the upper mantle led to a certain degree of planetary acceleration which in turn gave rise to latitude-dependent, westward inertial wrenching of the global palaeo-lithosphere. During this process, 1) the thin and mechanically fragile oceanic crust were deformed into a new type of broad fold belts, and 2) the continents

  10. A Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere Model for the Circumstellar Environments of Magnetic OB Stars

    Townsend, R.; Owocki, S.; Groote, D.


    We report on a new model for the circumstellar environments of rotating, magnetic hot stars. This model predicts the channeling of wind plasma into a corotating magnetosphere, where -- supported against gravity by centrifugal forces -- it can steadily accumulate over time. We apply the model to the B2p star σ Ori E, demonstrating that it can simultaneously reproduce the spectroscopic, photometric and magnetic variations exhibited by the star.


    Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Toomre, Juri; Browning, Matthew K.; Brun, Allan Sacha


    The vigorous magnetic dynamo action achieved within the convective cores of A-type stars may be influenced by fossil magnetic fields within their radiative envelopes. We study such effects through three-dimensional simulations that model the inner 30% by radius of a 2 M sun A-type star, capturing the convective core and a portion of the overlying radiative envelope within our computational domain. We employ the three-dimensional anelastic spherical harmonic code to model turbulent dynamics within a deep rotating spherical shell. The interaction between a fossil field and the core dynamo is examined by introducing a large-scale magnetic field into the radiative envelope of a mature A star dynamo simulation. We find that the inclusion of a twisted toroidal fossil field can lead to a remarkable transition in the core dynamo behavior. Namely, a super-equipartition state can be realized in which the magnetic energy built by dynamo action is 10-fold greater than the kinetic energy of the convection itself. Such strong-field states may suggest that the resulting Lorentz forces should seek to quench the flows, yet we have achieved super-equipartition dynamo action that persists for multiple diffusion times. This is achieved by the relative co-alignment of the flows and magnetic fields in much of the domain, along with some lateral displacements of the fastest flows from the strongest fields. Convection in the presence of such strong magnetic fields typically manifests as 4-6 cylindrical rolls aligned with the rotation axis, each possessing central axial flows that imbue the rolls with a helical nature. The roll system also possesses core-crossing flows that couple distant regions of the core. We find that the magnetic fields exhibit a comparable global topology with broad, continuous swathes of magnetic field linking opposite sides of the convective core. We have explored several poloidal and toroidal fossil field geometries, finding that a poloidal component is essential

  12. Rotational Evolution and Magnetic Field of AP Stars

    Xiaojun, C.; Matsuura, O. T.


    RESUMO. Prop6e- se qLie 0 campo de estrelas Ap pode ser 9cr ado pelo mecanismo de na base clo envelope c 0 fl V C C t V 0, C t r a ri S p 0 r t a d C) p a r a a S LI p e r f C 1 e p e I a Instabllidade de boiament 0 na ase de Haya hi. Campos cibservados permit em est imar uma perda de momento durante a ase pr -Seque%nC:ia P r ri C: p a I a ci ni p a t V C I C: C) m a s C) b s e r V a nT C 5. E S t r C I a S A normals, que ro t a ao , ria0 most ram camp Os :os superficia; importantes e isto pode ac:oriteaer C LIma protoestrela evolue para Sequencia Principal em passar pela fase de Hayashi. ABSTRACT: It 5 proposed that the ma9netic field o Ap stars may be enerated by the dynamo at the base of the convective envelope, arid transported to the surface b y t h C i ri s t a b iii t y C) f b LI 0 y a n c y i n t h C H a y a s hi p h a s e. Observed surface ma9netic fields allow to estimate a 1055 of an9ular momentum during the pre-Main Sequence phase compatible with the observations. apidIy rotating normal A stars do not shciw important surface magnetic fields and this may occur if a protostar evcilves to Main Sequence skipping the Hayashi phase. Key words: HYDROMAGNETICS - STARS-PECULIAR A

  13. Sierra Stars Observatory Network: An Accessible Global Network

    Williams, Richard; Beshore, Edward


    The Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON) is a unique partnership among professional observatories that provides its users with affordable high-quality calibrated image data. SSON comprises observatories in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and is in the process of expanding to a truly global network capable of covering the entire sky 24 hours a day in the near future. The goal of SSON is to serve the needs of science-based projects and programs. Colleges, universities, institutions, and individuals use SSON for their education and research projects. The mission of SSON is to promote and expand the use of its facilities among the thousands of colleges and schools worldwide that do not have access to professional-quality automated observatory systems to use for astronomy education and research. With appropriate leadership and guidance educators can use SSON to help teach astronomy and do meaningful scientific projects. The relatively small cost of using SSON for this type of work makes it affordable and accessible for educators to start using immediately. Remote observatory services like SSON need to evolve to better support education and research initiatives of colleges, institutions and individual investigators. To meet these needs, SSON is developing a sophisticated interactive scheduling system to integrate among the nodes of the observatory network. This will enable more dynamic observations, including immediate priority interrupts, acquiring moving objects using ephemeris data, and more.


    Hidalgo, M. A., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala, Apartado 20, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)


    In the present work, we extensively used our analytical approach to the global magnetic field topology of magnetic clouds (MCs), introduced in a previous paper, in order to show its potential and to study its physical consistency. The model assumes toroidal topology with a non-uniform (variable maximum radius) cross-section along them. Moreover, it has a non-force-free character and also includes the expansion of its cross-section. As is shown, the model allows us, first, to analyze MC magnetic structures-determining their physical parameters-with a variety of magnetic field shapes, and second, to reconstruct their relative orientation in the interplanetary medium from the observations obtained by several spacecraft. Therefore, multipoint spacecraft observations give the opportunity to infer the structure of this large-scale magnetic flux rope structure in the solar wind. For these tasks, we use data from Helios (A and B), STEREO (A and B), and Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the proposed analytical model can explain quite well the topology of several MCs in the interplanetary medium and is a good starting point for understanding the physical mechanisms under these phenomena.

  15. Convection and magnetism of solar-type stars (G and K)

    Do-Cao, Olivier Long


    account the dynamical coupling with the underlying radiative zone. We show that the dynamics is mainly driven by the Rossby number, and that the flow characteristics qualitatively change when the Rossby number is above unity. We also derive scaling laws for the global flows properties (differential rotation, meridional circulation, etc.) as function of mass and rotation rate. The last part sums up the main results and the perspectives of the work presented above. We are developing 3D numerical simulations involving magnetic dynamo action in rapidly rotating stars. In these stars, the magnetic field is self-organized in strong wreathes close to the equator extracting its energy from the convective kinetic energy but also from the strong differential rotation. Finally, we explain the benefits of a combined approach that uses both 2D and 3D models. (author) [fr

  16. Probing the extreme wind confinement of the most magnetic O star with COS spectroscopy

    Petit, Veronique


    We propose to obtain phase-resolved UV spectroscopy of the recently discovered magnetic O star NGC 1624-2, which has the strongest magnetic field ever detected in a O-star, by an order of magnitude. We will use the strength and variability of the UV resonance line profiles to diagnose the density, velocity, and ionization structure of NGC 1624-2's enormous magnetosphere that results from entrapment of its stellar wind by its strong, nearly dipolar magnetic field. With this gigantic magnetosphere, NGC 1624-2 represents a new regime of extreme wind confinement that will constrain models of magnetized winds and their surface mass flux properties. A detailed understanding of such winds is necessary to study the rotational braking history of magnetic O-stars, which can shed new light on the fundamental origin of magnetism in massive, hot stars.

  17. Large-scale Organized Magnetic Fields in O, B and A Stars

    Mathys, G.


    The status of our current knowledge of magnetic fields in stars of spectral types ranging from early F to O is reviewed. Fields with large-scale organised structure have now been detected and measured throughout this range. These fields are consistent with the oblique rotator model. In early F to late B stars, their occurrence is restricted to the subgroup of the Ap stars, which have the best studied fields among the early-type stars. Presence of fields with more complex topologies in other A and late B stars has been suggested, but is not firmly established. Magnetic fields have not been studied in a sufficient number of OB stars yet so as to establish whether they occur in all or only in some subset of these stars.

  18. Global Magnetic Variability at Planetary Wave Periods

    Forbes, J. M.; Behm, J.


    Planetary waves (PW) and PW-tide interactions are thought to introduce multi-day periodicities ( 2-20 days) in the electric fields and currents induced by the wind dynamo mechanism in the ionospheric E-region (ca. 100-150 km), and thus can provide important insights on coupling between the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. Previous studies have used a relatively small subset of available data to infer the existence of these variations in ground magnetic measurements. In some cases connections were made with contemporaneous measurements of neutral wind dynamics. In the present work, we employ ground-based magnetometer data from over 100 stations from the INTERMAGNET network during 2009 to gain a global perspective on eastward- and westward-propagating and zonally-symmetric oscillations with PW periods. Our presentation describes how the unevenly-spaced global data are re-gridded onto an icosahedral grid prior to analysis, and assesses how gaps in the distribution of points across the grid affect extraction of some parts of the spectrum. Consideration is also given to possible contamination by recurrent magnetic activity at subharmonics of 27 days. The global evolution of several PW components during 2009 are depicted and interpreted.

  19. Gravitational magnetic monopoles and Majumdar-Papapetrou stars

    Lemos, Jose P.S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.


    During the 1990s a large amount of work was dedicated to studying general relativity coupled to non-Abelian Yang-Mills type theories. Several remarkable results were accomplished. In particular, it was shown that the magnetic monopole, a solution of the Yang-Mills-Higgs equations can indeed be coupled to gravitation. For a low Higgs mass it was found that there are regular monopole solutions, and that for a sufficiently massive monopole the system develops an extremal magnetic Reissner-Nordstroem quasihorizon with all the matter fields laying inside the horizon. These latter solutions, called quasi-black holes, although nonsingular, are arbitrarily close to having a horizon, and for an external observer it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish these from a true black hole as a critical solution is approached. However, at precisely the critical value the quasi-black hole turns into a degenerate space-time. On the other hand, for a high Higgs mass, a sufficiently massive monopole develops also a quasi-black hole, but at a critical value it turns into an extremal true horizon, now with matter fields showing up outside. One can also put a small Schwarzschild black hole inside the magnetic monopole, the configuration being an example of a non-Abelian black hole. Surprisingly, Majumdar-Papapetrou systems, Abelian systems constructed from extremal dust (pressureless matter with equal charge and energy densities), also show a resembling behavior. Previously, we have reported that one can find Majumdar-Papapetrou solutions which are everywhere nonsingular, but can be arbitrarily close of being a black hole, displaying the same quasi-black-hole behavior found in the gravitational magnetic monopole solutions. With the aim of better understanding the similarities between gravitational magnetic monopoles and Majumdar-Papapetrou systems, here we study a particular system, namely a system composed of two extremal electrically charged spherical shells (or stars

  20. Polarized X-Ray Emission from Magnetized Neutron Stars: Signature of Strong-Field Vacuum Polarization

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C.


    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  1. Polarized x-ray emission from magnetized neutron stars: signature of strong-field vacuum polarization.

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C G


    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  2. Radial modes of slowly rotating compact stars in the presence of magnetic field

    Panda, N.R. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India); Siksha ' O' Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar (India); Mohanta, K.K. [Rairangpur College, Rairangpur, Odisha (India); Sahu, P.K. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India)


    Compact stars are composed of very high-density hadron matter. When the matter is above nuclear matter density, then there is a chance of different phases of matter such as hadron matter to quark matter. There is a possible phase which, having the quark core surrounded by a mixed phase followed by hadronic matter, may be considered as a hybrid phase inside the stars called hybrid star (HS). The star which consists of only u, d and s quarks is called quark star (QS) and the star which has only hadronic matter is called neutron star (NS). For the equation of state (EOS) of hadronic matter, we have considered the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) theory and we incorporated the effect of strong magnetic fields. For the EOS of the quark phase we use the simple MIT bag model. We have assumed Gaussian parametrization to make the density dependent for both bag pressure in quark matter and magnetic field. We have constructed the intermediate mixed phase by using the Glendenning conjecture. Eigenfrequencies of radial pulsations of slowly rotating magnetized compact stars (NS, QS, HS) are calculated in a general relativistic formalism given by Chandrasekhar and Friedman. We have studied the effect of central density on the square of the frequencies of the compact stars in the presence of zero and strong magnetic field. (orig.)

  3. Evolution of magnetized, differentially rotating neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity

    Duez, Matthew D.; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Stephens, Branson C.; Shibata, Masaru


    We study the effects of magnetic fields on the evolution of differentially rotating neutron stars, which can be formed in stellar core collapse or binary neutron star coalescence. Magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) both act on differentially rotating stars to redistribute angular momentum. Simulations of these stars are carried out in axisymmetry using our recently developed codes which integrate the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-MHD equations. We consider stars with two different equations of state (EOS), a gamma-law EOS with Γ=2, and a more realistic hybrid EOS, and we evolve them adiabatically. Our simulations show that the fate of the star depends on its mass and spin. For initial data, we consider three categories of differentially rotating, equilibrium configurations, which we label normal, hypermassive and ultraspinning. Normal configurations have rest masses below the maximum achievable with uniform rotation, and angular momentum below the maximum for uniform rotation at the same rest mass. Hypermassive stars have rest masses exceeding the mass limit for uniform rotation. Ultraspinning stars are not hypermassive, but have angular momentum exceeding the maximum for uniform rotation at the same rest mass. We show that a normal star will evolve to a uniformly rotating equilibrium configuration. An ultraspinning star evolves to an equilibrium state consisting of a nearly uniformly rotating central core, surrounded by a differentially rotating torus with constant angular velocity along magnetic field lines, so that differential rotation ceases to wind the magnetic field. In addition, the final state is stable against the MRI, although it has differential rotation. For a hypermassive neutron star, the MHD-driven angular momentum transport leads to catastrophic collapse of the core. The resulting rotating black hole is surrounded by a hot, massive, magnetized torus undergoing quasistationary accretion, and a magnetic field collimated along

  4. First results from the LIFE project: discovery of two magnetic hot evolved stars

    Martin, A. J.; Neiner, C.; Oksala, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Keszthelyi, Z.; Fossati, L.; Marcolino, W.; Mathis, S.; Georgy, C.


    We present the initial results of the Large Impact of magnetic Fields on the Evolution of hot stars (LIFE) project. The focus of this project is the search for magnetic fields in evolved OBA giants and supergiants with visual magnitudes between 4 and 8, with the aim to investigate how the magnetic fields observed in upper main-sequence (MS) stars evolve from the MS until the late post-MS stages. In this paper, we present spectropolarimetric observations of 15 stars observed using the ESPaDOnS instrument of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. For each star, we have determined the fundamental parameters and have used stellar evolution models to calculate their mass, age, and radius. Using the least-squared deconvolution technique, we have produced averaged line profiles for each star. From these profiles, we have measured the longitudinal magnetic field strength and have calculated the detection probability. We report the detection of magnetic fields in two stars of our sample: a weak field of Bl = 1.0 ± 0.2 G is detected in the post-MS A5 star 19 Aur and a stronger field of Bl = -230 ± 10 G is detected in the MS/post-MS B8/9 star HR 3042.

  5. Chemical spots on the surface of the strongly magnetic Herbig Ae star HD 101412

    Järvinen, S. P.; Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.


    Due to the knowledge of the rotation period and the presence of a rather strong surface magnetic field, the sharp-lined young Herbig Ae star HD 101412 with a rotation period of 42 d has become one of the most well-studied targets among the Herbig Ae stars. High-resolution HARPS polarimetric spectra...... that is opposite to the behaviour of the other elements studied. Since classical Ap stars usually show a relationship between the magnetic field geometry and the distribution of element spots, we used in our magnetic field measurements different line samples belonging to the three elements with the most numerous...

  6. Magnetic fields and star formation: evidence from imaging polarimetry of the Serpens Reflection Nebula

    Warren-Smith, R F; Draper, P W; Scarrott, S M


    CCD imaging of the Serpens bipolar reflection nebula shows it to be surrounded by dark material having spiral density structure. Multi-colour polarization mapping also reveals details of the surrounding magnetic field, indicating that this also has spiral structure. These observations are discussed along with current ideas about the role of magnetic fields during star formation. An interpretation involving the non-axisymmetric magnetically braked collapse of a protostellar cloud is proposed and a resulting magnetic field configuration is described which can account for the observations. Evidence is also discussed for the formation of a binary star system within the nebula, resulting from the fragmentation of a magnetized protostellar disc.


    Rieke, G. H.; Gáspár, András; Ballering, N. P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    A significant fraction of main sequence stars observed interferometrically in the near-infrared have slightly extended components that have been attributed to very hot dust. To match the spectrum appears to require the presence of large numbers of very small (<200 nm in radius) dust grains. However, particularly for the hotter stars, it has been unclear how such grains can be retained close to the star against radiation pressure force. We find that the expected weak stellar magnetic fields are sufficient to trap nm-sized dust grains in epicyclic orbits for a few weeks or longer, sufficient to account for the hot excess emission. Our models provide a natural explanation for the requirement that the hot excess dust grains be smaller than 200 nm. They also suggest that magnetic trapping is more effective for rapidly rotating stars, consistent with the average vsini measurements of stars with hot excesses being larger (at ∼2σ) than those for stars without such excesses.

  8. On the fate of superheavy magnetic monopoles in a neutron star

    Kuzmin, V.A.; Rubakov, V.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)


    We propose two possible scenarios of the behaviour of superheavy magnetic monopoles in a neutron star, in which the monopole-antimonopole annihilation rate is sufficiently large to prevent the enormous heating of a neutron star due to the monopole induced neutron decays. We find that the galactic monopole flux of order 10 -16 cm -2 s -1 ster -1 can be compatible with the observational limit on the X-ray luminosity of neutron stars. (author)

  9. Thermal generation of the magnetic field in the surface layers of massive stars

    Urpin, V.


    A new magnetic field-generation mechanism based on the Nernst effect is considered in hot massive stars. This mechanism can operate in the upper atmospheres of O and B stars where departures from the LTE form a region with the inverse temperature gradient.

  10. The magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lup

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Wade, G.A.


    The ultraviolet stellar wind lines of the photometrically periodic variable early B-type star σ Lupi were found to behave very similarly to what has been observed in known magnetic B stars, although no periodicity could be determined. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained.

  11. Zero Sound in Neutron Stars with Dense Quark Matter under Strong Magnetic Fields

    Kouvaris, Christoforos


    We study a neutron star with a quark matter core under extremely strong magnetic fields. We investigate the possibility of an Urca process as a mechanism for the cooling of such a star. We found that apart from very particular cases, the Urca process cannot occur. We also study the stability...

  12. Magnetic fields in O-, B- and A-type stars on the main sequence

    Briquet Maryline


    Full Text Available In this review, the latest observational results on magnetic fields in main-sequence stars with radiative envelopes are summarised together with the theoretical works aimed at explaining them.

  13. Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity

    Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel


    The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation

  14. Using the Seismology of Non-magnetic Chemically Peculiar Stars as ...

    stars we can infer some constraints on those mixing processes. As pulsa- tions in the ... Finally, microscopic diffusion due to gravity and radiation pressure ... complications posed by the largely unknown strength and geometry of the magnetic.

  15. Magnetization of neutron star matter and implications in physics of soft gamma repeaters

    Kondratyev, V N [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The magnetization of neutron star matter is considered within the thermodynamic formalism. The quantization effects are demonstrated to result in sharp abrupt magnetic field dependence of nuclide magnetic moments. Accounting for inter-nuclide magnetic coupling we show that such anomalies give rise to erratic jumps in magnetotransport of neutron star crusts. The properties of such a noise are favorably compared with burst statistics of Soft Gamma Repeaters. PACS: 97.60.Jd, 21.10.Dr, 26.60.+c, 95.30.Ky. (author)

  16. Spiral Structure and Global Star Formation Processes in M 51

    Gruendl, Robert A.


    The nearby grand design spiral galaxy, M 51, is an obvious proving ground for studies of spiral structure and large scale star formation processes. New near--infrared observations of M 51 made with COB (Cryogenic Optical Bench) on the Kitt Peak 1.3m allow us to examine the stellar distribution and the young star formation regions as well as probe regions of high extinction such as dust lanes. We also present an analysis of the kinematics of the ionized gas observed with the Maryland--Caltech Imaging Fabry Perot. The color information we derive from the near--infrared bands provides a more accurate tracer of extinction than optical observations. We find that the dust extinction and CO emission in the arms are well correlated. Our kinematic data show unambiguously that these dense gas concentrations are associated with kinematic perturbations. In the inner disk, these perturbations are seen to be consistent with the streaming motions predicted by classical density wave theory. The dust lanes, and presumably the molecular arms, form a narrow ridge that matches these velocity perturbations wherever the viewing angle is appropriate. This interpretation requires that the corotation radius be inward of the outer tidal arms. The outer tidal arms however show streaming velocities of the sign that would be expected interior to the corotation point. This can be reconciled if the outer arms are part of a second spiral pattern, most likely due to the interaction with the companion NGC 5195. The near--infrared observations also show emission from the massive star forming regions. These observations are less affected by extinction than optical observations of H II regions and show clearly that the sites of massive star formation are correlated with but downstream from the concentrations of dense molecular material. This provides clear evidence that the ISM has been organized by the streaming motions which have in turn triggered massive star formation.

  17. New measurements of photospheric magnetic fields in late-type stars and emerging trends

    Saar, S. H.; Linsky, J. L.


    The magnetic fields of late-type stars are measured using the method of Saar et al. (1986). The method includes radiative transfer effects and compensation for line blending; the photospheric magnetic field parameters are derived by comparing observed and theoretical line profiles using an LTE code that includes line saturation and full Zeeman pattern. The preliminary mean active region magnetic field strengths (B) and surface area coverages for 20 stars are discussed. It is observed that there is a trend of increasing B towards the cooler dwarfs stars, and the linear correlation between B and the equipartition value of the magnetic field strength suggests that the photospheric gas pressure determines the photospheric magnetic field strengths. A tendency toward larger filling factors at larger stellar angular velocities is also detected.

  18. MHD Simulations of Magnetized Stars in the Propeller Regime of Accretion

    Lii Patrick


    Full Text Available Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and inhibits matter accretion onto the rapidly rotating star. Instead, the matter accreting through the disc accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected from the system as a wide-angled outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is lower than the accretion rate, the matter will accumulate at the boundary faster than it can be ejected; in this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through an episodic accretion instability in which the episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion of matter onto the star. In addition to the matter dominated wind component, the propeller outflow also exhibits a well-collimated, magnetically-dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the weakly-collimated jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the episodic variability present in their light curves. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.


    Hao Yang; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.


    We present an analysis of high-resolution (R ∼ 50, 000) infrared K-band echelle spectra of 14 T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We model Zeeman broadening in three magnetically sensitive Ti I lines near 2.2 μm and consistently detect kilogauss-level magnetic fields in the stellar photospheres. The data are consistent in each case with the entire stellar surface being covered with magnetic fields, suggesting that magnetic pressure likely dominates over gas pressure in the photospheres of these stars. These very strong magnetic fields might themselves be responsible for the underproduction of X-ray emission of TTSs relative to what is expected based on main-sequence star calibrations. We combine these results with previous measurements of 14 stars in Taurus and 5 stars in the TW Hydrae association to study the potential variation of magnetic field properties during the first 10 million years of stellar evolution, finding a steady decline in total magnetic flux with age.


    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Lewis, Alexia R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others


    We have identified a major global enhancement of star formation in the inner M31 disk that occurred between 2–4 Gyr ago, producing ∼60% of the stellar mass formed in the past 5 Gyr. The presence of this episode in the inner disk was discovered by modeling the optical resolved star color–magnitude diagrams of low extinction regions in the main disk of M31 (3 < R < 20 kpc) as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. This measurement confirms and extends recent measurements of a widespread star formation enhancement of similar age in the outer disk, suggesting that this burst was both massive and global. Following the galaxy-wide burst, the star formation rate of M31 has significantly declined. We briefly discuss possible causes for these features of the M31 evolutionary history, including interactions with M32, M33, and/or a merger.

  1. The heterogeneity of surfaces of magnetic Ap stars

    Hack, M.


    The observations of spectrum-variability and light-variability of Ap stars are reviewed. It is shown that these variations are interpretable as due to the changing aspect of the spotted surface as the star rotates. It is stressed that the geometry of the phenomenon is understood fairly well but the physics is very far from being understood. (Auth.)

  2. Discovery of a magnetic field in the δ Scuti F2m star ρ Pup

    Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; Sikora, J.


    ρ Pup is a δ Scuti F2 pulsator, known to host a main radial mode as well as non-radial pulsations, with chemical peculiarities typical of evolved Am stars. We present a high-precision spectropolarimetric observations of this star, obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the frame of the BRITE spectropolarimetric survey. A magnetic field is clearly detected in ρ Pup, with a longitudinal field strength below 1 G. This makes ρ Pup the second known magnetic δ Scuti discovered, after HD 188774, and a possible cool evolved counterpart of the recently discovered ultraweakly magnetic Am family.

  3. Global and radial variations in the efficiency of massive star formation among galaxies

    Allen, L.E.; Young, J.S.


    In order to determine the regions within galaxies which give rise to the most efficient star formation and to test the hypothesis that galaxies with high infrared luminosities per unit molecular mass are efficiently producing high mass stars, researchers have undertaken an H alpha imaging survey in galaxies whose CO distributions have been measured as part of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) Extragalactic CO Survey. From these images researchers have derived global H alpha fluxes and distributions for comparison with far infrared radiation (FIR) fluxes and CO fluxes and distributions. Here, researchers present results on the global massive star formation efficiency (SFE = L sub H sub alpha/M(H2)) as a function of morphological type and environment, and on the radial distribution of the SFE within both peculiar and isolated galaxies. On the basis of comparison of the global L sub H sub alpha/M(H2) and L sub FIR/M(H2) for 111 galaxies, researchers conclude that environment rather than morphological type has the strongest effect on the global efficiency of massive star formation. Based on their study of a small sample, they find that the largest radial gradients are observed in the interacting/peculiar galaxies, indicating that environment affects the star formation efficiency within galaxies as well

  4. The Of?p stars of the Magellanic Clouds: Are they strongly magnetic?

    Munoz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Nazé, Y.; Bagnulo, S.; Puls, J.


    All known Galactic Of?p stars have been shown to host strong, organized, magnetic fields. Recently, five Of?p stars have been discovered in the Magellanic Clouds. They posses photometric (Nazé et al., 2015) and spectroscopic (Walborn et al., 2015) variability compatible with the Oblique Rotator Model (ORM). However, their magnetic fields have yet to be directly detected. We have developed an algorithm allowing for the synthesis of photometric observables based on the Analytic Dynamical Magnetosphere (ADM) model by Owocki et al. (2016). We apply our model to OGLE photometry in order to constrain their magnetic geometries and surface dipole strengths. We predict that the field strengths for some of theses candidate extra-Galactic magnetic stars may be within the detection limits of the FORS2 instrument

  5. Neutron star in the presence of strong magnetic field

    thereby giving the idea that compact stars might contain deconfined and chirally restored quark matter in them. Recently [1], the mass measurement of mil- lisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230 has set a new robust mass limit for compact stars to be. M = 1.97 ± 0.04M⊙. This value, together with the mass of pulsar J1903+0327 ...

  6. Magnetic cycles and rotation periods of late-type stars from photometric time series

    Suárez Mascareño, A.; Rebolo, R.; González Hernández, J. I.


    Aims: We investigate the photometric modulation induced by magnetic activity cycles and study the relationship between rotation period and activity cycle(s) in late-type (FGKM) stars. Methods: We analysed light curves, spanning up to nine years, of 125 nearby stars provided by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). The sample is mainly composed of low-activity, main-sequence late-A to mid-M-type stars. We performed a search for short (days) and long-term (years) periodic variations in the photometry. We modelled the light curves with combinations of sinusoids to measure the properties of these periodic signals. To provide a better statistical interpretation of our results, we complement our new results with results from previous similar works. Results: We have been able to measure long-term photometric cycles of 47 stars, out of which 39 have been derived with false alarm probabilities (FAP) of less than 0.1 per cent. Rotational modulation was also detected and rotational periods were measured in 36 stars. For 28 stars we have simultaneous measurements of activity cycles and rotational periods, 17 of which are M-type stars. We measured both photometric amplitudes and periods from sinusoidal fits. The measured cycle periods range from 2 to 14 yr with photometric amplitudes in the range of 5-20 mmag. We found that the distribution of cycle lengths for the different spectral types is similar, as the mean cycle is 9.5 yr for F-type stars, 6.7 yr for G-type stars, 8.5 yr for K-type stars, 6.0 yr for early M-type stars, and 7.1 yr for mid-M-type stars. On the other hand, the distribution of rotation periods is completely different, trending to longer periods for later type stars, from a mean rotation of 8.6 days for F-type stars to 85.4 days in mid-M-type stars. The amplitudes induced by magnetic cycles and rotation show a clear correlation. A trend of photometric amplitudes with rotation period is also outlined in the data. The amplitudes of the photometric variability

  7. Direct URCA-processes in neutron star quark core with strong magnetic field.

    Belyaev Vasily


    In evaluations, the strength of magnetic field corresponds to the case, where the quarks of medium occupy a lot of Landau levels, while the electrons are in ground Landau level. The analytical dependence of neutrino emissivity on chemical potentials of quarks and electrons, temperature and magnetic field strength is obtained and briefly discussed. The result could be important in application to a massive strongly magnetized neutron star with quark core.


    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Christensen, Ulrich R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Poppenhaeger, Katja, E-mail: [Astrophysics Research Center, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)


    The recent discovery of an Earth-like exoplanet around Proxima Centauri has shined a spot light on slowly rotating fully convective M-stars. When such stars rotate rapidly (period ≲20 days), they are known to generate very high levels of activity that is powered by a magnetic field much stronger than the solar magnetic field. Recent theoretical efforts are beginning to understand the dynamo process that generates such strong magnetic fields. However, the observational and theoretical landscape remains relatively uncharted for fully convective M-stars that rotate slowly. Here, we present an anelastic dynamo simulation designed to mimic some of the physical characteristics of Proxima Centauri, a representative case for slowly rotating fully convective M-stars. The rotating convection spontaneously generates differential rotation in the convection zone that drives coherent magnetic cycles where the axisymmetric magnetic field repeatedly changes polarity at all latitudes as time progress. The typical length of the “activity” cycle in the simulation is about nine years, in good agreement with the recently proposed activity cycle length of about seven years for Proxima Centauri. Comparing our results with earlier work, we hypothesis that the dynamo mechanism undergoes a fundamental change in nature as fully convective stars spin down with age.

  9. Doppler-Zeeman mapping of the magnetic CP star HD 215441

    Khokhlova, V. L.; Vasilchenko, D. V.; Stepanov, V. V.; Tsymbal, V. V.


    The method of Vasilchenko et al. (1996) is used to obtain a Doppler-Zeeman map of the magnetic CP star HD 215441. The magnetic field is approximated by a magnetic dipole that is arbitrarily shifted from the star center. The solution of the inverse problem yields the dipole parameters and the maps of Si, Ti, Cr, and Fe abundance anomalies; the coordinates of local magnetic vectors on the star surface are computed. A comparison of the distribution of abundance anomalies and the magnetic-field configuration reveals that in the region where the magnetic-field lines are vertical (near the magnetic pole), Si, Ti and Cr are highly deficient, while the Fe enhancement is strongest. In the regions where the magnetic-field lines are horizontal (near the magnetic equator), Si, Ti and Cr show the greatest overabundance. In these regions, the Fe abundance is also slightly enhanced and exhibits, as it were, a secondary maximum. The factors that limit the accuracy of Doppler-Zeeman mapping are reviewed.

  10. Radio-wavelength observations of magnetic fields on active dwarf-M, RS CVN and magnetic stars

    Lang, K.R.


    The dwarf M stars YZ Canis Minoris and AD Leonis exhibit narrow band, slowly varying (hours) microwave emission that cannot be explained by conventional thermal radiation mechanisms. The dwarf M stars AD Leonis and Wolf 424 emit rapid spikes whose high brightness temperatures similarly require a nonthermal radiation process which could result from coherent mechanisms such as an electron-cyclotron maser or coherent-plasma radiation. If the electron-cyclotron maser emits at the second or third harmonic of the gyrofrequency, the coronal magnetic field strength H = 250 or 167 G and constraints on the plasma frequency imply an electron density of 6 x 10/sup 9//cm/sup 3/. Coherent-plasma radiation requires similar values of electron density but much weaker magnetic fields. Radio spikes from AD Leonis and Wolf 424 have rise times tau/sub R/ < 5 ms, indicating a linear size of L < 1.5 x 10/sup 8/ cm, or less than 0.005 of the stellar radius. Although Ap magnetic stars have strong dipole magnetic fields, they exhibit no detectable gyroresonant radiation, suggesting that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The binary RS CVn star UX Arietis exhibits variable emission at 6 cm wavelength on time scales ranging from 30 s to more than one hour. The shortest variation implies a linear size much less than that of the halo observed by VLBI techniques, and most probably sizes smaller than those of the component stars. The observed variations might be due to absorption by a thermal plasma located between the stars.

  11. Magnetic braking in young late-type stars. The effect of polar spots

    Aibéo, A.; Ferreira, J. M.; Lima, J. J. G.


    Context: The existence of rapidly rotating cool stars in young clusters implies a reduction of angular momentum loss rate for a certain period of the star's early life. Recently, the concentration of magnetic flux near the poles of these stars has been proposed as an alternative mechanism to dynamo saturation in order to explain the saturation of angular momentum loss. Aims: In this work we study the effect of magnetic surface flux distribution on the coronal field topology and angular momentum loss rate. We investigate if magnetic flux concentration towards the pole is a reasonable alternative to dynamo saturation. Methods: We construct a 1D wind model and also apply a 2-D self-similar analytical model, to evaluate how the surface field distribution affects the angular momentum loss of the rotating star. Results: From the 1D model we find that, in a magnetically dominated low corona, the concentrated polar surface field rapidly expands to regions of low magnetic pressure resulting in a coronal field with small latitudinal variation. We also find that the angular momentum loss rate due to a uniform field or a concentrated field with equal total magnetic flux is very similar. From the 2D wind model we show that there are several relevant factors to take into account when studying the angular momentum loss from a star. In particular, we show that the inclusion of force balance across the field in a wind model is fundamental if realistic conclusions are to be drawn from the effect of non-uniform surface field distribution on magnetic braking. This model predicts that a magnetic field concentrated at high latitudes leads to larger Alfvén radii and larger braking rates than a smoother field distribution. Conclusions: From the results obtained, we argue that the magnetic surface field distribution towards the pole does not directly limit the braking efficiency of the wind.

  12. The influence of hyperons and strong magnetic field in neutron star properties

    Lopes, L.L.; Menezes, D.P.


    Neutron stars are among the most exotic objects in the universe and constitute a unique laboratory to study nuclear matter above the nuclear saturation density. In this work, we study the equation of state (EoS) of the nuclear matter within a relativistic model subject to a strong magnetic field. We then apply this EoS to study and describe some of the physical characteristics of neutron stars, especially the massradius relation and chemical compositions. To study the influence of the magnetic field and the hyperons in the stellar interior, we consider altogether four solutions: two different magnetic fields to obtain a weak and a strong influence; and two configurations: a family of neutron stars formed only by protons, electrons, and neutrons and a family formed by protons, electrons, neutrons, muons, and hyperons. The limit and the validity of the results found are discussed with some care. In all cases, the particles that constitute the neutron star are in ,B equilibrium and zero total net charge. Our work indicates that the effect of a strong magnetic field has to be taken into account in the description of magnetars, mainly if we believe that there are hyperons in their interior, in which case the influence of the magnetic field can increase the mass by more than 10 %. We have also seen that although a magnetar can reach 2.48 M0, a natural explanation of why we do not know pulsars with masses above 2.0 Mo arises. We also discuss how the magnetic field affects the strangeness fraction in some standard neutron star masses, and to conclude our paper, we revisit the direct Urca process related to the cooling of the neutron stars and show how it is affected by the hyperons and the magnetic field. (author)

  13. A voting-based star identification algorithm utilizing local and global distribution

    Fan, Qiaoyun; Zhong, Xuyang; Sun, Junhua


    A novel star identification algorithm based on voting scheme is presented in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the global distribution and local distribution of sensor stars are fully utilized, and the stratified voting scheme is adopted to obtain the candidates for sensor stars. The database optimization is employed to reduce its memory requirement and improve the robustness of the proposed algorithm. The simulation shows that the proposed algorithm exhibits 99.81% identification rate with 2-pixel standard deviations of positional noises and 0.322-Mv magnitude noises. Compared with two similar algorithms, the proposed algorithm is more robust towards noise, and the average identification time and required memory is less. Furthermore, the real sky test shows that the proposed algorithm performs well on the real star images.

  14. The evolution of the global stellar mass function of star clusters: an analytic description

    Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.; Baumgardt, H.; Gieles, M.


    The evolution of the global stellar mass function of star clusters is studied based on a large set of N-body simulations of clusters with a range of initial masses, initial concentrations, in circular or elliptical orbits in different tidal environments. Models with and without initial mass

  15. Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.

    Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A


    Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young.


    Auddy, Sayantan; Basu, Shantanu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Kudoh, Takahiro, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)


    We develop a magnetic ribbon model for molecular cloud filaments. These result from turbulent compression in a molecular cloud in which the background magnetic field sets a preferred direction. We argue that this is a natural model for filaments and is based on the interplay between turbulence, strong magnetic fields, and gravitationally driven ambipolar diffusion, rather than pure gravity and thermal pressure. An analytic model for the formation of magnetic ribbons that is based on numerical simulations is used to derive a lateral width of a magnetic ribbon. This differs from the thickness along the magnetic field direction, which is essentially the Jeans scale. We use our model to calculate a synthetic observed relation between apparent width in projection versus observed column density. The relationship is relatively flat, similar to observations, and unlike the simple expectation based on a Jeans length argument.

  17. Relativistic MHD modeling of magnetized neutron stars, pulsar winds, and their nebulae

    Del Zanna, L.; Pili, A. G.; Olmi, B.; Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.


    Neutron stars are among the most fascinating astrophysical sources, being characterized by strong gravity, densities about the nuclear one or even above, and huge magnetic fields. Their observational signatures can be extremely diverse across the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from the periodic and low-frequency signals of radio pulsars, up to the abrupt high-energy gamma-ray flares of magnetars, where energies of ∼ {10}46 {erg} are released in a few seconds. Fast-rotating and highly magnetized neutron stars are expected to launch powerful relativistic winds, whose interaction with the supernova remnants gives rise to the non-thermal emission of pulsar wind nebulae, which are known cosmic accelerators of electrons and positrons up to PeV energies. In the extreme cases of proto-magnetars (magnetic fields of ∼ {10}15 G and millisecond periods), a similar mechanism is likely to provide a viable engine for the still mysterious gamma-ray bursts. The key ingredient in all these spectacular manifestations of neutron stars is the presence of strong magnetic fields in their constituent plasma. Here we will present recent updates of a couple of state-of-the-art numerical investigations by the high-energy astrophysics group in Arcetri: a comprehensive modeling of the steady-state axisymmetric structure of rotating magnetized neutron stars in general relativity, and dynamical 3D MHD simulations of relativistic pulsar winds and their associated nebulae.

  18. The Equation of State of Neutron Star Matter in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Broderick, A.; Prakash, M.; Lattimer, J. M.


    We study the effects of very strong magnetic fields on the equation of state (EOS) in multicomponent, interacting matter by developing a covariant description for the inclusion of the anomalous magnetic moments of nucleons. For the description of neutron star matter, we employ a field-theoretical approach, which permits the study of several models that differ in their behavior at high density. Effects of Landau quantization in ultrastrong magnetic fields (B>10 14 G) lead to a reduction in the electron chemical potential and a substantial increase in the proton fraction. We find the generic result for B>10 18 G that the softening of the EOS caused by Landau quantization is overwhelmed by stiffening due to the incorporation of the anomalous magnetic moments of the nucleons. In addition, the neutrons become completely spin polarized. The inclusion of ultrastrong magnetic fields leads to a dramatic increase in the proton fraction, with consequences for the direct Urca process and neutron star cooling. The magnetization of the matter never appears to become very large, as the value of |H/B| never deviates from unity by more than a few percent. Our findings have implications for the structure of neutron stars in the presence of large frozen-in magnetic fields. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  19. The Equation of State of Neutron Star Matter in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Broderick, A; Prakash, M; Lattimer, J M


    We study the effects of very strong magnetic fields on the equation of state (EOS) in multicomponent, interacting matter by developing a covariant description for the inclusion of the anomalous magnetic moments of nucleons. For the description of neutron star matter, we employ a field-theoretical approach, which permits the study of several models that differ in their behavior at high density. Effects of Landau quantization in ultrastrong magnetic fields (B>10{sup 14} G) lead to a reduction in the electron chemical potential and a substantial increase in the proton fraction. We find the generic result for B>10{sup 18} G that the softening of the EOS caused by Landau quantization is overwhelmed by stiffening due to the incorporation of the anomalous magnetic moments of the nucleons. In addition, the neutrons become completely spin polarized. The inclusion of ultrastrong magnetic fields leads to a dramatic increase in the proton fraction, with consequences for the direct Urca process and neutron star cooling. The magnetization of the matter never appears to become very large, as the value of |H/B| never deviates from unity by more than a few percent. Our findings have implications for the structure of neutron stars in the presence of large frozen-in magnetic fields. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.


    Ni Gst Nym Suci Murni


    Full Text Available The research aims to examine the various form of environment certification, ideology behind the practice of green tourism (global award and Tri Hita Karana (local award, and the implication of environment practice at five star hotel in Nusa Dua tourism area. The data of the reserach was assessed by postmodern critical theory (theory of discourse regarding power/knowledge, hegemony theory, practice theory, and theory of deep/shallow ecology. The method used in this cultural studies is the qualitative one, where the data collection were obtained through direct observation, in-depth interviews, and related documentation. The sample used 6 five star hotels which practise green award, of 14 established five star hotels (some hotel is not in full operation.  The results showed that (1 there are some variation of environment practice in five star hotel, (2 ideology working behind these practices can be seen from global ideology in the form of sustainable development deriving green tourism, and the local ideology, in the form of Tri Hita Karana (THK used in THK award, (3 implication of global-local invironment practice in tourism area and surrounding.

  1. Dynamos in asymptotic-giant-branch stars as the origin of magnetic fields shaping planetary nebulae.

    Blackman, E G; Frank, A; Markiel, J A; Thomas, J H; Van Horn, H M


    Planetary nebulae are thought to be formed when a slow wind from the progenitor giant star is overtaken by a subsequent fast wind generated as the star enters its white dwarf stage. A shock forms near the boundary between the winds, creating the relatively dense shell characteristic of a planetary nebula. A spherically symmetric wind will produce a spherically symmetric shell, yet over half of known planetary nebulae are not spherical; rather, they are elliptical or bipolar in shape. A magnetic field could launch and collimate a bipolar outflow, but the origin of such a field has hitherto been unclear, and some previous work has even suggested that a field could not be generated. Here we show that an asymptotic-giant-branch (AGB) star can indeed generate a strong magnetic field, having as its origin a dynamo at the interface between the rapidly rotating core and the more slowly rotating envelope of the star. The fields are strong enough to shape the bipolar outflows that produce the observed bipolar planetary nebulae. Magnetic braking of the stellar core during this process may also explain the puzzlingly slow rotation of most white dwarf stars.

  2. The effect of an accretion disk on coherent pulsed emission from weakly magnetized neutron stars

    Asaoka, Ikuko; Hoshi, Reiun.


    Using a simple model for hot spots formed on the magnetic polar regions we calculate the X-ray pulse profiles expected from bright low-mass X-ray binaries. We assume that neutron stars in close binary systems are surrounded by accretion disks extending down in the vicinity of their surfaces. Even partial eclipses of a hot spot by the accretion disk change the coherent pulsed fraction and, in some cases, the phase of pulsations by almost 180deg. Coherent pulsations are clearly seen even for sufficiently compact model neutron stars, if the hot spots emit isotropic or fan-beam radiation. In the case of pencil-beam radiation, coherent pulsations are also seen if the cap-opening angle is less than ∼60deg, while the inclination angle is larger than 68deg. Gravitational lensing alone does not smear coherent pulsations in moderately weak magnetized neutron stars in the presence of an absorbing accretion disk. (author)

  3. Discovery of new magnetic early-B stars within the MiMeS HARPSpol survey

    Alecian, E.; Kochukhov, O.; Petit, V.; Grunhut, J.; Landstreet, J.; Oksala, Mary E.; Wade, G.A.; Hussain, G.; Neiner, C.; Bohlender, D.A.


    Roč. 567, July (2014), A28/1-A28/19 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1198 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : star s * magnetic field * chemically peculiar Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  4. Helium-burning flashes on accreting neutron stars: effects of stellar mass, radius, and magnetic field

    Joss, P.C.; Li, F.K.


    We have computed the evolution of the helium-burning shell in an accreting neutron star for various values of the stellar mass (M), radius (R), and surface magnetic fields strength (B). As shown in previous work, the helium-burning shell is often unstable and undergoes thermonuclear flashes that result in the emission of X-ray bursts from the neutron-star surface. The dependence of the properties of these bursts upon the values of M and R can be described by simple scaling relations. A strong magnetic field decreases the radiative and conductive opacities and inhibits convection in the neutron-star surface layers. For B 12 gauss, these effects are unimportant; for B> or approx. =10 13 gauss, the enhancement of the electron thermal conductivity is sufficiently large to stabilize the helium-burning shell against thermonuclear flashes. For intermediate values of B, the reduced opacities increase the recurrence intervals between bursts and the energy released per burst, while the inhibition of convection increases the burst rise times to about a few seconds. If the magnetic field funnels the accreting matter onto the magnetic polar caps, the instability of the helium-burning shell will be very strongly suppressed. These results suggest that it may eventually be possible to extract information on the macroscopic properties of neutron stars from the observed features of X-ray burst sources

  5. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: a tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia


    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challengi...

  6. Characterization of the magnetic field of the Herbig Be star HD200775

    Alecian, E.; Catala, C.; Wade, G. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Petit, P.; Landstreet, J. D.; Böhm, T.; Bouret, J.-C.; Bagnulo, S.; Folsom, C.; Grunhut, J.; Silvester, J.


    The origin of the magnetic fields observed in some intermediate-mass and high-mass main-sequence stars is still a matter of vigorous debate. The favoured hypothesis is a fossil field origin, in which the observed fields are the condensed remnants of magnetic fields present in the original molecular cloud from which the stars formed. According to this theory a few per cent of the pre-main-sequence (PMS) Herbig Ae/Be star should be magnetic with a magnetic topology similar to that of main-sequence intermediate-mass stars. After our recent discovery of four magnetic Herbig stars, we have decided to study in detail one of them, HD200775, to determine if its magnetic topology is similar to that of the main-sequence magnetic stars. With this aim, we monitored this star in Stokes I and V over more than 2yr, using the new spectropolarimeters ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), and Narval at Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL). By analysing the intensity spectrum we find that HD200775 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary system, whose secondary seems similar, in temperature, to the primary. We have carefully compared the observed spectrum to a synthetic one, and we found no evidence of abundance anomalies in its spectrum. We infer the luminosity ratio of the components from the Stokes I profiles. Then, using the temperature and luminosity of HD200775 found in the literature, we estimate the age, the mass and the radius of both components from their HR diagram positions. From our measurements of the radial velocities of both stars we determine the ephemeris and the orbital parameters of the system. A Stokes V Zeeman signature is clearly visible in most of the least-squares deconvolution profiles and varies on a time-scale on the order of 1d. We have fitted the 30 profiles simultaneously, using a χ2 minimization method, with a centred and a decentred-dipole model. The best-fitting model is obtained with a reduced χ2 = 1.0 and provides a rotation period of 4

  7. Magnetic massive stars as progenitors of `heavy' stellar-mass black holes

    Petit, V.; Keszthelyi, Z.; MacInnis, R.; Cohen, D. H.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Thomas, S. L.; Owocki, S. P.; Puls, J.; ud-Doula, A.


    The groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves produced by the inspiralling and coalescence of the black hole (BH) binary GW150914 confirms the existence of 'heavy' stellar-mass BHs with masses >25 M⊙. Initial characterization of the system by Abbott et al. supposes that the formation of BHs with such large masses from the evolution of single massive stars is only feasible if the wind mass-loss rates of the progenitors were greatly reduced relative to the mass-loss rates of massive stars in the Galaxy, concluding that heavy BHs must form in low-metallicity (Z ≲ 0.25-0.5 Z⊙) environments. However, strong surface magnetic fields also provide a powerful mechanism for modifying mass-loss and rotation of massive stars, independent of environmental metallicity. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that some heavy BHs, with masses >25 M⊙ such as those inferred to compose GW150914, could be the natural end-point of evolution of magnetic massive stars in a solar-metallicity environment. Using the MESA code, we developed a new grid of single, non-rotating, solar-metallicity evolutionary models for initial zero-age main sequence masses from 40 to 80 M⊙ that include, for the first time, the quenching of the mass-loss due to a realistic dipolar surface magnetic field. The new models predict terminal-age main-sequence (TAMS) masses that are significantly greater than those from equivalent non-magnetic models, reducing the total mass lost by a strongly magnetized 80 M⊙ star during its main-sequence evolution by 20 M⊙. This corresponds approximately to the mass-loss reduction expected from an environment with metallicity Z = 1/30 Z⊙.


    Gagne, Marc; Fehon, Garrett; Savoy, Michael R.; Cohen, David H.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Povich, Matthew S.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Walborn, Nolan R.; Remage Evans, Nancy; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Naze, Yael; Oskinova, Lida M.


    The Chandra Carina Complex contains 200 known O- and B-type stars. The Chandra survey detected 68 of the 70 O stars and 61 of 127 known B0-B3 stars. We have assembled a publicly available optical/X-ray database to identify OB stars that depart from the canonical L X /L bol relation or whose average X-ray temperatures exceed 1 keV. Among the single O stars with high kT we identify two candidate magnetically confined wind shock sources: Tr16-22, O8.5 V, and LS 1865, O8.5 V((f)). The O4 III(fc) star HD 93250 exhibits strong, hard, variable X-rays, suggesting that it may be a massive binary with a period of >30 days. The visual O2 If* binary HD 93129A shows soft 0.6 keV and hard 1.9 keV emission components, suggesting embedded wind shocks close to the O2 If* Aa primary and colliding wind shocks between Aa and Ab. Of the 11 known O-type spectroscopic binaries, the long orbital-period systems HD 93343, HD 93403, and QZ Car have higher shock temperatures than short-period systems such as HD 93205 and FO 15. Although the X-rays from most B stars may be produced in the coronae of unseen, low-mass pre-main-sequence companions, a dozen B stars with high L X cannot be explained by a distribution of unseen companions. One of these, SS73 24 in the Treasure Chest cluster, is a new candidate Herbig Be star.

  9. Unveiling the Role of the Magnetic Field at the Smallest Scales of Star Formation

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Cortés, Paulo C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Lai, Shih-Ping, E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, 30013 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)


    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of polarized dust emission from the protostellar source Ser-emb 8 at a linear resolution of 140 au. Assuming models of dust-grain alignment hold, the observed polarization pattern gives a projected view of the magnetic field structure in this source. Contrary to expectations based on models of strongly magnetized star formation, the magnetic field in Ser-emb 8 does not exhibit an hourglass morphology. Combining the new ALMA data with previous observational studies, we can connect magnetic field structure from protostellar core (∼80,000 au) to disk (∼100 au) scales. We compare our observations with four magnetohydrodynamic gravo-turbulence simulations made with the AREPO code that have initial conditions ranging from super-Alfvénic (weakly magnetized) to sub-Alfvénic (strongly magnetized). These simulations achieve the spatial dynamic range necessary to resolve the collapse of protostars from the parsec scale of star-forming clouds down to the ∼100 au scale probed by ALMA. Only in the very strongly magnetized simulation do we see both the preservation of the field direction from cloud to disk scales and an hourglass-shaped field at <1000 au scales. We conduct an analysis of the relative orientation of the magnetic field and the density structure in both the Ser-emb 8 ALMA observations and the synthetic observations of the four AREPO simulations. We conclude that the Ser-emb 8 data are most similar to the weakly magnetized simulations, which exhibit random alignment, in contrast to the strongly magnetized simulation, where the magnetic field plays a role in shaping the density structure in the source. In the weak-field case, it is turbulence—not the magnetic field—that shapes the material that forms the protostar, highlighting the dominant role that turbulence can play across many orders of magnitude in spatial scale.

  10. Magnetized hypermassive neutron-star collapse: a central engine for short gamma-ray bursts.

    Shibata, Masaru; Duez, Matthew D; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Stephens, Branson C


    A hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) is a possible transient formed after the merger of a neutron-star binary. In the latest axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity, we find that a magnetized HMNS undergoes "delayed" collapse to a rotating black hole (BH) as a result of angular momentum transport via magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability. The outcome is a BH surrounded by a massive, hot torus with a collimated magnetic field. The torus accretes onto the BH at a quasisteady accretion rate [FORMULA: SEE TEXT]; the lifetime of the torus is approximately 10 ms. The torus has a temperature [FORMULA: SEE TEXT], leading to copious ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]) thermal radiation that could trigger a fireball. Therefore, the collapse of a HMNS is a promising scenario for generating short-duration gamma-ray bursts and an accompanying burst of gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  11. Observations and analysis of the photospheric magnetic fields on dwarf G, K, and M stars

    Saar, S.H.


    An improved technique was developed for the analysis of magnetic broadening in stellar absorption-line profiles. Unlike previous methods, the new technique is based on a model that includes radiative-transfer effects and the full Zeeman patterns. The effects of weak blends on the profiles can be reduced by comparing identical lines in two stars of the same spectral type, one of which is chromospheric inactive. After adjusting for differences in line strength and doppler broadening, the difference profile can be modeled to determine both the fraction of the stellar surface covered by magnetic regions (f) and the mean field strength in these regions (B). Accuracies of about 20% in B and f are possible. It was found that previous Zeeman-analysis methods systematically overestimate f, especially for cooler stars, due to their neglect of line saturation and blends. The new technique were applied to two sets of high-resolution, how-noise spectra. The first set consists of 29 stars, spanning spectral types from GO to M4.5 and a broad range of rotational rates and ages. The first-ever detection was made of photospheric magnetic fields on a BY Draconis variable (EQ Vir) and a dMe flare star (AD Leo).


    Myers, Andrew T.; McKee, Christopher F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cunningham, Andrew J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-23, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Klein, Richard I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We present a set of three-dimensional, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic calculations of the gravitational collapse of massive (300 M{sub Sun }), star-forming molecular cloud cores. We show that the combined effects of magnetic fields and radiative feedback strongly suppress core fragmentation, leading to the production of single-star systems rather than small clusters. We find that the two processes are efficient at suppressing fragmentation in different regimes, with the feedback most effective in the dense, central region and the magnetic field most effective in more diffuse, outer regions. Thus, the combination of the two is much more effective at suppressing fragmentation than either one considered in isolation. Our work suggests that typical massive cores, which have mass-to-flux ratios of about 2 relative to critical, likely form a single-star system, but that cores with weaker fields may form a small star cluster. This result helps us understand why the observed relationship between the core mass function and the stellar initial mass function holds even for {approx}100 M{sub Sun} cores with many thermal Jeans masses of material. We also demonstrate that a {approx}40 AU Keplerian disk is able to form in our simulations, despite the braking effect caused by the strong magnetic field.

  13. Mixed poloidal-toroidal magnetic configuration and surface abundance distributions of the Bp star 36 Lyn

    Oksala, M. E.; Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; the MiMeS Collaboration


    Previous studies of the chemically peculiar Bp star 36 Lyn revealed a moderately strong magnetic field, circumstellar material and inhomogeneous surface abundance distributions of certain elements. We present in this paper an analysis of 33 high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution Stokes IV observations of 36 Lyn obtained with the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Bernard Lyot Telescope at Pic du Midi Observatory. From these data, we compute new measurements of the mean longitudinal magnetic field, Bℓ, using the multiline least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique. A rotationally phased Bℓ curve reveals a strong magnetic field, with indications for deviation from a pure dipole field. We derive magnetic maps and chemical abundance distributions from the LSD profiles, produced using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging code INVERSLSD. Using a spherical harmonic expansion to characterize the magnetic field, we find that the harmonic energy is concentrated predominantly in the dipole mode (ℓ = 1), with significant contribution from both the poloidal and toroidal components. This toroidal field component is predicted theoretically, but not typically observed for Ap/Bp stars. Chemical abundance maps reveal a helium enhancement in a distinct region where the radial magnetic field is strong. Silicon enhancements are located in two regions, also where the radial field is stronger. Titanium and iron enhancements are slightly offset from the helium enhancements, and are located in areas where the radial field is weak, close to the magnetic equator.

  14. Accurate evolutions of inspiralling and magnetized neutron stars: Equal-mass binaries

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca


    By performing new, long and numerically accurate general-relativistic simulations of magnetized, equal-mass neutron-star binaries, we investigate the role that realistic magnetic fields may have in the evolution of these systems. In particular, we study the evolution of the magnetic fields and show that they can influence the survival of the hypermassive neutron star produced at the merger by accelerating its collapse to a black hole. We also provide evidence that, even if purely poloidal initially, the magnetic fields produced in the tori surrounding the black hole have toroidal and poloidal components of equivalent strength. When estimating the possibility that magnetic fields could have an impact on the gravitational-wave signals emitted by these systems either during the inspiral or after the merger, we conclude that for realistic magnetic-field strengths B 12 G such effects could be detected, but only marginally, by detectors such as advanced LIGO or advanced Virgo. However, magnetically induced modifications could become detectable in the case of small-mass binaries and with the development of gravitational-wave detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope, with much higher sensitivities at frequencies larger than ≅2 kHz.

  15. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    Li Jiangang; Zhang Jie; Duan Xuru


    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

  16. A Method to Measure the Transverse Magnetic Field and Orient the Rotational Axis of Stars

    Leone, Francesco; Scalia, Cesare; Gangi, Manuele; Giarrusso, Marina [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Munari, Matteo; Scuderi, Salvatore; Trigilio, Corrado [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Stift, Martin J. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG. Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)


    Direct measurements of stellar magnetic fields are based on the splitting of spectral lines into polarized Zeeman components. With a few exceptions, Zeeman signatures are hidden in data noise, and a number of methods have been developed to measure the average, over the visible stellar disk, of longitudinal components of the magnetic field. At present, faint stars are only observable via low-resolution spectropolarimetry, which is a method based on the regression of the Stokes V signal against the first derivative of Stokes I . Here, we present an extension of this method to obtain a direct measurement of the transverse component of stellar magnetic fields by the regression of high-resolution Stokes Q and U as a function of the second derivative of Stokes I . We also show that it is possible to determine the orientation in the sky of the rotation axis of a star on the basis of the periodic variability of the transverse component due to its rotation. The method is applied to data, obtained with the Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter along the rotational period of the well known magnetic star β CrB.

  17. Starquake-induced Magnetic Field and Torque Evolution in Neutron Stars

    Link, B.; Franco, L.M.; Epstein, R.I.


    The persistent increases in spin-down rate (offsets) seen to accompany glitches in the Crab and other pulsars suggest increases in the spin-down torque. We interpret these offsets as due to starquakes occurring as the star spins down and the rigid crust becomes less oblate. We study the evolution of strain in the crust, the initiation of starquakes, and possible consequences for magnetic field and torque evolution. Crust cracking occurs as equatorial material shears under the compressive forces arising from the star's decreasing circumference and as matter moves to higher latitudes along a fault inclined to the equator. A starquake is most likely to originate near one of the two points on the rotational equator farthest from the magnetic poles. The material breaks along a fault approximately aligned with the magnetic poles. We suggest that the observed offsets come about when a starquake perturbs the star's mass distribution, producing a misalignment of the angular momentum and spin axes. Subsequently, damped precession to a new rotational state increases the angle α between the rotation and magnetic axes. The resulting increase in external torque appears as a permanent increase in the spin-down rate. Repeated starquakes would continue to increase α, making the pulsar more of an orthogonal rotator. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  18. Magnetic field strength of a neutron-star-powered ultraluminous X-ray source

    Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Fürst, F.; Middleton, M. J.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Fabian, A. C.; Heida, M.; Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.


    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies not associated with the central supermassive black hole. Their luminosities imply they are powered by either an extreme accretion rate onto a compact stellar remnant, or an intermediate mass ( 100-105M⊙) black hole1. Recently detected coherent pulsations coming from three bright ULXs2-5 demonstrate that some of these sources are powered by accretion onto a neutron star, implying accretion rates significantly in excess of the Eddington limit, a high degree of geometric beaming, or both. The physical challenges associated with the high implied accretion rates can be mitigated if the neutron star surface field is very high (1014 G)6, since this suppresses the electron scattering cross-section, reducing the radiation pressure that chokes off accretion for high luminosities. Surface magnetic field strengths can be determined through cyclotron resonance scattering features7,8 produced by the transition of charged particles between quantized Landau levels. Here, we present the detection at a significance of 3.8σ of an absorption line at 4.5 keV in the Chandra spectrum of a ULX in M51. This feature is likely to be a cyclotron resonance scattering feature produced by the strong magnetic field of a neutron star. Assuming scattering off electrons, the magnetic field strength is implied to be 1011 G, while protons would imply a magnetic field of B 1015 G.

  19. General Relativistic Radiation MHD Simulations of Supercritical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star: Modeling of Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsars

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken, E-mail:, E-mail: [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 10{sup 10} G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R {sub *} ( R {sub *} = 10{sup 6} cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of the disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ∼−10{sup −11} s s{sup −1}, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L {sub Edd}/ c {sup 2} and ≲10 L {sub Edd}, where L {sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.

  20. The discovery of 13.72-min oscillations in the cool magnetic Ap star HD 217522

    Kurtz, D.W.


    The discovery is announced of oscillations with a period near 13.72 min in the cool magnetic Ap star HD 217522. 97 hr of high-speed photometric observations are presented, obtained on 18 nights spread over a time span of 74 days in 1982. The amplitude of the oscillations in HD 217522 is variable from night to night and also on a longer time-scale. A frequency analysis of the data identifies the principal frequency of oscillation to be 4.37435+-0.00014 hr -1 . Because of the complexities of the amplitude modulation of the light curve and the very low amplitude of the light variations, the data are insufficient for a complete frequency solution. This star is the seventh member of the class of rapidly oscillating Ap stars. (author)

  1. On the Use of Line Depth Ratios to Measure Starspot Properties on Magnetically Active Stars

    O'Neal, Douglas


    Photometric and spectroscopic techniques have proven to be effective ways to measure the properties of dark, cool starspots on magnetically active stars. Recently, a technique was introduced using atomic line depth ratios (LDRs) to measure starspot properties. Carefully reproducing this technique using a new set of spectroscopic observations of active stars, we find that the LDR technique encounters difficulties, specifically by overestimating spot temperatures (because the atomic lines blend with titanium oxide absorption in cooler spots) and by not tightly constraining the filling factor of spots. While the use of LDRs for active star studies has great promise, we believe that these concerns need to be addressed before the technique is more widely applied. This paper includes data taken at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  2. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part II: symmetric MSE coil arrangement.

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M


    A globally optimal superconducting magnet coil design procedure based on the Minimum Stored Energy (MSE) current density map is outlined. The method has the ability to arrange coils in a manner that generates a strong and homogeneous axial magnetic field over a predefined region, and ensures the stray field external to the assembly and peak magnetic field at the wires are in acceptable ranges. The outlined strategy of allocating coils within a given domain suggests that coils should be placed around the perimeter of the domain with adjacent coils possessing alternating winding directions for optimum performance. The underlying current density maps from which the coils themselves are derived are unique, and optimized to possess minimal stored energy. Therefore, the method produces magnet designs with the lowest possible overall stored energy. Optimal coil layouts are provided for unshielded and shielded short bore symmetric superconducting magnets.

  3. Global maps of the magnetic thickness and magnetization of the Earth’s lithosphere

    Foteini Vervelidou; Erwan Thébault


    We have constructed global maps of the large-scale magnetic thickness and magnetization of Earth’s lithosphere. Deriving such large-scale maps based on lithospheric magnetic field measurements faces the challenge of the masking effect of the core field. In this study, the maps were obtained through analyses in the spectral domain by means of a new regional spatial power spectrum based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism. A series of regional spectral analyses wer...

  4. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions.

    Driscoll, P E; Barnes, R


    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone," where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life.


    Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wolk, Scott J., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)


    We explore the ramification of associating the energetics of extreme magnetic reconnection events with transient mass-loss in a stellar analogy with solar eruptive events. We establish energy partitions relative to the total bolometric radiated flare energy for different observed components of stellar flares and show that there is rough agreement for these values with solar flares. We apply an equipartition between the bolometric radiated flare energy and kinetic energy in an accompanying mass ejection, seen in solar eruptive events and expected from reconnection. This allows an integrated flare rate in a particular waveband to be used to estimate the amount of associated transient mass-loss. This approach is supported by a good correspondence between observational flare signatures on high flaring rate stars and the Sun, which suggests a common physical origin. If the frequent and extreme flares that young solar-like stars and low-mass stars experience are accompanied by transient mass-loss in the form of coronal mass ejections, then the cumulative effect of this mass-loss could be large. We find that for young solar-like stars and active M dwarfs, the total mass lost due to transient magnetic eruptions could have significant impacts on disk evolution, and thus planet formation, and also exoplanet habitability.

  6. Effects of neutrino emissivity on the cooling of neutron stars in the presence of a strong magnetic field

    Coelho, Eduardo Lenho, E-mail: [Universidade Veiga de Almeida, 108 Ibituruna St., 20271-020, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Chiapparini, Marcelo [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 524 São Francisco Xavier St., 20271-020, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Negreiros, Rodrigo Picanço [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza Ave., 24210-346, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    One of the most interesting kind of neutron stars are the pulsars, which are highly magnetized neutron stars with fields up to 10{sup 14} G at the surface. The strength of magnetic field in the center of a neutron star remains unknown. According to the scalar virial theorem, magnetic field in the core could be as large as 10{sup 18} G. In this work we study the influence of strong magnetic fields on the cooling of neutron stars coming from direct Urca process. Direct Urca process is an extremely efficient mechanism for cooling a neutron star after its formation. The matter is described using a relativistic mean-field model at zero temperature with eight baryons (baryon octet), electrons and muons. We obtain the relative population of each species of particles as function of baryon density for different magnetic fields. We calculate numerically the cooling of neutron stars for a parametrized magnetic field and compare the results for the case without a magnetic field.

  7. Binary neutron star mergers and short gamma-ray bursts: Effects of magnetic field orientation, equation of state, and mass ratio

    Kawamura, Takumu; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Kastaun, Wolfgang; Ciolfi, Riccardo; Endrizzi, Andrea; Baiotti, Luca; Perna, Rosalba


    We present fully general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the merger of binary neutron star (BNS) systems. We consider BNSs producing a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) that collapses to a spinning black hole (BH) surrounded by a magnetized accretion disk in a few tens of ms. We investigate whether such systems may launch relativistic jets and hence power short gamma-ray bursts. We study the effects of different equations of state (EOSs), different mass ratios, and different magnetic field orientations. For all cases, we present a detailed investigation of the matter dynamics and of the magnetic field evolution, with particular attention to its global structure and possible emission of relativistic jets. The main result of this work is that we observe the formation of an organized magnetic field structure. This happens independently of EOS, mass ratio, and initial magnetic field orientation. We also show that those models that produce a longer-lived HMNS lead to a stronger magnetic field before collapse to a BH. Such larger fields make it possible, for at least one of our models, to resolve the magnetorotational instability and hence further amplify the magnetic field in the disk. However, by the end of our simulations, we do not (yet) observe a magnetically dominated funnel nor a relativistic outflow. With respect to the recent simulations of Ruiz et al. [Astrophys. J. 824, L6 (2016)], we evolve models with lower and more plausible initial magnetic field strengths and (for computational reasons) we do not evolve the accretion disk for the long time scales that seem to be required in order to see a relativistic outflow. Since all our models produce a similar ordered magnetic field structure aligned with the BH spin axis, we expect that the results found by Ruiz et al. (who only considered an equal-mass system with an ideal fluid EOS) should be general and—at least from a qualitative point of view—independent of the mass ratio, magnetic field

  8. Models of large-scale magnetic fields in stellar interiors. Application to solar and ap stars

    Duez, Vincent


    Stellar astrophysics needs today new models of large-scale magnetic fields, which are observed through spectropolarimetry at the surface of Ap/Bp stars, and thought to be an explanation for the uniform rotation of the solar radiation zone, deduced from helio seismic inversions. During my PhD, I focused on describing the possible magnetic equilibria in stellar interiors. The found configurations are mixed poloidal-toroidal, and minimize the energy for a given helicity, in analogy with Taylor states encountered in spheromaks. Taking into account the self-gravity leads us to the 'non force-free' equilibria family, that will thus influence the stellar structure. I derived all the physical quantities associated with the magnetic field; then I evaluated the perturbations they induce on gravity, thermodynamic quantities as well as energetic ones, for a solar model and an Ap star. 3D MHD simulations allowed me to show that these equilibria form a first stable states family, the generalization of such states remaining an open question. It has been shown that a large-scale magnetic field confined in the solar radiation zone can induce an oblateness comparable to a high core rotation law. I also studied the secular interaction between the magnetic field, the differential rotation and the meridional circulation in the aim of implementing their effects in a next generation stellar evolution code. The influence of the magnetism on convection has also been studied. Finally, hydrodynamic processes responsible for the mixing have been compared with diffusion and a change of convection's efficiency in the case of a CoRoT star target. (author) [fr

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magnetic early B-type stars. I. (Shultz+, 2018)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; Mimes Collaboration; Binamics Collaboration


    Longitudinal magnetic field measurements of early B-type stars derived from 1) least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted from high-resolution spectropolarimetric data (ESPaDOnS, Narval, HARPSpol), using masks consisting of metallic lines, metallic + He lines, individual chemical elements, as well as single-line H measurements; and 2) from single-line low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with dimaPol. (3 data files).

  10. Plunging neutron stars as origin of organised magnetic field in galactic nuclei

    Karas, Vladimír; Kopáček, Ondřej; Kunneriath, D.; Zajaček, M.; Araudo, Anabella; Eckart, A.; Kovář, J.


    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-16287S; GA MŠk LD15061 Grant - others:COST(XE) MP1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic fields * neutron stars * galactic centre Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  11. Theoretical models of highly magnetic white dwarf stars that violate the Chandrasekhar Limit

    Shah, Hridaya


    Until recently, white dwarf (WD) stars were believed to be no more massive than 1.44 solar masses (M ⊙ ). This belief has been changed now with the observations of over-luminous or 'peculiar' Type la supernovae that have lead researchers to hypothesize the existence of WDs in the mass range 2.4 - 2.8 M ⊙ . This discovery also raises some doubt over the reliability of the Type Ia supernova as a standard candle. It is thought that these super-massive WDs are their most likely progenitors and that they probably have a very strong magnetic field inside them. A degenerate electron gas in a magnetic field, such as that present inside this star, will be Landau quantized. Magnetic field changes the momentum space of electrons which in turn changes their density of states (DOS) and that in turn changes the equation of state (EoS) of matter inside the star, as opposed to that without a field. When this change in the DOS is taken into account and a link between the DOS and the EoS is established, as is done in this work, I find a physical reason behind the theoretical mass-radius (M-R) relations of a super-massive WD. I start with different equations of state with at most three Landau levels occupied and then construct stellar models of magnetic WDs (MWDs) using the same. I also show the M-R relations of these stars for a particular chosen value of maximum electron Fermi energy. Once a multiple Landau level system of electrons is considered, I find that it leads to such an EoS that gives multiple branches in the MR relations. Super-massive MWDs are obtained only when the Landau level occupancy is limited to just one level and some of the mass values fall within the mass range given above.

  12. Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering Spectra from Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Baring, Matthew G.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Harding, Alice K.


    Hard, nonthermal, persistent pulsed X-ray emission extending between 10 and ∼150 keV has been observed in nearly 10 magnetars. For inner-magnetospheric models of such emission, resonant inverse Compton scattering of soft thermal photons by ultrarelativistic charges is the most efficient production mechanism. We present angle-dependent upscattering spectra and pulsed intensity maps for uncooled, relativistic electrons injected in inner regions of magnetar magnetospheres, calculated using collisional integrals over field loops. Our computations employ a new formulation of the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields that is physically correct for treating important spin-dependent effects in the cyclotron resonance, thereby producing correct photon spectra. The spectral cutoff energies are sensitive to the choices of observer viewing geometry, electron Lorentz factor, and scattering kinematics. We find that electrons with energies ≲15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with inferred turnovers for magnetar hard X-ray tails. More energetic electrons still emit mostly below 1 MeV, except for viewing perspectives sampling field-line tangents. Pulse profiles may be singly or doubly peaked dependent on viewing geometry, emission locale, and observed energy band. Magnetic pair production and photon splitting will attenuate spectra to hard X-ray energies, suppressing signals in the Fermi-LAT band. The resonant Compton spectra are strongly polarized, suggesting that hard X-ray polarimetry instruments such as X-Calibur, or a future Compton telescope, can prove central to constraining model geometry and physics.

  13. A combined HST and XMM-Newton campaign for the magnetic O9.7 V star HD 54879. Constraining the weak-wind problem of massive stars

    Shenar, T.; Oskinova, L. M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Luckas, P.; Hainich, R.; Todt, H.; Hubrig, S.; Sander, A. A. C.; Ilyin, I.; Hamann, W.-R.


    Context. HD 54879 (O9.7 V) is one of a dozen O-stars for which an organized atmospheric magnetic field has been detected. Despite their importance, little is known about the winds and evolution of magnetized massive stars. Aims: To gain insights into the interplay between atmospheres, winds, and magnetic fields of massive stars, we acquired UV and X-ray data of HD 54879 using the Hubble Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton satellite. In addition, 35 optical amateur spectra were secured to study the variability of HD 54879. Methods: A multiwavelength (X-ray to optical) spectral analysis is performed using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code and the xspec software. Results: The photospheric parameters (T∗ = 30.5 kK, log g = 4.0 [cm s-2], log L = 4.45 [L⊙]) are typical for an O9.7 V star. The microturbulent, macroturbulent, and projected rotational velocities are lower than previously suggested (ξph,vmac,vsini ≤ 4 km s-1). An initial mass of 16 M⊙ and an age of 5 Myr are inferred from evolutionary tracks. We derive a mean X-ray emitting temperature of log TX = 6.7 [K] and an X-ray luminosity of LX = 1 × 1032 erg s-1. Short- and long-scale variability is seen in the Hα line, but only a very long period of P ≈ 5 yr could be estimated. Assessing the circumstellar density of HD 54879 using UV spectra, we can roughly estimate the mass-loss rate HD 54879 would have in the absence of a magnetic field as log ṀB = 0 ≈ -9.0 [M⊙ yr-1]. The magnetic field traps the stellar wind up to the Alfvén radius rA ≳ 12 R∗, implying that its true mass-loss rate is log Ṁ ≲ -10.2 [M⊙ yr-1]. Hence, density enhancements around magnetic stars can be exploited to estimate mass-loss rates of non-magnetic stars of similar spectral types, essential for resolving the weak wind problem. Conclusions: Our study confirms that strongly magnetized stars lose little or no mass, and supplies important constraints on the weak-wind problem of massive main sequence

  14. Be stars - Chromospheres and cool envelopes and their relation to magnetic fields

    Ringuelet, A.E.; Iglesias, M.E.


    The present paper discusses Be stars with nonexpanding cool envelopes observed at large inclination angles. It is suggested that high-ionization lines are formed in a chromosphere where the rise in temperature is partly due to dissipation of mechanical energy by braking forces, and that braking forces can be provided by a magnetic field. Further, it is shown how the same magnetic field that characterizes the chromosphere can produce an equatorial envelope (outside the chromosphere) when gravity is counterbalanced by radiation pressure and some particular conditions are fulfilled. 49 refs

  15. Eyes in the sky. Interactions between asymptotic giant branch star winds and the interstellar magnetic field

    van Marle, A. J.; Cox, N. L. J.; Decin, L.


    Context. The extended circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of evolved low-mass stars display a large variety of morphologies. Understanding the various mechanisms that give rise to these extended structures is important to trace their mass-loss history. Aims: Here, we aim to examine the role of the interstellar magnetic field in shaping the extended morphologies of slow dusty winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in an effort to pin-point the origin of so-called eye shaped CSEs of three carbon-rich AGB stars. In addition, we seek to understand if this pre-planetary nebula (PN) shaping can be responsible for asymmetries observed in PNe. Methods: Hydrodynamical simulations are used to study the effect of typical interstellar magnetic fields on the free-expanding spherical stellar winds as they sweep up the local interstellar medium (ISM). Results: The simulations show that typical Galactic interstellar magnetic fields of 5 to 10 μG are sufficient to alter the spherical expanding shells of AGB stars to appear as the characteristic eye shape revealed by far-infrared observations. The typical sizes of the simulated eyes are in accordance with the observed physical sizes. However, the eye shapes are transient in nature. Depending on the stellar and interstellar conditions, they develop after 20 000 to 200 000 yrs and last for about 50 000 to 500 000 yrs, assuming that the star is at rest relative to the local interstellar medium. Once formed, the eye shape develops lateral outflows parallel to the magnetic field. The explosion of a PN in the centre of the eye-shaped dust shell gives rise to an asymmetrical nebula with prominent inward pointing Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Conclusions: Interstellar magnetic fields can clearly affect the shaping of wind-ISM interaction shells. The occurrence of the eyes is most strongly influenced by stellar space motion and ISM density. Observability of this transient phase is favoured for lines-of-sight perpendicular to the

  16. From clouds to cores to envelopes to disks: a multi-scale view of magnetized star formation

    Hull, Charles; Plambeck, R. L.; TADPOL survey Team


    Magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in the formation of stars. However, that importance has been called into question by previous observations showing misalignment between protostellar outflows and magnetic fields (B-fields), as well as inconsistency in field morphology between 10,000 and 1000 AU scales. To investigate these inconsistencies, we used the 1.3 mm full-Stokes polarimeter — which I tested, installed, and calibrated for CARMA, a mm-wave interferometer — to map dust polarization with ~2.5" resolution toward 29 star-forming cores and 8 star-forming regions as part of the TADPOL survey. We find that a subset of the sources have consistent B-field orientations between the large 20") scales measured by single-dish submm bolometers and the small scales measured by CARMA. Those same sources also tend to have higher fractional polarizations (measured by CARMA), presumably because the B-fields are less twisted by dynamic effects. However, even in these sources, which seem to have retained the memory of the global B-field direction, the fields in the cores are misaligned with the disks and outflows in the central protostars — a key result of the TADPOL survey. Furthermore, the cores with lower polarization fractions tend to have B-fields that are perpendicular to outflows, which suggests that in these sources the B-fields have lost the memory of the larger-scale global field, and have been wrapped up by core rotation. This is an important result for disk formation theory, as it suggests that field misalignment may indeed be the solution to the magnetic braking catastrophe. Finally, we find that all sources exhibit the so-called “polarization hole” effect, where the polarization drops significantly near the total intensity peak. When this effect was seen in low-resolution single-dish maps, it was attributed to the averaging of unresolved structure in the plane of the sky. However, the higher resolution maps we present here resolve these

  17. Culinary culture and globalization: an analysis of British and German Michelin-starred restaurants.

    Lane, Christel


    The high-end restaurant segment in Britain and Germany has long been shaped by the cultural hegemony of French haute cuisine, perpetuated by multiple processes, including the influence of the Michelin or Red Guide. Traditionally, this hegemony has been expressed in the prevalence of French expatriate chefs, culinary techniques and style and even restaurant culture. This paper investigates whether processes of globalization have weakened or even undermined this French cultural dominance in fine-dining restaurants and their culinary culture. To this end, the study identifies the various forms taken by globalization processes in this industry segment and then assesses their impact on the dominance of the French paradigm of culinary culture. The investigation focuses on British and German Michelin-starred restaurants, underlining both commonalities and divergences in the process of interaction between French, global and local influences. The study employs a qualitative method, using a number of case studies to discern cross-industry patterns. All chefs with two or three stars in the two countries, i.e. 45 chefs, were selected for the analysis of their cuisine. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.


    Shabaltas, Natalia; Lai Dong


    Recent observations of the central compact object in the Kesteven 79 supernova remnant show that this neutron star (NS) has a weak dipole magnetic field (a few × 10 10 G) but an anomalously large (∼64%) pulse fraction in its surface X-ray emission. We explore the idea that a substantial sub-surface magnetic field exists in the NS crust, which produces diffuse hot spots on the stellar surface due to anisotropic heat conduction, and gives rise to the observed X-ray pulsation. We develop a general-purpose method, termed 'Temperature Template with Full Transport' (TTFT), that computes the synthetic pulse profile of surface X-ray emission from NSs with arbitrary magnetic field and surface temperature distributions, taking into account magnetic atmosphere opacities, beam pattern, vacuum polarization, and gravitational light bending. We show that a crustal toroidal magnetic field of order a few × 10 14 G or higher, varying smoothly across the crust, can produce sufficiently distinct surface hot spots to generate the observed pulse fraction in the Kes 79 NS. This result suggests that substantial sub-surface magnetic fields, much stronger than the 'visible' dipole fields, may be buried in the crusts of some young NSs, and such hidden magnetic fields can play an important role in their observational manifestations. The general TTFT tool we have developed can also be used for studying radiation from other magnetic NSs.

  19. Mottled Protoplanetary Disk Ionization by Magnetically Channeled T Tauri Star Energetic Particles

    Fraschetti, F.; Drake, J. J.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.


    The evolution of protoplanetary disks is believed to be driven largely by angular momentum transport resulting from magnetized disk winds and turbulent viscosity. The ionization of the disk that is essential for these processes has been thought to be due to host star coronal X-rays but could also arise from energetic particles produced by coronal flares, or traveling shock waves, and advected by the stellar wind. We have performed test-particle numerical simulations of energetic protons propagating into a realistic T Tauri stellar wind, including a superposed small-scale magnetostatic turbulence. The isotropic (Kolmogorov power spectrum) turbulent component is synthesized along the individual particle trajectories. We have investigated the energy range [0.1–10] GeV, consistent with expectations from Chandra X-ray observations of large flares on T Tauri stars and recent indications by the Herschel Space Observatory of a significant contribution of energetic particles to the disk ionization of young stars. In contrast with a previous theoretical study finding a dominance of energetic particles over X-rays in the ionization throughout the disk, we find that the disk ionization is likely dominated by X-rays over much of its area, except within narrow regions where particles are channeled onto the disk by the strongly tangled and turbulent magnetic field. The radial thickness of such regions is 5 stellar radii close to the star and broadens with increasing radial distance. This likely continues out to large distances from the star (10 au or greater), where particles can be copiously advected and diffused by the turbulent wind.

  20. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.


    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  1. Global correlation imaging of magnetic total field gradients

    Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Shi, Lei


    Firstly we introduce the correlation imaging approach for the x-, y- and z-gradients of a magnetic total field anomaly for deriving the distribution of equivalent magnetic sources of the subsurface. In this approach, the subsurface space is divided into a regular grid, and then a correlation coefficient function is computed at each grid node, based on the cross-correlation between the x-gradient (or y-gradient or z-gradient) of the observed magnetic total field anomaly and the x-gradient (or y-gradient or z-gradient) of the theoretical magnetic total field anomaly due to a magnetic dipole. The resultant correlation coefficient is used to describe the probability of a magnetic dipole occurring at the node. We then define a global correlation coefficient function for comprehensively delineating the probability of an occurrence of a magnetic dipole, which takes, at each node, the maximum positive value of the corresponding correlation coefficient function of the three gradients. We finally test the approach both on synthetic data and real data from a metallic deposit area in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. (paper)

  2. Neutron star crustal plate tectonics. I. Magnetic dipole evolution in millisecond pulsars and low-mass X-ray binaries

    Ruderman, M.


    Crust lattices in spinning-up or spinning-down neutron stars have growing shear stresses caused by neutron superfluid vortex lines pinned to lattice nuclei. For the most rapidly spinning stars, this stress will break and move the crust before vortex unpinning occurs. In spinning-down neutron stars, crustal plates will move an equatorial subduction zone in which the plates are forced into the stellar core below the crust. The opposite plate motion occurs in spinning-up stars. Magnetic fields which pass through the crust or have sources in it move with the crust. Spun-up neutron stars in accreting low-mass X-ray binaries LMXBs should then have almost axially symmetric magnetic fields. Spun-down ones with very weak magnetic fields should have external magnetic fields which enter and leave the neutron star surface only near its equator. The lowest field millisecond radiopulsars seem to be orthogonal rotators implying that they have not previously been spun-up in LMXBs but are neutron stars initially formed with periods near 0.001 s that subsequently spin down to their present periods. Accretion-induced white dwarf collapse is then the most plausible genesis for them. 29 refs

  3. Searching for magnetic fields in 11 Wolf-Rayet stars: Analysis of circular polarization measurements from ESPaDOnS

    De la Chevrotière, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J. [Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Québec (CRAQ), Département de physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Collaboration: MiMeS Collaboration


    With recent detections of magnetic fields in some of their progenitor O stars, combined with known strong fields in their possible descendant neutron stars, it is natural to search for magnetic fields in Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, despite the problems associated with the presence of winds enhanced by an order of magnitude over those of O stars. We continue our search among a sample of 11 bright WR stars following our introductory study in a previous paper of WR6 = EZ CMa using the spectropolarimeter ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, most of them in all four Stokes parameters. This sample includes six WN stars and five WC stars encompassing a range of spectral subclasses. Six are medium/long-period binaries and three show corotating interaction regions. We report no definite detections of a magnetic field in the winds in which the lines form (which is about the same distance from the center of the star as it is from the surface of the progenitor O star) for any of the eleven stars. Possible reasons and their implications are discussed. Nonetheless, the data show evidence supporting marginal detections for WR134, WR137, and WR138. According to the Bayesian analysis, the most probable field intensities are B {sub wind} ∼ 200, 130, and 80 G, respectively, with a 95.4% probability that the magnetic fields present in the observable parts of their stellar wind, if stronger, does not exceed B{sub wind}{sup max}∼1900 G, ∼1500 G, and ∼1500 G, respectively. In the case of non-detections, we report an average field strength upper limit of B{sub wind}{sup max}∼500 G.

  4. X-Ray Flare Oscillations Track Plasma Sloshing along Star-disk Magnetic Tubes in the Orion Star-forming Region

    Reale, Fabio; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; Flaccomio, Ettore; Petralia, Antonino; Sciortino, Salvatore


    Pulsing X-ray emission tracks the plasma “echo” traveling in an extremely long magnetic tube that flares in an Orion pre-main sequence (PMS) star. On the Sun, flares last from minutes to a few hours and the longest-lasting ones typically involve arcades of closed magnetic tubes. Long-lasting X-ray flares are observed in PMS stars. Large-amplitude (∼20%), long-period (∼3 hr) pulsations are detected in the light curve of day-long flares observed by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on-board Chandra from PMS stars in the Orion cluster. Detailed hydrodynamic modeling of two flares observed on V772 Ori and OW Ori shows that these pulsations may track the sloshing of plasma along a single long magnetic tube, triggered by a sufficiently short (∼1 hr) heat pulse. These magnetic tubes are ≥20 solar radii long, enough to connect the star with the surrounding disk.


    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Lim, Jeremy; Donati, Jean-Francois; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; MartIn, Eduardo L.


    The magnetic field topology plays an important role in the understanding of stellar magnetic activity. While it is widely accepted that the dynamo action present in low-mass partially convective stars (e.g., the Sun) results in predominantly toroidal magnetic flux, the field topology in fully convective stars (masses below ∼0.35 M sun ) is still under debate. We report here our mapping of the magnetic field topology of the M4 dwarf G 164-31 (or Gl 490B), which is expected to be fully convective, based on time series data collected from 20 hr of observations spread over three successive nights with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. Our tomographic imaging technique applied to time series of rotationally modulated circularly polarized profiles reveals an axisymmetric large-scale poloidal magnetic field on the M4 dwarf. We then apply a synthetic spectrum fitting technique for measuring the average magnetic flux on the star. The flux measured in G 164-31 is |Bf| = 3.2 ± 0.4 kG, which is significantly greater than the average value of 0.68 kG determined from the imaging technique. The difference indicates that a significant fraction of the stellar magnetic energy is stored in small-scale structures at the surface of G 164-31. Our Hα emission light curve shows evidence for rotational modulation suggesting the presence of localized structure in the chromosphere of this M dwarf. The radius of the M4 dwarf derived from the rotational period and the projected equatorial velocity is at least 30% larger than that predicted from theoretical models. We argue that this discrepancy is likely primarily due to the young nature of G 164-31 rather than primarily due to magnetic field effects, indicating that age is an important factor which should be considered in the interpretation of this observational result. We also report here our polarimetric observations of five other M dwarfs with spectral types from M0 to M4.5, three of them showing strong Zeeman signatures.

  6. Atmospheric mass-loss of extrasolar planets orbiting magnetically active host stars

    Lalitha, Sairam; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Dash, Spandan


    Magnetic stellar activity of exoplanet hosts can lead to the production of large amounts of high-energy emission, which irradiates extrasolar planets, located in the immediate vicinity of such stars. This radiation is absorbed in the planets' upper atmospheres, which consequently heat up and evaporate, possibly leading to an irradiation-induced mass-loss. We present a study of the high-energy emission in the four magnetically active planet-bearing host stars, Kepler-63, Kepler-210, WASP-19, and HAT-P-11, based on new XMM-Newton observations. We find that the X-ray luminosities of these stars are rather high with orders of magnitude above the level of the active Sun. The total XUV irradiation of these planets is expected to be stronger than that of well-studied hot Jupiters. Using the estimated XUV luminosities as the energy input to the planetary atmospheres, we obtain upper limits for the total mass- loss in these hot Jupiters.

  7. Accretion dynamics and polarized x-ray emission of magnetized neutron stars

    Arons, J.


    The basic ideas of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars are outlined. These are applied to a simple model of the structure of the plasma mound sitting at the magnetic poles of such as star, in which upward diffusion of photons is balanced by their downward advection. This steady flow model of the plasma's dynamical state is used to compute the emission of polarized X-rays from the optically thick, birefringent medium. The linear polarization of the continuum radiation emerging from the quasi-static mound is found to be as much as 40% at some rotation phases, but is insensitive to the geometry of the accretion flow. The role of the accretion shock, whose detailed polarimetric and spectral characteristics have yet to be calculated, is emphasized as the final determinant of the properties of the emerging X-rays. Some results describing the fully time dependent dynamics of the flow are also presented. In particular, steady flow onto a neutron star is shown to exhibit formation of ''photon bubbles,'' regions of greatly reduced plasma density filled with radiation which form and rise on millisecond time scales. The possible role of these complex structures in the flow for the formation of the emergent spectrum is briefly outlined

  8. Accretion dynamics and polarized X-ray emission of magnetized neutron stars

    Arons, Jonathan


    The basic ideas of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars are outlined. These are applied to a simple model of the structure of the plasma mound sitting at the magnetic poles of such a star, in which upward diffusion of photons is balanced by their downward advection. This steady flow model of the plasma's dynamical state is used to compute the emission of polarized X-raysfrom the optically thick, birefringent medium. The linear polarization of the continuum radiation emerging from the quasi-static mound is found to be as much as 40 percent at some rotation phases, but is insensitive to the geometry of the accretion flow. The role of the accretion shock, whose detailed polarimetric and spectral characteristics have yet to be calculated, is emphasized as the final determinant of the properties of the emerging X-rays. Some results describing the fully time dependent dynamics of the flow are also presented. In particular, steady flow onto a neutron star is shown to exhibit formation of 'photon bubbles', regions of greatly reduced plasma density filled with radiation which form and rise on millisecond time scale. The possible role of these complex structures in the flow for the formation of the emergent spectrum is briefly outlined.

  9. High-entropy ejections from magnetized proto-neutron star winds: implications for heavy element nucleosynthesis

    Thompson, Todd A.; ud-Doula, Asif


    Although initially thought to be promising for production of the r-process nuclei, standard models of neutrino-heated winds from proto-neutron stars (PNSs) do not reach the requisite neutron-to-seed ratio for production of the lanthanides and actinides. However, the abundance distribution created by the r-, rp-, or νp-processes in PNS winds depends sensitively on the entropy and dynamical expansion time-scale of the flow, which may be strongly affected by high magnetic fields. Here, we present results from magnetohydrodynamic simulations of non-rotating neutrino-heated PNS winds with strong dipole magnetic fields from 1014 to 1016 G, and assess their role in altering the conditions for nucleosynthesis. The strong field forms a closed zone and helmet streamer configuration at the equator, with episodic dynamical mass ejections in toroidal plasmoids. We find dramatically enhanced entropy in these regions and conditions favourable for third-peak r-process nucleosynthesis if the wind is neutron-rich. If instead the wind is proton-rich, the conditions will affect the abundances from the νp-process. We quantify the distribution of ejected matter in entropy and dynamical expansion time-scale, and the critical magnetic field strength required to affect the entropy. For B ≳1015 G, we find that ≳10-6 M⊙ and up to ˜10-5 M⊙ of high-entropy material is ejected per highly magnetized neutron star birth in the wind phase, providing a mechanism for prompt heavy element enrichment of the universe. Former binary companions identified within (magnetar-hosting) supernova remnants, the remnants themselves, and runaway stars may exhibit overabundances. We provide a comparison with a semi-analytic model of plasmoid eruption and discuss implications and extensions.

  10. Magnet design with 100-kA HTS STARS conductors for the helical fusion reactor

    Yanagi, N.; Terazaki, Y.; Ito, S.; Tamura, H.; Hamaguchi, S.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.


    The high-temperature superconducting (HTS) option is employed for the conceptual design of the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. The 100-kA-class STARS (Stacked Tapes Assembled in Rigid Structure) conductor is used for the magnet system including the continuously wound helical coils. Protection of the magnet system in case of a quench is a crucial issue and the hot-spot temperature during an emergency discharge is estimated based on the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional analyses. The number of division of the coil winding package is examined to limit the voltage generation. For cooling the HTS magnet, helium gas flow is considered and its feasibility is examined by simple analysis as a first step.

  11. Ripple structure in degenerate electron-gas-dominated stars with intense magnetic fields

    Wilkes, J.M.


    We investigate the implications of ripple structure, i.e., the appearance of oscillating and discontinuous slopes in the thermodynamic variables of a degenerate electron gas, for models of magnetic stars dominated by such a gas. We also examine the effects in these models of the recent discovery by R.L. Ingraham that strong magnetic fields can inhibit degeneracy in an electron gas. The thesis begins with the presentation of a theory of self-gravitating fluids based upon recent work in modern continuum mechanics and thermodynamics on electromagnetic interactions in continuous media. Our theory predicts as a general result the existence of an anisotropic pressure tensor in such a fluid, which is in agreement with the one known to occur in the special case of a free-electron gas in a magnetic field. Furthermore, the theory clarifies the relation between this pressure tensor and the scalar thermodynamic pressure, and provides an unambiguous prescription for the incorporation of these and other variables, such as the magnetization, in the fluid equations of motion. We next show that under suitable assumptions the usual thermodynamic equilibrium and stability conditions for such a fluid follow from the general theory. A definition of local thermodynamic equilibrium is then introduced, and used to develop a local equilibrium statistical mechanics of ideal gases. From this we derive the equations of state for an ideal free-electron gas in a magnetic field. Finally, these equations of state are used in a simplified system of structure equations for model stars in intense magnetic fields. We find the effects of degeneracy-inhibition to be small in these simple models

  12. Disordered nuclear pasta, magnetic field decay, and crust cooling in neutron stars

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Cumming, A.; Schneider, A. S.


    Nuclear pasta, with non-spherical shapes, is expected near the base of the crust in neutron stars. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of pasta show long lived topological defects that could increase electron scattering and reduce both the thermal and electrical conductivities. We model a possible low conductivity pasta layer by increasing an impurity parameter Qimp. Predictions of light curves for the low mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29, assuming a large Qimp, find continued late time cooling that is consistent with Chandra observations. The electrical and thermal conductivities are likely related. Therefore observations of late time crust cooling can provide insight on the electrical conductivity and the possible decay of neutron star magnetic fields (assuming these are supported by currents in the crust). This research was supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  13. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide. A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina


    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims: We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods: We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (I.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results: An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N,J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N,J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N,J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. The complete list of measured Zeeman components is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  14. Low virial parameters in molecular clouds: Implications for high-mass star formation and magnetic fields

    Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goldsmith, Paul F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    Whether or not molecular clouds and embedded cloud fragments are stable against collapse is of utmost importance for the study of the star formation process. Only 'supercritical' cloud fragments are able to collapse and form stars. The virial parameter α = M {sub vir}/M, which compares the virial mass to the actual mass, provides one way to gauge stability against collapse. Supercritical cloud fragments are characterized by α ≲ 2, as indicated by a comprehensive stability analysis considering perturbations in pressure and density gradients. Past research has suggested that virial parameters α ≳ 2 prevail in clouds. This would suggest that collapse toward star formation is a gradual and relatively slow process and that magnetic fields are not needed to explain the observed cloud structure. Here, we review a range of very recent observational studies that derive virial parameters <<2 and compile a catalog of 1325 virial parameter estimates. Low values of α are in particular observed for regions of high-mass star formation (HMSF). These observations may argue for a more rapid and violent evolution during collapse. This would enable 'competitive accretion' in HMSF, constrain some models of 'monolithic collapse', and might explain the absence of high-mass starless cores. Alternatively, the data could point at the presence of significant magnetic fields ∼1 mG at high gas densities. We examine to what extent the derived observational properties might be biased by observational or theoretical uncertainties. For a wide range of reasonable parameters, our conclusions appear to be robust with respect to such biases.

  15. LSPM J1314+1320: An Oversized Magnetic Star with Constraints on the Radio Emission Mechanism

    MacDonald, James; Mullan, D. J. [Dept. Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)


    LSPM J1314+1320 (=NLTT 33370) is a binary star system consisting of two nearly identical pre-main-sequence stars of spectral type M7. The system is remarkable among ultracool dwarfs for being the most luminous radio emitter over the widest frequency range. Masses and luminosities are at first sight consistent with the system being coeval at age ∼80 Myr according to standard (nonmagnetic) evolutionary models. However, these models predict an average effective temperature of ∼2950 K, which is 180 K hotter than the empirical value. Thus, the empirical radii are oversized relative to the standard models by ≈13%. We demonstrate that magnetic stellar models can quantitatively account for the oversizing. As a check on our models, we note that the radio emission limits the surface magnetic field strengths: the limits depend on identifying the radio emission mechanism. We find that the field strengths required by our magnetic models are too strong to be consistent with gyrosynchrotron emission but are consistent with electron cyclotron maser emission.

  16. GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. II. 3D Turbulent, Magnetized Simulations

    Wu, Benjamin; Tan, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Loo, Sven Van [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Christie, Duncan [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Collins, David [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)


    We investigate giant molecular cloud collisions and their ability to induce gravitational instability and thus star formation. This mechanism may be a major driver of star formation activity in galactic disks. We carry out a series of 3D, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study how cloud collisions trigger formation of dense filaments and clumps. Heating and cooling functions are implemented based on photo-dissociation region models that span the atomic-to-molecular transition and can return detailed diagnostic information. The clouds are initialized with supersonic turbulence and a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations. Collisions at various velocities and impact parameters are investigated. Comparing and contrasting colliding and non-colliding cases, we characterize morphologies of dense gas, magnetic field structure, cloud kinematic signatures, and cloud dynamics. We present key observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, especially: relative orientations between magnetic fields and density structures, like filaments; {sup 13}CO( J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO( J = 3-2), and {sup 12}CO( J = 8-7) integrated intensity maps and spectra; and cloud virial parameters. We compare these results to observed Galactic clouds.

  17. Introduction to modeling convection in planets and stars magnetic field, density stratification, rotation

    Glatzmaier, Gary


    This book provides readers with the skills they need to write computer codes that simulate convection, internal gravity waves, and magnetic field generation in the interiors and atmospheres of rotating planets and stars. Using a teaching method perfected in the classroom, Gary Glatzmaier begins by offering a step-by-step guide on how to design codes for simulating nonlinear time-dependent thermal convection in a two-dimensional box using Fourier expansions in the horizontal direction and finite differences in the vertical direction. He then describes how to implement more efficient and accura

  18. Magnetization reversal in magnetic dot arrays: Nearest-neighbor interactions and global configurational anisotropy

    Van de Wiele, Ben [Department of Electrical Energy, Systems and Automation, Ghent University, Technologiepark 913, B-9052 Ghent-Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Fin, Samuele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Pancaldi, Matteo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Vavassori, Paolo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Sarella, Anandakumar [Physics Department, Mount Holyoke College, 211 Kendade, 50 College St., South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075 (United States); Bisero, Diego [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); CNISM, Unità di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)


    Various proposals for future magnetic memories, data processing devices, and sensors rely on a precise control of the magnetization ground state and magnetization reversal process in periodically patterned media. In finite dot arrays, such control is hampered by the magnetostatic interactions between the nanomagnets, leading to the non-uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the sample while reversing. In this paper, we evidence how during reversal typical geometric arrangements of dots in an identical magnetization state appear that originate in the dominance of either Global Configurational Anisotropy or Nearest-Neighbor Magnetostatic interactions, which depends on the fields at which the magnetization reversal sets in. Based on our findings, we propose design rules to obtain the uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the array, and also suggest future research directions to achieve non-uniform state distributions of interest, e.g., when aiming at guiding spin wave edge-modes through dot arrays. Our insights are based on the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and Magnetic Force Microscopy measurements as well as the extensive micromagnetic simulations.

  19. Magnetic Hydrogen Atmosphere Models and the Neutron Star RX J1856.5-3754

    Ho, Wynn C.G.; /MIT, MKI /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Kaplan, David L.; /MIT, MKI; Chang, Philip; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara; van Adelsberg, Matthew; /Cornell; Potekhin, Alexander Y.; /Cornell U., Astron. Dept. /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.


    RX J1856.5-3754 is one of the brightest nearby isolated neutron stars, and considerable observational resources have been devoted to it. However, current models are unable to satisfactorily explain the data. We show that our latest models of a thin, magnetic, partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere on top of a condensed surface can fit the entire spectrum, from X-rays to optical, of RX J1856.5-3754, within the uncertainties. In our simplest model, the best-fit parameters are an interstellar column density N{sub H} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} and an emitting area with R{sup {infinity}} {approx} 17 km (assuming a distance to RX J1856.5-3754 of 140 pc), temperature T{sup {infinity}} {approx} 4.3 x 10{sup 5} K, gravitational redshift z{sub g} {approx} 0.22, atmospheric hydrogen column y{sub H} {approx} 1 g cm{sup -2}, and magnetic field B {approx} (3-4) x 10{sup 12} G; the values for the temperature and magnetic field indicate an effective average over the surface. We also calculate a more realistic model, which accounts for magnetic field and temperature variations over the neutron star surface as well as general relativistic effects, to determine pulsations; we find there exist viewing geometries that produce pulsations near the currently observed limits. The origin of the thin atmospheres required to fit the data is an important question, and we briefly discuss mechanisms for producing these atmospheres. Our model thus represents the most self-consistent picture to date for explaining all the observations of RX J1856.5-3754.

  20. Frequency dependence of p-mode frequency shifts induced by magnetic activity in Kepler solar-like stars

    Salabert, D.; Régulo, C.; Pérez Hernández, F.; García, R. A.


    The variations of the frequencies of the low-degree acoustic oscillations in the Sun induced by magnetic activity show a dependence on radial order. The frequency shifts are observed to increase towards higher-order modes to reach a maximum of about 0.8 μHz over the 11-yr solar cycle. A comparable frequency dependence is also measured in two other main sequence solar-like stars, the F-star HD 49933, and the young 1 Gyr-old solar analog KIC 10644253, although with different amplitudes of the shifts of about 2 μHz and 0.5 μHz, respectively. Our objective here is to extend this analysis to stars with different masses, metallicities, and evolutionary stages. From an initial set of 87 Kepler solar-like oscillating stars with known individual p-mode frequencies, we identify five stars showing frequency shifts that can be considered reliable using selection criteria based on Monte Carlo simulations and on the photospheric magnetic activity proxy Sph. The frequency dependence of the frequency shifts of four of these stars could be measured for the l = 0 and l = 1 modes individually. Given the quality of the data, the results could indicate that a physical source of perturbation different from that in the Sun is dominating in this sample of solar-like stars.

  1. Biomarker detection of global infectious diseases based on magnetic particles.

    Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercè; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel


    Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Is there a highly magnetized neutron star in GX 301-2?

    Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Suleimanov, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.


    We present the results of an in-depth study of the long-period X-ray pulsar GX 301-2. Using archival data of INTEGRAL, RXTE ASM, and CGRO BATSE, we study the spectral and timing properties of the source. Comparison of our timing results with previously published work reveals a secular decay of the orbital period at a rate of ≃ - 3.25 × 10-5 d yr-1, which is an order of magnitude faster than for other known systems. We argue that this is probably result either of the apsidal motion or of gravitational coupling of the matter lost by the optical companion with the neutron star, although current observations do not allow us to distinguish between those possibilities. We also propose a model to explain the observed long pulse period. We find that a very strong magnetic field B ~ 1014 G can explain the observed pulse period in the framework of existing models for torques affecting the neutron star. We show that the apparent contradiction with the magnetic field strength BCRSF ~ 4 × 1012 G derived from the observed cyclotron line position may be resolved if the line formation region resides in a tall accretion column of height ~2.5-3 RNS. The color temperature measured from the spectrum suggests that such a column may indeed be present, and our estimates show that its height is sufficient to explain the observed cyclotron line position.

  3. Precision modelling of M dwarf stars: the magnetic components of CM Draconis

    MacDonald, J.; Mullan, D. J.


    The eclipsing binary CM Draconis (CM Dra) contains two nearly identical red dwarfs of spectral class dM4.5. The masses and radii of the two components have been reported with unprecedentedly small statistical errors: for M, these errors are 1 part in 260, while for R, the errors reported by Morales et al. are 1 part in 130. When compared with standard stellar models with appropriate mass and age (≈4 Gyr), the empirical results indicate that both components are discrepant from the models in the following sense: the observed stars are larger in R ('bloated'), by several standard deviations, than the models predict. The observed luminosities are also lower than the models predict. Here, we attempt at first to model the two components of CM Dra in the context of standard (non-magnetic) stellar models using a systematic array of different assumptions about helium abundances (Y), heavy element abundances (Z), opacities and mixing length parameter (α). We find no 4-Gyr-old models with plausible values of these four parameters that fit the observed L and R within the reported statistical error bars. However, CM Dra is known to contain magnetic fields, as evidenced by the occurrence of star-spots and flares. Here we ask: can inclusion of magnetic effects into stellar evolution models lead to fits of L and R within the error bars? Morales et al. have reported that the presence of polar spots results in a systematic overestimate of R by a few per cent when eclipses are interpreted with a standard code. In a star where spots cover a fraction f of the surface area, we find that the revised R and L for CM Dra A can be fitted within the error bars by varying the parameter α. The latter is often assumed to be reduced by the presence of magnetic fields, although the reduction in α as a function of B is difficult to quantify. An alternative magnetic effect, namely inhibition of the onset of convection, can be readily quantified in terms of a magnetic parameter δ≈B2/4

  4. Magnetic Island Growth A comparison of local and global effects

    Lloyd, S.S.; Gardner, H.J.


    In stellarators a hot plasma is confined to a torus by a magnetic field with both toroidal and poloidal components generated by external currents. Plasma currents develop to balance the pressure gradient with a J x B force which in turn change the shape of confining magnetic field. Self-consistent equilibrium magnetic fields and plasma currents for some H-1NF configurations were calculated using the HINT code. This code relaxes a simplified set of resistive MHD equations on a coordinate grid until an equilibrium is reached [1]. Islands can occur in the equilibrium magnetic field, surrounding field lines with low-order rational rotational transform. The island widths are influenced by four types of currents. External currents determine the vacuum island widths. Global resonant and non-resonant currents increase linearly with plasma pressure and can act in or out of phase to the external currents. Local resonant currents are caused by the presence of an island and reinforce or counteract the island depending on the field strength gradient [2]. We compare the impact of local resonant and global non-resonant currents by comparing the results of HINT for several related configurations of H-1NF. Two configurations with slightly different rotational transforms (but otherwise very similar parameters) will have very different resonant plasma currents but nearly identical non-resonant plasma currents. Comparing the effect of the currents of the two configurations on island width gives an insight into the different contributions of resonant and non-resonant plasma currents to island growth or self-healing

  5. Comoving frame models of hot star winds II. Reduction of O star wind mass-loss rates in global models

    Krtička, J.; Kubát, Jiří


    Roč. 606, October (2017), A31/1-A31/12 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10589S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * winds * outflows Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  6. Accretion onto magnetized neutron stars: Normal mode analysis of the interchange instability at the magnetopause

    Arons, J.; Lea, S.M.


    We describe the results of a linearized hydromagnetic stability analysis of the magnetopause of an accreting neutron star. The magnetosphere is assumed to be slowly rotating, and the plasma just outside of the magnetopause is assumed to be weakly magnetized. The plasma layer is assumed to be bounded above by a shock wave, and to be thin compared with the radius of the magnetosphere. Under these circumstances, the growing modes are shown to be localized in the direction parallel to the zero-order magnetic field. The structure of the modes is still similar to the flute mode, however. The growth rate at each magnetic latitude is lambda given by γ 2 =g/sub n/kα/sub eff/(lambda) tanh [kz/sub s/(lambda)] where g/sub n/ is the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration normal to the surface, kapprox. =vertical-barmvertical-bar/R (lambda)cos lambda, vertical-barmvertical-bar is the azimuthal mode number, R (lambda) is the radius of the magnetosphere, z/sub s/ is the height of the shock above the magnetopause, and α/sub eff/(lambda) <1 is the effective Atwood number which embodies the stabilizing effects of favorable curvature and magnetic tension. We calculate α/sub eff/(lambda), and also discuss the stabilizing effects of viscosity and of aligned flow parallel to the magnetopause

  7. Further comments on the effects of vacuum birefringence on the polarization of X-rays emitted from magnetic neutron stars

    Chanan, G. A.; Novick, R.; Silver, E. H.


    The birefringence of the vacuum in the presence of strong (of the order of 1 teragauss) magnetic fields will in general affect the polarization of X-rays propagating through these fields. Two of the four Stokes parameters will vary so rapidly with wavelength as to be 'washed out' and unobservable, but the remaining two parameters will be unaffected. These results show that one conclusion of an earlier work is incorrect: Polarized X-ray emission from the surface of a magnetic neutron star will not in general be completely depolarized by the effects of vacuum birefringence. In particular, this birefringence has no effect on the linear polarization of cyclotron emission from the poles of magnetic neutron stars, and a similar result holds for synchrotron emission. More general cases of the propagation of polarized X-rays in magnetic fields are also discussed.

  8. Calculation of the form of an equilibrium poloidal magnetic field contained in a polytropic star

    Brundrit, G.B.; Miketinac, M.J.


    This program is designed to integrate the exact equations which determine the distribution of the density of a self-gravitating, axisymmetric polytrope of infinite conductivity containing a poloidal magnetic field. In addition, other properties of an equilibrium configuration such as mass, volume and radius are calculated. The program can also provide at very small extra cost the rates of change of the density with respect to changes of the polytropic index n and the parameter lambda which characterizes the poloidal magnetic field. Mathematically, the problem can be formulated as a boundary value problem for three coupled equations, two of which are second order, non-linear, two-dimensional partial differential equations. The solution is obtained numerically by an adaptation of the Stoeckl's finite difference-finite expansion method. In fact, the present program is a major modification of the program TOROID. The numerical scheme developed in the program is valid for all polytropes whose polytropic index n is greater than or equal to one. The other parameter of the theory, lambda, is unrestricted, i.e. the program permits the study of stars whose matnetic energy is a 'sizeable' percentage of their gravitational energy. Also, the program, with minor modifications, could be used for calculating equilibrium configurations of (a) (uniformly or non-uniformly) rotating polytropes pervaded by poloidal magnetic fields or (b) (rotation) polytropes containing poloidal magnetic fields. However, the greatest use of the present program is expected to arise in attempts to construct equilibrium configurations of polytropes containing mixed poloidal toroidal magnetic fields. (Auth.)


    Kunz, Matthew W.; Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.


    We formulate the problem of the formation and subsequent evolution of fragments (or cores) in magnetically supported, self-gravitating molecular clouds in two spatial dimensions. The six-fluid (neutrals, electrons, molecular and atomic ions, positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral grains) physical system is governed by the radiation, nonideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. The magnetic flux is not assumed to be frozen in any of the charged species. Its evolution is determined by a newly derived generalized Ohm's law, which accounts for the contributions of both elastic and inelastic collisions to ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. The species abundances are calculated using an extensive chemical-equilibrium network. Both MRN and uniform grain size distributions are considered. The thermal evolution of the protostellar core and its effect on the dynamics are followed by employing the gray flux-limited diffusion approximation. Realistic temperature-dependent grain opacities are used that account for a variety of grain compositions. We have augmented the publicly available Zeus-MP code to take into consideration all these effects and have modified several of its algorithms to improve convergence, accuracy, and efficiency. Results of magnetic star formation simulations that accurately track the evolution of a protostellar fragment from a density ≅10 3 cm -3 to a density ≅10 15 cm -3 , while rigorously accounting for both nonideal MHD processes and radiative transfer, are presented in a separate paper.

  10. Development and investigation of an inverse problem solution algorithm for determination of Ap stars magnetic field geometry

    Piskunov, N.E.


    Mathematical formulation of the inverse problem of determination of magnetic field geometry from the polarization profiles of spectral lines is gven. The solving algorithm is proposed. A set of model calculations has shown the effectiveness of the algorithm, the high precision of magnetic star model parameters obtained and also the advantages of the inverse problem method over the commonly used method of interpretation of effective field curves

  11. Production of gamma ray bursts from asymmetric core combustion of magnetized young neutron stars

    de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.; Ghezzi, C. R.


    Many works in the past have explored the idea that the conversion of hadronic matter into strange quark matter in neutron stars may be an energy source for GRBs (see references in Lugones et al. 2002, Lugones and Horvath 2003). These models addressed essentially spherically symmetric conversions of the whole neutron star rendering isotropic gamma emission. Accumulating observational evidence suggests that at least ''long'' GRBs are strongly asymmetric, jet-like outflows. The ''short'' burst subclass is not obviously asymmetric, and they may actually be spherically symmetric if the sources are close enough. A new potentially important feature recently recognized (Lugones et al. 2002) is that if a conversion to strange quark matter actually begins near the center of a neutron star, the presence of a magnetic field with intensity B ˜ 1013 G (see also Ghezi, de Gouveia Dal Pino & Horvath 2004) will originate a prompt collimated gamma emission, which may be observed as a short, beamed GRB after the recovery of a fraction of the neutrino energy via ν {barν} → e+e- → γγ. The calculations show that the neutrino luminosity is ˜ 1053 erg/sec and that the e+e- luminosity is about two orders of magnitude smaller ( tet{Lugones2002grb}). We find that 90 % of the e+e- pairs are injected inside small cylinders located just above the polar caps (with radius δ and height 0.4 R) in a timescale of τi ≃ 0.2 s almost independently of the initial temperature. This provides an interesting suitable explanation for the inner engine of short gamma ray bursts.

  12. Global energetics of solar flares. I. Magnetic energies

    Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin, Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)


    We present the first part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and coronal mass ejections that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We calculate the potential (E{sub p} ), the nonpotential (E {sub np}) or free energies (E {sub free} = E {sub np} – E{sub p} ), and the flare-dissipated magnetic energies (E {sub diss}). We calculate these magnetic parameters using two different NLFFF codes: the COR-NLFFF code uses the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub z} from HMI to define the potential field, and the two-dimensional (2D) coordinates of automatically detected coronal loops in six coronal wavelengths from AIA to measure the helical twist of coronal loops caused by vertical currents, while the PHOT-NLFFF code extrapolates the photospheric three-dimensional (3D) vector fields. We find agreement between the two codes in the measurement of free energies and dissipated energies within a factor of ≲ 3. The size distributions of magnetic parameters exhibit powerlaw slopes that are approximately consistent with the fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model. The magnetic parameters exhibit scaling laws for the nonpotential energy, E{sub np}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.02}, for the free energy, E{sub free}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.7} and E{sub free}∝B{sub φ}{sup 1.0}L{sup 1.5}, for the dissipated energy, E{sub diss}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.6} and E{sub diss}∝E{sub free}{sup 0.9}, and the energy dissipation volume, V∝E{sub diss}{sup 1.2}. The potential energies vary in the range of E{sub p} = 1 × 10{sup 31}-4 × 10{sup 33} erg, while the free energy has a ratio of E {sub free}/E{sub p} ≈ 1%-25%. The Poynting flux amounts to F {sub flare} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during flares, which averages to F {sub AR} ≈ 6 × 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during the entire observation

  13. General Relativistic Simulations of Low-Mass Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Giacomazzo, Bruno


    We will present general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of binary neutron star (BNS) systems that produce long-lived neutron stars (NSs) after merger. While the standard scenario for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) requires the formation after merger of a spinning black hole surrounded by an accretion disk, other theoretical models, such as the time-reversal scenario, predict the formation of a long-lived magnetar. The formation of a long-lived magnetar could in particular explain the X-ray plateaus that have been observed in some SGRBs. Moreover, observations of NSs with masses of 2 solar masses indicate that the equation of state of NS matter should support masses larger than that. Therefore a significant fraction of BNS mergers will produce long-lived NSs. This has important consequences both on the emission of gravitational wave signals and on their electromagnetic counterparts. We will discuss GRMHD simulations of ``low-mass'' magnetized BNS systems with different equations of state and mass ratios. We will describe the properties of their post-merger remnants and of their gravitational and electromagnetic emission.

  14. NuSTAR and swift observations of the fast rotating magnetized white dwarf AE Aquarii

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.


    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P-spin = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (L-X similar to 10(31) erg s(-1)). We have analyzed overlapping observations...... of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(-0.45)(+0.18), 2.29(-0.82)(+0.96), and 9.33(-2.18)(+6.07) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma...

  15. Improved Magnetic STAR Methods for Real-Time, Point-by-Point Localization of Unexploded Ordnance and Buried Mines


    of magnetic UXO. The prototype STAR Sensor comprises: a) A cubic array of eight fluxgate magnetometers . b) A 24-channel data acquisition/signal...array (shaded boxes) of eight low noise Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometers (TFM) develops 24 channels of vector B- field data. Processor hardware

  16. Investigating the origin of cyclical wind variability in hot, massive stars - I. On the dipolar magnetic field hypothesis

    David-Uraz, A.; Wade, G.A.; Petit, V.; ud-Doula, A.; Sundqvist, J.O.; Grunhut, J.; Schultz, M.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Henrichs, H.F.; Bouret, J.-C.


    OB stars exhibit various types of spectral variability associated with wind structures, including the apparently ubiquitous discrete absorption components (DACs). These are proposed to be caused by either magnetic fields or non-radial pulsations. In this paper, we evaluate the possible relation

  17. The Global and Small-scale Magnetic Fields of Fully Convective, Rapidly Spinning M Dwarf Pair GJ65 A and B

    Kochukhov, Oleg; Lavail, Alexis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, Uppsala SE-75120 (Sweden)


    The nearby M dwarf binary GJ65 AB, also known as BL Cet and UV Cet, is a unique benchmark for investigation of dynamo-driven activity of low-mass stars. Magnetic activity of GJ65 was repeatedly assessed by indirect means, such as studies of flares, photometric variability, X-ray, and radio emission. Here, we present a direct analysis of large-scale and local surface magnetic fields in both components. Interpreting high-resolution circular polarization spectra (sensitive to a large-scale field geometry) we uncovered a remarkable difference of the global stellar field topologies. Despite nearly identical masses and rotation rates, the secondary exhibits an axisymmetric, dipolar-like global field with an average strength of 1.3 kG while the primary has a much weaker, more complex, and non-axisymmetric 0.3 kG field. On the other hand, an analysis of the differential Zeeman intensification (sensitive to the total magnetic flux) shows the two stars having similar magnetic fluxes of 5.2 and 6.7 kG for GJ65 A and B, respectively, although there is evidence that the field strength distribution in GJ65 B is shifted toward a higher field strength compared to GJ65 A. Based on these complementary magnetic field diagnostic results, we suggest that the dissimilar radio and X-ray variability of GJ65 A and B is linked to their different global magnetic field topologies. However, this difference appears to be restricted to the upper atmospheric layers but does not encompass the bulk of the stars and has no influence on the fundamental stellar properties.

  18. The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars II: the early main sequence (250-650 Myr)

    Folsom, C. P.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Lèbre, A.; Amard, L.; Palacios, A.; Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Vidotto, A. A.


    There is a large change in surface rotation rates of sun-like stars on the pre-main sequence and early main sequence. Since these stars have dynamo-driven magnetic fields, this implies a strong evolution of their magnetic properties over this time period. The spin-down of these stars is controlled by interactions between stellar and magnetic fields, thus magnetic evolution in turn plays an important role in rotational evolution. We present here the second part of a study investigating the evolution of large-scale surface magnetic fields in this critical time period. We observed stars in open clusters and stellar associations with known ages between 120 and 650 Myr, and used spectropolarimetry and Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their large-scale magnetic field strength and geometry. We report 15 stars with magnetic detections here. These stars have masses from 0.8 to 0.95 M⊙, rotation periods from 0.326 to 10.6 d, and we find large-scale magnetic field strengths from 8.5 to 195 G with a wide range of geometries. We find a clear trend towards decreasing magnetic field strength with age, and a power law decrease in magnetic field strength with Rossby number. There is some tentative evidence for saturation of the large-scale magnetic field strength at Rossby numbers below 0.1, although the saturation point is not yet well defined. Comparing to younger classical T Tauri stars, we support the hypothesis that differences in internal structure produce large differences in observed magnetic fields, however for weak-lined T Tauri stars this is less clear.

  19. Stellar Obliquity and Magnetic Activity of Planet-hosting Stars and Eclipsing Binaries Based on Transit Chord Correlation

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Albrecht, Simon


    The light curve of an eclipsing system shows anomalies whenever the eclipsing body passes in front of active regions on the eclipsed star. In some cases, the pattern of anomalies can be used to determine the obliquity Ψ of the eclipsed star. Here we present a method for detecting and analyzing these patterns, based on a statistical test for correlations between the anomalies observed in a sequence of eclipses. Compared to previous methods, ours makes fewer assumptions and is easier to automate. We apply it to a sample of 64 stars with transiting planets and 24 eclipsing binaries for which precise space-based data are available, and for which there was either some indication of flux anomalies or a previously reported obliquity measurement. We were able to determine obliquities for 10 stars with hot Jupiters. In particular we found Ψ ≲ 10° for Kepler-45, which is only the second M dwarf with a measured obliquity. The other eight cases are G and K stars with low obliquities. Among the eclipsing binaries, we were able to determine obliquities in eight cases, all of which are consistent with zero. Our results also reveal some common patterns of stellar activity for magnetically active G and K stars, including persistently active longitudes.

  20. Magnetic field topology and chemical abundance distributions of the young, rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar star HR 5624

    Kochukhov, O.; Silvester, J.; Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.


    Context. The young, rapidly rotating Bp star HR 5624 (HD 133880) shows an unusually strong non-sinusoidal variability of its longitudinal magnetic field. This behaviour was previously interpreted as the signature of an exceptionally strong, quadrupole-dominated surface magnetic field geometry. Aims: We studied the magnetic field structure and chemical abundance distributions of HR 5624 with the aim to verify the unusual quadrupolar nature of its magnetic field and to investigate correlations between the field topology and chemical spots. Methods: We analysed high-resolution, time series Stokes parameter spectra of HR 5624 with the help of a magnetic Doppler imaging inversion code based on detailed polarised radiative transfer modelling of the line profiles. Results: We refined the stellar parameters, revised the rotational period, and obtained new longitudinal magnetic field measurements. Our magnetic Doppler inversions reveal that the field structure of HR 5624 is considerably simpler and the field strength is much lower than proposed by previous studies. We find a maximum local field strength of 12 kG and a mean field strength of 4 kG, which is about a factor of three weaker than predicted by quadrupolar field models. Our model implies that overall large-scale field topology of HR 5624 is better described as a distorted, asymmetric dipole rather than an axisymmetric quadrupole. The chemical abundance maps of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Nd obtained in our study are characterised by large-scale, high-contrast abundance patterns. These structures correlate weakly with the magnetic field geometry and, in particular, show no distinct element concentrations in the horizontal field regions predicted by theoretical atomic diffusion calculations. Conclusions: We conclude that the surface magnetic field topology of HR 5624 is not as unusual as previously proposed. Considering these results together with other recent magnetic mapping analyses of early-type stars suggests that

  1. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J.


    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  2. Global 3D radiation-hydrodynamics models of AGB stars. Effects of convection and radial pulsations on atmospheric structures

    Freytag, B.; Liljegren, S.; Höfner, S.


    Context. Observations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with increasing spatial resolution reveal new layers of complexity of atmospheric processes on a variety of scales. Aims: To analyze the physical mechanisms that cause asymmetries and surface structures in observed images, we use detailed 3D dynamical simulations of AGB stars; these simulations self-consistently describe convection and pulsations. Methods: We used the CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce an exploratory grid of global "star-in-a-box" models of the outer convective envelope and the inner atmosphere of AGB stars to study convection, pulsations, and shock waves and their dependence on stellar and numerical parameters. Results: The model dynamics are governed by the interaction of long-lasting giant convection cells, short-lived surface granules, and strong, radial, fundamental-mode pulsations. Radial pulsations and shorter wavelength, traveling, acoustic waves induce shocks on various scales in the atmosphere. Convection, waves, and shocks all contribute to the dynamical pressure and, thus, to an increase of the stellar radius and to a levitation of material into layers where dust can form. Consequently, the resulting relation of pulsation period and stellar radius is shifted toward larger radii compared to that of non-linear 1D models. The dependence of pulsation period on luminosity agrees well with observed relations. The interaction of the pulsation mode with the non-stationary convective flow causes occasional amplitude changes and phase shifts. The regularity of the pulsations decreases with decreasing gravity as the relative size of convection cells increases. The model stars do not have a well-defined surface. Instead, the light is emitted from a very extended inhomogeneous atmosphere with a complex dynamic pattern of high-contrast features. Conclusions: Our models self-consistently describe convection, convectively generated acoustic noise, fundamental-mode radial

  3. Global modelling of magnetic island control in tokamaks

    Fevrier, Olivier


    Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) instabilities are susceptible to develop within a tokamak plasma. These instabilities manifest themselves as magnetic islands which reduce the plasma confinement. The islands can however be controlled by driving current inside them. In this thesis, we consider the modeling of the magnetic islands and their control using first principle approaches, which rely on a global MHD description of the plasma. We have detailed the inclusion a RF-driven current like source term in an MHD code, which requires special care to be given to the modeling of the current density evolution. The implementation has been benchmarked against the asymptotic models, allowing us to retrieve the influence of parameters such as deposition width or misalignment with respect to the island width and position. Beyond these aspects, we have evidenced new effects, linked to the 3D nature of the current deposition. We have observed a flip instability in which an island, reduced by the ECCD, brutally inverse its phase so that its X-Point faces the current deposition, allowing the mode the grow further. We then moved on to the topic of the best suitable control strategies for the control of the island. We have implemented in XTOR a control system that mimics the experimental ones and adapt the current deposition in function of a preset strategy. Nonlinear MHD simulations have been carried out using different control schemes, allowing us to quantify the gain to expect from each of these methods depending on the characteristics of the current deposition. (author) [fr

  4. Using the Seismology of Non-magnetic Chemically Peculiar Stars as ...


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Chemical composition is a good tracer of the hydrodynamical processes that occur in stars as they often lead to mixing and particle transport. By comparing abundances predicted by models and those observed in stars we can infer some constraints on those mixing processes. As pulsations in the stars are ...

  5. Burn out or fade away? On the X-ray and magnetic death of intermediate mass stars

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Kashyap, Vinay; Günther, H. Moritz; Wright, Nicholas J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-3, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Braithwaite, Jonathan, E-mail: [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    The nature of the mechanisms apparently driving X-rays from intermediate mass stars lacking strong convection zones or massive winds remains poorly understood, and the possible role of hidden, lower mass close companions is still unclear. A 20 ks Chandra HRC-I observation of HR 4796A, an 8 Myr old main sequence A0 star devoid of close stellar companions, has been used to search for a signature or remnant of magnetic activity from the Herbig Ae phase. X-rays were not detected and the X-ray luminosity upper limit was L{sub X} ≤ 1.3 × 10{sup 27} erg s{sup –1}. The result is discussed in the context of various scenarios for generating magnetic activity, including rotational shear and subsurface convection. A dynamo driven by natal differential rotation is unlikely to produce observable X rays, chiefly because of the difficulty in getting the dissipated energy up to the surface of the star. A subsurface convection layer produced by the ionization of helium could host a dynamo that should be effective throughout the main sequence but can only produce X-ray luminosities of the order 10{sup 25} erg s{sup –1}. This luminosity lies only moderately below the current detection limit for Vega. Our study supports the idea that X-ray production in Herbig Ae/Be stars is linked largely to the accretion process rather than the properties of the underlying star, and that early A stars generally decline in X-ray luminosity at least 100,000 fold in only a few million years.

  6. Doppler-Zeeman Mapping of the Rapidly Rotating Magnetic CP Star HD37776

    Khokhlova, V. L.; Vasilchenko, D. V.; Stepanov, V. V.; Romanyuk, I. I.


    We present the results of our analysis of magnetic-field configuration and abundance anomalies on the surface of the rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar helium-strong variable B2 V star HD37776 with unresolved Zeeman components of spectral lines. Simultaneous inversion of the observed Stokes I and V profiles, which realizes the method of Doppler-Zeeman mapping (Vasilchenko et al. 1996), has been applied for the first time. Spectroscopic observations were carried out with the Main stellar spectrograph of the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope equipped with a Zeeman analyzer and a CCD array, which allowed spectra in right- and left-hand circularly polarized light to be taken simultaneously at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N > 200 (Romanyuk et al. 1999). The profile width of winged spectral lines (reaching 5 A) is determined by Zeeman line splitting; however, the observed Zeeman components are blurred and unresolved because of the rapid stellar rotation. When solving the inverse problem, we sought for the magnetic-field configuration in the form of a combination of arbitrarily oriented dipole, quadrupole, and octupole placed at the stellar center. The observed Stokes I and V profiles for eight spectral lines of He, OII, AlIII, SiIII, and FeIII averaged over the visible stellar surface were used as input data. We constructed a model of the magnetic field from the condition of coincidence of magnetic maps obtained from different lines of different chemical elements and from the condition of a minimum profile residual. This model is a combination of centered coaxial dipole and quadrupole with the dominant quadrupole component at 30 deg < i < 50 deg, beta = 40 deg, and a maximum surface field strength H_s = 60 kG. A comparison of our abundance maps with the field configuration shows that the He concentration is at a maximum in the regions of maximum radial field, while the maximum concentrations of O, Al, Si, and Fe coincide with the regions of maximum

  7. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.


    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  8. Shock-front compression of the magnetic field in the Canis Majoris R1 star-formation region

    Vrba, F.J.; Baierlein, R.; Herbst, W.; Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT; Van Vleck Observatory, Middletown, CT)


    Results are presented from a linear polarization survey at optical wavelengths of over 140 stars in the direction of the CMa R1 star-formation region; 26 of these are clearly associated with nebulosity within the area. The observations were obtained in order to test the argument of Herbst et al. (1978) that star formation in CMa R1 is driven by a shock wave from a nearby supernova (Herbs and Assousa, 1977 and 1978). The polarizations are found to be consistent with a simple model of the compression by a supernova-induced spherical shock front of an initially uniform interstellar magnetic field. The polarization vectors are inconsistent with a scenario of quiescent cloud collapse along magnetic-field lines. Multicolor polarimetry of the nebular stars provides evidence of grain growth toward increasing cloud optical depth, characterized by a ratio of total-to-selective extinction of R = 3.0 at E(B-V) = 0.23, increasing to R = 4.2 at E(B-V) = 0.7. 15 references

  9. Radial-Velocity Signatures of Magnetic Features on the Sun Observed as a Star

    Palumbo, M. L., III; Haywood, R. D.; Saar, S. H.; Dupree, A. K.; Milbourne, T. W.


    In recent years, the search for Earth-mass planets using radial-velocity measurements has become increasingly limited by signals arising from stellar activity. Individual magnetic features induce localized changes in intensity and velocity, which combine to change the apparent radial velocity of the star. Therefore it is critical to identify an indicator of activity-driven radial-velocity variations on the timescale of stellar rotation periods. We use 617.3 nm photospheric filtergrams, magnetograms, and dopplergrams from SDO/HMI and 170.0 nm chromospheric filtergrams from AIA to identify magnetically-driven solar features and reconstruct the integrated solar radial velocity with six samples per day over the course of 2014. Breaking the solar image up into regions of umbrae, penumbrae, quiet Sun, network, and plages, we find a distinct variation in the center-to-limb intensity-weighted velocity for each region. In agreement with past studies, we find that the suppression of convective blueshift is dominated by plages and network, rather than dark photospheric features. In the future, this work will be highly useful for identifying indicators which correlate with rotationally modulated radial-velocity variations. This will allow us to break the activity barrier that currently precludes the precise characterization of exoplanet properties at the lowest masses. This work was supported by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1560313. This work was performed in part under contract with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute.

  10. Unique Signatures of Population III Stars in the Global 21-cm Signal

    Mirocha, Jordan; Mebane, Richard H.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Singal, Krishma; Trinh, Donald


    We investigate the effects of Population III stars on the sky-averaged 21-cm background radiation, which traces the collective emission from all sources of ultraviolet and X-ray photons before reionization is complete. While UV photons from Pop III stars can in principle shift the onset of radiative coupling of the 21-cm transition - and potentially reionization - to early times, we find that the remnants of Pop III stars are likely to have a more discernible impact on the 21-cm signal than Pop III stars themselves. The X-rays from such sources preferentially heat the IGM at early times, which elongates the epoch of reheating and results in a more gradual transition from an absorption signal to emission. This gradual heating gives rise to broad, asymmetric wings in the absorption signal, which stand in contrast to the relatively sharp, symmetric signals that arise in models treating Pop II sources only. A stronger signature of Pop III, in which the position of the absorption minimum becomes inconsistent with Pop II-only models, requires extreme star-forming events that may not be physically plausible, lending further credence to predictions of relatively high frequency absorption troughs, νmin ˜ 100 MHz. As a result, though the trough location alone may not be enough to indicate the presence of Pop III, the asymmetric wings should arise even if only a few Pop III stars form in each halo before the transition to Pop II star formation occurs, provided that the Pop III IMF is sufficiently top-heavy and at least some Pop III stars form in binaries.

  11. NuSTAR AND SWIFT Observations of the Fast Rotating Magnetized White Dwarf AE Aquarii

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Rana, Vikram R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; hide


    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(+0.18 / -0.45), 2.29(+0.96 / -0.82), and 9.33 (+6.07 / -2.18) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 (+0.34 / -0.23) and 4.64 (+1.58 / -0.84) keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 (+0.17 / -0.23). The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6% +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

  12. Rotation, spectral variability, magnetic geometry and magnetosphere of the Of?p star CPD -28° 2561

    Wade, G. A.; Barba, R. H.; Grunhut, J.; Martins, F.; Petit, V.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Alecian, E.; Alfaro, E. J.; Maíz Apellaniz, J; Arias, Julia Ines; Gamen, Roberto Claudio; Morrell, Nidia Irene; Naze, Y.


    We report magnetic and spectroscopic observations and modelling of the Of?p star CPD −28° 2561. Using more than 75 new spectra, we have measured the equivalent width variations and examined the dynamic spectra of photospheric and wind-sensitive spectral lines. A period search results in an unambiguous 73.41 d variability period. High-resolution spectropolarimetric data analysed using least-squares deconvolution yield a Zeeman signature detected in the mean Stokes V profile corresponding to ph...

  13. On the Pressure of a Neutron Gas Interacting with the Non-Uniform Magnetic Field of a Neutron Star

    Skobelev, V. V.


    On the basis of simple arguments, practically not going beyond the scope of an undergraduate course in general physics, we estimate the additional pressure (at zero temperature) of degenerate neutron matter due to its interaction with the non-uniform magnetic field of a neutron star. This work has methodological and possibly scientific value as an intuitive application of the content of such a course to a solution of topical problems of astrophysics.


    Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong


    The spin evolution of isolated neutron stars (NSs) is dominated by their magnetic fields. The measured braking indices of young NSs show that the spin-down mechanism due to magnetic dipole radiation with constant magnetic fields is inadequate. Assuming that the NS magnetic field is buried by supernova fallback matter and re-emerges after accretion stops, we carry out a Monte Carlo simulation of the evolution of young NSs, and show that most of the pulsars have braking indices ranging from –1 to 3. The results are compatible with the observational data of NSs associated with supernova remnants. They also suggest that the initial spin periods of NSs might occupy a relatively wide range

  15. Magnetic Modeling of Inflated Low-mass Stars Using Interior Fields No Larger than ˜10 kG

    MacDonald, James; Mullan, D. J.


    We have previously reported on models of low-mass stars in which the presence of inflated radii is ascribed to magnetic fields that impede the onset of convection. Some of our magneto-convection models have been criticized because, when they were first reported by Mullan & MacDonald, the deep interior fields were found to be very large (50-100 MG). Such large fields are now known to be untenable. For example, Browning et al. used stability arguments to suggest that interior fields in low-mass stars cannot be larger than ˜1 MG. Moreover, 3D models of turbulent stellar dynamos suggest that fields generated in low-mass interiors may be not much stronger than 10-20 kG. In the present paper, we present magneto-convective models of inflated low-mass stars in which the interior fields are not permitted to be stronger than 10 kG. These models are used to fit empirical data for 15 low-mass stars for which precise masses and radii have been measured. We show that our 10 kG magneto-convective models can replicate the empirical radii and effective temperatures for 14 of the stars. In the case of the remaining star (in the Praesepe cluster), two different solutions have been reported in the literature. We find that one of these solutions can be fitted well with our model using the nominal age of Praesepe (800 Myr). However, the second solution cannot be fitted unless the star’s age is assumed to be much younger (˜150 Myr).

  16. Globally Optimal Segmentation of Permanent-Magnet Systems

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders


    Permanent-magnet systems are widely used for generation of magnetic fields with specific properties. The reciprocity theorem, an energy-equivalence principle in magnetostatics, can be employed to calculate the optimal remanent flux density of the permanent-magnet system, given any objective...... remains unsolved. We show that the problem of optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional permanent-magnet assembly with respect to a linear objective functional can be reduced to the problem of piecewise linear approximation of a plane curve by perimeter maximization. Once the problem has been cast...

  17. The G+M eclipsing binary V530 Orionis: a stringent test of magnetic stellar evolution models for low-mass stars

    Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Pavlovski, Krešimir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sabby, Jeffrey A. [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Bruntt, Hans [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Clausen, Jens Viggo, E-mail: [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)


    We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components with errors of 0.7% and 1.3%, as follows: M {sub A} = 1.0038 ± 0.0066 M {sub ☉}, M {sub B} = 0.5955 ± 0.0022 M {sub ☉}, R {sub A} = 0.980 ± 0.013 R {sub ☉}, and R {sub B} = 0.5873 ± 0.0067 R {sub ☉}. The effective temperatures are 5890 ± 100 K (G1 V) and 3880 ± 120 K (M1 V), respectively. A detailed chemical analysis probing more than 20 elements in the primary spectrum shows the system to have a slightly subsolar abundance, with [Fe/H] = –0.12 ± 0.08. A comparison with theory reveals that standard models underpredict the radius and overpredict the temperature of the secondary, as has been found previously for other M dwarfs. On the other hand, models from the Dartmouth series incorporating magnetic fields are able to match the observations of the secondary star at the same age as the primary (∼3 Gyr) with a surface field strength of 2.1 ± 0.4 kG when using a rotational dynamo prescription, or 1.3 ± 0.4 kG with a turbulent dynamo approach, not far from our empirical estimate for this star of 0.83 ± 0.65 kG. The observations are most consistent with magnetic fields playing only a small role in changing the global properties of the primary. The V530 Ori system thus provides an important demonstration that recent advances in modeling appear to be on the right track to explain the long-standing problem of radius inflation and temperature suppression in low-mass stars.

  18. Atmospheres and spectra of strongly magnetized neutron stars - II. The effect of vacuum polarization

    Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lai, Dong


    We study the effect of vacuum polarization on the atmosphere structure and radiation spectra of neutron stars with surface magnetic fields B= 1014-1015 G, as appropriate for magnetars. Vacuum polarization modifies the dielectric property of the medium and gives rise to a resonance feature in the opacity; this feature is narrow and occurs at a photon energy that depends on the plasma density. Vacuum polarization can also induce resonant conversion of photon modes via a mechanism analogous to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism for neutrino oscillation. We construct atmosphere models in radiative equilibrium with an effective temperature of a few ×106 K by solving the full radiative transfer equations for both polarization modes in a fully ionized hydrogen plasma. We discuss the subtleties in treating the vacuum polarization effects in the atmosphere models and present approximate solutions to the radiative transfer problem which bracket the true answer. We show from both analytic considerations and numerical calculations that vacuum polarization produces a broad depression in the X-ray flux at high energies (a few keV <~E<~ a few tens of keV) as compared to models without vacuum polarization; this arises from the density dependence of the vacuum resonance feature and the large density gradient present in the atmosphere. Thus the vacuum polarization effect softens the high-energy tail of the thermal spectrum, although the atmospheric emission is still harder than the blackbody spectrum because of the non-grey opacities. We also show that the depression of continuum flux strongly suppresses the equivalent width of the ion cyclotron line and therefore makes the line more difficult to observe.


    MacDonald, James; Mullan, D. J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)


    Two eclipsing binaries in the USco association have recently yielded precise values of masses and radii for four low-mass members of the association. Standard evolution models would require these dM4.5–dM5 stars to have ages which are younger than those of more massive stars in the association by factors which appear (in extreme cases) to be as large as ∼3. Are the stars in the association therefore non-coeval? We suggest that the answer is no: by incorporating the effects of magnetic inhibition of convective onset, we show that the stars in USco can be restored to coevality provided the four low-mass member stars have vertical surface fields in the range 200–700 G. Fields of such magnitude have already been measured on the surface of certain solar-type stars in other young clusters.

  20. Automatic Mapping Extraction from Multiecho T2-Star Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images for Improving Morphological Evaluations in Human Brain

    Shaode Yu


    Full Text Available Mapping extraction is useful in medical image analysis. Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM replaced signal response to time course in tissue similarity mapping with signal response to TE changes in multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agent. Since different tissues are with different sensitivities to reference signals, a new algorithm is proposed by adding a sensitivity index to SCM. It generates two mappings. One measures relative signal strength (SSM and the other depicts fluctuation magnitude (FMM. Meanwhile, the new method is adaptive to generate a proper reference signal by maximizing the sum of contrast index (CI from SSM and FMM without manual delineation. Based on four groups of images from multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the capacity of SSM and FMM in enhancing image contrast and morphological evaluation is validated. Average contrast improvement index (CII of SSM is 1.57, 1.38, 1.34, and 1.41. Average CII of FMM is 2.42, 2.30, 2.24, and 2.35. Visual analysis of regions of interest demonstrates that SSM and FMM show better morphological structures than original images, T2-star mapping and SCM. These extracted mappings can be further applied in information fusion, signal investigation, and tissue segmentation.

  1. On the Origin of Sub-subgiant Stars. II. Binary Mass Transfer, Envelope Stripping, and Magnetic Activity

    Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M., E-mail: [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)


    Sub-subgiant stars (SSGs) lie to the red of the main sequence and fainter than the red giant branch in cluster color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs), a region not easily populated by standard stellar evolution pathways. While there has been speculation on what mechanisms may create these unusual stars, no well-developed theory exists to explain their origins. Here we discuss three hypotheses of SSG formation: (1) mass transfer in a binary system, (2) stripping of a subgiant’s envelope, perhaps during a dynamical encounter, and (3) reduced luminosity due to magnetic fields that lower convective efficiency and produce large starspots. Using the stellar evolution code MESA, we develop evolutionary tracks for each of these hypotheses, and compare the expected stellar and orbital properties of these models with six known SSGs in the two open clusters M67 and NGC 6791. All three of these mechanisms can create stars or binary systems in the SSG CMD domain. We also calculate the frequency with which each of these mechanisms may create SSG systems, and find that the magnetic field hypothesis is expected to create SSGs with the highest frequency in open clusters. Mass transfer and envelope stripping have lower expected formation frequencies, but may nevertheless create occasional SSGs in open clusters. They may also be important mechanisms to create SSGs in higher mass globular clusters.

  2. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  3. Global Infrared–Radio Spectral Energy Distributions of Galactic Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene


    We present a multiwavelength study of 30 Galactic massive star-forming regions. We fit multicomponent dust, blackbody, and power-law continuum models to 3.6 µm through 10 mm spectral energy distributions obtained from Spitzer, MSX, IRAS, Herschel, and Planck archival survey data. Averaged across our sample, ~20% of Lyman continuum photons emitted by massive stars are absorbed by dust before contributing to the ionization of H II regions, while ~50% of the stellar bolometric luminosity is absorbed and reprocessed by dust in the H II regions and surrounding photodissociation regions. The most luminous, infrared-bright regions that fully sample the upper stellar initial mass function (ionizing photon rates NC ≥ 1050 s–1 and total infrared luminosity LTIR ≥ 106.8 L⊙) have higher percentages of absorbed Lyman continuum photons (~40%) and dust-reprocessed starlight (~80%). The monochromatic 70-µm luminosity L70 is linearly correlated with LTIR, and on average L70/LTIR = 50%, in good agreement with extragalactic studies. Calibrated against the known massive stellar content in our sampled H II regions, we find that star formation rates based on L70 are in reasonably good agreement with extragalactic calibrations, when corrected for the smaller physical sizes of the Galactic regions. We caution that absorption of Lyman continuum photons prior to contributing to the observed ionizing photon rate may reduce the attenuation-corrected Hα emission, systematically biasing extragalactic calibrations toward lower star formation rates when applied to spatially-resolved studies of obscured star formation.This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under award CAREER-1454333.

  4. Global dynamics of magnetic reconnection in VINETA II

    Bohlin, Hannes


    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process where a change in field line connectivity occurs in a current sheet at the boundary between regions of opposing magnetic fields. In this process, energy stored in the magnetic field is converted into kinetic and thermal energy, which provides a source of plasma heating and energetic particles. Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in many space and laboratory plasma phenomena, e.g. solar flares, Earth's magnetopause dynamics and instabilities in tokamaks. A new linear device (VINETAII) has been designed for the study of the fundamental physical processes involved in magnetic reconnection. The plasma parameters are such that magnetic reconnection occurs in a collision-dominated regime. A plasma gun creates a localized current sheet, and magnetic reconnection is driven by modulating the plasma current and the magnetic field structure. The plasma current is shown to flow in response to a combination of an externally induced electric field and electrostatic fields in the plasma, and is highly affected by axial sheath boundary conditions. Further, the current is changed by an additional axial magnetic field (guide field), and the current sheet geometry was demonstrated to be set by a combination of magnetic mapping and cross-field plasma diffusion. With increasing distance from the plasma gun, magnetic mapping results in an increase of the current sheet length and a decrease of the width. The control parameter is the ratio of the guide field to the reconnection magnetic field strength. Cross-field plasma diffusion leads to a radial expansion of the current sheet at low guide fields. Plasma currents are also observed in the azimuthal plane and were found to originate from a combination of the field-aligned current component and the diamagnetic current generated by steep in-plane pressure gradients in combination with the guide field. The reconnection rate, defined via the inductive electric field, is shown to be

  5. Globally optimal, minimum stored energy, double-doughnut superconducting magnets.

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M


    The use of the minimum stored energy current density map-based methodology of designing closed-bore symmetric superconducting magnets was described recently. The technique is further developed to cater for the design of interventional-type MRI systems, and in particular open symmetric magnets of the double-doughnut configuration. This extends the work to multiple magnet domain configurations. The use of double-doughnut magnets in MRI scanners has previously been hindered by the ability to deliver strong magnetic fields over a sufficiently large volume appropriate for imaging, essentially limiting spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and field of view. The requirement of dedicated interventional space restricts the manner in which the coils can be arranged and placed. The minimum stored energy optimal coil arrangement ensures that the field strength is maximized over a specific region of imaging. The design method yields open, dual-domain magnets capable of delivering greater field strengths than those used prior to this work, and at the same time it provides an increase in the field-of-view volume. Simulation results are provided for 1-T double-doughnut magnets with at least a 50-cm 1-ppm (parts per million) field of view and 0.7-m gap between the two doughnuts. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Global changes in intensity of the Earth's magnetic field during the past 800kyr

    Guyodo, Yohan; Valet, Jean-Pierre


    Recent advances in palaeomagnetic and dating techniques have led to increasingly precise records of the relative intensity of the Earth’s past magnetic field at numerous field sites. The compilation and analysis of these records can provide important constraints on changes in global magnetic

  7. Flare stars

    Nicastro, A.J.


    The least massive, but possibly most numerous, stars in a galaxy are the dwarf M stars. It has been observed that some of these dwarfs are characterized by a short increase in brightness. These stars are called flare stars. These flare stars release a lot of energy in a short amount of time. The process producing the eruption must be energetic. The increase in light intensity can be explained by a small area rising to a much higher temperature. Solar flares are looked at to help understand the phenomenon of stellar flares. Dwarfs that flare are observed to have strong magnetic fields. Those dwarf without the strong magnetic field do not seem to flare. It is believed that these regions of strong magnetic fields are associated with star spots. Theories on the energy that power the flares are given. Astrophysicists theorize that the driving force of a stellar flare is the detachment and collapse of a loop of magnetic flux. The mass loss due to stellar flares is discussed. It is believed that stellar flares are a significant contributor to the mass of interstellar medium in the Milky Way

  8. Global dynamics of dust grains in magnetic planets

    Inarrea, Manuel; Lanchares, Victor; Palacian, Jesus F.; Pascual, Ana I.; Salas, J. Pablo; Yanguas, Patricia


    We study the dynamics of a charged particle orbiting a rotating magnetic planet. The system is modelled by the Hamiltonian of the two-body problem perturbed by an axially-symmetric potential. The perturbation consists in a magnetic dipole field and a corotational electric field. After an averaging process we arrive at a one degree of freedom Hamiltonian system for which we obtain its relative equilibria and bifurcations. It is shown that the system exhibits a complex and rich dynamics. In particular, dramatic changes in the phase flow take place in the vicinity of a circular equatorial orbit, that in the case of Saturn is located inside the E-ring

  9. Global dynamics of dust grains in magnetic planets

    Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain)]. E-mail:; Lanchares, Victor [Universidad de La Rioja, Departamento de Matematicas y Computacion, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Palacian, Jesus F. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Universidad de La Rioja, Departamento de Matematicas y Computacion, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)


    We study the dynamics of a charged particle orbiting a rotating magnetic planet. The system is modelled by the Hamiltonian of the two-body problem perturbed by an axially-symmetric potential. The perturbation consists in a magnetic dipole field and a corotational electric field. After an averaging process we arrive at a one degree of freedom Hamiltonian system for which we obtain its relative equilibria and bifurcations. It is shown that the system exhibits a complex and rich dynamics. In particular, dramatic changes in the phase flow take place in the vicinity of a circular equatorial orbit, that in the case of Saturn is located inside the E-ring.

  10. Theoretical basal Ca II fluxes for late-type stars: results from magnetic wave models with time-dependent ionization and multi-level radiation treatments

    Fawzy, Diaa E.; Stȩpień, K.


    In the current study we present ab initio numerical computations of the generation and propagation of longitudinal waves in magnetic flux tubes embedded in the atmospheres of late-type stars. The interaction between convective turbulence and the magnetic structure is computed and the obtained longitudinal wave energy flux is used in a self-consistent manner to excite the small-scale magnetic flux tubes. In the current study we reduce the number of assumptions made in our previous studies by considering the full magnetic wave energy fluxes and spectra as well as time-dependent ionization (TDI) of hydrogen, employing multi-level Ca II atomic models, and taking into account departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our models employ the recently confirmed value of the mixing-length parameter α=1.8. Regions with strong magnetic fields (magnetic filling factors of up to 50%) are also considered in the current study. The computed Ca II emission fluxes show a strong dependence on the magnetic filling factors, and the effect of time-dependent ionization (TDI) turns out to be very important in the atmospheres of late-type stars heated by acoustic and magnetic waves. The emitted Ca II fluxes with TDI included into the model are decreased by factors that range from 1.4 to 5.5 for G0V and M0V stars, respectively, compared to models that do not consider TDI. The results of our computations are compared with observations. Excellent agreement between the observed and predicted basal flux is obtained. The predicted trend of Ca II emission flux with magnetic filling factor and stellar surface temperature also agrees well with the observations but the calculated maximum fluxes for stars of different spectral types are about two times lower than observations. Though the longitudinal MHD waves considered here are important for chromosphere heating in high activity stars, additional heating mechanism(s) are apparently present.


    Meyer, K. A. [Division of Computing and Mathematics, Abertay University, Kydd Building, Dundee, Bell Street, DD1 1HG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mackay, D. H., E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    We present a new model for the Sun’s global photospheric magnetic field during a deep minimum of activity, in which no active regions emerge. The emergence and subsequent evolution of small-scale magnetic features across the full solar surface is simulated, subject to the influence of a global supergranular flow pattern. Visually, the resulting simulated magnetograms reproduce the typical structure and scale observed in quiet Sun magnetograms. Quantitatively, the simulation quickly reaches a steady state, resulting in a mean field and flux distribution that are in good agreement with those determined from observations. A potential coronal magnetic field is extrapolated from the simulated full Sun magnetograms to consider the implications of such a quiet photospheric magnetic field on the corona and inner heliosphere. The bulk of the coronal magnetic field closes very low down, in short connections between small-scale features in the simulated magnetic network. Just 0.1% of the photospheric magnetic flux is found to be open at 2.5 R {sub ⊙}, around 10–100 times less than that determined for typical Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager synoptic map observations. If such conditions were to exist on the Sun, this would lead to a significantly weaker interplanetary magnetic field than is currently observed, and hence a much higher cosmic ray flux at Earth.

  12. First Use of Synoptic Vector Magnetograms for Global Nonlinear, Force-Free Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    Tadesse, T.; Wiegelmann, T.; Gosain, S.; MacNeice, P.; Pevtsov, A. A.


    Context. The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere is generally thought to provide the energy for much of the activity seen in the solar corona, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), etc. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Currently, there are several modelling techniques being used to calculate three-dimensional field lines into the solar atmosphere. Aims. For the first time, synoptic maps of a photospheric-vector magnetic field synthesized from the vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) are used to model the coronal magnetic field and estimate free magnetic energy in the global scale. The free energy (i.e., the energy in excess of the potential field energy) is one of the main indicators used in space weather forecasts to predict the eruptivity of active regions. Methods. We solve the nonlinear force-free field equations using an optimization principle in spherical geometry. The resulting threedimensional magnetic fields are used to estimate the magnetic free energy content E(sub free) = E(sub nlfff) - E(sub pot), which is the difference of the magnetic energies between the nonpotential field and the potential field in the global solar corona. For comparison, we overlay the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the atmospheric imaging assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Results. For a single Carrington rotation 2121, we find that the global nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic energy density is 10.3% higher than the potential one. Most of this free energy is located in active regions.

  13. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping, E-mail: [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China)


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s{sup −1}, converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  14. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M.; Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhang, Qizhou; Qiu, Keping


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s −1 , converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.


    Shi, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Shuang-Nan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    We re-estimate the surface magnetic fields of neutron stars (NSs) in Be X-ray binaries (BeXBs) with different models of torque, improved beyond Klus et al. In particular, a new torque model is applied to three models of magnetosphere radius. Unlike the previous models, the new torque model does not lead to divergent results for any fastness parameter. The inferred surface magnetic fields of these NSs for the two compressed magnetosphere models are much higher than that for the uncompressed magnetosphere model. The new torque model using the compressed magnetosphere radius leads to unique solutions near spin equilibrium in all cases, unlike other models that usually give two branches of solutions. Although our conclusions are still affected by the simplistic assumptions about the magnetosphere radius calculations, we show several groups of possible surface magnetic field values with our new models when the interaction between the magnetosphere and the infalling accretion plasma is considered. The estimated surface magnetic fields for NSs BeXBs in the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Milk Way are between the quantum critical field and the maximum “virial” value by the spin equilibrium condition.


    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, Nicola [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Da Cunha, Elisabete [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118, Heidelberg (Germany); Jonsson, Patrik, E-mail: [Space Exploration Technologies, 1 Rocket Road, Hawthorne, CA 90250 (United States)


    We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 28 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared (FIR) for 31 interacting galaxies in 14 systems. The sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey, which probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters at multiple wavelengths with an emphasis on the infrared bands. The subset presented in this paper consists of all galaxies for which FIR Herschel SPIRE observations are publicly available. Our SEDs combine the Herschel photometry with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer, GALEX, Swift UVOT, and 2MASS. While the shapes of the SEDs are broadly similar across our sample, strongly interacting galaxies typically have more mid-infrared emission relative to their near-infrared and FIR emission than weakly or moderately interacting galaxies. We modeled the full SEDs to derive host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), specific star formation rates (sSFRs), stellar masses, dust temperatures, dust luminosities, and dust masses. We find increases in the dust luminosity and mass, SFR, and cold (15-25 K) dust temperature as the interaction progresses from moderately to strongly interacting and between non-interacting and strongly interacting galaxies. We also find increases in the SFR between weakly and strongly interacting galaxies. In contrast, the sSFR remains unchanged across all the interaction stages. The ultraviolet photometry is crucial for constraining the age of the stellar population and the SFR, while dust mass is primarily determined by SPIRE photometry. The SFR derived from the SED modeling agrees well with rates estimated by proportionality relations that depend on infrared emission.

  17. Accretion by rotating magnetic neutron stars. III. Accretion torques and period changes in pulsating X-ray sources

    Ghosh, P.; Lamb, F.K.


    We use the solutions of the two-dimensional hydromagnetic equations obtained previously to calculate the torque on a magnetic neutron star accreting from a Keplerian disk. We find that the magnetic coupling between the star and the plasma outside the inner edge of the disk is appreciable. As a result of this coupling the spin-up torque on fast rotators is substantially less than that on slow rotators; for sufficiently high stellar angular velocities or sufficiently low accretion rates this coupling dominates that de to the plasma and the magnetic field at the inner edge of the disk, braking the star's rotation even while accretion, and hence X-ray emission, continues.We apply these results to pulsating X-ray sources, and show that the observed secular spin-up rates of all the sources in which this rate has been measured can be accounted for quantitatively if one assumes that these sources are accreting from Keplerian disks and have magnetic moments approx.10 29 --10 32 gauss cm 3 . The reduction of the torque on fast rotators provides a natural explanation of the spin-up rate of Her X-1, which is much below that expected for slow rotators. We show further that a simple relation between the secular spin-up rate : P and the quantity PL/sup 3/7/ adequately represents almost all the observational data, P and L being the pulse period and the luminosity of the source, respectively. This ''universal'' relation enables one to estimate any one of the parameters P, P, and L for a given source if the other two are known. We show that the short-term period fluctuations observed in Her X-1, Cen X-3, Vela X-1, and X Per can be accounted for quite naturally as consequences of torque variations caused by fluctuations in the mass transfer rate. We also indicate how the spin-down torque at low luminosities found here may account for the paradoxical existence of a large number of long-period sources with short spin-up time scales

  18. A magnetic confinement versus rotation classification of massive-star magnetospheres

    Petit, V.; Owocki, S. P.; Wade, G.A.; Cohen, D.H.; Sundqvist, J.O.; Gagne, M.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.M.; Oksala, Mary E.; Bohlender, D.A.; Rivinius, T.; Henrichs, H.F.; Alecian, E.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Ud-Doula, A.


    Roč. 429, č. 1 (2013), s. 398-422 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1198 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : circumstellar matter * early-type stars * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.226, year: 2013

  19. The Radius and Entropy of a Magnetized, Rotating, Fully Convective Star: Analysis with Depth-dependent Mixing Length Theories

    Ireland, Lewis G.; Browning, Matthew K.


    Some low-mass stars appear to have larger radii than predicted by standard 1D structure models; prior work has suggested that inefficient convective heat transport, due to rotation and/or magnetism, may ultimately be responsible. We examine this issue using 1D stellar models constructed using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). First, we consider standard models that do not explicitly include rotational/magnetic effects, with convective inhibition modeled by decreasing a depth-independent mixing length theory (MLT) parameter α MLT. We provide formulae linking changes in α MLT to changes in the interior specific entropy, and hence to the stellar radius. Next, we modify the MLT formulation in MESA to mimic explicitly the influence of rotation and magnetism, using formulations suggested by Stevenson and MacDonald & Mullan, respectively. We find rapid rotation in these models has a negligible impact on stellar structure, primarily because a star’s adiabat, and hence its radius, is predominantly affected by layers near the surface; convection is rapid and largely uninfluenced by rotation there. Magnetic fields, if they influenced convective transport in the manner described by MacDonald & Mullan, could lead to more noticeable radius inflation. Finally, we show that these non-standard effects on stellar structure can be fabricated using a depth-dependent α MLT: a non-magnetic, non-rotating model can be produced that is virtually indistinguishable from one that explicitly parameterizes rotation and/or magnetism using the two formulations above. We provide formulae linking the radially variable α MLT to these putative MLT reformulations.

  20. Determining global parameters of the oscillations of solar-like stars

    Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Régulo, C.


    Context. Helioseismology has enabled us to better understand the solar interior, while also allowing us to better constrain solar models. But now is a tremendous epoch for asteroseismology as space missions dedicated to studying stellar oscillations have been launched within the last years (MOST....... Aims. The goal of this research work is to estimate the global parameters of any solar-like oscillating target in an automatic manner. We want to determine the global parameters of the acoustic modes (large separation, range of excited pressure modes, maximum amplitude, and its corresponding frequency...

  1. BANYAN. IV. Fundamental parameters of low-mass star candidates in nearby young stellar kinematic groups—isochronal age determination using magnetic evolutionary models

    Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Riedel, Adric, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)


    Based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we determine fundamental parameters (T {sub eff}, R, L {sub bol}, log g, and metallicity) for 59 candidate members of nearby young kinematic groups. The candidates were identified through the BANYAN Bayesian inference method of Malo et al., which takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, color, radial velocity, and parallax (when available) to establish a membership probability. The derived parameters are compared to Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models and field stars with the goal of constraining the age of our candidates. We find that, in general, low-mass stars in our sample are more luminous and have inflated radii compared to older stars, a trend expected for pre-main-sequence stars. The Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models show a good fit to observations of field K and M stars, assuming a magnetic field strength of a few kG, as typically observed for cool stars. Using the low-mass members of the β Pictoris moving group, we have re-examined the age inconsistency problem between lithium depletion age and isochronal age (Hertzspring-Russell diagram). We find that the inclusion of the magnetic field in evolutionary models increases the isochronal age estimates for the K5V-M5V stars. Using these models and field strengths, we derive an average isochronal age between 15 and 28 Myr and we confirm a clear lithium depletion boundary from which an age of 26 ± 3 Myr is derived, consistent with previous age estimates based on this method.

  2. ULX spectra revisited: Accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars as the engines of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Koliopanos, Filippos; Vasilopoulos, Georgios; Godet, Olivier; Bachetti, Matteo; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier


    Aims: In light of recent discoveries of pulsating ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and recently introduced theoretical schemes that propose neutron stars (NSs) as the central engines of ULXs, we revisit the spectra of eighteen well known ULXs, in search of indications that favour this newly emerging hypothesis. Methods: We examine the spectra from high-quality XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. We use a combination of elementary black body and multicolour disk black body (MCD) models, to diagnose the predictions of classic and novel theoretical models of accretion onto NSs. We re-interpret the well established spectral characteristics of ULXs in terms of accretion onto lowly or highly magnetised NSs, and explore the resulting parameter space for consistency. Results: We confirm the previously noted presence of the low-energy (≲6 keV) spectral rollover and argue that it could be interpreted as due to thermal emission. The spectra are well described by a double thermal model consisting of a "hot" (≳1 keV) and a "cool" (≲0.7 keV) multicolour black body (MCB). Under the assumption that the "cool" MCD emission originates in a disk truncated at the neutron star magnetosphere, we find that all ULXs in our sample are consistent with accretion onto a highly magnetised (B ≳ 1012 G) neutron star. We note a strong correlation between the strength of the magnetic field, the temperature of the "hot" thermal component and the total unabsorbed luminosity. Examination of the NuSTAR data supports this interpretation and also confirms the presence of a weak, high-energy (≳15 keV) tail, most likely the result of modification of the MCB emission by inverse Compton scattering. We also note that the apparent high-energy tail, may simply be the result of mismodelling of MCB emission with an atypical temperature (T) versus radius (r) gradient, using a standard MCD model with a fixed gradient of T r-0.75. Conclusions: We have offered a new and robust physical interpretation for

  3. Optimizing Global Coronal Magnetic Field Models Using Image-Based Constraints

    Jones-Mecholsky, Shaela I.; Davila, Joseph M.; Uritskiy, Vadim


    The coronal magnetic field directly or indirectly affects a majority of the phenomena studied in the heliosphere. It provides energy for coronal heating, controls the release of coronal mass ejections, and drives heliospheric and magnetospheric activity, yet the coronal magnetic field itself has proven difficult to measure. This difficulty has prompted a decades-long effort to develop accurate, timely, models of the field, an effort that continues today. We have developed a method for improving global coronal magnetic field models by incorporating the type of morphological constraints that could be derived from coronal images. Here we report promising initial tests of this approach on two theoretical problems, and discuss opportunities for application.

  4. The [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] star-type single-molecule magnet.

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas; Bernt, Ingo; Heinemann, Frank W; Postnikov, Andrei V; Schünemann, Volker; Trautwein, Alfred X; Alam, Mohammad S; Rupp, Holger; Müller, Paul


    Star-shaped complex [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] (3) was synthesized starting from N-methyldiethanolamine H2L1 (1) and ferric chloride in the presence of sodium hydride. For 3, two different high-spin iron(III) ion sites were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at 77 K. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination revealed that 3 crystallizes with four molecules of chloroform, but, with only three molecules of dichloromethane. The unit cell of 3.4CHCl3 contains the enantiomers (delta)-[(S,S)(R,R)(R,R)] and (lambda)-[(R,R)(S,S)(S,S)], whereas in case of 3.3CH2Cl2 four independent molecules, forming pairs of the enantiomers [lambda-(R,R)(R,R)(R,R)]-3 and [lambda-(S,S)(S,S)(S,S)]-3, were observed in the unit cell. According to SQUID measurements, the antiferromagnetic intramolecular coupling of the iron(III) ions in 3 results in a S = 10/2 ground state multiplet. The anisotropy is of the easy-axis type. EPR measurements enabled an accurate determination of the ligand-field splitting parameters. The ferric star 3 is a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics below a blocking temperature of about 1.2 K. However, weak intermolecular couplings, mediated in a chainlike fashion via solvent molecules, have a strong influence on the magnetic properties. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) were used to determine the structural and electronic properties of star-type tetranuclear iron(III) complex 3. The molecules were deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Small, regular molecule clusters, two-dimensional monolayers as well as separated single molecules were observed. In our STS measurements we found a rather large contrast at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules. This direct addressing of the metal centers was confirmed by DFT calculations.

  5. Numerical study of rotating relativistic stars

    Wilson, J.R.


    The equations of structure for rotating stars in general relativity are presented and put in a form suitable for computer calculations. The results of equilibrium calculations for supermassive stars, neutron stars, and magnetically supported stars are reported, as are calculations of collapsing, rotating, and magnetized stars in the slowly changing gravitational field approximation. (auth)

  6. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in transient global amnesia

    Godeiro-Junior, Clecio; Miranda-Alves, Maramelia Araujo de [Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo SP (Brazil). Dept. of Neurology and Neurosurgery], e-mail:; Massaro, Ayrton Roberto [Fleury Diagnostic Center, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)


    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a well known clinical entity characterized by anterograde memory disturbance of sudden onset that lasts 1 to 24 hours. Orientation in space and time is impaired while consciousness remains undisturbed. TGA may refer to a single expression of several physiopathological phenomena. Conceptually, cerebral ischemia, epileptic discharge, and migraine constitute the main pathogenic hypothesis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected stroke owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, even for small areas of acute ischemia. Consequently, this method has also been applied to TGA to gain further insights into the ischemic hypothesis of this condition. We report a patient with a typical TGA presentation and MRI findings suggestive of an ischemic insult. We further discuss the ischemic hypothesis of TGA. (author)

  7. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in transient global amnesia

    Godeiro-Junior, Clecio; Miranda-Alves, Maramelia Araujo de


    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a well known clinical entity characterized by anterograde memory disturbance of sudden onset that lasts 1 to 24 hours. Orientation in space and time is impaired while consciousness remains undisturbed. TGA may refer to a single expression of several physiopathological phenomena. Conceptually, cerebral ischemia, epileptic discharge, and migraine constitute the main pathogenic hypothesis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected stroke owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, even for small areas of acute ischemia. Consequently, this method has also been applied to TGA to gain further insights into the ischemic hypothesis of this condition. We report a patient with a typical TGA presentation and MRI findings suggestive of an ischemic insult. We further discuss the ischemic hypothesis of TGA. (author)

  8. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. VI. Age distribution and cluster formation history

    Piskunov, A. E.; Just, A.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Berczik, P.; Scholz, R.-D.; Reffert, S.; Yen, S. X.


    Context. The all-sky Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey provides uniform and precise ages, along with other relevant parameters, for a wide variety of clusters in the extended solar neighbourhood. Aims: In this study we aim to construct the cluster age distribution, investigate its spatial variations, and discuss constraints on cluster formation scenarios of the Galactic disk during the last 5 Gyrs. Methods: Due to the spatial extent of the MWSC, we have considered spatial variations of the age distribution along galactocentric radius RG, and along Z-axis. For the analysis of the age distribution we used 2242 clusters, which all lie within roughly 2.5 kpc of the Sun. To connect the observed age distribution to the cluster formation history we built an analytical model based on simple assumptions on the cluster initial mass function and on the cluster mass-lifetime relation, fit it to the observations, and determined the parameters of the cluster formation law. Results: Comparison with the literature shows that earlier results strongly underestimated the number of evolved clusters with ages t ≳ 100 Myr. Recent studies based on all-sky catalogues agree better with our data, but still lack the oldest clusters with ages t ≳ 1 Gyr. We do not observe a strong variation in the age distribution along RG, though we find an enhanced fraction of older clusters (t > 1 Gyr) in the inner disk. In contrast, the distribution strongly varies along Z. The high altitude distribution practically does not contain clusters with t < 1 Gyr. With simple assumptions on the cluster formation history, the cluster initial mass function and the cluster lifetime we can reproduce the observations. The cluster formation rate and the cluster lifetime are strongly degenerate, which does not allow us to disentangle different formation scenarios. In all cases the cluster formation rate is strongly declining with time, and the cluster initial mass function is very shallow at the high mass end.

  9. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. II. On the Radii of Single, Rapidly Rotating, Fully Convective M-Dwarf Stars

    Kesseli, Aurora Y.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Mann, Andrew W.; Mace, Greg


    Main-sequence, fully convective M dwarfs in eclipsing binaries are observed to be larger than stellar evolutionary models predict by as much as 10%–15%. A proposed explanation for this discrepancy involves effects from strong magnetic fields, induced by rapid rotation via the dynamo process. Although, a handful of single, slowly rotating M dwarfs with radius measurements from interferometry also appear to be larger than models predict, suggesting that rotation or binarity specifically may not be the sole cause of the discrepancy. We test whether single, rapidly rotating, fully convective stars are also larger than expected by measuring their R\\sin i distribution. We combine photometric rotation periods from the literature with rotational broadening (v\\sin i) measurements reported in this work for a sample of 88 rapidly rotating M dwarf stars. Using a Bayesian framework, we find that stellar evolutionary models underestimate the radii by 10 % {--}15{ % }-2.5+3, but that at higher masses (0.18 theory is 13%–18%, and we argue that the discrepancy is unlikely to be due to effects from age. Furthermore, we find no statistically significant radius discrepancy between our sample and the handful of M dwarfs with interferometric radii. We conclude that neither rotation nor binarity are responsible for the inflated radii of fully convective M dwarfs, and that all fully convective M dwarfs are larger than models predict.

  10. Global perception depends on coherent work of bilateral visual cortices: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies.

    Zhang, Xin; Han, ShiHui


    Previous research suggests that the right and left hemispheres dominate global and local perception of hierarchical patterns, respectively. The current work examined whether global perception of hierarchical stimuli requires coherent work of bilateral visual cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects discriminated global or local properties of compound letters in Experiment 1. Reaction times were recorded when single-pulse real TMS or sham TMS was delivered over the left or right visual cortex. While a global precedence effect (i.e., faster responses to global than local targets and stronger global-to-local interference than the reverse) was observed, TMS decreased global-to-local interference whereas increased local-to-global interference. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the effects observed in Experiment 1 resulted from perceptual learning. Experiment 3 used compound shapes and observed TMS effect similar to that in Experiment 1. Moreover, TMS also slowed global RTs whereas speeded up local RTs in Experiment 3. Finally, the TMS effects observed in Experiments 1 and 3 did not differ between the conditions when TMS was applied over the left and right hemispheres. The results support a coherence hypothesis that global perception of compound stimuli depends upon the coherent work of bilateral visual cortices.

  11. Global low-frequency modes in weakly ionized magnetized plasmas: effects of equilibrium plasma rotation

    Sosenko, P.; Pierre, Th.; Zagorodny, A.


    The linear and non-linear properties of global low-frequency oscillations in cylindrical weakly ionized magnetized plasmas are investigated analytically for the conditions of equilibrium plasma rotation. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental observations of rotating plasmas in laboratory devices, such as Mistral and Mirabelle in France, and KIWI in Germany. (authors)

  12. Disordered nuclear pasta, magnetic field decay, and crust cooling in neutron stars

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Cumming, A.; Schneider, A. S.


    Nuclear pasta, with non-spherical shapes, is expected near the base of the crust in neutron stars. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of pasta show long lived topological defects that could increase electron scattering and reduce both the thermal and electrical conductivities. We model a possible low conductivity pasta layer by increasing an impurity parameter Q_{imp}. Predictions of light curves for the low mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29, assuming a large Q_{imp}, find continued late ...

  13. Similarity solutions for explosions in radiating stars with time-dependent energy and idealized magnetic field

    Verma, G.B.; Vishwakarma, J.P.; Sharan, V.


    A stellar model in which density in the undisturbed conducting-gas medium is assumed to obey a power law is considered. Similarity solutions for central explosion in radiating stars have been obtained under the assumption of isothermal-shock conditions. For the existence of self-similar character, it has been assumed that both radiation pressure and energy are negligible. The results of numerical calculations for different models are illustrated through graphs. Moreover, a comparative study has been made between the results in ordinary gasdynamics and those obtained in magnetogasdynamics

  14. Solar magnetism eXplorer (SolmeX). Exploring the magnetic field in the upper atmosphere of our closest star

    Peter, Hardi; Abbo, L.; Andretta, V.; Auchère, F.; Bemporad, A.; Berrilli, F.; Bommier, V.; Braukhane, A.; Casini, R.; Curdt, W.; Davila, J.; Dittus, H.; Fineschi, S.; Fludra, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Griffin, D.; Inhester, B.; Lagg, A.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.; Maiwald, V.; Sainz, R. Manso; Martínez Pillet, V; Matthews, S.; Moses, D.; Parenti, S.; Pietarila, A.; Quantius, D.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Raymond, J.; Rochus, P.; Romberg, O.; Schlotterer, M.; Schühle, U.; Solanki, S.; Spadaro, D.; Teriaca, L.; Tomczyk, S.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Vial, J.-C.


    The magnetic field plays a pivotal role in many fields of Astrophysics. This is especially true for the physics of the solar atmosphere. Measuring the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere is crucial to understand the nature of the underlying physical processes that drive the violent dynamics of the solar corona—that can also affect life on Earth. SolmeX, a fully equipped solar space observatory for remote-sensing observations, will provide the first comprehensive measurements of the strength and direction of the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere. The mission consists of two spacecraft, one carrying the instruments, and another one in formation flight at a distance of about 200 m carrying the occulter to provide an artificial total solar eclipse. This will ensure high-quality coronagraphic observations above the solar limb. SolmeX integrates two spectro-polarimetric coronagraphs for off-limb observations, one in the EUV and one in the IR, and three instruments for observations on the disk. The latter comprises one imaging polarimeter in the EUV for coronal studies, a spectro-polarimeter in the EUV to investigate the low corona, and an imaging spectro-polarimeter in the UV for chromospheric studies. SOHO and other existing missions have investigated the emission of the upper atmosphere in detail (not considering polarization), and as this will be the case also for missions planned for the near future. Therefore it is timely that SolmeX provides the final piece of the observational quest by measuring the magnetic field in the upper atmosphere through polarimetric observations.


    Chen, Wen-Cong [School of Physics and Electrical Information, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Podsiadlowski, Philipp, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)


    It is generally believed that ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) evolved from binaries consisting of a neutron star accreting from a low-mass white dwarf (WD) or helium star where mass transfer is driven by gravitational radiation. However, the standard WD evolutionary channel cannot produce the relatively long-period (40–60 minutes) UCXBs with a high time-averaged mass-transfer rate. In this work, we explore an alternative evolutionary route toward UCXBs, where the companions evolve from intermediate-mass Ap/Bp stars with an anomalously strong magnetic field (100–10,000 G). Including the magnetic braking caused by the coupling between the magnetic field and an irradiation-driven wind induced by the X-ray flux from the accreting component, we show that intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (IMXBs) can evolve into UCXBs. Using the MESA code, we have calculated evolutionary sequences for a large number of IMXBs. The simulated results indicate that, for a small wind-driving efficiency f = 10{sup −5}, the anomalous magnetic braking can drive IMXBs to an ultra-short period of 11 minutes. Comparing our simulated results with the observed parameters of 15 identified UCXBs, the anomalous magnetic braking evolutionary channel can account for the formation of seven and eight sources with f = 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −5}, respectively. In particular, a relatively large value of f can fit three of the long-period, persistent sources with a high mass-transfer rate. Though the proportion of Ap/Bp stars in intermediate-mass stars is only 5%, the lifetime of the UCXB phase is ≳2 Gyr, producing a relatively high number of observable systems, making this an alternative evolutionary channel for the formation of UCXBs.

  16. An Equivalent Source Method for Modelling the Global Lithospheric Magnetic Field

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Hammer, Magnus Danel; Finlay, Chris


    We present a new technique for modelling the global lithospheric magnetic field at Earth's surface based on the estimation of equivalent potential field sources. As a demonstration we show an application to magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite during the period 2009-2010 when...... are also employed to minimize the influence of the ionospheric field. The model for the remaining lithospheric magnetic field consists of magnetic point sources (monopoles) arranged in an icosahedron grid. The corresponding source values are estimated using an iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm...... in the CHAOS-4 and MF7 models using more conventional spherical harmonic based approaches. Advantages of the equivalent source method include its local nature, allowing e.g. for regional grid refinement, and the ease of transforming to spherical harmonics when needed. Future applications will make use of Swarm...

  17. The dipole corrector magnets for the RHIC fast global orbit feedback system

    Thieberger, P.; Arnold, L.; Folz, C.; Hulsart, R.; Jain, A.; Karl, R.; Mahler, G.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ritter, J.; Smart, L.; Tuozzolo, J.; White, J.


    The recently completed RHIC fast global orbit feedback system uses 24 small 'window-frame' horizontal dipole correctors. Space limitations dictated a very compact design. The magnetic design and modelling of these laminated yoke magnets is described as well as the mechanical implementation, coil winding, vacuum impregnation, etc. Test procedures to determine the field quality and frequency response are described. The results of these measurements are presented and discussed. A small fringe field from each magnet, overlapping the opposite RHIC ring, is compensated by a correction winding placed on the opposite ring's magnet and connected in series with the main winding of the first one. Results from measurements of this compensation scheme are shown and discussed.

  18. "Journey to the Stars": Presenting What Stars Are to Global Planetarium Audiences by Blending Astrophysical Visualizations Into a Single Immersive Production at the American Museum of Natural History

    Emmart, Carter; Mac Low, M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Kinzler, R.; Paglione, T. A. D.; Abbott, B. P.


    "Journey to the Stars" is the latest and fourth space show based on storytelling from data visualization at the Rose Center for Earth and Space at the American Museum of Natural History. This twenty five minute, full dome movie production presents to planetarium audiences what the stars are, where they come from, how they vary in type and over time, and why they are important to life of Earth. Over forty scientists from around the world contributed their research to what is visualized into roughly fifteen major scenes. How this production is directed into a consolidated immersive informal science experience with learning goals is an integrative process with many inputs and concerns for scientific accuracy. The goal is a seamless merger of visualizations at varying spatial and temporal scales with acuity toward depth perception, revealing unseen phenomena, and the layering of concepts together to build an understanding of stars; to blend our common experience of them in the sky with the uncommon meaning we have come to know through science. Scripted by Louise Gikow who has worked for Children's Television Workshop, narrated by Whoopie Goldberg, and musically scored by Robert Miller, this production strives to guide audiences through challenging scientific concepts by complimenting the natural beauty the subject matter presents with understandable prose and musical grandeur. "Journey to the Stars" was produced in cooperation with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Heliophysics Division and is in release at major planetariums, worldwide.

  19. Polarization Properties and Magnetic Field Structures in the High-mass Star-forming Region W51 Observed with ALMA

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Su, Yu-Nung; Takakuwa, Shigehisa


    We present the first ALMA dust polarization observations toward the high-mass star-forming regions W51 e2, e8, and W51 North in Band 6 (230 GHz) with a resolution of about 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 26 (∼5 mpc). Polarized emission in all three sources is clearly detected and resolved. Measured relative polarization levels are between 0.1% and 10%. While the absolute polarization shows complicated structures, the relative polarization displays the typical anticorrelation with Stokes I, although with a large scatter. Inferred magnetic (B) field morphologies are organized and connected. Detailed substructures are resolved, revealing new features such as comet-shaped B-field morphologies in satellite cores, symmetrically converging B-field zones, and possibly streamlined morphologies. The local B-field dispersion shows some anticorrelation with the relative polarization. Moreover, the lowest polarization percentages together with largest dispersions coincide with B-field convergence zones. We put forward \\sin ω , where ω is the measurable angle between a local B-field orientation and local gravity, as a measure of how effectively the B field can oppose gravity. Maps of \\sin ω for all three sources show organized structures that suggest a locally varying role of the B field, with some regions where gravity can largely act unaffectedly, possibly in a network of narrow magnetic channels, and other regions where the B field can work maximally against gravity.

  20. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part I: minimum stored energy (MSE) current density map.

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M


    An optimal current density map is crucial in magnet design to provide the initial values within search spaces in an optimization process for determining the final coil arrangement of the magnet. A strategy for obtaining globally optimal current density maps for the purpose of designing magnets with coaxial cylindrical coils in which the stored energy is minimized within a constrained domain is outlined. The current density maps obtained utilising the proposed method suggests that peak current densities occur around the perimeter of the magnet domain, where the adjacent peaks have alternating current directions for the most compact designs. As the dimensions of the domain are increased, the current density maps yield traditional magnet designs of positive current alone. These unique current density maps are obtained by minimizing the stored magnetic energy cost function and therefore suggest magnet coil designs of minimal system energy. Current density maps are provided for a number of different domain arrangements to illustrate the flexibility of the method and the quality of the achievable designs.

  1. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. I. Revised Parameters for the Component Stars of the Kepler Low-mass Eclipsing Binary T-Cyg1-12664

    Han, Eunkyu; Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Swift, Jonathan J. [The Thacher School, 5025 Thacher Road Ojai, CA 93023 (United States); Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaiì at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [McDonald Observatory and The University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); DeFelippis, Daniel, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    Several low-mass eclipsing binary stars show larger than expected radii for their measured mass, metallicity, and age. One proposed mechanism for this radius inflation involves inhibited internal convection and starspots caused by strong magnetic fields. One particular eclipsing binary, T-Cyg1-12664, has proven confounding to this scenario. Çakırlı et al. measured a radius for the secondary component that is twice as large as model predictions for stars with the same mass and age, but a primary mass that is consistent with predictions. Iglesias-Marzoa et al. independently measured the radii and masses of the component stars and found that the radius of the secondary is not in fact inflated with respect to models, but that the primary is, which is consistent with the inhibited convection scenario. However, in their mass determinations, Iglesias-Marzoa et al. lacked independent radial velocity measurements for the secondary component due to the star’s faintness at optical wavelengths. The secondary component is especially interesting, as its purported mass is near the transition from partially convective to a fully convective interior. In this article, we independently determined the masses and radii of the component stars of T-Cyg1-12664 using archival Kepler data and radial velocity measurements of both component stars obtained with IGRINS on the Discovery Channel Telescope and NIRSPEC and HIRES on the Keck Telescopes. We show that neither of the component stars is inflated with respect to models. Our results are broadly consistent with modern stellar evolutionary models for main-sequence M dwarf stars and do not require inhibited convection by magnetic fields to account for the stellar radii.

  2. Diurnal global variability of the Earth's magnetic field during geomagnetically quiet conditions

    Klausner, V.


    This work proposes a methodology (or treatment) to establish a representative signal of the global magnetic diurnal variation. It is based on a spatial distribution in both longitude and latitude of a set of magnetic stations as well as their magnetic behavior on a time basis. We apply the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique using gapped wavelet transform and wavelet correlation. This new approach was used to describe the characteristics of the magnetic variations at Vassouras (Brazil) and 12 other magnetic stations spread around the terrestrial globe. Using magnetograms from 2007, we have investigated the global dominant pattern of the Sq variation as a function of low solar activity. This year was divided into two seasons for seasonal variation analysis: solstices (June and December) and equinoxes (March and September). We aim to reconstruct the original geomagnetic data series of the H component taking into account only the diurnal variations with periods of 24 hours on geomagnetically quiet days. We advance a proposal to reconstruct the Sq baseline using only the PCA first mode. The first interpretation of the results suggests that PCA/wavelet method could be used to the reconstruction of the Sq baseline.

  3. Neutron stars

    Irvine, J.M.


    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: introduction (resume of stellar evolution, gross characteristics of neutron stars); pulsars (pulsar characteristics, pulsars as neutron stars); neutron star temperatures (neutron star cooling, superfluidity and superconductivity in neutron stars); the exterior of neutron stars (the magnetosphere, the neutron star 'atmosphere', pulses); neutron star structure; neutron star equations of state. (U.K.)

  4. Chemical analysis of carbon stars in the local group - l.  The small magnetic cloud and the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy

    de Laverny...[], P.; Abia, C.; Dominguez, I


    Stars: abundances, stars: carbon, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, galaxies: Local Group Udgivelsesdato: Feb.......Stars: abundances, stars: carbon, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, galaxies: Local Group Udgivelsesdato: Feb....

  5. Si:P as a laboratory analogue for hydrogen on high magnetic field white dwarf stars.

    Murdin, B N; Li, Juerong; Pang, M L Y; Bowyer, E T; Litvinenko, K L; Clowes, S K; Engelkamp, H; Pidgeon, C R; Galbraith, I; Abrosimov, N V; Riemann, H; Pavlov, S G; Hübers, H-W; Murdin, P G


    Laboratory spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic flux density of 10(5) T (1 gigagauss), the maximum observed on high-field magnetic white dwarfs, is impossible because practically available fields are about a thousand times less. In this regime, the cyclotron and binding energies become equal. Here we demonstrate Lyman series spectra for phosphorus impurities in silicon up to the equivalent field, which is scaled to 32.8 T by the effective mass and dielectric constant. The spectra reproduce the high-field theory for free hydrogen, with quadratic Zeeman splitting and strong mixing of spherical harmonics. They show the way for experiments on He and H(2) analogues, and for investigation of He(2), a bound molecule predicted under extreme field conditions.

  6. Activity in Very Cool Stars: Magnetic Dissipation in Late M and L Dwarf Atmospheres

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Basri, Gibor; Shu, Frank; Allard, France; Chabrier, Gilles


    Recent observations show that chromospheric Hα activity in late M and L dwarfs is much lower than in the earlier M types. This is particularly surprising given that the late M and L dwarfs are comparatively very rapid rotators: in the early M dwarfs, rapid rotation is associated with high activity levels. One possibility is that the drop-off in activity in the late M and L dwarfs is a result of very high electrical resistivities in their dense, cool, and predominantly neutral atmospheres.We calculate the magnetic field diffusivity in the atmospheres of objects with Teff in the range 3000-1500 K (mid M to late L) using the atmospheric structure models of Allard and Hauschildt. We find that the combination of very low ionization fraction and high density in these atmospheres results in very large resistivities and thus efficient field diffusion. While both ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic decay of currents due to ion-electron collisions occur, the primary diffusion effects are due to current decay through collisions of charged particles with neutrals. Moreover, the latter resistivity is a strong function of both effective temperature and optical depth, increasing rapidly as either Teff or optical depth decreases. This has two implications: (1) Any magnetic field present is increasingly decoupled from atmospheric fluid motions as one moves from mid M to L. In the late M and L dwarfs, atmospheric motions cannot lead to equilibrium field configurations very different from potential ones. That is, the magnitude of magnetic stresses generated by atmospheric motions is very small in these objects. We quantify this effect by a simple Reynolds number calculation. (2) Even if magnetic stresses are easily produced by fluid motions in the hot interior (where the coupling between field and matter is good), their propagation up through the atmosphere will be increasingly hampered by the growing atmospheric resistivity as one moves from mid M to late L. Thus both the generation and

  7. Using the seismology of non-magnetic chemically peculiar stars as a probe of dynamical processes in stellar interiors

    Turcotte, S.


    Chemical composition is a good tracer of hydrodynamical processes that occur in stars as they often lead to mixing and particle transport. By comparing abundances predicted by models and those observed in stars we can infer some constraints on those mixing processes. As pulsations in stars are often very sensitive to chemical composition, we can use asteroseismology to probe the internal chemical composition of stars where no direct observations are possible. In this paper I focus on main seq...

  8. Solving the relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot condition in the presence of a magnetic field in the astrophysical scenario of a neutron star

    Mallick, Ritam


    The Rankine-Hugoniot condition has been solved to study phase transition in an astrophysical scenario mainly in the case of phase transition from a neutron star (NS) to a quark star (QS). The equations of state and temperature play a huge role in determining the nature of the front propagation, which brings about the phase transition in a NS. The shock jump conditions can be solved analytically, but the situation changes drastically by the inclusion of the magnetic field. High magnetic fields, which are always associated with a NS play a huge role in determining the structure and evolution of a NS. So, a magnetic field has been introduced in the shock jump condition in the de Hoffmann-Teller frame. The modified conservation condition for the perpendicular and oblique shocks is obtained in this frame. Numerical solution of the perpendicular shock has been obtained, which shows considerable deviation from the nonmagnetic case. The results show that the magnetic field helps in shock generation. It also indirectly hints at the instability of the matter and thereby the NS for very high magnetic field, implying that NSs can only support a magnetic field of some finite strength.

  9. Global Mapping of Near-Earth Magnetic Fields Measured by KITSAT-1 and KITSAT-2

    Yoo-Surn Pyo


    Full Text Available The magnetic field measurements from the KitSat-1 and KitSat-2 were tested by comparing with the IGRF model. The magnetic data have been collected by a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer on each satellite at an altitude of 1,325km and 820km, respectively. To avoid highly variable magnetic disturbances at the polar region, the field map has been drawn within the limits of 50 degrees in latitude. Each data is averaged over the square of 5x5 degrees in both latitude and longitude. In these results, the relatively quiet periods were selected and the sampling rate was 30 seconds. It is shown that the results from these measurements are consistent with the IGRF map over the global surface map.

  10. Magnetic field of the Sun as a star, 1969-1976

    Kotov, V.A.; Demidov, M.L.


    A superposed epoch analysis of the solar mean magnetic field measured in Crimea during 1969-1976 was performed about 215 sector boundaries as observed at Earth. Mean field has showed quite good organization about sector boundaries with a typical field strength of about 0.4-0.3 Grin average sector. There is a significant difference between (+, -) and (-, +) boundaries with respect to the value of dH/dt (approximately 0.20 and 0.08 Gs/day respectively). It is found that average magnitude of the mean field has decreased from 0.5 Gs in 1969-1970 to 0.15 Gs in 1975-1976. The most principal recurrence period found in the data is 27sup(d),04+-0sup(d),06; resultant 27sup(d),04-curve exhibits remarcable asymmetry between magnetic fields of opposite signs (duration of S polarity is by 3-4 days larger than that of N polarity)

  11. Calculation of the structural properties of a strange quark star in the presence of a strong magnetic field using a density dependent bag constant

    Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Hajar Bahri; Fatemeh Kayanikhoo


    We have calculated the structural properties of a strange quark star with a static model in the presence of a strong magnetic field.To this end,we use the MITbag model with a density dependent bag constant.To parameterize the density dependence of the bag constant,we have used our results for the lowest order constrained variational calculation of the asymmetric nuclear matter.By calculating the equation of state of strange quark matter,we have shown that the pressure of this system increases by increasing both density and magnetic field.Finally,we have investigated the effect of density dependence of the bag constant on the structural properties of a strange quark star.


    Zhang Shuangnan; Xie Yi


    We test models for the evolution of neutron star (NS) magnetic fields (B). Our model for the evolution of the NS spin is taken from an analysis of pulsar timing noise presented by Hobbs et al.. We first test the standard model of a pulsar's magnetosphere in which B does not change with time and magnetic dipole radiation is assumed to dominate the pulsar's spin-down. We find that this model fails to predict both the magnitudes and signs of the second derivatives of the spin frequencies (ν-double dot). We then construct a phenomenological model of the evolution of B, which contains a long-term decay (LTD) modulated by short-term oscillations; a pulsar's spin is thus modified by its B-evolution. We find that an exponential LTD is not favored by the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot for young pulsars and fails to explain the fact that ν-double dot is negative for roughly half of the old pulsars. A simple power-law LTD can explain all the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot. Finally, we discuss some physical implications of our results to models of the B-decay of NSs and suggest reliable determination of the true ages of many young NSs is needed, in order to constrain further the physical mechanisms of their B-decay. Our model can be further tested with the measured evolutions of ν-dot and ν-double dot for an individual pulsar; the decay index, oscillation amplitude, and period can also be determined this way for the pulsar.


    Heesen, V.; Brinks, E.; Rau, U.; Rupen, M. P.; Hunter, D. A.


    We exploit the vastly increased sensitivity of the Expanded Very Large Array to study the radio continuum and polarization properties of the post-starburst, dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 at 6 cm, at a linear resolution of ∼50 pc. We find close agreement between radio continuum and Hα emission, from the brightest H II regions to the weaker emission in the disk. A quantitative analysis shows a strictly linear correlation, where the thermal component contributes 50% to the total radio emission, the remainder being due to a non-thermal component with a surprisingly steep radio spectral index of between -0.7 and -1.0 suggesting substantial radiation losses of the cosmic-ray electrons. We confirm and clearly resolve polarized emission at the 10%-20% level associated with a non-thermal superbubble, where the ordered magnetic field is possibly enhanced due to the compression of the expanding bubble. A fraction of the cosmic-ray electrons has likely escaped because the measured radio emission is a factor of three lower than what is suggested by the Hα-inferred star formation rate.

  14. Estimating a planetary magnetic field with time-dependent global MHD simulations using an adjoint approach

    C. Nabert


    Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with a planetary magnetic field causes electrical currents that modify the magnetic field distribution around the planet. We present an approach to estimating the planetary magnetic field from in situ spacecraft data using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation approach. The method is developed with respect to the upcoming BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury aimed at determining the planet's magnetic field and its interior electrical conductivity distribution. In contrast to the widely used empirical models, global MHD simulations allow the calculation of the strongly time-dependent interaction process of the solar wind with the planet. As a first approach, we use a simple MHD simulation code that includes time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field parameters. The planetary parameters are estimated by minimizing the misfit of spacecraft data and simulation results with a gradient-based optimization. As the calculation of gradients with respect to many parameters is usually very time-consuming, we investigate the application of an adjoint MHD model. This adjoint MHD model is generated by an automatic differentiation tool to compute the gradients efficiently. The computational cost for determining the gradient with an adjoint approach is nearly independent of the number of parameters. Our method is validated by application to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms magnetosheath data to estimate Earth's dipole moment.

  15. White Dwarf Stars

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo


    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  16. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  17. Auroral Electrojet Indices Designed to Provide a Global Measure, 2.5-Minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  18. Statistical Maps of Ground Magnetic Disturbance Derived from Global Geospace Models

    Rigler, E. J.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Love, J. J.


    Electric currents in space are the principal driver of magnetic variations measured at Earth's surface. These in turn induce geoelectric fields that present a natural hazard for technological systems like high-voltage power distribution networks. Modern global geospace models can reasonably simulate large-scale geomagnetic response to solar wind variations, but they are less successful at deterministic predictions of intense localized geomagnetic activity that most impacts technological systems on the ground. Still, recent studies have shown that these models can accurately reproduce the spatial statistical distributions of geomagnetic activity, suggesting that their physics are largely correct. Since the magnetosphere is a largely externally driven system, most model-measurement discrepancies probably arise from uncertain boundary conditions. So, with realistic distributions of solar wind parameters to establish its boundary conditions, we use the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) geospace model to build a synthetic multivariate statistical model of gridded ground magnetic disturbance. From this, we analyze the spatial modes of geomagnetic response, regress on available measurements to fill in unsampled locations on the grid, and estimate the global probability distribution of extreme magnetic disturbance. The latter offers a prototype geomagnetic "hazard map", similar to those used to characterize better-known geophysical hazards like earthquakes and floods.

  19. Parallel Tracks as Quasi-steady States for the Magnetic Boundary Layers in Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binaries

    Erkut, M. Hakan [Physics Engineering Department, Faculty of Science and Letters, Istanbul Technical University, 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Çatmabacak, Onur, E-mail: [Institute for Computational Sciences Y11 F74, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)


    The neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are usually thought to be weakly magnetized objects accreting matter from their low-mass companions in the form of a disk. Albeit weak compared to those in young neutron-star systems, the neutron-star magnetospheres in LMXBs can play an important role in determining the correlations between spectral and temporal properties. Parallel tracks appearing in the kilohertz (kHz) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency versus X-ray flux plane can be used as a tool to study the magnetosphere–disk interaction in neutron-star LMXBs. For dynamically important weak fields, the formation of a non-Keplerian magnetic boundary layer at the innermost disk truncated near the surface of the neutron star is highly likely. Such a boundary region may harbor oscillatory modes of frequencies in the kHz range. We generate parallel tracks using the boundary region model of kHz QPOs. We also present the direct application of our model to the reproduction of the observed parallel tracks of individual sources such as 4U 1608–52, 4U 1636–53, and Aql X-1. We reveal how the radial width of the boundary layer must vary in the long-term flux evolution of each source to regenerate the parallel tracks. The run of the radial width looks similar for different sources and can be fitted by a generic model function describing the average steady behavior of the boundary region over the long term. The parallel tracks then correspond to the possible quasi-steady states the source can occupy around the average trend.

  20. Magnetically Modulated Heat Transport in a Global Simulation of Solar Magneto-convection

    Cossette, Jean-Francois [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Campus Box 600, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Charbonneau, Paul [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, RG2 9AX (United Kingdom); Rast, Mark P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Campus Box 391, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)


    We present results from a global MHD simulation of solar convection in which the heat transported by convective flows varies in-phase with the total magnetic energy. The purely random initial magnetic field specified in this experiment develops into a well-organized large-scale antisymmetric component undergoing hemispherically synchronized polarity reversals on a 40 year period. A key feature of the simulation is the use of a Newtonian cooling term in the entropy equation to maintain a convectively unstable stratification and drive convection, as opposed to the specification of heating and cooling terms at the bottom and top boundaries. When taken together, the solar-like magnetic cycle and the convective heat flux signature suggest that a cyclic modulation of the large-scale heat-carrying convective flows could be operating inside the real Sun. We carry out an analysis of the entropy and momentum equations to uncover the physical mechanism responsible for the enhanced heat transport. The analysis suggests that the modulation is caused by a magnetic tension imbalance inside upflows and downflows, which perturbs their respective contributions to heat transport in such a way as to enhance the total convective heat flux at cycle maximum. Potential consequences of the heat transport modulation for solar irradiance variability are briefly discussed.

  1. Multiple ground-based and satellite observations of global Pi 2 magnetic pulsations

    Yumoto, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sakurai, T.; Sutcliffe, P.R.; Kokubun, S.; Luehr, H.; Saito, T.; Kuwashima, M.; Sato, N.


    Four Pi 2 magnetic pulsations, observed on the ground at L = 1.2-6.9 in the interval from 2,300 UT on May 22 to 0300 UT on May 23, 1985, provide new evidence of a global nature of Pi 2 pulsations in the inner (L approx-lt 7) region of the magnetosphere bounded by the plasma sheet during quiet geomagnetic conditions. In the present study, magnetic data have been collected from stations distributed widely both in local time and in latitude, including conjugate stations, and from the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft located in the magnetotail. On the basis of high time resolution magnetic field data, the following characteristics of Pi 2 have been established: horizontal components, H and D, of the Pi 2 oscillate nearly antiphase and in-phase, respectively, between the high- and low-altitude stations in the midnight southern hemisphere. Both the H and D components of the Pi 2 have nearly in-phase relationships between the nightside and the dayside stations at low latitude. The Pi 2 amplitude is larger at the high-latitude station and decreases toward lower latitudes. The dominant periods of the Pi 2 are nearly identical at all stations. Although a direct coincidence between spacecraft-observed and ground-based global Pi 2 events does not exist for these events, the Pi 2 events are believed to be a forced field line oscillation of global scale, coupled with the magnetospheric cavity resonance wave in the inner magnetosphere during the substorm expansive phase

  2. Finite element approach to global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations using magnetic coordinate

    Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Ridder, G. de; Sauter, O.; Tran, T.M.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.; Appert, K.


    We present a fully-global linear gyrokinetic simulation code (GYGLES) aimed at describing the instable spectrum of the ion-temperature-gradient modes in toroidal geometry. We formulate the Particle-In-Cell method with finite elements defined in magnetic coordinates, which provides excellent numerical convergence properties. The poloidal mode structure corresponding to k // =0 is extracted without approximation from the equations, which reduces drastically the numerical resolution needed. The code can simulate routinely modes with both very long and very short toroidal wavelengths, can treat realistic (MHD) equilibria of any size and runs on a massively parallel computer. (author) 10 figs., 28 refs


    Nasr, Camella-Rosa; Schneider, Nick; Connour, Kyle; Jain, Sonal; Deighan, Justin; Jakosky, Bruce; MAVEN/IUVS Team


    In September 2017, the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on the MAVEN spacecraft observed global aurora on Mars caused by a surprisingly strong solar energetic particle event. Widespread “diffuse aurora” have previously been detected on Mars through more limited observations (Schneider et al., Science 350, (2015); DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0313), but recent observations established complete coverage of the observable portion of Mars’ nightside. The aurora was global due to Mars’s lack of a global magnetic field, which allowed energetic electrons from the Sun to directly precipitate into the atmosphere. On September 11th, IUVS detected aurora more than 25 times brighter than any prior IUVS observation, with high SNR detections of aurora at the limb and against the disk of the planet. Fainter auroral emission was seen around the nightside limb over 13 orbits spanning nearly 3 days.On September 14th, during the declining phase of the event, faint linear features and patches were detected by the spacecraft, which were higher than the noise floor, with a similar spatial distribution to “discrete aurora” patches observed on Mars by the SPICAM instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., Nature 435, doi :10.1038/nature03603). Discrete aurora occur near areas of the crust affected by the magnetism left over from Mars’ once-strong dipole field. Emission is limited to regions of the crustal magnetic field where the field lines are likely to be open to solar wind interactions. Those regions are concentrated in Mars’ southern hemisphere centered on 180 degrees east longitude.We studied the localized emissions on 14 September to determine whether there might be a connection between the observed diffuse aurora event and discrete auroral processes. First, we investigated the localized emissions to confirm that the observed signal was consistent with expected auroral spectra. Second, their locations were projected on a map of the crustal magnetic

  4. Global, finite energy, weak solutions for the NLS with rough, time-dependent magnetic potentials

    Antonelli, Paolo; Michelangeli, Alessandro; Scandone, Raffaele


    We prove the existence of weak solutions in the space of energy for a class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the presence of a external, rough, time-dependent magnetic potential. Under our assumptions, it is not possible to study the problem by means of usual arguments like resolvent techniques or Fourier integral operators, for example. We use a parabolic regularisation, and we solve the approximating Cauchy problem. This is achieved by obtaining suitable smoothing estimates for the dissipative evolution. The total mass and energy bounds allow to extend the solution globally in time. We then infer sufficient compactness properties in order to produce a global-in-time finite energy weak solution to our original problem.

  5. A global simulation of ICRF heating in a 3D magnetic configuration

    Murakami, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Akutsu, T.


    A global simulation code for the ICRF heating analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configuration is developed combining two global simulation codes; a drift kinetic equation solver, GNET, and a wave field solver, TASK/WM. Both codes take into account 3D geometry using the numerically obtained 3D MHD equilibrium. The developed simulation code is applied to the LHD configuration as an example. Characteristics of energetic ion distributions in the phase space are clarified in LHD. The simulation results are also compared with experimental results by evaluating the count number of the neutral particle analyzer using the obtained energetic ion distribution, and a relatively good agreement is obtained. (author)

  6. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star

    Kohler, Susanna


    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal


    Mackay, Duncan H.; Yeates, Anthony R.; Bocquet, Francois-Xavier


    We present the first theoretical study to consider what improvement could be obtained in global nonpotential modeling of the solar corona if magnetograph data were available from the L5 Lagrange point, in addition to from the direction of Earth. To consider this, we first carry out a “reference Sun” simulation over two solar cycles. An important property of this simulation is that random bipole emergences are allowed across the entire solar surface at any given time (such as can occur on the Sun). Next, we construct two “limited data” simulations, where bipoles are only included when they could be seen from (i) an Earth-based magnetograph and (ii) either Earth- or L5-based magnetographs. The improvement in reproducing the reference Sun simulation when an L5 view is available is quantified through considering global quantities in the limited data simulations. These include surface and polar flux, total magnetic energy, volume electric current, open flux, and the number of flux ropes. Results show that when an L5 observational viewpoint is included, the accuracy of the global quantities in the limited data simulations can increase by 26%–40%. This clearly shows that a magnetograph at the L5 point could significantly increase the accuracy of global nonpotential modeling and with this the accuracy of future space weather forecasts.


    Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bocquet, Francois-Xavier, E-mail: [Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB (United Kingdom)


    We present the first theoretical study to consider what improvement could be obtained in global nonpotential modeling of the solar corona if magnetograph data were available from the L5 Lagrange point, in addition to from the direction of Earth. To consider this, we first carry out a “reference Sun” simulation over two solar cycles. An important property of this simulation is that random bipole emergences are allowed across the entire solar surface at any given time (such as can occur on the Sun). Next, we construct two “limited data” simulations, where bipoles are only included when they could be seen from (i) an Earth-based magnetograph and (ii) either Earth- or L5-based magnetographs. The improvement in reproducing the reference Sun simulation when an L5 view is available is quantified through considering global quantities in the limited data simulations. These include surface and polar flux, total magnetic energy, volume electric current, open flux, and the number of flux ropes. Results show that when an L5 observational viewpoint is included, the accuracy of the global quantities in the limited data simulations can increase by 26%–40%. This clearly shows that a magnetograph at the L5 point could significantly increase the accuracy of global nonpotential modeling and with this the accuracy of future space weather forecasts.


    Richards, Mercedes T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Agafonov, Michail I.; Sharova, Olga I., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Radiophysical Research Institute (NIRFI), 25/12a, Bolshaya Pecherskaya St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)


    Time-resolved H{alpha} spectra of magnetically active interacting binaries have been used to create three-dimensional (3D) Doppler tomograms by means of the Radioastronomical Approach. This is the first 3D reconstruction of {beta} Per, with RS Vul for comparison. These 3D tomograms have revealed evidence of the mass transfer process (gas stream, circumprimary emission, localized region, absorption zone), as well as loop prominences and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in {beta} Per and RS Vul that could not be discovered from two-dimensional tomograms alone. The gas stream in both binaries may have been deflected beyond the central plane by the donor star's magnetic field. The stream was more elongated along the predicted trajectory in RS Vul than in {beta} Per, but not as pronounced as in U CrB (stream state). The loop prominence reached maximum V{sub z} velocities of {+-}155 km s{sup -1} in RS Vul compared to {+-}120 km s{sup -1} in {beta} Per, while the CME reached a maximum V{sub z} velocity of +150 km s{sup -1} in RS Vul and +100 km s{sup -1} in {beta} Per. The 3D tomograms show that the gas flows are not symmetric relative to the central plane and are not confined to that plane, a result confirmed by recent 15 GHz VLBI radio images of {beta} Per. Both the 3D H{alpha} tomography and the VLBI radio images support an earlier prediction of the superhump phenomenon in {beta} Per: that the gas between the stars is threaded with a magnetic field even though the hot B8V mass-gaining star is not known to have a magnetic field.

  10. Symbiotic stars

    Boyarchuk, A.A.


    There are some arguments that the symbiotic stars are binary, where one component is a red giant and the other component is a small hot star which is exciting a nebula. The symbiotic stars belong to the old disc population. Probably, symbiotic stars are just such an evolutionary stage for double stars as planetary nebulae for single stars. (Auth.)

  11. Global Regularity and Time Decay for the 2D Magnetohydrodynamic Equations with Fractional Dissipation and Partial Magnetic Diffusion

    Dong, Bo-Qing; Jia, Yan; Li, Jingna; Wu, Jiahong


    This paper focuses on a system of the 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the kinematic dissipation given by the fractional operator (-Δ )^α and the magnetic diffusion by partial Laplacian. We are able to show that this system with any α >0 always possesses a unique global smooth solution when the initial data is sufficiently smooth. In addition, we make a detailed study on the large-time behavior of these smooth solutions and obtain optimal large-time decay rates. Since the magnetic diffusion is only partial here, some classical tools such as the maximal regularity property for the 2D heat operator can no longer be applied. A key observation on the structure of the MHD equations allows us to get around the difficulties due to the lack of full Laplacian magnetic diffusion. The results presented here are the sharpest on the global regularity problem for the 2D MHD equations with only partial magnetic diffusion.

  12. SHARDS: A Global View of the Star Formation Activity at z ~ 0.84 and z ~ 1.23

    Cava, Antonio; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Ricciardelli, Elena; Vidal-García, Alba; Alcalde Pampliega, Belen; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Barro, Guillermo; Cardiel, Nicolas; Cenarro, A. Javier; Charlot, Stephane; Daddi, Emanuele; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Domínguez Sánchez, Helena; Espino-Briones, Nestor; Esquej, Pilar; Gallego, Jesus; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Huertas-Company, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Muñoz-Tunon, Casiana; Rodriguez-Espinosa, Jose M.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucia; Tresse, Laurence; Villar, Victor


    In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at intermediate redshifts (z ˜ 1). We combine the ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric data from the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS) with deep UV-to-FIR observations in the GOODS-N field. Exploiting two of the 25 SHARDS medium-band filters, F687W17 and F823W17, we select [O ii] emission line galaxies at z ˜ 0.84 and z ˜ 1.23 and characterize their physical properties. Their rest-frame equivalent widths (EWrf([O ii])), line fluxes, luminosities, star formation rates (SFRs), and dust attenuation properties are investigated. The evolution of EWrf([O ii]) closely follows the SFR density evolution of the universe, with a trend of EWrf([O ii]) \\propto (1 + z)3 up to redshift z ≃ 1, followed by a possible flattening. The SF properties of the galaxies selected on the basis of their [O ii] emission are compared with complementary samples of SFGs selected by their MIR and FIR emission, and also with a general mass-selected sample of galaxies at the same redshifts. We demonstrate observationally that the UVJ diagram (or, similarly, a cut in the specific SFR) is only partially able to distinguish the quiescent galaxies from the SFGs. The SFR-M* relation is investigated for the different samples, yielding a logarithmic slope ˜1, in good agreement with previous results. The dust attenuations derived from different SFR indicators (UV(1600), UV(2800), [O ii], IR) are compared and show clear trends with respect to both the stellar mass and total SFR, with more massive and highly star-forming galaxies being affected by stronger dust attenuation.

  13. Global-Scale Consequences of Magnetic-Helicity Injection and Condensation on the Sun

    Mackay, Duncan H.; DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.


    In the recent paper of Antiochos, a new concept for the injection of magnetic helicity into the solar corona by small-scale convective motions and its condensation onto polarity inversion lines (PILs) has been developed. We investigate this concept through global simulations of the Sun's photospheric and coronal magnetic fields and compare the results with the hemispheric pattern of solar filaments. Assuming that the vorticity of the cells is predominately counter-clockwise/clockwise in the northern/southern hemisphere, the convective motions inject negative/positive helicity into each hemisphere. The simulations show that: (i) On a north-south orientated PIL, both differential rotation and convective motions inject the same sign of helicity which matches that required to reproduce the hemispheric pattern of filaments. (ii) On a high latitude east-west orientated polar crown or sub-polar crown PIL, the vorticity of the cells has to be approximately 2-3 times greater than the local differential rotation gradient in order to overcome the incorrect sign of helicity injection from differential rotation. (iii) In the declining phase of the cycle, as a bipole interacts with the polar field, in some cases helicity condensation can reverse the effect of differential rotation along the East-West lead arm, but not in all cases. The results show that this newly developed concept of magnetic helicity injection and condensation is a viable method to explain the hemispheric pattern of filaments in conjunction with the mechanisms used in Yeates et al. (2008). Future observational studies should focus on determining the vorticity component within convective motions to determine, both its magnitude and latitudinal variation relative to the differential rotation gradient on the Sun.


    Stenflo, J. O.; Kosovichev, A. G.


    The magnetic flux that is generated by dynamo processes inside the Sun emerges in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. The properties of these directly observable signatures of the dynamo can be extracted from full-disk solar magnetograms. The most homogeneous, high-quality synoptic data set of solar magnetograms has been obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft during 1995-2011. We have developed an IDL program that has, when applied to the 73,838 magnetograms of the MDI data set, automatically identified 160,079 bipolar magnetic regions that span a range of scale sizes across nearly four orders of magnitude. The properties of each region have been extracted and statistically analyzed, in particular with respect to the polarity orientations of the bipolar regions, including their tilt-angle distributions and their violations of Hale's polarity law. The latitude variation of the average tilt angles (with respect to the E-W direction), which is known as Joy's law, is found to closely follow the relation 32. 0 1 × sin (latitude). There is no indication of a dependence on region size that one may expect if the tilts were produced by the Coriolis force during the buoyant rise of flux loops from the tachocline region. A few percent of all regions have orientations that violate Hale's polarity law. We show explicit examples, from different phases of the solar cycle, where well-defined medium-size bipolar regions with opposite polarity orientations occur side by side in the same latitude zone in the same magnetogram. Such oppositely oriented large bipolar regions cannot be part of the same toroidal flux system, but different flux systems must coexist at any given time in the same latitude zones. These examples are incompatible with the paradigm of coherent, subsurface toroidal flux ropes as the source of sunspots, and instead show that fluctuations must play a major role at all scales for the

  15. Evolution of the magnetized, neutrino-cooled accretion disk in the aftermath of a black hole-neutron star binary merger

    Hossein Nouri, Fatemeh; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; Deaton, M. Brett; Haas, Roland; Haddadi, Milad; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Ott, Christian D.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela


    Black hole-torus systems from compact binary mergers are possible engines for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). During the early evolution of the postmerger remnant, the state of the torus is determined by a combination of neutrino cooling and magnetically driven heating processes, so realistic models must include both effects. In this paper, we study the postmerger evolution of a magnetized black hole-neutron star binary system using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) from an initial postmerger state provided by previous numerical relativity simulations. We use a finite-temperature nuclear equation of state and incorporate neutrino effects in a leakage approximation. To achieve the needed accuracy, we introduce improvements to SpEC's implementation of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), including the use of cubed-sphere multipatch grids and an improved method for dealing with supersonic accretion flows where primitive variable recovery is difficult. We find that a seed magnetic field triggers a sustained source of heating, but its thermal effects are largely cancelled by the accretion and spreading of the torus from MHD-related angular momentum transport. The neutrino luminosity peaks at the start of the simulation, and then drops significantly over the first 20 ms but in roughly the same way for magnetized and nonmagnetized disks. The heating rate and disk's luminosity decrease much more slowly thereafter. These features of the evolution are insensitive to grid structure and resolution, formulation of the MHD equations, and seed field strength, although turbulent effects are not fully converged.

  16. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj


    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj


    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  18. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K. [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (Japan); Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E. [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Hyogo (Japan)


    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  19. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K.; Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E.


    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  20. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    Kohler, Susanna


    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  1. Globally coherent short duration magnetic field transients and their effect on ground based gravitational-wave detectors

    Kowalska-Leszczynska, Izabela; Bulik, Tomasz; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Robinet, Florent; Christensen, Nelson; Rohde, Maximilian; Coughlin, Michael; Gołkowski, Mark; Kubisz, Jerzy; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz


    It has been recognized that the magnetic fields from the Schumann resonances could affect the search for a stochastic gravitational-wave background by LIGO and Virgo. Presented here are the observations of short duration magnetic field transients that are coincident in the magnetometers at the LIGO and Virgo sites. Data from low-noise magnetometers in Poland and Colorado, USA, are also used and show short duration magnetic transients of global extent. We measure at least 2.3 coincident (between Poland and Colorado) magnetic transient events per day where one of the pulses exceeds 200 pT. Given the recently measured values of the magnetic coupling to differential arm motion for Advanced LIGO, there would be a few events per day that would appear simultaneously at the gravitational-wave detector sites and could move the test masses of order 10 −18 m. We confirm that in the advanced detector era short duration transient gravitational-wave searches must account for correlated magnetic field noise in the global detector network. (paper)

  2. A fast parallel code for calculating energies and oscillator strengths of many-electron atoms at neutron star magnetic field strengths in adiabatic approximation

    Engel, D.; Klews, M.; Wunner, G.


    We have developed a new method for the fast computation of wavelengths and oscillator strengths for medium-Z atoms and ions, up to iron, at neutron star magnetic field strengths. The method is a parallelized Hartree-Fock approach in adiabatic approximation based on finite-element and B-spline techniques. It turns out that typically 15-20 finite elements are sufficient to calculate energies to within a relative accuracy of 10-5 in 4 or 5 iteration steps using B-splines of 6th order, with parallelization speed-ups of 20 on a 26-processor machine. Results have been obtained for the energies of the ground states and excited levels and for the transition strengths of astrophysically relevant atoms and ions in the range Z=2…26 in different ionization stages. Catalogue identifier: AECC_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3845 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 989 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MPI/Fortran 95 and Python Computer: Cluster of 1-26 HP Compaq dc5750 Operating system: Fedora 7 Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 1 GByte Classification: 2.1 External routines: MPI/GFortran, LAPACK, PyLab/Matplotlib Nature of problem: Calculations of synthetic spectra [1] of strongly magnetized neutron stars are bedevilled by the lack of data for atoms in intense magnetic fields. While the behaviour of hydrogen and helium has been investigated in detail (see, e.g., [2]), complete and reliable data for heavier elements, in particular iron, are still missing. Since neutron stars are formed by the collapse of the iron cores of massive stars, it may be assumed that their atmospheres contain an iron plasma. Our objective is to fill the gap

  3. Inter-Division IV/V WG on Active OB Stars

    Owocki, S.; Aerts, C.; Fabregat, J.; Gies, D.; Henrichs, H.F.; McDavid, D.; Porter, J.; Rivinius, T.; Peters, G.; Stefl, S.


    Our group studies active early-type (OB) stars, with historical focus on classical Be stars, but extending in recent years to include Slowly Pulsating B-stars (SPB), Beta-Cephei stars, the strongly magnetic Bp stars, Luminous Blue Vairiable (LBV) stars, and B[e] stars. An overall goal is to

  4. Global Hybrid Simulations of The Magnetopause Boundary Layers In Low- and High-latitude Magnetic Reconnections

    Lin, Y.; Perez, J. D.

    A 2-D global hybrid simulation is carried out to study the structure of the dayside mag- netopause in the noon-midnight meridian plane associated with magnetic reconnec- tion. In the simulation the bow shock, magnetosheath, and magnetopause are formed self-consistently by supersonic solar wind passing the geomagnetic field. The recon- nection events at high- and low-latitudes are simulated for various IMF conditions. The following results will be presented. (1) Large-amplitude rotational discontinuities and Alfvén waves are present in the quasi-steady reconnection layer. (2) The rotational discontinuity possesses an electron sense, or right-hand polarization in the magnetic field as the discontinuity forms from the X line. Later, however, the rotational dis- continuity tends to evolve to a structure with a smallest field rotational angle and thus may reverse its sense of the field rotation. The Walén relation is tested for elec- tron and ion flows in the magnetopause rotational discontinuities with left-hand and right-hand polarizations. (3) The structure of the magnetopause discontinuities and that of the accelerated/decelerated flows are modified significantly by the presence of the local magnetosheath flow. (4) Field-aligned currents are generated in the magne- topause rotational discontinuities. Part of the magnetopause currents propagate with Alfvén waves along the field lines into the polar ionosphere, contributing to the field- aligned current system in the high latitudes. The generation of the parallel currents under northward and southward IMF conditions is investigated. (5) Finally, typical ion velocity distributions will be shown at various locations across the magnetopause northward and southward of the X lines. The ion distributions associated with single or multiple X lines will be discussed.

  5. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen


    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  6. What drives galactic magnetism?

    Chyży, K. T.; Sridhar, S. S.; Jurusik, W.


    Aims: Magnetic fields are important ingredients of the interstellar medium. They are suspected to be maintained by dynamo processes related to star-formation activity, properties of the interstellar medium and global features of galaxies. We aim to use statistical analysis of a large number of various galaxies to probe, model, and understand relations between different galaxy properties and magnetic fields. Methods: We have compiled a sample of 55 galaxies including low-mass dwarf and Magellanic-types, normal spirals and several massive starbursts, and applied principal component analysis (PCA) and regression methods to assess the impact of various galaxy properties on the observed magnetic fields. Results: According to PCA the global galaxy parameters (like H I, H2, and dynamical mass, star formation rate (SFR), near-infrared luminosity, size, and rotational velocity) are all mutually correlated and can be reduced to a single principal component. Further PCA performed for global and intensive (not size related) properties of galaxies (such as gas density, and surface density of the star formation rate, SSFR), indicates that magnetic field strength B is connected mainly to the intensive parameters, while the global parameters have only weak relationships with B. We find that the tightest relationship of B is with SSFR, which is described by a power-law with an index of 0.33 ± 0.03. The relation is observed for galaxies with the global SFR spread over more than four orders of magnitude. Only the radio faintest dwarf galaxies deviate from this relation probably due to the inverse Compton losses of relativistic electrons or long turbulence injection timescales. The observed weaker associations of B with galaxy dynamical mass and the rotational velocity we interpret as indirect ones, resulting from the observed connection of the global SFR with the available total H2 mass in galaxies. Using our sample we constructed a diagram of B across the Hubble sequence which

  7. Dual breath-hold magnetic resonance cine evaluation of global and regional cardiac function

    Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Dietrich, Olaf; Huber, Armin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Sincleair, Spencer; Runge, Val M.


    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of a multislice cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with parallel imaging in regard to global and regional left ventricular function. Forty-two individuals underwent cine MRI on a 1.5-tesla scanner. Cine MRI used a steady-state free precession technique and was performed as a single-slice technique (nonTSENSE cine) and an accelerated multislice technique (TSENSE cine) with five slices per breath-hold. End diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction (EF) were evaluated for all data sets and in regard to regional wall motion and regional wall motion analysis, and quantitative regional wall thickness and systolic thickening were also assessed. EDV, ESV, and EF based on TSENSE cine showed excellent correlation to the nonTSENSE cine approach (all r 2 =0.99, P<0.001). While EDV evaluations showed a small underestimation for TSENSE cine, ESV and EF showed accurate results compared with nonTSENSE cine. Both readers showed good agreement (κ=0.72) in regional wall motion assessment comparing both techniques. Data acquisition for the multislice approach was significantly shorter (∝75%) that in single-slice cine. We conclude that accurate evaluation of regional wall motion and left ventricular EF is possible using accelerated multislice cine MR with high spatial and temporal resolution. (orig.)

  8. Maximally Rotating Supermassive Stars at the Onset of Collapse: The Perturbative Effects of Gas Pressure, Magnetic Fields, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Butler, Satya P.; Lima, Alicia R.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Shapiro, Stuart L.


    The discovery of quasars at increasingly large cosmological redshifts may favor "direct collapse" as the most promising evolutionary route to the formation of supermassive black holes. In this scenario, supermassive black holes form when their progenitors - supermassive stars - become unstable to gravitational collapse. For uniformly rotating stars supported by pure radiation pressure and spinning at the mass-shedding limit, the critical configuration at the onset of collapse is characterized by universal values of the dimensionless spin and radius parameters J/M2 and R/M, independent of mass M. We consider perturbative effects of gas pressure, magnetic fields, dark matter and dark energy on these parameters, and thereby determine the domain of validity of this universality. We obtain leading-order corrections for the critical parameters and establish their scaling with the relevant physical parameters. We compare two different approaches to approximate the effects of gas pressure, which plays the most important role, find identical results for the above dimensionless parameters, and also find good agreement with recent numerical results.

  9. Galaxy interactions and star formation: Results of a survey of global H-alpha emission in spiral galaxies in 8 clusters

    Moss, C.


    Kennicutt and Kent (1983) have shown that the global H alpha emission from a spiral galaxy is an indicator of the formation rate of massive stars. Moss, Whittle and Irwin (1988) have surveyed two clusters (Abell 347 and 1367) for galaxies with H alpha emission using a high dispersion objective prism technique. The purpose of the survey is to investigate environmental effects on star formation in spiral galaxies, and in particular to ascertain whether star formation is enhanced in cluster spirals. Approximately 20 percent of CGCG galaxies were detected in emission. Two plates of excellent quality were obtained for each of the two clusters, and galaxies were only identified to have emission if this was detected on both plates of a plate pair. In this way, plate flaws and other spurious identifications of emission could be rejected, and weak emission confirmed. The results of this survey have been discussed by Moss (1987). The detected galaxies are of types SO-a and later. The frequency with which galaxies are detected in emission increases towards later morphological type as expected (cf. Kennicutt and Kent 1983). There is no evidence of any dependence of the frequency of detected emission on the absolute magnitude of the galaxy (cf. Moss and Whittle 1990), but there is a strong correlation between a disturbed morphological appearance of the galaxy and the detection of emission. Furthermore it is found that the emission is more centrally concentrated in those galaxies which show a disturbed morphology. It may be noted that the objective prism plate gives a spectrum of a 400 A region around rest wavelength H alpha, but superposed on this is the H alpha emission from the galaxy which, because the light is essentially monochromatic, results in a true two-dimensional image of the H alpha distribution. The visual appearance of the emission on the prism plates was classified according to its diffuseness on a 5 point scale (very diffuse, diffuse, intermediate, compact, and

  10. By Draconis Stars

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    An optical spectroscopic survey of dK-M stars has resulted in the discovery of several new H-alpha emission objects. Available optical data suggest these stars have a level of chromospheric activity midway between active BY Dra stars and quiet dM's. These "marginal" BY Dra stars are single objects that have rotation velocities slightly higher than that of quiet field stars but below that of active flare/BY Dra objects. The marginal BY Dra stars provide us with a class of objects rotating very near a "trigger velocity" (believed to be 5 km/s) which appears to divide active flare/BY Dra stars from quiet dM's. UV data on Mg II emission fluxes and strength of transition region features such as C IV will serve to fix activity levels in the marginal objects and determine chromosphere and transition-region heating rates. Simultaneous optical magnetic field measures will be used to explore the connection between fieldstrength/filling-factor and atmospheric heating. Comparison of these data with published information on active and quiet dM stars will yield information on the character of the stellar dynamo as it makes a transition from "low" to "high" activity.

  11. Stars and Star Myths.

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  12. B fields in OB stars (BOB): Low-resolution FORS2 spectropolarimetry of the first sample of 50 massive stars

    Fossati, L.; Castro, N.; Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Langer, N.; Morel, T.; Briquet, M.; Herrero, A.; Przybilla, N.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F.R.N.; de Koter, A.


    Within the context of the collaboration "B fields in OB stars" (BOB), we used the FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimeter to search for a magnetic field in 50 massive stars, including two reference magnetic massive stars. Because of the many controversies of magnetic field detections obtained with

  13. A global three dimensional hybrid simulation of the interaction between a weakly magnetized obstacle and the solar wind

    Trávníček, Pavel; Hellinger, Petr; Schiver, D.


    Roč. 679, CP679 (2003), s. 485-488 ISSN 1551-7616. [Solar wind ten. Pisa, 17.06.2002-21.06.2002] Grant - others:ESA(NL) Prodex14529/00/NL/SFe; NSF(US) INT-0010111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : magnetized obstacle * solar wind * global hybrid simulations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced global propagation of transient phase resetting associated with directional information flow

    Masahiro eKawasaki


    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG phase synchronization analyses can reveal large-scale communication between distant brain areas. However, it is not possible to identify the directional information flow between distant areas using conventional phase synchronization analyses. In the present study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the occipital area in subjects who were resting with their eyes closed, and analyzed the spatial propagation of transient TMS-induced phase resetting by using the transfer entropy (TE, to quantify the causal and directional flow of information. The time-frequency EEG analysis indicated that the theta (5 Hz phase locking factor (PLF reached its highest value at the distant area (the motor area in this study, with a time lag that followed the peak of the transient PLF enhancements of the TMS-targeted area at the TMS onset. PPI (phase-preservation index analyses demonstrated significant phase resetting at the TMS-targeted area and distant area. Moreover, the TE from the TMS-targeted area to the distant area increased clearly during the delay that followed TMS onset. Interestingly, the time lags were almost coincident between the PLF and TE results (152 vs. 165 ms, which provides strong evidence that the emergence of the delayed PLF reflects the causal information flow. Such tendencies were observed only in the higher-intensity TMS condition, and not in the lower-intensity or sham TMS conditions. Thus, TMS may manipulate large-scale causal relationships between brain areas in an intensity-dependent manner. We demonstrated that single-pulse TMS modulated global phase dynamics and directional information flow among synchronized brain networks. Therefore, our results suggest that single-pulse TMS can manipulate both incoming and outgoing information in the TMS-targeted area associated with functional changes.

  15. Putting atomic diffusion theory of magnetic ApBp stars to the test: evaluation of the predictions of time-dependent diffusion models

    Kochukhov, O.; Ryabchikova, T. A.


    A series of recent theoretical atomic diffusion studies has address the challenging problem of predicting inhomogeneous vertical and horizontal chemical element distributions in the atmospheres of magnetic ApBp stars. Here we critically assess the most sophisticated of such diffusion models - based on a time-dependent treatment of the atomic diffusion in a magnetized stellar atmosphere - by direct comparison with observations as well by testing the widely used surface mapping tools with the spectral line profiles predicted by this theory. We show that the mean abundances of Fe and Cr are grossly underestimated by the time-dependent theoretical diffusion model, with discrepancies reaching a factor of 1000 for Cr. We also demonstrate that Doppler imaging inversion codes, based either on modelling of individual metal lines or line-averaged profiles simulated according to theoretical three-dimensional abundance distribution, are able to reconstruct correct horizontal chemical spot maps despite ignoring the vertical abundance variation. These numerical experiments justify a direct comparison of the empirical two-dimensional Doppler maps with theoretical diffusion calculations. This comparison is generally unfavourable for the current diffusion theory, as very few chemical elements are observed to form overabundance rings in the horizontal field regions as predicted by the theory and there are numerous examples of element accumulations in the vicinity of radial field zones, which cannot be explained by diffusion calculations.

  16. Magnetic-distortion-induced Ellipticity and Gravitational Wave Radiation of Neutron Stars: Millisecond Magnetars in Short GRBs, Galactic Pulsars, and Magnetars

    Gao, He; Cao, Zhoujian [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)


    Neutron stars may sustain a non-axisymmetric deformation due to magnetic distortion and are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based interferometric detectors. With decades of searches using available GW detectors, no evidence of a GW signal from any pulsar has been observed. Progressively stringent upper limits of ellipticity have been placed on Galactic pulsars. In this work, we use the ellipticity inferred from the putative millisecond magnetars in short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) to estimate their detectability by current and future GW detectors. For ∼1 ms magnetars inferred from the SGRB data, the detection horizon is ∼30 Mpc and ∼600 Mpc for the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Einstein Telescope (ET), respectively. Using the ellipticity of SGRB millisecond magnetars as calibration, we estimate the ellipticity and GW strain of Galactic pulsars and magnetars assuming that the ellipticity is magnetic-distortion-induced. We find that the results are consistent with the null detection results of Galactic pulsars and magnetars with the aLIGO O1. We further predict that the GW signals from these pulsars/magnetars may not be detectable by the currently designed aLIGO detector. The ET detector may be able to detect some relatively low-frequency signals (<50 Hz) from some of these pulsars. Limited by its design sensitivity, the eLISA detector seems to not be suitable for detecting the signals from Galactic pulsars and magnetars.

  17. Radio emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1: a jet launched by a strong magnetic field neutron star?

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.


    Her X-1 is an accreting neutron star (NS) in an intermediate-mass X-ray binary. Like low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), it accretes via Roche lobe overflow, but similar to many high-mass X-ray binaries containing a NS; Her X-1 has a strong magnetic field and slow spin. Here, we present the discovery of radio emission from Her X-1 with the Very Large Array. During the radio observation, the central X-ray source was partially obscured by a warped disc. We measure a radio flux density of 38.7 ± 4.8 μJy at 9 GHz but cannot constrain the spectral shape. We discuss possible origins of the radio emission, and conclude that coherent emission, a stellar wind, shocks and a propeller outflow are all unlikely explanations. A jet, as seen in LMXBs, is consistent with the observed radio properties. We consider the implications of the presence of a jet in Her X-1 on jet formation mechanisms and on the launching of jets by NSs with strong magnetic fields.

  18. Stars the size of planets

    Whitehouse, D.


    Red dwarf stars, the faintest and smallest stars that can be seen, sometimes host flares of immense violence. The article discusses the energy of these flares in terms of mass, x-rays, brightness, variation in light output, the sun and magnetic phenomena. (U.K.)

  19. 2.5D global-disk oscillation models of the Be shell star ζ Tauri. I. Spectroscopic and polarimetric analysis

    Escolano, C.; Carciofi, A. C.; Okazaki, A. T.; Rivinius, T.; Baade, D.; Štefl, S.


    Context. A large number of Be stars exhibit intensity variations of their violet and red emission peaks in their H i lines observed in emission. This is the so-called V/R phenomenon, usually explained by the precession of a one-armed spiral density perturbation in the circumstellar disk. That global-disk oscillation scenario was confirmed, both observationally and theoretically, in the previous series of two papers analyzing the Be shell star ζ Tauri. The vertically averaged (2D) global-disk oscillation model used at the time was able to reproduce the V/R variations observed in Hα, as well as the spatially resolved interferometric data from AMBER/VLTI. Unfortunately, that model failed to reproduce the V/R phase of Br15 and the amplitude of the polarization variation, suggesting that the inner disk structure predicted by the model was incorrect. Aims: The first aim of the present paper is to quantify the temporal variations of the shell-line characteristics of ζ Tauri. The second aim is to better understand the physics underlying the V/R phenomenon by modeling the shell-line variations together with the V/R and polarimetric variations. The third aim is to test a new 2.5D disk oscillation model, which solves the set of equations that describe the 3D perturbed disk structure but keeps only the equatorial (i.e., 2D) component of the solution. This approximation was adopted to allow comparisons with the previous 2D model, and as a first step toward a future 3D model. Methods: We carried out an extensive analysis of ζ Tauri's spectroscopic variations by measuring various quantities characterizing its Balmer line profiles: red and violet emission peak intensities (for Hα, Hβ, and Br15), depth and asymmetry of the shell absorption (for Hβ, Hγ, and Hδ), and the respective position (i.e., radial velocity) of each component. We attempted to model the observed variations by implementing in the radiative transfer code HDUST the perturbed disk structure computed with a

  20. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  1. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams


    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  2. ''The ambipolar diffusion time scale and the location of star formation in magnetic interstellar clouds'': Setting the record straight

    Mouschovias, T.C.


    The point of a recent (1983) paper by Scott is that a previous paper (1979) by Mouschovias has concluded ''erroneously'' that star formation takes place off center in a cloud because of the use of an ''improver'' definition of a time scale for ambipolar diffusion. No such conclusion, Scott claims, follows from a ''proper'' definition, such as the ''traditional'' one by Spitzer. (i) Scott misrepresents the reasoning that led to the conclusion in the paper which he criticized. (ii) He is also wrong: both the ''traditional'' and the ''improper'' definitions vary similarly with radius, and both can have an off-center minimum; the spatial variation of the degree of ionization is the determining factor: not the specific value of the time scale at the origin, as Scott claims

  3. Comparative Magnetic Minima: Characterizing Quiet Times in the Sun and Stars. Symposium of the International Astronomical Union (286th) Held in Mendoza, Argentina on October 3-7, 2011


    11:15 – 11:45 Invited Talk – Stars in Magnetic Grand Minima: Where Are They and What Are They Like? Steven Saar (Presentation file) 11:45 – 12:00...of Archaeology and Ancient History, University Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom IAUS 279 Death of Massive Stars: Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts...of Astronomy & Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA IAUS 283 Planetary Nebulae: an Eye to the Future A. MANCHADO, Instituto de

  4. Towards improved knowledge of geology and global thermal regime from Swarm satellites magnetic gradient observations

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, Terence

    Gradients of magnetic field have higher spatial resolution than the fields themselves and are helpful in improving the resolution of downward continued satellite magnetic anomaly maps (Kotsiaros et al., 2015, Geophys. J. Int.; Sabaka et al., 2015, Geophys. J. Int.). Higher spatial resolution and ...

  5. Wave Star

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  6. Global enhancement and structure formation of the magnetic field in spiral galaxies

    Khoperskov, Sergey A.; Khrapov, Sergey S.


    In this paper we study numerically large-scale magnetic field evolution and its enhancement in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. We consider a set of models with the various spiral pattern parameters and the initial magnetic field strength with taking into account gas self-gravity and cooling and heating processes. In agreement with previous studies we find out that galactic magnetic field is mostly aligned with gaseous structures, however small-scale gaseous structures (spurs and clumps) are more chaotic than the magnetic field structure. In spiral arms magnetic field often coexists with the gas distribution, in the inter-arm region we see filamentary magnetic field structure. These filaments connect several isolated gaseous clumps. Simulations reveal the presence of the small-scale irregularities of the magnetic field as well as the reversal of magnetic field at the outer edge of the large-scale spurs. We provide evidences that the magnetic field in the spiral arms has a stronger mean-field component, and there is a clear inverse correlation between gas density and plasma-beta parameter, compared to the rest of the disk with a more turbulent component of the field and an absence of correlation between gas density and plasma-beta. We show the mean field growth up to >3-10 μG in the cold gas during several rotation periods (>500-800 Myr), whereas ratio between azimuthal and radial field is equal to >4/1. We find an enhancement of random and ordered components of the magnetic field. Mean field strength increases by a factor of >1.5-2.5 for models with various spiral pattern parameters. Random magnetic field component can reach up to 25% from the total strength. By making an analysis of the time-dependent evolution of the radial Poynting flux, we point out that the magnetic field strength is enhanced more strongly at the galactic outskirts which is due to the radial transfer of magnetic energy by the spiral arms pushing the magnetic field outward. Our results also

  7. Magnets

    Young, I.R.


    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)


    Chene, A.-N.; St-Louis, N.


    This study is the second part of a survey searching for large-scale spectroscopic variability in apparently single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. In a previous paper (Paper I), we described and characterized the spectroscopic variability level of 25 WR stars observable from the northern hemisphere and found 3 new candidates presenting large-scale wind variability, potentially originating from large-scale structures named corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In this second paper, we discuss an additional 39 stars observable from the southern hemisphere. For each star in our sample, we obtained 4-5 high-resolution spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼100 and determined its variability level using the approach described in Paper I. In total, 10 new stars are found to show large-scale spectral variability of which 7 present CIR-type changes (WR 8, WR 44, WR55, WR 58, WR 61, WR 63, WR 100). Of the remaining stars, 20 were found to show small-amplitude changes and 9 were found to show no spectral variability as far as can be concluded from the data on hand. Also, we discuss the spectroscopic variability level of all single galactic WR stars that are brighter than v ∼ 12.5, and some WR stars with 12.5 < v ≤ 13.5, i.e., all the stars presented in our two papers and four more stars for which spectra have already been published in the literature. We find that 23/68 stars (33.8%) present large-scale variability, but only 12/54 stars (∼22.1%) are potentially of CIR type. Also, we find that 31/68 stars (45.6%) only show small-scale variability, most likely due to clumping in the wind. Finally, no spectral variability is detected based on the data on hand for 14/68 (20.6%) stars. Interestingly, the variability with the highest amplitude also has the widest mean velocity dispersion.

  9. Flares on a Bp Star

    Mullan, D. J.


    Two large X-ray flares have been reported from the direction of a magnetic B2p star (σ Ori E). Sanz-Forcada et al. have suggested that the flares did not occur on the B2p star but on a companion of late spectral type. A star which is a candidate for a late-type flare star near σ Ori E has recently been identified by Bouy et al. However, based on the properties of the flares, and based on a recent model of rotating magnetospheres, we argue that, rather than attributing the two flares to a late-type dwarf, it is a viable hypothesis that the flares were magnetic phenomena associated with the rotating magnetosphere of the B2p star itself.


    Mullan, D. J.


    Two large X-ray flares have been reported from the direction of a magnetic B2p star (σ Ori E). Sanz-Forcada et al. have suggested that the flares did not occur on the B2p star but on a companion of late spectral type. A star which is a candidate for a late-type flare star near σ Ori E has recently been identified by Bouy et al. However, based on the properties of the flares, and based on a recent model of rotating magnetospheres, we argue that, rather than attributing the two flares to a late-type dwarf, it is a viable hypothesis that the flares were magnetic phenomena associated with the rotating magnetosphere of the B2p star itself.

  11. Public science for a global empire: The British quest for the South Magnetic Pole.

    Larson, Edward J


    It is well known to historians of science that, early in the nineteenth century, terrestrial magnetism became both a popular science and a significant research enterprise in Europe. For Britain, as a maritime power, it offered benefits for navigation. Theoretical physicists claimed that, with enough observations of magnetic variation, intensity, and dip taken throughout the world over time, they could deduce regular mathematical laws to explain the phenomena. Because of the lack of data from the region, particular attention focused on field research in deep southern latitudes. Finding the precise location of the South Magnetic Pole became a prime goal for some enthusiasts. With burgeoning colonies in Africa and the Antipodes, Britain assumed a leading role in this effort. British scientists looked to their government for funding and called on the Admiralty to dispatch expeditions. It is less well known that both popular and scientific interest in terrestrial magnetism continued throughout the nineteenth century and into the early twentieth century. The H.M.S. Erebus and H.M.S. Terror (1839-1843), H.M.S. Challenger (1872-1876), and R.Y. Discovery (1901-1904) sailed to the Antarctic as part of Britain's extended "Magnetic Crusade," which culminated with Royal Society geologist T. W. Edgeworth David of the Nimrod expedition reaching the South Magnetic Pole in 1909.

  12. The Fastest Rotating Pulsar: a Strange Star?

    徐仁新; 徐轩彬; 吴鑫基


    According to the observational limits on the radius and mass, the fastest rotating pulsar (PSR 1937+21) is probably a strange star, or at least some neutron star equations of state should be ruled out, if we suggest that a dipole magnetic field is relevant to its radio emission. We presume that the millisecond pulsar is a strange star with much low mass, small radius and weak magnetic moment.

  13. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  14. Low-dimensionality and predictability of solar wind and global magnetosphere during magnetic storms

    Zivkovic, Tatjana; Rypdal, Kristoffer


    This article is part of Tatjana Živkovics' doctoral thesis. Available in Munin at The storm index SYM-H, the solar wind velocity v, and interplanetary magnetic field Bz show no signatures of low-dimensional dynamics in quiet periods, but tests for determinism in the time series indicate that SYM-H exhibits a significant low-dimensional component during storm time, suggesting that self-organization takes place during magnetic storms. Even though our analysis...

  15. Resonant nuclear reaction 23Mg (p,γ) 24Al in strongly screening magnetized neutron star crust

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Liu, Dong-Mei


    Based on the relativistic theory of superstrong magnetic fields (SMF), by using three models those of Lai (LD), Fushiki (FGP), and our own (LJ), we investigate the influence of SMFs due to strong electron screening (SES) on the nuclear reaction 23Mg (p,γ) 24Al in magnetars. In a relatively low density environment (e.g., ρ 7102), our reaction rates can be 1.58 times and about three orders of magnitude larger than those of FGP and LD, respectively (B 12, ρ 7 are in units of 1012G, 107g cm-3). The significant increase of strong screening rate can imply that more 23Mg will escape from the Ne-Na cycle due to SES in a SMF. As a consequence, the next reaction, 24Al (β+, ν) 24Mg, will produce more 24Mg to participate in the Mg-Al cycle. Thus, it may lead to synthesis of a large amount of A>20 nuclides in magnetars. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11565020), the Counterpart Foundation of Sanya (2016PT43), the Special Foundation of Science and Technology Cooperation for Advanced Academy and Regional of Sanya (2016YD28), the Scientific Research Starting Foundation for 515 Talented Project of Hainan Tropical Ocean University (RHDRC201701) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province (114012)

  16. Radio stars

    Hjellming, R.M.


    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  17. The Diversity of Neutron Stars

    Kaplan, David L.


    Neutron stars are invaluable tools for exploring stellar death, the physics of ultra-dense matter, and the effects of extremely strong magnetic fields. The observed population of neutron stars is dominated by the >1000 radio pulsars, but there are distinct sub-populations that, while fewer in number, can have significant impact on our understanding of the issues mentioned above. These populations are the nearby, isolated neutron stars discovered by ROSAT, and the central compact objects in supernova remnants. The studies of both of these populations have been greatly accelerated in recent years through observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton telescope. First, we discuss radio, optical, and X-ray observations of the nearby neutron stars aimed at determining their relation to the Galactic neutron star population and at unraveling their complex physical processes by determining the basic astronomical parameters that define the population---distances, ages, and magnetic fields---the uncertainties in which limit any attempt to derive basic physical parameters for these objects. We conclude that these sources are 1e6 year-old cooling neutron stars with magnetic fields above 1e13 Gauss. Second, we describe the hollow supernova remnant problem: why many of the supernova remnants in the Galaxy have no indication of central neutron stars. We have undertaken an X-ray census of neutron stars in a volume-limited sample of Galactic supernova remnants, and from it conclude that either many supernovae do not produce neutron stars contrary to expectation, or that neutron stars can have a wide range in cooling behavior that makes many sources disappear from the X-ray sky.

  18. Shooting stars

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.


    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  19. 3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum

    Kramar, Maxim [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Airapetian, Vladimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States); NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Lin, Haosheng, E-mail: [College of Natural Sciences, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Pukalani, HI (United States)


    Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from 1.5 to 4 R{sub ⊙} using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 Å band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below ~2.5 R{sub ⊙}. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.

  20. Energy and Power Requirements of the Global Thermosphere During the Magnetic Storm of November 10, 2004


    Electric and magnetic-field perturbations were measured by ion drift meters (IDM) and triaxial fluxgate magnetometers on DMSP F13. F15, and F16...we also regard DMSP as providing lower-bound estimates of the true *pc. The triaxial fluxgate SSM sensors are either mounted on the spacecraft

  1. 3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum

    Maxim Kramar


    Full Text Available Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131 to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D coronal electron density in the range of heights from $1.5$ to $4 R_odot$ using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 AA band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below $sim 2.5 R_odot$. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.

  2. Long-term Regularities in Distribution of Global Solar and Interplanetary Magnetic Fields

    Ambrož, Pavel


    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2013), s. 637-642 ISSN 1845-8319. [Hvar Astrophysical Colloquium /12./. Hvar, 03.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030808 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : interplanetary magnetic field * solar wind Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  3. The magnetic strip(s) in the advanced phases of stellar evolution. Theoretical convective turnover timescale and Rossby number for low- and intermediate-mass stars up to the AGB at various metallicities

    Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Lagarde, N.; Gallet, F.; Palacios, A.; Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Mathis, S.; Anderson, R. I.; Dintrans, B.


    Context. Recent spectropolarimetric observations of otherwise ordinary (in terms e.g. of surface rotation and chemical properties) G, K, and M giants have revealed localized magnetic strips in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram coincident with the regions where the first dredge-up and core helium burning occur. Aims: We seek to understand the origin of magnetic fields in such late-type giant stars, which is currently unexplained. In analogy with late-type dwarf stars, we focus primarily on parameters known to influence the generation of magnetic fields in the outer convective envelope. Methods: We compute the classical dynamo parameters along the evolutionary tracks of low- and intermediate-mass stars at various metallicities using stellar models that have been extensively tested by spectroscopic and asteroseismic observations. Specifically, these include convective turnover timescales and convective Rossby numbers, computed from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or the early asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. To investigate the effects of the very extended outer convective envelope, we compute these parameters both for the entire convective envelope and locally, that is, at different depths within the envelope. We also compute the turnover timescales and corresponding Rossby numbers for the convective cores of intermediate-mass stars on the main sequence. Results: Our models show that the Rossby number of the convective envelope becomes lower than unity in the well-delimited locations of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where magnetic fields have indeed been detected. Conclusions: We show that α - Ω dynamo processes might not be continuously operating, but that they are favored in the stellar convective envelope at two specific moments along the evolution tracks, that is, during the first dredge-up at the base of the RGB and during central helium burning in the helium-burning phase and early-AGB. This general behavior can explain


    Suleimanov, V. F.; Klochkov, D.; Werner, K.; Pavlov, G. G.


    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in the chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, the atmospheres of thermally emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in Cas A, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho and Heinke. To test this composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of the carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed this grid using the standard local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10 8  G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra

  5. The twinkling of stars

    Jakeman, E.; Parry, G.; Pike, E.R.; Pusey, P.N.


    This article collects together some of the main ideas and experimental results on the twinkling of stars. Statistical methods are used to characterise the features of the scintillation and to investigate the ways in which these depend on the zenith angle of the star, the bandwidth of the light and various other parameters. Some new results are included which demonstrate the advantages of using photon counting methods in experiments on stellar scintillation. Since the twinkling of stars is a consequence of the turbulence in the Earth's magnetic atmosphere then measurements can be used to deduce some features of the structure of the turbulence. Some of the experiments designed to do this are discussed and the results reported. (author)

  6. Accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars.

    Pines, D


    During the past 8 years, extended temporal and broadband spectroscopic studies carried out by x-ray astronomical satellites have led to the identification of specific compact x-ray sources as accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars in close binary systems. Such sources provide a unique opportunity to study matter under extreme conditions not accessible in the terrestrial laboratory. Quantitative theoretical models have been developed which demonstrate that detailed studies of these sources will lead to a greatly increased understanding of dense and superdense hadron matter, hadron superfluidity, high-temperature plasma in superstrong magnetic fields, and physical processes in strong gravitational fields. Through a combination of theory and observation such studies will make possible the determination of the mass, radius, magnetic field, and structure of neutron stars and degenerate dwarf stars and the identification of further candidate black holes, and will contribute appreciably to our understanding of the physics of accretion by compact astronomical objects.

  7. Global sawtooth instability measured by magnetic coils in the JET tokamak

    Duperrex, P.A.; Pochelon, A.; Edwards, A.; Snipes, J.


    This paper describes measurements of the sawtooth instability in JET, in which the instability wave function is shown to extend to the edge where it is measured using magnetic coils. The numerous magnetic probes in JET allow the time evolution of the (n=0,1,2,3) toroidal Fourier components to be analysed. The n=1 magnetic component is similar to the m=1 soft X-ray centroid motion. This fact indicates the potential of edge signals in retrieving the poloidal mode spectrum of the q=m/n=1 surface. The spectrum evolution of the instability is compared for normal sawteeth (NST) and quasi-stabilised 'monster' sawteeth (MST). The spectrum is slowly decreasing with n for NST and all the components belong to one ballooning-like deformation, whereas MST show a large n=1 kink-like motion with small and independent accompanying higher n modes. Important equilibrium changes occur already during the growth of the instability and the growth rate is much faster than exponential. Both these facts imply a non-linear nature of the instability growth. Parametric dependence of growthrates, amplitudes, toroidal spectrum shape, etc., are studied to characterize the NST and MST instabilities. (author) 20 figs., 2 tabs., 46 refs

  8. [Magnetic resonance imaging. Density equalizing mapping analysis of global research architecture].

    Ohlendorf, D; Schwarze, B; Groneberg, D A; Schwarzer, M


    Despite the great medical importance, there is still no comprehensive scientometric analysis regarding the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the development of the importance for the healthcare system. This paper evaluated and analyzed the entire research publication results on the topic of MRI for the period 1981-2007 based on scientometric methods and parameters. A scientometric analysis (database: ISI Web of Science 1981-2007, search terms MRI and magnetic resonance imaging) was performed. The following parameters were analyzed: number of publications, countries of publication, number of citations, citation rate and collaborations, using various analytical and display techniques, including density equalizing map projections. Most of the 49,122 publications on MRI could be attributed to the USA (32.5 %), which also has the most cooperative collaborations. Within Europe, Germany (10.3 %) is the country with the highest number of publications followed by the UK (9.3 %). The western industrialized nations dominate over the rest of the world in terms of scientific developments of MRI. The thematic focus of the publications lies in the fields of radiology and neuroscience. In addition to the journal Neurology most scientific articles were published in Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Circulation. The results show that the current trend is continuing and the scientific interest in MRI is continuously increasing.

  9. Star Polymers.

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G


    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  10. Wave Star

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  11. Star Imager

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta


    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  12. Radio stars

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.


    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  13. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico


    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  14. Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology

    Ho, Wynn C. G.


    Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  15. MAGNET

    by B. Curé


    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  16. Global magnetic fluctuations in S-1 spheromak plasmas and relaxation toward a minimum-energy state

    Janos, A.; Hart, G.W.; Yamada, M.


    Globally coherent modes have been observed during formation in the S-1 Spheromak plasma. These modes play an important role in flux conversion and plasma relaxation toward a minimum-energy state. A significant finding is the temporal progression through the n = 5, 4, 3, 2; m = 1 mode sequence as q rises through rational fractions m/n. Peak amplitudes of the modes relative to the unperturbed field are typically less than 5%, while amplitudes as high as 20% have been observed

  17. A Parallel Two-fluid Code for Global Magnetic Reconnection Studies

    Breslau, J.A.; Jardin, S.C.


    This paper describes a new algorithm for the computation of two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluid studies of magnetic reconnection in plasmas. It has been implemented on several parallel platforms and shows good scalability up to 32 CPUs for reasonable problem sizes. A fixed, nonuniform rectangular mesh is used to resolve the different spatial scales in the reconnection problem. The resistive MHD version of the code uses an implicit/explicit hybrid method, while the two-fluid version uses an alternating-direction implicit (ADI) method. The technique has proven useful for comparing several different theories of collisional and collisionless reconnection

  18. Symbiotic stars

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A.G.


    Among the several hundred million binary systems estimated to lie within 3000 light years of the solar system, a tiny fraction, no more than a few hundred, belong to a curious subclass whose radiation has a wavelength distribution so peculiar that it long defied explanation. Such systems radiate strongly in the visible region of the spectrum, but some of them do so even more strongly at both shorter and longer wavelengths: in the ultraviolet region and in the infrared and radio regions. This odd distribution of radiation is best explained by the pairing of a cool red giant star and an intensely hot small star that is virtually in contact with its larger companion. Such objects have become known as symbiotic stars. On photographic plate only the giant star can be discerned, but evidence for the existence of the hot companion has been supplied by satellite-born instruments capable of detecting ultraviolet radiation. The spectra of symbiotic stars indicate that the cool red giant is surrounded by a very hot ionized gas. Symbiotic stars also flared up in outbursts indicating the ejection of material in the form of a shell or a ring. Symbiotic stars may therefore represent a transitory phase in the evolution of certain types of binary systems in which there is substantial transfer of matter from the larger partner to the smaller

  19. A global wave-driven magnetohydrodynamic solar model with a unified treatment of open and closed magnetic field topologies

    Oran, R.; Van der Holst, B.; Landi, E.; Jin, M.; Sokolov, I. V.; Gombosi, T. I., E-mail: [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105 (United States)


    We describe, analyze, and validate the recently developed Alfvén Wave Solar Model, a three-dimensional global model starting from the top of the chromosphere and extending into interplanetary space (out to 1-2 AU). This model solves the extended, two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics equations coupled to a wave kinetic equation for low-frequency Alfvén waves. In this picture, heating and acceleration of the plasma are due to wave dissipation and to wave pressure gradients, respectively. The dissipation process is described by a fully developed turbulent cascade of counterpropagating waves. We adopt a unified approach for calculating the wave dissipation in both open and closed magnetic field lines, allowing for a self-consistent treatment in any magnetic topology. Wave dissipation is the only heating mechanism assumed in the model; no geometric heating functions are invoked. Electron heat conduction and radiative cooling are also included. We demonstrate that the large-scale, steady state (in the corotating frame) properties of the solar environment are reproduced, using three adjustable parameters: the Poynting flux of chromospheric Alfvén waves, the perpendicular correlation length of the turbulence, and a pseudoreflection coefficient. We compare model results for Carrington rotation 2063 (2007 November-December) with remote observations in the extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray ranges from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and Hinode spacecraft and with in situ measurements by Ulysses. The results are in good agreement with observations. This is the first global simulation that is simultaneously consistent with observations of both the thermal structure of the lower corona and the wind structure beyond Earth's orbit.

  20. Comparison of the T2-star Values of Placentas Obtained from Pre-eclamptic Patients with Those of a Control Group: an Ex-vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Yurttutan, Nursel; Bakacak, Murat; Kızıldağ, Betül


    Endotel dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and oxidative stress are described in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, but its aetiology has not been revealed clearly. To examine whether there is a difference between the placentas of pre-eclamptic pregnant women and those of a control group in terms of their T2 star values. Case-control study. Twenty patients diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and 22 healthy controls were included in this study. The placentas obtained after births performed via Caesarean section were taken into the magnetic resonance imaging area in plastic bags within the first postnatal hour, and imaging was performed via modified DIXON-Quant sequence. Average values were obtained by performing T2 star measurements from four localisations on the placentas. T2 star values measured in the placentas of the control group were found to be significantly lower than those in the pre-eclampsia group (pstar value in the pre-eclamptic group was found to be 37.48 ms (standard deviation ± 11.3), this value was 28.74 (standard deviation ± 8.08) in the control group. The cut-off value for the T2 star value, maximising the accuracy of diagnosis, was 28.59 ms (area under curve: 0.741; 95% confidence interval: 0.592-0.890); sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 63.6%, respectively. This study, the T2 star value, which is an indicator of iron amount, was found to be significantly lower in the control group than in the pre-eclampsia group. This may be related to the reduction in blood flow to the placenta due to endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction, which are important in pre-eclampsia pathophysiology.

  1. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M.; Willun, Steffen; Dewey, Marc; Schlattmann, Peter


    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I"2 statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. (orig.)

  2. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M.; Willun, Steffen; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [Jena University Hospital, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Documentation, Jena (Germany)


    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I{sup 2} statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. (orig.)


    Benoit Curé


    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...


    B. Curé


      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...


    B. Curé


      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  6. Star formation

    Woodward, P.R.


    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  7. False star detection and isolation during star tracking based on improved chi-square tests.

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yanxiong; Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Guohua


    The star sensor is a precise attitude measurement device for a spacecraft. Star tracking is the main and key working mode for a star sensor. However, during star tracking, false stars become an inevitable interference for star sensor applications, which may result in declined measurement accuracy. A false star detection and isolation algorithm in star tracking based on improved chi-square tests is proposed in this paper. Two estimations are established based on a Kalman filter and a priori information, respectively. The false star detection is operated through adopting the global state chi-square test in a Kalman filter. The false star isolation is achieved using a local state chi-square test. Semi-physical experiments under different trajectories with various false stars are designed for verification. Experiment results show that various false stars can be detected and isolated from navigation stars during star tracking, and the attitude measurement accuracy is hardly influenced by false stars. The proposed algorithm is proved to have an excellent performance in terms of speed, stability, and robustness.

  8. Wave Star

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  9. Wave Star

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  10. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars


    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  11. STARS no star on Kauai

    Jones, M.


    The island of Kuai, home to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, is preparing for the first of a series of Star Wars rocket launches expected to begin early this year. The Strategic Defense Initiative plans 40 launches of the Stategic Target System (STARS) over a 10-year period. The focus of the tests appears to be weapons and sensors designed to combat multiple-warhead ICBMs, which will be banned under the START II Treaty that was signed in January. The focus of this article is to express the dubious value of testing the STARS at a time when their application will not be an anticipated problem


    Foster, Jonathan B.; Cottaar, Michiel; Meyer, Michael R.; Covey, Kevin R.; Arce, Héctor G.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Da Rio, Nicola; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael; Wilson, John C.; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Rebull, Luisa; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Zasowski, Gail


    The initial velocity dispersion of newborn stars is a major unconstrained aspect of star formation theory. Using near-infrared spectra obtained with the APOGEE spectrograph, we show that the velocity dispersion of young (1-2 Myr) stars in NGC 1333 is 0.92 ± 0.12 km s –1 after correcting for measurement uncertainties and the effect of binaries. This velocity dispersion is consistent with the virial velocity of the region and the diffuse gas velocity dispersion, but significantly larger than the velocity dispersion of the dense, star-forming cores, which have a subvirial velocity dispersion of 0.5 km s –1 . Since the NGC 1333 cluster is dynamically young and deeply embedded, this measurement provides a strong constraint on the initial velocity dispersion of newly formed stars. We propose that the difference in velocity dispersion between stars and dense cores may be due to the influence of a 70 μG magnetic field acting on the dense cores or be the signature of a cluster with initial substructure undergoing global collapse

  13. Neutron Stars : Magnetism vs Gravity

    however, in the magnetosphere, electromagnetic forces dominate over gravity : Fgr = mg ~ 10-18 Newton ; Fem = e V B ~ 10-5 Newton; (for a single electron of mass m and charge e ) ; Hence, the electromagnetic force is 1013 times stronger than gravity !!

  14. On Fallback Disks around Young Neutron Stars

    Alpar, M. Ali; Ertan, Ü.; Erkut, M. H.


    Some bound matter in the form of a fallback disk may be an initial parameter of isolated neutron stars at birth, which, along with the initial rotation rate and dipole (and higher multipole) magnetic moments, determines the evolution of neutron stars and the categories into which they fall. This talk reviews the possibilities of fallback disk models in explaining properties of isolated neutron stars of different categories. Recent observations of a fallback disk and observational limits on fallback disks will also be discussed.

  15. MAGNET

    B. Curé


      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  16. MAGNET

    B. Curé


      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  17. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé


    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  18. MAGNET

    B. Curé


    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  19. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability.

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis


    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  20. Influence of grain size and upper critical magnetic field on global pinning force of bronze-processed Nb/sub 3/Sn compound

    Ochiai, S.; Osamura, K.


    In order to know the dependency of global pinning force of Nb/sub 3/Sn compound on grain size and upper critical magnetic field, the global pinning force was measured at 3-15 T using bronze-processed multifilamentary composites. The grain size and upper critical magnetic field were varied by two types of annealing treatment: one is the isothermal annealing at 873, 973 and 1073 K up to 1730 ks and another is the two-stage annealing (low temperature annealing to form fine grains at 873 K for 1730 ks + high temperature annealing to raise upper critical magnetic field at 1073 K up to 18 ks). In the case of isothermal annealing treatment, both of grain size and upper critical magnetic field increased with increasing annealing temperature and time except for the annealing treatments at high temperature for prolonged times. In the case of two-stage annealing, both of them increased with second stage annealing time. The increase in grain size led to decrease in the pinning force but the increase in upper critical magnetic field to increase in it. From the analysis of the present data based on the Suenaga's speculation concerning with the density of pinning site and the Kramer's equation, it was suggested that the pinning force is, to a first approximation, proportional to the product of inverse grain size and (1-h)/sup 2/h/sup 1/2/ where h is the reduced magnetic field

  1. Electromagnetic and structural global model of the TF magnet system in ASDEX Upgrade

    Zammuto, I., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Streibl, B.; Giannone, L.; Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Mertens, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)


    Highlights: ► An electromagnetic and structural FE 3D model is set up for ASDEX Upgrade. ► The model is benchmarked against the old design results, present displacement measurements. ► The benchmarked model is applied to the present plasma configurations, which have a different poloidal field distribution with respect to the design case. ► The different poloidal field influences the out-of-plane force distribution, thus requiring an update of the TF safety system. -- Abstract: The enhancements carried out in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) are oriented toward the preparation of the future physics-related activities of ITER and DEMO. To address the main ITER issues, plasma configurations with a wider operational limit (e.g. higher triangularity) are planned for the future experimental campaigns in AUG. To evaluate the mechanical impact on the toroidal field (TF) magnet system a combined electromagnetic and structural finite element model was set up. At first extensive benchmarks of the models are carried out against the AUG reference design configurations with respect to stress [1–3], lateral displacement measurements and poloidal flux pattern. The numerical model was then applied to a set of actual high triangularity (HT) configurations generated by a more favorable poloidal field (PF) current distribution made possible by an extension of the power supply system. The resulting change of the poloidal flux pattern and the lateral force distribution has consequences for the coil shear stress and vault stability. Both aspects are monitored by a safety system measuring the PF flux placed on top and bottom of the outer surface of two TF coils (TFCs) between vault and the TFC supporting structure, so called Turn Over Structure (TOS). The range of the new HT configurations has induced a modification of the flux pattern, so that an adaptation of safety system is required to protect the TFCs system. Following the same criteria of the old safety system [4,5], a new

  2. Old and new neutron stars

    Ruderman, M.


    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10 38 s -1 of 10 12 eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10 8 old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed γ-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  3. Symbiotic stars

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.


    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.


    B. Curé


    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  5. The mysterious SU UMa stars

    Charles, P.A.


    This paper discusses the characteristics and the source of energy of the explosive stars called cataclysmic variables (CVs), with special attention given to the SU UMa stars, which represent CVs which have disks. In SU UMa binaries, a gas stream from a cool reddish star hits an accretion disk spiraling around a white dwarf. The impact of the stream produces a bright 'hot spot' on the edge of the disk, seen only when the system is quiescent and the disk is relatively dim (during outbursts, the hot spot is swamped by the light of the disk itself). The principal source of energy and light of most CVs is the gravitational potential energy released by matter falling from the dim reddish companion onto the white dwarf. The mechanism involved in the overflow of the reddish star is believed to be magnetic braking. Simulations are presented that explain the SU UMa phenomena and which may be applicable to other high-mass-ratio interacting binaries

  6. Dark stars

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund


    to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar φ4) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark......Theoretical models of self-interacting dark matter represent a promising answer to a series of open problems within the so-called collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. In case of asymmetric dark matter, self-interactions might facilitate gravitational collapse and potentially lead...... objects admit the I-Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable...

  7. Magnetic starspots

    Jahn, K.; Stepien, K.


    Models of large magnetic starspots with an axisymmetric untwisted magnetic field on late type stars are discussed. It is assumed that the magnetic field reduces the efficiency of convection inside the spot. A unique relation between the stellar mass and the difference of effective temperatures of the spot and the surrounding photosphere is adopted from observations. It is equivalent to the reduction of a s (the mixing length theory parameter) inside the spot to the value 0.15 independently of the stellar mass. The surface magnetic field of large spots covering a considerable part of the stellar surface is a decreasing function of the magnetic flux. Hence a coverage of a star by magnetic regions rapidly increases as a function of the magnetic flux in a narrow range of fluxes. This behaviour can explain the Vaughan-Preston gap. Recent observations of magnetic fields on G and K type stars are in a good agreement with our predictions. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (author)


    Rosen, Anna L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico


    The physical mechanisms that set the initial rotation rates in massive stars are a crucial unknown in current star formation theory. Observations of young, massive stars provide evidence that they form in a similar fashion to their low-mass counterparts. The magnetic coupling between a star and its accretion disk may be sufficient to spin down low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to well below breakup at the end stage of their formation when the accretion rate is low. However, we show that these magnetic torques are insufficient to spin down massive PMS stars due to their short formation times and high accretion rates. We develop a model for the angular momentum evolution of stars over a wide range in mass, considering both magnetic and gravitational torques. We find that magnetic torques are unable to spin down either low-mass or high-mass stars during the main accretion phase, and that massive stars cannot be spun down significantly by magnetic torques during the end stage of their formation either. Spin-down occurs only if massive stars' disk lifetimes are substantially longer or their magnetic fields are much stronger than current observations suggest.


    Benoit Curé


    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  10. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  11. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  12. MAGNET

    B. Curé


    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  13. Global Solar Magnetic Field Organization in the Outer Corona: Influence on the Solar Wind Speed and Mass Flux Over the Cycle

    Réville, Victor; Brun, Allan Sacha


    The dynamics of the solar wind depends intrinsically on the structure of the global solar magnetic field, which undergoes fundamental changes over the 11-year solar cycle. For instance, the wind terminal velocity is thought to be anti-correlated with the expansion factor, a measure of how the magnetic field varies with height in the solar corona, usually computed at a fixed height (≈ 2.5 {R}⊙ , the source surface radius that approximates the distance at which all magnetic field lines become open). However, the magnetic field expansion affects the solar wind in a more detailed way, its influence on the solar wind properties remaining significant well beyond the source surface. We demonstrate this using 3D global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar corona, constrained by surface magnetograms over half a solar cycle (1989-2001). A self-consistent expansion beyond the solar wind critical point (even up to 10 {R}⊙ ) makes our model comply with observed characteristics of the solar wind, namely, that the radial magnetic field intensity becomes latitude independent at some distance from the Sun, and that the mass flux is mostly independent of the terminal wind speed. We also show that near activity minimum, the expansion in the higher corona has more influence on the wind speed than the expansion below 2.5 {R}⊙ .

  14. Degenerate stars. XII - Recognition of hot nondegenerates

    Greenstein, J. L.


    Fifty-one newly observed degenerate stars and 14 nondegenerates include 13 faint red stars, most of which do not show any lines except DF, Gr 554. Hot subdwarfs and an X-ray source are discussed along with the problem of low-resolution spectroscopic classification of dense hot stars. The multichannel spectrum of the carbon-rich magnetic star LP 790-29 is examined by fitting the undisturbed parts of the spectrum to a black body of 7625 K by the least squares method; the Swan bands absorb 600 A of the spectrum assuming that the blocked radiation is redistributed in the observed region.

  15. Hybrid stars

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  16. Pulsating stars

    Catelan, M?rcio


    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  17. Variable stars

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.


    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  18. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo


    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  19. Star Products and Applications

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira


    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  20. Formation of stars and star clusters in colliding galaxies

    Belles, Pierre-Emmanuel


    Mergers are known to be essential in the formation of large-scale structures and to have a significant role in the history of galaxy formation and evolution. Besides a morphological transformation, mergers induce important bursts of star formation. These starburst are characterised by high Star Formation Efficiencies (SFEs) and Specific Star Formation Rates, i.e., high Star Formation Rates (SFR) per unit of gas mass and high SFR per unit of stellar mass, respectively, compared to spiral galaxies. At all redshifts, starburst galaxies are outliers of the sequence of star-forming galaxies defined by spiral galaxies. We have investigated the origin of the starburst-mode of star formation, in three local interacting systems: Arp 245, Arp 105 and NGC 7252. We combined high-resolution JVLA observations of the 21-cm line, tracing the HI diffuse gas, with UV GALEX observations, tracing the young star-forming regions. We probe the local physical conditions of the Inter-Stellar Medium (ISM) for independent star-forming regions and explore the atomic-to-dense gas transformation in different environments. The SFR/HI ratio is found to be much higher in central regions, compared to outer regions, showing a higher dense gas fraction (or lower HI gas fraction) in these regions. In the outer regions of the systems, i.e., the tidal tails, where the gas phase is mostly atomic, we find SFR/HI ratios higher than in standard HI-dominated environments, i.e., outer discs of spiral galaxies and dwarf galaxies. Thus, our analysis reveals that the outer regions of mergers are characterised by high SFEs, compared to the standard mode of star formation. The observation of high dense gas fractions in interacting systems is consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations; it results from the increase of the gas turbulence during a merger. The merger is likely to affect the star-forming properties of the system at all spatial scales, from large scales, with a globally enhanced turbulence

  1. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.


    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.


    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...


    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  4. Global observations of electromagnetic and particle energy flux for an event during northern winter with southward interplanetary magnetic field

    H. Korth


    Full Text Available The response of the polar ionosphere–thermosphere (I-T system to electromagnetic (EM energy input is fundamentally different to that from particle precipitation. To understand the I-T response to polar energy input one must know the intensities and spatial distributions of both EM and precipitation energy deposition. Moreover, since individual events typically display behavior different from statistical models, it is important to observe the global system state for specific events. We present an analysis of an event in Northern Hemisphere winter for sustained southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, 10 January 2002, 10:00–12:00 UT, for which excellent observations are available from the constellation of Iridium satellites, the SuperDARN radar network, and the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the IMAGE satellite. Using data from these assets we determine the EM and particle precipitation energy fluxes to the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 60° MLAT and examine their spatial distributions and intensities. The accuracy of the global estimates are assessed quantitatively using comparisons with in-situ observations by DMSP along two orbit planes. While the location of EM power input evaluated from Iridium and SuperDARN data is in good agreement with DMSP, the magnitude estimated from DMSP observations is approximately four times larger. Corrected for this underestimate, the total EM power input to the Northern Hemisphere is 188 GW. Comparison of IMAGE FUV-derived distributions of the particle energy flux with DMSP plasma data indicates that the IMAGE FUV results similarly locate the precipitation accurately while underestimating the precipitation input somewhat. The total particle input is estimated to be 20 GW, nearly a factor of ten lower than the EM input. We therefore expect the thermosphere response to be determined primarily by the EM input even under winter conditions, and accurate assessment of the EM energy input is therefore key

  5. Gravitational waves from rotating strained neutron stars

    Jones, D I


    In this review we examine the dynamics and gravitational wave detectability of rotating strained neutron stars. The discussion is divided into two halves: triaxial stars and precessing stars. We summarize recent studies on how crustal strains and magnetic fields can sustain triaxiality, and suggest that Magnus forces connected with pinned superfluid vortices might contribute to deformation also. The conclusions that could be drawn following the successful gravitational wave detection of a triaxial star are discussed, and areas requiring further study identified. The latest ideas regarding free precession are then outlined, and the recent suggestion of Middleditch et al (Middleditch et al 2000 New Astronomy 5 243; 2000 Preprint astro-ph/0010044) that the remnant of SN1987A contains a freely precessing star, spinning down by gravitational wave energy loss, is examined critically. We describe what we would learn about neutron stars should the gravitational wave detectors prove this hypothesis to be correct

  6. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC


    ...-0440; Airspace Docket No. 13-ASO-10] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC AGENCY: Federal... at Star, NC, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR 54413...

  7. Wave Star

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics of neutron star interiors

    Easson, I.; Pethick, C.J.


    Magnetohydrodynamic equations for the charged particles in the fluid interior of a neutron star are derived from the Landau-Boltzmann kinetic equations. It is assumed that the protons are normal and the neutrons are superfluid. The dissipative processes associated with the weak interactions are shown to be negligible except in very hot neutron stars; we neglect them here. Among the topics discussed are: the influence of the neutron-proton nuclear force (Fermi liquid corrections) on the magnetohydrodynamics; the effects of the magnetic field on the pressure, viscosity, and heat conductivity tensors; the plasma equation of state; and the form of the generalized Ohm's law


    Hansen, Charles E.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Fisher, Robert T.


    Protostellar feedback, both radiation and bipolar outflows, dramatically affects the fragmentation and mass accretion from star-forming cores. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate low-mass star formation in a turbulent molecular cloud in the presence of protostellar feedback. We present results of the first simulations of a star-forming cluster that include both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows. We run four simulations to isolate the individual effects of radiation feedback and outflow feedback as well as the combination of the two. We find that outflows reduce protostellar masses and accretion rates each by a factor of three and therefore reduce protostellar luminosities by an order of magnitude. This means that, while radiation feedback suppresses fragmentation, outflows render protostellar radiation largely irrelevant for low-mass star formation above a mass scale of 0.05 M ☉ . We find initial fragmentation of our cloud at half the global Jeans length, around 0.1 pc. With insufficient protostellar radiation to stop it, these 0.1 pc cores fragment repeatedly, forming typically 10 stars each. The accretion rate in these stars scales with mass as predicted from core accretion models that include both thermal and turbulent motions; the accretion rate does not appear to be consistent with either competitive accretion or accretion from an isothermal sphere. We find that protostellar outflows do not significantly affect the overall cloud dynamics, in the absence of magnetic fields, due to their small opening angles and poor coupling to the dense gas. The outflows reduce the mass from the cores by 2/3, giving a core to star efficiency, ε core ≅ 1/3. The simulations are also able to reproduce many observation of local star-forming regions. Our simulation with radiation and outflows reproduces the observed protostellar luminosity function. All of the simulations can reproduce observed core mass

  10. The Properties of Primordial Stars and Galaxies measured from the 21-cm Global Spectrum using the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)

    Burns, Jack O.; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Fialkov, Anastasia; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin; Loeb, Abraham; Mirocha, Jordan; Monsalve, Raul A.; Rapetti, David; Tauscher, Keith; Wollack, Edward


    DARE is a mission concept designed to observe the formation of primordial stars, black holes, and galaxies (z=11-35) by measuring their spectral effects on the redshifted 21-cm hydrogen line. The UV and X-ray radiation emitted by these first objects ionized and heated the intergalactic medium and imprinted characteristic features in the 21-cm spectrum. The 1.4 GHz signal is redshifted into the radio band 40-120 MHz. DARE will take advantage of the quietest RF environment in the inner solar system by using the Moon as a shield from human radio frequency interference and solar emissions via observations on the lunar farside. DARE’s science objectives are to determine: when the first stars turned on and their properties, when the first black holes began accreting and their masses, the reionization history of the early Universe, and if evidence exists for exotic physics in the Dark Ages such as Dark Matter decay. Wideband crossed-dipole antennas, pilot tone stablized radiometric receivers, a polarimeter, and a digital spectrometer constitute the science instrument. DARE’s radiometer is precisely calibrated with a featureless spectral response, controlled systematics, and heritage from CMB missions. Models for the instrument main beam and sidelobes, antenna reflection coefficient, gain variations, and calibrations will be validated with electromagnetic simulations, laboratory and anechoic chamber measurements, and verified on-orbit. The unique frequency structure of the 21-cm spectrum, its uniformity over large angular scales, and its unpolarized state are unlike the spectrally featureless, spatially-varying, polarized emission of the bright Galactic foreground, allowing the signal to be cleanly separated from the foreground. The 21-cm signal will be extracted in the presence of foregrounds using a Bayesian framework with a Markov Chain Monto Carlo (MCMC) numerical inference technique. The DARE data analysis pipeline enables efficient, simultaneous, and self

  11. MSU Contributes to New Research on Star Formation


    EAST LANSING, Mich. - "Crazy" and "cool" are two of the words Michigan State University astronomer Megan Donahue uses to describe the two distinct "tails" found on a long tail of gas that is believed to be forming stars where few stars have been formed before. Donahue was part of an international team of astronomers that viewed the gas tail with a very long, new observation made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and detailed it in a paper published this month in the publication Astrophysical Journal. "The double tail is very cool - that is, interesting - and ridiculously hard to explain," said Donahue, a professor in MSU's Department of Physics and Astronomy. "It could be two different sources of gas or something to do with magnetic fields. We just don't know." What is also unusual is the gas tail, which is more than 200,000 light years in length, extends well outside any galaxy. It is within objects such as this that new stars are formed, but usually within the confines of a galaxy. "This system is really crazy because where we're seeing the star formation is well away from any galaxy," Donahue said. "Star formation happens primarily in the disks of galaxies. What we're seeing here is very unexpected." This gas tail was originally spotted by astronomers three years ago using a multitude of telescopes, including NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the SOuthern Astrophysical Research telescope, a Chilean-based observatory in which MSU is one of the partners. The new observations show a second tail, and a fellow galaxy, ESO 137-002, that also has a tail of hot X-ray-emitting gas. How these newly formed stars came to be in this particular place remains a mystery as well. Astronomers theorize this gas tail might have "pulled" star-making material from nearby gases, creating what some have called "orphan stars." "This system continues to surprise us as we get better observations of it," Donahue said. The gas tail is located in the southern hemisphere near a

  12. Stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets

    Vidotto A.A.


    Full Text Available It has been proposed that magnetic activity could be enhanced due to interactions between close-in massive planets and their host stars. In this article, I present a brief overview of the connection between stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets. Stellar activity can be probed in chromospheric lines, coronal emission, surface spot coverage, etc. Since these are manifestations of stellar magnetism, these measurements are often used as proxies for the magnetic field of stars. Here, instead of focusing on the magnetic proxies, I overview some recent results of magnetic field measurements using spectropolarimetric observations. Firstly, I discuss the general trends found between large-scale magnetism, stellar rotation, and coronal emission and show that magnetism seems to be correlated to the internal structure of the star. Secondly, I overview some works that show evidence that exoplanets could (or not act as to enhance the activity of their host stars.

  13. Magnetic

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.


    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  14. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  15. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  16. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé


    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...


    Schenck, David E.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Reiter, Megan; Juneau, Stephanie


    We present an analysis of the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and mass of dense gas in Galactic clumps and nearby galaxies. Using the bolometric luminosity as a measure of SFR and the molecular line luminosity of HCO + (3-2) as a measure of dense gas mass, we find that the relation between SFR and M dense is approximately linear. This is similar to published results derived using HCN (1-0) as a dense gas tracer. HCO + (3-2) and HCN (1-0) have similar conditions for excitation. Our work includes 16 Galactic clumps that are in both the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and the Red MSX Source Survey, 27 water maser sources from the literature, and the aforementioned HCN (1-0) data. Our results agree qualitatively with predictions of recent theoretical models which state that the nature of the relation should depend on how the critical density of the tracer compares with the mean density of the gas.

  18. Extra high speed modified Lundell alternator parameters and open/short-circuit characteristics from global 3D-FE magnetic field solutions

    Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.


    The combined magnetic vector potential - magnetic scalar potential method of computation of 3D magnetic fields by finite elements, introduced in a companion paper, is used for global 3D field analysis and machine performance computations under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions for an example 14.3 kVA modified Lundell alternator, whose magnetic field is of intrinsic 3D nature. The computed voltages and currents under these machine test conditions were verified and found to be in very good agreement with corresponding test data. Results of use of this modelling and computation method in the study of a design alteration example, in which the stator stack length of the example alternator is stretched in order to increase voltage and volt-ampere rating, are given here. These results demonstrate the inadequacy of conventional 2D-based design concepts and the imperative of use of this type of 3D magnetic field modelling in the design and investigation of such machines.

  19. Extra high speed modified Lundell alternator parameters and open/short-circuit characteristics from global 3D-FE magnetic field solutions

    Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.


    The combined magnetic vector potential - magnetic scalar potential method of computation of 3D magnetic fields by finite elements, introduced in a companion paper, is used for global 3D field analysis and machine performance computations under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions for an example 14.3 kVA modified Lundell alternator, whose magnetic field is of intrinsic 3D nature. The computed voltages and currents under these machine test conditions were verified and found to be in very good agreement with corresponding test data. Results of use of this modelling and computation method in the study of a design alteration example, in which the stator stack length of the example alternator is stretched in order to increase voltage and volt-ampere rating, are given here. These results demonstrate the inadequacy of conventional 2D-based design concepts and the imperative of use of this type of 3D magnetic field modelling in the design and investigation of such machines.

  20. Multi-Wavelength Polarimetry of Isolated Neutron Stars

    Roberto P. Mignani


    Full Text Available Isolated neutron stars are known to be endowed with extreme magnetic fields, whose maximum intensity ranges from 10 12 – 10 15 G, which permeates their magnetospheres. Their surrounding environment is also strongly magnetized, especially in the compact nebulae powered by the relativistic wind from young neutron stars. The radiation from isolated neutron stars and their surrounding nebulae is, thus, supposed to bring a strong polarization signature. Measuring the neutron star polarization brings important information about the properties of their magnetosphere and of their highly magnetized environment. Being the most numerous class of isolated neutron stars, polarization measurements have been traditionally carried out for radio pulsars, hence in the radio band. In this review, I summarize multi-wavelength linear polarization measurements obtained at wavelengths other than radio both for pulsars and other types of isolated neutron stars and outline future perspectives with the upcoming observing facilities.

  1. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    Kaminski, Matthias, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Uhlemann, Christoph F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany)


    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.

  2. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II.


    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10 4 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  3. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II


    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding intercloud gas flows leading to nonlinear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an initially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation-driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation-driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in -- 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ yr and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several ultracompact H II regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multi-dimensional calculations of coupled processes. Important nonlinear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  4. A spectral atlas of λ Bootis stars

    Paunzen E.


    Full Text Available Since the discovery of λ Bootis stars, a permanent confusion about their classification can be found in literature. This group of non-magnetic, Population I, metal-poor A to F-type stars, has often been used as some sort of trash can for "exotic" and spectroscopically dubious objects. Some attempts have been made to establish a homogeneous group of stars which share the same common properties. Unfortunately, the flood of "new" information (e.g. UV and IR data led again to a whole zoo of objects classified as λ Bootis stars, which, however, are apparent non-members. To overcome this unsatisfying situation, a spectral atlas of well established λ Bootis stars for the classical optical domain was compiled. It includes intermediate dispersion (40 and 120Å mm-1 spectra of three λ Bootis, as well as appropriate MK standard stars. Furthermore, "suspicious" objects, such as shell and Field Horizontal Branch stars, have been considered in order to provide to classifiers a homogeneous reference. As a further step, a high resolution (8Å mm-1 spectrum of one "classical" λ Bootis star in the same wavelength region (3800-4600Å is presented. In total, 55 lines can be used for this particular star to derive detailed abundances for nine heavy elements (Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr and Ba.

  5. Life of a star

    Henbest, Nigel.


    The paper concerns the theory of stellar evolution. A description is given of:- how a star is born, main sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars and black holes. A brief explanation is given of how the death of a star as a supernova can trigger off the birth of a new generation of stars. Classification of stars and the fate of our sun, are also described. (U.K.)

  6. Slowly braked, rotating neutron stars

    Sato, H.


    A slowly braked, rotating neutron star is believed to be a star which rapidly rotates, has no nebula, is nonpulsing, and has a long initial braking time of ten thousand to a million years because of a low magnetic field. Such an object might be observable as an extended weak source of infrared or radio wave radiation due to the scattering of low-frequency strong-wave photons by accelerated electrons. If these objects exist abundantly in the Galaxy, they would act as sources of relatively low-energy cosmic rays. Pulsars (rapidly braked neutron stars) are shown to have difficulties in providing an adequate amount of cosmic-ray matter, making these new sources seem necessary. The possibility that the acceleration mechanism around a slowly braked star may be not a direct acceleration by the strong wave but an acceleration due to plasma turbulence excited by the strong wave is briefly explored. It is shown that white dwarfs may also be slowly braked stars with braking times longer than 3.15 million years.

  7. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.


    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  8. Strange exotic states and compact stars

    Sagert, Irina; Wietoska, Mirjam; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen


    We discuss the possible appearance of strange exotic multi-quark states in the interiors of neutron stars and signals for the existence of strange quark matter in the cores of compact stars. We show how the in-medium properties of possible pentaquark states are constrained by pulsar mass measurements. The possibility of generating the observed large pulsar kick velocities by asymmetric emission of neutrinos from strange quark matter in magnetic fields is outlined

  9. Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields

    Perez M, A.; Perez R, H.; Masood, S.S.; Gaitan, R.; Rodriguez R, S.


    In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)


    Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego; Mendez, Mariano; Lin Dacheng; Casella, Piergiorgio; Belloni, Tomaso M.


    We report on an analysis of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (NS-LMXB) XTE J1701-462, obtained during its 2006-2007 outburst. The X-ray properties of the source changed between those of various types of NS-LMXB subclasses. At high luminosities, the source switched between two types of Z source behavior and at low luminosities we observed a transition from Z source to atoll source behavior. These transitions between subclasses primarily manifest themselves as changes in the shapes of the tracks in X-ray color-color (CD) and hardness-intensity diagrams (HID), but they are accompanied by changes in the kHz quasi-periodic oscillations, broadband variability, burst behavior, and/or X-ray spectra. We find that for most of the outburst the low-energy X-ray flux is a good parameter to track the gradual evolution of the tracks in CD and HID, allowing us to resolve the evolution of the source in greater detail than before and relate the observed properties to other NS-LMXBs. We further find that during the transition from Z to atoll, characteristic behavior known as the atoll upper banana can equivalently be described as the final stage of a weakening Z source flaring branch, thereby blurring the line between the two subclasses. Our findings strongly suggest that the wide variety in behavior observed in NS-LXMBs with different luminosities can be linked through changes in a single variable parameter, namely the mass accretion rate, without the need for additional differences in the neutron star parameters or viewing angle. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for the spectral changes observed in NS-LMXBs and suggest that, contrary to what is often assumed, the position along the color-color tracks of Z sources is not determined by the instantaneous mass accretion rate.

  11. Gamma ray bursts from comet neutron star magnetosphere interaction, field twisting and Eparallel formation

    Colgate, S.A.


    Consider the problem of a comet in a collision trajectory with a magnetized neutron star. The question addressed in this paper is whether the comet interacts strongly enough with a magnetic field such as to capture at a large radius or whether in general the comet will escape a magnetized neutron star. 6 refs., 4 figs

  12. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, Mathias; Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby


    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter’s planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor ...

  13. Quantification of Global Left Ventricular Function: Comparison of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A Meta-analysis and Review of the Current Literature

    Vleuten, P.A. van der; Willems, T.P.; Goette, M.J.; Tio, R.A.; Greuter, M.J.; Zijlstra, F.; Oudkerk, M.


    Cardiac morbidity and mortality are closely related to cardiac volumes and global left ventricular (LV) function, expressed as left ventricular ejection fraction. Accurate assessment of these parameters is required for the prediction of prognosis in individual patients as well as in entire cohorts. The current standard of reference for left ventricular function is analysis by short-axis magnetic resonance imaging. In recent years, major extensive technological improvements have been achieved in computed tomography. The most marked development has been the introduction of the multidetector CT (MDCT), which has significantly improved temporal and spatial resolutions. In order to assess the current status of MDCT for analysis of LV function, the current available literature on this subject was reviewed. The data presented in this review indicate that the global left ventricular functional parameters measured by contemporary multi-detector row systems combined with adequate reconstruction algorithms and post-processing tools show a narrow diagnostic window and are interchangeable with those obtained by MRI

  14. Gravitational and magnetic field variations synergize to cause subtle variations in the global transcriptional state of Arabidopsis in vitro callus cultures

    Manzano Ana I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological systems respond to changes in both the Earth's magnetic and gravitational fields, but as experiments in space are expensive and infrequent, Earth-based simulation techniques are required. A high gradient magnetic field can be used to levitate biological material, thereby simulating microgravity and can also create environments with a reduced or an enhanced level of gravity (g, although special attention should be paid to the possible effects of the magnetic field (B itself. Results Using diamagnetic levitation, we exposed Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro callus cultures to five environments with different levels of effective gravity and magnetic field strengths. The environments included levitation, i.e. simulated μg* (close to 0 g* at B = 10.1 T, intermediate g* (0.1 g* at B = 14.7 T and enhanced gravity levels (1.9 g* at B = 14.7 T and 2 g* at B = 10.1 T plus an internal 1 g* control (B = 16.5 T. The asterisk denotes the presence of the background magnetic field, as opposed to the effective gravity environments in the absence of an applied magnetic field, created using a Random Position Machine (simulated μg and a Large Diameter Centrifuge (2 g. Microarray analysis indicates that changes in the overall gene expression of cultured cells exposed to these unusual environments barely reach significance using an FDR algorithm. However, it was found that gravitational and magnetic fields produce synergistic variations in the steady state of the transcriptional profile of plants. Transcriptomic results confirm that high gradient magnetic fields (i.e. to create μg* and 2 g* conditions have a significant effect, mainly on structural, abiotic stress genes and secondary metabolism genes, but these subtle gravitational effects are only observable using clustering methodologies. Conclusions A detailed microarray dataset analysis, based on clustering of similarly expressed genes (GEDI software, can detect underlying global

  15. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    Conti, P.S.; Underhill, A.B.; Jordan, S.; Thomas, R.


    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented

  16. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)


    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  17. Star spotting at CERN


    This June, two American celebrities (and physics enthusiasts!) came to CERN. Brian Cox gave Mike Einziger (right), lead guitarist with the rock band Incubus, the star treatment in the ATLAS cavern. Jesse Dylan embraces the spirit of ATLAS! Mike Einziger, lead guitarist with the rock band Incubus, visited CERN on Friday 13 June between concerts in Finland and England. Einziger, a lifelong science enthusiast descended into the ATLAS and CMS caverns and visited the SM18 test magnet facility during his brief tour of CERN. Einziger learned about the LHC through watching online lectures from University of Manchester and ATLAS physicist Brian Cox, and was thrilled to have the chance to see the detectors in person. The musician has created an orchestral piece, inspired in part by the work being done at CERN for the LHC, which will have its debut in Los Angeles on 23 August. Just over a week earlier, Jesse Dylan, Hollywood film director a...

  18. Approach to Integrate Global-Sun Models of Magnetic Flux Emergence and Transport for Space Weather Studies

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Henney, Carl; Arge, Nick; Godinez, H.; Manchester, Ward; Koller, J.; Kosovichev, A.; Scherrer, P.; hide


    The Sun lies at the center of space weather and is the source of its variability. The primary input to coronal and solar wind models is the activity of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere. Recent advancements in solar observations and numerical simulations provide a basis for developing physics-based models for the dynamics of the magnetic field from the deep convection zone of the Sun to the corona with the goal of providing robust near real-time boundary conditions at the base of space weather forecast models. The goal is to develop new strategic capabilities that enable characterization and prediction of the magnetic field structure and flow dynamics of the Sun by assimilating data from helioseismology and magnetic field observations into physics-based realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The integration of first-principle modeling of solar magnetism and flow dynamics with real-time observational data via advanced data assimilation methods is a new, transformative step in space weather research and prediction. This approach will substantially enhance an existing model of magnetic flux distribution and transport developed by the Air Force Research Lab. The development plan is to use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to develop Coupled Models for Emerging flux Simulations (CMES) that couples three existing models: (1) an MHD formulation with the anelastic approximation to simulate the deep convection zone (FSAM code), (2) an MHD formulation with full compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a detailed description of radiative transfer and thermodynamics to simulate near-surface convection and the photosphere (Stagger code), and (3) an MHD formulation with full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an approximate description of radiative transfer and heating to simulate the corona (Module in BATS-R-US). CMES will enable simulations of the emergence of magnetic structures from the deep convection zone to the corona. Finally, a plan

  19. An MHD simulation model of time-dependent global solar corona with temporally varying solar-surface magnetic field maps

    Hayashi, K.


    We present a model of a time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the sub-Alfvenic solar corona and super-Alfvenic solar wind with temporally varying solar-surface boundary magnetic field data. To (i) accommodate observational data with a somewhat arbitrarily evolving solar photospheric magnetic field as the boundary value and (ii) keep the divergence-free condition, we developed a boundary model, here named Confined Differential Potential Field model, that calculates the horizontal components of the magnetic field, from changes in the vertical component, as a potential field confined in a thin shell. The projected normal characteristic method robustly simulates the solar corona and solar wind, in response to the temporal variation of the boundary Br. We conduct test MHD simulations for two periods, from Carrington Rotation number 2009 to 2010 and from Carrington Rotation 2074 to 2075 at solar maximum and minimum of Cycle 23, respectively. We obtained several coronal features that a fixed boundary condition cannot yield, such as twisted magnetic field lines at the lower corona and the transition from an open-field coronal hole to a closed-field streamer. We also obtained slight improvements of the interplanetary magnetic field, including the latitudinal component, at Earth.

  20. Long-term MRI cell tracking after intraventricular delivery in a patient with global cerebral ischemia and prospects for magnetic navigation of stem cells within the CSF.

    Miroslaw Janowski

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term clinical tracking of magnetically labeled stem cells after intracerebroventricular transplantation as well as to investigate in vitro feasibility for magnetic guidance of cell therapy within large fluid compartments.After approval by our Institutional Review Board, an 18-month-old patient, diagnosed as being in a vegetative state due to global cerebral ischemia, underwent cell transplantation to the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle, with umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO contrast agent. The patient was followed over 33 months with clinical examinations and MRI. To evaluate the forces governing the distribution of cells within the fluid compartment of the ventricular system in vivo, a gravity-driven sedimentation assay and a magnetic field-driven cell attraction assay were developed in vitro.Twenty-four hours post-transplantation, MR imaging (MRI was able to detect hypointense cells in the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle. The signal gradually decreased over 4 months and became undetectable at 33 months. In vitro, no significant difference in cell sedimentation between SPIO-labeled and unlabeled cells was observed (p = NS. An external magnet was effective in attracting cells over distances comparable to the size of human lateral ventricles.MR imaging of SPIO-labeled cells allows monitoring of cells within lateral ventricles. While the initial biodistribution is governed by gravity-driven sedimentation, an external magnetic field may possibly be applied to further direct the distribution of labeled cells within large fluid compartments such as the ventricular system.

  1. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  2. The Double Star mission



    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  3. Wolf--Rayet stars of M33

    Corso, G.J. Jr.


    A comprehensive study of the 54 known Wolf--Rayet stars of M33 is undertaken with the intention of improving our knowledge of the Wolf--Rayet phenomenon, identifying significant features of their distribution in an Sc galaxy, and discerning possible trends in the variation of chemical composition of the interstellar medium from place to place within that galaxy. Thirty-seven of these stars were classified for the first time into carbon and nitrogen sequences on the basis of photographic photometry of image tube plates obtained with the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope and an ITT magnetically focused image tube equipped with a set of narrow-band interference filters designed to isolate the broad emission features between 4640 A and 4686 A due to N III, C III-IV, and He II. The subclasses WC6-9, missing in the Large Magellanic Cloud, were found in M33, although there is a tendency for the known stars of both sequences to belong to the high-excitation subclasses. The distribution of these stars was compared with the distributions of luminous blue stars, dust, and H II regions. Star counts on the image tube plates indicated that one out of every 75 stars in M33 brighter than M/sub B/ = --4.5 is a Wolf--Rayet star

  4. Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology.

    Ho, Wynn C G


    Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Neutron star kicks and asymmetric supernovae

    Lai, D.


    Observational advances over the last decade have left little doubt that neutron stars received a large kick velocity (of order a few hundred to a thousand km s -1 ) at birth. The physical origin of the kicks and the related supernova asymmetry is one of the central unsolved mysteries of supernova research. We review the physics of different kick mechanisms, including hydrodynamically driven, neutrino - magnetic field driven, and electromagnetically driven kicks. The viabilities of the different kick mechanisms are directly related to the other key parameters characterizing nascent neutron stars, such as the initial magnetic field and the initial spin. Recent observational constraints on kick mechanisms are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Compact stars

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin


    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  7. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    Bhalerao, Varun


    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  8. An improved age-activity relationship for cool stars older than a gigayear

    Booth, R. S.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Watson, C. A.


    Stars with convective envelopes display magnetic activity, which decreases over time due to the magnetic braking of the star. This age dependence of magnetic activity is well studied for younger stars, but the nature of this dependence for older stars is not well understood. This is mainly because...... absolute stellar ages for older stars are hard to measure. However, relatively accurate stellar ages have recently come into reach through asteroseismology. In this work, we present X-ray luminosities, which are a measure for magnetic activity displayed by the stellar coronae, for 24 stars with well......-determined ages older than a gigayear. We find 14 stars with detectable X-ray luminosities and use these to calibrate the age-activity relationship. We find a relationship between stellar X-ray luminosity, normalized by the stellar surface area, and age that is steeper than the relationships found for younger...

  9. Radiation pressure in super star cluster formation

    Tsang, Benny T.-H.; Milosavljević, Miloš


    The physics of star formation at its extreme, in the nuclei of the densest and the most massive star clusters in the universe—potential massive black hole nurseries—has for decades eluded scrutiny. Spectroscopy of these systems has been scarce, whereas theoretical arguments suggest that radiation pressure on dust grains somehow inhibits star formation. Here, we harness an accelerated Monte Carlo radiation transport scheme to report a radiation hydrodynamical simulation of super star cluster formation in turbulent clouds. We find that radiation pressure reduces the global star formation efficiency by 30-35%, and the star formation rate by 15-50%, both relative to a radiation-free control run. Overall, radiation pressure does not terminate the gas supply for star formation and the final stellar mass of the most massive cluster is ˜1.3 × 106 M⊙. The limited impact as compared to in idealized theoretical models is attributed to a radiation-matter anti-correlation in the supersonically turbulent, gravitationally collapsing medium. In isolated regions outside massive clusters, where the gas distribution is less disturbed, radiation pressure is more effective in limiting star formation. The resulting stellar density at the cluster core is ≥108 M⊙ pc-3, with stellar velocity dispersion ≳ 70 km s-1. We conclude that the super star cluster nucleus is propitious to the formation of very massive stars via dynamical core collapse and stellar merging. We speculate that the very massive star may avoid the claimed catastrophic mass loss by continuing to accrete dense gas condensing from a gravitationally-confined ionized phase.

  10. Cosmic global strings

    Sikivie, P.


    The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)

  11. X-rays from stars

    Güdel, Manuel


    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  12. Magneto–Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars with Emphasis to ...

    The magnetic and thermal evolution of neutron stars is a very complex process with many non-linear interactions. For a decent understanding of neutron star physics, these evolutions cannot be considered isolated. A brief overview is presented, which describes the main magneto–thermal interactions that determine the fate ...

  13. Monitoring Crohn's disease during anti-TNF-α therapy: validation of the magnetic resonance enterography global score (MEGS) against a combined clinical reference standard

    Prezzi, Davide; Bhatnagar, Gauraang; Makanyanga, Jesica; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart Andrew; Vega, Roser


    To assess the ability of magnetic resonance enterography global score (MEGS) to characterise Crohn's disease (CD) response to anti-TNF-α therapy. Thirty-six CD patients (median age 26 years, 20 males) commencing anti-TNF-α therapy with concomitant baseline MRI enterography (MRE) were identified retrospectively. Patients' clinical course was followed and correlated with subsequent MREs. Scan order was randomised and MEGS (a global activity score) was applied by two blinded radiologists. A physician's global assessment of the disease activity (remission, mild, moderate or severe) at the time of MRE was assigned. The cohort was divided into clinical responders and non-responders and MEGS compared according to activity status and treatment response. Interobserver agreement was assessed. Median MEGS decreased significantly between baseline and first follow-up in responders (28 versus 6, P < 0.001) but was unchanged in non-responders (26 versus 18, P = 0.28). The median MEGS was significantly lower in clinical remission (9) than in moderate (14) or severe (29) activity (P < 0.001). MEGS correlated significantly with clinical activity (r = 0.53; P < 0.001). Interobserver Bland-Altman limits of agreement (BA LoA) were -19.7 to 18.5. MEGS decreases significantly in clinical responders to anti-TNF-α therapy but not in non-responders, demonstrates good interobserver agreement and moderate correlation with clinical disease activity. (orig.)

  14. Giant CP stars

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.


    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Effect of the Global Topology of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field on the Properties of Impulsive Acceleration Processes in Distant Regions of the Earth's Magnetospheric Tail

    Grigorenko, E.E.; Zelenyi, L.M.; Fedorov, A.O.; Sauvaud, J.-A.


    The paper is devoted to a statistical study of high-speed ion beams (beamlets) observed by the Interball-1 and Interball-2 satellites in the boundary region of the plasma sheet of the geomagnetic tail and in the high-latitude auroral regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. Beamlets result from nonlinear acceleration processes occurring in the current sheet in the distant regions of the geomagnetic tail. They propagate toward the Earth along the magnetic field lines and are detected in the boundary region of the plasma sheet and near the high-latitude boundary of the plasma sheet in the auroral region in the form of short (with a duration of 1-2 min) bursts of high-energy (with energies of about several tens of keV) ions. The sizes of the latitudinal zones where the beamlets are localized in the tail and in the auroral region are determined using the epoch superposition method. The relationship between the frequency of beamlet generation in the boundary region of the plasma sheet and the prehistory of the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (the magnitude of a clock angle) is investigated. It was established that this direction exerts a global effect on the beamlet generation frequency; moreover, it was found that the beamlet generation frequency in the midnight local time sector of the tail and at the flanks depends differently on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the midnight sector, the beamlets are observed at almost all directions of the interplanetary field, whereas the frequency of their generation at the flanks is maximal only when the interplanetary magnetic field has a large y component

  16. Cooling of Accretion-Heated Neutron Stars

    Wijnands, Rudy; Degenaar, Nathalie; Page, Dany


    We present a brief, observational review about the study of the cooling behaviour of accretion-heated neutron stars and the inferences about the neutron-star crust and core that have been obtained from these studies. Accretion of matter during outbursts can heat the crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core and after the accretion episodes are over, the crust will cool down until crust-core equilibrium is restored. We discuss the observed properties of the crust cooling sources and what has been learned about the physics of neutron-star crusts. We also briefly discuss those systems that have been observed long after their outbursts were over, i.e, during times when the crust and core are expected to be in thermal equilibrium. The surface temperature is then a direct probe for the core temperature. By comparing the expected temperatures based on estimates of the accretion history of the targets with the observed ones, the physics of neutron-star cores can be investigated. Finally, we discuss similar studies performed for strongly magnetized neutron stars in which the magnetic field might play an important role in the heating and cooling of the neutron stars.

  17. Interstellar clouds and the formation of stars

    Alfven, H; Carlqvist, P [Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden). Institutionen foer Plasmafysik


    Part I gives a survey of the drastic revision of cosmic plasma physics which is precipitated by the exploration of the magnetosphere through in situ measurements. The 'pseudo-plasma formalism', which until now has almost completely dominated theoretical astrophysics, must be replaced by an experimentally based approach involving the introduction of a number of neglected plasma phenomena, such as electric double layers, critical velocity, and pinch effect. The general belief that star light is the main ionizer is shown to be doubtful; hydromagnetic conversion of gravitational and kinetic energy may often be much more important. In Part II the revised plasma physics is applied to dark clouds and star formation. Magnetic fields do not necessarily counteract the contraction of a cloud; they may just as well 'pinch' the cloud. Magnetic compression may be the main mechanism for forming interstellar clouds and keeping them together. Part III treats the formation of stars in a dusty cosmic plasma cloud. Star formation is due to an instability, but it is very unlikely that it has anything to do with the Jeans instability. A reasonable mechanism is that the sedimentation of 'dust' (including solid bodies of different size) is triggering off a gravitationally assisted accretion. A 'stellesimal' accretion analogous to the planetesimal accretion leads to the formation of a star surrounded by a very low density hollow in the cloud. Matter falling in from the cloud towards the star is the raw material for the formation of planets and satellites.

  18. Revisiting Field Burial by Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    Dipanjan Mukherjee


    Sep 12, 2017 ... review the recent work on magnetic confinement of accreted matter on neutron stars poles. We present ..... hours to days, see Brown & Bildsten 1998) where the ...... Radhakrishnan, V., Srinivasan, G. 1984, in: Second Asian-.

  19. Neutron stars: Observational diversity and evolution

    Safi-Harb, S.


    Ever since the discovery of the Crab and Vela pulsars in their respective Supernova Remnants, our understanding of how neutron stars manifest themselves observationally has been dramatically shaped by the surge of discoveries and dedicated studies across the electromagnetic spectrum, particularly in the high-energy band. The growing diversity of neutron stars includes the highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars) and the Central Compact Objects shining in X-rays and mostly lacking pulsar wind nebulae. These two subclasses of high-energy objects, however, seem to be characterized by anomalously high or anomalously low surface magnetic fields (thus dubbed as ‘magnetars’ and ‘anti-magnetars’, respectively), and have pulsar characteristic ages that are often much offset from their associated SNRs’ ages. In addition, some neutron stars act ‘schizophrenic’ in that they occasionally display properties that seem common to more than one of the defined subclasses. I review the growing diversity of neutron stars from an observational perspective, then highlight recent and on-going theoretical and observational work attempting to address this diversity, particularly in light of their magnetic field evolution, energy loss mechanisms, and supernova progenitors’ studies.

  20. Dwarf Star Erupts in Giant Flare


    This movie taken by NASA'S Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows one of the largest flares, or star eruptions, ever recorded at ultraviolet wavelengths. The star, called GJ 3685A, just happened to be in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's field of view while the telescope was busy observing galaxies. As the movie demonstrates, the seemingly serene star suddenly exploded once, then even more intensely a second time, pouring out in total about one million times more energy than a typical flare from our Sun. The second blast of light constituted an increase in brightness by a factor of at least 10,000. Flares are huge explosions of energy stemming from a single location on a star's surface. They are caused by the brief destruction of a star's magnetic fields. Many types of stars experience them, though old, small, rapidly rotating 'red dwarfs' like GJ 3685A tend to flare more frequently and dramatically. These stars, called flare stars, can experience powerful eruptions as often as every few hours. Younger stars, in general, also erupt more often. One of the reasons astronomers study flare stars is to gain a better picture and history of flare events taking place on the Sun. A preliminary analysis of the GJ 3685A flare shows that the mechanisms underlying stellar eruptions may be more complex than previously believed. Evidence for the two most popular flare theories was found. Though this movie has been sped up (the actual flare lasted about 20 minutes), time-resolved data exist for each one-hundredth of a second. These observations were taken at 2 p.m. Pacific time, April 24, 2004. In the still image, the time sequence starts in the upper left panel, continues in the upper right, then moves to the lower left and ends in the lower right. The circular and linear features that appear below and to the right of GJ 3685A during the flare event are detector artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the flare.

  1. Rates of star formation

    Larson, R.B.


    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  2. Energy production in stars

    Bethe, Hans.


    Energy in stars is released partly by gravitation, partly by nuclear reactions. For ordinary stars like our sun, nuclear reactions predominate. However, at the end of the life of a star very large amounts of energy are released by gravitational collapse; this can amount to as much as 10 times the total energy released nuclear reactions. The rotational energy of pulsars is a small remnant of the energy of gravitation. The end stage of small stars is generally a white dwarf, of heavy stars a neutron star of possibly a black hole

  3. Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces

    K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar


    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

  4. T Tauri stars - Wild as dust

    Bertout, C.


    T Tauri stars (TTSs), their surroundings, and their common evolution toward the main sequence are discussed. The photospheric properties of TTSs and their solar-type outer atmospheres, recent evidence for circumstellar disks around classical TTSs (CTTSs), and CTTS mass outflows are examined. TTSs are depicted as complex systems whose properties depend mostly on the initial conditions of star formation and on their rotation rates, which appear to control the magnetodynamic activity in the stars. The most exotic traits of CTTSs are primarily due to the disk and its interaction with the star, and the properties of weak-line TTSs (WTTSs) are mainly manifestations of the enhanced solar-type magnetic activity expected from their rotation rates. CTTSs are expected to become WTTSs when their disks dissipate. 217 refs

  5. Global solvability, non-resistive limit and magnetic boundary layer of the compressible heat-conductive MHD equations

    Zhang, Jianwen; Zhao, Xiaokui


    In general, the resistivity is inversely proportional to the electrical conductivity, and is usually taken to be zero when the conducting fluid is of extremely high conductivity (e.g., ideal conductors). In this paper, we first establish the global well-posedness of strong solution to an initial-boundary value problem of the one-dimensional compressible, viscous, heat-conductive, non-resistive MHD equations with general heat-conductivity coefficient and large data. Then, the non-resistive lim...

  6. Spectroscopic Observations of Nearby Low Mass Stars

    Vican, Laura; Zuckerman, B. M.; Rodriguez, D.


    Young low-mass stars are known to be bright in X-ray and UV due to a high level of magnetic activity. By cross-correlating the GALEX Catalog with the WISE and 2MASS Point Source Catalogs, we have identified more than 2,000 stars whose UV excesses suggest ages in the 10-100 Myr range. We used the Shane 3-m telescope at Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, California to observe some of these 2,000 stars spectroscopically. We measured the equivalent width of lithium at 6708 A absorption and H-alpha emission lines. Out of a total of 122 stars observed with the Kast grating spectrometer, we find that roughly 10% have strong lithium absorption features. The high percentage of stars with lithium present is further evidence of the importance of UV emission as a youth indicator for low-mass stars. In addition, we used high-resolution spectra obtained with the Hamilton echelle spectrograph to determine radial velocities for several UV-bright stars. These radial velocities will be useful for the calculation of Galactic UVW space velocities for determination of possible moving group membership. This work is supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award NNX12AH37G to RIT and UCLA and Chilean FONDECYT grant 3130520 to Universidad de Chile. This submission presents work for the GALNYSS project and should be linked to abstracts submitted by David Rodriguez, Laura Vican, and Joel Kastner.

  7. Global Fluxon Modeling of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    Lamb, D. A.; DeForest, C. E.


    The fluxon approach to MHD modeling enables simulations of low-beta plasmas in the absence of undesirable numerical effects such as diffusion and magnetic reconnection. The magnetic field can be modeled as a collection of discrete field lines ("fluxons") containing a set amount of magnetic flux in a prescribed field topology. Due to the fluxon model's pseudo-Lagrangian grid, simulations can be completed in a fraction of the time of traditional grid-based simulations, enabling near-real-time simulations of the global magnetic field structure and its influence on solar wind properties. Using SDO/HMI synoptic magnetograms as lower magnetic boundary conditions, and a separate one-dimensional fluid flow model attached to each fluxon, we compare the resulting fluxon relaxations with other commonly-used global models (such as PFSS), and with white-light images of the corona (including the August 2017 total solar eclipse). Finally, we show the computed magnetic field expansion ratio, and the modeled solar wind speed near the coronal-heliospheric transition. Development of the fluxon MHD model FLUX (the Field Line Universal relaXer), has been funded by NASA's Living with a Star program and by Southwest Research Institute.

  8. "Wonderful" Star Reveals its Hot Nature


    to become a white dwarf. The internal turmoil in Mira A could create magnetic disturbances in the upper atmosphere of the star and lead to the observed X-ray outbursts, as well as the rapid loss of material from the star in a blustery, strong, stellar wind. Some of the gas and dust escaping from Mira A is captured by its companion Mira B. In stark contrast to Mira A, Mira B is thought to be a white dwarf star about the size of the Earth. Some of the material in the wind from Mira A is captured in an accretion disk around Mira B, where collisions between rapidly moving particles produce X-rays. Animation of Interacting Stars Animation of Interacting Stars One of the more intriguing aspects of the observations of Mira AB at both X-ray and ultraviolet wavelengths is the evidence for a faint bridge of material joining the two stars. The existence of a bridge would indicate that, in addition to capturing material from the stellar wind, Mira B is also pulling material directly off Mira A into the accretion disk. Chandra observed Mira with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on December 6, 2003 for about 19 hours. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: and

  9. Cooling of Accretion-Heated Neutron Stars

    Rudy Wijnands


    Sep 12, 2017 ... the magnetic field might play an important role in the heating and cooling of the neutron stars. .... Source near Sgr A ..... marked the start of the research field that uses the cool- ... This curve is just to guide the eye for the individual sources and it is clear ..... Not all accretion-induced nuclear reactions might.

  10. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    Grassi, F.


    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  15. Observations of central stars

    Lutz, J.H.


    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP...

  17. Wolf-Rayet stars

    Sahade, J


    Aspects of the problems of the Wolf-Rayet stars related to their chemical composition, their evolutionary status, and their apparent dichotomy in two spectral sequences are discussed. Dogmas concerning WR stars are critically discussed, including the belief that WR stars lack hydrogen, that they are helium stars evolved from massive close binaries, and the existence of a second WR stage in which the star is a short-period single-lined binary. The relationship of WR stars with planetary nebulae is addressed, as is the membership of these stars in clusters and associations. The division of WR stars into WN and WC sequences is considered, questioning the reasonability of accounting for WR line formation in terms of abundance differences.

  18. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    Scaringi, Simone


    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  19. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren


    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  20. Conjunction of anti-parallel and component reconnection at the dayside MP: Cluster and Double Star coordinated observation on 6 April 2004

    Wang, J.; Pu, Z. Y.; Fu, S. Y.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J.; Dunlop, M. W.; Wei, Y.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Zong, Q. G.; Xie, L.


    Previous theoretical and simulation studies have suggested that the anti-parallel and component reconnection can occur simultaneously on the dayside magnetopause. Certain observations have also been reported to support global conjunct pattern of magnetic reconnection. Here, we show direct evidence for the conjunction of anti-parallel and component MR using coordinated observations of Double Star TC-1 and Cluster under the same IMF condition on 6 April, 2004. The global MR X-line configuration constructed is in good agreement with the “S-shape” model.