Ultrafast magnetization dynamics
Woodford, Simon
2008-01-01
This thesis addresses ultrafast magnetization dynamics from a theoretical perspective. The manipulation of magnetization using the inverse Faraday effect has been studied, as well as magnetic relaxation processes in quantum dots. The inverse Faraday effect – the generation of a magnetic field by nonresonant, circularly polarized light – offers the possibility to control and reverse magnetization on a timescale of a few hundred femtoseconds. This is important both for the technological advant...
Magnetic Dynamics of Fine Particles Studied by Inelastic Neutron Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen
2000-01-01
We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted antiferro......We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted...
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrall, G.A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1995-09-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample's density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques
Experimental study of poloidal flow effect on magnetic island dynamics in LHD and TJ-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narushima, Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Castejon, F.
2010-11-01
The dynamics of a magnetic island are studied by focusing on the poloidal flows in the helical devices LHD and TJ-II. The temporal increment of the ExB poloidal flow prior to the magnetic island transition from growth to healing is observed. The direction of the poloidal flow is in the electron-diamagnetic direction in LHD and in the ion-diamagnetic direction in TJ-II. From the magnetic diagnostics, it is observed that a current structure flowing in the plasma moves ∼π rad poloidally in the electron-diamagnetic direction during the transition in LHD experiments. These experimental observations from LHD and TJ-II show that the temporal increment of the poloidal flow is followed by the transition (growth to healing) of the magnetic island regardless of the flow direction and clarify the fact that significant poloidal flow affects the magnetic island dynamics. (author)
Kulkov, V. M.; Medvedskii, A. L.; Terentyev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.; Shemyakov, A. O.
2017-12-01
The problem of spacecraft attitude control using electromagnetic systems interacting with the Earth's magnetic field is considered. A set of dimensionless parameters has been formed to investigate the spacecraft orientation regimes based on dynamically similar models. The results of experimental studies of small spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system can be extrapolated to the in-orbit spacecraft motion control regimes by using the methods of the dimensional and similarity theory.
Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles Studied by Neutron Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen
1997-01-01
We present the first triple-axis neutron scattering measurements of magnetic fluctuations in nanoparticles using an antiferromagnetic reflection. Both the superparamagnetic relaxation and precession modes in similar to 15 nm hematite particles are: observed. The results have been consistently...... analyzed on the basis of a simple model with uniaxial anisotropy and the Neel-Brown theory for the relaxation....
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, Nirmol K.
2009-01-01
In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1-20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez Vasquez, Carlos Mario; Pulgarin, Ricardo Luis German; Melo Arango, Catalina; Delgado de Bedout, Jorge Andres; Llano Serna, Juan Fernando; Restrepo Restrepo, Jose Ignacio
2007-01-01
Purpose: to compare the concordance between defecography and magnetic resonance in patients with constipation. Materials and methods: we did a prospective and descriptive assay to determine the concordance of a diagnostic test with 17 patients. The evaluation of the studies was double blind. Results: the 17 patients were females, age range 31 - 77 year the symptoms were present between 3 to 120 months. Anterior rectocele was the most common diagnosis (11 patients) and magnetic resonance had sensibility 100%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 78, 57% and negative predictive value 100%. 7 patients had pelvic floor descent and magnetic resonance had sensibility 71.4%, specificity 20% positive predictive value 38.46% and negative predictive value 50%. Defecography found patients with enterocele and magnetic resonance had sensibility 0% and specificity 100 anismus was present in 2 patients and magnetic resonance didn't find them. Conclusion defecography is still the gold standard for patients with eonstipation. Magnetic resonance are a promise for those patients but has to improve
Study of static and dynamic magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles composited with activated carbon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, Satyendra Prakash, E-mail: sppal85@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India); Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Knowledge city, Sector81, SAS Nagar, Manauli-140306, Punjab (India); Kaur, Guratinder [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Knowledge city, Sector81, SAS Nagar, Manauli-140306, Punjab (India); Sen, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India)
2016-05-23
Nanocomposite of Fe nanoparticles with activated carbon has been synthesized to alter the magnetic spin-spin interaction and hence study the dilution effect on the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the Fe nanoparticle system. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image shows the spherical Fe nanoparticles dispersed in carbon matrix with 13.8 nm particle size. Temperature dependent magnetization measurement does not show any blocking temperature at all, right up to the room temperature. Magnetic hysteresis curve, taken at 300 K, shows small value of the coercivity and this small hysteresis indicates the presence of an energy barrier and inherent magnetization dynamics. Langevin function fitting of the hysteresis curve gives almost similar value of particle size as obtained from TEM analysis. Magnetic relaxation data, taken at a temperature of 100 K, were fitted with a combination of two exponentially decaying function. This diluted form of nanoparticle system, which has particles size in the superparamagnetic limit, behaves like a dilute ensemble of superspins with large value of the magnetic anisotropic barrier.
Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos.
Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
2013-12-01
In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x-y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busschaert, Clotilde
2013-01-01
Magnetic cataclysmic variables are interacting binary Systems containing a highly magnetized white dwarf which accretes material from a companion. Material is led along magnetic field lines and falls onto the magnetic pole(s) supersonically forming an accretion column. As the material hits the surface, a reverse shock is formed and the shocked region is structured by the cooling effect of radiation processes. This work is a multidisciplinary study of the dynamics of the accretion column. Firstly, a numerical study of the accretion column structure at the astrophysical scale is presented. The observational consequences are discussed. This approach is completed by experiments using radiative flows generated by powerful lasers. The relevance of such experiments is based on the establishment of scaling laws. News scaling laws in the frame of radiative ideal or resistive MHD are exposed. The results of the sizing and the interpretation of the POLAR experimental campaign of 2012 on LULI2000 installation are presented. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, David S G; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Bluegel, Stefan; Lounis, Samir
2011-01-01
We analyse the spontaneous magnetization reversal of supported monatomic chains of finite length due to thermal fluctuations via atomistic spin-dynamics simulations. Our approach is based on the integration of the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion of a classical spin Hamiltonian in the presence of stochastic forces. The associated magnetization lifetime is found to obey an Arrhenius law with an activation barrier equal to the domain wall energy in the chain. For chains longer than one domain wall width, the reversal is initiated by nucleation of a reversed magnetization domain primarily at the chain edge followed by a subsequent propagation of the domain wall to the other edge in a random-walk fashion. This results in a linear dependence of the lifetime on the chain length, if the magnetization correlation length is not exceeded. We studied chains of uniaxial and triaxial anisotropy and found that a triaxial anisotropy leads to a reduction of the magnetization lifetime due to a higher reversal attempt rate, even though the activation barrier is not changed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acharyya, Muktish
2011-01-01
The dynamical responses of Ising metamagnet (layered antiferromagnet) in the presence of a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic field are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The time average staggered magnetisation plays the role of dynamic order parameter. A dynamical phase transition was observed and a phase diagram was plotted in the plane formed by field amplitude and temperature. The dynamical phase boundary is observed to shrink inward as the relative antiferromagnetic strength decreases. The results are compared with that obtained from pure ferromagnetic system. The shape of dynamic phase boundary observed to be qualitatively similar to that obtained from previous meanfield calculations. - Highlights: → The time average staggered magnetisation plays the role of dynamic order parameter. → A dynamical phase transition was observed and a phase diagram was plotted in the plane formed by field amplitude and temperature. → The dynamical phase boundary is observed to shrink inward as the relative antiferromagnetic strength decreases. → The results are compared with that obtained from pure ferromagnetic system. → The shape of dynamic phase boundary observed to be qualitatively similar to that obtained from previous meanfield calculation.
A nuclear magnetic relaxation study of hydrogen exchange and water dynamics in aqueous systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lankhorst, D.
1983-01-01
In this thesis exchange of water protons in solutions of some weak electrolytes and polyelectrolytes is studied. Also the dynamical behaviour of water molecules in pure water is investigated. For these purposes nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements, in solutions of oxygen-17 enriched water, are interpreted. The exchange rate of the water protons is derived from the contribution of 1 H- 17 O scalar coupling to the proton transverse relaxation rate. This rate is measured by the Carr-Purcell technique. (Auth.)
Study of the dynamics of magnetic nano-particles within the limit of very low temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sappey, Romain
1997-01-01
In this research thesis, the author first describes some aspects of the magnetism of nano-particles, and then the very-low-temperature magnetometer which has been fabricated in the laboratory during this research work. Then, he presents samples (ferrimagnetic or antiferromagnetic particle assemblies, distributed in size and diluted in such a way that a modelling in terms of superposition of independent processes could be attempted), and reports their characterisation measurements. He discusses the reliability of ZFC magnetization measurements used for the characterization of these particle assemblies. An anomaly noticed during the study of the field effect is discussed and an explanation is proposed for it. The author then reports relaxation measurements which are used to study the dynamics nature. A new measurement procedure is proposed to avoid the problem of barrier energy distribution [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinyu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Water plays a very important role in wood and wood products. The molecular motion of water in wood is susceptible to thermal activation. Thermal energy makes water molecules more active and weakens the force between water and wood; therefore, the water molecules dynamic properties are greatly influenced. Molecular dynamics study is important for wood drying; this paper therefore focuses on water molecular dynamics in wood through fast field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry techniques. The results show that the spin-lattice relaxation rate decreases with the Larmor frequency. Nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion profiles at different temperatures could separate the relaxation contribution of water in bigger pores and smaller pores. The T1 distribution from wide to narrow at 10 MHz Larmor frequency reflects the shrinkage of pore size with the higher temperature. The dependence of spin-lattice relaxation rate on correlation time for water molecular motion based on BPP (proposed by Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound theory shows that water correlation time increases with higher temperature, and its activation energy, calculated using the Arrhenius transformation equation, is 9.06±0.53 kJ/mol.
Fast magnetic resonance fingerprinting for dynamic contrast-enhanced studies in mice.
Gu, Yuning; Wang, Charlie Y; Anderson, Christian E; Liu, Yuchi; Hu, He; Johansen, Mette L; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Brady-Kalnay, Susann; Griswold, Mark A; Flask, Chris A; Yu, Xin
2018-05-09
The goal of this study was to develop a fast MR fingerprinting (MRF) method for simultaneous T 1 and T 2 mapping in DCE-MRI studies in mice. The MRF sequences based on balanced SSFP and fast imaging with steady-state precession were implemented and evaluated on a 7T preclinical scanner. The readout used a zeroth-moment-compensated variable-density spiral trajectory that fully sampled the entire k-space and the inner 10 × 10 k-space with 48 and 4 interleaves, respectively. In vitro and in vivo studies of mouse brain were performed to evaluate the accuracy of MRF measurements with both fully sampled and undersampled data. The application of MRF to dynamic T 1 and T 2 mapping in DCE-MRI studies were demonstrated in a mouse model of heterotopic glioblastoma using gadolinium-based and dysprosium-based contrast agents. The T 1 and T 2 measurements in phantom showed strong agreement between the MRF and the conventional methods. The MRF with spiral encoding allowed up to 8-fold undersampling without loss of measurement accuracy. This enabled simultaneous T 1 and T 2 mapping with 2-minute temporal resolution in DCE-MRI studies. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting provides the opportunity for dynamic quantification of contrast agent distribution in preclinical tumor models on high-field MRI scanners. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Spin dynamics study of magnetic molecular clusters by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cianchi, L.; Del Giallo, F.; Spina, G.; Reiff, W.; Caneschi, A.
2002-01-01
Spin dynamics of the two magnetic molecular clusters Fe4 and Fe8, with four and eight Fe(III) ions, respectively, was studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The transition probabilities W's between the spin states of the ground multiplet were obtained from the fitting of the spectra. For the Fe4 cluster we found that, in the range from 1.38 to 77 K, the trend of W's versus the temperature corresponds to an Orbach's process involving an excited state with energy of about 160 K. For the Fe8, which, due to the presence of a low-energy excited state, could not be studied at temperatures greater than 20 K, the trend of W's in the range from 4 to 18 K seems to correspond to a direct process. The correlation functions of the magnetization were then calculated in terms of the W's. They have an exponential trend for the Fe4 cluster, while a small oscillating component is also present for the Fe8 cluster. For the first of the clusters, τ vs T (τ is the decay time of the magnetization) has a trend which, at low temperatures (T 15 K, τ follows the trend of W -1 . For the Fe8, τ follows an Arrhenius law, but with a prefactor which is smaller than the one obtained susceptibility measurements
Monte Carlo simulated dynamical magnetization of single-chain magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jun; Liu, Bang-Gui, E-mail: bgliu@iphy.ac.cn
2015-03-15
Here, a dynamical Monte-Carlo (DMC) method is used to study temperature-dependent dynamical magnetization of famous Mn{sub 2}Ni system as typical example of single-chain magnets with strong magnetic anisotropy. Simulated magnetization curves are in good agreement with experimental results under typical temperatures and sweeping rates, and simulated coercive fields as functions of temperature are also consistent with experimental curves. Further analysis indicates that the magnetization reversal is determined by both thermal-activated effects and quantum spin tunnelings. These can help explore basic properties and applications of such important magnetic systems. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulated magnetization curves are in good agreement with experimental results. • Simulated coercive fields as functions of temperature are consistent with experimental results. • The magnetization reversal is understood in terms of the Monte Carlo simulations.
Neutron depolarization study of static and dynamic magnetic properties of ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuesser, N.
1986-01-01
In this thesis neutron depolarization experiments are performed on amorphous and crystalline ferromagnetic materials. The subjects studied are concerned with 'domain structure in magnetically weak uniaxial amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons', 'static critical behaviour at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition', 'small magnetic anisotropy in nickel near T c ', and 'magnetization reversal in conducting ferromagnets'. 87 refs.; 37 figs.; 3 tabs
A laboratory plasma experiment for studying magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets
Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.
2002-01-01
This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting...
The dynamic ergodic divertor in TEXTOR-A novel tool for studying magnetic perturbation field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neubauer, O.; Czymek, G.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Huettemann, P.W.; Lambertz, H.T.; Schruff, J.
2005-01-01
Recently TEXTOR has been upgraded by the installation of the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED). The purpose of the DED is to influence transport parameters in plasma edge and core and to study the resulting effects on heat exhaust, edge cooling, impurity screening, plasma confinement and stability. Alternatively, the DED creates static or rotating multipolar helical magnetic perturbation fields of different mode patterns. A set of 16 helical coils has been installed on the inboard high-field side of the vacuum vessel. Rotating fields of up to 10 kHz can be generated. A novel coil design has been developed which fulfills the various mechanical, electrical, high frequency, thermal, and vacuum requirements. In addition to the various technical aspects of the DED design, implementation and commissioning, highlights of recent experiments will be presented. In particular the impact of the perturbation field on MHD stability and plasma rotation will be addressed
In situ nuclear magnetic resonance study of defect dynamics during deformation of materials
Murty, K.L.; Detemple, K.; Kanert, O.; Peters, G; de Hosson, J.T.M.
1996-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques can be used to monitor in situ the dynamical behaviour of point and line defects in materials during deformation. These techniques are non-destructive and non-invasive. We report here the atomic transport, in particular the enhanced diffusion during deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.j [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Asano, Daisaku [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Takana, Hidemasa; Nishiyama, Hideya [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2011-05-15
The dynamic behavior of a magnetic fluid adsorbed to a small NdFeB permanent magnet subjected to an alternating magnetic field was studied with a high speed video camera system. The directions of alternating magnetic field are parallel and opposite to that of the permanent magnet. It was found that the surface of magnetic fluid responds to the external alternating magnetic field in elongation and contraction with a lot of spikes. Generation of a capillary magnetic fluid jet was observed in the neighbourhood of a specific frequency of alternating field. The effect of gravitational force on surface phenomena of magnetic fluid adsorbed to the permanent magnet was revealed. - Research Highlights: Magnetic fluid of the system responds to alternating magnetic field with higher frequencies. Large-amplitude surface motions of magnetic fluid occur at the specific frequencies of the external field. Capillary jets of magnetic fluid are generated at the natural frequency of the system.
Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morandi, O [INRIA Nancy Grand-Est and Institut de Recherche en Mathematiques Avancees, 7 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Hervieux, P-A; Manfredi, G [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: morandi@dipmat.univpm.it
2009-07-15
We present a dynamical model that successfully explains the observed time evolution of the magnetization in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells after weak laser excitation. Based on the pseudo-fermion formalism and a second-order many-particle expansion of the exact p-d exchange interaction, our approach goes beyond the usual mean-field approximation. It includes both the sub-picosecond demagnetization dynamics and the slower relaxation processes that restore the initial ferromagnetic order in a nanosecond timescale. In agreement with experimental results, our numerical simulations show that, depending on the value of the initial lattice temperature, a subsequent enhancement of the total magnetization may be observed within the timescale of a few hundred picoseconds.
Vortex dynamics in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kono, M.; Krane, B.; Pecseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.
1998-01-01
Low frequency dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in strongly magnetized plasmas have been studied. It was found that perturbations in density and potential can be very localized, indicating the applicability of an approximate description based on a finite number of vortices. A model based on a few isolated vortical structures is discussed, with particular attention to vortex collapse, where three vortices merge together within a finite time, or to the converse process, i.e. a vortex explosion. Details of these particular types of vortex dynamics depend on the actual model used for describing the electrons, the presence of a Debye shielding in particular. A ''boomerang''-type of evolution was found, where three shielded vortices expand initially, just as their unshielded counterparts, but eventually the expansion is arrested, and they start converging to collapse ultimately. The study is extended by a numerical simulation where the point model is relaxed to a continuous, but localized, vorticity distribution with finite size vortices. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingbai Zhao
Full Text Available The key components of insight include breaking mental sets and forming the novel, task-related associations. The majority of researchers have agreed that the anterior cingulate cortex may mediate processes of breaking one's mental set, while the exact neural correlates of forming novel associations are still debatable. In the present study, we used a paradigm of answer selection to explore brain activations of insight by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during solving Chinese 'chengyu' (in Chinese pinyin riddles. Based on the participant's choice, the trials were classified into the insight and non-insight conditions. Both stimulus-locked and response-locked analyses are conducted to detect the neural activity corresponding to the early and late periods of insight solution, respectively. Our data indicate that the early period of insight solution shows more activation in the middle temporal gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex. These activities might be associated to the extensive semantic processing, as well as detecting and resolving cognitive conflicts. In contrast, the late period of insight solution produced increased activities in the hippocampus and the amygdala, possibly reflecting the forming of novel association and the concomitant "Aha" feeling. Our study supports the key role of hippocampus in forming novel associations, and indicates a dynamic neural network during insight solution.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Badesab, F.K.; Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A; Naik, D.K.; Gaonkar, S.S.; Luis, R.A.A; Shirodkar, P.; Naik, Smita
Environmental magnetic and grain size measurements were carried out on sand samples collected from nine sand pits along a 20-km coastal stretch of Arnala Beach, North Maharashtra, India. This study sets out to identify the potential heavy (magnetite...
Laboratory studies of the dynamic of resonance cones formation in magnetized plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarov, V. V.; Starodubtsev, M. V.; Kostrov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2013-03-15
The paper is devoted to experimental studies of formation of resonance cones in magnetized plasmas by pulsed RF source in the lower-hybrid (whistler) and the upper-hybrid frequency ranges. It is shown that in both frequency ranges, resonance cones exhibit similar dynamics after switching-on the RF source: at first, wide maxima of radiation are formed in non-resonance directions, which then become narrower, with their direction approaching the resonance one. While the resonance cones are being formed, one observes a fine structure in the form of secondary radiation maxima. It is shown that the characteristic formation time of stationary resonance cones is determined by the minimal value of the group velocity of the quasi-electrostatic waves excited by the antenna. In the low-temperature plasma, this value is limited in the lower-hybrid frequency range by the spatial spectrum of the emitting antenna and in the upper-hybrid range, by the effects of spatial plasma dispersion.
Analytical study of synchronization in spin-transfer-driven magnetization dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonin, Roberto [Politecnico di Torino - sede di Verres, via Luigi Barone 8, I-11029 Verres (Italy); Bertotti, Giorgio; Bortolotti, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Serpico, Claudio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); D' Aquino, Massimiliano [Dipartimento per le Tecnologie, Universita di Napoli ' Parthenope' , via Medina 40, I-80133 Napoli (Italy); Mayergoyz, Isaak D, E-mail: p.bortolotti@inrim.i [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States)
2010-01-01
An analytical study of the synchronization effects in spin-transfer-driven nanomagnets subjected to either microwave magnetic fields or microwave electrical currents is discussed. Appropriate stability diagrams are constructed and the conditions under which the current-induced magnetization precession is synchronized by the microwave external excitation are derived and discussed. Analytical predictions are given for the existence of phase-locking effects in current-induced magnetization precessions and for the occurrence of hysteresis in phase-locking as a function of the spin-polarized current.
Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi
2018-05-01
Anomalous diffusion of charged dust grains immersed in a plasma in the presence of strong ion-neutral collision, flowing ions, and a magnetic field has been observed. Molecular Dynamics simulation confirms the deviation from normal diffusion in an ensemble of dust grains probed in laboratory plasma chambers. Collisional effects are significant in governing the nature of diffusion. In order to have a clear idea on the transport of particles in a real experimental situation, the contribution of streaming ions and the magnetic field along with collision is considered through the relevant interaction potential. The nonlinear evolution of Mean Square Displacement is an indication of the modification in particle trajectories due to several effects as mentioned above. It is found that strong collision and ion flow significantly affect the interparticle interaction potential in the presence of the magnetic field and lead to the appearance of the asymmetric type of Debye Hückel (D H) potential. Due to the combined effect of the magnetic field, ion flow, and collision, dusty plasma exhibits a completely novel behavior. The coupling parameter Γ enhances the asymmetric D H type potential arising due to ion flow, and this may drive the system to a disordered state.
Dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helgesen, G.
1997-05-01
The Advanced Study Institute addressed the current experimental and theoretical knowledge of the dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems including low-dimensional and mesoscopic magnetism, unconventional ground state, quantum magnets and soft matter. The main approach in this Advanced Study Institute was to obtain basic understanding of co-operative phenomena, fluctuations and excitations in the wide range unconventional magnetic systems now being fabricated or envisioned. The report contains abstracts for lectures, invited seminars and posters, together with a list of the 95 participants from 24 countries with e-mail addresses
von Deuster, Constantin; Sammut, Eva; Asner, Liya; Nordsletten, David; Lamata, Pablo; Stoeck, Christian T; Kozerke, Sebastian; Razavi, Reza
2016-10-01
The objective of this study is to assess the dynamic alterations of myocardial microstructure and strain between diastole and systole in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to healthy controls using the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, myocardial tagging, and biomechanical modeling. Dual heart-phase diffusion tensor imaging was successfully performed in 9 patients and 9 controls. Tagging data were acquired for the diffusion tensor strain correction and cardiac motion analysis. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and myocyte aggregate orientations were compared between both cohorts. Cardiac function was assessed by left ventricular ejection fraction, torsion, and strain. Computational modeling was used to study the impact of cardiac shape on fiber reorientation and how fiber orientations affect strain. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, a more longitudinal orientation of diastolic myofiber aggregates was measured compared with controls. Although a significant steepening of helix angles (HAs) during contraction was found in the controls, consistent change in HAs during contraction was absent in patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac torsion, and strain were significantly lower in the patients compared with controls. Computational modeling revealed that the dilated heart results in reduced HA changes compared with a normal heart. Reduced torsion was found to be exacerbated by steeper HAs. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed reduced reorientation of myofiber aggregates during cardiac contraction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to controls. Left ventricular remodeling seems to be an important factor in the changes to myocyte orientation. Steeper HAs are coupled with a worsening in strain and torsion. Overall, the findings provide new insights into the structural alterations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. © 2016 The Authors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golovin, Yuri I., E-mail: nano@tsutmb.ru [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O. [G.R. Derzhavin Tambov State University, Nanocenter (Russian Federation); Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Sokolsky, Marina [University of North Carolina, Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy (United States); Kabanov, Alexander V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovin, Yuri I.; Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V.
2017-01-01
In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.
Golovin, Yuri I.; Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V.
2017-02-01
In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Czapkiewicz, M.; Stobiecki, T.; Rak, R.; Zoladz, M.; Mietniowski, P. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dijken, S. van [SFI Trinity Nanoscience Laboratory, Physics Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2006-01-01
In this paper the dynamics of the magnetization reversal process in perpendicularly biased [20 Aa Pt/5 Aa Co]{sub 3}/t Aa Pt/100 Aa IrMn/20 Aa Pt multilayers with different Pt insertion layer thickness (0 Aa{<=}t{<=}12 Aa) is studied. The insertion of 1 Aa thick Pt enhances the exchange bias field (H{sub ex}) and for t>3 Aa H{sub ex} decreases exponentially with increasing Pt layer thickness. We show by magnetization relaxation measurements and direct observation of magnetic domains that magnetization reversal takes place by the nucleation of isolated cylindrical domains with a different nucleation site density in the forward and backward branches of the hysteresis loop. All the results were quantitatively analyzed using the Fatuzzo model for the dynamics of domain reversal processes. The activation energies for magnetization reversal by domain nucleation and domain propagation were determined. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Shuning; Vader, David; Wang, Zhihui; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Weitz, David A; Dai, Guangping; Rosen, Bruce R; Deisboeck, Thomas S
2008-01-01
Highly malignant gliomas are characterized by rapid growth, extensive local tissue infiltration and the resulting overall dismal clinical outcome. Gaining any additional insights into the complex interaction between this aggressive brain tumor and its microenvironment is therefore critical. Currently, the standard imaging modalities to investigate the crucial interface between tumor growth and invasion in vitro are light and confocal laser scanning microscopy. While immensely useful in cell culture, integrating these modalities with this cancer's clinical imaging method of choice, i.e. MRI, is a non-trivial endeavour. However, this integration is necessary, should advanced computational modeling be able to utilize these in vitro data to eventually predict growth behaviour in vivo. We therefore argue that employing the same imaging modality for both the experimental setting and the clinical situation it represents should have significant value from a data integration perspective. In this case study, we have investigated the feasibility of using a specific form of MRI, i.e. magnetic resonance microscopy or MRM, to study the expansion dynamics of a multicellular tumor spheroid in a collagen type I gel. An U87mEGFR human giloblastoma multicellular spheroid (MTS) containing approximately 4·10 3 cells was generated and pipetted into a collagen I gel. The sample was then imaged using a T 2 -weighted 3D spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence on a 14T MRI scanner over a period of 12 hours with a temporal resolution of 3 hours at room temperature. Standard histopathology was performed on the MRM sample, as well as on control samples. We were able to acquire three-dimensional MR images with a spatial resolution of 24 × 24 × 24 μm 3 . Our MRM data successfully documented the volumetric growth dynamics of an MTS in a collagen I gel over the 12-hour period. The histopathology results confirmed cell viability in the MRM sample, yet displayed distinct patterns of cell
Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail
Slavin, James A.
2010-01-01
The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.
Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RAU, M.
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applications of the dynamic control of the magnetic field are: control of the magnetic field of the military ships, control of parasite magnetic field produced by power transformers and the electrical networks, protection of the mass spectrometers, electronic microscopes, SQUID and optical pumping magnetometers for applications in biomagnetism.
Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
José Santander, María, E-mail: maria.jose.noemi@gmail.com [Recursos Educativos Quántica, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Roldán-Molina, A. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Troncoso, Roberto E., E-mail: r.troncoso.c@gmail.com [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)
2015-12-15
It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation.
Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
José Santander, María; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Roldán-Molina, A.; Troncoso, Roberto E.
2015-01-01
It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation
Study of spin dynamics and damping on the magnetic nanowire arrays with various nanowire widths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Jaehun [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, Yuya; Konioshi, Katsunori [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yoon, Jungbum [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Jinyong [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Miwa, Shinji [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Jung, Myung-Hwa [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); You, Chun-Yeol, E-mail: cyyou@inha.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-07-01
We investigate the spin dynamics including Gilbert damping in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. We have measured the ferromagnetic resonance of ferromagnetic nanowire arrays using vector-network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) and analyzed the results with the micromagnetic simulations. We find excellent agreement between the experimental VNA-FMR spectra and micromagnetic simulations result for various applied magnetic fields. We find that the same tendency of the demagnetization factor for longitudinal and transverse conditions, N{sub z} (N{sub y}) increases (decreases) as increasing the nanowire width in the micromagnetic simulations while N{sub x} is almost zero value in transverse case. We also find that the Gilbert damping constant increases from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse case, while it is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case. - Highlights: • We investigate the spin dynamic properties in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. • The demagnetization factors have similar tendency with the prism geometry results. • The Gilbert damping constant is increased from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse. • The Gilbert damping constant is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case.
Coupled spin, elastic and charge dynamics in magnetic nanostructures
Kamra, A.
2015-01-01
In this Thesis, I address the interaction of magnetic degrees of freedom with charge current and elastic dynamics in hybrid systems composed of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. The objective, invariably, is to control and study spin dynamics using charge and elastic degrees of freedom. In
Current-induced magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertotti, G.; Serpico, C.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Bonin, R.; D'Aquino, M.
2007-01-01
An overview is given of the various approaches that have been proposed for the interpretation of spin-transfer-driven magnetization dynamics. Models of critical currents and critical fields for switching as well as for the onset of magnetization oscillations are discussed, together with methods for the construction of field-current stability diagrams. Finally, the role of thermal fluctuations is analyzed. Particular emphasis is given to the study of uniformly magnetized nanomagnets, which represents an essential step before moving to the numerical computation of more complex micromagnetic configurations
Current-induced magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertotti, G. [INRIM-Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: g.bertotti@inrim.it; Serpico, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universita degli Studi Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bonin, R. [INRIM-Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy); D' Aquino, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universita degli Studi Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)
2007-09-15
An overview is given of the various approaches that have been proposed for the interpretation of spin-transfer-driven magnetization dynamics. Models of critical currents and critical fields for switching as well as for the onset of magnetization oscillations are discussed, together with methods for the construction of field-current stability diagrams. Finally, the role of thermal fluctuations is analyzed. Particular emphasis is given to the study of uniformly magnetized nanomagnets, which represents an essential step before moving to the numerical computation of more complex micromagnetic configurations.
Dynamics of magnetic nano-particle assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondratyev, V N
2010-01-01
Ferromagnetically coupled nano-particle assembly is analyzed accounting for inter- and intra- particle electronic structures within the randomly jumping interacting moments model including quantum fluctuations due to the discrete levels and disorder. At the magnetic jump anomalies caused by quantization the magnetic state equation and phase diagram are found to indicate an existence of spinodal regions and critical points. Arrays of magnetized nano-particles with multiple magnetic response anomalies are predicted to display some specific features. In a case of weak coupling such arrays exhibit the well-separated instability regions surrounding the anomaly positions. With increasing coupling we observe further structure modification, plausibly, of bifurcation type. At strong coupling the dynamical instability region become wide while the stable regime arises as a narrow islands at small disorders. It is shown that exploring correlations of magnetic noise amplitudes represents convenient analytical tool for quantitative definition, description and study of supermagnetism, as well as self-organized criticality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, B.; Gao, Z.Q.; Yan, X.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To explore the correlation between contrast-enhancement patterns on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and angiogenesis by analyzing microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and P53 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Material and Methods: MRI was performed with a GE Signa 5T MR scanner using SE and FMPSPGR sequences in 30 patients (38 lesions) during the period October 1998 to March 2000. All had histopathologically proven HCC. MR images were reviewed/analyzed retrospectively. The 30 patients were between 35 and 65 years of age. SE T1WI, PDWI, and T2WI were acquired initially. The FMPSPGR sequence was acquired in the same position. The DCE-MRI was performed in the arterial, portal vein, and delay phase after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. The specimens were stained immunohistochemically for CD34, VEGF, and P53. MVD was highlighted by anti-CD34 antibody staining. The enhancement features of HCC lesions were studied correlatively with the tumor MVD, VEGF, and P53 expression at protein level. Results: In the arterial phase, the results showed that MVD of HCC in the high-enhancement group (229.76±80.96) was higher than that in the equal-enhancement (173.09±61.38) and low-enhancement groups (153.00±108.58) (P <0.01, respectively). VEGF expression of HCC in the high-enhancement group (68.42%) was higher than that in the equal-enhancement (36.36%) and low-enhancement groups (38.89%) (P <0.05, respectively). In the portal vein phase, MVD of HCC in the enhancement group (259.80±93.30) was higher than that in the non-enhancement group (178.64±92.65) (P <0.05). No significant correlation was found between VEGF expression and the enhancement feature in the portal vein phase. In the delay phase, MVD of HCC in the ring-enhancement group (269.06±57.89) was significantly higher than that in the non-ring-enhancement group (144.10±88.90) (P <0.01). There was a significant difference in VEGF
Magneto-optical study of domain wall dynamics and giant Barkhausen jump in magnetic microwires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chizhik, A.; Zhukov, A.; Blanco, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.
2012-01-01
Investigation of surface domain walls motion in Co-rich magnetic microwires has been performed in circular and axial magnetic fields. The dc axial magnetic field acceleration of the domain wall motion related to the influence of the axial field on the structure of the moving domain wall has been discovered. Pulsed axial magnetic field induced unidirectional motion of surface domain wall also has been found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osher, J.E.; Chau, H.H.; Lee, R.S.; Tipton, R.E.; Weingart, R.C.
1990-01-01
Electric guns operate by discharging a fast capacitor bank through a thin, metallic bridge-foil load. The explosion of the foil and the accompanying magnetic forces acting on the bridge-foil plasma accelerate a thin flyer plate of dielectric material initially placed on top of the bridge foil. In hypervelocity impact studies with the linear electric gun, a thin, flat flyer is punched out of a cover sheet of dielectric (or dielectric/metallic composite) material by the explosion of the bridge foil and accelerated down a short barrel to impact on a target. In the coaxial gun, a cylindrical bridge foil is used to implode a cylindrical dielectric or dielectric/metallic composite (liner) flyer to produce a high peak compression through axial convergence. In this paper the authors discuss the range of currents, their rate of rise, and the magnetic fields attained by their fast capacitor banks, which supply power to the electric gun to explode the bridge foil. Also included is a study of the change of resistance of the bridge-foil element as a function of time for various flyer mass loadings for the linear geometry of the gun
{sup 23}Na nuclear magnetic resonance study of the structure and dynamic of natrolite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paczwa, Mateusz; Olszewski, Marcin; Sergeev, Nikolaj [Szczecin Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Sapiga, Aleksej A.; Sapiga, Aleksej V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky Univ., Simferopol, Crimea (Ukraine)
2015-07-01
The temperature dependences of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of {sup 23}Na nuclei in natrolite (Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 10} . 2H{sub 2}O) have been studied. The temperature dependences of the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} in natrolite have also been studied. It has been shown that the spin-lattice relaxation of the {sup 23}Na is governed by the electric quadrupole interaction with the crystal electric field gradients modulated by translational motion of H{sub 2}O molecules in the natrolite pores. The dipolar interactions with paramagnetic impurities become significant as a relaxation mechanism of the {sup 23}Na nuclei only at low temperature (<270 K).
Electric arc behaviour in dynamic magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Put'ko, V.F.
2000-01-01
The behaviour of an electric arc in different time-dependent (dynamic) magnetic fields was investigated. New possibilities were found for spatial and energy stabilisation of a discharge, for intensifying heat exchange, extending the electric arc and distributed control of electric arc plasma. Rotating, alternating and travelling magnetic fields were studied. It was found that under the effect of a relatively low frequency of variations of dynamic magnetic fields (f 1000 Hz) the arc stabilised at the axis of the discharge chamber, the pulsation level decreased and discharge stability increased. The borders between these two arc existence modes were formed by a certain critical field variation frequency the period of which was determined by the heat relaxation time of the discharge. (author)
Magnetization dynamics of imprinted non-collinear spin textures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Streubel, Robert, E-mail: r.streubel@ifw-dresden.de; Kopte, Martin; Makarov, Denys, E-mail: d.makarov@ifw-dresden.de [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fischer, Peter [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)
2015-09-14
We study the magnetization dynamics of non-collinear spin textures realized via imprint of the magnetic vortex state in soft permalloy into magnetically hard out-of-plane magnetized Co/Pd nanopatterned heterostructures. Tuning the interlayer exchange coupling between soft- and hard-magnetic subsystems provides means to tailor the magnetic state in the Co/Pd stack from being vortex- to donut-like with different core sizes. While the imprinted vortex spin texture leads to the dynamics similar to the one observed for vortices in permalloy disks, the donut-like state causes the appearance of two gyrofrequencies characteristic of the early and later stages of the magnetization dynamics. The dynamics are described using the Thiele equation supported by the full scale micromagnetic simulations by taking into account an enlarged core size of the donut states compared to magnetic vortices.
The Origin and Dynamics of Solar Magnetism
Thompson, M. J; Culhane, J. L; Nordlund, Å; Solanki, S. K; Zahn, J.-P
2009-01-01
The articles collected in this volume present all aspects of solar magnetism: from its origin in the solar dynamo to its evolution and dynamics that create the variability of solar phenomena, its well-known 11-year activity cycle that leads to the ever-changing pattern of sunspots and active regions on the Sun. Several contributions deal with the solar dynamo, the driver of many solar phenomena. Other contributions treat the transport and emergence of the magnetic flux through the outer layers of the Sun. The coupling of magnetic fields from the surface to the solar corona and beyond is also described, together with current studies on the predictability of solar activity. This book is aimed at researchers and graduate students working in solar physics and space science. It provides a full review of our current understanding of solar magnetism by the foremost experts in the field.
Magnetic study of iron sorbitol
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazaro, F.J. E-mail: osoro@posta.unizar.es; Larrea, A.; Abadia, A.R.; Romero, M.S
2002-09-01
A magnetic study of iron sorbitol, an iron-containing drug to treat the iron deficiency anemia is presented. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the system contains nanometric particles with an average diameter of 3 nm whose composition is close to two-line ferrihydrite. The characterisation by magnetisation and AC susceptibility measurements indicates superparamagnetic behaviour with progressive magnetic blocking starting at 8 K. The quantitative analysis of the magnetic results indicates that the system consists of an assembly of very small magnetic moments, presumably originated by spin uncompensation of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, with Arrhenius type magnetic dynamics.
Morbiducci, U; Lemma, M; Ponzini, R; Boi, A; Bondavalli, L; Antona, C; Montevecchi, F M; Redaelli, A
2007-07-01
Automatic devices have been recently introduced to make the anastomosis procedure quick and efficient when creating a coronary bypass on the beating heart. However, the implantation of these devices could modify the graft configuration, consistently affecting the hemodynamics usually found in the traditional anastomosis. As local fluid dynamics could play a significant role in the onset of vessel wall pathologies, in this article a computational approach was designed to investigate flow patterns in the presence of the Ventrica magnetic vascular positioner (Ventrica MVP) device. A model of standard hand-sewn anastomosis and of automated magnetic anastomosis were constructed, and the finite volume method was used to simulate in silico realistic graft hemodynamics. Synthetic analytical descriptors -- i.e., time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillating shear index (OSI) and helical flow index (HFI) -- were calculated and compared for quantitative assessment of the anastomosis geometry hemodynamic performance. In this case study, the same most critical region was identified for the 2 models as the one with the lowest TAWSS and the highest OSI (TAWSS=0.229, OSI=0.255 for the hand-sewn anastomosis; TAWSS=0.297, OSI=0.171 for the Ventrica MVP(R)). However, the shape of the Ventrica MVP does not induce more critical wall shear stresses, oscillating flow and damped helicity in the graft fluid dynamics, as compared with conventional anastomosis. We found that the use of the Ventrica MVP for the case study under investigation was not associated with more critical fluid dynamics than with conventional hand-sewn anastomosis. Thereby, the device could facilitate beating heart and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting without increasing local hemodynamic-related risks of failure.
Molecular dynamics in porous media studied by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattea, C.
2006-01-01
Field cycling NMR relaxometry was used to study dynamics of fluids under confinement in different scenarios: fluids flowing through porous media, fluids partially filling porous media and polymer melts in nanoscopic pores. Diffusion in partially filled porous media was also studied with the aid of an NMR diffusometry technique. It is shown that hydrodynamic flow influences the spin-lattice relaxation rate of water confined in mesoscopic porous media under certain conditions. The effect is predicted by an analytical theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and confirmed experimentally by field-cycling NMR relaxometry. Field-cycling NMR relaxometry has been applied to polar and non polar adsorbates in partially filled silica porous glasses. The dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate on the filling degree shows that limits for slow and fast exchange between different phases can be distinguished and identified depending on the pore size and polarity of the solvents. Diffusion in the same unsaturated systems was studied with the aid of NMR diffusometry technique. The effective diffusion coefficient of solvents with different polarities displays opposite tendencies as a function of the liquid content. A two-phase fast exchange model including Knudsen and ordinary diffusion and different effective tortuosities is presented accounting for these phenomena. In the case of polymer melts confined in narrow artificial tubes of a porous solid matrix with variable diameter (9 to 57 nm), the characteristics of reptation were experimentally verified using proton field cycling NMR relaxometry technique. This observation is independent of the molecular mass and pore size. In bulk, the same polymer melts show either Rouse or renormalized Rouse dynamics, depending on the molecular mass. The polymers under confinement show features specific for reptation even with a pore diameter 15 times larger than the Flory radius while bulk melts of the same polymers do not. (orig.)
Neuropsychiatric dynamics: the study of mental illness using functional magnetic resonance imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callicott, Joseph H.; Weinberger, Daniel R.
1999-01-01
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is poised to make significant contributions to the study of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Whatever neural pathology attends such illnesses has proven subtle at best. By identifying predictable, regionally specific deficits in brain function, fMRI can suggest brain regions for detailed cellular analyses, provide valuable in vivo data regarding effective connectivity, provide a means to model the effects of various drug challenge paradigms, and characterize intermediate phenotypes in the search for the genes underlying mental illness. Nonetheless, as promising as fMRI appears to be in terms of its relative safety, repeatability, ability to generate individual brain maps and widespread availability, it is still subject to a number of unresolved conceptual conundrums inherited from earlier neuroimaging work. For example, functional neuroimaging has not generated any pathognomic findings in mental illness, has not established a clear link between neurophysiology and observable behavior, and has not resolved the potential confounds of medication. In this article, we will review the relevant historical background preceding fMRI, address methodological considerations in fMRI, and summarize recent fMRI findings in psychiatry. Finally, fMRI is being used to simplify the complex genetics of neuropsychiatric illness by generating quantitative and qualitative brain phenotypes
Neuropsychiatric dynamics: the study of mental illness using functional magnetic resonance imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Callicott, Joseph H. E-mail: callicoj@intra.nimh.nih.gov; Weinberger, Daniel R
1999-05-01
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is poised to make significant contributions to the study of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Whatever neural pathology attends such illnesses has proven subtle at best. By identifying predictable, regionally specific deficits in brain function, fMRI can suggest brain regions for detailed cellular analyses, provide valuable in vivo data regarding effective connectivity, provide a means to model the effects of various drug challenge paradigms, and characterize intermediate phenotypes in the search for the genes underlying mental illness. Nonetheless, as promising as fMRI appears to be in terms of its relative safety, repeatability, ability to generate individual brain maps and widespread availability, it is still subject to a number of unresolved conceptual conundrums inherited from earlier neuroimaging work. For example, functional neuroimaging has not generated any pathognomic findings in mental illness, has not established a clear link between neurophysiology and observable behavior, and has not resolved the potential confounds of medication. In this article, we will review the relevant historical background preceding fMRI, address methodological considerations in fMRI, and summarize recent fMRI findings in psychiatry. Finally, fMRI is being used to simplify the complex genetics of neuropsychiatric illness by generating quantitative and qualitative brain phenotypes.
Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nogaret, Alain, E-mail: A.R.Nogaret@bath.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)
2010-06-30
This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keijzer, A.E.H. de.
1988-01-01
In this thesis the role of the steric and electronic effects on the fundamental dynamic behaviour of pentacoordinated phosporus compounds is further elaborated. In chapter 2 a variable temperature 13 C NMR study, performed on a series of monocyclic oxyphosphoranes, is presented. The investigations were carried out to determine the influence of the conformational transmission effect on the barriers to pseudorotation in pentacoordinated phosphorus compounds. Chapter 3 also comprises a variable temperature 13 C NMR study on pentacoordinated phosphorus compounds. In this chapter, however, an additional high-resolution 1 H NMR study on the conformational equilibria around the P-O-C-C-O fragments is included. These studies were performed in order to determine whether the enhancement of the reorganization rates around phosphorus is brought about by accelerated pseudorotation or by the involvement of hexacoordinated zwitterionic phosphorus intermediates. In chapter 4, a 31 P NMR study on the solvolysis rate of several phosphinate esters is described. This study was performed in order to determine the influence of the conformational transmission effect on the solvolysis rate of phosphate esters. A number of phosphates is examined in which, during the course of the solvolysis reaction, the conformational transmission effect is bound to be present or absent respectively. Moreover, it is discussed in which way the concept of conformational transmission induced differences in solvolysis rates can be used as a probe to examine the reactions of biologically important phosphate esters. In chapters 5 and 6 ESR studies on the influence of steric and electronic factors on phosphoranyl formation in solution, and on the intramolecular electron transfer in phosphoranyl radicals are presented. (author). 121 refs.; 33 figs.; 17 figs
Liver hemangiona and metastasis: dynamic study with Gd-DTPA in magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrer, M.D.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Galant, J.
1993-01-01
The difference between liver hemangioma and metastases is a subject of clinical interest. Nineteen MR liver studies are presented, 10 of them correspond to hemangiomas and 9 to metastases. In all cases, intravenous gadolinium was used in dynamic slices with T1-weighted gradient echo sequences. Late uptake is studied in two lesions. One minute postinjection, the periphery appears hyperintense (more so than the fatty tissue) in 7 out of the 10 cases of hemangioma; in 4 cases, the metastases show less intense uptake than fatty tissue. From two and a half minutes on, the periphery is hyperintense (more so than the fatty tissue) in all the hemangiomas, while in 4 metastases, the periphery is hyperintense (but less so than the fatty tissue), and the rest of the metastases remain hypo-isointense. Uptake by the hemangiomas at two hours reveals the isointense lesion with the liver. In conclusion, at approximately one minute postinjection, hemangiomas show very marked and nodular uptake, with centripetal progression; the hypersignal persists in late slices. However, the metastases present variable, moderate, irregular uptake at the beginning, with no central progression and reduced contrast in the late slices at 5 minutes. In some cases, Gd-DTPA increases the diagnostic certainty, improving reliability with respect to conventional MR. (Author)
Use of magnetic micro-cantilevers to study the dynamics of 3D engineered smooth muscle constructs
Liu, Alan; Zhao, Ruogang; Copeland, Craig; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel
2013-03-01
The normal and pathological response of arterial tissue to mechanical stimulus sheds important light on such conditions as atherosclerosis and hypertension. While most previous methods of determining the biomechanical properties of arteries have relied on excised tissue, we have devised a system that enables the growth and in situ application of forces to arrays of stable suspended microtissues consisting of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Briefly, this magnetic microtissue tester system consists of arrays of pairs of elastomeric magnetically actuated micro-cantilevers between which SMC-infused 3D collagen gels self-assemble and remodel into aligned microtissue constructs. These devices allow us to simultaneously apply force and track stress-strain relationships of multiple microtissues per substrate. We have studied the dilatory capacity and subsequent response of the tissues and find that the resulting stress-strain curves show viscoelastic behavior as well as a linear dynamic recovery. These results provide a foundation for elucidating the mechanical behavior of this novel model system as well as further experiments that simulate pathological conditions. Supported in part by NIH grant HL090747.
Electrical detection of magnetization dynamics via spin rectification effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harder, Michael, E-mail: michael.harder@umanitoba.ca; Gui, Yongsheng, E-mail: ysgui@physics.umanitoba.ca; Hu, Can-Ming, E-mail: hu@physics.umanitoba.ca
2016-11-23
The purpose of this article is to review the current status of a frontier in dynamic spintronics and contemporary magnetism, in which much progress has been made in the past decade, based on the creation of a variety of micro and nanostructured devices that enable electrical detection of magnetization dynamics. The primary focus is on the physics of spin rectification effects, which are well suited for studying magnetization dynamics and spin transport in a variety of magnetic materials and spintronic devices. Intended to be intelligible to a broad audience, the paper begins with a pedagogical introduction, comparing the methods of electrical detection of charge and spin dynamics in semiconductors and magnetic materials respectively. After that it provides a comprehensive account of the theoretical study of both the angular dependence and line shape of electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), which is summarized in a handbook format easy to be used for analysing experimental data. We then review and examine the similarity and differences of various spin rectification effects found in ferromagnetic films, magnetic bilayers and magnetic tunnel junctions, including a discussion of how to properly distinguish spin rectification from the spin pumping/inverse spin Hall effect generated voltage. After this we review the broad applications of rectification effects for studying spin waves, nonlinear dynamics, domain wall dynamics, spin current, and microwave imaging. We also discuss spin rectification in ferromagnetic semiconductors. The paper concludes with both historical and future perspectives, by summarizing and comparing three generations of FMR spectroscopy which have been developed for studying magnetization dynamics.
Magnetic flux dynamics in superconducting materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez Nieves, Alexander
2004-01-01
The magnetization curves, the Bean-Livingston barrier in type I and type II superconductors, the ac magnetic response, the effects of thermal fluctuations on the magnetic behavior and the different dissipation mechanism at microwave frequencies are investigated in mesoscopic superconductors.For small mesoscopic samples we study the peaks and discontinuous jumps found in the magnetization as a function of magnetic field.To interpret these jumps we consider that vortices located inside the sample induce a reinforcement of the Bean- Livingston surface barrier at fields greater than the first penetration field Hp1.This leads to multiple penetration fields Hpi Hp1;Hp2;Hp3;... for vortex entrance in mesoscopic samples.For low-T c mesoscopic superconductors we found that the meta-stable states due to the surface barrier have a large half-life time, which leads to the hysteresis in the magnetization curves as observed experimentally.A very different behavior appears for high-T c mesoscopic superconductors where thermally activated vortex entrance/exit through surface barriers is frequent.This leads to a reduction of the magnetization and a non-integer average number of flux quanta penetrating the superconductor.At microwave frequencies we found that each vortex penetration event produces a significant suppression of the ac losses since the imaginary part of the ac susceptibility X ( H d c) as a function of the magnetic field (Hdc) increases before the penetration of vortices and then it decreases abruptly after vortices have entered into the sample.We show that nascent vortices (vortices that are partly inside the sample and nucleated at the surface) play an important role in the dynamic behavior of mesoscopic samples. In type I macroscopic superconductors with first-principles simulations of the TDGL equations we have been able to reproduce several features of the intermediate state observed in experiments.Particularly, droplet and striped patterns are obtained depending
Dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Niu Xiaodong; Ye Xiaojiang; Li Mingjun; Iwamoto, Yuhiro
2012-01-01
The dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in externally applied uniform magnetic fields are investigated by a laboratory-made cone-plate rheometer in this study. In particular, the effects of the magnetic field on the viscoelastic properties (the complex dynamic modulus) of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are studied. In the investigation, three viscoelastic magnetic fluids are made by mixing a magnetic fluid and a viscoelastic fluid with different mass ratios. As a supplementation to the experimental investigation, a theoretical analysis is also presented. The present study shows that the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and the concentrations of the magnetic particles in the test fluids. Theoretical analysis qualitatively explains the present findings. - Highlights: ► The dynamic rheological properties of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields are investigated. ► Both the magnetic field strength and the concentration of the magnetic particles in the fluids have significant effects on the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids. ► Theoretical prediction and analysis qualitatively explains the present findings.
Wen, Qianqian; Wang, Yu; Gong, Xinglong
2017-07-01
In this study, novel magnetorheological elastomers based on hard magnetic particles (H-MREs) were developed and the magnetic field dependent dynamic properties of the H-MREs were further investigated. The storage modulus of H-MREs could not only be increased by increasing magnetic field but also be decreased by the increasing magnetic field of opposite orientation. For the anisotropic H-MREs with 80 wt% NdFeB particles, the field-induced increasing and decreasing modulus was 426 kPa and 118 kPa respectively. Moreover, the dynamic performances of H-MREs significantly depended on the pre-structure magnetic field, magnetizing field and test magnetic field. The H-MREs were initially magnetized and formed the chain-like microstructure by the pre-structure magnetic field. The field-induced increasing and decreasing modulus of H-MREs both raised with increasing of the magnetizing field. When the magnetizing field increased from 400 to 1200 kA m-1, the field induced decreasing modulus of the 80 wt% isotropic H-MREs raised from 3 to 47 kPa. The magnetic field dependent curves of H-MREs’ storage modulus were asymmetric if the magnetizing field was higher than the test magnetic field. Based on the dipolar model of MREs and magnetic properties of hard magnetic material, a reasonable explanation was proposed to understand the H-MREs’ field dependent mechanical behaviors.
Nambu mechanics for stochastic magnetization dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thibaudeau, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.thibaudeau@cea.fr [CEA DAM/Le Ripault, BP 16, F-37260 Monts (France); Nussle, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.nussle@cea.fr [CEA DAM/Le Ripault, BP 16, F-37260 Monts (France); CNRS-Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (UMR 7350), Fédération de Recherche “Denis Poisson” (FR2964), Département de Physique, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France); Nicolis, Stam, E-mail: stam.nicolis@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [CNRS-Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (UMR 7350), Fédération de Recherche “Denis Poisson” (FR2964), Département de Physique, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • The LLG equation can be formulated in the framework of dissipative Nambu mechanics. • A master equation is derived for the spin dynamics for additive/multiplicative noises. • The derived stochastic equations are compared to moment equations obtained by closures. - Abstract: The Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert (LLG) equation describes the dynamics of a damped magnetization vector that can be understood as a generalization of Larmor spin precession. The LLG equation cannot be deduced from the Hamiltonian framework, by introducing a coupling to a usual bath, but requires the introduction of additional constraints. It is shown that these constraints can be formulated elegantly and consistently in the framework of dissipative Nambu mechanics. This has many consequences for both the variational principle and for topological aspects of hidden symmetries that control conserved quantities. We particularly study how the damping terms of dissipative Nambu mechanics affect the consistent interaction of magnetic systems with stochastic reservoirs and derive a master equation for the magnetization. The proposals are supported by numerical studies using symplectic integrators that preserve the topological structure of Nambu equations. These results are compared to computations performed by direct sampling of the stochastic equations and by using closure assumptions for the moment equations, deduced from the master equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madami, M., E-mail: marco.madami@fisica.unipg.it; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Unità di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Moriyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Siracusano, G.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, Bari (Italy)
2015-05-07
We employed micro-focused Brillouin light scattering to study the amplification of the thermal spin wave eigenmodes by means of a pure spin current, generated by the spin-Hall effect, in a transversely magnetized Pt(4 nm)/NiFe(4 nm)/SiO{sub 2}(5 nm) layered nanowire with lateral dimensions 500 × 2750 nm{sup 2}. The frequency and the cross section of both the center (fundamental) and the edge spin wave modes have been measured as a function of the intensity of the injected dc electric current. The frequency of both modes exhibits a clear redshift while their cross section is greatly enhanced on increasing the intensity of the injected dc. A threshold-like behavior is observed for a value of the injected dc of 2.8 mA. Interestingly, an additional mode, localized in the central part of the nanowire, appears at higher frequency on increasing the intensity of the injected dc above the threshold value. Micromagnetic simulations were used to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results and to investigate the complex non-linear dynamics induced by the spin-Hall effect, including the modification of the spatial profile of the spin wave modes and the appearance of the extra mode above the threshold.
Wieser, R
2017-05-04
A self-consistent mean field theory is introduced and used to investigate the thermodynamics and spin dynamics of an S = 1 quantum spin system with a magnetic Skyrmion. The temperature dependence of the Skyrmion profile as well as the phase diagram are calculated. In addition, the spin dynamics of a magnetic Skyrmion is described by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation with additional damping term. The Skyrmion annihilation process driven by an electric field is used to compare the trajectories of the quantum mechanical simulation with a semi-classical description for the spin expectation values using a differential equation similar to the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation.
Abdullaev, Sadrilla
2014-01-01
This is the first book to systematically consider the modern aspects of chaotic dynamics of magnetic field lines and charged particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The analytical models describing the generic features of equilibrium magnetic fields and magnetic perturbations in modern fusion devices are presented. It describes mathematical and physical aspects of onset of chaos, generic properties of the structure of stochastic magnetic fields, transport of charged particles in tokamaks induced by magnetic perturbations, new aspects of particle turbulent transport, etc. The presentation is based on the classical and new unique mathematical tools of Hamiltonian dynamics, like the action--angle formalism, classical perturbation theory, canonical transformations of variables, symplectic mappings, the Poincaré-Melnikov integrals. They are extensively used for analytical studies as well as for numerical simulations of magnetic field lines, particle dynamics, their spatial structures and statisti...
Neutron Scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaboussant, G.
2009-01-01
This work deals with inelastic neutron scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets and focuses on their magnetic properties at low temperature and low energies. Several molecular magnets (Mn 12 , V 15 , Ni 12 , Mn 4 , etc.) are reviewed. Inelastic neutron scattering is shown to be a perfectly suited spectroscopy tool to -a) probe magnetic energy levels in such systems and -b) provide key information to understand the quantum tunnel effect of the magnetization in molecular spin clusters. (author)
Overview of magnetic nonlinear beam dynamics in the RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Y.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bengtsson, J.; Calaga, R.; Fischer, W.; Jain, A.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Malitsky, N.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tomas, R.; Trbojevic, D.
2009-01-01
In this article we review our studies of nonlinear beam dynamics due to the nonlinear magnetic field errors in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Nonlinear magnetic field errors, including magnetic field errors in interaction regions (IRs), chromatic sextupoles, and sextupole components from arc main dipoles are discussed. Their effects on beam dynamics and beam dynamic aperture are evaluated. The online methods to measure and correct the IR nonlinear field errors, second order chromaticities, and horizontal third order resonance are presented. The overall strategy for nonlinear corrections in RHIC is discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pötzschner, B.; Mohamed, F.; Lichtinger, A.; Bock, D.; Rössler, E. A., E-mail: ernst.roessler@uni-bayreuth.de [Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)
2015-10-21
We study a dynamically asymmetric binary glass former with the low-T{sub g} component m-tri-cresyl phosphate (m-TCP: T{sub g} = 206 K) and a spirobichroman derivative as a non-polymeric high-T{sub g} component (T{sub g} = 382 K) by means of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), {sup 31}P NMR, and dielectric spectroscopy which allow component-selectively probing the dynamics. The entire concentration range is covered, and two main relaxation processes with two T{sub g} are identified, T{sub g1} and T{sub g2}. The slower one is attributed to the high-T{sub g} component (α{sub 1}-process), and the faster one is related to the m-TCP molecules (α{sub 2}-process). Yet, there are indications that a small fraction of m-TCP is associated also with the α{sub 1}-process. While the α{sub 1}-relaxation only weakly broadens upon adding m-TCP, the α{sub 2}-relaxation becomes extremely stretched leading to quasi-logarithmic correlation functions at low m-TCP concentrations—as probed by {sup 31}P NMR stimulated echo experiments. Frequency-temperature superposition does not apply for the α{sub 2}-process and it reflects an isotropic, liquid-like motion which is observed even below T{sub g1}, i.e., in the matrix of the arrested high-T{sub g} molecules. As proven by 2D {sup 31}P NMR, the corresponding dynamic heterogeneities are of transient nature, i.e., exchange occurs within the distribution G(lnτ{sub α2}). At T{sub g1} a crossover is found for the temperature dependence of (mean) τ{sub α2}(T) from non-Arrhenius above to Arrhenius below T{sub g1} which is attributed to intrinsic confinement effects. This “fragile-to-strong” transition also leads to a re-decrease of T{sub g2}(c{sub m−TCP}) at low concentration c{sub m−TCP}, i.e., a maximum is observed in T{sub g2}(c{sub m−TCP}) while T{sub g1}(c{sub m−TCP}) displays the well-known plasticizer effect. Although only non-polymeric components are involved, we re-discover essentially all features previously
Dynamical mass generation in QED with weak magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayala, A.; Rojas, E.; Bashir, A.; Raya, A.
2006-01-01
We study the dynamical generation of masses for fundamental fermions in quenched quantum electrodynamics in the presence of magnetic fields using Schwinger-Dyson equations. We show that, contrary to the case where the magnetic field is strong, in the weak field limit eB << m(0)2, where m(0) is the value of the dynamically generated mass in the absence of the magnetic field, masses are generated above a critical value of the coupling and that this value is the same as in the case with no magnetic field. We carry out a numerical analysis to study the magnetic field dependence of the mass function above critical coupling and show that in this regime the dynamically generated mass and the chiral condensate for the lowest Landau level increase proportionally to (eB)2
Effect of sample shape on nonlinear magnetization dynamics under an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vagin, Dmitry V.; Polyakov, Oleg P.
2008-01-01
Effect of sample shape on the nonlinear collective dynamics of magnetic moments in the presence of oscillating and constant external magnetic fields is studied using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) approach. The uniformly magnetized sample is considered to be an ellipsoidal axially symmetric particle described by demagnetization factors and uniaxial crystallographic anisotropy formed some angle with an applied field direction. It is investigated as to how the change in particle shape affects its nonlinear magnetization dynamics. To produce a regular study, all results are presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams for all sufficient dynamics regimes of the considered system. In this paper, we show that the sample's (particle's) shape and its orientation with respect to the external field (system configuration) determine the character of magnetization dynamics: deterministic behavior and appearance of chaotic states. A simple change in the system's configuration or in the shapes of its parts can transfer it from chaotic to periodic or even static regime and back. Moreover, the effect of magnetization precession stall and magnetic moments alignment parallel or antiparallel to the external oscillating field is revealed and the way of control of such 'polarized' states is found. Our results suggest that varying the particle's shape and fields' geometry may provide a useful way of magnetization dynamics control in complex magnetic systems
Magnetically nonlinear dynamic model of synchronous motor with permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Stumberger, Gorazd; Stumberger, Bojan; Zagradisnik, Ivan
2007-01-01
This paper deals with a magnetically nonlinear two-axis dynamic model of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The geometrical and material properties of iron core and permanent magnets, the effects of winding distribution, saturation, cross-saturation and slotting effects are, for the first time, simultaneously accounted for in a single two-axis dynamic model of a three-phase PMSM. They are accounted for by current- and position-dependent characteristics of flux linkages. These characteristics can be determined either experimentally or by the finite element (FE) computations. The results obtained by the proposed dynamic model show a very good agreement with the measured ones and those obtained by the FE computation
Dynamical spin accumulation in large-spin magnetic molecules
Płomińska, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz; Misiorny, Maciej
2018-01-01
The frequency-dependent transport through a nanodevice containing a large-spin magnetic molecule is studied theoretically in the Kondo regime. Specifically, the effect of magnetic anisotropy on dynamical spin accumulation is of primary interest. Such accumulation arises due to finite components of frequency-dependent conductance that are off diagonal in spin. Here, employing the Kubo formalism and the numerical renormalization group method, we demonstrate that the dynamical transport properties strongly depend on the relative orientation of spin moments in electrodes of the device, as well as on intrinsic parameters of the molecule. In particular, the effect of dynamical spin accumulation is found to be greatly affected by the type of magnetic anisotropy exhibited by the molecule, and it develops for frequencies corresponding to the Kondo temperature. For the parallel magnetic configuration of the device, the presence of dynamical spin accumulation is conditioned by the interplay of ferromagnetic-lead-induced exchange field and the Kondo correlations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikas
2011-01-01
Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10 11 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10 9 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10 9 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leboeuf, J.N.; Tajima, T.; Dawson, J.M.
1981-03-01
Two-and-one-half dimensional magnetostatic and electromagnetic particle simulations of time-varying magnetic x-points and the associated plasma response are reported. The stability and topology depend on the crossing angle of the field lines at the x-point, irrespective of the plasma β. The electrostatic field and finite Larmor radius effects play an important role in current penetration and shaping of the plasma flow. The snapping of the field lines, and dragging of the plasma into, and confinement of the plasma at, an o-point (magnetic island) is observed. Magnetic island coalescence with explosive growth of the coalescence mode occurs and is accompanied by a large increase of kinetic energy and temperature as well as the formation of hot tails on the distribution functions
Relativistic dynamics of point magnetic moment
Rafelski, Johann; Formanek, Martin; Steinmetz, Andrew
2018-01-01
The covariant motion of a classical point particle with magnetic moment in the presence of (external) electromagnetic fields is revisited. We are interested in understanding extensions to the Lorentz force involving point particle magnetic moment (Stern-Gerlach force) and how the spin precession dynamics is modified for consistency. We introduce spin as a classical particle property inherent to Poincaré symmetry of space-time. We propose a covariant formulation of the magnetic force based on a `magnetic' 4-potential and show how the point particle magnetic moment relates to the Amperian (current loop) and Gilbertian (magnetic monopole) descriptions. We show that covariant spin precession lacks a unique form and discuss the connection to g-2 anomaly. We consider the variational action principle and find that a consistent extension of the Lorentz force to include magnetic spin force is not straightforward. We look at non-covariant particle dynamics, and present a short introduction to the dynamics of (neutral) particles hit by a laser pulse of arbitrary shape.
Relativistic dynamics of point magnetic moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafelski, Johann; Formanek, Martin; Steinmetz, Andrew [The University of Arizona, Department of Physics, Tucson, AZ (United States)
2018-01-15
The covariant motion of a classical point particle with magnetic moment in the presence of (external) electromagnetic fields is revisited. We are interested in understanding extensions to the Lorentz force involving point particle magnetic moment (Stern-Gerlach force) and how the spin precession dynamics is modified for consistency. We introduce spin as a classical particle property inherent to Poincare symmetry of space-time. We propose a covariant formulation of the magnetic force based on a 'magnetic' 4-potential and show how the point particle magnetic moment relates to the Amperian (current loop) and Gilbertian (magnetic monopole) descriptions. We show that covariant spin precession lacks a unique form and discuss the connection to g - 2 anomaly. We consider the variational action principle and find that a consistent extension of the Lorentz force to include magnetic spin force is not straightforward. We look at non-covariant particle dynamics, and present a short introduction to the dynamics of (neutral) particles hit by a laser pulse of arbitrary shape. (orig.)
Transformable ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability
Jiang, Changjun; Jia, Chenglong; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Xue, Desheng
2018-02-01
Magnetic permeability, which measures the response of a material to an applied magnetic field, is crucial to the performance of magnetic devices and related technologies. Its dynamic value is usually a complex number with real and imaginary parts that describe, respectively, how much magnetic power can be stored and lost in the material. Control of permeability is therefore closely related to energy redistribution within a magnetic system or energy exchange between magnetic and other degrees of freedom via certain spin-dependent interactions. To avoid a high power consumption, direct manipulation of the permeability with an electric field through magnetoelectric coupling leads to high efficiency and simple operation, but remains a big challenge in both the fundamental physics and material science. Here we report unambiguous evidence of ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability in a Co /Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) 0.7Ti0.3O3 (Co/PMN-PT) heterostructure, in which the ferroelectric PMN-PT acts as an energy source for the ferromagnetic Co film via an interfacial linear magnetoelectric interaction. The electric field tuning of the magnitude and line shape of the permeability offers a highly localized means of controlling magnetization with ultralow power consumption. Additionally, the emergence of negative permeability promises a new way of realizing functional nanoscale metamaterials with adjustable refraction index.
Electronic transport and magnetization dynamics in magnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borlenghi, Simone
2011-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to understand the mutual influence between electronic transport and magnetization dynamics in magnetic hybrid metallic nano-structures. At first, we have developed a theoretical model, based on random matrix theory, to describe at microscopic level spin dependent transport in a heterogeneous nano-structure. This model, called Continuous Random Matrix Theory (CRMT), has been implemented in a simulation code that allows one to compute local (spin torque, spin accumulation and spin current) and macroscopic (resistance) transport properties of spin valves. To validate this model, we have compared it with a quantum theory of transport based on the non equilibrium Green's functions formalism. Coupling the two models has allowed to perform a multi-scale description of metallic hybrid nano-structures, where ohmic parts are described using CRMT, while purely quantum parts are described using Green's functions. Then, we have coupled CRMT to a micro-magnetic simulation code, in order to describe the complex dynamics of the magnetization induced by spin transfer effect. The originality of this approach consists in modelling a spectroscopic experiment based on a mechanical detection of the ferromagnetic resonance, and performed on a spin torque nano-oscillator. This work has allowed us to obtain the dynamical phase diagram of the magnetization, and to detect the selection rules for spin waves induced by spin torque, as well as the competition between the Eigen-modes of the system when a dc current flows through the multilayer, in partial agreement with experimental data. (author)
The influence of the surface topography on the magnetization dynamics in soft magnetic thin films
Craus, CB; Palasantzas, G; Chezan, AR; De Hosson, JTM; Boerma, DO; Niesen, L
2005-01-01
In this work we study the influence of surface roughness on the magnetization dynamics of soft magnetic nanocrystalline Fe-Zr-N thin films deposited (under identical conditions) onto a Si oxide, a thin polymer layer, and a thin Cu layer. The substrate temperature during deposition was approximately
Hemery, Gauvin; Garanger, Elisabeth; Lecommandoux, Sébastien; Wong, Andrew D.; Gillies, Elizabeth R.; Pedrono, Boris; Bayle, Thomas; Jacob, David; Sandre, Olivier
2015-12-01
Thermometry at the nanoscale is an emerging area fostered by intensive research on nanoparticles (NPs) that are capable of converting electromagnetic waves into heat. Recent results suggest that stationary gradients can be maintained between the surface of NPs and the bulk solvent, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as ‘cold hyperthermia’. However, the measurement of such highly localized temperatures is particularly challenging. We describe here a new approach to probing the temperature at the surface of iron oxide NPs and enhancing the understanding of this phenomenon. This approach involves the grafting of thermosensitive polymer chains to the NP surface followed by the measurement of macroscopic properties of the resulting NP suspension and comparison to a calibration curve built up by macroscopic heating. Superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs were prepared by the coprecipitation of ferrous and ferric salts and functionalized with amines, then azides using a sol-gel route followed by a dehydrative coupling reaction. Thermosensitive poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) with an alkyne end-group was synthesized by controlled radical polymerization and was grafted using a copper assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Measurement of the colloidal properties by dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicated that the thermosensitive NPs exhibited changes in their Zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter as a function of pH and temperature due to the grafted PDMAEMA chains. These changes were accompanied by changes in the relaxivities of the NPs, suggesting application as thermosensitive contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, a new fibre-based backscattering setup enabled positioning of the DLS remote-head as close as possible to the coil of a magnetic heating inductor to afford in situ probing of the backscattered light intensity, hydrodynamic diameter, and temperature. This approach provides a promising platform for
Magnetism From Fundamentals to Nanoscale Dynamics
Stöhr, Joachim
2006-01-01
The present text book gives an comprehensive account of magnetism, spanning the historical development, the physical foundations and the continuing research underlying the field, one of the oldest yet still vibrant field of physics. It covers both the classical and quantum mechanical aspects of magnetism and novel experimental techniques. Perhaps uniquely, it also discusses spin transport and magnetization dynamics phenomena associated with atomically and spin engineered nano-structures against the backdrop of spintronics and magnetic storage and memory applications. Despite the existence of various books on the topic, a fresh text book that reviews the fundamental physical concepts and uses them in a coherent fashion to explain some of the forefront problems and applications today was thought useful by the authors and their colleagues. Magnetism is written for students on the late undergraduate and the graduate levels and should also serve as a state-of-the-art reference for scientists in academia and resear...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sørensen, Mads Peter, E-mail: mpso@dtu.dk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Richard Petersens Plads, Bldg. 324, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Pedersen, Niels Falsig [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Richard Petersens Plads, Bldg. 324, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Ögren, Magnus [School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro SE-70182 (Sweden)
2017-02-15
We investigate the dynamics of magnetic vortices in type II superconductors with normal state pinning sites using the Ginzburg–Landau equations. Simulation results demonstrate hopping of vortices between pinning sites, influenced by external magnetic fields and external currents. The system is highly nonlinear and the vortices show complex nonlinear dynamical behaviour.
RG analysis of magnetic catalysis in dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Deog Ki; Kim, Youngman
1996-01-01
We perform the renormalization group analysis on the dynamical symmetry breaking under strong external magnetic field, studied recently by Gusynin, Miransky and Shovkovy. We find that any attractive four-Fermi interaction becomes strong in the low energy, thus leading to dynamical symmetry breaking. When the four-Fermi interaction is absent, the β-function for the electromagnetic coupling vanishes in the leading order in 1/N. By solving the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion propagator, we show that in 1/N expansion, for any electromagnetic coupling, dynamical symmetry breaking occurs due to the presence of Landau energy gap by the external magnetic field. 5 refs
Dynamics of a magnetic monopole in matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayolle, David
1999-07-01
We study the dynamics of a slow (v/c ∼ 10 -4 ) Dirac magnetic monopole in matter. First, we show at macroscopic scale that the force exerted on a monopole is F vector = g(H vector - v vector x D vector), as if the monopole was not allowed to cross neither microscopic current loops nor microscopic electric dipoles. We interpret this result in terms of adiabatic monopole-atom interactions. Secondly, we generalized the macroscopic Maxwell's equations in 'dual symmetric' matter which contains monopoles and dyons, from which we deduce several properties such as the velocity of light, the behaviour under C, P and T transformation, and we generalize the energy-momentum tensor. These equations also apply when nucleons or electrons possess an electric dipole moment and we propose two experimental methods for detecting this electric dipole moment via its macroscopic polarization effects. (author)
Controlling the flux dynamics in superconductors by nanostructured magnetic arrays
Kapra, Andrey
In this thesis we investigate theoretically how the critical current jc of nano-engineered mesoscopic superconducting film can be improved and how one can control the dynamics of the magnetic flux, e.g., the transition from flux-pinned to flux-flow regime, using arrays of magnetic nanostructures. In particularly we investigate: (1) Vortex transport phenomena in superconductors with deposited ferromagnetic structures on top, and the influence of the sample geometry on the critical parameters and on the vortex configurations. Changing geometry of the magnetic bars and magnetization of the bars will affect the critical current jc of the superconducting film. Such nanostructured ferromagnets strongly alter the vortex structure in its neighborhood. The influence of geometry, position and magnetization of the ferromagnet (single bar or regular lattice of the bars) on the critical parameters of the superconductor is investigated. (2) Effect of flux confinement in narrow superconducting channels with zigzag-shaped banks: the flux motion is confined in the transverse (perpendicular) direction of a diamond-cell-shape channel. The matching effect for the magnetic flux is found in the system relevantless of boundary condition. We discuss the dynamics of vortices in the samples and vortex pattern formation in the channel. We show how the inclusion of higher-Tc superconductor into the sample can lead to enhanced properties of the system. By adding an external driving force, we study the vortex dynamics. The different dynamic regimes are discussed. They allowed an effective control of magnetic flux in superconductors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fannin, P.C.; Marin, C.N.; Raj, K.; Couper, C.; Barvinschi, P.
2012-01-01
Measurements of the frequency dependent complex magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω)=χ′(ω)−iχ″(ω), have been used to determine the dynamic properties of three specially prepared 400 G (0.04 T) magnetic fluids. The samples, denoted by sample 1, sample 2 and sample 3, consisted of magnetite particles of mean diameter 6.4 nm, 7.5 nm and 9 nm respectively and were identical in terms of carrier liquid, surfactant and particle material. From polarized ferromagnetic measurements, the anisotropy field, H A , the Landau–Lifshitz damping parameter, α, and the precessional decay time, τ 0 of the particles were determined. The results show that the H A value for sample 3 was almost twice that of sample 1 and 2, thus confirming that the smaller the particle size, the lower the value of H A . The damping parameter, α, was found to be 0.174 (for sample 1), 0.18 (for sample 2) and 0.16 (for sample 3). The values determined for the precessional decay time, τ 0 were 1.197×10 −9 s, 1.157×10 −9 s and 0.789×10 −9 s, for samples 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
Tanty, Cyrielle; Valet, Jean Pierre; Carlut, Julie
2015-04-01
Turbidites induce sedimentary reworking and re-deposition caused by tsunami, earthquake, volcanic processes, and other catastrophic events. They result from rapid depositional processes and are thus considered not being pertinent for comparison with pelagic sediments. Turbidites are evidently ruled out from paleomagnetic records dealing with time-series. Consequently, no attention has ever been paid to the magnetization of turbidites which is fully justified if the high level of turbulence governing the depositional processes influences the acquisition of magnetization. In certain conditions like channeled turbidity currents, levees of sediment are generated and then associated with relatively calm although very fast redeposition processes. Such conditions will thus govern the subsequent acquisition of magnetization through mechanical lock-in of the magnetic grains. This situation is actually quite similar to what happens during the experiences of artificial redeposition that are conducted in laboratory. Therefore, combining laboratory experiments and studies of natural turbidites could reveal important information on the processes involved in the acquisition of magnetization, especially if the comparison with the overlying hemipelagic sediments does not show any striking difference. We will present the results of magnetic measurements performed on four different and relatively recent turbidites. We selected different origins associated either with spillover of channeled turbidity currents or with co-seismic faulting. Each event is characterized by a different thickness (ten to few tens of cm), lithology and mean granulometry (few tens of μm to hundreds of μm). We have carried out measurements of magnetic susceptibility, magnetic remanence, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and we also scrutinize the evolution of various rock magnetic parameters (ARM, IRM, S ratio, magnetic grain sizes, hysteresis parameters…). The magnetic characteristics of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaushik, Abhishek, E-mail: abhiortho27@gmail.co [Department of Orthopedics, 513, Thermal Colony, Sector-22, Faridabad 121005, Haryana (India); Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew [Department of Orthopedics, St Stephen' s Hospital, Tis hazari, Delhi, New Delhi 110054 (India)
2010-09-15
Intracapsular femoral neck fractures remain unsolved fractures even after improvement in techniques of diagnosis and internal fixation. Individuals who sustain displaced femoral neck fractures are at high risk of developing avascular necrosis and non-union. Although several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, they are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications and technical difficulties. Dynamic MRI was introduced in the recent past as a simple, non-invasive technique to predict the femoral head viability after the femoral neck fractures. In this study role of dynamic MRI was studied in 30 patients with 31 intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Fractures were divided in to three types according to dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation and were followed up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome. Sensitivity, Specificity and the Accuracy of dynamic MRI in predicting vascularity after femoral neck fracture are 87%, 88% and 87%, respectively. Type A or Type B curve pattern is a positive factor to successful osteosynthesis with p value <0.0001 (Chi-square test). This is a statistically significant value. From this finding it can be suggested that the reliability of dynamic curves A and B in predicting maintained vascularity of femoral head is high. This investigation can be used to predict the vascularity of femoral head after intracapsular femoral neck fractures. There was a good correlation between the outcomes of fractures and dynamic MRI curves done within 48 h of injury. This signifies the role of dynamic MRI in predicting the vascularity of femoral head as early as 48 h. A treatment algorithm can be suggested on the basis of dynamic MRI curves. The fractures with Type C dynamic curve should be considered as fractures with poor vascularity of femoral head and measures to enhance the vascularity of femoral head along with rigid internal fixation should be undertaken to promote
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaushik, Abhishek; Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew
2010-01-01
Intracapsular femoral neck fractures remain unsolved fractures even after improvement in techniques of diagnosis and internal fixation. Individuals who sustain displaced femoral neck fractures are at high risk of developing avascular necrosis and non-union. Although several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, they are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications and technical difficulties. Dynamic MRI was introduced in the recent past as a simple, non-invasive technique to predict the femoral head viability after the femoral neck fractures. In this study role of dynamic MRI was studied in 30 patients with 31 intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Fractures were divided in to three types according to dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation and were followed up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome. Sensitivity, Specificity and the Accuracy of dynamic MRI in predicting vascularity after femoral neck fracture are 87%, 88% and 87%, respectively. Type A or Type B curve pattern is a positive factor to successful osteosynthesis with p value <0.0001 (Chi-square test). This is a statistically significant value. From this finding it can be suggested that the reliability of dynamic curves A and B in predicting maintained vascularity of femoral head is high. This investigation can be used to predict the vascularity of femoral head after intracapsular femoral neck fractures. There was a good correlation between the outcomes of fractures and dynamic MRI curves done within 48 h of injury. This signifies the role of dynamic MRI in predicting the vascularity of femoral head as early as 48 h. A treatment algorithm can be suggested on the basis of dynamic MRI curves. The fractures with Type C dynamic curve should be considered as fractures with poor vascularity of femoral head and measures to enhance the vascularity of femoral head along with rigid internal fixation should be undertaken to promote
MULTISCALE DYNAMICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC STRUCTURES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.
2012-01-01
Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries. We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.
Dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior and dynamic phase transition in the spin-1 Blume-Capel model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Bayram, E-mail: bayram.deviren@nevsehir.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-03-15
The nature (time variation) of response magnetization m(wt) of the spin-1 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a periodically varying external magnetic field h(wt) is studied by employing the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations as well as the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. We determine the time variations of m(wt) and h(wt) for various temperatures, and investigate the dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior. We also investigate the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation near the transition point in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures. The hysteresis loops are obtained for different reduced temperatures and we find that the areas of the loops are decreasing with the increasing of the reduced temperatures. We also present the dynamic phase diagrams and compare the results of the EFT with the results of the dynamic mean-field approximation. The phase diagrams exhibit many dynamic critical points, such as tricritical ( Bullet ), zero-temperature critical (Z), triple (TP) and multicritical (A) points. According to values of Hamiltonian parameters, besides the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic (F) fundamental phases, one coexistence or mixed phase region, (F+P) and the reentrant behavior exist in the system. The results are in good agreement with some experimental and theoretical results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetic spin-1 Blume-Capel model is studied using the effective-field theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits tricritical, zero-temperature, triple and multicritical points. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the dynamic phase diagrams and compare the results of the EFT
Spin dynamics in mesoscopic size magnetic systems: A 1HNMR study in rings of iron (III) ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lascialfari, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Borsa, F.; Cornia, A.
1997-01-01
Two magnetic molecular clusters containing almost coplanar rings of iron (III) ions with spinS=5/2 have been investigated by 1 H NMR and relaxation measurements. The first system, which will be referred to as Fe6, is a molecule of general formula [NaFe 6 (OCH 3 ) 12 (C 17 O 4 H 15 ) 6 ] + ClO 4 - or [NaFe 6 (OCH 3 ) 12 (C 15 H 11 O 2 ) 6 ] + ClO 4 - or [LiFe 6 (OCH 3 ) 12 (C 15 H 11 O 2 ) 6 ] + ClO 4 - while the second type of ring, denoted Fe10, corresponds to the molecule [Fe 10 (OCH 3 ) 20 (C 2 H 2 O 2 Cl) 10 ]. The 1 H NMR linewidth is broadened by the nuclear dipolar interaction and by the dipolar coupling of the protons with the iron (III) paramagnetic moment. It is found that the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate, T 1 -1 , of the proton is a sensitive probe of the Fe spin dynamics. In both clusters, T 1 -1 decreases with decreasing temperatures from room temperature, goes through a peak just below about 30 K in Fe6 and 10 K in Fe10, and it drops exponentially to very small values at helium temperature. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate is discussed in terms of the fluctuations of the local spins within the allowed total spin configurations in the framework of the weak collision theory to describe the nuclear relaxation. We use the calculated energy levels for the Fe6 ring based on a Heisenberg Hamiltonian and the value of J obtained from the fit of the magnetic susceptibility to describe semiquantitatively the behavior of T 1 -1 vs T. The exponential drop of T 1 -1 at low temperature is consistent with a nonmagnetic singlet ground state separated by an energy gap from the first excited triplet state. (Abstract Truncated)
Dynamic analysis of magnetic nanoparticles crossing cell membrane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedram, Maysam Z. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Tech., Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamloo, Amir, E-mail: shamloo@sharif.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Tech., Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim [Biologically-Inspired Sensors and Actuators Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer science, York University, Keel Street, Toronto (Canada); Alasty, Aria, E-mail: aalasti@sharif.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Tech., Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-05-01
Nowadays, nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a variety of biomedical applications including brain disease diagnostics and subsequent treatments. Among the various types of NPs, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been implemented by many research groups for an array of life science applications. In this paper, we studied MNPs controlled delivery into the endothelial cells using a magnetic field. Dynamics equations of MNPs were defined in the continuous domain using control theory methods and were applied to crossing the cell membrane. This study, dedicated to clinical and biomedical research applications, offers a guideline for the generation of a magnetic field required for the delivery of MNPs.
DYNAMIC SUFFICIENCY OF THE MAGNETICALLY SUSPENDED TRAIN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Polyakov
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The basic criterion of the magnetically suspended train's consumer estimation is a quality of its mechanical motion. This motion is realized in unpredictable conditions and, for purposefulness preservation, should adapt to them. Such adaptation is possible only within the limits of system’s dynamic sufficiency. Sufficiency is understood as presence at system of resources, which allow one to realize its demanded motions without violating actual restrictions. Therefore presence of such resources is a necessary condition of preservation of required purposefulness of train's dynamics, and verification of the mentioned sufficiency is the major component of this dynamic research. Methodology. Methods of the set theory are used in work. Desirable and actual approachability spaces of the train are found. The train is considered dynamically sufficient in zones of the specified spaces overlapping. Findings. Within the limits of the accepted treatment of train's dynamic sufficiency, verification of its presence, as well as a stock (or deficiency of preservations can be executed by the search and the subsequent estimation of such overlapping zones. Operatively (directly during motion it can be realized on the train's ODC with use, for example, of computer mathematics system Mathematica. It possesses extensive opportunities of highly efficient and, at the same time, demanding an expense concerning small resources information manipulation. The efficiency of using of created technique is illustrated on an example of vehicle's acceleration research. Calculation is executed with use of the constructed computer model of interaction of an independent traction electromagnetic subsystem of an artifact with its mechanical subsystem. Originality. The technique of verification of the high-speed magnetically suspended train's dynamic sufficiency is developed. The technique is highly efficient, it provides sufficient presentation and demands an expense of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Haosheng, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States)
2016-03-30
Tremendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the Twenty-First century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP) instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs), which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important for our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employs large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six CELs simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haosheng eLin
2016-03-01
Full Text Available remendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the 21st century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs, which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important {bf of} our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employees large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase of the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six coronal emission lines simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.
Study of magnetization switching in coupled magnetic nanostructured systems
Radu, Cosmin
A study of magnetization dynamics experiments in nanostructured materials using the rf susceptibility tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) method is presented along with a extensive theoretical analysis. An original, computer controlled experimental setup that measures the change in susceptibility with the variation in external magnetic field and sample temperature was constructed. The TDO-based experiment design and construction is explained in detail, showing all the elements of originality. This experimental technique has proven reliable for characterizing samples with uncoupled magnetic structure and various magnetic anisotropies like: CrO2, FeCo/IrMn and Co/SiO2 thin films. The TDO was subsequently used to explore the magnetization switching in coupled magnetic systems, like synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) structures. Magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) is an important example of devices where the use of SAF structure is essential. To support the understanding of the SAF magnetic behavior, its configuration and application are reviewed and more details are provided in an appendix. Current problems in increasing the scalability and decreasing the error rate of MRAM devices are closely connected to the switching properties of the SAF structures. Several theoretical studies that were devoted to the understanding of the concepts of SAF critical curve are reviewed. As one can notice, there was no experimental determination of SAF critical curve, due to the difficulties in characterizing a magnetic coupled structure. Depending of the coupling strength between the two ferromagnetic layers, on the SAF critical curve one distinguishes several new features, inexistent in the case of uncoupled systems. Knowing the configuration of the SAF critical curve is of great importance in order to control its switching characteristics. For the first time a method of experimentally recording the critical curve for SAF is proposed in this work. In order to overcome technological
The hydrogen dynamics of CsH5(PO4)2 studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gradisek, A; Dimnik, B; Vrtnik, S; Dolinsek, J; Wencka, M; Zdanowska Fraczek, M; Lavrova, G V
2011-01-01
We have investigated the hydrogen dynamics of cesium pentahydrogen diphosphate, CsH 5 (PO 4 ) 2 , by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in order to address the question of why there is no superprotonic phase transition in this compound, in contrast to other structurally similar hydrogen-bonded ionic salts, where a superprotonic transition is frequently found to be present. The analysis of the NMR spectrum and the spin-lattice relaxation rate revealed that the temperature-dependent hydrogen dynamics of CsH 5 (PO 4 ) 2 involves motional processes (the intra-H-bond jumps and the inter-H-bond jumps at elevated temperatures, as a mechanism of the ionic conductivity) identical to those for the other H-bonded superprotonic salts. The considerably stronger H-bond network in CsH 5 (PO 4 ) 2 prompts the search for a higher superprotonic transition temperature. However, due to the relatively weak bonding between the {[H 2 PO 4 ]} ∞ planes in the [100] direction of the CsH 5 (PO 4 ) 2 structure by means of the ionic bonding via the cesium atoms and the small number of H bonds in that direction (where out of five H bonds in the unit cell, four are directed within the {[H 2 PO 4 ]} ∞ planes and only one is between the planes), the bonds between the planes become thermally broken and the crystal melts before the H-bond network rearranges via water release into an open structure typical of the superprotonic phase. Were the coupling between the {[H 2 PO 4 ]} ∞ planes in the CsH 5 (PO 4 ) 2 somewhat stronger, the superprotonic transition would occur in the same manner as it does in other structurally related hydrogen-bonded ionic salts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Nobumichi; Samma, Shoji; Joko, Masanori; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Takewa, Megumi; Kitano, Satoru; Okajima, Eigoro
1999-01-01
New diagnostic criteria for dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in prostate cancer are presented. The diagnostic usefulness of endorectal MR imaging with dynamic contrast-enhancement in localized prostate cancer and the validity of these criteria were evaluated. Eighteen untreated patients who were suspected of localized prostate cancer were included in the study. They received endorectal dynamic MR imaging before systematic sextant needle biopsy. First, a mapping study with the findings of MR images and histopathology of biopsy specimens was performed in eight patients out of 18 to compare the difference in T2-weighted images with the endorectal coil and the body coil in the same individuals. Second, another mapping study was performed in all 18 patients by analyzing the findings of endorectal dynamic MR images. For the diagnosis of prostate cancer in MR imaging, we offered diagnostic criteria from our experience in addition to those in plain T2-weighted images from the literature. The overall diagnostic rates of endorectal dynamic MR imaging were 88.9% in accuracy, 100% in sensitivity, and 81.8% in specificity. In the comparison of the endorectal and body coils in T2-weighted images in eight patients, there was no difference in the diagnostic rates except for one more histopathologic false positive portion in endorectal MR imaging. In the second mapping study in 18 patients, the diagnostic rates were 92.6% in accuracy, 88.9% in sensitivity and 93.3% in specificity. Endorectal dynamic imaging raised the diagnostic sensitivity from 77.8 to 88.9%. The data demonstrated the validity of this diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic usefulness of endorectal dynamic MR imaging in localized prostate cancer. (author)
Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen
2000-01-01
The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance with...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...... for "superferromagnetism" in which the magnetic anisotropy is included. The coupling between the particles is due to exchange interactions and the interaction strength can be accounted for by just a few exchange bridges between surface atoms in neighboring crystallites....
Dynamics of molecular superrotors in an external magnetic field
Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery
2015-08-01
We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in an external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of the molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin-rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane into three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation.
Dynamics of molecular superrotors in an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery
2015-01-01
We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in an external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of the molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin–rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane into three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobák, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.dobak@student.upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Fáberová, Mária; Bureš, Radovan [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Košice (Slovakia)
2017-03-15
This study sheds light on the dynamic magnetization process in iron/resin soft magnetic composites from the viewpoint of quantitative decomposition of their complex permeability spectra into the viscous domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content. The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement. The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials. - Highlights: • A first decomposition of complex permeability into domain wall and rotation parts in soft magnetic composites. • A pure relaxation nature of dynamic magnetization processes. • A complete loss separation in soft magnetic composites. • The domain walls activity is considerably suppressed in composites with smaller iron particles and higher matrix content. • The demagnetizing field acts as a significant factor at the dynamic magnetization process.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar
2014-01-01
with a multibody system composed of rigid rotor and flexible foundation. The magnetic eccentricities of the shaft magnets are modelled using the distances (amplitudes) and directions (phase angles) between the shaft axis and the centre of the magnetic fields generated. A perturbation method, i.e. harmonic......-linear stiffness. In this investigation passive magnetic bearings using axially- aligned neodymium cylinder magnets are investigated. The cylinder magnets are axially magnetised for rotor as well as bearings. Compared to bearings with radial magnetisation, the magnetic stiffness of axially-aligned bearings...... is considerably lower, nevertheless they allow for asymmetric stiffness mounting, and it could be beneficial for rotor stabilization. A theoretical model is proposed to describe the non-linear rotor-bearing dynamics. It takes into account non-linear behaviour of the magnetic forces and their interaction...
Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of lanthanide metals and alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sultan, Muhammad
2012-05-14
In this study, the laser-induced magnetization dynamics of the lanthanide ferromagnets Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb) and their alloys is investigated using femtosecond (fs) time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and magnetic second harmonic generation (MSHG). The magnetization dynamics is analyzed from the time scale of a few fs up to several hundred picoseconds (ps). The contributions of electrons, phonons, spin fluctuations, as well as the temporal regimes corresponding to the spin-orbit and exchange interactions are disentangled. In addition to possible applications in magnetic storage devices, understanding magnetization dynamics in lanthanides is also important because of their different magnetic structure compared to well-studied itinerant ferromagnets. Lanthanides are model Heisenberg-ferromagnets with localized 4f magnetic moments and long range magnetic ordering through indirect exchange interaction. By optical excitation of the conduction electrons, which mediate the exchange interaction, and studying the induced dynamics of the localized 4f and delocalized 5d6s magnetic moments, one can obtain insight into the angular momentum transfer at ultrafast time scales. Moreover, lanthanides offer the possibility to tune spin-lattice coupling via the 4f shell occupation and the concomitant changes in the 4f spin and orbital moments due to Hund's rules. Utilizing this fact, the importance of spin-lattice coupling in laser-induced demagnetization is also analyzed by comparing the magnetization dynamics in Gd and Tb. By investigating the magnetization dynamics of localized 4f moments of Gd and Tb using time-resolved XMCD, it is found that the demagnetization proceeds in both metals in two time scales, following fs laser excitation, which are classified as: (i) non-equilibrium (t
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, St.
2000-01-01
This experimental study of the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram and of the vortex dynamics in high- T c superconductors focuses on Bismuth-based cuprates: Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . In type-II superconductors, mixed state characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux) is divided by a transition line determined by two features of magnetization loops. For T > 40 K, magnetization loops vs applied field show a step evidence of a first order transition. From 20 to 40 K, a second peak replacing the step correspond to an abrupt increase of irreversibility interpreted as a bulk current. We want to understand the nature of the second peak (thermodynamic or nonequilibrium property) and separate phenomena contributing to irreversibility (flux pinning, geometrical or surface effects). Magnetic measurement techniques are nondestructive and have a resolution of few microns. Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystals are optimized by localizing defectives regions with a magneto-optic technique for flux imaging and elimination of these regions with a wire saw. Local magnetization loops and relaxation measurements performed with a microscopic Hall probe array allow to distinguish irreversibility sources. The shape of induction profiles indicates which current dominate between surface current and bulk pinning induced current. Two crossover with time and a direct observation of two phases coexistence in induction profiles enlighten phenomena in play. The measured electric field-current density characteristics lead to barrier energy U(j) controlling thermally activated flux motion. Three relations (U(j) (surface, bulk low and high field) explain second peak. (author)
Structure and dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, K.N.; Bødker, F.; Hansen, M.F.
2000-01-01
In this paper we present X-ray and neutron diffraction data illustrating aspects of crystal and magnetic structures of ferromagnetic alpha-Fe and antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles, as well as inelastic neutron scattering studies of the magnetic fluctuations in NiO and in canted antiferromagnetic...
Global dynamics of dust grains in magnetic planets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inarrea, Manuel; Lanchares, Victor; Palacian, Jesus F.; Pascual, Ana I.; Salas, J. Pablo; Yanguas, Patricia
2005-01-01
We study the dynamics of a charged particle orbiting a rotating magnetic planet. The system is modelled by the Hamiltonian of the two-body problem perturbed by an axially-symmetric potential. The perturbation consists in a magnetic dipole field and a corotational electric field. After an averaging process we arrive at a one degree of freedom Hamiltonian system for which we obtain its relative equilibria and bifurcations. It is shown that the system exhibits a complex and rich dynamics. In particular, dramatic changes in the phase flow take place in the vicinity of a circular equatorial orbit, that in the case of Saturn is located inside the E-ring
Global dynamics of dust grains in magnetic planets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain)]. E-mail: manuel.inarrea@dq.unirioja.es; Lanchares, Victor [Universidad de La Rioja, Departamento de Matematicas y Computacion, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Palacian, Jesus F. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Universidad de La Rioja, Departamento de Matematicas y Computacion, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)
2005-05-02
We study the dynamics of a charged particle orbiting a rotating magnetic planet. The system is modelled by the Hamiltonian of the two-body problem perturbed by an axially-symmetric potential. The perturbation consists in a magnetic dipole field and a corotational electric field. After an averaging process we arrive at a one degree of freedom Hamiltonian system for which we obtain its relative equilibria and bifurcations. It is shown that the system exhibits a complex and rich dynamics. In particular, dramatic changes in the phase flow take place in the vicinity of a circular equatorial orbit, that in the case of Saturn is located inside the E-ring.
Study of wave-particle interaction from the linear regime to dynamical chaos in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasoli, A.
1993-10-01
Deterministic chaos generated by the interaction between charged particles and electrostatic plasma waves has been observed in a linear magnetized plasma. The target plasma is created by a barium Q-source, guaranteeing low fluctuation levels and a high degree of uniformity over an extended plasma volume. Characteristics of the background plasma are investigated by a variety of diagnostic techniques, including laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical tagging (OT). Particular tagging schemes and specific theoretical approaches to data interpretation (both for LIF and OT) have been developed during this work. As part of these background plasma studies, special attention has been devoted to an investigation of test-ion cross-field transport under different conditions. Test-ions are created and followed in their motion across the magnetic field lines via spin state tagging. In the unperturbed plasma this motion is found to be a diffusive process, supported by classical mechanisms, even in the presence of relatively high pressures of non-reactive neutral gases injected into the plasma volume. Electrostatic waves are excited using a ring antenna structure encircling the plasma column and electrically isolated from it. This system has been chosen on the basis of a comparative analysis of different ion wave launching methods, including the use of grids, inductive coils coupled electromagnetically to the plasma and modulated high frequency electron waves. Two modes propagating parallel to the magnetic field, one of which has two perpendicular components (ion Bernstein and ion acoustic-like waves), characterize the spectrum excited by the electrostatic ring antenna for a single frequency, f, chosen in the range f ci ci . (author) figs., tabs., 134 refs
Dynamical properties of magnetized two-dimensional one-component plasma
Dubey, Girija S.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Fessatidis, Vassilios
2018-05-01
Molecular dynamics simulation are used to examine the effect of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field on a two-dimensional interacting electron system. In this simulation we include the effect of the magnetic field classically through the Lorentz force. Both the Coulomb and the magnetic forces are included directly in the electron dynamics to study their combined effect on the dynamical properties of the 2D system. Results are presented for the velocity autocorrelation function and the diffusion constants in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. Our simulation results clearly show that the external magnetic field has an effect on the dynamical properties of the system.
Magnetic monopole dynamics in spin ice.
Jaubert, L D C; Holdsworth, P C W
2011-04-27
One of the most remarkable examples of emergent quasi-particles is that of the 'fractionalization' of magnetic dipoles in the low energy configurations of materials known as 'spin ice' into free and unconfined magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb's 1/r law (Castelnovo et al 2008 Nature 451 42-5). Recent experiments have shown that a Coulomb gas of magnetic charges really does exist at low temperature in these materials and this discovery provides a new perspective on otherwise largely inaccessible phenomenology. In this paper, after a review of the different spin ice models, we present detailed results describing the diffusive dynamics of monopole particles starting both from the dipolar spin ice model and directly from a Coulomb gas within the grand canonical ensemble. The diffusive quasi-particle dynamics of real spin ice materials within the 'quantum tunnelling' regime is modelled with Metropolis dynamics, with the particles constrained to move along an underlying network of oriented paths, which are classical analogues of the Dirac strings connecting pairs of Dirac monopoles.
Dynamical efficiency of collisionless magnetized shocks in relativistic jets
Aloy, Miguel A.; Mimica, Petar
2011-09-01
The so-called internal shock model aims to explain the light-curves and spectra produced by non-thermal processes originated in the flow of blazars and gamma-ray bursts. A long standing question is whether the tenuous collisionless shocks, driven inside a relativistic flow, are efficient enough to explain the amount of energy observed as compared with the expected kinetic power of the outflow. In this work we study the dynamic efficiency of conversion of kinetic-to-thermal/magnetic energy of internal shocks in relativistic magnetized outflows. We find that the collision between shells with a non-zero relative velocity can yield either two oppositely moving shocks (in the frame where the contact surface is at rest), or a reverse shock and a forward rarefaction. For moderately magnetized shocks (magnetization σ ~= 0.1), the dynamic efficiency in a single two-shell interaction can be as large as 40%. Hence, the dynamic efficiency of moderately magnetized shocks is larger than in the corresponding unmagnetized two-shell interaction. We find that the efficiency is only weakly dependent on the Lorentz factor of the shells and, thus internal shocks in the magnetized flow of blazars and gamma-ray bursts are approximately equally efficient.
Zeisner, J.; Brockmann, M.; Zimmermann, S.; Weiße, A.; Thede, M.; Ressouche, E.; Povarov, K. Yu.; Zheludev, A.; Klümper, A.; Büchner, B.; Kataev, V.; Göhmann, F.
2017-07-01
We compare theoretical results for electron spin resonance (ESR) properties of the Heisenberg-Ising Hamiltonian with ESR experiments on the quasi-one-dimensional magnet Cu (py) 2Br2 (CPB). Our measurements were performed over a wide frequency and temperature range giving insight into the spin dynamics, spin structure, and magnetic anisotropy of this compound. By analyzing the angular dependence of ESR parameters (resonance shift and linewidth) at room temperature, we show that the two weakly coupled inequivalent spin-chain types inside the compound are well described by Heisenberg-Ising chains with their magnetic anisotropy axes perpendicular to the chain direction and almost perpendicular to each other. We further determine the full g tensor from these data. In addition, the angular dependence of the linewidth at high temperatures gives us access to the exponent of the algebraic decay of a dynamical correlation function of the isotropic Heisenberg chain. From the temperature dependence of static susceptibilities, we extract the strength of the exchange coupling (J /kB=52.0 K ) and the anisotropy parameter (δ ≈-0.02 ) of the model Hamiltonian. An independent compatible value of δ is obtained by comparing the exact prediction for the resonance shift at low temperatures with high-frequency ESR data recorded at 4 K . The spin structure in the ordered state implied by the two (almost) perpendicular anisotropy axes is in accordance with the propagation vector determined from neutron scattering experiments. In addition to undoped samples, we study the impact of partial substitution of Br by Cl ions on spin dynamics. From the dependence of the ESR linewidth on the doping level, we infer an effective decoupling of the anisotropic component J δ from the isotropic exchange J in these systems.
Orbital studies of lunar magnetism
Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.
1982-01-01
Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Budzik, Jean-François, E-mail: Budzik.jean-francois@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Imaging Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); PMOI Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, Lille (France); Ding, Juliette, E-mail: Ding.juliette@gmail.com [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Imaging Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); Norberciak, Laurène, E-mail: Norberciak.Laurene@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Biostatistics Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); Pascart, Tristan, E-mail: Pascart.tristan@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Rheumatology Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); Toumi, Hechmi, E-mail: hechmi.toumi@univ-orleans.fr [EA4708 I3MTO, Orleans Regional Hospital, University of Orleans, Orleans (France); Verclytte, Sébastien, E-mail: Verclytte.Sebastien@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Imaging Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); Coursier, Raphaël, E-mail: Coursier.Raphael@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France)
2017-03-15
The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is being given major interest, and inflammation is closely linked with vascularization. It was recently demonstrated that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) could identify the subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes occurring in osteoarthritis in animals. These changes appeared before cartilage lesions were visible and were correlated with osteoarthritis severity. Thus the opportunity to obtain an objective assessment of bone vascularization in non-invasive conditions in humans might help better understanding osteoarthritis pathophysiology and finding new biomarkers. We hypothesized that, as in animals, DCE-MRI has the ability to identify subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes in human osteoarthritis. We performed knee MRI in 19 patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis. We assessed subchondral bone marrow vascularization in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments with DCE-MRI and graded osteoarthritis lesions on MR images. Statistical analysis assessed intra- and inter-observer agreement, compared DCE-MRI values between the different subchondral zones, and sought for an influence of age, sex, body mass index, and osteoarthritis garde on these values. The intra- and inter-observer agreement for DCE-MRI values were excellent. These values were significantly higher in the femorotibial compartment the most affected by osteoarthritis, both in femur and tibia (p < 0.0001) and were significantly and positively correlated with cartilage lesions (p = 0.02) and bone marrow oedema grade (p < 0.0001) after adjustment. We concluded that, as in animals, subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes assessed with DCE-MRI were correlated with osteoarthritis severity in humans.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budzik, Jean-François; Ding, Juliette; Norberciak, Laurène; Pascart, Tristan; Toumi, Hechmi; Verclytte, Sébastien; Coursier, Raphaël
2017-01-01
The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is being given major interest, and inflammation is closely linked with vascularization. It was recently demonstrated that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) could identify the subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes occurring in osteoarthritis in animals. These changes appeared before cartilage lesions were visible and were correlated with osteoarthritis severity. Thus the opportunity to obtain an objective assessment of bone vascularization in non-invasive conditions in humans might help better understanding osteoarthritis pathophysiology and finding new biomarkers. We hypothesized that, as in animals, DCE-MRI has the ability to identify subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes in human osteoarthritis. We performed knee MRI in 19 patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis. We assessed subchondral bone marrow vascularization in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments with DCE-MRI and graded osteoarthritis lesions on MR images. Statistical analysis assessed intra- and inter-observer agreement, compared DCE-MRI values between the different subchondral zones, and sought for an influence of age, sex, body mass index, and osteoarthritis garde on these values. The intra- and inter-observer agreement for DCE-MRI values were excellent. These values were significantly higher in the femorotibial compartment the most affected by osteoarthritis, both in femur and tibia (p < 0.0001) and were significantly and positively correlated with cartilage lesions (p = 0.02) and bone marrow oedema grade (p < 0.0001) after adjustment. We concluded that, as in animals, subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes assessed with DCE-MRI were correlated with osteoarthritis severity in humans.
Impact of Dynamic Magnetic fields on the CLIC Main Beam
Snuverink, J; Jach, C; Jeanneret, JB; Schulte, D; Stulle, F
2010-01-01
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerator has strong precision requirements on the position of the beam. The beam position will be sensitive to external dynamic magnetic fields (stray fields) in the nanotesla regime. The impact of these fields on the CLIC main beam has been studied by performing simulations on the lattices and tolerances have been determined. Several mitigation techniques will be discussed.
van Brussel, Marco; van Oorschot, Joep W. M.; Schmitz, Joep P. J.; Nicolay, Klaas; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Takken, Tim; Jeneson, Jeroen A. L.
Rationale and Objectives: The clinical utility of supine in-magnet bicycling in combination with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31 MRS) to evaluate quadriceps muscle metabolism was examined in four children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) in remission and healthy age- and
Holzinger, Dennis; Koch, Iris; Burgard, Stefan; Ehresmann, Arno
2015-07-28
An approach for a remotely controllable transport of magnetic micro- and/or nanoparticles above a topographically flat exchange-bias (EB) thin film system, magnetically patterned into parallel stripe domains, is presented where the particle manipulation is achieved by sub-mT external magnetic field pulses. Superparamagnetic core-shell particles are moved stepwise by the dynamic transformation of the particles' magnetic potential energy landscape due to the external magnetic field pulses without affecting the magnetic state of the thin film system. The magnetic particle velocity is adjustable in the range of 1-100 μm/s by the design of the substrate's magnetic field landscape (MFL), the particle-substrate distance, and the magnitude of the applied external magnetic field pulses. The agglomeration of magnetic particles is avoided by the intrinsic magnetostatic repulsion of particles due to the parallel alignment of the particles' magnetic moments perpendicular to the transport direction and parallel to the surface normal of the substrate during the particle motion. The transport mechanism is modeled by a quantitative theory based on the precise knowledge of the sample's MFL and the particle-substrate distance.
Dynamical anisotropic response of black phosphorus under magnetic field
Liu, Xuefeng; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chenglong; Lai, Jiawei; Ge, Shaofeng; Sekhar, M. Chandra; Jia, Shuang; Chang, Kai; Sun, Dong
2018-04-01
Black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising material candidate for next generation electronic and optoelectronic devices due to its high mobility, tunable band gap and highly anisotropic properties. In this work, polarization resolved ultrafast mid-infrared transient reflection spectroscopy measurements are performed to study the dynamical anisotropic optical properties of BP under magnetic fields up to 9 T. The relaxation dynamics of photoexcited carrier is found to be insensitive to the applied magnetic field due to the broadening of the Landau levels and large effective mass of carriers. While the anisotropic optical response of BP decreases with increasing magnetic field, its enhancement due to the excitation of hot carriers is similar to that without magnetic field. These experimental results can be well interpreted by the magneto-optical conductivity of the Landau levels of BP thin film, based on an effective k · p Hamiltonian and linear response theory. These findings suggest attractive possibilities of multi-dimensional control of anisotropic response (AR) of BP with light, electric and magnetic field, which further introduces BP to the fantastic magnetic field sensitive applications.
Vehicle Dynamics due to Magnetic Launch Propulsion
Galaboff, Zachary J.; Jacobs, William; West, Mark E.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The field of Magnetic Levitation Lind Propulsion (MagLev) has been around for over 30 years, primarily in high-speed rail service. In recent years, however, NASA has been looking closely at MagLev as a possible first stage propulsion system for spacecraft. This approach creates a variety of new problems that don't currently exist with the present MagLev trains around the world. NASA requires that a spacecraft of approximately 120,000 lbs be accelerated at two times the acceleration of gravity (2g's). This produces a greater demand on power over the normal MagLev trains that accelerate at around 0.1g. To be able to store and distribute up to 3,000 Mega Joules of energy in less than 10 seconds is a technical challenge. Another problem never addressed by the train industry and, peculiar only to NASA, is the control of a lifting body through the acceleration of and separation from the MagLev track. Very little is understood about how a lifting body will react with external forces, Such as wind gusts and ground effects, while being propelled along on soft springs such as magnetic levitators. Much study needs to be done to determine spacecraft control requirements as well as what control mechanisms and aero-surfaces should be placed on the carrier. Once the spacecraft has been propelled down the track another significant event takes place, the separation of the spacecraft from the carrier. The dynamics involved for both the carrier and the spacecraft are complex and coupled. Analysis of the reaction of the carrier after losing, a majority of its mass must be performed to insure control of the carrier is maintained and a safe separation of the spacecraft is achieved. The spacecraft angle of attack required for lift and how it will affect the carriage just prior to separation, along with the impacts of around effect and aerodynamic forces at ground level must be modeled and analyzed to define requirements on the launch vehicle design. Mechanisms, which can withstand the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Ji Won; Lim, Young Khi
2015-01-01
This study was to investigate the effects of the hot compress pack on alleviating local muscular discomfort, stiffness in limbs as well as the chronic pains such as migraine in terms of hemodynamics. In this study, the hot compress band was put on the neck and the local physiological change on the stimulation site and the cranial blood circulation change were examined. We recruited healthy volunteers (n=8, mean age: 32.13 (4.61)), who participated in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Local skin color and temperature were measured for the local effect of the hot compress band and the changes of intra-cranial and extra-cranial blood vessels were examined with MR angiography (MRA) images. The skin temperature increased from 36.4 degrees Celsius at the rest condition to 36.7 degrees Celsius and 37.1 degrees Celsius after 15 min and 30 min stimulation, respectively. The change of the extra-cranial blood vessels between pre-stimulation and post-stimulation of 30 min was significantly increased (+38.8%), while the change of the intra-cranial blood vessels was negligible. In this study, we demonstrated that the hot compress band on the neck yielded the increase of local skin temperature on the stimulation site and it made an effect on the extracranial circulation. In conclusion, the stimulation with a hot compress could facilitate the blood circulation, causing to relieve the muscular discomfort, stiffness in limbs as well as the chronic pains such as migraine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baek, Ji Won; Lim, Young Khi [Gachon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-15
This study was to investigate the effects of the hot compress pack on alleviating local muscular discomfort, stiffness in limbs as well as the chronic pains such as migraine in terms of hemodynamics. In this study, the hot compress band was put on the neck and the local physiological change on the stimulation site and the cranial blood circulation change were examined. We recruited healthy volunteers (n=8, mean age: 32.13 (4.61)), who participated in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Local skin color and temperature were measured for the local effect of the hot compress band and the changes of intra-cranial and extra-cranial blood vessels were examined with MR angiography (MRA) images. The skin temperature increased from 36.4 degrees Celsius at the rest condition to 36.7 degrees Celsius and 37.1 degrees Celsius after 15 min and 30 min stimulation, respectively. The change of the extra-cranial blood vessels between pre-stimulation and post-stimulation of 30 min was significantly increased (+38.8%), while the change of the intra-cranial blood vessels was negligible. In this study, we demonstrated that the hot compress band on the neck yielded the increase of local skin temperature on the stimulation site and it made an effect on the extracranial circulation. In conclusion, the stimulation with a hot compress could facilitate the blood circulation, causing to relieve the muscular discomfort, stiffness in limbs as well as the chronic pains such as migraine.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hak, Sjoerd; Cebulla, Jana; Huuse, Else Marie
2014-01-01
In the past two decades advances in the development of targeted nanoparticles have facilitated their application as molecular imaging agents and targeted drug delivery vehicles. Nanoparticle-enhanced molecular imaging of the angiogenic tumor vasculature has been of particular interest. Not only...... because angiogenesis plays an important role in various pathologies, but also since endothelial cell surface receptors are directly accessible for relatively large circulating nanoparticles. Typically, nanoparticle targeting towards these receptors is studied by analyzing the contrast distribution...... kinetics. These kinetics will not only depend on nanoparticle characteristics, but also on receptor binding and recycling. In this study, we monitored the in vivo targeting kinetics of αvβ3-integrin specific nanoparticles with intravital microscopy and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging...
Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields
Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.
2016-02-01
In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.
Quantum dynamics in nanoscale magnets in dissipative environments
Miyashita, S; Saito, K; Kobayashi, H.; de Raedt, H.A.
2000-01-01
In discrete energy structure of nanoscale magnets, nonadiabatic transitions at avoided level crossings lead to fundamental processes of dynamics of magnetizations. The thermal environment causes dissipative effects on these processes. In this paper we review the features of the nonadiabatic
Nonlinear dynamics of attractive magnetic bearings
Hebbale, K. V.; Taylor, D. L.
1987-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of a ferromagnetic shaft suspended by the force of attraction of 1, 2, or 4 independent electromagnets is presented. Each model includes a state variable feedback controller which has been designed using the pole placement method. The constitutive relationships for the magnets are derived analytically from magnetic circuit theory, and the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal are included using Maxwell's field relations. A rotor suspended by four electro-magnets with closed loop feedback is shown to have nine equilibrium points within the bearing clearance space. As the rotor spin speed increases, the system is shown to pass through a Hopf bifurcation (a flutter instability). Using center manifold theory, this bifurcation can be shown to be of the subcritical type, indicating an unstable limit cycle below the critical speed. The bearing is very sensitive to initial conditions, and the equilibrium position is easily upset by transient excitation. The results are confirmed by numerical simulation.
Magnetic dynamics of small α-Fe2O3 and NiO particles studied by neutron scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lefmann, Kim; Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
1999-01-01
particles, we observed a clear double peak in the energy distribution of the antiferromagnetic signal, in addition to a quasi-elastic peak. We interpret the double peak to represent collective magnetic excitations. Broadening of the central quasi-elastic peak with increasing temperature is interpreted...
Liu, Gui-Bin; Liu, Bang-Gui
2010-10-01
In this paper, we combine thermal effects with Landau-Zener (LZ) quantum tunneling effects in a dynamical Monte Carlo (DMC) framework to produce satisfactory magnetization curves of single-molecule magnet (SMM) systems. We use the giant spin approximation for SMM spins and consider regular lattices of SMMs with magnetic dipolar interactions (MDIs). We calculate spin-reversal probabilities from thermal-activated barrier hurdling, direct LZ tunneling, and thermal-assisted LZ tunnelings in the presence of sweeping magnetic fields. We do systematical DMC simulations for Mn12 systems with various temperatures and sweeping rates. Our simulations produce clear step structures in low-temperature magnetization curves, and our results show that the thermally activated barrier hurdling becomes dominating at high temperature near 3 K and the thermal-assisted tunnelings play important roles at intermediate temperature. These are consistent with corresponding experimental results on good Mn12 samples (with less disorders) in the presence of little misalignments between the easy axis and applied magnetic fields, and therefore our magnetization curves are satisfactory. Furthermore, our DMC results show that the MDI, with the thermal effects, have important effects on the LZ tunneling processes, but both the MDI and the LZ tunneling give place to the thermal-activated barrier hurdling effect in determining the magnetization curves when the temperature is near 3 K. This DMC approach can be applicable to other SMM systems and could be used to study other properties of SMM systems.
Sevier, Abigail; Davis, David O.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Barnhart, Paul
2016-01-01
The implementation of a magnetic suspension system in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 225 cm2 Supersonic Wind Tunnel would be a powerful test technique that could accurately determine the dynamic stability of blunt body entry vehicles with no sting interference. This paper explores initial design challenges to be evaluated before implementation, including defining the lowest possible operating dynamic pressure and corresponding model size, developing a compatible video analysis technique, and incorporating a retractable initial support sting.
Semiclassical dynamics and magnetic Weyl calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lein, Maximilian Stefan
2011-01-01
Weyl quantization and related semiclassical techniques can be used to study conduction properties of crystalline solids subjected to slowly-varying, external electromagnetic fields. The case where the external magnetic field is constant, is not covered by existing theory as proofs involving usual Weyl calculus break down. This is the regime of the so-called quantum Hall effect where quantization of transverse conductance is observed. To rigorously derive semiclassical equations of motion, one needs to systematically develop a magnetic Weyl calculus which contains a semiclassical parameter. Mathematically, the operators involved in the analysis are magnetic pseudodifferential operators, a topic which by itself is of interest for the mathematics and mathematical physics community alike. Hence, we will devote two additional chapters to further understanding of properties of those operators. (orig.)
Semiclassical dynamics and magnetic Weyl calculus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lein, Maximilian Stefan
2011-01-19
Weyl quantization and related semiclassical techniques can be used to study conduction properties of crystalline solids subjected to slowly-varying, external electromagnetic fields. The case where the external magnetic field is constant, is not covered by existing theory as proofs involving usual Weyl calculus break down. This is the regime of the so-called quantum Hall effect where quantization of transverse conductance is observed. To rigorously derive semiclassical equations of motion, one needs to systematically develop a magnetic Weyl calculus which contains a semiclassical parameter. Mathematically, the operators involved in the analysis are magnetic pseudodifferential operators, a topic which by itself is of interest for the mathematics and mathematical physics community alike. Hence, we will devote two additional chapters to further understanding of properties of those operators. (orig.)
Global dynamics of magnetic reconnection in VINETA II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bohlin, Hannes
2014-12-12
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process where a change in field line connectivity occurs in a current sheet at the boundary between regions of opposing magnetic fields. In this process, energy stored in the magnetic field is converted into kinetic and thermal energy, which provides a source of plasma heating and energetic particles. Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in many space and laboratory plasma phenomena, e.g. solar flares, Earth's magnetopause dynamics and instabilities in tokamaks. A new linear device (VINETAII) has been designed for the study of the fundamental physical processes involved in magnetic reconnection. The plasma parameters are such that magnetic reconnection occurs in a collision-dominated regime. A plasma gun creates a localized current sheet, and magnetic reconnection is driven by modulating the plasma current and the magnetic field structure. The plasma current is shown to flow in response to a combination of an externally induced electric field and electrostatic fields in the plasma, and is highly affected by axial sheath boundary conditions. Further, the current is changed by an additional axial magnetic field (guide field), and the current sheet geometry was demonstrated to be set by a combination of magnetic mapping and cross-field plasma diffusion. With increasing distance from the plasma gun, magnetic mapping results in an increase of the current sheet length and a decrease of the width. The control parameter is the ratio of the guide field to the reconnection magnetic field strength. Cross-field plasma diffusion leads to a radial expansion of the current sheet at low guide fields. Plasma currents are also observed in the azimuthal plane and were found to originate from a combination of the field-aligned current component and the diamagnetic current generated by steep in-plane pressure gradients in combination with the guide field. The reconnection rate, defined via the inductive electric field, is shown to be
Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Takashi, E-mail: t_yoshi@ees.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig 38106 (Germany)
2017-04-01
In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes. - Highlights: • We clarify how the alignment of easy axis of MNP affects the AC magnetization. • Parallel-aligned immobilized MNPs exhibit the largest AC hysteresis loop. • Parallel-aligned immobilized MNPs exhibit the largest harmonic magnetization spectra. • The AC magnetization is strongly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.
Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles
Yoshida, Takashi; Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji; Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank
2017-04-01
In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Studler, Ueli; White, Lawrence M.; Deslandes, Melanie; Sussman, Marshall S.; Geddes, Christopher; Theodoropoulos, John
2011-01-01
To determine the feasibility of evaluating medial knee joint laxity with dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination in a large-bore 1.5-T system. The study included 10 patients (5 women, 5 men; mean age 35 years) with clinically diagnosed and categorized acute injuries of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). Intermittent valgus stress was applied separately to both the affected and the contralateral knee joint during dynamic MR imaging with a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence. The width of the medial joint space and the opening angle between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateau were measured. Results obtained from dynamic MR imaging of the affected knee were compared with morphological MCL changes on static MRI, to kinematics of the contralateral side and to the clinical grading of MCL injuries. On clinical examination, all patients had grade 2 MCL injuries except one, who had a grade 1 lesion. Using morphological MRI criteria, 9 grade II and 1 grade III injuries were seen. Mean medial joint space width and opening angles of all affected knees were 2.8 mm and 2.7 respectively, compared with 1.7 mm and 2.1 on the contralateral side. The Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that the differences in width (P = 0.005) and opening angle (P = 0.037) between the affected and contralateral knees were significant. Dynamic MR imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination is feasible. Our results suggest that this technique might enable the imaging documentation of medial ligamentous knee instability. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)
2011-10-15
In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Henriksen, O
1996-01-01
The effect of temporary inflammatory suppression on synovial membrane enhancement, as determined by dynamic and static gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was studied. MRI of 18 arthritic knees was performed before and 1, 7, 30 and 180 days after intra-articular methylpredn......The effect of temporary inflammatory suppression on synovial membrane enhancement, as determined by dynamic and static gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was studied. MRI of 18 arthritic knees was performed before and 1, 7, 30 and 180 days after intra...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HyungJoon Cho
2009-03-01
Full Text Available In vivo knowledge of the spatial distribution of viable, necrotic, and hypoxic areas can provide prognostic information about the risk of developing metastases and regional radiation sensitivity and may be used potentially for localized dose escalation in radiation treatment. In this study, multimodality in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET imaging using stereotactic fiduciary markers in the Dunning R3327AT prostate tumor were performed, focusing on the relationship between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI using Magnevist (Gd-DTPA and dynamic 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-Fmiso PET. The noninvasive measurements were verified using tumor tissue sections stained for hematoxylin/eosin and pimonidazole. To further validate the relationship between 18F-Fmiso and pimonidazole uptake, 18F digital autoradiography was performed on a selected tumor and compared with the corresponding pimonidazole-stained slices. The comparison of Akep values (kep = rate constant of movement of Gd-DTPA between the interstitial space and plasma and A = amplitude in the two-compartment model (Hoffmann U, Brix G, Knopp MV, Hess T and Lorenz WJ (1995. Magn Reson Med 33, 506– 514 derived from DCE-MRI studies and from early 18F-Fmiso uptake PET studies showed that tumor vasculature is a major determinant of early 18F-Fmiso uptake. A negative correlation between the spatial map of Akep and the slope map of late (last 1 hour of the dynamic PET scan 18F-Fmiso uptake was observed. The relationships between DCE-MRI and hematoxylin/eosin slices and between 18F-Fmiso PET and pimonidazole slices confirm the validity of MRI/PET measurements to image the tumor microenvironment and to identify regions of tumor necrosis, hypoxia, and well-perfused tissue.
Single-Particle Quantum Dynamics in a Magnetic Lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Venturini, Marco
2001-02-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a spinless charged-particle propagating through a magnetic lattice in a transport line or storage ring. Starting from the Klein-Gordon equation and by applying the paraxial approximation, we derive a Schroedinger-like equation for the betatron motion. A suitable unitary transformation reduces the problem to that of a simple harmonic oscillator. As a result we are able to find an explicit expression for the particle wavefunction.
Particle beam dynamics in a magnetically insulated coaxial diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, V.G.; Magda, I.I.; Sinitsin, V.G.
2015-01-01
The dynamics of charged particle beams emitted from a cathode into a smooth coaxial diode with magnetic insulation is studied with the aid of 3-D PIC simulation. The processes controlling space charge formation and its evolution in the diode are modeled for geometries typical of high-voltage millimeter wave magnetrons that are characterized by very high values of emission currents, hence high space charge densities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schavkan, Alexander
2017-05-01
This thesis investigates structural properties and the underlying microscopic dynamics of suspensions of α-FeOOH goethite platelets in water under the influence of magnetic fields. Goethite particles show unusual physical properties and a rich phase diagram, which makes their suspensions an object of high interest for research in the area of ''smart nanoparticles''. Five nanoparticle concentrations were chosen such that different liquid crystal phases could be studied. The suspensions of platelets of these chosen concentrations were exposed to magnetic fields of varying strength. Small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy data were taken and evaluated. The appearing phases and phase transitions were studied as a function of concentration and applied magnetic field. For this purpose, order parameters, ellipticity, radial and azimuthal peak positions and widths of scattering features were investigated to clarify the structural properties in detail. For the analysis of the underlying dynamics, the relaxation rates and the shape of measured time correlation functions were evaluated. The results show that with increasing magnetic field a partial realignment of the platelets occurs. This realignment is connected to the magnetic properties of the particles. The dynamics of the corresponding phases revealed a dependence on the concentration of nanoparticles in the suspension. At a concentration of c=20 vol% the transition from the nematic to the anti-nematic phase traverses a mixed state. The nematic and anti-nematic phases show ballistic motion and very similar properties, even though a realignment of the particles from an orientation with the long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field in the nematic phase to an orientation with the long axis perpendicular to the magnetic field in the anti-nematic phase occurs. The mixed state of 20 vol%-suspension exhibits a diffusive motion of the particles and different characteristics. A significant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schavkan, Alexander
2017-05-15
This thesis investigates structural properties and the underlying microscopic dynamics of suspensions of α-FeOOH goethite platelets in water under the influence of magnetic fields. Goethite particles show unusual physical properties and a rich phase diagram, which makes their suspensions an object of high interest for research in the area of ''smart nanoparticles''. Five nanoparticle concentrations were chosen such that different liquid crystal phases could be studied. The suspensions of platelets of these chosen concentrations were exposed to magnetic fields of varying strength. Small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy data were taken and evaluated. The appearing phases and phase transitions were studied as a function of concentration and applied magnetic field. For this purpose, order parameters, ellipticity, radial and azimuthal peak positions and widths of scattering features were investigated to clarify the structural properties in detail. For the analysis of the underlying dynamics, the relaxation rates and the shape of measured time correlation functions were evaluated. The results show that with increasing magnetic field a partial realignment of the platelets occurs. This realignment is connected to the magnetic properties of the particles. The dynamics of the corresponding phases revealed a dependence on the concentration of nanoparticles in the suspension. At a concentration of c=20 vol% the transition from the nematic to the anti-nematic phase traverses a mixed state. The nematic and anti-nematic phases show ballistic motion and very similar properties, even though a realignment of the particles from an orientation with the long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field in the nematic phase to an orientation with the long axis perpendicular to the magnetic field in the anti-nematic phase occurs. The mixed state of 20 vol%-suspension exhibits a diffusive motion of the particles and different
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroyuki Abe
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang–Mills (SYM theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of SU(NC SYM theory with NF flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Kenji; Saito, Kenichi; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Ichinokura, Osamu
2005-01-01
Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) have high efficiency and torque, since the motors can utilize reluctance torque in addition to magnet torque. The IPMSMs are widely used for electric household appliances and electric bicycles and vehicles. A quantitative analysis method of dynamic characteristics of the IPMSMs, however, has not been clarified fully. For optimum design, investigation of dynamic characteristics considering magnetic nonlinearity is needed. This paper presents a new nonlinear magnetic circuit model of an IPMSM, and suggests a dynamic analysis method using the proposed magnetic circuit model
Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in viscoelastic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remmer, Hilke, E-mail: h.remmer@tu-bs.de [Institute of Electrical Measurement and Fundamental Electrical Engineering, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Roeben, Eric; Schmidt, Annette M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Universität zu Köln, Köln (Germany); Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank [Institute of Electrical Measurement and Fundamental Electrical Engineering, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)
2017-04-01
We compare different models for the description of the complex susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles in an aqueous gelatin solution representing a model system for a Voigt-Kelvin scheme. The analysis of susceptibility spectra with the numerical model by Raikher et al. is compared with the analysis applying a phenomenological, modified Debye model. The fit of the models to the measured data allows one to extract the viscoelastic parameter dynamic viscosity η and shear modulus G. The experimental data were recorded on single-core thermally blocked CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in an aqueous solution with 2.5 wt% gelatin. Whereas the dynamic viscosities obtained by fitting the model – extended by distributions of hydrodynamic diameters and viscosities – agree very well, the derived values for the shear modulus show the same temporal behavior during the gelation process, but vary approximately by a factor of two. To verify the values for viscosity and shear modulus obtained from nanorheology, macrorheological measurements are in progress. - Highlights: • Ac susceptibility spectra of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in aqueous gelatin solution. • Analysis of spectra with different approaches of Voigt-Kelvin model. • Comparison of modified Debye model with numerical model. • Both models provide similar values for viscoelastic parameters.
Dynamics of Solid Body in Magnetic Suspension under Periodic Excitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Gouskov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article studies dynamics of ferromagnetic body in hybrid magnetic suspension (HMS. The body is supposed to have one degree of freedom and a nonlinear magnetic force dependence on the current and displacement. The magnetic force induced in the HMS is divided into a passive component and an active one. Specifying the law of current variation in the coil allows us to generate nonlinear oscillations under electromagnet action. To provide periodic excitation the appropriate law of the current variation in the electromagnet coil is proposed. The mathematical model includes external periodic step-excitation. The equation of motion is formed. The scales of similarity are highlighted in the system, and the equation of motion is reduced to dimensionless form.The motion dynamics is studied numerically. The relaxation method was used to determine the periodic motions at different values of dimensionless frequency of the electromagnet excitation as well as to estimate the influence of other dimensionless parameters on the system dynamics. The amplitude-frequency curve analysis allows us to come to conclusion that the nature of system nonlinearity is rigid. Adding the external periodic step-excitation leads to the qualitative change in the nature of movement. This points to the occurrence of bifurcation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samantaray, B., E-mail: iitg.biswanath@gmail.com; Ranganathan, R.; Mandal, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Singh, Akhilesh K.; Perumal, A. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781039 (India)
2015-06-15
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and low magnetic damping are the key factors for the free layer magnetization switching by spin transfer torque technique in magnetic tunnel junction devices. The magnetization precessional dynamics in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC thin film with a stripe domain structure was explored in broad band frequency range by employing micro-strip ferromagnetic resonance technique. The polar angle variation of resonance field and linewidth at different frequencies have been analyzed numerically using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation by taking into account the total free energy density of the film. The numerically estimated parameters Landé g-factor, PMA constant, and effective magnetization are found to be 2.1, 2 × 10{sup 5} erg/cm{sup 3} and 7145 Oe, respectively. The frequency dependence of Gilbert damping parameter (α) is evaluated by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects into the total linewidth analysis. The value of α is found to be 0.006 at 10 GHz and it increases monotonically with decreasing precessional frequency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, E F; Corrêa, M A; Chesman, C; Bohn, F; Della Pace, R D; Plá Cid, C C; Kern, P R; Carara, M; Alves Santos, O; Rodríguez-Suárez, R L; Azevedo, A; Rezende, S M
2017-01-01
We investigate the thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy and dynamic magnetic response of ferromagnetic NiFe films. We go beyond quasi-static measurements and focus on the dynamic magnetic response by considering three complementary techniques: the ferromagnetic resonance, magnetoimpedance and magnetic permeability measurements. We verify remarkable modifications in the magnetic anisotropy, i.e. the well-known behavior of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy systems gives place to a complex magnetic behavior as the thickness increases, and splits the films in two groups according to the magnetic properties. We identify magnetoimpedance and magnetic permeability curves with multiple resonance peaks, as well as the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance absorption spectra, as fingerprints of strong changes of the magnetic properties associated to the vanishing of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy and to the emergence of non-homogeneous magnetization configuration, local anisotropies and out-of-plane anisotropy contribution arisen as a consequence of the non-uniformities of the stress stored in the film as the thickness is increased and/or to the columnar growth of the film. We interpret the experimental results in terms of the structural and morphological properties, quasi-static magnetic behavior, magnetic domain structure and different mechanisms governing the magnetization dynamics at distinct frequency ranges. (paper)
Control of Spin Wave Dynamics in Spatially Twisted Magnetic Structures
2017-06-27
control the spin wave dynamics of magnetic structures twisted spatially, we prepared the exchange-coupled films with the hard magnetic L10-FePt and...information writing of magnetic storage and spintronic applications. Introduction and Objective: Recent rapid progress in the research field of nano...scaled bilayer elements is also an important aim of this project. Approach/Method: The exchange-coupled films with the hard magnetic L10-FePt and
Magnetic resonance phenomena in dynamics of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ternov, I.M.; Bordovitsyn, V.A.
1987-01-01
A relativistic generalization of Rabi's formula for magnetic resonance is given. On this basis, we consider fast and slow passage through resonance. We define a magnetic resonance exterior field as usual, using unit vectors of a Cartesian coordinate system, a homogeneous magnetic field, and the amplitude of a rotating magnetic field. For the description of spin dynamics we use the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bukharov, A A; Ovchinnikov, A S; Baranov, N V [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg, 620083 (Russian Federation); Inoue, K [Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)
2010-11-03
Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate magnetic hysteresis in two- and three-dimensional systems of weakly antiferromagnetically coupled spin chains based on a scenario of domain wall (kink) motion within the chains. By adapting the model of walkers to simulate the domain wall dynamics and using the Ising-like dipole-dipole model, we study the effects of interchain coupling, temperature and anisotropy axis direction on hysteresis curves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakalis, L.T.
1989-01-01
The potential of high-resolution 13 C NMR for the characterization of soybean storage proteins was explored. The spectra of a commercial soy protein isolate as well as those of alkali-denatured 7S and 11S soybean globulins were well resolved and tentatively assigned. Relaxation measurements indicated fast motion for several side chains and the protein backbone. Protein fractions (11S and 7S) were also investigated at various states of molecular association. The large size of the multisubunit soybean storage proteins affected adversely both the resolution and the sensitivity of their 13 C NMR spectra. A comparison of 17 O and 2 H NMR relaxation rates of water in solutions of lysozyme (a model system) as a function of concentration, pH and magnetic field suggested that only 17 O monitors directly the hydration of lysozyme. Analysis of 17 O NMR lysozyme hydration data in terms of a two-state, fast-exchange, anisotropic model resulted in hydration parameters which are consistent with the protein's physico-chemical properties. The same model was applied to the calculation of the amount and mobility of bound water in soy protein dispersions by means of 17 O NMR relaxation measurements as a function of protein concentration. The protein concentration dependences of 1 H transverse NMR relaxation measurements at various pH and ionic strength values were fitted by a viral expansion. The interpretation of the data was based on the effects of protein aggregation, salt binding and protein group ionization on the NMR measurements. In all cases, relaxation rates showed a linear dependence on protein activity
Trützschler, Julia; Sentosun, Kadir; Mozooni, Babak; Mattheis, Roland; McCord, Jeffrey
2016-08-04
High density magnetic domain wall gratings are imprinted in ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic thin films by local ion irradiation by which alternating head-to-tail-to-head-to-tail and head-to-head-to-tail-to-tail spatially overlapping domain wall networks are formed. Unique magnetic domain processes result from the interaction of anchored domain walls. Non-linear magnetization response is introduced by the laterally distributed magnetic anisotropy phases. The locally varying magnetic charge distribution gives rise to localized and guided magnetization spin-wave modes directly constrained by the narrow domain wall cores. The exchange coupled multiphase material structure leads to unprecedented static and locally modified dynamic magnetic material properties.
Cai, Jing; Read, Paul W; Baisden, Joseph M; Larner, James M; Benedict, Stanley H; Sheng, Ke
2007-11-01
To evaluate the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)-based lung tumor internal target volume determination using a simulation method based on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Eight healthy volunteers and six lung tumor patients underwent a 5-min MRI scan in the sagittal plane to acquire dynamic images of lung motion. A MATLAB program was written to generate re-sorted dMRI using 4D-CT acquisition methods (RedCAM) by segmenting and rebinning the MRI scans. The maximal intensity projection images were generated from RedCAM and dMRI, and the errors in the MIP-based internal target area (ITA) from RedCAM (epsilon), compared with those from dMRI, were determined and correlated with the subjects' respiratory variability (nu). Maximal intensity projection-based ITAs from RedCAM were comparatively smaller than those from dMRI in both phantom studies (epsilon = -21.64% +/- 8.23%) and lung tumor patient studies (epsilon = -20.31% +/- 11.36%). The errors in MIP-based ITA from RedCAM correlated linearly (epsilon = -5.13nu - 6.71, r(2) = 0.76) with the subjects' respiratory variability. Because of the low temporal resolution and retrospective re-sorting, 4D-CT might not accurately depict the excursion of a moving tumor. Using a 4D-CT MIP image to define the internal target volume might therefore cause underdosing and an increased risk of subsequent treatment failure. Patient-specific respiratory variability might also be a useful predictor of the 4D-CT-induced error in MIP-based internal target volume determination.
Magnetic properties of novel dynamic self-assembled structures generated on the liquid/air interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I.S.
2007-01-01
We report on experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic properties of recently discovered dynamic multi-segment self-organized structures ('magnetic snakes'). Magnetic order and response of such snakes are determined by a novel unconventional mechanism provided by a self-induced surface wave. It gives rise to a nontrivial magnetic order: the segments of the snake exhibit long-range antiferromagnetic order mediated by the surface waves, while each segment is composed of ferromagnetically aligned chains of microparticles. Magnetic properties of the snakes are probed by in-plane magnetic field. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain the experimental observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D.
2001-01-01
55 Mn nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been carried out in an oriented powder sample of Mn12 acetate at low temperature (1.4--3 K) in order to investigate locally the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the molecule in its high-spin S=10 ground state. We report the observation of three 55 MnNMR lines under zero external magnetic field. From the resonance frequency and the width of the lines we derive the internal hyperfine field and the quadrupole coupling constant at each of the three nonequivalent Mn ion sites. From the field dependence of the spectrum we obtain a direct confirmation of the standard picture, in which spin moments of Mn 4+ ions (S=3/2) of the inner tetrahedron are polarized antiparallel to that of Mn 3+ ions (S=2) of the outer ring with no measurable canting from the easy axis up to an applied field of 6 T. It is found that the splitting of the 55 Mn-NMR lines when a magnetic field is applied at low temperature allows one to monitor the off-equilibrium population of the molecules in the different low lying magnetic states. The measured nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 strongly depends on temperature and magnetic field. The behavior could be fitted well by considering the local-field fluctuations at the nuclear 55 Mn site due to the thermal reorientation of the total S=10 spin of the molecule. From the fit of the data one can derive the product of the spin-phonon coupling constant times the mean-square value of the fluctuating hyperfine field. The two constants could be estimated separately by making some assumptions. The comparison of the mean-square fluctuation from relaxation with the static hyperfine field from the spectrum suggests that nonuniform terms (q≠0) are important in describing the spin dynamics of the local Mn moments in the ground state
Dynamics and morphology of chiral magnetic bubbles in perpendicularly magnetized ultra-thin films
Sarma, Bhaskarjyoti; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Nasseri, S. Ali; Casiraghi, Arianna; Durin, Gianfranco
2018-06-01
We study bubble domain wall dynamics using micromagnetic simulations in perpendicularly magnetized ultra-thin films with disorder and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Disorder is incorporated into the material as grains with randomly distributed sizes and varying exchange constant at the edges. As expected, magnetic bubbles expand asymmetrically along the axis of the in-plane field under the simultaneous application of out-of-plane and in-plane fields. Remarkably, the shape of the bubble has a ripple-like part which causes a kink-like (steep decrease) feature in the velocity versus in-plane field curve. We show that these ripples originate due to the nucleation and interaction of vertical Bloch lines. Furthermore, we show that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction field is not constant but rather depends on the in-plane field. We also extend the collective coordinate model for domain wall motion to a magnetic bubble and compare it with the results of micromagnetic simulations.
A dynamic method for magnetic torque measurement
Lin, C. E.; Jou, H. L.
1994-01-01
In a magnetic suspension system, accurate force measurement will result in better control performance in the test section, especially when a wider range of operation is required. Although many useful methods were developed to obtain the desired model, however, significant error is inevitable since the magnetic field distribution of the large-gap magnetic suspension system is extremely nonlinear. This paper proposed an easy approach to measure the magnetic torque of a magnetic suspension system using an angular photo encoder. Through the measurement of the velocity change data, the magnetic torque is converted. The proposed idea is described and implemented to obtain the desired data. It is useful to the calculation of a magnetic force in the magnetic suspension system.
Dynamics of a particle attracted by a magnetized wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.F. Jr.; Simons, W.H.; Treat, R.P.
1977-01-01
The dynamics of a particle attracted by a magnetized wire is studied for nonvanishing gravitational forces and a broad range of Stokes number K. The Newtonian equation of motion for the particle is integrated for 10 -2 2 , a range which includes conditions where the particle inertia cannot be ignored. Families of trajectories, typical of low and high K, reveal the dominance of viscous forces at low K, as expected, and show oscillatory approach to capture for high K, where inertia is significant. Capture distances in the interval 1< or =X/sub c/< or =8 are given as a function of three independent dimensionless parameters which measure the strengths of the magnetic, viscous, and gravitational forces. The range of conditions is established for which it is permissible to neglect, for the purpose of computing capture distances, both the inertia and the radially attractive short-range part of the magnetic force. The equation of motion in which the inertia and the short-range term are neglected is studied. An integral of this equation is found which extends the trajectory equations of Zebel and Luborsky to include the gravitational force. A general approach to the construction of the integral of motion shows how to find the trajectory equation for a particle moving in a more complicated incompressible viscous flow with higher multipole contributions to the magnetic field of force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennion, M.; Hennion, B.; Mirebeau, I.; Lequien, S.; Hippert, F.
1988-01-01
We report small angle (SANS) and inelastic neutron scattering in zero and applied field for a-FeMn, NiMn and AuFe at composition where both ferromagnetic and frustration characters occur. We discuss the field evolution of the transverse correlations which arise below T c . A study of the field sensitivity of the spin wave anomalies in a-FeMn is reported
Dynamics of magnetic clouds in interplanetary space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, T.
1987-01-01
Magnetic clouds observed in interplanetary space may be regarded as extraneous bodies immersed in the magnetized medium of the solar wind. The interface between a magnetic cloud and its surrounding medium separates the internal and external magnetic fields. Polarization currents are induced in the peripheral layer to make the ambient magnetic field tangential. The motion of a magnetic cloud through the interplanetary medium may be partitioned into a translational motion of the magnetic cloud as a whole and an expansive motion of the volume relative to the axis of the magnetic cloud. The translational motion is determined by two kinds of forces, i.e., the gravitational force exerted by the Sun, and the hydromagnetic buoyancy force exerted by the surrounding medium. On the other hand, the expansive motion is determined by the pressure gradient sustaining the gross difference between the internal and external pressures and by the self-induced magnetic force that results from the interaction among the internal currents. The force resulting from the internal and external currents is a part of the hydromagnetic buoyancy force, manifested by a thermal stress caused by the inhomogeneity of the ambient magnetic pressure
Dynamics of magnetic clouds in interplanetary space
Yeh, Tyan
1987-09-01
Magnetic clouds observed in interplanetary space may be regarded as extraneous bodies immersed in the magnetized medium of the solar wind. The interface between a magnetic cloud and its surrounding medium separates the internal and external magnetic fields. Polarization currents are induced in the peripheral layer to make the ambient magnetic field tangential. The motion of a magnetic cloud through the interplanetary medium may be partitioned into a translational motion of the magnetic cloud as a whole and an expansive motion of the volume relative to the axis of the magnetic cloud. The translational motion is determined by two kinds of forces, i.e., the gravitational force exerted by the Sun, and the hydromagnetic buoyancy force exerted by the surrounding medium. On the other hand, the expansive motion is determined by the pressure gradient sustaining the gross difference between the internal and external pressures and by the self-induced magnetic force that results from the interaction among the internal currents. The force resulting from the internal and external currents is a part of the hydromagnetic buoyancy force, manifested by a thermal stress caused by the inhomogeneity of the ambient magnetic pressure.
Makowska, Joanna; Zmudzińska, Wioletta; Uber, Dorota; Chmurzyński, Lech
2014-12-01
Chain reversals are often nucleation sites in protein folding. The β-hairpins of FBP28 WW domain and IgG are stable and have been proved to initiate the folding and are, therefore, suitable for studying the influence of charged residues on β-hairpin conformation. In this paper, we carried out NMR examination of the conformations in solution of two fragments from the FPB28 protein (PDB code: 1E0L) (N-terminal part) namely KTADGKT-NH2 (1E0L 12-18, D7) and YKTADGKTY-NH2 (1E0L 11-19, D9), one from the B3 domain of the protein G (PDB code: 1IGD), namely DDATKT-NH2 (1IGD 51-56) (Dag1), and three variants of Dag1 peptide: DVATKT-NH2 (Dag2), OVATKT-NH2 (Dag3) and KVATKT-NH2 (Dag4), respectively, in which the original charged residue were replaced with non-polar residues or modified charged residues. It was found that both the D7 and D9 peptides form a large fraction bent conformations. However, no hydrophobic contacts between the terminal Tyr residues of D9 occur, which suggests that the presence of a pair of like-charged residues stabilizes chain reversal. Conversely, only the Dag1 and Dag2 peptides exhibit some chain reversal; replacing the second aspartic-acid residue with a valine and the first one with a basic residue results in a nearly extended conformation. These results suggest that basic residues farther away in sequence can result in stabilization of chain reversal owing to screening of the non-polar core. Conversely, smaller distance in sequence prohibits this screening, while the presence oppositely-charged residues can stabilize a turn because of salt-bridge formation.
Design of a dynamic transcranial magnetic stimulation coil system.
Ge, Sheng; Jiang, Ruoli; Wang, Ruimin; Chen, Ji
2014-08-01
To study the brain activity at the whole-head range, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) researchers need to investigate brain activity over the whole head at multiple locations. In the past, this has been accomplished with multiple single TMS coils that achieve quasi whole-head array stimulation. However, these designs have low resolution and are difficult to position and control over the skull. In this study, we propose a new dynamic whole-head TMS mesh coil system. This system was constructed using several sagittal and coronal directional wires. Using both simulation and real experimental data, we show that by varying the current direction and strength of each wire, this new coil system can form both circular coils or figure-eight coils that have the same features as traditional TMS coils. Further, our new system is superior to current coil systems because stimulation parameters such as size, type, location, and timing of stimulation can be dynamically controlled within a single experiment.
Influence of electrical sheet width on dynamic magnetic properties
Chevalier, T; Cornut, B
2000-01-01
Effects of the width of electrical steel sheets on dynamic magnetic properties are investigated by solving diffusion equation on the cross-section of the sheet. Linear and non-linear cases are studied, and are compared with measurement on Epstein frame. For the first one an analytical solution is found, while for the second, a 2D finite element simulation is achieved. The influence of width is highlighted for a width thickness ratio lower than 10. It is shown that the behaviour modification in such cases is conditioned by the excitation signal waveform, amplitude and also frequency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Long-Biao eCui
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Understanding the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ is important for shedding light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mental disorder. Structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC have been implicated in the neurobiology of SZ. However, the effective connectivity among them in SZ remains unclear. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways involving these regions were affected in first-episode SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Forty-nine patients with a first-episode of psychosis and diagnosis of SZ—according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision—were studied. Fifty healthy controls (HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state fMRI. We used spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM to estimate directed connections among the bilateral ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and MPFC. We characterized the differences using Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA in addition to classical inference (t-test. In addition to common effective connectivity in these two groups, HCs displayed widespread significant connections predominantly involved in ACC not detected in SZ patients, but SZ showed few connections. Based on BPA results, SZ patients exhibited anterior cingulate cortico-prefrontal-hippocampal hyperconnectivity, as well as ACC-related and hippocampal-dorsolateral prefrontal-medial prefrontal hypoconnectivity. In summary, sDCM revealed the pattern of effective connectivity involving ACC in patients with first-episode SZ. This study provides a potential link between SZ and dysfunction of ACC, creating an ideal situation to associate mechanisms behind SZ with aberrant connectivity among these cognition and emotion-related regions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviren, Bayram; Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: ► The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. ► The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ► We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. ► Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. ► We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-07-15
The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Neel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.
Effect of centrifugation on dynamic susceptibility of magnetic fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pshenichnikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Alexander; Lakhtina, Ekaterina; Kuznetsov, Andrey
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Six samples of magnetic fluid were obtained by centrifuging two base ferrocolloids. • Aggregates in magnetic fluids are main reason of dynamic susceptibility dispersion. • Centrifugation is an effective way of changing the dynamic susceptibility. - Abstract: The dispersive composition, dynamic susceptibility and spectrum of times of magnetization relaxation for six samples of magnetic fluid obtained by centrifuging two base colloidal solutions of the magnetite in kerosene was investigated experimentally. The base solutions differed by the concentration of the magnetic phase and the width of the particle size distribution. The procedure of cluster analysis allowing one to estimate the characteristic sizes of aggregates with uncompensated magnetic moments was described. The results of the magnetogranulometric and cluster analyses were discussed. It was shown that centrifugation has a strong effect on the physical properties of the separated fractions, which is related to the spatial redistribution of particles and multi-particle aggregates. The presence of aggregates in magnetic fluids is interpreted as the main reason of low-frequency (0.1–10 kHz) dispersion of the dynamic susceptibility. The obtained results count in favor of using centrifugation as an effective means of changing the dynamic susceptibility over wide limits and obtaining fluids with the specified type of susceptibility dispersion.
Effect of centrifugation on dynamic susceptibility of magnetic fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pshenichnikov, Alexander, E-mail: pshenichnikov@icmm.ru; Lebedev, Alexander; Lakhtina, Ekaterina; Kuznetsov, Andrey
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Six samples of magnetic fluid were obtained by centrifuging two base ferrocolloids. • Aggregates in magnetic fluids are main reason of dynamic susceptibility dispersion. • Centrifugation is an effective way of changing the dynamic susceptibility. - Abstract: The dispersive composition, dynamic susceptibility and spectrum of times of magnetization relaxation for six samples of magnetic fluid obtained by centrifuging two base colloidal solutions of the magnetite in kerosene was investigated experimentally. The base solutions differed by the concentration of the magnetic phase and the width of the particle size distribution. The procedure of cluster analysis allowing one to estimate the characteristic sizes of aggregates with uncompensated magnetic moments was described. The results of the magnetogranulometric and cluster analyses were discussed. It was shown that centrifugation has a strong effect on the physical properties of the separated fractions, which is related to the spatial redistribution of particles and multi-particle aggregates. The presence of aggregates in magnetic fluids is interpreted as the main reason of low-frequency (0.1–10 kHz) dispersion of the dynamic susceptibility. The obtained results count in favor of using centrifugation as an effective means of changing the dynamic susceptibility over wide limits and obtaining fluids with the specified type of susceptibility dispersion.
Bayesian analysis of magnetic island dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preuss, R.; Maraschek, M.; Zohm, H.; Dose, V.
2003-01-01
We examine a first order differential equation with respect to time used to describe magnetic islands in magnetically confined plasmas. The free parameters of this equation are obtained by employing Bayesian probability theory. Additionally, a typical Bayesian change point is solved in the process of obtaining the data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeromel, M., E-mail: miran.jeromel@gmail.com [Institute of Radiology, Department for Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jevtic, V., E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si [Medical Faculty Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1104 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sersa, I., E-mail: igor.sersa@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ambrozic, A., E-mail: ales.ambrozic@mf.uni-lj.si [Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Vodnikova 62, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomsic, M., E-mail: matija.tomsic@kclj.si [Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Vodnikova 62, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2012-11-15
Objective: To test the feasibility of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCEI) and diffusion weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying synovitis of the cranio-cervical (C-C) region in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and neck pain at the beginning and at a six month follow up. Methods: 27 patients with duration of RA of less than 24 months and neck pain were studied with standard qualitative MRI evaluation and two quantitative MRI methods (DCEI and DWI) at the level of atlantoaxial joints. Rate of early enhancement (REE), enhancement gradient (Genh) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were extracted from DCEI and DWI data. MRI was coupled with clinical assessment and radiographic imaging. Results: Using standard qualitative MRI evaluation, unequivocal active synovitis (grade 2 or 3 contrast enhancement) was proved in 16 (59%) patients at baseline and 14 (54%) at follow up. DCEI and DWI measurements confirmed active synovitis in 25 (93%) patients at baseline and 24 (92%) at follow up. Average REE, Genh and ADC values decreased during follow up, however the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Both qualitative and quantitative MRI methods confirmed active inflammatory disease in the C-C region following therapy although all clinical criteria showed signs of improvement of the peripheral disease. Conclusions: The study proved the feasibility of DCEI and DWI MRI for quantifying synovitis of the C-C region in patients with early RA and neck pain. Both techniques can be used as additional method for evaluation of synovitis of the C-C region in RA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeromel, M.; Jevtič, V.; Serša, I.; Ambrožič, A.; Tomšič, M.
2012-01-01
Objective: To test the feasibility of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCEI) and diffusion weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying synovitis of the cranio-cervical (C-C) region in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and neck pain at the beginning and at a six month follow up. Methods: 27 patients with duration of RA of less than 24 months and neck pain were studied with standard qualitative MRI evaluation and two quantitative MRI methods (DCEI and DWI) at the level of atlantoaxial joints. Rate of early enhancement (REE), enhancement gradient (Genh) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were extracted from DCEI and DWI data. MRI was coupled with clinical assessment and radiographic imaging. Results: Using standard qualitative MRI evaluation, unequivocal active synovitis (grade 2 or 3 contrast enhancement) was proved in 16 (59%) patients at baseline and 14 (54%) at follow up. DCEI and DWI measurements confirmed active synovitis in 25 (93%) patients at baseline and 24 (92%) at follow up. Average REE, Genh and ADC values decreased during follow up, however the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Both qualitative and quantitative MRI methods confirmed active inflammatory disease in the C-C region following therapy although all clinical criteria showed signs of improvement of the peripheral disease. Conclusions: The study proved the feasibility of DCEI and DWI MRI for quantifying synovitis of the C-C region in patients with early RA and neck pain. Both techniques can be used as additional method for evaluation of synovitis of the C-C region in RA.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kinch, K.M.; Merrison, J.P.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.
2006-01-01
Motivated by questions raised by the magnetic properties experiments on the NASA Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, we have studied in detail the capture of airborne magnetic dust by permanent magnets using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model supported by laboratory...... simulations. The magnets studied are identical to the capture magnet and filter magnet on MER, though results are more generally applicable. The dust capture process is found to be dependent upon wind speed, dust magnetization, dust grain size and dust grain mass density. Here we develop an understanding...... of how these parameters affect dust capture rates and patterns on the magnets and set bounds for these parameters based on MER data and results from the numerical model. This results in a consistent picture of the dust as containing varying amounts of at least two separate components with different...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cizek, J.; Vrscay, E.R.
1977-01-01
A perturbation procedure based on the use of the SO(4,2) dynamical group, which includes as its most important feature the nonunitary tilting transformation, is applied to the hydrogen atom system in a strong magnetic field and the terms ΔΣ/sub n/ were calculated to 40th order. The difficulty in using this approach is that the series has zero radius of convergence. Nevertheless, the Pade approximant technique may be used for the summation of the series. Surprising accuracy is found for the Pade estimate of the ionization energy. 5 references
Nakamura, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Osawa, H.; Okamoto, Y.; Kanao, T.; Sato, R.
2018-05-01
In this article, we propose the detection method of the recorded data pattern by the envelope of the temporal magnetization dynamics of resonantly interacting spin-torque oscillator on the microwave assisted magnetic recording for three-dimensional magnetic recording. We simulate the envelope of the waveform from recorded dots with the staggered magnetization configuration, which are calculated by using a micromagnetic simulation. We study the data detection methods for the envelope and propose a soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) for partial response (PR) system as a signal processing system for three dimensional magnetic recording.
The effect of external magnetic field changing on the correlated quantum dot dynamics
Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.; Arseyev, P. I.
2018-06-01
The non-stationary response of local magnetic moment to abrupt switching "on" and "off" of external magnetic field was studied for a single-level quantum dot (QD) coupled to a reservoir. We found that transient processes look different for the shallow and deep localized energy level. It was demonstrated that for deep energy level the relaxation rates of the local magnetic moment strongly differ in the case of magnetic field switching "on" or "off". Obtained results can be applied in the area of dynamic memory devices stabilization in the presence of magnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, A.G.; Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Burilina, V.B.; Kyrie, N.P.
1997-01-01
Laboratory experiments are reported, in which we studied the possibilities of the formation of current sheets (CS) in different magnetic configurations, as well as the magnetic reconnection phenomena. In 2D magnetic fields with null-lines the CS formation was shown to be a typical process in both linear and nonlinear regimes. The problem of CS formation is of a fundamental importance in the general case of 3D magnetic configurations. We have revealed experimentally, that the formation of CS occurs in the various 3D configurations, both containing magnetic null-points and without them. At the same time, the CS parameters essentially depend on the local characteristics of the configuration. We may conclude therefore, that the self-organization of CS represents the universal process for the plasma dynamics in the nonuniform magnetic fields. (author)
Fluid Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Simulated Blood Vessels
Blue, Lauren; Sewell, Mary Kathryn; Brazel, Christopher S.
2008-11-01
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can be used to locally target therapies and offer the benefit of using an AC magnetic field to combine hyperthermia treatment with the triggered release of therapeutic agents. Here, we investigate localization of MNPs in a simulated environment to understand the relationship between magnetic field intensity and bulk fluid dynamics to determine MNP retention in a simulated blood vessel. As MNPs travel through blood vessels, they can be slowed or trapped in a specific area by applying a magnetic field. Magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized and labeled with a fluorescent rhodamine tag to visualize patterns in a flow cell, as monitored by a fluorescence microscope. Particle retention was determined as a function of flow rate, concentration, and magnetic field strength. Understanding the relationship between magnetic field intensity, flow behavior and nanoparticle characteristics will aid in the development of therapeutic systems specifically targeted to diseased tissue.
Resonant magnetic perturbation effect on tearing mode dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, K.E.J.; Brunsell, P.R.; Drake, J.R.
2010-01-01
The effect of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the tearing mode (TM) dynamics is experimentally studied in the EXTRAP T2R device. EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a set of sensor coils and active coils connected by a digital controller allowing a feedback control of the magnetic instabilities. The recently upgraded feedback algorithm allows the suppression of all the error field harmonics but keeping a selected harmonic to the desired amplitude, therefore opening the possibility of a clear study of the RMP effect on the corresponding TM. The paper shows that the RMP produces two typical effects: (1) a weak oscillation in the TM amplitude and a modulation in the TM velocity or (2) a strong modulation in the TM amplitude and phase jumps. Moreover, the locking mechanism of a TM to a RMP is studied in detail. It is shown that before the locking, the TM dynamics is characterized by velocity modulation followed by phase jumps. Experimental results are reasonably explained by simulations obtained with a model.
Part 2: Dynamics of magnetic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1987-01-01
This is an experimental study of a forced symmetric oscillator containing a saturable inductor with magnetic hysteresis. It displays a Hopf bifurcation to quasiperiodicity, entrainment horns, and chaos. The bifurcations and hysteresis occurring near points of resonance (particularly ''strong resonance'') are studied in detail and it is shown how the observed behavior can be understood using Arnold's theory. Much of the behavior relating to the entrainment horns is explored: period doubling and symmetry breaking bifurcations; homoclinic bifurcations; and crises and other bifurcations taking place at the horn boundaries. Important features of the behavior related to symmetry properties of the oscillator are studied and explained through the concept of a half-cycle map. The system is shown to exhibit a Hopf bifurcation from a phase-locked state to periodic ''islands,'' similar to those found in Hamiltonian systems. An initialization technique is used to observe the manifolds of saddle orbits and other hidden structure. An unusual differential equation model is developed which is irreversible and generates a noninvertible Poincare map of the plane. Noninvertibility of this planar map has important effects on the behavior observed. The Poincare map may also be approximated through experimental measurements, resulting in a planar map with parameter dependence. This model gives good correspondence with the system in a region of the parameter space. 31 refs., 36 figs., 1 tab
Usman, Ammara; Yuan, Jianmin; Patterson, Andrew J; Graves, Martin J; Varty, Kevin; Sadat, Umar; Gillard, Jonathan H
2018-05-24
Atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease intertwined with neovascularization. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) enables the assessment of plaque neovascularization. This study aimed to explore the systemic nature of atherosclerosis by assessing difference in severity of neovascularization as quantified by DCE-MRI of vertebral arteries (VAs) between patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Ten consecutive patients with asymptomatic VA stenosis and concomitant symptomatic carotid artery disease (group 1) and 10 consecutive patients with asymptomatic VA stenosis and concomitant asymptomatic carotid artery disease (group 2) underwent 3-dimensional DCE-MRI of their cervical segment of VAs. A previously validated pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used for DCE-MRI analysis. K trans was calculated in the adventitia and plaque as a measure of neovessel permeability. Both patient groups were comparable for demographics and comorbidities. Mean luminal stenosis was comparable for both groups (54.4% versus 52.27%, P = .32). Group 1 had higher adventitial K trans and plaque K trans (.08 ± .01 min -1 , .07 ± .01 min -1 ) compared with Group 2 (.06 ± .01 min -1 , .06 ± .01 min -1 ) (P = .004 and .03, respectively). Good correlation was present among the two image analysts (intraclass correlation coefficient = .78). Vertebral Artery atheroma of patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease had increased neovessel permeability compared with the patients with asymptomatic carotid artery disease. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease. The VA atherosclerosis is likely to have increased severity of neovascularization if another arterial territory is symptomatic in the same patient cohort. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dynamic properties of micro-magnetic noise in soft ferromagnetic materials
Stupakov, A.; Perevertov, A.
2018-06-01
Dynamic response of magnetic hysteresis, magnetic Barkhausen noise and magneto-acoustic emission in a soft ribbon and electrical steels was studied comprehensively. The measurements were performed under controllable magnetization conditions: sinusoidal/triangular waveforms of the magnetic induction and a triangular waveform of the magnetic field. Magnetizing frequency was varied in a wide range: fmag = 0.5 - 500 and 0.5-100 Hz for the ribbon and the electrical steels, respectively. Magnetization amplitude was fixed on a near-saturation level Hmax ≃ 100 A/m. Barkhausen noise signal was detected by a sample-wrapping/surface-mounted coil and differently filtered. It was found that intensity of the Barkhausen noise rises approximately as a square root function of the magnetizing frequency. Whereas, level of the magneto-acoustic emission follows the hysteresis loss trend with an additional linear term (classical loss component).
Bifurcation analysis of magnetization dynamics driven by spin transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertotti, G.; Magni, A.; Bonin, R.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Serpico, C.
2005-01-01
Nonlinear magnetization dynamics under spin-polarized currents is discussed by the methods of the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. The fixed points of the dynamics are calculated. It is shown that there may exist 2, 4, or 6 fixed points depending on the values of the external field and of the spin-polarized current. The stability of the fixed points is analyzed and the conditions for the occurrence of saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations are determined
Bifurcation analysis of magnetization dynamics driven by spin transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertotti, G. [IEN Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy); Magni, A. [IEN Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy); Bonin, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso degli Abbruzzi, 10129 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: bonin@ien.it; Mayergoyz, I.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Serpico, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)
2005-04-15
Nonlinear magnetization dynamics under spin-polarized currents is discussed by the methods of the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. The fixed points of the dynamics are calculated. It is shown that there may exist 2, 4, or 6 fixed points depending on the values of the external field and of the spin-polarized current. The stability of the fixed points is analyzed and the conditions for the occurrence of saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations are determined.
Dynamic magnetic resonance of pelvic floor: experience in 38 patients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ocantos, Jorge; Fattal Jaef, Virginia; Pietrani, Marcelo; Seclen, Maria F.; Seehaus, Alberto; Sarsotti, Carlos
2005-01-01
Purpose: To show the experience in the evaluation of dysfunctions of pelvic floor by dynamic magnetic resonance (DMR) and to describe the structural and dynamic disorders of pelvis organs. Material and Methods: From March 2004 to March 2005 38 patients with pelvic floor disorders have been studied, 33/38 women (86, 84 %) and 5/38 men (15,16 %), ages between 16 and 74 years old. An evacuating rectal enema has been indicated 4 hours before the examination with bladder retention of 3 hours. 180-240 cc of semisolid paste (thin oats and saline solution) has been used to distend rectum until patients refer sensation of rectum full or a maximum of 240 cm 3 . The study has been performed in a Siemens Magnetom Vision (1.5 T) body array and coil CP Body Array Flex. T2 turbo spin eco axial and sagittal (TR 4700, TE1, 32), T1 coronal (TR 580 TE 14) with a 4 mm slice were selected for static sequences and Siemens TRUFI sagittal (TR 4.8 TE 2.3) for dynamic acquisitions during rectal and voiding evacuations. The morphology and symmetry of peri urethral ligaments (PUL), elevator anus muscle (LA), and vagina (V) was evaluated. The organs prolapse was evaluated at rest and maximal pelvis strain in accord with Comiter parameters (Fielding J.R.). Results: At 10/38 (26, 32 %) patients was not detected lesions. In 28/38 P (73,68 %) 75 defects of the pelvic supports (54,6 % of LA, 14,6% of the vagina V, 9,3% of PUL and other 21,3 %). The dynamic sequences show 59 defects, 50, 84 % of posterior compartment and 49,16% of anterior. In 8/38 (28, 57 %) patients the lesions affected both compartment. Conclusion: Dynamic magnetic resonance allows the direct interpretation of the very small pelvic floor structure and its disorders (not available by other methods) and the dynamic study of prolapse, providing a more accurate interpretation of its causes. DRM can be very useful in patients with multi-compartment involvement, complex prolapse or recurrence of symptoms post surgical repair. (author
Interaction quench dynamics in the Kondo model in the presence of a local magnetic field.
Heyl, M; Kehrein, S
2010-09-01
In this work we investigate the quench dynamics in the Kondo model on the Toulouse line in the presence of a local magnetic field. It is shown that this setup can be realized by either applying the local magnetic field directly or by preparing the system in a macroscopically spin-polarized initial state. In the latter case, the magnetic field results from a subtlety in applying the bosonization technique where terms that are usually referred to as finite-size corrections become important in the present non-equilibrium setting. The transient dynamics are studied by analyzing exact analytical results for the local spin dynamics. The timescale for the relaxation of the local dynamical quantities turns out to be exclusively determined by the Kondo scale. In the transient regime, one observes damped oscillations in the local correlation functions with a frequency set by the magnetic field.
Liu, Gui-Bin; Liu, Bang-Gui
2010-01-01
In this paper, we combine thermal effects with Landau-Zener (LZ) quantum tunneling effects in a dynamical Monte Carlo (DMC) framework to produce satisfactory magnetization curves of single-molecule magnet (SMM) systems. We use the giant spin approximation for SMM spins and consider regular lattices of SMMs with magnetic dipolar interactions (MDI). We calculate spin reversal probabilities from thermal-activated barrier hurdling, direct LZ tunneling, and thermal-assisted LZ tunnelings in the pr...
Magnetic-flux dynamics of high-Tc superconductors in weak magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Il’ichev, E. V.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde
1994-01-01
Aspects of magnetic-flux dynamics in different types of samples of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Ox have been investigated in magnetic fields below 1 Oe and at 77 K. The experiments were carried out in an arrangement including a field coil, a flat sample perpendicular to the field...
Study of axial magnetic effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.
Dynamically controlled energy dissipation for fast magnetic vortex switching
Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.
2017-09-01
Manipulation of vortex states in magnetic media provides new routes towards information storage and processing technology. The typical slow relaxation times (˜100 ns) of magnetic vortex dynamics may present an obstacle to the realization of these applications. Here, we investigate how a vortex state in a ferromagnetic microdisk can be manipulated in a way that translates the vortex core while enhancing energy dissipation to rapidly damp the vortex dynamics. We use time-resolved differential magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to measure the motion of the vortex core in response to applied magnetic fields. We first map out how the vortex core becomes sequentially trapped by pinning sites as it translates across the disk. After applying a fast magnetic field step to translate the vortex from one pinning site to another, we observe long-lived dynamics of the vortex as it settles to the new equilibrium. We then demonstrate how the addition of a short (<10 ns) magnetic field pulse can induce additional energy dissipation, strongly damping the long-lived dynamics. A model of the vortex dynamics using the Thiele equation of motion explains the mechanism behind this effect.
Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging before and 6 months after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy
Weiden, R.M.F. van der; Rociu, E.; Mannaerts, G.H.; Hooff, M.H. van; Vierhout, M.E.; Withagen, M.I.J.
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to correlate dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) measurements and pelvic floor symptoms in order to determine the value of dynamic MRI for evaluating vaginal vault prolapse both before
The dynamics of coronal magnetic structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, W.
1978-01-01
An analysis is made of the evolution of coronal magnetic fields due to the interaction with the solar wind. An analysis of the formation of coronal streamers, arising as a result of the stretching of bipolar fields, is given. Numerical simulations of the formation of coronal streamers are presented. Fast-mode shocks as triggers of microturbulence in the solar corona are discussed
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MAGNETIC FLUID SEAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. G. Bashtovoi
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Dependences of critical pressure drop, being held by magnetic fluid seal, on time in a static state and shaft rotation velocity in dynamics have been experimentally determined. The significant influence of particles’ redistribution in magnetic fluid on static parameters of magnetic fluid seal has been established.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor
... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Dynamic pelvic floor MRI provides detailed pictures ... with you. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavallin, L.; Danielsson, R.; Oeksengard, A.R.; Wahlund, L.O.; Julin, P.; Frank, A.; Engman, E.L.; Svensson, L.; Kristoffersen Wiberg, M.
2006-01-01
Purpose: To compare single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a cohort of patients examined for suspected dementia, including patients with no objective cognitive impairment (control group), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients, eight with AD, 10 with MCI, and six controls were investigated with SPECT using 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with gadobutrol. Three observers performed a visual interpretation of the SPECT and MR images using a four-point visual scale. Results: SPECT was superior to DSC-MRI in differentiating normal from pathological. All three observers showed statistically significant results in discriminating between the control group, AD, and MCI by SPECT, with a P value of 0.0006, 0.04, and 0.01 for each observer. The statistical results were not significant for MR (P values 0.8, 0.1, and 0.2, respectively). Conclusion: DSC-MRI could not replace SPECT in the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Several patient- and method-related improvements should be made before this method can be recommended for clinical practice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavallin, L.; Danielsson, R.; Oeksengard, A.R.; Wahlund, L.O.; Julin, P.; Frank, A.; Engman, E.L.; Svensson, L.; Kristoffersen Wiberg, M. [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Radiology
2006-11-15
Purpose: To compare single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a cohort of patients examined for suspected dementia, including patients with no objective cognitive impairment (control group), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients, eight with AD, 10 with MCI, and six controls were investigated with SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with gadobutrol. Three observers performed a visual interpretation of the SPECT and MR images using a four-point visual scale. Results: SPECT was superior to DSC-MRI in differentiating normal from pathological. All three observers showed statistically significant results in discriminating between the control group, AD, and MCI by SPECT, with a P value of 0.0006, 0.04, and 0.01 for each observer. The statistical results were not significant for MR (P values 0.8, 0.1, and 0.2, respectively). Conclusion: DSC-MRI could not replace SPECT in the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Several patient- and method-related improvements should be made before this method can be recommended for clinical practice.
Tunable dynamic response of magnetic gels: Impact of structural properties and magnetic fields
Tarama, Mitsusuke; Cremer, Peet; Borin, Dmitry Y.; Odenbach, Stefan; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.
2014-10-01
Ferrogels and magnetic elastomers feature mechanical properties that can be reversibly tuned from outside through magnetic fields. Here we concentrate on the question of how their dynamic response can be adjusted. The influence of three factors on the dynamic behavior is demonstrated using appropriate minimal models: first, the orientational memory imprinted into one class of the materials during their synthesis; second, the structural arrangement of the magnetic particles in the materials; and third, the strength of an external magnetic field. To illustrate the latter point, structural data are extracted from a real experimental sample and analyzed. Understanding how internal structural properties and external influences impact the dominant dynamical properties helps to design materials that optimize the requested behavior.
Dynamic magnetizations and dynamic phase transitions in a transverse cylindrical Ising nanowire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviren, Bayram; Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
In this paper, we extend the paper of Kaneyoshi (2010 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322 3410-5) to investigate the dynamic magnetizations and dynamic phase transitions of a transverse cylindrical Ising nanowire system by using the effective field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field. The dynamic effective field equations for the average longitudinal and transverse magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by using the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependences of the dynamic longitudinal magnetizations, the transverse magnetizations and the total magnetizations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system is strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, four different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The results are compared with some theoretical works and good overall agreement is observed. (paper)
Kim, Min-Kwan; Sim, Jaegun; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Sang-Koog
2018-05-01
We explore robust magnetization-dynamic behaviors in soft magnetic nanoparticles in single-domain states and find their related high-efficiency energy-dissipation mechanism using finite-element micromagnetic simulations. We also make analytical derivations that provide deeper physical insights into the magnetization dynamics associated with Gilbert damping parameters under applications of time-varying rotating magnetic fields of different strengths and frequencies and static magnetic fields. Furthermore, we find that the mass-specific energy-dissipation rate at resonance in the steady-state regime changes remarkably with the strength of rotating fields and static fields for given damping constants. The associated magnetization dynamics are well interpreted with the help of the numerical calculation of analytically derived explicit forms. The high-efficiency energy-loss power can be obtained using soft magnetic nanoparticles in the single-domain state by tuning the frequency of rotating fields to the resonance frequency; what is more, it is controllable via the rotating and static field strengths for a given intrinsic damping constant. We provide a better and more efficient means of achieving specific loss power that can be implemented in magnetic hyperthermia applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carpene, E.; Mancini, E.; Dallera, C.; Puppin, E.; De Silvestri, S.
2010-01-01
Based on the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE), we have developed an experimental set-up that allows us to fully characterize the magnetization dynamics in thin magnetic films by measuring all three real space components of the magnetization vector M. By means of the pump-probe technique it is possible to extract the time dependence of each individual projection with sub-picosecond resolution. This method has been exploited to investigate the temporal evolution of the magnetization (modulus and orientation) induced by an ultrashort laser pulse in thin epitaxial iron films. According to our results, we deduced that the initial, sub-picosecond demagnetization is established at the electronic level through electron-magnon excitations. The subsequent dynamics is characterized by a precessional motion on the 100 ps time scale, around an effective, time-dependent magnetic field. Following the full dynamics of M, the temporal evolution of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy constant can be unambiguously determined, providing the experimental evidence that the precession is triggered by the rapid, optically-induced misalignment between the magnetization vector and the effective magnetic field. These results suggest a possible pathway toward the ultrarapid switching of the magnetization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pérez-Benítez, J A; Espina-Hernández, J H; Le Man, Tu; Caleyo, F; Hallen, J M
2015-01-01
This work presents a method to identify processes in magnetization dynamics using the angular dependence of the magnetic Barkhausen noise. The analysis reveals that three different processes of the magnetization dynamics could be identified using the angular dependence of the magnetic Barkhausen noise energy. The first process is the reversed domain nucleation which is related to the magneto-crystalline energy of the material, and the second and third ones are associated with 180° and 90° domain walls motions, respectively. Additionally, two transition regions were identified and they are located between the regions associated with the aforementioned processes. The causes involving these processes are analyzed and a method for establishing their location in the Barkhausen noise signal with respect to the applied magnetic field intensity is proposed. (paper)
Magnetic test of chiral dynamics in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonov, Yu.A.
2014-01-01
Strong magnetic fields in the range eB≫m π 2 effectively probe internal quark structure of chiral mesons and test basic parameters of the chiral theory, such as 〈q-barq〉,f π . We argue on general grounds that 〈q-barq〉 should grow linearly with eB when charged quark degrees of freedom come into play. To make explicit estimates we extend the previously formulated chiral theory, including quark degrees of freedom, to the case of strong magnetic fields and show that the quark condensate |〈q-barq〉| u,d grows quadratically with eB for eB<0.2 GeV 2 and linearly for higher field values. These results agree quantitatively with recent lattice data and differ from χPT predictions
Monitoring the Earth's Dynamic Magnetic Field
Love, Jeffrey J.; Applegate, David; Townshend, John B.
2008-01-01
The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey's Geomagnetism Program is to monitor the Earth's magnetic field. Using ground-based observatories, the Program provides continuous records of magnetic field variations covering long timescales; disseminates magnetic data to various governmental, academic, and private institutions; and conducts research into the nature of geomagnetic variations for purposes of scientific understanding and hazard mitigation. The program is an integral part of the U.S. Government's National Space Weather Program (NSWP), which also includes programs in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSWP works to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space weather warnings, observations, specifications, and forecasts, and its work is important for the U.S. economy and national security. Please visit the National Geomagnetism Program?s website, http://geomag.usgs.gov, where you can learn more about the Program and the science of geomagnetism. You can find additional related information at the Intermagnet website, http://www.intermagnet.org.
Error studies of Halbach Magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2017-03-02
These error studies were done on the Halbach magnets for the CBETA “First Girder” as described in note [CBETA001]. The CBETA magnets have since changed slightly to the lattice in [CBETA009]. However, this is not a large enough change to significantly affect the results here. The QF and BD arc FFAG magnets are considered. For each assumed set of error distributions and each ideal magnet, 100 random magnets with errors are generated. These are then run through an automated version of the iron wire multipole cancellation algorithm. The maximum wire diameter allowed is 0.063” as in the proof-of-principle magnets. Initially, 32 wires (2 per Halbach wedge) are tried, then if this does not achieve 1e-4 level accuracy in the simulation, 48 and then 64 wires. By “1e-4 accuracy”, it is meant the FOM defined by √(Σ_{n≥sextupole} a_{n} ^{2}+b_{n} ^{2}) is less than 1 unit, where the multipoles are taken at the maximum nominal beam radius, R=23mm for these magnets. The algorithm initially uses 20 convergence interations. If 64 wires does not achieve 1e-4 accuracy, this is increased to 50 iterations to check for slow converging cases. There are also classifications for magnets that do not achieve 1e-4 but do achieve 1e-3 (FOM ≤ 10 units). This is technically within the spec discussed in the Jan 30, 2017 review; however, there will be errors in practical shimming not dealt with in the simulation, so it is preferable to do much better than the spec in the simulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabitz, Herschel; Ho, Tak-San
2003-01-01
This final report draws together the research carried from February, 1986 through January, 2003 concerning a series of topics in chemical dynamics. The specific areas of study include molecular collisions, chemical kinetics, data inversion to extract potential energy surfaces, and model reduction of complex kinetic systems
Dynamic analysis on magnetic fluid interface validated by physical laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mizuta, Yo, E-mail: yomizuta@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
2017-06-01
Numerical analyses of magnetic fluid especially for fast phenomena such as the transition among interface profiles require rigorous as well as efficient method under arbitrary interface profiles and applied magnetic field distributions. Preceded by the magnetic analysis for this purpose, the present research has attempted to investigate interface dynamic phenomena. As an example of these phenomena, this paper shows the wavenumber spectrum of the interface profile and the sum of interface stresses changing in time, since the change of the balance among the interface stresses causing the transition can be observed conveniently. As time advances, wavenumber components increase due to the nonlinear interaction of waves. It is further argued that such analyses should be validated by the law of conservation of energy, the relation between the interface energy density and the interface stress, and the magnetic laws. - Highlights: • Numerical analysis for dynamic interface phenomena of magnetic fluid is attempted. • This analysis intends fast processes during transition of interface profile. • Wavenumber spectra of interface elevation and sum of stresses are shown. • Under magnetic field close to transition, components increase drastically in time. • Validation rules by physical laws of energy and magnetic field are shown.
Dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with spin-transfer torque
Li, Zai-Dong; He, Peng-Bin; Liu, Wu-Ming
2014-11-01
We review our recent works on dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with spin-transfer torque. Driven by constant spin-polarized current, the spin-transfer torque counteracts both the precession driven by the effective field and the Gilbert damping term different from the common understanding. When the spin current exceeds the critical value, the conjunctive action of Gilbert damping and spin-transfer torque leads naturally the novel screw-pitch effect characterized by the temporal oscillation of domain wall velocity and width. Driven by space- and time-dependent spin-polarized current and magnetic field, we expatiate the formation of domain wall velocity in ferromagnetic nanowire. We discuss the properties of dynamic magnetic soliton in uniaxial anisotropic ferromagnetic nanowire driven by spin-transfer torque, and analyze the modulation instability and dark soliton on the spin wave background, which shows the characteristic breather behavior of the soliton as it propagates along the ferromagnetic nanowire. With stronger breather character, we get the novel magnetic rogue wave and clarify its formation mechanism. The generation of magnetic rogue wave mainly arises from the accumulation of energy and magnons toward to its central part. We also observe that the spin-polarized current can control the exchange rate of magnons between the envelope soliton and the background, and the critical current condition is obtained analytically. At last, we have theoretically investigated the current-excited and frequency-adjusted ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic trilayers. A particular case of the perpendicular analyzer reveals that the ferromagnetic resonance curves, including the resonant location and the resonant linewidth, can be adjusted by changing the pinned magnetization direction and the direct current. Under the control of the current and external magnetic field, several magnetic states, such as quasi-parallel and quasi-antiparallel stable states, out
Russo, Alessandro; Bianchi, Michele; Sartori, Maria; Parrilli, Annapaola; Panseri, Silvia; Ortolani, Alessandro; Sandri, Monica; Boi, Marco; Salter, Donald M; Maltarello, Maria Cristina; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Fini, Milena; Dediu, Valentin; Tampieri, Anna; Marcacci, Maurilio
2016-03-01
The fascinating prospect to direct tissue regeneration by magnetic activation has been recently explored. In this study we investigate the possibility to boost bone regeneration in an experimental defect in rabbit femoral condyle by combining static magnetic fields and magnetic biomaterials. NdFeB permanent magnets are implanted close to biomimetic collagen/hydroxyapatite resorbable scaffolds magnetized according to two different protocols . Permanent magnet only or non-magnetic scaffolds are used as controls. Bone tissue regeneration is evaluated at 12 weeks from surgery from a histological, histomorphometric and biomechanical point of view. The reorganization of the magnetized collagen fibers under the effect of the static magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet produces a highly-peculiar bone pattern, with highly-interconnected trabeculae orthogonally oriented with respect to the magnetic field lines. In contrast, only partial defect healing is achieved within the control groups. We ascribe the peculiar bone regeneration to the transfer of micro-environmental information, mediated by collagen fibrils magnetized by magnetic nanoparticles, under the effect of the static magnetic field. These results open new perspectives on the possibility to improve implant fixation and control the morphology and maturity of regenerated bone providing "in site" forces by synergically combining static magnetic fields and biomaterials.
Studies in perpendicular magnetic recording
Valcu, Bogdan F.
This dissertation uses both micromagnetic simulation and analytical methods to analyze several aspects of a perpendicular recording system. To increase the head field amplitude, the recording layer is grown on top of a soft magnetic layer (keeper). There is concern about the ability of the keeper to conduct the magnetic flux from the head at high data rates. We compute numerically the magnetization motion of the soft underlayer during the reversal process. Generation of non-linear spin waves characterizes the magnetization dynamics in the keeper, the spins are oscillating with a frequency higher than that of the reversal current. However, the recording field applied to the data layer follows the time dependence of the input wave form. The written transition shape is determined by the competition between the head field gradient and the demagnetizing field gradient. An analytical slope model that takes into consideration the angular orientation of the applied field is used to estimate the transition parameter; agreement is shown with the micromagnetic results. On the playback side, the reciprocity principle is applied to calculate the read out signal from a single magnetic transition in the perpendicular medium. The pulse shape is close to an error-function, going through zero when the sensor is above the transition center and decaying from the peak to an asymptotic value when the transition center is far away. Analytical closed forms for both the slope in the origin and the asymptotic value show the dependence on the recording geometry parameters. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio is calculated assuming that the noise is dominated by the medium jitter. To keep the SNR at a readable level while increasing the areal density, the average magnetic grain diameter must decrease; consequently grain size fluctuations will affect the thermal decay. We performed Transmission Electron Microscopy measurements and observed differences in the grain size distribution between various types
Dynamic magnetic susceptibility of systems with long-range magnetic order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vannette, Matthew Dano
2009-01-01
The utility of the TDR as an instrument in the study of magnetically ordered materials has been expanded beyond the simple demonstration purposes. Results of static applied magnetic field dependent measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, ?, of various ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials showing a range of transition temperatures (1-800 K) are presented. Data was collected primarily with a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) at different radio-frequencies (∼10-30 MHz). In the vicinity of TC local moment ferromagnets show a very sharp, narrow peak in ? which is suppressed in amplitude and shifted to higher temperatures as the static bias field is increased. Unexpectedly, critical scaling analysis fails for these data. It is seen that these data are frequency dependent, however there is no simple method whereby measurement frequency can be changed in a controllable fashion. In contrast, itinerant ferromagnets show a broad maximum in ? well below TC which is suppressed and shifts to lower temperatures as the dc bias field is increased. The data on itinerant ferromagnets is fitted to a semi-phenomenological model that suggests the sample response is dominated by the uncompensated minority spins in the conduction band. Concluding remarks suggest possible scenarios to achieve frequency resolved data using the TDR as well as other fields in which the apparatus may be exploited.
CFA Films in Amorphous Substrate: Structural Phase Induction and Magnetization Dynamics
Correa, M. A.; Bohn, F.; Escobar, V. M.
We report a systematic study of the structural and quasi-static magnetic properties, as well as of the dynamic magnetic response through MI effect, in Co2FeAl and MgO//Co2FeAl single layers and a MgO//Co2FeAl/Ag/Co2FeAl trilayered film, all grown onto an amorphous substrate. We present a new route to induce the crystalline structure in the Co2FeAl alloy and verify that changes in the structural phase of this material leads to remarkable modifications of the magnetic anisotropy and, consequently, dynamic magnetic behavior. Considering the electrical and magnetic properties of the Co2FeAl, our results open new possibilities for technological applications of this full-Heusler alloy in rigid and flexible spintronic devices.
Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoli QIAO
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.
Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport
Farle, Michael
2013-01-01
Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Llera, María [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Codnia, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones, CITEDEF-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jorge, Guillermo A., E-mail: gjorge@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2015-06-15
We present a dynamic study of soft magnetic, commercial Fe and Ni micrometer-sized particles dispersed in oleic acid and subjected to a variable (rotating) magnetic field in the horizontal plane. A very complex structure is formed after the particles decant towards the bottom liquid–solid interface and the magnetic field is applied for several minutes. The dynamics of structure formation was studied by means of the registration and analysis of microscopic video images, through a Matlab image analysis script. Several parameters, such as the number of clusters, the perimeter-based fractal dimension and circularity, were calculated as a function of time. The time evolution of the number of clusters was found to follow a power-law behavior, with an exponent consistent with that found in other studies for magnetic systems, whereas the typical formation time depends on the particle diameter and field configuration. Complementarily, the magnetic properties of the formed structure were studied, reproducing the experiment with liquid paraffin as the containing fluid, and then letting it solidify. The sample obtained was studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The magnetization curves show that the material obtained is a planar magnetically anisotropic material, which could eventually be used as an anisotropic magnetic sensor or actuator. - Highlights: • Dynamic study of Fe and Ni particles in oleic acid under rotating fields. • A very complex system of interconnected clusters was observed. • Larger particles had a smaller aggregation time. • A power law behavior of the number of clusters vs. time. • A Fe-paraffin sample with planar anisotropy characterized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llera, María; Codnia, Jorge; Jorge, Guillermo A.
2015-01-01
We present a dynamic study of soft magnetic, commercial Fe and Ni micrometer-sized particles dispersed in oleic acid and subjected to a variable (rotating) magnetic field in the horizontal plane. A very complex structure is formed after the particles decant towards the bottom liquid–solid interface and the magnetic field is applied for several minutes. The dynamics of structure formation was studied by means of the registration and analysis of microscopic video images, through a Matlab image analysis script. Several parameters, such as the number of clusters, the perimeter-based fractal dimension and circularity, were calculated as a function of time. The time evolution of the number of clusters was found to follow a power-law behavior, with an exponent consistent with that found in other studies for magnetic systems, whereas the typical formation time depends on the particle diameter and field configuration. Complementarily, the magnetic properties of the formed structure were studied, reproducing the experiment with liquid paraffin as the containing fluid, and then letting it solidify. The sample obtained was studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The magnetization curves show that the material obtained is a planar magnetically anisotropic material, which could eventually be used as an anisotropic magnetic sensor or actuator. - Highlights: • Dynamic study of Fe and Ni particles in oleic acid under rotating fields. • A very complex system of interconnected clusters was observed. • Larger particles had a smaller aggregation time. • A power law behavior of the number of clusters vs. time. • A Fe-paraffin sample with planar anisotropy characterized
The Magnetic Reconnection Code: Center for Magnetic Reconnection Studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amitava Bhattacharjee
2007-04-20
Understanding magnetic reconnection is one of the principal challenges in plasma physics. Reconnection is a process by which magnetic fields reconfigure themselves, releasing energy that can be converted to particle energies and bulk flows. Thanks to the availability of sophisticated diagnostics in fusion and laboratory experiments, in situ probing of magnetospheric and solar wind plasmas, and X-ray emission measurements from solar and stellar plasmas, theoretical models of magnetic reconnection can now be constrained by stringent observational tests. The members of the CMRS comprise an interdisciplinary group drawn from applied mathematics, astrophysics, computer science, fluid dynamics, plasma physics, and space science communities.
Orbital effect of the magnetic field in dynamical mean-field theory
Acheche, S.; Arsenault, L.-F.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
2017-12-01
The availability of large magnetic fields at international facilities and of simulated magnetic fields that can reach the flux-quantum-per-unit-area level in cold atoms calls for systematic studies of orbital effects of the magnetic field on the self-energy of interacting systems. Here we demonstrate theoretically that orbital effects of magnetic fields can be treated within single-site dynamical mean-field theory with a translationally invariant quantum impurity problem. As an example, we study the one-band Hubbard model on the square lattice using iterated perturbation theory as an impurity solver. We recover the expected quantum oscillations in the scattering rate, and we show that the magnetic fields allow the interaction-induced effective mass to be measured through the single-particle density of states accessible in tunneling experiments. The orbital effect of magnetic fields on scattering becomes particularly important in the Hofstadter butterfly regime.
Dynamics of a complex quantum magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landry, James W.; Coppersmith, S. N.
2003-01-01
We have computed the low energy quantum states and low frequency dynamical susceptibility of complex quantum spin systems in the limit of strong interactions, obtaining exact results for system sizes enormously larger than accessible previously. The ground state is a complex superposition of a substantial fraction of all the classical ground states, and yet the dynamical susceptibility exhibits sharp resonances reminiscent of the behavior of single spins. These results show that strongly interacting quantum systems can organize to generate coherent excitations and shed light on recent experiments demonstrating that coherent excitations are present in a disordered spin liquid. The dependence of the energy spectra on system size differs qualitatively from that of the energy spectra of random undirected bipartite graphs with similar statistics, implying that strong interactions are giving rise to these unusual spectral properties
Correa, M. A.; Bohn, F.
2018-05-01
We perform a theoretical and experimental investigation of the magnetic properties and magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic magnetostrictive multilayer grown onto a flexible substrate and submitted to external stress. We calculate the magnetic behavior and magnetoimpedance effect for a trilayered system from an approach that considers a magnetic permeability model for planar geometry and a magnetic free energy density which takes into account induced uniaxial and magnetoelastic anisotropy contributions. We verify remarkable modifications of the magnetic anisotropy with external stress, as well as we show that the dynamic magnetic response is strongly affected by these changes. We discuss the magnetic features that lead to modifications of the frequency limits where distinct mechanisms are responsible by the magnetoimpedance variations, enabling us to manipulate the resonance fields. To test the robustness of the approach, we directly compare theoretical results with experimental data. Thus, we provide experimental evidence to confirm the validity of the theoretical approach, as well as to manipulate the resonance fields to tune the MI response according to real applications in devices.
Effect of centrifugation on dynamic susceptibility of magnetic fluids
Pshenichnikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Alexander; Lakhtina, Ekaterina; Kuznetsov, Andrey
2017-06-01
The dispersive composition, dynamic susceptibility and spectrum of times of magnetization relaxation for six samples of magnetic fluid obtained by centrifuging two base colloidal solutions of the magnetite in kerosene was investigated experimentally. The base solutions differed by the concentration of the magnetic phase and the width of the particle size distribution. The procedure of cluster analysis allowing one to estimate the characteristic sizes of aggregates with uncompensated magnetic moments was described. The results of the magnetogranulometric and cluster analyses were discussed. It was shown that centrifugation has a strong effect on the physical properties of the separated fractions, which is related to the spatial redistribution of particles and multi-particle aggregates. The presence of aggregates in magnetic fluids is interpreted as the main reason of low-frequency (0.1-10 kHz) dispersion of the dynamic susceptibility. The obtained results count in favor of using centrifugation as an effective means of changing the dynamic susceptibility over wide limits and obtaining fluids with the specified type of susceptibility dispersion.
ON THE MAGNETISM AND DYNAMICS OF PROMINENCE LEGS HOSTING TORNADOES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martínez González, M. J.; Ramos, A. Asensio; Arregui, I.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.; Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz
2016-01-01
Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).
ON THE MAGNETISM AND DYNAMICS OF PROMINENCE LEGS HOSTING TORNADOES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez González, M. J.; Ramos, A. Asensio; Arregui, I.; Collados, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beck, C. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-07-10
Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).
Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.
Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A
2014-06-05
Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.
Magnetization dynamics induced by Rashba effect in a Permalloy nanodisk
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Huanan; Hua, Zhong, E-mail: jiyonghnli@126.com; Li, Dongfei
2017-02-15
Magnetic vortex dynamics mediated by spin-polarized ac current of different amplitudes and frequencies are investigated by micromagnetic simulations in a system lacking structure inversion symmetry. Micromagnetic calculations reveal that the critical current density required to induce vortex core reversal may be decreased to below 10{sup 10} A m{sup −2} due to strong transverse magnetic field by Rashba effect. We also find the spin torque of ac current plays a trivial role in magnetic vortex dynamics in a broken inversion symmetry system when the current density is on the order of 10{sup 10} A m{sup −2} and the current with frequency close to the vortex eigenfrequency is the most efficient for reversal.
Study on magnetic property and fracture behavior of magnetic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miya, Kenzo; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Aoto, Kazumi; Nagae, Yuji
2002-04-01
Establishment of evaluation methods of material degradation before crack initiation is needed very much to enhance the reliability of structural components. We remark magnetic methods in this report. Our objectives are to reveal the relation between degradation and magnetic property and to develop evaluation methods of material degradation, especially plastic deformation and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In the former part of this report, evaluation methods for plastic deformation are discussed. At first, the study that shows the relation between the magnetic flux leakage and plastic deformation is reviewed. We developed the inverse analysis method of magnetization to specify the degradation distribution. Moreover, we propose inverse analysis of magnetic susceptibility for quantitative evaluation. In the latter part, the topic is SCC. We measured the magnetic flux leakage from the sample induced a SCC crack (Inconel 600). Inconel 600 is a paramagnetic material at room temperature but the sample shows ferromagnetic and the magnetic flux leakage was changed near the SCC crack. The possibility of detection of a SCC crack is shown by the inverse analysis result from the magnetic flux leakage. Finally, it is recognized by observation of the micro magnetic distributions by using a magnetic force microscope that the magnetization has relation with chromium depletion near grain boundaries and it is weak near the SCC crack. From these results, the magnetic method is very effective for evaluation of degradation. (author)
Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and adiabatic magnetization dynamics in molecular magnets
De Raedt, H; Miyashita, S; Michielsen, K; Machida, M
A microscopic model of the molecular magnet V-15 is used to study mechanisms for the adiabatic change of the magnetization in time-dependent magnetic fields. The effects of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the most plausible source for the energy-level repulsions that lead to adiabatic changes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-07-23
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Dynamic effects on the stretching of the magnetic field by a plasma flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2003-08-22
A key mechanism in the growth of magnetic energy in kinematic dynamos is the stretching of the magnetic field vector by making it point in an unstable direction of the strain matrix. Our objective is to study whether this feature may be maintained in an ideal plasma when also considering the back reaction of the magnetic field upon the flow through the Lorentz force. Several effects occur: in addition to the nonlocal ones exerted by the total pressure, a complex geometry of magnetic field lines decreases the rate of growth of magnetic energy, rotation of the flow enhances it and above all the rate of growth decreases with minus the square of the eigenvalue associated with the magnetic field direction. Thus local dynamics tend to rapidly quench the stretching of the field.
Large N dynamics in QED in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gusynin, V.P.; Miransky, V.A.; Shovkovy, I.A.
2003-01-01
The expression for the dynamical mass of fermions in QED in a magnetic field is obtained for a large number of the fermion flavor N in the framework of 1/N expansion. The existence of a threshold value N thr , dividing the theories with essentially different dynamics, is established. For the number of flavors N thr , the dynamical mass is very sensitive to the value of the coupling constant α b , related to the magnetic scale μ=√(vertical bar eB vertical bar). For N of the order of N thr or larger, a dynamics similar to that in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a cutoff of the order of √(vertical bar eB vertical bar) and the dimensional coupling constant G∼1/(N vertical bar eB vertical bar) takes place. In this case, the value of the dynamical mass is essentially α b independent (the dynamics with an infrared stable fixed point). The value of N thr separates a weak coupling dynamics (with α-tilde b ≡Nα b b > or approx. 1) and is of the order of 1/α b
Spin tunnelling dynamics for spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates in a swept magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Guanfang; Fu Libin; Liu Jie
2008-01-01
We investigate the spin tunnelling of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates in a linearly swept magnetic field with a mean-field treatment. We focus on the two typical alkali Bose atoms 87 Rb and 23 Na condensates and study their tunnelling dynamics according to the sweep rates of the external magnetic fields. In the adiabatic (i.e. slowly sweeping) and sudden (i.e. fast sweeping) limits, no tunnelling is observed. For the case of moderate sweep rates, the tunnelling dynamics is found to be very sensitive to the sweep rates, so the plots of tunnelling probability versus sweep rate only become resolvable at a resolution of 10 -4 G s -1 . Moreover, a conserved quantity standing for the magnetization in experiments is found to affect dramatically the dynamics of the spin tunnelling. Theoretically we have given a complete interpretation of the above findings, and our studies could stimulate the experimental study of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenbach, Markus; Perera, Meewanage Dilina N.; Landau, David P; Nicholson, Don M.; Yin, Junqi; Brown, Greg
2015-01-01
We present a unified approach to describe the combined behavior of the atomic and magnetic degrees of freedom in magnetic materials. Using Monte Carlo simulations directly combined with first principles the Curie temperature can be obtained ab initio in good agreement with experimental values. The large scale constrained first principles calculations have been used to construct effective potentials for both the atomic and magnetic degrees of freedom that allow the unified study of influence of phonon-magnon coupling on the thermodynamics and dynamics of magnetic systems. The MC calculations predict the specific heat of iron in near perfect agreement with experimental results from 300K to above Tc and allow the identification of the importance of the magnon-phonon interaction at the phase-transition. Further Molecular Dynamics and Spin Dynamics calculations elucidate the dynamics of this coupling and open the potential for quantitative and predictive descriptions of dynamic structure factors in magnetic materials using first principles-derived simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Edilberto O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)
2014-10-15
The planar quantum dynamics of a neutral particle with a magnetic dipole moment in the presence of electric and magnetic fields is considered. The criteria to establish the planar dynamics reveal that the resulting nonrelativistic Hamiltonian has a simplified expression without making approximations, and some terms have crucial importance for the system dynamics. (orig.)
Babinec, Peter; Krafcík, Andrej; Babincová, Melánia; Rosenecker, Joseph
2010-08-01
Magnetic nanoparticles for therapy and diagnosis are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. In this study, we have theoretically studied motion of magnetic nano- as well as micro-particles in the field of cylindrical Halbach array of permanent magnets. Magnetic flux density was modeled as magnetostatic problem by finite element method and particle motion was described using system of ordinary differential equations--Newton law. Computations were done for nanoparticles Nanomag-D with radius 65 nm, which are often used in magnetic drug targeting, as well as microparticles DynaBeads-M280 with radius 1.4 microm, which can be used for magnetic separation. Analyzing snapshots of trajectories of hundred magnetite particles of each size in the water as well as in the air, we have found that optimally designed magnetic circuits of permanent magnets in quadrupolar Halbach array have substantially shorter capture time than simple blocks of permanent magnets commonly used in experiments, therefore, such a Halbach array may be useful as a potential source of magnetic field for magnetic separation and targeting of magnetic nanoparticles as well as microparticles for delivery of drugs, genes, and cells in various biomedical applications.
Final Report: Nanoscale Dynamical Heterogeneity in Complex Magnetic Materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kevan, Stephen [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)
2016-05-27
A magnetic object can be demagnetized by dropping it on a hard surface, but what does ‘demagnetized’ actually mean? In 1919 Heinrich Barkhausen proved the existence of magnetic domains, which are regions of uniform magnetization that are much larger than atoms but much smaller than a macroscopic object. A material is fully magnetized when domain magnetizations are aligned, while it is demagnetized when the domain magnetizations are randomly oriented and the net magnetization is zero. The heterogeneity of a demagnetized object leads to interesting questions. Magnets are unstable when their poles align, and stable when their poles anti-align, so why is the magnetized state ever stable? What do domains look like? What is the structure of a domain wall? How does the magnetized state transform to the demagnetized state? How do domains appear and disappear? What are the statistical properties of domains and how do these vary as the domain pattern evolves? Some of these questions remain the focus of intense study nearly a century after Barkhausen’s discovery. For example, just a few years ago a new kind of magnetic texture called a skyrmion was discovered. A skyrmion is a magnetic domain that is a nanometer-scale, topologically protected vortex. ‘Topologically protected’ means that skyrmions are hard to destroy and so are stable for extended periods. Skyrmions are characterized by integral quantum numbers and are observed to move with little dissipation and so could store and process information with very low power input. Our research project uses soft x-rays, which offer very high magnetic contrast, to probe magnetic heterogeneity and to measure how it evolves in time under external influences. We will condition a soft x-ray beam so that the wave fronts will be coherent, that is, they will be smooth and well-defined. When coherent soft x-ray beam interacts with a magnetic material, the magnetic heterogeneity is imprinted onto the wave fronts and projected into
Magnetic ground state of low-doped manganites probed by spin dynamics under magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kober, P.; Hennion, M.; Moussa, F.; Ivanov, A.; Regnault, L.-P.; Pinsard, L.; Revcolevschi, A.
2004-01-01
We present a neutron scattering study of spin dynamics under magnetic field in La 0.9 Ca 0.1 MnO 3 . In zero field, the spin wave spectrum consists of two branches, a high and a low-energy one. In applied field, the high-energy branch splits into two branches due to twinned domains. The gap of the new intermediate-energy branch strongly decreases above a spin-flop transition that occurs for H//b and H>2 T. Furthermore, this branch, that we could attribute to the twinned domain H//b, shows a q-discontinuity under field. The low-energy branch, measurable only around ferromagnetic zone centers at H=0, appears at all q-values under field
Topological mass of magnetic Skyrmions probed by ultrafast dynamic imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buettner, Felix
2013-01-01
In this thesis, we investigate the GHz dynamics of skyrmionic spin structures by means of pump-probe dynamic imaging to determine the equation of motion that governs the behavior of these technologically relevant spin structures. To achieve this goal, we first designed and optimized a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy CoB/Pt multilayer material for low magnetic pinning, as required for ultrafast pump-probe imaging experiments. Second, we developed an integrated sample design for X-ray holography capable of tracking relative magnetic positional changes down to 3 nm spatial resolution. These advances enabled us to image the trajectory of a single magnetic Skyrmion. We find that the motion is comprised of two gyrotropic modes, one clockwise and one counterclockwise. The existence of two modes shows that Skyrmions are massive quasiparticles. From their derived frequencies we find an inertial mass for the Skyrmion which is a factor of five larger than expected based on existing models for inertia in magnetism. Our results demonstrate that the mass of Skyrmions is based on a novel mechanism emerging from their confined nature, which is a direct consequence of their topology.
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia probed by both calorimetric and dynamic hysteresis measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guibert, Clément; Fresnais, Jérôme; Peyre, Véronique; Dupuis, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.dupuis@upmc.fr
2017-01-01
In this paper, we report an investigation of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) using combined calorimetric and newly implemented dynamic hysteresis measurements for two sets of well characterized size-sorted maghemite nanoparticles (with diameters of about 10 nm and 20 nm) dispersed in water and in glycerol. Our primary goal was to assess the influence of viscosity on the heating efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles described in terms of specific loss power (SLP or specific absorption rate, SAR) and dynamic hysteresis. In particular, we aimed to investigate how this SLP depends on the transition from Néelian to Brownian behavior of nanoparticles expected to occur between 10 nm and 20 nm (for maghemite) and dependent on the viscosity. While we observed a good agreement between calorimetric and dynamic hysteresis measurements, we found that the SLP measured for the different systems do not depend noticeably on the viscosity of solvent. Calculations performed according to Rosensweig's linear model [1] allow us to quantitatively reproduce our results at low field intensities, provided we use a value for the magnetic anisotropy constant much smaller than the one commonly used in the literature. This raises the question of the temperature dependance of the magnetic anisotropy constant and its relevance for a quantitative description of MFH. - Highlights: • Dynamic hysteresis measurements are a promising tool to study magnetic hyperthermia. • Dynamic hysteresis cycles can be reproduced using a simple model. • The effect of viscosity on hyperthermia of maghemite is weaker than expected.
A review of dynamic characteristics of magnetically levitated vehicle systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.
1995-11-01
The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.
Lemon, C.; Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Nikoukar, R.; Chen, M.; Turner, D. L.; Roeder, J. L.; Shumko, M.; Payne, C.; Bhatt, R.
2017-12-01
Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is a complex process, and researchers must consider a number of factors: particle transport in the electric and magnetic fields drives plasma from the high latitude tail to the mid-latitude inner magnetosphere; particle precipitation into the ionosphere, which is frequently driven by wave-particle interactions, enhances the ionospheric conductivities; feedback of the ionospheric conductivities on the electric fields determines how well the convection electric field penetrates to the mid-latitude ionosphere; and the erosion and refilling of cold plasma in the plasmasphere substantially determines the mass of plasma on magnetospheric field lines and the subsequent wave environment that drives particle precipitation. While we model all of these processes, in this presentation we focus on the role of the plasmasphere and its role in M-I coupling. We present RCM-E simulations in which particle transport through self-consistent fields controls the drainage of the plasmasphere, an outflow model determines the plasmasphere refilling rate, and electron and ion precipitation influences the electric field by enhancing the ionospheric conductivity. The plasmasphere significantly affects the spatial structure of the wave environment and electron precipitation rates. This impacts the dynamics of the sub-auroral polarization stream (SAPS) in the pre-midnight region equatorward of the auroral boundary, which itself drives erosion of the plasmasphere through strong westward electric fields near the plasmapause. We present comparisons with Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, the Plasmasphere Data Assimilation (PDA) model, and line-of-sight observations from Millstone Hill ISR and space-based GPS receivers, showing how our modeled plasmasphere compares with observational data during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 magnetic storms. To better understand refilling, we focus particular attention on densities in the recently-depleted flux tubes in the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-03-15
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation for the average magnetization is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and are of seven fundamental types. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic-2 (F{sub 2}) and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely the F{sub 2}+P, F{sub 1}+P and F{sub 2}+F{sub 1}+P, which strongly depend on the crystal-field interaction (D) parameter. The system also exhibits the dynamic tricritical behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase transitions are studied in spin-2 BC model using EFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams are found in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits dynamic tricritical behavior.
Dynamic response of a typical synchrotron magnet/girder assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Smith, R.K.; Vogt, M.E.
1993-06-01
In the Advanced Photon Source, the synchrotron booster ring accelerates positrons to the required energy level of 7 GeV. The positrons are then injected into the storage ring where they continue to orbit for 10--15 h. The storage ring quadrupoles have very stringent vibration criteria that must be satisfied to ensure that beam emittance growth is within acceptable limits, viz., <10%. Because the synchrotron booster ring is not operated after particle insertion into the storage ring, its vibration response is not a critical issue relative to the performance of the storage ring beam. Nevertheless, the synchrotron pulses at a frequency of 2 Hz, and if a vibration response frequency of the synchrotron magnet/girder assembly were to coincide with the pulsation frequency or its near harmonics, large-amplitude motion could result, with the effect that it could compromise the operation of the synchrotron. Due to the complex dynamics of the synchrotron magnet/girder assembly, it is necessary to measure the dynamic response of a prototypic assembly and its components to ensure that the inherent dynamic response frequencies are not equal to 2 Hz or any near harmonics. Dynamic-response measurement of the synchrotron girder assembly and component magnets is the subject of this report
Dynamics of Dust in a Plasma Sheath with Magnetic Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan Ping; Liu Jinyuan; Gon Ye; Liu Yue; Wang Xiaogang
2007-01-01
Dynamics of dust in a plasma sheath with a magnetic field was investigated using a single particle model. The result shows that the radius, initial position, initial velocity of the dust particles and the magnetic field do effect their movement and equilibrium position in the plasma sheath. Generally, the dust particles with the same size, whatever original velocity and position they have, will locate at the same position in the end under the net actions of electrostatic, gravitational, neutral collisional, and Lorentz forces. But the dust particles will not locate in the plasma sheath if their radius is beyond a certain value
Recent development in magnetic neutron scattering studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endoh, Yasuo
1993-01-01
Neutron scattering results contain many new concepts in modern magnetism. We review here the most recent neutron magnetic scattering studies from so called '214' copper oxide lamellar materials, because a number of important developments in magnetism are condensed in this novel subject. We show that neutron scattering has played crucial role in our understanding of modern magnetism. (author)
Kim, Pilkee; Nguyen, Minh Sang; Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Young-Jin; Yoon, Yong-Jin
2016-09-28
A system of magnetically coupled oscillators has been recently considered as a promising compact structure to integrate multiple bistable energy harvesters (BEHs), but its design is not straightforward owing to its varying potential energy pattern, which has not been understood completely yet. This study introduces the concept of phase-dependent dynamic potential in a magnetically coupled BEH system with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) to explain the underlying principle of the complicated dynamics of the system. Through theoretical simulations and analyses, two distinct dynamic regimes, called the out-of-phase and in-phase mode regimes in this report, are found to exist in the frequency regions of the 1 st and 2 nd primary intrawell resonances. For the out-of-phase mode regime, the frequency displacement (and output power) responses of the 2-DOF BEH system exhibit typical double-well dynamics, whereas for the in-phase mode regime, only single-well dynamics is observed though the system is statically bistable. These dynamic regimes are also revealed to be caused by the difference in the dynamic potential energy trajectories propagating on a high-dimensional potential energy surface. The present approach to the dynamics of the 2-DOF BEH system can be extended and applied to higher-DOF systems, which sheds light on compact and efficient designs of magnetically coupled BEH chain structures.
Neutron scattering studies on frustrated magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arima, Taka-hisa
2013-01-01
A lot of frustrated magnetic systems exhibit a nontrivial magnetic order, such as long-wavelength modulation, noncollinear, or noncoplanar order. The nontrivial order may pave the way for the novel magnetic function of matter. Neutron studies are necessary to determine the magnetic structures in the frustrated magnetic systems. In particular, spin-polarized neutron scattering is a useful technique for the investigation of the novel physical properties relevant to the nontrivial spin arrangement. Here some neutron studies on a multiferroic perovskite manganese oxide system are demonstrated as a typical case. The frustrated magnetic systems may also a playground of novel types of local magnetic excitations, which behave like particles in contrast to the magnetic waves. It is becoming a good challenge to study such particle-type magnetic excitations relevant to the magnetic frustration. (author)
Spin-lattice dynamics simulation of external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. P. Chui
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Modeling of field-induced magnetization in ferromagnetic materials has been an active topic in the last dozen years, yet a dynamic treatment of distance-dependent exchange integral has been lacking. In view of that, we employ spin-lattice dynamics (SLD simulations to study the external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron. Our results show that an external field can increase the inflection point of the temperature. Also the model provides a better description of the effect of spin correlation in response to an external field than the mean-field theory. An external field has a more prominent effect on the long range magnetic order than on the short range counterpart. Furthermore, an external field allows the magnon dispersion curves and the uniform precession modes to exhibit magnetic order variation from their temperature dependence.
Dynamic interaction between localized magnetic moments in carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, A T; Muniz, R B; Ferreira, M S
2008-01-01
Magnetic moments dilutely dispersed in a metallic host tend to be coupled through the conduction electrons of the metal. This indirect exchange coupling (IEC), known to occur for a variety of magnetic materials embedded in several different metallic structures, is of rather long range, especially for low-dimensional structures like carbon nanotubes. Motivated by recent claims that the indirect coupling between magnetic moments in precessional motion has a much longer range than its static counterpart, we consider here how magnetic atoms adsorbed to the walls of a metallic nanotube respond to a time-dependent perturbation that induces their magnetic moments to precess. By calculating the frequency-dependent spin susceptibility, we are able to identify resonant peaks whose respective widths provide information about the dynamic aspect of the IEC. We show that by departing from a purely static representation to another in which the moments are allowed to precess, we change from what is already considered a long-range interaction to another whose range is far superior. In other words, localized magnetic moments embedded in a metallic structure can feel each other's presence more easily when they are set in precessional motion. We argue that such an effect can have useful applications leading to large-scale spintronics devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xijun Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A dual scanning laser speckle interferometry experiment was designed to observe the dynamic behavior of the magnetic fluid actuated by a magnetic field. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the dynamic speckle measurement, the phase delay scanning was used to compensate the additional phase variation which was caused by the transverse scanning. The correlation coefficients corresponding to the temporal dynamic speckle patterns within the same time interval scattering from the nanoparticles were calculated in the experiment on nanoscale magnetic clusters. In the experiment, the speckle of the magnetic nanoparticle fluid movement has been recorded by the lens unmounted CCD within the interferometry strips, although the speckle led to the distinguished annihilation of the light coherence. The results have showed that the nanoparticle fluid dynamic properties appeared synergistically in the fringe speckles. The analyses of the nanoparticle's relative speed and the speckle pattern moving amount in the fringes have proved the nanoparticle’s movement in a laminar flow in the experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommer, Karsten, E-mail: sommerk@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: Schreiber-L@ukw.de [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz 55131, Germany and Max Planck Graduate Center with the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Bernat, Dominik; Schmidt, Regine; Breit, Hanns-Christian [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Schreiber, Laura M., E-mail: sommerk@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: Schreiber-L@ukw.de [Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Würzburg University Hospital, Würzburg 97078 (Germany)
2015-07-15
Purpose: The extent to which atherosclerotic plaques affect contrast agent (CA) transport in the coronary arteries and, hence, quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unclear. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of plaque induced stenosis both on CA transport and on the accuracy of MBF quantification. Methods: Computational fluid dynamics simulations in a high-detailed realistic vascular model were employed to investigate CA bolus transport in the coronary arteries. The impact of atherosclerosis was analyzed by inserting various medium- to high-grade stenoses in the vascular model. The influence of stenosis morphology was examined by varying the stenosis shapes but keeping the area reduction constant. Errors due to CA bolus transport were analyzed using the tracer-kinetic model MMID4. Results: Dispersion of the CA bolus was found in all models and for all outlets, but with a varying magnitude. The impact of stenosis was complex: while high-grade stenoses amplified dispersion, mild stenoses reduced the effect. Morphology was found to have a marked influence on dispersion for a small number of outlets in the post-stenotic region. Despite this marked influence on the concentration–time curves, MBF errors were less affected by stenosis. In total, MBF was underestimated by −7.9% to −44.9%. Conclusions: The presented results reveal that local hemodynamics in the coronary vasculature appears to have a direct impact on CA bolus dispersion. Inclusion of atherosclerotic plaques resulted in a complex alteration of this effect, with both degree of area reduction and stenosis morphology affecting the amount of dispersion. This strong influence of vascular transport effects impairs the accuracy of MRI-based MBF quantification techniques and, potentially, other bolus-based perfusion measurement techniques like computed tomography perfusion imaging.
Vogel, Michael W; Giorni, Andrea; Vegh, Viktor; Pellicer-Guridi, Ruben; Reutens, David C
2016-01-01
We studied the feasibility of generating the variable magnetic fields required for ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry with dynamically adjustable permanent magnets. Our motivation was to substitute traditional electromagnets by distributed permanent magnets, increasing system portability. The finite element method (COMSOL®) was employed for the numerical study of a small permanent magnet array to calculate achievable magnetic field strength, homogeneity, switching time and magnetic forces. A manually operated prototype was simulated and constructed to validate the numerical approach and to verify the generated magnetic field. A concentric small permanent magnet array can be used to generate strong sample pre-polarisation and variable measurement fields for ultra-low field relaxometry via simple prescribed magnet rotations. Using the array, it is possible to achieve a pre-polarisation field strength above 100 mT and variable measurement fields ranging from 20-50 μT with 200 ppm absolute field homogeneity within a field-of-view of 5 x 5 x 5 cubic centimetres. A dynamic small permanent magnet array can generate multiple highly homogeneous magnetic fields required in ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instruments. This design can significantly reduce the volume and energy requirements of traditional systems based on electromagnets, improving portability considerably.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ogbuka Cosmas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A comprehensive comparison of the dynamic and steady state performance characteristics of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with interior and surface rotor magnets for line-start operation is presented. The dynamic model equations of the PMSM, with damper windings, are utilized for dynamic studies. Two typical loading scenarios are examined: step and ramp loading. The interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM showed superior asynchronous performance under no load, attaining faster synchronism compared to the surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM. With step load of 10 Nm at 2 s the combined effect of the excitation and the reluctance torque forced the IPMSM to pull into synchronism faster than the SPMSM which lacks saliency. The ability of the motors to withstand gradual load increase, in the synchronous mode, was examined using ramp loading starting from zero at 2 s. SPMSM lost synchronism at 12 s under 11 Nm load while the IPMSM sustained synchronism until 41 seconds under 40 Nm load. This clearly suggests that the IPMSM has superior load-withstand capability. The superiority is further buttressed with the steady state torque analysis where airgap torque in IPMSM is enhanced by the reluctance torque within 90° to 180° torque angle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sánchez-Tejerina, L. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Alejos, Ó., E-mail: oscaral@ee.uva.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Muñoz, J.M. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2016-07-01
The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, Ó.; Martínez, E.; Muñoz, J.M.
2016-01-01
The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.
The study on optimization issues for magnetic separation by magnetic chromatography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S.B.; Iwamoto, R.; Kataoka, K.; Noguchi, S.; Okada, H.
2010-01-01
The magnetic chromatography is a very useful system for an ion and/or fine magnetic particle separation because it has strong magnetic field gradients even in a very narrow flow channel. We have not only developed the magnetic chromatography system to separate the fine particles and ions, but also the numerical analysis code based on the fluid dynamics and electromagnetism to investigate the separating characteristics and to optimize design of magnetic column. In this study, the simple experiments using a superconducting magnet with a large room-temperature-bore and a micro-scale magnetic column consisting of ferromagnetic wires were carried out to understand the ions separation. The cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) and the nickel sulfate (NiSO 4 ) were used as ions, and the magnetic field and length of magnetic column were used as a parameter in an experiment and an analysis. It can be expected that the ion mobility of a single and complex are quite different, and the ability of the separation will be improved by increasing the column length without external magnetic field.
Dynamical analysis of the magnetic field line evolution in tokamaks with ergodic limiters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ullmann, Kai; Caldas, Ibere L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1997-12-31
Full text. Magnetic ergodic limiters are commonly used to control chaos in the tokamak border and several models have been developed to study the influence of these limiters on the magnetic field line evolution in the tokamak vessel. In this work we derive a bidimensional symplectic mapping describing this evolution with toroidal corrections. Poincare plots presenting typical Hamiltonian behaviour, such as island chains and hetero clinic and homo clinic orbits are obtained. Then we perform the dynamical analysis of these Poincare plots using standard algorithms such as calculation of Lyapunov exponents, safety factors, FFT spectra and parameters space plots to perform the dynamical analysis. (author)
Computational Analysis of Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Magnetic Suspensions and Magnetic Bearings
Britcher, Colin P. (Editor); Groom, Nelson J.
1996-01-01
Static modelling of magnetic bearings is often carried out using magnetic circuit theory. This theory cannot easily include nonlinear effects such as magnetic saturation or the fringing of flux in air-gaps. Modern computational tools are able to accurately model complex magnetic bearing geometries, provided some care is exercised. In magnetic suspension applications, the magnetic fields are highly three-dimensional and require computational tools for the solution of most problems of interest. The dynamics of a magnetic bearing or magnetic suspension system can be strongly affected by eddy currents. Eddy currents are present whenever a time-varying magnetic flux penetrates a conducting medium. The direction of flow of the eddy current is such as to reduce the rate-of-change of flux. Analytic solutions for eddy currents are available for some simplified geometries, but complex geometries must be solved by computation. It is only in recent years that such computations have been considered truly practical. At NASA Langley Research Center, state-of-the-art finite-element computer codes, 'OPERA', 'TOSCA' and 'ELEKTRA' have recently been installed and applied to the magnetostatic and eddy current problems. This paper reviews results of theoretical analyses which suggest general forms of mathematical models for eddy currents, together with computational results. A simplified circuit-based eddy current model proposed appears to predict the observed trends in the case of large eddy current circuits in conducting non-magnetic material. A much more difficult case is seen to be that of eddy currents in magnetic material, or in non-magnetic material at higher frequencies, due to the lower skin depths. Even here, the dissipative behavior has been shown to yield at least somewhat to linear modelling. Magnetostatic and eddy current computations have been carried out relating to the Annular Suspension and Pointing System, a prototype for a space payload pointing and vibration
Static properties and spin dynamics of the ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose gas in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kis-Szabo, Krisztian; Szepfalusy, Peter; Szirmai, Gergely
2005-01-01
The properties of spin-1 Bose gases with ferromagnetic interactions in the presence of a nonzero magnetic field are studied. The equation of state and thermodynamic quantities are worked out with the help of a mean-field approximation. The phase diagram besides Bose-Einstein condensation contains a first-order transition where two values of the magnetization coexist. The dynamics is investigated with the help of the random phase approximation. The soft mode corresponding to the critical point of the magnetic phase transition is found to behave like in conventional theory
Critical dynamics of an interacting magnetic nanoparticle system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Jonsson, P.E.; Nordblad, P.
2002-01-01
Effects of dipole-dipole interactions on the magnetic relaxation have been investigated for three Fe-C nanoparticle samples with volume concentrations of 0.06, 5 and 17 vol%. While both the 5 and 17 vol% samples exhibit collective behaviour due to dipolar interactions, only the 17 vol% sample dis...... displays critical behaviour close to its transition temperature. The behaviour of the 5 vol% sample can be attributed to a mixture of collective and single-particle dynamics....
Simulation of dynamics of a permanent magnet linear actuator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yatchev, Ivan; Ritchie, Ewen
2010-01-01
Comparison of two approaches for the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of a permanent magnet linear actuator is presented. These are full coupled model, where the electromagnetic field, electric circuit and mechanical motion problems are solved simultaneously, and decoupled model, where first...... flexibility when the actuator response is required to be estimated for different external conditions, e.g. external circuit parameters or mechanical loads....
Dynamics and Stability of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
He, Ren; Han, Qingzhen
2017-01-01
The aim of this article is to explore the dynamic characteristics and stability of the permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). PMSM equilibrium local stability condition and Hopf bifurcation condition, pitchfork bifurcation condition, and fold bifurcation condition have been derived by using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion and the bifurcation theory, respectively. Bifurcation curves of the equilibrium with single and double parameters are obtained by continuation method. Numerical simulations...
Domain-wall dynamics in glass-coated magnetic microwires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varga, R.; Zhukov, A.; Usov, N.; Blanco, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.; Zhukova, V.; Vojtanik, P.
2007-01-01
Glass-coated magnetic microwires with positive magnetostriction show peculiar domain structure that consists mostly of one large domain with magnetization-oriented axially. It was shown that small closure domains appear at the end of the microwire in order to decrease the stray fields. As a result of such domain structure, the magnetization reversal in axial direction runs through the depinning of one of such closure domains and subsequent propagation of the corresponding domain wall. Quite unusual domain-wall (DW) dynamics of the DW propagation predicted previously from the theory has been found in such amorphous microwires. In this paper, we are dealing with the DW dynamics of glass-coated microwires with small positive magnetostriction. The DW damping coming from the structural relaxation dominates at low temperatures as a result of the decrease of the mobility of the structural atomic-level defects. Negative critical propagation field points to the possible DW propagation without applied magnetic field. Probable explanation could be in terms of the effective mass of the DW
Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.
1990-03-01
Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
Nonlinear dynamics of drift structures in a magnetized dissipative plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aburjania, G. D.; Rogava, D. L.; Kharshiladze, O. A.
2011-01-01
A study is made of the nonlinear dynamics of solitary vortex structures in an inhomogeneous magnetized dissipative plasma. A nonlinear transport equation for long-wavelength drift wave structures is derived with allowance for the nonuniformity of the plasma density and temperature equilibria, as well as the magnetic and collisional viscosity of the medium and its friction. The dynamic equation describes two types of nonlinearity: scalar (due to the temperature inhomogeneity) and vector (due to the convectively polarized motion of the particles of the medium). The equation is fourth order in the spatial derivatives, in contrast to the second-order Hasegawa-Mima equations. An analytic steady solution to the nonlinear equation is obtained that describes a new type of solitary dipole vortex. The nonlinear dynamic equation is integrated numerically. A new algorithm and a new finite difference scheme for solving the equation are proposed, and it is proved that the solution so obtained is unique. The equation is used to investigate how the initially steady dipole vortex constructed here behaves unsteadily under the action of the factors just mentioned. Numerical simulations revealed that the role of the vector nonlinearity is twofold: it helps the dispersion or the scalar nonlinearity (depending on their magnitude) to ensure the mutual equilibrium and, thereby, promote self-organization of the vortical structures. It is shown that dispersion breaks the initial dipole vortex into a set of tightly packed, smaller scale, less intense monopole vortices-alternating cyclones and anticyclones. When the dispersion of the evolving initial dipole vortex is weak, the scalar nonlinearity symmetrically breaks a cyclone-anticyclone pair into a cyclone and an anticyclone, which are independent of one another and have essentially the same intensity, shape, and size. The stronger the dispersion, the more anisotropic the process whereby the structures break: the anticyclone is more intense
HTS Insert Magnet Design Study
Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G
2011-01-01
Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb$_{3}$Sn m...
Phase dynamics of oscillating magnetizations coupled via spin pumping
Taniguchi, Tomohiro
2018-05-01
A theoretical formalism is developed to simultaneously solve equation of motion of the magnetizations in two ferromagnets and the spin-pumping induced spin transport equation. Based on the formalism, a coupled motion of the magnetizations in a self-oscillation state is studied. The spin pumping is found to induce an in-phase synchronization of the magnetizations for the oscillation around the easy axis. For an out-of-plane self-oscillation around the hard axis, on the other hand, the spin pumping leads to an in-phase synchronization in a small current region, whereas an antiphase synchronization is excited in a large current region. An analytical theory based on the phase equation reveals that the phase difference between the magnetizations in a steady state depends on the oscillation direction, clockwise or counterclockwise, of the magnetizations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crippa, Federica; Moore, Thomas L.; Mortato, Mariangela; Geers, Christoph; Haeni, Laetitia [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Hirt, Ann M. [Institute for Geophysics, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Petri-Fink, Alke, E-mail: alke.fink@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, CH-1700 Fribourg Switzerland (Switzerland)
2017-04-01
Magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogels are a new class of materials that have recently attracted interest in biomedicine due to their ability to change phase upon magnetic stimulation. They have been used for drug release, magnetic hyperthermia treatment, and can potentially be engineered as stimuli-responsive substrates for cell mechanobiology. In this regard, we propose a series of magnetic thermo-responsive nanocomposite substrates that undergo cyclical swelling and de-swelling phases when actuated by an alternating magnetic field in aqueous environment. The synthetized substrates are obtained with a facile and reproducible method from poly-N-isopropylacrylamide and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Their conformation and the temperature-related, magnetic, and biological behaviors were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, alternating magnetic field stimulation and indirect viability assays. The nanocomposites showed no cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells, and exhibited swelling/de-swelling behavior near physiological temperatures (around 34 °C). Therefore these magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogels are promising materials as stimuli-responsive substrates allowing the study of cell-behavior by changing the hydrogel properties in situ. - Highlights: • A magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogel for mechanobiology is proposed. • Hydrogels change phase upon magnetic stimulation near physiological temperature. • Phase changes are reversible and triggered in an aqueous environment. • The hydrogels are biocompatible for murine fibroblast cells.
Self-diffusion in monodisperse three-dimensional magnetic fluids by molecular dynamics simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobroserdova, A.B. [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kantorovich, S.S., E-mail: alla.dobroserdova@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, Vienna (Austria)
2017-06-01
In the present work we study the self-diffusion behaviour in the three-dimensional monodisperse magnetic fluids using the Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Density Functional Theory. The peculiarity of computer simulation is to study two different systems: dipolar and soft sphere ones. In the theoretical method, it is important to choose the approximation for the main structures, which are chains. We compare the theoretical results and the computer simulation data for the self-diffusion coefficient as a function of the particle volume fraction and magnetic dipole-dipole interaction parameter and find the qualitative and quantitative agreement to be good. - Highlights: • The paper deals with the study of the self-diffusion in monodisperse three-dimensional magnetic fluids. • The theoretical approach contains the free energy density functional minimization. • Computer simulations are performed by the molecular dynamics method. • We have a good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the theoretical results and computer simulation data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2010-07-12
Dynamic aspects of a two-sublattice Ising metamagnet on honeycomb, square and hexagonal lattices under the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The set of effective-field dynamic equations is derived by employing Glauber transition rates. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The thermal behavior of the dynamic staggered magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. The phase diagrams are constructed in two different planes, and exhibit dynamic tricritical behavior, which strongly depends on interaction parameters. In order to investigate the spin correlation effect on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system, the results are also given within the framework of the dynamic mean-field approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa
2010-01-01
Dynamic aspects of a two-sublattice Ising metamagnet on honeycomb, square and hexagonal lattices under the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The set of effective-field dynamic equations is derived by employing Glauber transition rates. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The thermal behavior of the dynamic staggered magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. The phase diagrams are constructed in two different planes, and exhibit dynamic tricritical behavior, which strongly depends on interaction parameters. In order to investigate the spin correlation effect on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system, the results are also given within the framework of the dynamic mean-field approximation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Xing, E-mail: xing.wei@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Natural Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2016-09-01
To understand magnetic effects on dynamical tides, we study the rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow driven by harmonic forcing. The linear responses are analytically derived in a periodic box under the local WKB approximation. Both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are calculated, and the various parameters are investigated. Although magnetic pressure may be negligible compared to thermal pressure, the magnetic field can be important for the first-order perturbation, e.g., dynamical tides. It is found that the magnetic field splits the resonant frequency, namely the rotating hydrodynamic flow has only one resonant frequency, but the rotating MHD flow has two, one positive and the other negative. In the weak field regime the dissipations are asymmetric around the two resonant frequencies and this asymmetry is more striking with a weaker magnetic field. It is also found that both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the Ekman number and the square of the wavenumber. The dissipation at the resonant frequency on small scales is almost equal to the dissipation at the non-resonant frequencies, namely the resonance takes its effect on the dissipation at intermediate length scales. Moreover, the waves with phase propagation that is perpendicular to the magnetic field are much more damped. It is also interesting to find that the frequency-averaged dissipation is constant. This result suggests that in compact objects, magnetic effects on tidal dissipation should be considered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Yoshio; Hanafusa, Yoshito; Toda, Masakazu; Chujo, Riichiro
1982-01-01
The effects of retinal and vitamin A on the dynamic structure and stability of hen egg yolk lecithin bilayers have been studied by means of carbon-13 and proton NMR spectroscopies. 13 C spin-lattice relaxation and paramagnetic ion permeability studies on lecithin bilayers indicate a marked decrease in flexibility of the lipid acyl chain and a breakdown of membrane impermeableness to ion by the intercalated all-trans- and 11-cis-retinal, whereas the effect of incorporated vitamin A on the fluidity of bilayers is small and its impermeableness to ion remains effective even in the presence of higher concentration of vitamin A. The experimental results are discussed in connection with the mechanism of the permeability change in photoreceptive disk membrane. (author)
Image fusion for dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leach Martin O
2004-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multivariate imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI have been shown to provide valuable information for medical diagnosis. Even though these techniques provide new information, integrating and evaluating the much wider range of information is a challenging task for the human observer. This task may be assisted with the use of image fusion algorithms. Methods In this paper, image fusion based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA is proposed for the first time. It is demonstrated that a priori knowledge about the data domain can be easily incorporated into the parametrisation of the KPCA, leading to task-oriented visualisations of the multivariate data. The results of the fusion process are compared with those of the well-known and established standard linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA by means of temporal sequences of 3D MRI volumes from six patients who took part in a breast cancer screening study. Results The PCA and KPCA algorithms are able to integrate information from a sequence of MRI volumes into informative gray value or colour images. By incorporating a priori knowledge, the fusion process can be automated and optimised in order to visualise suspicious lesions with high contrast to normal tissue. Conclusion Our machine learning based image fusion approach maps the full signal space of a temporal DCE-MRI sequence to a single meaningful visualisation with good tissue/lesion contrast and thus supports the radiologist during manual image evaluation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertas, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2010-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the spin-2 Ising model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane.
SMARTer for magnetic structure studies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Small angle neutron scattering; magnetic structure; Cu(NiFe); CuCo; ... micromagnetism, magnetic clusters embedded in a solid nonmagnetic matrix, mag- .... project. E G R Putra acknowledges the support from IAEA through the ISNS2008.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chieh, J. J.; Hong, C. Y.; Yang, S. Y.; Horng, H. E.; Yang, H. C.
2010-01-01
We propose two optical fiber-based schemes using two magnetic fluid optical fiber modulators in series or in parallel for optical logic signal processing and operation. Here, each magnetic fluid optical fiber modulator consists of a bare multimode fiber surrounded by magnetic fluid in which the refractive index is adjustable by applying external magnetic fields amplifying the input electrical signal to vary the transmission intensity of the optical fiber-based scheme. The physical mechanisms for the performances of the magnetic fluid optical fiber devices, such as the transmission loss related to Boolean number of the logic operation as well as the dynamic response, are studied by the characteristics of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and magnetic fluids. For example, in the dynamic response composed of the retarding and response sub-procedures except the response times of the actuation coil, the theoretical evaluation of the retarding time variation with cladding magnetic fluids length has good agreement with the experimental results.
Spin dynamics on cyclic iron wheels in high magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnelzer, Lars
2008-01-01
In the present thesis the spin dynamics of cyclic spin-cluster compounds, the so called ''ferric wheels'' were studied by means of the NMR. In the iron wheels Li/Na rate at Fe 6 (tea) 6 and Cs rate at Fe 8 (tea) 8 as probes of NMR both the protons and the centrally lying alkali atoms 7 Li, 23 Na, and 133 Cs were available. For this purpose measurements in the magnetic field region up to B=20 T and at temperatures between room temperature and T=50 mK were performed. The longitudinal relaxation rate was temperature dependently studied at two field values on the lithium cluster and a frequency independent maximum of the relaxation rate at a temperature of T∼30 K resulted. Different behaviour showed the measurement on the sodium cluster. the longitudinal relaxation rate slopes linearly with the temperature and shows no maximum. The two quadrupole satellites of the 23 Na could be resolved. From the distance of the satellites to the central transition both on the field gradient of the iron ring and on the orientation of the symmetry axis to the external magnetic field could be concluded. The determined field gradient of the Na rate at Fe 6 (tea) 6 of eq=4.78(11).10 20 V/m 2 was in very good agreement with the present theoretically calculated value. The orientation of the crystal was determined to θ(c,B)=62.8 . The very low splitting of the 7 Li NMR spectrum of the lithium cluster allows to give as upper limit for the value of the field gradient eq=1.82(11).10 20 V/m 2 . From the seven lines of the cesium spectrum theoretically to be expected five were resolved. The evaluation yielded for the cesium ring a value of eq=-1.3(1).10 21 V/m 2 . The study of the field-dependent line position of the 23 Na NMR line led to the determination of the parameter of the transferred hyperfine interaction to A tHf /2π=140 kHz. For the first time on a cyclic iron cluster a level crossing could be studied by means of the central ion. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wilkens, Rune; Peters, David A; Nielsen, Agnete Hedemann
2017-01-01
Purpose e Cross-sectional imaging methods are important for objective evaluationof small intestinal inflammationinCrohn'sdisease(CD).The primary aim was to compare relative parameters of intestinal perfusion between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Marinozzi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We present electromagnetic models aiming to calculate the variation of the inductance in a magnet due to dynamic effects such as the variation of magnetization or the coupling with eddy currents. The models are studied with special regard to the calculation of the inductance in superconducting magnets which are affected by interfilament coupling currents. The developed models have been compared with experimental data coming from tests of prototype Nb_{3}Sn magnets designed for the new generation of accelerators. This work is relevant for the quench protection study of superconducting magnets: quench is an unwanted event, when part of the magnet becomes resistive; in these cases, the current should be discharged as fast as possible, in order to maintain the resistive zone temperature under a safe limit. The magnet inductance is therefore a relevant term for the description of the current discharge, especially for the high-field new generation superconducting magnets for accelerators, and this work shows how to calculate the correct value during rapid current changes, providing a mean for simulations of the reached temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agarwal, Vasudha; Kandpal, Lalit M.; Siwach, P.K.; Awana, V.P.S. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); AcSIR at CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, H.K., E-mail: hks65@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); AcSIR at CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)
2015-11-15
The influence of substrate induced strain and its relaxation on the evolution of the multiple magnetic transitions and ensuing modifications in the degree of phase separation, the nature of the dynamical magnetic liquid, the randomly frozen glass and insulator–metal transitions have been investigated in single crystalline La{sub 1−x−y}Pr{sub y}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x≈0.42, y≈0.40) in t~20–140 nm thick films deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} (001) substrates. The ferromagnetic (FM) transition temperature (T{sub C}) first decreases as the film thickness is increased from t~20 nm to t~60 nm and then increases with increasing film thickness. In contrast the charge ordering (CO), antiferromagnetic (AFM) and glass transition temperatures shift towards higher values with increasing film thickness. The field cooled cooling (FCC) and field cooled warming (FCW) magnetization (M–T) of films having t≥60 nm shows pronounced hysteresis and ΔT{sub C}=T{sub C}{sup FCW}−T{sub C}{sup FCC} decreases concomitantly from 46 K to 35 K as the thickness increases from ~60 to ~140 nm. The thinnest film shows insulator to metal transitions (IMT) only at magnetic field H>40 kOe. Films with t≥T{sub C} show sharp hysteretic IMT, with ΔT{sub IM}=T{sub IM}{sup W}−T{sub IM}{sup C} decreasing from ~70 K to ~50 K as the thickness increases from ~60 nm to ~140 nm. Such strong hysteresis is a characteristic of first order phase transition and also a signature of magnetic liquid like phase created by the magnetic frustration created by the delicate balance between FM and AFM/CO phases. The H induced AFM/CO to FM transition reduces ΔT{sub IM} and at higher fields the phase transition appears akin to the second order. The observed difference in the magnetic and transport properties have been explained in terms of the substrate induced strain at lower film thickness and its relaxation at higher thickness. - Highlights: • Different thickness La{sub 1−x−y}Pr{sub y}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3
Vlasov simulations of electron hole dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic field
Kuzichev, Ilya; Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton
2017-04-01
Electron holes (EHs) or phase space vortices are solitary electrostatic waves existing due to electrons trapped within EH electrostatic potential. Since the first direct observation [1], EHs have been widely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: in reconnecting current sheets [2], injection fronts [3], auroral region [4], and many other space plasma systems. EHs have typical spatial scales up to tens of Debye lengths, electric field amplitudes up to hundreds of mV/m and propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities of about electron thermal velocity [5]. The role of EHs in energy dissipation and supporting of large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. The accurate interpretation of spacecraft observations requires understanding of EH evolution in inhomogeneous plasma. The critical role of plasma density gradients in EH evolution was demonstrated in [6] using PIC simulations. Interestingly, up to date no studies have addressed a role of magnetic field gradients in EH evolution. In this report, we use 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov code to demonstrate the critical role of magnetic field gradients in EH dynamics. We show that EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. Remarkably, the reflection points of decelerating EHs are independent of the average magnetic field gradient in the system and depend only on the EH parameters. EHs are decelerated (accelerated) faster than would follow from the "quasi-particle" concept assuming that EH is decelerated (accelerated) entirely due to the mirror force acting on electrons trapped within EH. We demonstrate that EH propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields results in development of a net potential drop along an EH, which depends on the magnetic field gradient. The revealed features will be helpful for interpreting spacecraft observations and results of advanced particle simulations. In
Magnetic order, magnetic correlations, and spin dynamics in the pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er2Ti2O7
Dalmas de Réotier, P.; Yaouanc, A.; Chapuis, Y.; Curnoe, S. H.; Grenier, B.; Ressouche, E.; Marin, C.; Lago, J.; Baines, C.; Giblin, S. R.
2012-09-01
Er2Ti2O7 is believed to be a realization of an XY antiferromagnet on a frustrated lattice of corner-sharing regular tetrahedra. It is presented as an example of the order-by-disorder mechanism in which fluctuations lift the degeneracy of the ground state, leading to an ordered state. Here we report detailed measurements of the low-temperature magnetic properties of Er2Ti2O7, which displays a second-order phase transition at TN≃1.2 K with coexisting short- and long-range orders. Magnetic susceptibility studies show that there is no spin-glass-like irreversible effect. Heat capacity measurements reveal that the paramagnetic critical exponent is typical of a 3-dimensional XY magnet while the low-temperature specific heat sets an upper limit on the possible spin-gap value and provides an estimate for the spin-wave velocity. Muon spin relaxation measurements show the presence of spin dynamics in the nanosecond time scale down to 21 mK. This time range is intermediate between the shorter time characterizing the spin dynamics in Tb2Sn2O7, which also displays long- and short-range magnetic order, and the time scale typical of conventional magnets. Hence the ground state is characterized by exotic spin dynamics. We determine the parameters of a symmetry-dictated Hamiltonian restricted to the spins in a tetrahedron, by fitting the paramagnetic diffuse neutron scattering intensity for two reciprocal lattice planes. These data are recorded in a temperature region where the assumption that the correlations are limited to nearest neighbors is fair.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The dynamic stability of blunt bodies during planetary entry is difficult to quantify as computational methods have yet to demonstrate accurate predictive...
Dynamic Model of MR Dampers Based on a Hysteretic Magnetic Circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengfei Guo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available As a key to understand dynamic performances of MR dampers, a comprehensive dynamic magnetic circuit model is proposed in this work on the basis of Ampere’s and Gauss’s laws. It takes into account not only the magnetic saturation, which many existing studies have focused on, but also the magnetic hysteresis and eddy currents in a MR damper. The hysteresis of steel parts of MR dampers is described by Jiles-Atherton (J-A models, and the eddy current is included based on the field separation. Compared with the FEM results, the proposed model is validated in low- and high-frequency studies for the predictions of the magnetic saturation, the hysteresis, and the effect of eddy currents. A simple multiphysics model is developed to demonstrate how to combine the proposed magnetic circuit model with the commonly used Bingham fluid model. The damping force in the high-frequency case obviously lags behind the coil current, which exhibits a hysteresis loop in the current-force plane. The lag of damping force even exists in a low-frequency varying magnetic field and becomes more severe in the presence of eddy currents.
Self-consistent treatment of spin and magnetization dynamic effect in spin transfer switching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jie; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Koh, Dax Enshan; Han, Guchang; Meng, Hao
2011-01-01
The effect of itinerant spin moment (m) dynamic in spin transfer switching has been ignored in most previous theoretical studies of the magnetization (M) dynamics. Thus in this paper, we proposed a more refined micromagnetic model of spin transfer switching that takes into account in a self-consistent manner of the coupled m and M dynamics. The numerical results obtained from this model further shed insight on the switching profiles of m and M, both of which show particular sensitivity to parameters such as the anisotropy field, the spin torque field, and the initial deviation between m and M.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pohlit, Merlin, E-mail: pohlit@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens [Institute of Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Stockem, Irina; Schröder, Christian [Bielefeld Institute for Applied Materials Research, FH Bielefeld-University of Applied Sciences, Bielefeld (Germany)
2016-10-14
We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin ice cluster which is a building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition both experimentally and theoretically. The spin ice cluster is composed of twelve interacting Co nanoislands grown directly on top of a high-resolution micro-Hall sensor. By employing micromagnetic simulations and a macrospin model, we calculate the magnetization and the experimentally investigated stray field emanating from a single nanoisland. The parameters determined from a comparison with the experimental hysteresis loop are used to derive an effective single-dipole macrospin model that allows us to investigate the dynamics of the spin ice cluster. Our model reproduces the experimentally observed non-deterministic sequences in the magnetization curves as well as the distinct temperature dependence of the hysteresis loop.
Imaging Magnetic Vortices Dynamics Using Lorentz Electron Microscopy with GHz Excitations
Zhu, Yimei
2015-03-01
Magnetic vortices in thin films are naturally formed spiral spin configurations with a core polarization pointing out of the film plane. They typically represent ground states with high structural and thermal stability as well as four different chirality-polarity combinations, offering great promise in the development of spin-based devices. For applications to spin oscillators, non-volatile memory and logic devices, the fundamental understanding and precise control of vortex excitations and dynamic switching behavior are essential. The compact dimensionality and fast spin dynamics set grand challenges for direct imaging technologies. Recently, we have developed a unique method to directly visualize the dynamic magnetic vortex motion using advanced Lorentz electron microscopy combined with GHz electronic excitations. It enables us to map the orbit of a magnetic vortex core in a permalloy square with modality. Our approach is complementary to X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and is of general interest to the magnetism community as it paves a way to study fundamental spin phenomena with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Collaborations with S.D. Pollard, J.F. Pulecio, D.A. Arena and K.S. Buchanan are acknowledged. Work supported by DOE-BES, Material Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.
Dynamics of magnetic nano-flake vortices in Newtonian fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazazzadeh, Nasim, E-mail: n.bazazzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m-mohseni@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khavasi, Amin, E-mail: khavasi@sharif.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11555-4363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zibaii, Mohammad Ismail, E-mail: mizibaye@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movahed, S.M.S., E-mail: m_movahed@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, G.R., E-mail: gjafari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-12-01
We study the rotational motion of nano-flake ferromagnetic disks suspended in a Newtonian fluid, as a potential material owing the vortex-like magnetic configuration. Using analytical expressions for hydrodynamic, magnetic and Brownian torques, the stochastic angular momentum equation is determined in the dilute limit conditions under applied magnetic field. Results are compared against experimental ones and excellent agreement is observed. We also estimate the uncertainty in the orientation of the disks due to the Brownian torque when an external magnetic field aligns them. Interestingly, this uncertainty is roughly proportional to the ratio of thermal energy of fluid to the magnetic energy stored in the disks. Our approach can be implemented in many practical applications including biotechnology and multi-functional fluidics. - Highlights: • The rotational motion of magnetic-vortex microdiscs in a Newtonian fluid is studied. • Results are compared against experimental ones and excellent agreement is observed. • The uncertainty in the orientation of the microdiscs is analytically derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgachev, G. I.; Maslennikov, D. D.; Ushakov, A. G.; Fedotkin, A. S.; Khodeev, I. A.; Shvedov, A. A.
2011-01-01
A method is proposed to increase the linear charge density transferred through a plasma opening switch (POS) and, accordingly, reduce the POS diameter by enhancing the external magnetic field in the POS gap. Results are presented from experimental studies of the dynamics of the plasma injected into the POS gap across a strong magnetic field. The possibility of closing the POS gap by the plasma injected across an external magnetic field of up to 60 kG is demonstrated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bayer, Thomas; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Roemer, Frank [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Adler, Werner [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, IMBE, Erlangen (Germany)
2017-12-15
To study the feasibility of magnetic resonance cinematography of the fingers (MRCF) with comparison of image quality of different protocols for depicting the finger anatomy during motion. MRCF was performed during a full flexion and extension movement in 14 healthy volunteers using a finger-gating device. Three real-time sequences (frame rates 17-59 images/min) and one proton density (PD) sequence (3 images/min) were acquired during incremental and continuous motion. Analyses were performed independently by three readers. Qualitative image analysis included Likert-scale grading from 0 (useless) to 5 (excellent) and specific visual analog scale (VAS) grading from 0 (insufficient) to 100 (excellent). Signal-to-noise calculation was performed. Overall percentage agreement and mean absolute disagreement were calculated. Within the real-time sequences a high frame-rate true fast imaging with steady-state free precession (TRUFI) yielded the best image quality with Likert and overall VAS scores of 3.0 ± 0.2 and 60.4 ± 25.3, respectively. The best sequence regarding image quality was an incremental PD with mean values of 4.8 ± 0.2 and 91.2 ± 9.4, respectively. Overall percentage agreement and mean absolute disagreement were 47.9 and 0.7, respectively. No statistically significant SNR differences were found between continuous and incremental motion for the real-time protocols. MRCF is feasible with appropriate image quality during continuous motion using a finger-gating device. Almost perfect image quality is achievable with incremental PD imaging, which represents a compromise for MRCF with the drawback of prolonged scanning time. (orig.)
Bayer, Thomas; Adler, Werner; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Roemer, Frank
2017-12-01
To study the feasibility of magnetic resonance cinematography of the fingers (MRCF) with comparison of image quality of different protocols for depicting the finger anatomy during motion. MRCF was performed during a full flexion and extension movement in 14 healthy volunteers using a finger-gating device. Three real-time sequences (frame rates 17-59 images/min) and one proton density (PD) sequence (3 images/min) were acquired during incremental and continuous motion. Analyses were performed independently by three readers. Qualitative image analysis included Likert-scale grading from 0 (useless) to 5 (excellent) and specific visual analog scale (VAS) grading from 0 (insufficient) to 100 (excellent). Signal-to-noise calculation was performed. Overall percentage agreement and mean absolute disagreement were calculated. Within the real-time sequences a high frame-rate true fast imaging with steady-state free precession (TRUFI) yielded the best image quality with Likert and overall VAS scores of 3.0 ± 0.2 and 60.4 ± 25.3, respectively. The best sequence regarding image quality was an incremental PD with mean values of 4.8 ± 0.2 and 91.2 ± 9.4, respectively. Overall percentage agreement and mean absolute disagreement were 47.9 and 0.7, respectively. No statistically significant SNR differences were found between continuous and incremental motion for the real-time protocols. MRCF is feasible with appropriate image quality during continuous motion using a finger-gating device. Almost perfect image quality is achievable with incremental PD imaging, which represents a compromise for MRCF with the drawback of prolonged scanning time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayer, Thomas; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Roemer, Frank; Adler, Werner
2017-01-01
To study the feasibility of magnetic resonance cinematography of the fingers (MRCF) with comparison of image quality of different protocols for depicting the finger anatomy during motion. MRCF was performed during a full flexion and extension movement in 14 healthy volunteers using a finger-gating device. Three real-time sequences (frame rates 17-59 images/min) and one proton density (PD) sequence (3 images/min) were acquired during incremental and continuous motion. Analyses were performed independently by three readers. Qualitative image analysis included Likert-scale grading from 0 (useless) to 5 (excellent) and specific visual analog scale (VAS) grading from 0 (insufficient) to 100 (excellent). Signal-to-noise calculation was performed. Overall percentage agreement and mean absolute disagreement were calculated. Within the real-time sequences a high frame-rate true fast imaging with steady-state free precession (TRUFI) yielded the best image quality with Likert and overall VAS scores of 3.0 ± 0.2 and 60.4 ± 25.3, respectively. The best sequence regarding image quality was an incremental PD with mean values of 4.8 ± 0.2 and 91.2 ± 9.4, respectively. Overall percentage agreement and mean absolute disagreement were 47.9 and 0.7, respectively. No statistically significant SNR differences were found between continuous and incremental motion for the real-time protocols. MRCF is feasible with appropriate image quality during continuous motion using a finger-gating device. Almost perfect image quality is achievable with incremental PD imaging, which represents a compromise for MRCF with the drawback of prolonged scanning time. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, A; Gonzalez, E M; Vicent, J L; Gilbert, D A; Liu Kai; Milošević, M V
2013-01-01
The dynamics of the pinned vortex, antivortex and interstitial vortex have been studied in superconducting/magnetic hybrids consisting of arrays of Co/Pd multilayer nanodots embedded in Nb films. The magnetic nanodots show out-of-plane magnetization at the remanent state. This magnetic state allows for superconducting vortex lattices of different types in an applied homogeneous magnetic field. We experimentally and theoretically show three such lattices: (i) a lattice containing only antivortices; (ii) a vortex lattice entirely pinned on the dots; and (iii) a vortex lattice with pinned and interstitial vortices. Between the flux creep (low vortex velocity) and the free flux flow (high vortex velocity) regimes the interaction between the magnetic array and the vortex lattice governs the vortex dynamics, which in turn enables distinguishing experimentally the type of vortex lattice which governs the dissipation. We show that the vortex lattice with interstitial vortices has the highest onset velocity where the lattice becomes ordered, whereas the pinned vortex lattice has the smallest onset velocity. Further, for this system, we directly estimate that the external force needed to depin vortices is 60% larger than the one needed to depin antivortices; therefore we are able to decouple the antivortex–vortex motion. (paper)
Crippa, Federica; Moore, Thomas L.; Mortato, Mariangela; Geers, Christoph; Haeni, Laetitia; Hirt, Ann M.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke
2017-04-01
Magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogels are a new class of materials that have recently attracted interest in biomedicine due to their ability to change phase upon magnetic stimulation. They have been used for drug release, magnetic hyperthermia treatment, and can potentially be engineered as stimuli-responsive substrates for cell mechanobiology. In this regard, we propose a series of magnetic thermo-responsive nanocomposite substrates that undergo cyclical swelling and de-swelling phases when actuated by an alternating magnetic field in aqueous environment. The synthetized substrates are obtained with a facile and reproducible method from poly-N-isopropylacrylamide and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Their conformation and the temperature-related, magnetic, and biological behaviors were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, alternating magnetic field stimulation and indirect viability assays. The nanocomposites showed no cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells, and exhibited swelling/de-swelling behavior near physiological temperatures (around 34 °C). Therefore these magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogels are promising materials as stimuli-responsive substrates allowing the study of cell-behavior by changing the hydrogel properties in situ.
Dynamics of Magnetized Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Background Magnetized Plasma
Wallace, B.; Zhang, Y.; Fisher, D. M.; Gilmore, M.
2016-10-01
The propagation of dense magnetized plasma, either collimated with mainly azimuthal B-field (jet) or toroidal with closed B-field (bubble), in a background plasma occurs in a number of solar and astrophysical cases. Such cases include coronal mass ejections moving in the background solar wind and extragalactic radio lobes expanding into the extragalactic medium. Understanding the detailed MHD behavior is crucial for correctly modeling these events. In order to further the understanding of such systems, we are investigating the injection of dense magnetized jets and bubbles into a lower density background magnetized plasma using a coaxial plasma gun and a background helicon or cathode plasma. In both jet and bubble cases, the MHD dynamics are found to be very different when launched into background plasma or magnetic field, as compared to vacuum. In the jet case, it is found that the inherent kink instability is stabilized by velocity shear developed due to added magnetic tension from the background field. In the bubble case, rather than directly relaxing to a minimum energy Taylor state (spheromak) as in vacuum, there is an expansion asymmetry and the bubble becomes Rayleigh-Taylor unstable on one side. Recent results will be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.
Magnetic stripping studies for SPL
Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department
2010-01-01
Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.
Magnetic structures: neutron diffraction studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouree-Vigneron, F.
1990-01-01
Neutron diffraction is often an unequivocal method for determining magnetic structures. Here we present some typical examples, stressing the sequence through experiments, data analysis, interpretation and modelisation. Two series of compounds are chosen: Tb Ni 2 Ge 2 and RBe 13 (R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er). Depending on the nature of the elements, the magnetic structures produced can be commensurate, incommensurate or even show a transition between two such phases as a function of temperature. A model, taking magnetic exchange and anisotropy into account, will be presented in the case of commensurate-incommensurate magnetic transitions in RBe 13
Particle Dynamics around Weakly Magnetized Reissner-Nordström Black Hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamil, Mubasher; Majeed, Bushra; Hussain, Saqib
2015-01-01
Considering the geometry of Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole immersed in magnetic field, we have studied the dynamics of neutral and charged particles. A collision of particles in the inner stable circular orbit is considered and the conditions for the escape of colliding particles from the vicinity of black hole are given. The trajectories of the escaping particle are discussed. Also, the velocity required for this escape is calculated. It is observed that there is more than one stable region if magnetic field is present in the accretion disk of black hole, so the stability of ISCO increases in the presence of magnetic field. Effect of magnetic field on the angular motion of neutral and charged particles is observed graphically.
Dynamics and Stability of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren He
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the dynamic characteristics and stability of the permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM. PMSM equilibrium local stability condition and Hopf bifurcation condition, pitchfork bifurcation condition, and fold bifurcation condition have been derived by using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion and the bifurcation theory, respectively. Bifurcation curves of the equilibrium with single and double parameters are obtained by continuation method. Numerical simulations not only confirm the theoretical analysis results but also show one kind of codimension-two-bifurcation points of the equilibrium. PMSM, with or without external load, can exhibit rich dynamic behaviors in different parameters regions. It is shown that if unstable equilibrium appears in the parameters regions, the PMSM may not be able to work stably. To ensure the PMSMs work stably, the inherent parameters should be designed in the region which has only one stable equilibrium.
Impact of local order and stoichiometry on the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of Heusler compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steil, Daniel; Schmitt, Oliver; Fetzer, Roman; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko; Kubota, Takahide; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Rodan, Steven; Blum, Christian G F; Wurmehl, Sabine; Balke, Benjamin
2015-01-01
Nowadays, a wealth of information on ultrafast magnetization dynamics of thin ferromagnetic films exists in the literature. Information is, however, scarce on bulk single crystals, which may be especially important for the case of multi-sublattice systems. In Heusler compounds, representing prominent examples for such multi-sublattice systems, off-stoichiometry and degree of order can significantly change the magnetic properties of thin films, while bulk single crystals may be generally produced with a much more well-defined stoichiometry and a higher degree of ordering. A careful characterization of the local structure of thin films versus bulk single crystals combined with ultrafast demagnetization studies can, thus, help to understand the impact of stoichiometry and order on ultrafast spin dynamics.Here, we present a comparative study of the structural ordering and magnetization dynamics for thin films and bulk single crystals of the family of Heusler alloys with composition Co 2 Fe 1 − x Mn x Si. The local ordering is studied by 59 Co nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, while the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect gives access to the ultrafast magnetization dynamics. In the NMR studies we find significant differences between bulk single crystals and thin films, both regarding local ordering and stoichiometry. The ultrafast magnetization dynamics, on the other hand, turns out to be mostly unaffected by the observed structural differences, especially on the time scale of some hundreds of femtoseconds. These results confirm hole-mediated spin-flip processes as the main mechanism for ultrafast demagnetization and the robustness of this demagnetization channel against defect states in the minority band gap as well as against the energetic position of the band gap with respect to the Fermi energy. The very small differences observed in the magnetization dynamics on the picosecond time-scale, on the other hand, can be explained by considering the
Magnetic nanoparticles in fluid environment: combining molecular dynamics and Lattice-Boltzmann
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melenev, Petr, E-mail: melenev@icmm.ru [Ural Federal University, 4, Turgeneva str., 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, 1, Koroleva str., 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)
2017-06-01
Hydrodynamic interactions between magnetic nanoparticles suspended in the Newtonian liquid are accounted for using a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics simulations. Nanoparticle is modelled by the system of molecular dynamics material points (which form structure resembles raspberry) coupled to the lattice Boltzmann fluid. The hydrodynamic coupling between the colloids is studied by simulations of the thermo-induced rotational diffusion of two raspberry objects. It was found that for the considered range of model parameters the approaching of the raspberries leads to slight retard of the relaxation process. The presence of the weak magnetic dipolar interaction between the objects leads to modest decrease of the relaxation time and the extent of the acceleration of the diffusion is intensified along with magnetic forces. - Highlights: • The combination of molecular dynamics and lattice Boltzmann method is utilized for the reveal of the role of hydrodynamic interaction in rotational dynamics of colloid particles. • The verification of the model parameters is done based on the comparison with the results of Langevin dynamics. • For the task of free rotational diffusion of the pair of colloid particles the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on the relaxation time is examined in the case of nonmagnetic particles and at the presence of weak dipolar interaction.
Dynamic magnetic resonance nephrography and urography of uropathies in children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boss, A.; Schaefer, J.F.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Martirosian, P.; Schick, F.; Obermayr, F.; Fuchs, J.
2007-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate an improved method of dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) nephrography with short acquisition time and compensation of breathing motion for assessment of renal excretion and split renal function in children with anomalies of the urinary tract. Materials and Methods: A protocol for dynamic MR nephrography was implemented using a T1-weighted navigator-gated TurboFLASH sequence (TR/TE 498 ms/1.25 ms, saturation recovery time 300 ms, flip angle 8 0 ). After bolus injection of 0.05 mmol/kg gadolinium dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), split renal function was determined from the contrast-medium excretion. In 20 patients (ages between 3 months and 14 years), dynamic MR nephrography and MAG3 radionuclide scintigraphy as the gold standard were performed. Results: In all children, T1-weighted images were able to be recorded over 40 minutes at a nearly identical diaphragm position using the TurboFLASH sequence, thus allowing for exact region-of-interest analysis of the excretion and split renal function. The course of the contrast-medium concentration was able to be measured in the renal pelvis with good accuracy due to the high spatial resolution and the lack of breathing artifacts. Excellent correlation to the MAG3 scintigraphy was demonstrated for the excretion and split renal function (correlation coefficient: 0.975). Conclusion: Dynamic MR nephrography allows for reliable assessment of renal function in children with anomalies of the urinary tract with higher spatial resolution as compared to radionuclide scintigraphy. (orig.)
Study of marine magnetic field
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Bhattacharya, G.C.
magnetized in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field at that time. As seafloor spreading pulls the new oceanic crust apart, stripes of approximately the same size gets carried away from the ridge on each side. The basaltic oceanic crust formed...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.
2016-01-01
In this work, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a vertical rigid rotor interacting with a flexible foundation by means of two passive magnetic bearings is quantified and evaluated. The quantification is based on theoretical and experimental investigation of the non-uniformity (anisotropy......) of the magnetic field and the weak nonlinearity of the magnetic forces. Through mathematical modelling the nonlinear equations of motion are established for describing the shaft and bearing housing lateral dynamics coupled via the nonlinear and non-uniform magnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved...
Studying Dynamics in Business Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Poul Houman; Anderson, Helen; Havila, Virpi
1998-01-01
This paper develops a theory on network dynamics using the concepts of role and position from sociological theory. Moreover, the theory is further tested using case studies from Denmark and Finland......This paper develops a theory on network dynamics using the concepts of role and position from sociological theory. Moreover, the theory is further tested using case studies from Denmark and Finland...
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization and other magnetic ideas at EPFL.
Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Wang, Shutao; Mammoli, Daniele; Buratto, Roberto; Salvi, Nicola; Segaw, Takuya F; Vitzthum, Veronika; Miéville, Pascal; Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Perez-Linde, Angel J; Carnevale, Diego; Jannin, Sami; Caporinia, Marc; Ulzega, Simone; Rey, Martial; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2012-01-01
Although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can provide a wealth of information, it often suffers from a lack of sensitivity. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) provides a way to increase the polarization and hence the signal intensities in NMR spectra by transferring the favourable electron spin polarization of paramagnetic centres to the surrounding nuclear spins through appropriate microwave irradiation. In our group at EPFL, two complementary DNP techniques are under investigation: the combination of DNP with magic angle spinning at temperatures near 100 K ('MAS-DNP'), and the combination of DNP at 1.2 K with rapid heating followed by the transfer of the sample to a high-resolution magnet ('dissolution DNP'). Recent applications of MAS-DNP to surfaces, as well as new developments of magnetization transfer of (1)H to (13)C at 1.2 K prior to dissolution will illustrate the work performed in our group. A second part of the paper will give an overview of some 'non-enhanced' activities of our laboratory in liquid- and solid-state NMR.
Biosensor based on measurements of the clustering dynamics of magnetic particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample.......Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample....
Magnetization Dynamics in Two Novel Current-Driven Spintronic Memory Cell Structures
Velazquez-Rizo, Martin
2017-07-01
In this work, two new spintronic memory cell structures are proposed. The first cell uses the diffusion of polarized spins into ferromagnets with perpendicular anisotropy to tilt their magnetization followed by their dipolar coupling to a fixed magnet (Bhowmik et al., 2014). The possibility of setting the magnetization to both stable magnetization states in a controlled manner using a similar concept remains unknown, but the proposed structure poses to be a solution to this difficulty. The second cell proposed takes advantage of the multiple stable magnetic states that exist in ferromagnets with configurational anisotropy and also uses spin torques to manipulate its magnetization. It utilizes a square-shaped ferromagnet whose stable magnetization has preferred directions along the diagonals of the square, giving four stable magnetic states allowing to use the structure as a multi-bit memory cell. Both devices use spin currents generated in heavy metals by the Spin Hall effect present in these materials. Among the advantages of the structures proposed are their inherent non-volatility and the fact that there is no need for applying external magnetic fields during their operation, which drastically improves the energy efficiency of the devices. Computational simulations using the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF) software package were performed to study the dynamics of the magnetization process in both structures and predict their behavior. Besides, we fabricated a 4-terminal memory cell with configurational anisotropy similar to the device proposed, and found four stable resistive states on the structure, proving the feasibility of this technology for implementation of high-density, non-volatile memory cells.
A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larson, D.J.
1993-12-01
A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992
Spin motive force driven by the magnetization dynamics in chiral magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Shimada, Yuhki
2015-01-01
The magnetization dynamics induces the spin-dependent force on the conduction electrons via the s-d coupling. We have investigated numerically this force, so called 'spin-motive force', generated in chiral magnets forming the Skyrmion structure. We solve the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and obtain the Skyrmion lattice structure (SkX) by introducing the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. The corrective mode of the Skyrmion core is obtained by applying the in-plane AC magnetic field. The spin-motive force is generated perpendicular to the velocity of the Skyrmion core. The total voltage due to the spin-motive force is enhanced by the cascade effect of the voltage for each Skyrmion core. For the isolated magnetic disc system, the corrective mode of the Skyrmion lattice is modulated from that of the bulk system by the influence of the edge structure. The phase-locking motion of each Skyrmion core is obtained only in the lowest frequency mode in which the cascade effect of the spin-motive force still remain. (author)
Nuclear magnetic resonance in pulse radiolysis. Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trifunac, A.D.; Johnson, K.W.; Lowers, R.H.
1976-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) were applied to the study of pulse radiolysis. Samples were irradiated with a 3-MeV electron beam from the Argonne Van de Graaff accelerator in an EPR magnet (approximately 4000 G) which had axial holes for beam access. A fast flow system transferred the irradiated solution to the rotating 5-mm NMR sample tube. The NMR spectra of mixtures of sodium acetate and methanol were presented to demonstrate the features of the CIDNP in pulse radiolysis
Deb, Marwan; Molho, Pierre; Barbara, Bernard; Bigot, Jean-Yves
2018-04-01
In this work we explore the ultrafast magnetization dynamics induced by femtosecond laser pulses in a doped film of gadolinium iron garnet over a broad temperature range including the magnetization compensation point TM. By exciting the phonon-assisted 6S→4G and 6S→4P electronic d -d transitions simultaneously by one- and two-photon absorption processes, we find out that the transfer of heat energy from the lattice to the spin has, at a temperature slightly below TM, a large influence on the magnetization dynamics. In particular, we show that the speed and the amplitude of the magnetization dynamics can be strongly increased when increasing either the external magnetic field or the laser energy density. The obtained results are explained by a magnetization reversal process across TM. Furthermore, we find that the dynamics has unusual characteristics which can be understood by considering the weak spin-phonon coupling in magnetic garnets. These results open new perspectives for controlling the magnetic state of magnetic dielectrics using an ultrashort optically induced heat pulse.
Dynamic Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with Power Electronics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
OZCIRA, S.
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet DC motor-generators (PMDC, PMSG have been widely used in industrial and energy sectors recently. Power control of these systems can be achieved by controlling the output voltage. In this study, PMDC-PMSG systems are mathematically modeled and simulated in MATLAB and Simulink software. Then the results are discussed. A low power permanent magnet synchronous generator is driven by a permanent magnet DC motor and the output voltage is controlled by a frequency cycle-converter. The output of a half-wave uncontrolled rectifier is applied to an SPWM inverter and the power is supplied to a 300V, 50Hz load. The load which is connected to an LC filter is modeled by state-space equations. LC filter is utilized in order to suppress the voltage oscillations at the inverter output.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lam Wynnie WM
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Restrictive impairment is the commonest reported pulmonary deficit in AIS, which improves following surgical operation. However, exact mechanism of how improvement is brought about is unknown. Dynamic fast breath-hold (BH-MR imaging is a recent advance which provides direct quantitative visual assessment of pulmonary function. By using above technique, change in lung volume, chest wall and diaphragmatic motion in AIS patients before and six months after posterior spinal fusion surgery were measured. Methods 16 patients with severe right-sided predominant thoracic scoliosis (standing Cobb's angle 50° -82°, mean 60° received posterior spinal fusion without thoracoplasty were recruited into this study. BH-MR sequences were used to obtain coronal images of the whole chest during full inspiration and expiration. The following measurements were assessed: (1 inspiratory, expiratory and change in lung volume; (2 change in anteroposterior (AP and transverse (TS diameter of the chest wall at two levels: carina and apex (3 change in diaphragmatic heights. The changes in parameters before and after operation were compared using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Patients were also asked to score their breathing effort before and after operation using a scale of 1–9 with ascending order of effort. The degree of spinal surgical correction at three planes was also assessed by reformatted MR images and correction rate of Cobb's angle was calculated. Results The individual or total inspiratory and expiratory volume showed slight but insignificant increase after operation. There was significantly increase in bilateral TS chest wall movement at carina level and increase in bilateral diaphragmatic movements between inspiration and expiration. The AP chest wall movements, however, did not significantly change. The median breathing effort after operation was lower than that before operation (p There was significant reduction in coronal Cobb's angle
Dynamics of local isolated magnetic flux tubes in a fast-rotating stellar atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, W.; Tajima, C.T.; Shibata, K.
1998-01-01
Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in the fast rotating stellar atmosphere is studied. We focus on the effects and signatures of the instability of the flux tube emergence influenced by the Coriolis force. We present the result from a linear stability analysis and discuss its possible signatures in the course of the evolution of G-type and M-type stars. We present a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation of local isolated magnetic flux tubes under a magnetic buoyancy instability in co-rotating Cartesian coordinates. We find that the combination of the buoyancy instability and the Coriolis effect gives rise to a mechanism, to twist the emerging magnetic flux tube into a helical structure. The tilt angle, east-west asymmetry and magnetic helicity of the Twisted flux tubes in the simulations are studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear analyses provide hints as to what kind of pattern of large spots in young M-type main-sequence stars might be observed. We find that young and old G-type stars may have different distributions of spots while M-type stars may always have low latitudes spots. The size of stellar spots may decrease when a star becomes older, due to the decreasing of magnetic field. A qualitative comparison with solar observations is also presented
Cheng, Tai-min; Yu, Guo-Liang; Su, Yong; Ge, Chong-Yuan; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Lin; Li, Lin
2018-05-01
The ordered crystalline Invar alloy Fe3Pt is in a special magnetic critical state, under which the lattice dynamic stability of the system is extremely sensitive to external pressures. We studied the pressure dependence of enthalpy and magnetism of Fe3Pt in different crystalline alloys by using the first-principles projector augmented-wave method based on the density functional theory. Results show that the P4/mbm structure is the ground state structure and is more stable relative to other structures at pressures below 18.54 GPa. The total magnetic moments of L12, I4/mmm and DO22 structures decrease rapidly with pressure and oscillate near the ferromagnetic collapse critical pressure. At the pressure of 43 GPa, the ferrimagnetic property in DO22 structure becomes apparently strengthened and its volume increases rapidly. The lattice dynamics calculation for L12 structures at high pressures shows that the spontaneous magnetization of the system in ferromagnetic states induces the softening of the transverse acoustic phonon TA1 (M), and there exists a strong spontaneous volume magnetostriction at pressures below 26.95 GPa. Especially, the lattice dynamics stability is sensitive to pressure, in the pressure range between the ferromagnetic collapse critical pressure (41.9 GPa) and the magnetism completely disappearing pressure (57.25 GPa), and near the pressure of phase transition from L12 to P4/mbm structure (27.27 GPa). Moreover, the instability of magnetic structure leads to a prominent elastic modulus oscillation, and the spin polarizability of electrons near the Fermi level is very sensitive to pressures in that the pressure range. The pressure induces the stability of the phonon spectra of the system at pressures above 57.25 GPa.
Magnetic resonance study of maghemite-based magnetic fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueiredo, L.C.; Lacava, B.M.; Skeff Neto, K.; Pelegrini, F.; Morais, P.C.
2008-01-01
This study reports on the magnetic resonance (MR) data (X-band experiment) of 10.2 nm average diameter maghemite nanoparticle in the temperature range of 100-230 K. Maghemite nanoparticles were suspended as low-pH ionic magnetic fluid containing 2.3x10 17 particles/cm 3 . The temperature dependence of both resonance linewidth and resonance field of the zero-field-cooled sample as well as the resonance field of the field-cooled sample (angular variation experiment) was analyzed using well-established methodology. Information regarding particle size, particle clusterization and surface magnetic anisotropy were obtained from the analysis of the MR data. The number of magnetic sites per particle from the MR data is in excellent agreement with the number provided by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data. The demagnetizing field value obtained from the MR data indicates cluster of particles containing on average 1.42 particles. The MR angular variation data suggest that magnetoelastic effect accounts for the non-linearity observed for the surface component of the magnetic anisotropy
Geometry effects on magnetization dynamics in circular cross-section wires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sturma, M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Toussaint, J.-C., E-mail: jean-christophe.toussaint@neel.cnrs.fr, E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Gusakova, D., E-mail: jean-christophe.toussaint@neel.cnrs.fr, E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2015-06-28
Three-dimensional magnetic memory design based on circular-cross section nanowires with modulated diameter is the emerging field of spintronics. The consequences of the mutual interaction between electron spins and local magnetic moments in such non-trivial geometries are still open to debate. This paper describes the theoretical study of domain wall dynamics within such wires subjected to spin polarized current. We used our home-made finite element software to characterize the variety of domain wall dynamical regimes observed for different constriction to wire diameter ratios d/D. Also, we studied how sizeable geometry irregularities modify the internal micromagnetic configuration and the electron spin spatial distribution in the system, the geometrical reasons underlying the additional contribution to the system's nonadiabaticity, and the specific domain wall width oscillations inherent to fully three-dimensional systems.
Pourmehran, Oveis; Gorji, Tahereh B; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid
2016-10-01
Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is a local drug delivery system which aims to concentrate a pharmacological agent at its site of action in order to minimize undesired side effects due to systemic distribution in the organism. Using magnetic drug particles under the influence of an external magnetic field, the drug particles are navigated toward the target region. Herein, computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate the air flow and magnetic particle deposition in a realistic human airway geometry obtained by CT scan images. Using discrete phase modeling and one-way coupling of particle-fluid phases, a Lagrangian approach for particle tracking in the presence of an external non-uniform magnetic field was applied. Polystyrene (PMS40) particles were utilized as the magnetic drug carrier. A parametric study was conducted, and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, magnetic field strength and inhalation condition on the particle transport pattern and deposition efficiency (DE) was reported. Overall, the results show considerable promise of MDT in deposition enhancement at the target region (i.e., left lung). However, the positive effect of increasing particle size on DE enhancement was evident at smaller magnetic field strengths (Mn [Formula: see text] 1.5 T), whereas, at higher applied magnetic field strengths, increasing particle size has a inverse effect on DE. This implies that for efficient MTD in the human respiratory system, an optimal combination of magnetic drug career characteristics and magnetic field strength has to be achieved.
MFM study of magnetic interaction between recording and soft magnetic layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honda, Yukio; Tanahashi, Kiwamu; Hirayama, Yoshiyuki; Kikukawa, Atsushi; Futamoto, Masaaki
2001-01-01
Magnetic force microscopy was used to study the magnetic interaction between the recording and the soft magnetic layers in double-layer perpendicular media by observing the magnetization structure from the soft magnetic layer side. There was a strong magnetic interaction between the recording and the soft magnetic layers. Introducing a thin nonmagnetic intermediate layer between the two layers greatly reduced the magnetic interaction and drastically reduced the medium noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyoshi, Takahiro; Becchaku, Masahiro; Kusano, Kanya
2008-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics of the resistive tearing instability in high magnetic Reynolds number (R m ) plasmas is studied by newly developing an accurate and robust resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scheme. The results show that reconnection processes strongly depend on R m . Particularly, in a high R m case, small-scale plasmoids induced by a secondary instability are intermittently generated and ejected accompanied by fast shocks. According to the intermittent processes, the reconnection rate increases intermittently at a later nonlinear stage. (author)
Field-dependent dynamic responses from dilute magnetic nanoparticle dispersions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fock, Jeppe; Balceris, Christoph; Costo, Rocio
2018-01-01
The response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to an oscillating magnetic field outside the linear response region is important for several applications including magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and biodetection. The size and magnetic moment are two critical parameters for the pe...
Dynamic control of magnetic nanowires by light-induced domain-wall kickoffs
Heintze, Eric; El Hallak, Fadi; Clauß, Conrad; Rettori, Angelo; Pini, Maria Gloria; Totti, Federico; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo
2013-03-01
Controlling the speed at which systems evolve is a challenge shared by all disciplines, and otherwise unrelated areas use common theoretical frameworks towards this goal. A particularly widespread model is Glauber dynamics, which describes the time evolution of the Ising model and can be applied to any binary system. Here we show, using molecular nanowires under irradiation, that Glauber dynamics can be controlled by a novel domain-wall kickoff mechanism. In contrast to known processes, the kickoff has unambiguous fingerprints, slowing down the spin-flip attempt rate by several orders of magnitude, and following a scaling law. The required irradiance is very low, a substantial improvement over present methods of magneto-optical switching. These results provide a new way to control and study stochastic dynamic processes. Being general for Glauber dynamics, they can be extended to different kinds of magnetic nanowires and to numerous fields, ranging from social evolution to neural networks and chemical reactivity.
arXiv Cyclotrons: Magnetic Design and Beam Dynamics
Zaremba, Simon
Classical, isochronous, and synchro-cyclotrons are introduced. Transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics in these accelerators are covered. The problem of vertical focusing and iscochronism in compact isochronous cyclotrons is treated in some detail. Different methods for isochronization of the cyclotron magnetic field are discussed. The limits of the classical cyclotron are explained. Typical features of the synchro-cyclotron, such as the beam capture problem, stable phase motion, and the extraction problem are discussed. The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with an internal ion source are considered. The principle of a Penning ion gauge source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different methods of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. Different solutions for beam extraction are described. These include the internal target, extracti...
One dimensional FexCo1-x nanowires; ferromagnetic resonance and magnetization dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shehreen Aslam
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Soft magnetic nanowires (NWs are widely used for microwave and mm-wave components. The investigation of magnetization damping behavior of NWs have attracted great interest due to large influence of loss to the device, like integrated microwave device, magnetic sensors, and magnetic random access memory. With increasing operational frequency and degree of integration, the requirements to characterize 1-dimensional NWs become increasingly high. The purpose of this work is to study the magnetization dynamics in FexCo1-x NWs. A series of FexCo1-x (x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 NWs were grown by controlled electro-deposition. By adjusting FexCo1-x concentration (x=0 to 1, the saturation magnetization, increased more than 20%. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR both in field and frequency sweep mode are employed to characterize the NWs in flip-chip geometry. It is observed that FMR field (Hr increases with increase in applied frequency. At a fixed frequency, Fe NWs resonate at a lower field than the Co substituted NWs. FMR field linewidth (ΔH as well as frequency width (Δf are largest for Co NWs and decreased for Fe NWs. Whereas ΔH and Δf decreased further for FexCo1-x nanowires with increasing x.
Hall current effects in dynamic magnetic reconnection solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craig, I.J.D.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Watson, P.G.
2003-01-01
The impact of Hall current contributions on flow driven planar magnetic merging solutions is discussed. The Hall current is important if the dimensionless Hall parameter (or normalized ion skin depth) satisfies c H >η, where η is the inverse Lundquist number for the plasma. A dynamic analysis of the problem shows, however, that the Hall current initially manifests itself, not by modifying the planar reconnection field, but by inducing a non-reconnecting perpendicular 'separator' component in the magnetic field. Only if the stronger condition c H 2 >η is satisfied can Hall currents be expected to affect the planar merging. These analytic predictions are then tested by performing a series of numerical experiments in periodic geometry, using the full system of planar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The numerical results confirm that the nature of the merging changes dramatically when the Hall coupling satisfies c H 2 >η. In line with the analytic treatment of sheared reconnection, the coupling provided by the Hall term leads to the emergence of multiple current layers that can enhance the global Ohmic dissipation at the expense of the reconnection rate. However, the details of the dissipation depend critically on the symmetries of the simulation, and when the merging is 'head-on' (i.e., comprises fourfold symmetry) the reconnection rate can be enhanced
Microscopic theory for coupled atomistic magnetization and lattice dynamics
Fransson, J.; Thonig, D.; Bessarab, P. F.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Hellsvik, J.; Nordström, L.
2017-12-01
A coupled atomistic spin and lattice dynamics approach is developed which merges the dynamics of these two degrees of freedom into a single set of coupled equations of motion. The underlying microscopic model comprises local exchange interactions between the electron spin and magnetic moment and the local couplings between the electronic charge and lattice displacements. An effective action for the spin and lattice variables is constructed in which the interactions among the spin and lattice components are determined by the underlying electronic structure. In this way, expressions are obtained for the electronically mediated couplings between the spin and lattice degrees of freedom, besides the well known interatomic force constants and spin-spin interactions. These former susceptibilities provide an atomistic ab initio description for the coupled spin and lattice dynamics. It is important to notice that this theory is strictly bilinear in the spin and lattice variables and provides a minimal model for the coupled dynamics of these subsystems and that the two subsystems are treated on the same footing. Questions concerning time-reversal and inversion symmetry are rigorously addressed and it is shown how these aspects are absorbed in the tensor structure of the interaction fields. By means of these results regarding the spin-lattice coupling, simple explanations of ionic dimerization in double-antiferromagnetic materials, as well as charge density waves induced by a nonuniform spin structure, are given. In the final parts, coupled equations of motion for the combined spin and lattice dynamics are constructed, which subsequently can be reduced to a form which is analogous to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for spin dynamics and a damped driven mechanical oscillator for the ionic motion. It is important to notice, however, that these equations comprise contributions that couple these descriptions into one unified formulation. Finally, Kubo-like expressions for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shaobing; Qian Jun; Wang Yuzhu
2017-01-01
Superexchange and inter-orbital spin-exchange interactions are key ingredients for understanding (orbital) quantum magnetism in strongly correlated systems and have been realized in ultracold atomic gases. Here we study the spin dynamics of ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice when the two exchange interactions coexist. In the superexchange interaction dominating regime, we find that the time-resolved spin imbalance shows a remarkable modulated oscillation, which can be attributed to the interplay between local and nonlocal quantum mechanical exchange mechanisms. Moreover, the filling of the long-lived excited atoms affects the collapse and revival of the magnetization dynamics. These observations can be realized in state-dependent optical lattices combined with the state-of-the-art advances in optical lattice clock spectroscopy. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clore, G.M.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Nilges, M.; Ryan, C.A.
1987-01-01
The solution conformation of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (CPI) has been investigated by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The spectrum is assigned in a sequential manner by using two-dimensional NMR techniques to identify through-bond and through-space (<5 A) connectivities. A set of 309 approximate interproton distance restraints is derived from the two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra and used as the basis of a three-dimensional structure determination by a combination of metric matrix distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. A total of 11 converged distance geometry structures were computed and refined by using restrained molecular dynamics. The average atomic root mean square (rms) difference between the final 11 structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 1.4 +/- 0.3 A for residues 2-39 and 0.9 +/- 0.2 A for residues 5-37. The corresponding values for all atoms are 1.9 +/- 0.3 and 1.4 +/- 0.2 A, respectively. The computed structures are very close to the X-ray structure of CPI in its complex with carboxypeptidase, and the backbone atomic rms difference between the mean of the computed structures and the X-ray structure is only 1.2 A. Nevertheless, there are some real differences present which are evidenced by significant deviations between the experimental upper interproton distance limits and the corresponding interproton distances derived from the X-ray structure. These principally occur in two regions, residues 18-20 and residues 28-30, the latter comprising part of the region of secondary contact between CPI and carboxypeptidase in the X-ray structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calderon, Oscar G; Melle, Sonia
2002-01-01
We study theoretically the dynamics of a system of two magnetizable particles suspended in a non-magnetic fluid subject to a rotating magnetic field when a modulation on the Mason number (ratio of viscous to magnetic forces) is applied. We find, using a periodic modulation, that a resonant-like phenomenon between the periodic modulation of the Mason number and the intrinsic radial oscillation of the system without modulation occurs. For a random perturbation of the Mason number, we obtain an optimum noise strength at which the average interparticle distance reaches the lowest value. When a weak periodic modulation and a noise source are included in the Mason number, stochastic resonance (SR) is found for different frequencies and amplitudes of the modulation. An interpretation of this SR phenomenon is made by means of a threshold crossing mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuppermann, A.
1978-01-01
Progress made in the following studies is reported: low-energy electron scattering; variable-angle photoelectron spectroscopy; laser photochemistry and spectroscopy; and collisions in crossed molecular beams
Ertaş, Mehmet
2015-09-01
Keskin and Ertaş (2009) presented a study of the magnetic properties of a mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model within an oscillating magnetic field. They employed dynamic mean-field calculations to find the dynamic phase transition temperatures, the dynamic compensation points of the model and to present the dynamic phase diagrams. In this work, we extend the study and investigate the dynamic hysteresis behaviors for the two-dimensional (2D) mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model on a hexagonal lattice in an oscillating magnetic field within the framework of dynamic mean-field calculations. The dynamic hysteresis curves are obtained for both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions and the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic hysteresis behaviors are discussed in detail. The thermal behaviors of the coercivity and remanent magnetizations are also investigated. The results are compared with some theoretical and experimental works and a qualitatively good agreement is found. Finally, the dynamic phase diagrams depending on the frequency of an oscillating magnetic field in the plane of the reduced temperature versus magnetic field amplitude is examined and it is found that the dynamic phase diagrams display richer dynamic critical behavior for higher values of frequency than for lower values.
Neutron-scattering studies of magnetic superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, S.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hinks, D.G.; Mook, H.A.; Pringle, O.A.
1982-01-01
Results obtained in the last few years obtained by neutron diffraction on the nature of the magnetic ordering in magnetic superconductors are reviewed. Emphasis is given to studies of the complex intermediate phase in ferromagnetic superconductors where both superconductivity and ferromagnetism appear to coexist
Study of a magnetically oriented lyotropic mesophase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaral, L.Q.; Pimentel, C.A.; Tavares, M.R.; Vanin, J.A.
A study of a magnetically oriented lyomesophase formed by a quaternary system (Na decyl sulfate/water/decanol/ Na sulfate) is reported. Small angle X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed on unoriented samples and samples previously subjected to the action of magnetic fields (H vector). A model of finite planar micelles surrounded by water is proposed [pt
Dynamical analysis of a flywheel-superconducting bearing with a moving magnet support
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivrioglu, Selim; Nonami, Kenzo
2003-01-01
A lateral stiffness improvement approach based on a moving magnet support is developed to reduce the vibration of a flywheel rotor-high temperature superconductor (HTS) bearing. A flywheel rotor levitated with an HTS bearing is modelled and then analysed with a moving stator magnet placed above the rotor. A dynamic support principle is introduced based on moving the stator magnet in anti-phase with the rotor displacement for small variations. A complete dynamical equation of the flywheel rotor is derived including gyroscopic and imbalance effects. The simulation results showed that the dynamic support of the flywheel rotor with additional stator magnet movements decreases the vibration of the flywheel rotor considerably
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oezdogan, K.; Oezdemir, M.; Yalcin, O.; Aktas, B.
2002-01-01
The dispersion relation on ferromagnetic films was calculation by using torque equation of motion with a damping term. The total energy including zeeman, demagnetizing and anisotropy energy terms was used to get ferromagnetic resonance frequency for both uniform and higher order spin wave modes. In antiferromagnetic films, the torque equation of motion for each sub-lattice were written to derive an expression for the dispersion relation. The magnetic trilayer system under investigation consist of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a nonmagnetic layer. The dispersion relation of magnetic/nonmagnetic/magnetic three layers is calculated by using Landau-Lifshitz dynamic equation of motion for the magnetization with interlayer exchange energy. As for the exchange-coupled resonance of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), the theoretical study has been calculated for both symmetrical and asymmetrical structures. In this systems, the exchange-coupling parameter A 12 between neighboring layers was used to get resonance fields as a function of the angle between the magnetization vectors of each magnetic layers
A Study on Magnetic Decoupling of Compound-Structure Permanent-Magnet Motor for HEVs Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiwei Xu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The compound-structure permanent-magnet (CSPM motor is used for an electrical continuously-variable transmission (E-CVT in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. It can make the internal combustion engine (ICE independent of the road loads and run in the high efficiency area to improve the fuel economy and reduce the emissions. This paper studies the magnetic coupling of a new type of CSPM motor used in HEVs. Firstly, through the analysis of the parameter matching with CSPM in the HEV, we receive the same dynamic properties’ design parameters between the CSPM motor and the THS (Toyota Hybrid System of the Toyota Prius. Next, we establish the equivalent magnetic circuit model of the overall and the secondary model considering the tangential and radial flux distribution in the outer rotor of the CSPM motor. Based on these two models, we explore the internal magnetic coupling rule of the CSPM motor. Finally, finite element method analysis in 2D-ansoft is used to analyze the magnetic field distribution of the CSPM motor in different operation modes. By the result of the finite element method analysis, the internal magnetic decoupling scheme is put forward, laying the theoretical foundation for the further application of the CSPM motor in HEVs.
On the theory of stochastic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Sharif, R.N.; El-Atoy, N.S. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Dept., N.R.C, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)]|[Physics Dept., Girls Colleges, KSA (Saudi Arabia)
2004-07-01
This work is devoted to a study of the motion of plasma electrons in a system of two fields, a magnetic field along z-axis and wave-packet field, which propagates in the x-z plane. The strongest interaction between plasma electrons and both fields is due to their resonance with these fields. The motion of plasma electrons become stochastic when a set of resonance overlapping. Conditions for stochasticity are obtained. (orig.)
On the theory of stochastic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Sharif, R.N.; El-Atoy, N.S.
2004-01-01
This work is devoted to a study of the motion of plasma electrons in a system of two fields, a magnetic field along z-axis and wave-packet field, which propagates in the x-z plane. The strongest interaction between plasma electrons and both fields is due to their resonance with these fields. The motion of plasma electrons become stochastic when a set of resonance overlapping. Conditions for stochasticity are obtained. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-01-01
By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetic behavior of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths system is investigated by using the path probability method. • The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. • The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. • We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-03-01
By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetic behavior of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths system is investigated by using the path probability method. • The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. • The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. • We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory.
Static and dynamic magnetic properties of densely packed magnetic nanowire arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dmytriiev, O.; Al-Jarah, U.A.S.; Gangmei, P.
2013-01-01
and a continuous ferromagnetic thin film. In particular, the competition between anisotropies associated with the shape of the individual nanowires and that of the array as a whole has been studied. Measured and simulated hysteresis loops are largely anhysteretic with zero remanence, and the micromagnetic...... configuration is such that the net magnetization vanishes in directions orthogonal to the applied field. Simulations of the remanent state reveal antiferromagnetic alignment of the magnetization in adjacent nanowires and the formation of vortex flux closure structures at the ends of each nanowire....... The excitation spectra obtained from experiment and micromagnetic simulations are in qualitative agreement for magnetic fields applied both parallel and perpendicular to the axes of the nanowires. For the field parallel to the nanowire axes, there is also good quantitative agreement between experiment...
Complex Magnetic Systems Studied with Neutron Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Henrik
by experimental nonidealities, and must therefore be real. It was therefore concluded that the dynamic stripes are not the Goldstone modes associated with the broken symmetry of the static stripes. In other words, the dynamic and static signals originate in two dierent phases of the sample. This has wide......, resting on loops of 10 spins. This hidden order is quite unusual, as only groups of spins order, while individual spins remain correlated only over short distances. The hidden order has been shown to also be present in GAG, although the magnitude of the order parameter is smaller here. The magnetic...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genders, S.
1979-01-01
A case study of a shallow, well mixed fjord illustrates the use of radioactive and an activable tracer. An instantaneous injection of the rare earth lanthanum was used as an activable tracer to determine residence-time and internal recirculation in the fjord system. An instantaneous injection of bromine-82 was used to investigate tae bypass of water from a harbour area through a power plant cooling water system to a partly enclosed basin of the fjord. Instantaneous releases of bromine-82 were further used for short time studies of the primary spread and transport of river water discharged to the inner section of the fjord system. (Author) [pt
Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype
Schoerling, D
2013-01-01
The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L
2012-01-01
We study the nonlinear oscillations of a forced and weakly dissipative spring–magnet system moving in the magnetic fields of two fixed coaxial, hollow induction coils. As the first coil is excited with a dc current, both a linear and a cubic magnet-position dependent force appear on the magnet–spring system. The second coil, located below the first, excited with an ac current, provides the oscillating magnetic driving force on the system. From the magnet–coil interactions, we obtain, analytically, the nonlinear motion equation of the system, found to be a forced and damped cubic Duffing oscillator moving in a quartic potential. The relative strengths of the coefficients of the motion equation can be easily set by varying the coils’ dc and ac currents. We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, the nonlinear behaviour of this oscillator, including its oscillation modes and nonlinear resonances, the fold-over effect, the hysteresis and amplitude jumps, and its chaotic behaviour. It is an oscillating system suitable for teaching an advanced experiment in nonlinear dynamics both at senior undergraduate and graduate levels. (paper)
Micromagnetic simulation on the dynamic permeability spectrum of micrometer sized magnetic elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Huanhuan; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong
2014-01-01
The inductance of a thin film inductor with magnetic core is much less than μ'(magnetic core's permeability) times that of inductor without magnetic core due to the complicated magnetic structure in the scaled-down magnetic elements. Therefore, it is very important to optimize the micro-scale magnetic structure for improving the inductance value of the thin film inductor with magnetic core. In this paper, the magnetization dynamics and magnetic structure have been investigated using micromagnetic simulation method, in which the additional internal boundaries are considered. The simulated results show that the permeability of structured micromagnetic core is promoted 32.5% than that of magnetic element without slits. It opens a new way to improve the dynamic high frequency characteristics of micro-scale magnetic element, which can be used in a thin film inductor. - Highlights: • Simulate the magnetic element with dimensions of 2 μm×1 μm×100 nm with slits using micromagnetic simulation method. • The dynamic characteristics of micro-scale magnetic element can be improved when adding appropriate slits. • Give the corresponding area for different resonance frequency
Superconductive energy storage magnet study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhee, S.W.
1982-01-01
Among many methods of energy storages the superconducting energy storage has been considered as the most promising method. Many related technical problems are still unsolved. One of the problems is the magnetizing and demagnetizing loss of superconducting coil. This loss is mainly because of hysteresis of pinning force. In this paper the hysteresis loss is calculated and field dependence of the a.c. losses is explained. The ratio of loss and stored energy is also calculated. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rousochatzakis, Ioannis [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2005-12-17
The field of molecular magnetism[l-6] has become a subject of intense theoretical and experimental interest and has rapidly evolved during the last years. This inter-disciplinary field concerns magnetic systems at the molecular or "nanoscopic" level, whose realization has become feasible due to recent advances in the field of chemical synthesis. The present theoretical work provides a first step towards exploiting the possibilities that are offered by probing magnetic molecules using external magnetic fields with high sweep rates. These probes, apart for providing information specific to magnetic molecules, offer the possibility of conducting a detailed study of the relaxational behavior of interacting spin systems as a result of their coupling with a "heat bath" and in particular the excitations of the host lattice. Development of a broad theoretical framework for dealing with relaxational phenomena induced by dynamical magnetic fields is indeed a worthy goal.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Newbold, Kate [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Castellano, Isabel [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Charles-Edwards, Elizabeth [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Mears, Dorothy; Sohaib, Aslam [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Leach, Martin [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Rhys-Evans, Peter; Clarke, Peter; Fisher, Cyril [Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Harrington, Kevin [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Nutting, Christopher [Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)
2009-05-01
Purpose: Hypoxia in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC) is well established and known to cause radiation resistance and treatment failure in the management of HNC. This study examines the role of parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and perfusion computed tomography (CT) as surrogate markers of intratumoral hypoxia, defined by using the exogenous marker of hypoxia pimonidazole and the endogenous marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9). Methods and Materials: Patients with HNC underwent preoperative DCE-MRI, perfusion CT, and pimonidazole infusion. Imaging parameters were correlated with pimonidazole and CA9 staining. The strength of correlations was tested by using a two-tailed Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Twenty-three regions of interest were analyzed from the 7 patients who completed the DCE-MRI studies. A number of statistically significant correlations were seen between DCE-MRI parameters (volume transfer between blood plasma and extracellular extravascular space [EES], volume of EES, rate constant between EES and blood plasma, time at arrival of contrast inflow, time to peak, average gradient, and time to onset) and areas with a pimonidazole score of 4. In the case of CA9 staining, only a weak correlation was shown with wash-in rate. There were no significant correlations between perfusion CT parameters and pimonidazole staining or CA9 expression. Conclusion: Intratumoral hypoxia in patients with HNC may be predicted by using DCE-MRI; however, perfusion CT requires further investigation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ki Hwan Kim
Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations produce oscillating magnetic fields. There have been trials to detect neuronal oscillations using MRI, but the detectability in in vivo is still in debate. Major obstacles to detecting neuronal oscillations are (i weak amplitudes, (ii fast oscillations, which are faster than MRI temporal resolution, and (iii random frequencies and on/off intervals. In this study, we proposed a new approach for direct detection of weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields. The approach consists of (i dynamic acquisitions using multiple times to repeats (TRs and (ii an expanded frequency spectral analysis. Gradient echo echo-planar imaging was used to test the feasibility of the proposed approach with a phantom generating oscillating magnetic fields with various frequencies and amplitudes and random on/off intervals. The results showed that the proposed approach could precisely detect the weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields with random frequencies and on/off intervals. Complex and phase spectra showed reliable signals, while no meaningful signals were observed in magnitude spectra. A two-TR approach provided an absolute frequency spectrum above Nyquist sampling frequency pixel by pixel with no a priori target frequency information. The proposed dynamic multiple-TR imaging and Fourier analysis are promising for direct detection of neuronal oscillations and potentially applicable to any pulse sequences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, H.L.; Wang, X.
2006-01-01
In this paper, an analytical method is introduced to solve the problem for the dynamic stress-focusing and centred-effect of perturbation of the magnetic field vector in orthotropic cylinders under thermal and mechanical shock loads. Analytical expressions for the dynamic stresses and the perturbation of the magnetic field vector are obtained by means of finite Hankel transforms and Laplace transforms. The response histories of dynamic stresses and the perturbation of the field vector are also obtained. In practical examples, the dynamic focusing effect on both magnetoelastic stress and perturbation of the axial magnetic field vector in an orthotropic cylinder subjected to various shock loads is presented and discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumano, Seishi; Okada, Masahiro; Murakami, Takamichi; Uemura, Masahiko; Haraikawa, Toyoaki; Hirata, Masaaki; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Kim, Tonsok
2009-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of double arterial phase dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the sensitivity encoding technique (SENSE dynamic MRI) for detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in comparison with double arterial phase dynamic multidetector-row helical computed tomography (dynamic MDCT). A total of 28 patients with 66 hypervascular HCCs underwent both double arterial SENSE dynamic MRI and dynamic MDCT. The diagnosis of HCC was based on surgical resection (n=7), biopsy (n=10), or a combination of CT during arterial portography (CTAP), CT during hepatic arteriography (CTA), and/or the 6-month follow-up CT (n=49). Based on alternative-free response receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the diagnostic performance for detecting HCC was compared between double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI and double arterial phase dynamic MDCT. The mean sensitivity, positive predictive value, and mean A Z values for hypervascular HCCs were 72%, 80%, and 0.79, respectively, for SENSE dynamic MRI and 66%, 92%, and 0.78, respectively, for dynamic MDCT. The mean sensitivity for double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI was higher than that for double arterial phase dynamic MDCT, but the difference was not statistically significant. Double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI is as valuable as double arterial phase dynamic MDCT for detecting hypervascular HCCs. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acharyya, Muktish, E-mail: muktish.physics@presiuniv.ac.in; Halder, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.rs@presiuniv.ac.in
2017-03-15
The dynamical responses of Blume-Capel (S=1) ferromagnet to the plane propagating (with fixed frequency and wavelength) and standing magnetic field waves are studied separately in two dimensions by extensive Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the values of temperature, amplitude of the propagating magnetic field and the strength of anisotropy, two different dynamical phases are observed. For a fixed value of anisotropy and the amplitude of the propagating magnetic field, the system undergoes a dynamical phase transition from a driven spin wave propagating phase to a pinned or spin frozen state as the system is cooled down. The time averaged magnetisation over a full cycle of the propagating magnetic field plays the role of the dynamic order parameter. A comprehensive phase diagram is plotted in the plane formed by the amplitude of the propagating wave and the temperature of the system. It is found that the phase boundary shrinks inward as the anisotropy increases. The phase boundary, in the plane described by the strength of the anisotropy and temperature, is also drawn. This phase boundary was observed to shrink inward as the field amplitude increases. - Highlights: • The Blume-Capel ferromagnet in propagating and standing magnetic wave. • Monte Carlo single spin flip Metropolis algorithm is employed. • The dynamical modes are observed. • The nonequilibrium phase transitions are studied. • The phase boundaries are drawn.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2010-09-15
We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Kantar, Ersin
2010-01-01
We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.
Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.
2012-01-01
We study the nonlinear oscillations of a forced and weakly dissipative spring-magnet system moving in the magnetic fields of two fixed coaxial, hollow induction coils. As the first coil is excited with a dc current, both a linear and a cubic magnet-position dependent force appear on the magnet-spring system. The second coil, located below the…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kojima, Yumi; Aoki, Yoichi; Kase, Hiroaki; Kodama, Shoji; Tanaka, Kenichi
1998-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dynamic MR imaging) in the evaluation of preinvasive and early invasive cancer of the cervix. Twenty-nine women with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with either no stromal invasion or early stromal invasion underwent pretreatment MR imaging and dynamic MR imaging within 4 weeks of surgical evaluation. The images were evaluated for tumor detection and compared with results of histologic examination of the surgical specimens. The lesions in 17 cases with histologically proven stromal invasion of 4 mm or greater were detected with dynamic MR imaging, whereas lesions in only 8 of these cases were detected with T2 imaging. In 9 cases with stromal invasion between 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm, lesions were represented as early phase focal enhancement on dynamic MR images, but not detected on T2-weighted images. In the 12 cases with less than 4 mm stromal invasion, no lesions were visualized on either T2-weighted images or dynamic MR images, except in 1 case of glandular involvement without stromal invasion that appeared as enhancement on early-phase dynamic MR imaging. Dynamic MR imaging detected more lesions of early stromal invasion in pretreatment imaging for cervical cancer than nonenhanced MR imaging. (author)
Study on dynamic lifting characteristics of control rod drive mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Xiaoyao
2012-01-01
Based on the equations of the electric circuit and the magnetic circuit and analysis of the dynamic lifting process for the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), coupled magnetic-electric-mechanical equations both for the static status and the dynamic status are derived. The analytical method is utilized to obtain the current and the time when the lift starts. The numerical simulation method of dynamic analysis recommended by ASME Code is utilized to simulate the dynamic lifting process of CRDM, and the dynamic features of the system with different design gaps are studied. Conclusions are drawn as: (1) the lifting-start time increases with the design gap, and the time for the lifting process is longer with larger gaps; (2) the lifting velocity increases with time; (3) the lifting acceleration increases with time, and with smaller gaps, the impact acceleration is larger. (author)
Are low-dimensional dynamics typical in magnetically confined plasmas?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ball, R.; Dewar, R.L.
2000-01-01
Full text: Since 1988 there have been many serious attempts to construct low-dimensional dynamical systems that model L-H transitions and associated oscillatory phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas. Such models usually consist of coupled ordinary differential equations in a few dynamical state variables and several parameters that represent physical properties or external controls. The advantages of a unified, low-dimensional approach to modelling plasma behaviour are multifold. Most importantly, the qualitative analysis of nonlinear ODE and algebraic systems is supported by a substantial body of theory. The toolkits of singularity and stability theory are well-developed and accessible, and contain the right tools for the job of charting the state and parameter space. One of the driving forces behind the development of low-dimensional dynamical models is the predictive potential of a parameter map. For example, a model that talks of the shape and extent of hysteresis in the L-H transition would help engineers who are interested in controlling access to H-mode. We can express this problem another way: given the enormous number of variables and parameters that could be varied around a hysteretic regime, it would be cheaper to know in advance which ones actually do influence the quality and quantity of the hysteresis. The quest for a low-dimensional state space that contains the qualitative dynamics of L-H transitions also introduces other problems. We need to identify the essential (few) dynamical variables and the essential (few) independent parameter groups, clarify the mechanisms for the feedback that is modelled by nonlinear terms, and identify symmetries in the physics. Before jumping the gun on these questions the fundamental issue should be addressed of whether a confined plasma, having many important length and time scales, steep gradients, strong anisotropy, and an uncountable multiplicity of states, can indeed exhibit low-dimensional dynamics. In this
Dynamic Aperture Studies for the LHC High Luminosity Lattice
De Maria, R; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Mcintosh, Eric; Cai, Y; Nosochkov, Y; Wang, M H
2015-01-01
Since quite some time, dynamic aperture studies have been undertaken with the aim of specifying the required field quality of the new magnets that will be installed in the LHC ring in the framework of the high-luminosity upgrade. In this paper the latest results concerning the specification work will be presented, taking into account both injection and collision energies and the field quality contribution from all the magnets in the newly designed interaction regions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tassis, Konstantinos; Willacy, Karen; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J.
2012-01-01
We study the effect that non-equilibrium chemistry in dynamical models of collapsing molecular cloud cores has on measurements of the magnetic field in these cores, the degree of ionization, and the mean molecular weight of ions. We find that OH and CN, usually used in Zeeman observations of the line-of-sight magnetic field, have an abundance that decreases toward the center of the core much faster than the density increases. As a result, Zeeman observations tend to sample the outer layers of the core and consistently underestimate the core magnetic field. The degree of ionization follows a complicated dependence on the number density at central densities up to 10 5 cm –3 for magnetic models and 10 6 cm –3 in non-magnetic models. At higher central densities, the scaling approaches a power law with a slope of –0.6 and a normalization which depends on the cosmic-ray ionization rate ζ and the temperature T as (ζT) 1/2 . The mean molecular weight of ions is systematically lower than the usually assumed value of 20-30, and, at high densities, approaches a value of 3 due to the asymptotic dominance of the H + 3 ion. This significantly lower value implies that ambipolar diffusion operates faster.
Khan, Aamir; Shah, Rehan Ali; Shuaib, Muhammad; Ali, Amjad
2018-06-01
The effects of magnetic field dependent (MFD) thermosolutal convection and MFD viscosity of the fluid dynamics are investigated between squeezing discs rotating with different velocities. The unsteady constitutive expressions of mass conservation, modified Navier-Stokes, Maxwell and MFD thermosolutal convection are coupled as a system of ordinary differential equations. The corresponding solutions for the transformed radial and azimuthal momentum as well as solutions for the azimuthal and axial induced magnetic field equations are determined, also the MHD pressure and torque which the fluid exerts on the upper disc is derived and discussed in details. In the case of smooth discs the self-similar equations are solved using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) with appropriate initial guesses and auxiliary parameters to produce an algorithm with an accelerated and assured convergence. The validity and accuracy of HAM results is proved by comparison of the HAM solutions with numerical solver package BVP4c. It has been shown that magnetic Reynolds number causes to decrease magnetic field distributions, fluid temperature, axial and tangential velocity. Also azimuthal and axial components of magnetic field have opposite behavior with increase in MFD viscosity. Applications of the study include automotive magneto-rheological shock absorbers, novel aircraft landing gear systems, heating up or cooling processes, biological sensor systems and biological prosthetic etc.
Dynamics of laser-induced magnetization in Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolesov, Roman
2007-01-01
Circularly polarized short laser pulse induces nonequilibrium population of spin levels in the excited state of Ce 3+ -ion embedded in yttrium aluminium garnet crystal and, consequently, the magnetization of the crystal associated with spin polarization. Dynamic behavior of laser-induced magnetization is studied as a function of the external magnetic field. It reveals spin oscillations attributed to the effect of hyperfine magnetic field produced by 27 Al nuclei on the Ce 3+ spin. A simple theoretical model explaining spin oscillations is presented. It shows that circularly polarized light induces spin coherence at the transition between Zeeman sublevels of Ce 3+ ion in the lowest 5d state. Temporal shape of laser-induced magnetization signal reveals the following parameters of this state: (1) the spin-lattice relaxation constant is ≅2x10 7 s -1 , (2) inhomogeneous spin dephasing time is ≅4 ns, and (3) the g tensor of the state seems to be isotropic with the g factor being in the range 0.7-0.9. In addition, the width of the local hyperfine field distribution is ≅40 G
Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yumin Hou
2013-12-01
Full Text Available It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs, which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamical aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanotube in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and Glauber-type stochastic approach. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, dynamic total magnetization, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature of dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures and compensation behaviors. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and core, i.e., five different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. -- Highlights: ► Kinetic cylindrical Ising nanotube is investigated using the effective-field theory. ► The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ► The effects of the exchange interactions have been studied in detail. ► Five different types of compensation behaviors have been found. ► Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on ratio of physical parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Bayram, E-mail: bayram.deviren@nevsehir.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-02-20
The dynamical aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanotube in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and Glauber-type stochastic approach. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, dynamic total magnetization, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature of dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures and compensation behaviors. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and core, i.e., five different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. -- Highlights: ► Kinetic cylindrical Ising nanotube is investigated using the effective-field theory. ► The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ► The effects of the exchange interactions have been studied in detail. ► Five different types of compensation behaviors have been found. ► Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on ratio of physical parameters.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Permanent-magnet Synchronous Motor with v/f Control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Du-Qu; Luo Xiao-Shu; Zhang Bo; Qiu Dong-Yuan
2013-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with v/f control signals is investigated intensively. First, the equilibria and steady-state characteristics of the system are formulated by analytical analysis. Then, some of its basic dynamical properties, such as characteristic eigenvalues, Lyapunov exponents and phase trajectories are studied by varying the values of system parameters. It is found that when the values of the system parameters are smaller, the PMSM operates in stable domains, no matter what the values of control gains are. With the values of parameters increasing, the unstability appears and PMSM falls into chaotic operation. Furthermore, the complex dynamic behaviors are verified by means of simulation. (general)
Is There a Magnet-School Effect? A Multisite Study of MSAP-Funded Magnet Schools
Wang, Jia; Schweig, Jonathan D.; Herman, Joan L.
2017-01-01
Magnet schools are one of the largest sectors of choice schools in the United States. In this study, we explored the heterogeneity in magnet-school effects on student achievement by examining 24 magnet schools, funded under the Magnet Schools Assistance Program (MSAP), in 5 school districts across 4 states. The magnet effects were synthesized…
The dynamics of the magnetic levitation train. Zur Dynamik der Magnetschwebebahn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pogorelov, D
1986-08-01
One is concerned in a detailed way, with the dynamics and control of the integrated support/drive system of a magnetic levitation vehicle. The magnet chain is regarded as the support system, while a synchronous longitudinal stator and an induction motor are regarded as the drive. Data are given on the model of a magnetic levitation train and its system of equations (differential equations of the integrated support/drive system, equations of the elastic vehicle) and on the steady state behaviour of this system and a linearised system of equations. Further, one is also concerned with the dynamics and control of the magnet chain (effect of winding distribution and the place of sensors on the dynamics of the magnet chain) and the dynamics and control of the integrated support/drive system (structure and coupling analysis of coupling, control of the drive, simulation). (HWJ).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Derang; Zhu, Zengtai; Feng, Hongmei; Pan, Lining; Cheng, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhenkun [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jianbo [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Qingfang, E-mail: liuqf@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2016-10-15
FeCo films were prepared by a simple and convenient electrodeposition method. An external magnetic field was applied to the film to induce magnetic anisotropy during deposition. Comparing with the previous work, the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and film plane is changed from in-plane to out-plane. The influence of the applied magnetic field on magnetic properties was investigated. As a result, it can be found that the in-plane anisotropy is driven by the in-plane component of the magnetic field applied during growth. In addition, the result can also be confirmed by the dynamic magnetic anisotropy of the film obtained by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance technique. - Highlights: • FeCo films were prepared by electrodeposition method. • An external magnetic field was applied to induce anisotropy during deposition. • The direction of applied magnetic field is changed from in-plane to out-plane. • The magnetic properties of films were investigated by vector network analyzer. • The in-plane anisotropy is driven by the in-plane component of the field.
Cao, Quanliang; Li, Zhenhao; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Fan; Han, Xiaotao
2018-05-01
How to prevent particle aggregation in the magnetic separation process is of great importance for high-purity separation, while it is a challenging issue in practice. In this work, we report a novel method to solve this problem for improving the selectivity of size-based separation by use of a gradient alternating magnetic field. The specially designed magnetic field is capable of dynamically adjusting the magnetic field direction without changing the direction of magnetic gradient force acting on the particles. Using direct numerical simulations, we show that particles within a certain center-to-center distance are inseparable under a gradient static magnetic field since they are easy aggregated and then start moving together. By contrast, it has been demonstrated that alternating repulsive and attractive interaction forces between particles can be generated to avoid the formation of aggregations when the alternating gradient magnetic field with a given alternating frequency is applied, enabling these particles to be continuously separated based on size-dependent properties. The proposed magnetic separation method and simulation results have the significance for fundamental understanding of particle dynamic behavior and improving the separation efficiency.
Dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments in fullerene-based magnets.
Kambe, Takashi; Oshima, Kokichi
2014-09-19
We report here the direct evidence of the existence of a permanent electric dipole moment in both crystal phases of a fullerene-based magnet--the ferromagnetic α-phase and the antiferromagnetic α'-phase of tetra-kis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene-C60 (TDAE-C60)--as determined by dielectric measurements. We propose that the permanent electric dipole originates from the pairing of a TDAE molecule with surrounding C60 molecules. The two polymorphs exhibit clear differences in their dielectric responses at room temperature and during the freezing process with dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments, although no difference in their room-temperature structures has been previously observed. This result implies that two polymorphs have different local environment around the molecules. In particular, the ferromagnetism of the α-phase is founded on the homogeneous molecule displacement and orientational ordering. The formation of the different phases with respect to the different rotational states in the Jahn-Teller distorted C60s is also discussed.
Vennemann, T; Jeong, M; Yoon, D; Magrez, A; Berger, H; Yang, L; Živković, I; Babkevich, P; Rønnow, H M
2018-04-01
We present a compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe which is compatible with a magnet of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and demonstrate its application to the study of a quantum magnet. We employ trimmer chip capacitors to construct an NMR tank circuit for low temperature measurements. Using a magnetic insulator MoOPO 4 with S = 1/2 (Mo 5+ ) as an example, we show that the T-dependence of the circuit is weak enough to allow the ligand-ion NMR study of magnetic systems. Our 31 P NMR results are compatible with previous bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering experiments and furthermore reveal unconventional spin dynamics.
Vennemann, T.; Jeong, M.; Yoon, D.; Magrez, A.; Berger, H.; Yang, L.; Živković, I.; Babkevich, P.; Rønnow, H. M.
2018-04-01
We present a compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe which is compatible with a magnet of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and demonstrate its application to the study of a quantum magnet. We employ trimmer chip capacitors to construct an NMR tank circuit for low temperature measurements. Using a magnetic insulator MoOPO4 with S = 1/2 (Mo5+) as an example, we show that the T-dependence of the circuit is weak enough to allow the ligand-ion NMR study of magnetic systems. Our 31P NMR results are compatible with previous bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering experiments and furthermore reveal unconventional spin dynamics.
Study on Magnetic Responsibility of Rare Earth Ferrite/Polyacrylamide Magnetic Microsphere
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Ming; Wang Zhifeng; Zhang Hong; Dai Shaojun; Qiu Guanming; Okamoto Hiroshi
2005-01-01
In inverse microemulsion, rare earth ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere were prepared and their magnetic responsibility were studied by magnetic balance. Results indicate that the magnetic responsibility of microsphere relates to magnetic moment of rare earth ion, and it can be improved by the addition of dysprosium ion of high magnetic moment. Dysprosium content has an effect on magnetic responsibility of dysprosium ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere. The microsphere displays strong magnetic responsibility when the molar ratio of Dy3+/iron is 0.20.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Mahmouditabar
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet motors have been considered for a variety of applications due to their features such as high power density and high efficiency. One of the issues that should be investigated in the design of these motors is the demagnetization problem. Usually, the demagnetization analysis is carried out in a steady state, while demagnetization effect in dynamic condition is more considerable due to pulse shaped of armature field. Based on this fact, in this paper, dynamic demagnetization is investigated for an IPM V‑shaped magnet. This study has been done for two types of magnet, each one in static & dynamic conditions and the results are compared. Moreover, the effect of flux weakening regime on demagnetization is investigated.
Quantum dynamics of crystals of molecular magnets inside microwave resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amigo, R.; Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E.M.; Hernandez, J.M.; Garcia-Santiago, A. E-mail: antonio@ubxlab.comtoni@ubxlab.com
2004-05-01
It is shown that crystals of molecular nanomagnets exhibit enhanced magnetic relaxation when placed inside a resonant cavity. Strong dependence of the magnetization curve on the geometry of the cavity has been observed, providing evidence of the coherent microwave radiation by the crystals. These observations open the possibility of building a nanomagnetic microwave laser pumped by the magnetic field.
Quantum dynamics of crystals of molecular magnets inside microwave resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amigo, R.; Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E.M.; Hernandez, J.M.; Garcia-Santiago, A.
2004-01-01
It is shown that crystals of molecular nanomagnets exhibit enhanced magnetic relaxation when placed inside a resonant cavity. Strong dependence of the magnetization curve on the geometry of the cavity has been observed, providing evidence of the coherent microwave radiation by the crystals. These observations open the possibility of building a nanomagnetic microwave laser pumped by the magnetic field
Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori
2009-01-01
The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump.
Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)
1993-12-01
The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.
Magnetic behavior study of samarium nitride using density functional theory
Som, Narayan N.; Mankad, Venu H.; Dabhi, Shweta D.; Patel, Anjali; Jha, Prafulla K.
2018-02-01
In this work, the state-of-art density functional theory is employed to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of samarium nitride (SmN). We have performed calculation for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states in rock-salt phase. The calculated results of optimized lattice parameter and magnetic moment agree well with the available experimental and theoretical values. From energy band diagram and electronic density of states, we observe a half-metallic behaviour in FM phase of rock salt SmN in while metallicity in AFM I and AFM III phases. We present and discuss our current understanding of the possible half-metallicity together with the magnetic ordering in SmN. The calculated phonon dispersion curves shows dynamical stability of the considered structures. The phonon density of states and Eliashberg functional have also been analysed to understand the superconductivity in SmN.
The feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging of the dynamic swallowing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Jingquan; Gao Mingyong; Luo Suling; Lu Ruiliang; He Xiaohong
2012-01-01
Objective: To offer some visual and valuable clinical bases for the pharynx disease diagnosis and treatment by comparing the influence of different scanning sequences on the image quality and scanning time, and studying the application to the dynamic swallowing MRI scanning. Methods: The dynamic swallowing scanning of pharyngeal was performed on 20 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients without deglutition disorders through GE 3.0 MRI system with fast imaging employing steady state acquisition (FIESTA) and fast gradient recalled echo (Fast GRE) sequences, and combined with the array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET), which accelerating factors was 2.0 ph, and sixty dynamic images were acquired sequentially. The image quality was graded into three classes:excellent, favorable and poor,which were visually assessed by three senior MRI physician using double-blinded method. The quantitative data were analyzed statistically with the SPSS13.0 software. Results: Under the same parameters,the scanning time with FIESTA, FIESTA+ASSET, Fast GRE and Fast GREA+ASSET sequences were 54 s, 28 s, 49 s and 25 s respectively. The number of excellent images with the four sequences were 44, 52, 52 and 56 respectively. The scanning time was the shortest and the image quality was the best with Fast GRE+ASSET sequence. Conclusions: The dynamic imaging of swallowing in sagittal view was achieved with Fast GRE+ASSET sequence on GE 3.0T MRI system. It could present status of the pharynx well, and the soft tissue of swallowing was showed clearly in the dynamic images. These will provide visual and effective evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)
Electron-Cloud Pinch Dynamics in Presence of Lattice Magnet Fields
Franchetti, G
2011-01-01
The pinch of the electron cloud due to a passing proton bunch was extensively studied in a field free region and in a dipolar magnetic field. For the latter study, a strong field approximation helped to formulate the equations of motion and to understand the complex electron pinch dynamics, which exhibited some similarities with the field-free situation. Here we extend the analysis to the case of electron pinch in quadrupoles and in sextupoles. We discuss the limits of validity for the strong field approximation and we evaluate the relative magnitude of the peak tune shift along the bunch expected for the different fields.
A dynamic macromodel for distributed parameter magnetic microactuators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang Yuming; Huang Qingan; Li Weihua
2008-01-01
This paper presents a reduced-order model to describe the mechanical behaviour of microbeam-based magnetic devices. The integration for magnetic force is calculated by dividing the microbeam into several segments, and the nonlinear equation set has been developed based on the magnetic circuit principle. In comparison with previous models, the present macromodel accounts for both the micro-magnetic-core reluctance and the coupling between the beam deflection and magnetic force. This macromodel is validated by comparing with the experimental results available in some papers and finite-element solutions
Patterning nanostructures to study magnetization processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkinson, D
2005-01-01
Lithography techniques such as electron-beam lithography and focused-ion-beam milling are widely used to fabricate structures with dimensions well below 1 μm. These techniques have been used to produce planar magnetic structures with sub-micrometer dimensions and well controlled geometry. This has allowed the study of basic magnetic behaviour and the development of structures with potential for applications in magnetic recording and magnetic logic devices. The techniques of electron beam lithography and focused-ion-beam milling for the fabrication of magnetic nanostructures are outlined here. These techniques have been used to fabricate ribbon-like planar nanowires to study the behaviour of the individual magnetic domain walls which mediate the reversal process in such elongated structures. These methods allow the production of structures in which the location of domain wall formation and position can be controlled, allowing separation and study of the domain wall nucleation and propagation processes. Domain wall injection and domain wall propagation behaviour are investigated and shown to be stochastic processes
Polarized Epithermal Neutron Studies of Magnetic Domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfimenkov, V.P.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason, L.; Mareev, Yu. D.; Novitsky, V.V.; Pikelner, L.B.; Skoy, V.R.; Tsulaya, M.I.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Roberson, N.R.
1997-01-01
The average size and shape of magnetic domains in a material can be determined from the precession of polarized neutrons traversing the material. Epithermal neutrons (0.5eV< En<100eV), which process more slowly than thermals, effectively probe the internal structure of samples that are thick or have large domains or large internal fields. Such epithermal neutron measurements require a neutron polarizer and analyzer based on cryogenically polarized spin filters. We discuss the measurements at JINR, Dubna, of magnetic domains in a 2.0 cm. diam. crystal of holmium using 1.7 to 59eV neutrons polarized by a dynamically polarized proton target and analyzed with a statically polarized dysprosium target
Polarized epithermal neutron studies of magnetic domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfimenkov, V.P.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason, L.; Mareev, Y.D.; Novitsky, V.V.; Pikelner, L.B.; Skoy, V.R.; Tsulaya, M.I.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina; Roberson, N.R.; the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina
1997-01-01
The average size and shape of magnetic domains in a material can be determined from the precession of polarized neutrons traversing the material. Epithermal neutrons (0.5eV n <100eV), which precess more slowly than thermals, effectively probe the internal structure of samples that are thick or have large domains or large internal fields. Such epithermal neutron measurements require a neutron polarizer and analyzer based on cryogenically polarized spin filters. We discuss the measurement at JINR, Dubna, of magnetic domains in a 2.0 cm. diam. crystal of holmium using 1.7 to 59 eV neutrons polarized by a dynamically polarized proton target and analyzed with a statically polarized dysprosium target. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Exploring the magnetization dynamics of NiFe/Pt multilayers in flexible substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corrêa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.; Marcondes, T.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2016-09-15
Highlights: • Magnetic properties of multilayers grown onto flexible substrates were investigated. • Experimental and theoretical magnetization dynamics results are presented. • The flexible substrates become promising candidate for rf-frequency devices. - Abstract: We investigate the structural and magnetic properties, and the magnetization dynamics in Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Pt multilayer systems grown onto rigid and flexible substrates. The structural characterization shows evidence of a superlattice behavior, while the quasi-static magnetization characterization reveal a weak magnetic anisotropy induced in the multilayers. The magnetization dynamics is investigated through the magnetoimpedance effect. We employ a theoretical approach to describe the experimental magnetoimpedance effect and verify the influence of the effective damping parameter on the magnetization dynamics. Experimental data and theoretical results are in agreement and suggest that the multilayers present high effective damping parameter. Moreover, our experiments raise an interesting issue on the possibility of achieving considerable MI% values, even for systems with weak magnetic anisotropy and high damping parameter grown onto flexible substrates.
2018-06-01
Welcome to the special issue of Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials on magnetic skyrmions. We are proud to present, with great pleasure, a timely collection of 9 original research articles on the recent hot topic "magnetic skyrmions" which studies the static and dynamic properties of skyrmions and the methods to control them in a variety of ways, including magnetic field, electric current and applied strain.
Electron Dynamics in a Subproton-Gyroscale Magnetic Hole
Gershman, Daniel J.; Dorelli, John C.; Vinas, Adolfo F.; Avanov, Levon A.; Gliese, Ulrik B.; Barrie, Alexander C.; Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Dickson, Charles; MacDonald, Elizabeth A.;
2016-01-01
Magnetic holes are ubiquitous in space plasmas, occurring in the solar wind, downstream of planetary bow shocks, and inside the magnetosphere. Recently, kinetic-scale magnetic holes have been observed near Earth's central plasma sheet. The Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission enables measurement of both ions and electrons with 2 orders of magnitude increased temporal resolution over previous magnetospheric instruments. Here we present data from MMS taken in Earth's nightside plasma sheet and use high-resolution particle and magnetometer data to characterize the structure of a subproton-scale magnetic hole. Electrons with gyroradii above the thermal gyroradius but below the current layer thickness carry a current sufficient to account for a 10-20 depression in magnetic field magnitude. These observations suggest that the size and magnetic depth of kinetic-scale magnetic holes is strongly dependent on the background plasma conditions.
Magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (Azores
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Torta
1997-06-01
Full Text Available A local ground magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (S. Miguel Island, Azores has provided new insight into the magnetic structure of this volcano. Analysis of the data comprised removal of the IGRF, reduction to the pole, pseudogravity integration and upward continuation. Also, a spectral method was applied to estimate the depth to the magnetic sources, as well as a 2.5D forward modelling technique. Magnetic properties obtained at the laboratory for some representative sample rocks were considered in the modelling process. The most relevant features are the existence of an important negative anomaly inside the caldera and of an intense positive anomaly to the south of the coast. The former points out a decrease in the magnetization of the caldera filling materials with respect to the surrounding rocks, which could be explained as the result of post-eruption processes such as hydrothermal alteration. This is expected as Furnas has an active hydrothermal system probably related with a magmatic reservoir at high temperature. The positive anomaly suggests the existence of a strongly-magnetized body beneath the south coast.
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipoproteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, J.A.; Morrisett, J.D.
1986-01-01
Several nuclei in lipoproteins are magnetically active and are thus potential NMR probes of lipoprotein structure. Table I lists the magnetic isotopes preset in the covalent structures of the molecular constituents of lipoproteins: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Every type of nucleus that is part of the endogenous structure of these molecules has at least one magnetic isotope. Each magnetic nucleus represents an intrinsic and completely nonperturbing probe (when at the natural abundance level) of local molecular motion and magnetic environment. The NMR experiment itself is also nonperturbing and nondestructive. Table I also lists for each nucleus its nuclear spin, its natural isotopic abundance, its sensitivity, and its resonance frequency at two commonly employed magnetic in the low field range (21.14 kG or 2.11 Tesla) and the other in the high field range (47.0 kG or 4.70 Tesla). Of the nuclei listed in Table I, /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, and /sup 31/P have been the primary ones studied in lipoproteins. The general advantages and disadvantages afforded by these and other nuclei as probes of lipoprotein structure are discussed. /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy, the method which has had the most extensive application (and probably has the greatest future potential) to lipoproteins, is treated in greatest detail, but many of the principles described apply to other nuclei as well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi; Xie, Yanqiong; Xu, Xiaojun
2015-01-01
In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector
Dynamics of liquid metal droplets and jets influenced by a strong axial magnetic field
Hernández, D.; Karcher, Ch
2017-07-01
Non-contact electromagnetic control and shaping of liquid metal free surfaces is crucial in a number of high-temperature metallurgical processes like levitation melting and electromagnetic sealing, among others. Other examples are the electromagnetic bending or stabilization of liquid metal jets that frequently occur in casting or fusion applications. Within this context, we experimentally study the influence of strong axial magnetic fields on the dynamics of falling metal droplets and liquid metal jets. GaInSn in eutectic composition is used as test melt being liquid at room temperature. In the experiments, we use a cryogen-free superconducting magnet (CFM) providing steady homogeneous fields of up to 5 T and allowing a tilt angle between the falling melt and the magnet axis. We vary the magnetic flux density, the tilt angle, the liquid metal flow rate, and the diameter and material of the nozzle (electrically conducting/insulating). Hence, the experiments cover a parameter range of Hartmann numbers Ha, Reynolds numbers Re, and Weber numbers We within 0 rotation ceases and the droplets are stretched in the field direction. Moreover, we observe that the jet breakup into droplets (spheroidization) is suppressed, and in the case of electrically conducting nozzles and tilt, the jets are bent towards the field axis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Xie, Yanqiong [College of Meteorology and Oceanography, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Xu, Xiaojun, E-mail: pbzuo@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China)
2015-10-20
In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector.
Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang
2016-01-20
Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.
Dynamic characteristics of a flywheel energy storage system using superconducting magnetic bearings
Kim, J S
2003-01-01
The high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearing flywheel energy storage system (SMB-FESS) is proposed as an efficient energy storage system. It is important to identify the dynamic behaviour and the characteristics of the SMB-FESS. First, a new method for identifying SMB characteristics has been suggested. The suggested modelling method is verified by comparing the experimental and analytical frequency response functions. In this study, the analyses of critical speed and unbalance response are performed using the analytical model. The experimental test has been carried out to verify the result of simulation. A good agreement has been observed between the experiment and the simulation result.
Spanswick, E.
2017-12-01
Identifying the magnetic footprint of a satellite can be done using the in situ observations together with some ionospheric or low-altitude satellite observation to argue that the two measurements were made on the same field line. Nishimura et al. [2011], e.g., correlated a time series of chorus wave power near the magnetic equator with the time series of intensities of every pixel of a is roughly magnetically conjugate ASI. Often, the pattern of correlation shows a well-defined peak at the location of the satellite's magnetic footprint. Their results cannot be replicated during dynamic events (e.g., substorms), because the required auroral forms do not occur at such times. It would be important if we could make mappings with such confidence during active times. The Transition Region Explorer (TREx), which is presently being implemented, is a new ground-based facility that will remote sense electron precipitation across 3 hours of MLT and 12 degrees of magnetic latitude spanning the auroral zone in western Canada. TREx includes the world's first imaging riometers array with a contiguous field of view large enough to seamlessly track the spatio-temporal evolution of high energy electron precipitation at mesoscales. Two studies motivated the TREx riometers array. First, Baker et al. [1981] demonstrated riometer absorption is an excellent proxy for the electron energy flux integrated from 30 keV to 200keV keV at the magnetic equator on the flux tube corresponding to the location of that riometers. Second, Spanswick et al. [2007] showed the correlation between the riometers absorption and the integrated electron energy flux near the magnetic equator peaked when the satellite was nearest to conjugate to the riometers. Here we present observations using CANOPUS single beam riometers and CRRES MEB to illustrate how the relative closeness of the footpoint of an equatorial spacecraft can be assessed using high energy precipitation. As well, we present the capabilities of
Symmetry, structure, and dynamics of monoaxial chiral magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Togawa, Yoshihiko; Kousaka, Yusuke; Inoue, Katsuya; Kishine, Jun-ichiro
2016-01-01
Nontrivial spin orders with magnetic chirality emerge in a particular class of magnetic materials with structural chirality, which are frequently referred to as chiral magnets. Various interesting physical properties are expected to be induced in chiral magnets through the coupling of chiral magnetic orders with conduction electrons and electromagnetic fields. One promising candidate for achieving these couplings is a chiral spin soliton lattice. Here, we review recent experimental observations mainly carried out on the monoaxial chiral magnetic crystal CrNb_3S_6 via magnetic imaging using electron, neutron, and X-ray beams and magnetoresistance measurements, together with the strategy for synthesizing chiral magnetic materials and underlying theoretical backgrounds. The chiral soliton lattice appears under a magnetic field perpendicular to the chiral helical axis and is very robust and stable with phase coherence on a macroscopic length scale. The tunable and topological nature of the chiral soliton lattice gives rise to nontrivial physical properties. Indeed, it is demonstrated that the interlayer magnetoresistance scales to the soliton density, which plays an essential role as an order parameter in chiral soliton lattice formation, and becomes quantized with the reduction of the system size. These interesting features arising from macroscopic phase coherence unique to the chiral soliton lattice will lead to the exploration of routes to a new paradigm for applications in spin electronics using spin phase coherence. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Hao; Li Hui; Collins, David C.; Li, Shengtai; Norman, Michael L.
2011-01-01
Theory and simulations suggest that magnetic fields from radio jets and lobes powered by their central super massive black holes can be an important source of magnetic fields in the galaxy clusters. This is Paper II in a series of studies where we present self-consistent high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological magnetohydrodynamic simulations that simultaneously follow the formation of a galaxy cluster and evolution of magnetic fields ejected by an active galactic nucleus. We studied 12 different galaxy clusters with virial masses ranging from 1 x 10 14 to 2 x 10 15 M sun . In this work, we examine the effects of the mass and merger history on the final magnetic properties. We find that the evolution of magnetic fields is qualitatively similar to those of previous studies. In most clusters, the injected magnetic fields can be transported throughout the cluster and be further amplified by the intracluster medium (ICM) turbulence during the cluster formation process with hierarchical mergers, while the amplification history and the magnetic field distribution depend on the cluster formation and magnetism history. This can be very different for different clusters. The total magnetic energies in these clusters are between 4 x 10 57 and 10 61 erg, which is mainly decided by the cluster mass, scaling approximately with the square of the total mass. Dynamically older relaxed clusters usually have more magnetic fields in their ICM. The dynamically very young clusters may be magnetized weakly since there is not enough time for magnetic fields to be amplified.
Spin-resolved magnetic studies of focused ion beam etched nano-sized magnetic structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jian; Rau, Carl
2005-01-01
Scanning ion microscopy with polarization analysis (SIMPA) is used to study the spin-resolved surface magnetic structure of nano-sized magnetic systems. SIMPA is utilized for in situ topographic and spin-resolved magnetic domain imaging as well as for focused ion beam (FIB) etching of desired structures in magnetic or non-magnetic systems. Ultra-thin Co films are deposited on surfaces of Si(1 0 0) substrates, and ultra-thin, tri-layered, bct Fe(1 0 0)/Mn/bct Fe(1 0 0) wedged magnetic structures are deposited on fcc Pd(1 0 0) substrates. SIMPA experiments clearly show that ion-induced electrons emitted from magnetic surfaces exhibit non-zero electron spin polarization (ESP), whereas electrons emitted from non-magnetic surfaces such as Si and Pd exhibit zero ESP, which can be used to calibrate sputtering rates in situ. We report on new, spin-resolved magnetic microstructures, such as magnetic 'C' states and magnetic vortices, found at surfaces of FIB patterned magnetic elements. It is found that FIB milling has a negligible effect on surface magnetic domain and domain wall structures. It is demonstrated that SIMPA can evolve into an important and efficient tool to study magnetic domain, domain wall and other structures as well as to perform magnetic depth profiling of magnetic nano-systems to be used in ultra-high density magnetic recording and in magnetic sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamakawa, Mitsuharu; Kawaai, Yuriko; Shirase, Ryuji
2010-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with endorectal coil for assessing tumor invasion based on simple classification criteria. A total of 58 patients with operable primary rectal cancer underwent preoperative MRI. An enhancement pattern in Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI with regard to tumor penetration was clarified. Retrospectively, two observers independently scored T2-weighted MRI and T2-weighted MRI combined with Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI for tumor penetration using the following criteria: With Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI, T1 tumors showed an early enhanced line around the tumor as rim enhancement; T2 tumors appeared as black lines or double layers, as the muscularis propria kept its integrity; T3 tumors showed partial discontinuity of the muscularis propria as a dotted line and a perforated area as an interrupted line. A confidence level scoring system was used, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. There were no significant differences at the T1 stage. There were significant differences for observer 1 (P=0.001 for observer 1) at the T2 stage. There were significant differences for both observers (P=0.001 for observer 1 and P=0.005 for observer 2) at the T3 stage. Our criteria for Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI were effective for T3 stage tumors. (author)
Rate-dependent extensions of the parametric magneto-dynamic model with magnetic hysteresis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Steentjes
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper extends the parametric magneto-dynamic model of soft magnetic steel sheets to account for the phase shift between local magnetic flux density and magnetic field strength. This phase shift originates from the damped motion of domain walls and is strongly dependent on the microstructure of the material. In this regard, two different approaches to include the rate-dependent effects are investigated: a purely phenomenological, mathematical approach and a physical-based one.
External magnetic field induced anomalies of spin nuclear dynamics in thin antiferromagnetic films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasenko, S.V.
1995-01-01
It is shown that if the thickness of homogeneously magnetized plate of high-axial antiferromagnetic within H external magnetic field becomes lower the critical one, then the effect of dynamic magnetoelastic interaction on Soul-Nakamura exchange of nuclear spins results in formation of qualitatively new types of spreading nuclear spin waves no else compared neither within the model of unrestricted magnetic nor at H = 0 in case of thin plate of high-axial antiferromagnetic. 10 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample. The setup may be implemented in a disc...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-08-15
Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-01-01
Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kantar, Ersin; Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2014-01-01
The dynamic phase diagrams of a cylindrical Ising nanowire in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field are obtained by using the effective-field theory with correlations based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. According to the values of interaction parameters, a number of interesting properties have been found in the dynamic phase diagrams, such as many dynamic critical points (tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, zero temperature critical point, multicritical point, tetracritical point, and triple point) as well as reentrant phenomena. - Highlights: • The cylindrical Ising nanowire is investigated within the Glauber dynamics based on EFT. • The time variations of average order parameters to find phases are studied. • The dynamic phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The system displays the critical points as well as a reentrant behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kantar, Ersin; Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2014-06-01
The dynamic phase diagrams of a cylindrical Ising nanowire in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field are obtained by using the effective-field theory with correlations based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. According to the values of interaction parameters, a number of interesting properties have been found in the dynamic phase diagrams, such as many dynamic critical points (tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, zero temperature critical point, multicritical point, tetracritical point, and triple point) as well as reentrant phenomena. - Highlights: • The cylindrical Ising nanowire is investigated within the Glauber dynamics based on EFT. • The time variations of average order parameters to find phases are studied. • The dynamic phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The system displays the critical points as well as a reentrant behavior.
Orbital magnetism and dynamics in alkali metal clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.O.; Kleinig, W.; Souza Cruz, FF. de; Marinelli, J.R.
2000-01-01
Two remarkable orbital magnetic resonances, M1 scissor mode and M2 twist mode, are predicted in deformed and spherical metal clusters, respectively. We show that these resonances provide a valuable information about many cluster properties (quadrupole deformation, magnetic susceptibility, single-particle spectrum, etc.)
Molecular diagnostics based on clustering dynamics of magnetic nanobeads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Donolato, Marco; Bejhed, Rebecca S.; de la Torre, Teresa Zardán Gómez
2014-01-01
transmission modulation caused by the AC magnetic field-stimulated reversible formation and disruption of elongated MNB supra-structures during a cycle of the uniaxial applied magnetic field. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition...
First-principles approach to noncollinear magnetism: Towards spin dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sharma, S.; Dewhurst, J.K.; Ambrosch-Draxl, C.
2007-01-01
A description of noncollinear magnetism in the framework of spin-density functional theory is presented for the exact exchange energy functional which depends explicitly on two-component spinor orbitals. The equations for the effective Kohn-Sham scalar potential and magnetic field are derived...
Future pulsed magnetic field applications in dynamic high pressure research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Hawke, R.S.; Burgess, T.J.
1977-01-01
The generation of large pressures by magnetic fields to obtain equation of state information is of fairly recent origin. Magnetic fields used in compression experiments produce an almost isentropic sample compression. Axial magnetic field compression is discussed together with a few results chosen to show both advantages and limitations of the method. Magnetic compression with azimuthal fields is then considered. Although there are several potential pitfalls, the possibilities are encouraging for obtaining very large pressures. Next, improved diagnostic techniques are considered. An x-ray ''streaking camera'' is proposed for volume measurements and a more detailed discussion is given on the use of the shift of the ruby fluorescence lines for pressure measurements. Finally, some additional flux compression magnetic field sources are discussed briefly. 5 figures, 2 tables
Investigation of the Dynamics of Magnetic Vortices and Antivortices Using Micromagnetic Simulations
Asmat-Uceda, Martin Antonio
This thesis is focused on investigating the dynamic properties of spin textures in patterned magnetic structures by using micromagnetic simulations. These textures become particularly relevant at sub-micron length scales where the interplay between magnetostatic and exchange energy leads to unique properties that are of great interest both from a fundamental perspective and for the development of new technologies. Two different systems, a magnetic antivortex (AV) stabilized in the intersection of perpendicular microwires, and three interacting vortices in an equilateral arrangement, were considered for this study. For the first system, the AV, the formation process and the excitation spectra were investigated. Since the AV is a metastable state, the design of a host structure capable of stabilizing it requires careful consideration and it is desirable to have general guidelines that could help to optimize the AV formation rate. The role of the shape anisotropy and the field dependence of the AV formation process is discussed in detail. Micromagnetic simulations along with magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetic force microscopy measurements demonstrated that the asymmetry in the structure can be used to promote the formation of such AV's and that regions with lower shape anisotropy lead the reversal process, while simulations of the dynamic response show that when the system is excited with in-plane and out-of-plane external magnetic fields, normal modes with azimuthal and radial characteristics are found, respectively, in addition to the low frequency gyrotropic mode. The modes are influenced by the spin texture in the intersection, which offers additional possibilities for manipulating spin waves (SW). For the second system, three interacting vortices are simulated and compared with a simple analytical model that considers only dipolar interactions. It was found that when a fitting parameter is introduced to the model, the main features of the simulations are
A study on stability of rotating magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higuchi, N.; Kaiho, K.; Ishii, I.
1996-01-01
Superconducting power generators are being developed in Japan, as a part of a R and D program on energy technology, the New Sunshine Project. In this development, national laboratories are taking a role of fundamental studies to contribute to the R and D being carried out mainly by the manufacturers involved in a research association, Super-GM. Stabilities of magnets in a high gravitational field up to 2,000 G are discussed, based upon the experimental results of forced quench tests in a set of rotating magnets, in order to establish the stability design criterion of field windings of superconducting generators. Relations of propagation velocities, recovery currents, minimum quench energy and heat transfer characteristics are studied, a good agreement between the experimental results and a theory confirmed the improvement of magnet stability in a high gravitational field because of the enhanced heat transfer characteristics
Chaos and nonlinear dynamics of single-particle orbits in a magnetotaillike magnetic field
Chen, J.; Palmadesso, P. J.
1986-01-01
The properties of charged-particle motion in Hamiltonian dynamics are studied in a magnetotaillike magnetic field configuration. It is shown by numerical integration of the equation of motion that the system is generally nonintegrable and that the particle motion can be classified into three distinct types of orbits: bounded integrable orbits, unbounded stochastic orbits, and unbounded transient orbits. It is also shown that different regions of the phase space exhibit qualitatively different responses to external influences. The concept of 'differential memory' in single-particle distributions is proposed. Physical implications for the dynamical properties of the magnetotail plasmas and the possible generation of non-Maxwellian features in the distribution functions are discussed.
Population and phase dynamics of F=1 spinor condensates in an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romano, D.R.; Passos, E.J.V. de
2004-01-01
We show that the classical dynamics underlying the mean-field description of homogeneous mixtures of spinor F=1 Bose-Einstein condensates in an external magnetic field is integrable as a consequence of number conservation and axial symmetry in spin space. The population dynamics depends only on the quadratic term of the Zeeman energy and on the strength of the spin-dependent term of the atom-atom interaction. We determine the equilibrium populations as function of the ratio of these two quantities and the miscibility of the hyperfine components in the ground state spinors are thoroughly discussed. Outside the equilibrium, the populations are always a periodic function of time where the periodic motion can be a libration or a rotation. Our studies also indicate the absence of metastability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renshaw, P.F.; Levin, J.M.; Kaufman, M.J.; Ross, M.H.; Lewis, R.F.; Harris, G.J.
1997-01-01
Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC MRI) provides a noninvasive means to create high resolution maps of the regional distribution of cerebral blood volume (CBV). Most DSC MRI studies conducted to date have focused on the evaluation of patients with cerebral neoplasms, ischemia or infarction, and epilepsy. However, preliminary work suggests that DSC MRI may also provide clinically important information for the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, especially dementia and schizophrenia. Additionally, with appropriate modification, DSC MRI may be used to reliably evaluate the effects of pharmacological challenges on cerebral hemodynamics. As pharmacotherapy is an important component in the treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders, the dynamic assessment of changes in cerebral perfusion associated with drug administration may ultimately lead to the development of ''brain function tests'' for a wide range of disorders. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Ruili; Tang, Yifa; Zhu, Beibei; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Jianyuan; Qin, Hong
2014-01-01
The gyrocenter dynamics of charged particles in time-independent magnetic fields is a non-canonical Hamiltonian system. The canonical description of the gyrocenter has both theoretical and practical importance. We provide a general procedure of the gyrocenter canonicalization, which is expressed by the series of a small variable ϵ depending only on the parallel velocity u and can be expressed in a recursive manner. We prove that the truncation of the series to any given order generates a set of exact canonical coordinates for a system, whose Lagrangian approximates to that of the original gyrocenter system in the same order. If flux surfaces exist for the magnetic field, the series stops simply at the second order and an exact canonical form of the gyrocenter system is obtained. With the canonicalization schemes, the canonical symplectic simulation of gyrocenter dynamics is realized for the first time. The canonical symplectic algorithm has the advantage of good conservation properties and long-term numerical accuracy, while avoiding numerical instability. It is worth mentioning that explicitly expressing the canonical Hamiltonian in new coordinates is usually difficult and impractical. We give an iteration procedure that is easy to implement in the original coordinates associated with the coordinate transformation. This is crucial for modern large-scale simulation studies in plasma physics. The dynamics of gyrocenters in the dipole magnetic field and in the toroidal geometry are simulated using the canonical symplectic algorithm by comparison with the higher-order non symplectic Runge-Kutta scheme. The overwhelming superiorities of the symplectic method for the gyrocenter system are evidently exhibited
Magnetic microwires a magneto-optical study
Chizhik, Alexander
2014-01-01
PrefaceKerr Effect as Method of Investigation of Magnetization Reversal in Magnetic Wires Cold-Drawn Fe-Rich Amorphous Wire Conventional Co-Rich Amorphous WireInteraction Between Glass-Covered MicrowiresCircular Magnetic Bistability in Co-Rich Amorphous Microwires Effect of High-Frequency Driving Current on Magnetization Reversal in Co-Rich Amorphous MicrowiresRelation Between Surface Magnetization Reversal and Magnetoimpedance Helical Magnetic Structure Magnetization Reversal in Crossed Magnetic Field Visualization of Barkhausen Jump Magnetizatio
Imaging the equilibrium state and magnetization dynamics of partially built hard disk write heads
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valkass, R. A. J., E-mail: rajv202@ex.ac.uk; Yu, W.; Shelford, L. R.; Keatley, P. S.; Loughran, T. H. J.; Hicken, R. J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Cavill, S. A. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der; Dhesi, S. S. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bashir, M. A.; Gubbins, M. A. [Research and Development, Seagate Technology, 1 Disc Drive, Springtown Industrial Estate, Derry BT48 0BF (United Kingdom); Czoschke, P. J.; Lopusnik, R. [Recording Heads Operation, Seagate Technology, 7801 Computer Avenue South, Bloomington, Minnesota 55435 (United States)
2015-06-08
Four different designs of partially built hard disk write heads with a yoke comprising four repeats of NiFe (1 nm)/CoFe (50 nm) were studied by both x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM). These techniques were used to investigate the static equilibrium domain configuration and the magnetodynamic response across the entire structure, respectively. Simulations and previous TRSKM studies have made proposals for the equilibrium domain configuration of similar structures, but no direct observation of the equilibrium state of the writers has yet been made. In this study, static XPEEM images of the equilibrium state of writer structures were acquired using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism as the contrast mechanism. These images suggest that the crystalline anisotropy dominates the equilibrium state domain configuration, but competition with shape anisotropy ultimately determines the stability of the equilibrium state. Dynamic TRSKM images were acquired from nominally identical devices. These images suggest that a longer confluence region may hinder flux conduction from the yoke into the pole tip: the shorter confluence region exhibits clear flux beaming along the symmetry axis, whereas the longer confluence region causes flux to conduct along one edge of the writer. The observed variations in dynamic response agree well with the differences in the equilibrium magnetization configuration visible in the XPEEM images, confirming that minor variations in the geometric design of the writer structure can have significant effects on the process of flux beaming.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukui, S.; Abe, R.; Ogawa, J.; Oka, T.; Yamaguchi, M.; Sato, T.; Imaizumi, H.
2007-01-01
Analytical study on the design of the superconducting magnet for the magnetic force assisted drug delivery system is presented in this paper. The necessary magnetic field condition to reside the magnetic drug particle in the blood vessels is determined by analyzing the particle motion in the blood vessel. The design procedure of the superconducting magnet for the M-DDS is presented and some case studies are conducted. The analytical results show that the superconducting magnet to satisfy the magnetic field conduction for the M-DDS is practically feasible
Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miguel, J; Kurde, J; Piantek, M; Kuch, W; Sanchez-Barriga, J; Heitkamp, B; Kronast, F; Duerr, H A; Bayer, D; Aeschlimann, M
2009-01-01
We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected.
Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miguel, J; Kurde, J; Piantek, M; Kuch, W [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sanchez-Barriga, J; Heitkamp, B; Kronast, F; Duerr, H A [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bayer, D; Aeschlimann, M, E-mail: jorge.miguel@fu-berlin.d [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Strasse 46, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2009-12-02
We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected.
Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice
Tierno, Pietro; Soba, Alejandro; Johansen, Tom H.; Sagués, Francesc
2008-11-01
We use a uniaxial garnet film with a magnetic bubble lattice to sort paramagnetic colloidal particles with different diameters, i.e., 1.0 and 2.8μm. We apply an external magnetic field which precesses around an axis normal to the film with a frequency Ω =62.8s-1 and intensity 3120A/m bubbles while the others are transported through the array. We complement the experimental measurements with numerical simulations to explore the sorting capability for particles with different magnetic moments.
Magnetic resonance studies of solid polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lenk, R.
1969-01-01
This paper is a review of the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to solid polymers. In the first, theoretical part, the elements of the theory of NMR, which are necessary for the study of the properties of solid polymers are discussed: the moments method, nuclear relaxation and the distribution of correlation times. In the second part the experimental results are presented. (author) [fr
Spin dynamics in micron-sized magnetic elements using time-resolved XMCD-PEEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumoto, K.; Kinoshita, T.
2011-01-01
Ultrafast dynamics of magnetic spin structures in ultrasmall ferromagnets is now a prominent topic concerning the next generation of memory devices. In particular, the unique dynamics of vortex spin structures in disk-shaped magnets has attracted much attention. To understand the mechanism and to explore even more unique features, we constructed a time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) with a photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) system onto the soft X-ray beamline BL25SU in SPring-8. We observed oscillatory motions of vortex cores after magnetic field pulses as reported in other articles. The time evolution of spin structures the fast magnetic field pulse was also successfully observed. We found that for disks with a larger radius, displacement of the vortex core was not linear with the field amplitude, and there was a delay of the core motion. At the same time, deformation of the vortex structures was observed. (author)
Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiselev, V. V., E-mail: kiselev@imp.uran.ru; Raskovalov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of “precursors” and “tails” in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.
Dynamics of a toroidal magnetic cloud in the solar wind
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Romashets, E. P.; Vandas, Marek
2001-01-01
Roč. 106, A6 (2001), s. 10 615 - 10 624 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003003; GA AV ČR IBS1003006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : magnetic cloud s * coronal masss ejections * interplanetry magnetic field Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2001
Molecular dynamics study of silver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhter, J.I.; Yaldram, K.; Ahmad, W.; Khan, M.K.; Rehman, T.S.
1995-03-01
We present results of molecular dynamics study using the embedded atom potential to examine the equilibrium bulk properties of Ag. We calculate the total energy and the lattice parameters as a function of temperature. From these we determine the specific heat and linear coefficient of thermal expansion. The comparison with experimental results of these two quantities is found to be excellent. We have also calculated the mean square displacement of the atoms in the three directions. As expected because of symmetry the displacements in the three directions are comparable and increase with increasing temperature. (author) 5 figs
Dimensionality crossover in vortex dynamics of magnetically coupled F-S-F hybrids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karapetrov, G; Belkin, A; Iavarone, M; Yefremenko, V; Pearson, J E; Novosad, V; Divan, R; Cambel, V
2011-01-01
We report on the vortex dynamics in magnetically coupled F-S-F trilayers extracted from the analysis of the resistance-current isotherms. The superconducting thin film that is conventionally in the 2D vortex limit exhibits quite different behavior when sandwiched between ferromagnetic layers. The value of the dynamic critical exponent strongly increases in the F-S-F case due to screening of the stray vortex field by the adjacent ferromagnetic layers, leading to an effective dimensional crossover in vortex dynamics. Furthermore, the directional pinning by the magnetic stripe domains induces anisotropy in the vortex glass transition temperature and causes metastable avalanche behavior at strong driving currents.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. V. Zlobin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The disadvantage of the electromagnetic-acoustic (EMA method receiving ultrasonic waves are low efficiency. The traditional way to enhance its effectiveness is increase the bias field. The aim of the study was research the way to improve the efficiency of the EMA transformation, using a time-varying bias field.The researches held with the help of a specially designed installation that allows the magnetization to be performed by a constant and alternating magnetic field (dynamic bias, synchronously with the passage of the received pulse. The object of the study were rods made of different grades of steel with a diameter of 4–6 mm, in which the symmetrical zero mode S0 of the rod wave was excited by the EMA method (in the frequency range of about 40 kHz. A comparative analysis of the amplitudes and form pulses of multiple reflections during static and dynamic reversal of magnetization and with a full cycle of magnetization reversal conducted.The result of the efficiency measurements EMA reception during static and dynamic bias found a significant (up to 5 times increase in the signal amplitude on the receiving transducer. Taking into account that the main contribution to the excitation mechanism and the reception mechanism made the magnetostrictive effect on low frecuncy, it can assumed that using a dynamic bias field is impacting significant on the effective mobility of magnetic domains (that is changes the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of the material. It is established that it is possible to monitor steel at lower values of the bias field, and, consequently, to reduce the mass dimensions of the magnetic system.Thus, in the course of the researchers found of effect of dynamic bias and effect of dynamic bias increase acoustic pulse amplitude of the signal of the received EMA method. Using this method will improve the quality EMA testing by creating more efficient EMA transducer. Taking into account that the value of the detected effect
Dynamics and relaxation in confined medium. Application to 129Xe magnetic relaxation in Vycor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasquier, Virginie
1995-01-01
Porous media morphology and topology drive the exploration of pore space by fluid. So, analysis of transport process, associated with relaxation mechanism, allows indirect study of pore geometry. The purpose of this work is to understand better the relation between geometry and transport. This study involves two parts: a modelization and prediction step is followed by an experimental application of magnetic relaxation. Numerical simulations and analytical models allow to quantify the influence on the solid interface of the dynamical behavior of confined gas in disordered porous media (granular structure and porous network) or in common geometry (cylindrical and lamellar interfaces). The formalism of diffusion propagator is a powerful tool to quantify the influence of the pore geometry on the diffusion of confined gas. The propagator holds all dynamical information on the system; it also predicts the temporal evolution of the autocorrelation functions of the Hamiltonian describing local coupling. In an intermediate time scale, magnetic relaxation shows complex diffusional regime: the autocorrelation functions decrease in a power law with a exponent smaller than d/2 (where d is the Euclidian dimension of the system). This behavior is analogous to dynamic in low-dimensional space, but here arises from surface correlations of the porous media. The long-time behavior of the autocorrelation functions retrieves the asymptotic decrease t -d/2 . Moreover, atypical behavior is observed for the Knudsen diffusion between infinite planes. It turns out that 129 Xe NMR is a appropriate technique to characterize organization and diffusion of gas confined in Vycor. Systematic studies of temperature and pressure effect on the 129 Xe chemical shift allow to specify the Xe/solid interaction. The analysis of the relaxation measurements, thanks to the numerical development, confirms conclusions arising from the study of diffusion propagator. (author) [fr
Dynamics of solid alanine by means of nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry
Kubica-Misztal, A.; Rochowski, P.; Florek-Wojciechowska, M.; Kruk, D.
2017-04-01
1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry was applied to investigate the dynamics of l-alanine in the solid phase (powder). The experimental studies were carried out in a very broad frequency range, covering four orders of magnitude—from 4 kHz to 40 MHz (referring to the 1H resonance frequency) in order to probe motional processes of much different time scales by a single experiment. To get access to the dynamics of different proton groups of alanine, the 1H spin-lattice relaxation measurements were performed for non-deuterated and partially deuterated alanine. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 293 K-370 K (non-deuterated alanine) and 318 K-370 K (partially deuterated alanine). As a result of a thorough theoretical analysis of the extensive set of experimental results, three motional processes occurring on different time scales are identified and quantitatively described. The slowest process occurs on a time scale of μs and it is attributed to the collective dynamics of a 3D hydrogen bond network of alanine, while the intermediate, attributed to the dynamics of the NH3 group, corresponds to the range of tenths of ns. The fast process describes the rotation of the CH3 group.
[Functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic neuroanatomy of addictive disorders].
Mel'nikov, M E; Shtark, M B
2014-01-01
Research into the cerebral patterns that govern the formation and development of addictive behavior is one of the most interesting goals of neurophysiology. Authors of contemporary papers on the matter define a number of symptoms that are all part of substance or non-substance dependence, each one of them leading to abnormalities in the corresponding system of the brain. During the last twenty years the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMR1) technology has been instrumental in locating such abnormalities, identifying specific parts of the brain that, when dysfunctional, may enhance addiction and cause its positive or negative symptoms. This article reviews fMRI studies aimed toward locating areas in the brain that are responsible for cognitive, emotional, and motivational dysfunction. Cerebral correlatives of impulsiveness, behavior control, and drug cravings are reviewed separately. The article also contains an overview of possibilities to further investigate the Selves of those dependent on substances, identify previously unknown diagnostic markers of substance dependence, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The research under review in this article provides data that points to a special role of the nucleus caudatus as well as the nucleus accumbens, the thalamus, the insular cortex (IC), the anterior cingulate, prefrontal and orbitofrontal areas in psychological disorders that are part of substance dependence. General findings of the article are in accordance with contemporary models of addictive pattern.
Analysis of thermally induced magnetization dynamics in spin-transfer nano-oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Aquino, M., E-mail: daquino@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University of Naples ' Parthenope' , 80143 Naples (Italy); Serpico, C. [Department of Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica 10135 Torino (Italy); Bonin, R. [Politecnico di Torino - Sede di Verres, 11029 Verres (Aosta) (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2012-05-01
The thermally induced magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin-polarized currents injected into a spin-valve-like structure used as microwave spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) is considered. Magnetization dynamics is described by the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Slonczewski (LLS) equation. First, it is shown that, in the presence of thermal fluctuations, the spectrum of the output signal of the STNO exhibits multiple peaks at low and high frequencies. This circumstance is associated with the occurrence of thermally induced transitions between stationary states and magnetization self-oscillations. Then, a theoretical approach based on the separation of time-scales is developed to obtain a stochastic dynamics only in the slow state variable, namely the energy. The stationary distribution of the energy and the aforementioned transition rates are analytically computed and compared with the results of direct integration of the LLS dynamics, showing very good agreement.
Fast-forward of quantum adiabatic dynamics in electro-magnetic field
Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro
2010-01-01
We show a method to accelerate quantum adiabatic dynamics of wavefunctions under electro-magnetic field by developing the previous theory (Masuda & Nakamura 2008 and 2010). Firstly we investigate the orbital dynamics of a charged particle. We derive the driving field which accelerates quantum adiabatic dynamics in order to obtain the final adiabatic states except for the spatially uniform phase such as the adiabatic phase in any desired short time. Fast-forward of adiabatic squeezing and tran...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Chaowei [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Wu, Shi T. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL (United States); Feng, Xueshang, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)
2016-05-10
In this study, the photospheric vector magnetograms obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used as boundary conditions for a CESE-MHD model to investigate some photosphere characteristics around the time of a confined flare in solar active region NOAA AR 11117. We report our attempt of characterizing a more realistic solar atmosphere by including a plasma with temperature stratified from the photosphere to the corona in the CESE-MHD model. The resulted photospheric transverse flow is comparable to the apparent movements of the magnetic flux features that demonstrates shearing and rotations. We calculated the relevant parameters such as the magnetic energy flux and helicity flux, and with analysis of these parameters, we find that magnetic non-potentiality is transported across the photosphere into the corona in the simulated time interval, which might provide a favorable condition for producing the flare.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metge, J; Giremus, A; Mégret, R; Berthoumieu, Y; Décamps, T
2014-01-01
Inertial-magnetic measurement units are inexpensive sensors, widely used in electronic systems (smartphones, GPS, micro-UAV, etc). However the precision of these sensors is highly dependent on their calibration. This article proposes a complete solution to calibrate the sensors (accelerometers, gyrometers and magnetometers), the inter-sensor rotations and the dynamic disturbances of the magnetic field due to the immediate environment. Contrary to most of the existing techniques, the proposed method does not necessitate any external equipment, apart from the sensors already included in the system. The calibration can be performed by hand manipulation by the final user. Simulations and experiments show the advantages of the proposed approach. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Richards, H.L.; Rikvold, P.A.
1996-01-01
particularly promising as materials for high-density magnetic recording media. In this paper we use analytic arguments and Monte Carlo simulations to quantitatively study the effects of the demagnetizing field on the dynamics of magnetization switching in two-dimensional, single-domain, kinetic Ising systems....... For systems in the weak-field ''stochastic region,'' where magnetization switching is on average effected by the nucleation and growth of a single droplet, the simulation results can be explained by a simple model in which the free energy is a function only of magnetization. In the intermediate......-field ''multidroplet region,'' a generalization of Avrami's law involving a magnetization-dependent effective magnetic field gives good agreement with the simulations. The effects of the demagnetizing field do not qualitatively change the droplet-theoretical picture of magnetization switching in highly anisotropic...
Lumped-Element Dynamic Electro-Thermal model of a superconducting magnet
Ravaioli, E.; Auchmann, B.; Maciejewski, M.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Verweij, A. P.
2016-12-01
Modeling accurately electro-thermal transients occurring in a superconducting magnet is challenging. The behavior of the magnet is the result of complex phenomena occurring in distinct physical domains (electrical, magnetic and thermal) at very different spatial and time scales. Combined multi-domain effects significantly affect the dynamic behavior of the system and are to be taken into account in a coherent and consistent model. A new methodology for developing a Lumped-Element Dynamic Electro-Thermal (LEDET) model of a superconducting magnet is presented. This model includes non-linear dynamic effects such as the dependence of the magnet's differential self-inductance on the presence of inter-filament and inter-strand coupling currents in the conductor. These effects are usually not taken into account because superconducting magnets are primarily operated in stationary conditions. However, they often have significant impact on magnet performance, particularly when the magnet is subject to high ramp rates. Following the LEDET method, the complex interdependence between the electro-magnetic and thermal domains can be modeled with three sub-networks of lumped-elements, reproducing the electrical transient in the main magnet circuit, the thermal transient in the coil cross-section, and the electro-magnetic transient of the inter-filament and inter-strand coupling currents in the superconductor. The same simulation environment can simultaneously model macroscopic electrical transients and phenomena at the level of superconducting strands. The model developed is a very useful tool for reproducing and predicting the performance of conventional quench protection systems based on energy extraction and quench heaters, and of the innovative CLIQ protection system as well.
Zhang, Qihan; Fan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Hengan; Kong, Wenwen; Zhou, Shiming; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.; Xue, Desheng
2018-02-01
Spin pumping (SP) and spin rectification due to spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) can result in a dc resonant voltage signal, when magnetization in ferromagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic structures experiences ferromagnetic resonance. Since the two effects are often interrelated, quantitative identification of them is important for studying the dynamic nonlocal spin transport through an interface. In this letter, the key difference between SP and SMR rectification was investigated from the viewpoint of spin dynamics. The phase-dependent nature of SMR rectification, which is the fundamental characteristic distinguishing it from SP, was tested by a well-designed experiment. In this experiment, two identical yttrium iron garnet/Pt strips with a π phase difference in dynamic magnetization show the same SP signals and inverse SMR signals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ducharne, B., E-mail: Benjamin.ducharne@insa-lyon.fr; Le, M.Q.; Sebald, G.; Cottinet, P.J.; Guyomar, D.; Hebrard, Y.
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Barkhausen noise energy versus excitation field hysteresis cycles MBN{sub energy}(H). • Difference in the dynamics of the induction field B and of the MBN{sub energy}. • Dynamic behavior of MBN{sub energy}(H) cycles is first-order. • Dynamic behavior of B(H) cycles is non-entire order. - Abstract: By means of a post-processing technique, we succeeded in plotting magnetic Barkhausen noise energy hysteresis cycles MBN{sub energy}(H). These cycles were compared to the usual hysteresis cycles, displaying the evolution of the magnetic induction field B versus the magnetic excitation H. The divergence between these comparisons as the excitation frequency was increased gave rise to the conclusion that there was a difference in the dynamics of the induction field and of the MBN{sub energy} related to the domain wall movements. Indeed, for the MBN{sub energy} hysteresis cycle, merely the domain wall movements were involved. On the other hand, for the usual B(H) cycle, two dynamic contributions were observed: domain wall movements and diffusion of the magnetic field excitation. From a simulation point of view, it was demonstrated that over a large frequency bandwidth a correct dynamic behavior of the domain wall movement MBN{sub energy}(H) cycle could be taken into account using first-order derivation whereas fractional orders were required for the B(H) cycles. The present article also gives a detailed description of how to use the developed process to obtain the MBN{sub energy}(H) hysteresis cycle as well as its evolution as the frequency increases. Moreover, this article provides an interesting explanation of the separation of magnetic loss contributions through a magnetic sample: a wall movement contribution varying according to first-order dynamics and a diffusion contribution which in a lump model can be taken into account using fractional order dynamics.
Usefulness of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in pituitary microadenomas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhee, Chang Soo; Lee, Eun Young; Joo, Yang Gu; Kim, Hong; Lee, Hee Jung; Sch, Soo Ji
1996-01-01
To investigate the usefulness of dynamic MR imaging in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas. Dynamic MR imaging was performed in 31 patients with suspicious pituitary microadinoma. The MR examination was performed on a 2.0T or 1.5T superconductive MR unit using spin echo(SE) technique with a repetition time of 200msec, echo time of 15 msec, 128X256 matrix and one excitation. Actual sampling time per image was 26 seconds. The field of view was 25cm and a section thickness if 3 mm with 2mm gap was chose. After a rapid hand injection(2-3ml/sec) of Gd-DTPA(0.1 mmol/kg of body weight), dynamic coronal plane MR images were obtained every 20-30 seconds for 3-5 minutes. Between never and ten serial images were usually obtained. After dynamic MR imaging, toutine SE T1-weighted images(T1W1) were obtained in the same plane as dynamic images, and detection rates of pituitary microadinoma using dynamic MR imaging and using routine enhanced T1W1, were retrospectively compared. On early dynamic images(30-90 seconds), 23 of 31 adenomas(74.2%) were well visualized at 30-second dynamic image. On late dynamic images(120-180 seconds), six microadeomas(19.4%) were well-visualized and ; two(6.5%) were well-visualized on toutine Gd-DTPA enhanced T1W1. dynamic MR imaging with Gd-DTPA bolus injection was the most useful technique for the detection of pituitary microadenoma, especially on early-phase dynamic images
Dynamics expansion of laser produced plasma with different materials in magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rabia Qindeel; Noriah Bte Bidin; Yaacob Mat daud [Laser Technology Laboratory, Physics Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia)], E-mail: plasmaqindeel@yahoo.com
2008-12-01
The dynamics expansion of the plasma generated by laser ablation of different materials has been investigated. The dynamics and confinement of laser generated plasma plumes are expanding across variable magnetic fields. A Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser with 1064 nm, 8 ns pulse width and 0.125 J laser energy was used to generate plasma that was allowed to expand across variable magnetic within 0.1 - 0.8 T. The expansions of laser-produced plasma of different materials are characterized by using constant laser power. CCD video camera was used to visualize and record the activities in the focal region. The plasma plume length, width and area were measured by using Matrox Inpector 2.1 and video Test 0.5 software. Spectrums of plasma beam from different materials are studied via spectrometer. The results show that the plasma generated by aluminum target is the largest than Brass and copper. The optical radiation from laser generated plasma beam spectrums are obtained in the range of UV to visible light.
Analysis of dynamical corrections to baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Phuoc; Durand, Loyal
2003-01-01
We present and analyze QCD corrections to the baryon magnetic moments in terms of the one-, two-, and three-body operators which appear in the effective field theory developed in our recent papers. The main corrections are extended Thomas-type corrections associated with the confining interactions in the baryon. We investigate the contributions of low-lying angular excitations to the baryon magnetic moments quantitatively and show that they are completely negligible. When the QCD corrections are combined with the nonquark model contributions of the meson loops, we obtain a model which describes the baryon magnetic moments within a mean deviation of 0.04 μ N . The nontrivial interplay of the two types of corrections to the quark-model magnetic moments is analyzed in detail, and explains why the quark model is so successful. In the course of these calculations, we parametrize the general spin structure of the j=(1/2) + baryon wave functions in a form which clearly displays the symmetry properties and the internal angular momentum content of the wave functions, and allows us to use spin-trace methods to calculate the many spin matrix elements which appear in the expressions for the baryon magnetic moments. This representation may be useful elsewhere
Spin currents and magnon dynamics in insulating magnets
Nakata, Kouki; Simon, Pascal; Loss, Daniel
2017-03-01
Nambu-Goldstone theorem provides gapless modes to both relativistic and nonrelativistic systems. The Nambu-Goldstone bosons in insulating magnets are called magnons or spin-waves and play a key role in magnetization transport. We review here our past works on magnetization transport in insulating magnets and also add new insights, with a particular focus on magnon transport. We summarize in detail the magnon counterparts of electron transport, such as the Wiedemann-Franz law, the Onsager reciprocal relation between the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, the Hall effects, the superconducting state, the Josephson effects, and the persistent quantized current in a ring to list a few. Focusing on the electromagnetism of moving magnons, i.e. magnetic dipoles, we theoretically propose a way to directly measure magnon currents. As a consequence of the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem, spin transport is drastically altered in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AF) spin-1/2 chains; where the Néel order is destroyed by quantum fluctuations and a quasiparticle magnon-like picture breaks down. Instead, the low-energy collective excitations of the AF spin chain are described by a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) which provides the spin transport properties in such antiferromagnets some universal features at low enough temperature. Finally, we enumerate open issues and provide a platform to discuss the future directions of magnonics.
Spin currents and magnon dynamics in insulating magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, Kouki; Loss, Daniel; Simon, Pascal
2017-01-01
Nambu–Goldstone theorem provides gapless modes to both relativistic and nonrelativistic systems. The Nambu–Goldstone bosons in insulating magnets are called magnons or spin-waves and play a key role in magnetization transport. We review here our past works on magnetization transport in insulating magnets and also add new insights, with a particular focus on magnon transport. We summarize in detail the magnon counterparts of electron transport, such as the Wiedemann–Franz law, the Onsager reciprocal relation between the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, the Hall effects, the superconducting state, the Josephson effects, and the persistent quantized current in a ring to list a few. Focusing on the electromagnetism of moving magnons, i.e. magnetic dipoles, we theoretically propose a way to directly measure magnon currents. As a consequence of the Mermin–Wagner–Hohenberg theorem, spin transport is drastically altered in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AF) spin-1/2 chains; where the Néel order is destroyed by quantum fluctuations and a quasiparticle magnon-like picture breaks down. Instead, the low-energy collective excitations of the AF spin chain are described by a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL) which provides the spin transport properties in such antiferromagnets some universal features at low enough temperature. Finally, we enumerate open issues and provide a platform to discuss the future directions of magnonics. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauridsen, Jonas S.; Santos, Ilmar F.
2017-01-01
Significant dynamic forces can be generated by annular seals in rotordynamics and can under certain conditions destabilize the system leading to machine failure. Mathematical modelling of dynamic seal forces are still challenging, especially for multiphase fluids and for seals with complex...... geometries. This results in much uncertainty in the estimation of the dynamic seal forces which often leads to unexpected system behaviour. This paper presents the results of a method suitable for on-site identification of uncertain dynamic annular seal forces in rotordynamic systems supported by Active...... Magnetic Bearings (AMB). An excitation current is applied through the AMBs to obtain perturbation forces and a system response, from which, the seal coefficients are extracted by utilizing optimization and a-priori information about the mathematical model structure and its known system dynamics. As a study...
Fragouli, Despina; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Bertoni, Giovanni; Sangregorio, Claudio; Innocenti, Claudia; Falqui, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Cozzoli, Pantaleo Davide; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Cingolani, Roberto
2010-04-27
We present a simple technique for magnetic-field-induced formation, assembling, and positioning of magnetic nanowires in a polymer film. Starting from a polymer/iron oxide nanoparticle casted solution that is allowed to dry along with the application of a weak magnetic field, nanocomposite films incorporating aligned nanocrystal-built nanowire arrays are obtained. The control of the dimensions of the nanowires and of their localization across the polymer matrix is achieved by varying the duration of the applied magnetic field, in combination with the evaporation dynamics. These multifunctional anisotropic free-standing nanocomposite films, which demonstrate high magnetic anisotropy, can be used in a wide field of technological applications, ranging from sensors to microfluidics and magnetic devices.
Static and dynamical anomalies caused by chiral soliton lattice in molecular-based chiral magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Inoue, Katsuya; Kikuchi, Koichi
2007-01-01
Interplay of crystallographic chirality and magnetic chirality has been of great interest in both chemist's and physicist's viewpoints. Crystals belonging to chiral space groups are eligible to stabilize macroscopic chiral magnetic order. This class of magnetic order is described by the chiral XY model, where the transverse magnetic field perpendicular to the chiral axis causes the chiral soliton lattice (CSL) formation. As a clear evidence of the chiral magnetic order, the temperature dependence of the transverse magnetization exhibits sharp cusp just below the mean field ferrimagnetic transition temperature, indicating the formation of the CSL. In addition to the static anomaly, we expect the CSL formation also causes dynamical anomalies such as induction of the spin supercurrent
Dynamics of particles accelerated by head-on collisions of two magnetized plasma shocks
Takeuchi, Satoshi
2018-02-01
A kinetic model of the head-on collision of two magnetized plasma shocks is analyzed theoretically and in numerical calculations. When two plasmas with anti-parallel magnetic fields collide, they generate magnetic reconnection and form a motional electric field at the front of the collision region. This field accelerates the particles sandwiched between both shock fronts to extremely high energy. As they accelerate, the particles are bent by the transverse magnetic field crossing the magnetic neutral sheet, and their energy gains are reduced. In the numerical calculations, the dynamics of many test particles were modeled through the relativistic equations of motion. The attainable energy gain was obtained by multiplying three parameters: the propagation speed of the shock, the magnitude of the magnetic field, and the acceleration time of the test particle. This mechanism for generating high-energy particles is applicable over a wide range of spatial scales, from laboratory to interstellar plasmas.
Simulation of dynamic magnetic particle capture and accumulation around a ferromagnetic wire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ebner, Armin D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Natenapit, Mayuree [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ritter, James A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)
2017-04-15
A new approach for modeling high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS)-type systems during the time-dependent capture and accumulation of magnetic particles by a ferromagnetic wire was developed. This new approach assumes the fluid (slurry) viscosity, comprised of water and magnetic particles, is a function of the magnetic particle concentration in the fluid, with imposed maxima on both the particle concentration and fluid viscosity to avoid unrealistic limits. In 2-D, the unsteady-state Navier-Stokes equations for compressible fluid flow and the unsteady-state continuity equations applied separately to the water and magnetic particle phases in the slurry were solved simultaneously, along with the Laplace equations for the magnetic potential applied separately to the slurry and wire, to evaluate the velocities and concentrations around the wire in a narrow channel using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results from this model revealed very realistic magnetically attractive and repulsive zones forming in time around the wire. These collection zones formed their own impermeable viscous phase during accumulation that was also magnetic with its area and magnetism impacting locally both the fluid flow and magnetic fields around the wire. These collection zones increased with an increase in the applied magnetic field. For a given set of conditions, the capture ability peaked and then decreased to zero at infinite time during magnetic particle accumulation in the collection zones. Predictions of the collection efficiency from a steady-state, clean collector, trajectory model could not show this behavior; it also agreed only qualitatively with the dynamic model and then only at the early stages of collection and more so at a higher applied magnetic field. Also, the collection zones decreased in size when the accumulation regions included magnetic particle magnetization (realistic) compared to when they excluded it (unrealistic). Overall, this might be the first time a mathematical
Magnetic relaxation phenomena in the chiral magnet Fe1 -xCoxSi : An ac susceptibility study
Bannenberg, L. J.; Lefering, A. J. E.; Kakurai, K.; Onose, Y.; Endoh, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Pappas, C.
2016-10-01
We present a systematic study of the ac susceptibility of the chiral magnet Fe1 -xCoxSi with x =0.30 covering four orders of magnitude in frequencies from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz, with particular emphasis to the pronounced history dependence. Characteristic relaxation times ranging from a few milliseconds to tens of seconds are observed around the skyrmion lattice A phase, the helical-to-conical transition and in a region above TC. The distribution of relaxation frequencies around the A phase is broad, asymmetric, and originates from multiple coexisting relaxation processes. The pronounced dependence of the magnetic phase diagram on the magnetic history and cooling rates as well as the asymmetric frequency dependence and slow dynamics suggest more complicated physical phenomena in Fe0.7Co0.3Si than in other chiral magnets.
Neutron scattering studies of modulated magnetic structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aagaard Soerensen, Steen
1999-08-01
This report describes investigations of the magnetic systems DyFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} and MnSi by neutron scattering and in the former case also by X-ray magnetic resonant scattering. The report is divided into three parts: An introduction to the technique of neutron scattering with special emphasis on the relation between the scattering cross section and the correlations between the scattering entities of the sample. The theoretical framework of neutron scattering experiments using polarized beam technique is outlined. The second part describes neutron and X-ray scattering investigation of the magnetic structures of DyFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. The Fe sublattice of the compound order at 180 K in a cycloidal structure in the basal plane of the bct crystal structure. At 25 K the ordering of the Dy sublattice shows up. By the element specific technique of X-ray resonant magnetic scattering, the basal plane cycloidal structure was also found for the Dy sublattice. The work also includes neutron scattering studies of DyFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} in magnetic fields up to 5 T applied along a <110> direction. The modulated structure at the Dy sublattice is quenched by a field lower than 1 T, whereas modulation is present at the Fe sublattice even when the 5 T field is applied. In the third part of the report, results from three small angle neutron experiments on MnSi are presented. At ambient pressure, a MnSi is known to form a helical spin density wave at temperature below 29 K. The application of 4.5 kbar pressure intended as hydrostatic decreased the Neel temperature to 25 K and changed the orientation of the modulation vector. To understand this reorientation within the current theoretical framework, anisotropic deformation of the sample crystal must be present. The development of magnetic critical scattering with an isotropic distribution of intensity has been studied at a level of detail higher than that of work found in the literature. Finally the potential of a novel polarization
Study of the magnetic interaction in nanocrystalline Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dospial, M.; Plusa, D.; Ślusarek, B.
2012-01-01
The magnetic properties of an isotropic, epoxy resin bonded magnets made from Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B powder were investigated. The magnetization reversal process and magnetic parameters were examined by measurements of the initial magnetization curve, major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From the initial magnetization curve and the field dependencies of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components derived from the recoil loops it was found that the magnetization reversal process is the combination of the nucleation of reversed domains and pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries and the reversible rotation of magnetization vector in single domain grains. The interactions between grains were studied by means of δM plots. The nonlinear behavior of δM curve approve that the short range intergrain exchange coupling interactions are dominant in a field up to the sample coercivity. The interaction domains and fine magnetic structure were revealed as the evidence of exchange coupling between soft α-Fe and hard magnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains. - Highlights: ► Coercivity of the Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B magnet is determined by the pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries. ► Rotation of magnetization vector and domain walls bowing also give the contribution to the initial and demagnetization process. ► δM behavior shows that the dominant interaction is the short range exchange one among soft magnetic α-Fe and hard magnetic Pr 2 Fe 14 B grains.
Pobachenko, S. V.; Sokolov, M. V.; Grigoriev, P. E.; Vasilieva, I. V.
2017-11-01
There are presented the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of indices of the functional state of a person located within the zones characterized by anomalous parameters of spatial distribution of magnetic field vector values. It is shown that these geophysical modifications have a pronounced effect on the dynamics of electrical activity indices of the human brain, regardless of geographic and climatic conditions.
Strong magnetic fields and non equilibrium dynamics in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Niklas
2017-06-21
The concept of symmetry is without doubt the most significant centerpiece of modern science. Our current understanding of the visible universe is phrased into a basic set of equations describing what we call 'gauge theories'. The laws governing the dynamics of nature have been derived studying the symmetry properties of these equations, that is their invariance or non-invariance under certain symmetry 'transformations'. Because of their grand success and while seeming omnipotent, it came as a sensational surprise, that nature mysteriously does not obey some of the above symmetry principles by mechanisms that are elusive: Quantum Anomalies. The intriguing feature of the anomalous violation of symmetries is that it cannot be understood by the defining set of equations that were postulated to comprise the physical content of nature, but rather from the structures of quantum theories itself. Quantum anomalies emerge from the transition from the classical to the quantum level of nature, and researchers have realized that the properties of the physical vacuum (that is the quantum equivalent of 'nothing') are very non-trivial. Symmetries are the cornerstones of gauge theories and the fundamental forces they describe. The vast majority of visible matter is governed by the strong interactions, formulated through the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this context, symmetry principles also dictate the existence of another mysterious concept: topology. Topology is the principle used to describe the fundamental structure of an object, invariant under a certain transformation. In physics it describes the invariance of the aforementioned basic set of equations under continuous and hence structure-preserving manipulations. It is very suggestive that quantum anomalies and the concept of topology should be intimately related and in fact this assertion is most famously confirmed by the so-called axial anomaly. The physics of quantum anomalies
Dynamics of Magnetic Bright Points in an Active Region
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Möstl, C.; Hanslmeier, A.; Sobotka, Michal; Puschmann, K.G.; Muthsam, H. J.
2006-01-01
Roč. 237, č. 1 (2006), s. 13-23 ISSN 0038-0938 Grant - others:FWF(AT) P-17024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * photosphere * magnetic fields Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.887, year: 2006
Dynamics of individual magnetic particles near a biosensor surface
van Ommering, K.
2010-01-01
The use of magnetic particles in biosensing is advantageous for transport of target molecules in the device, for assay integration, and for labeled detection. The particles generally have a size between 100 nm and 3 ¿m and are of a superparamagnetic nature, being composed of thousands of iron oxide
The Evolution of Open Magnetic Flux Driven by Photospheric Dynamics
Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Antiochos, Spiro K.
2010-01-01
The coronal magnetic field is of paramount importance in solar and heliospheric physics. Two profoundly different views of the coronal magnetic field have emerged. In quasi-steady models, the predominant source of open magnetic field is in coronal holes. In contrast, in the interchange model, the open magnetic flux is conserved, and the coronal magnetic field can only respond to the photospheric evolution via interchange reconnection. In this view the open magnetic flux diffuses through the closed, streamer belt fields, and substantial open flux is present in the streamer belt during solar minimum. However, Antiochos and co-workers, in the form of a conjecture, argued that truly isolated open flux cannot exist in a configuration with one heliospheric current sheet (HCS) - it will connect via narrow corridors to the polar coronal hole of the same polarity. This contradicts the requirements of the interchange model. We have performed an MHD simulation of the solar corona up to 20R solar to test both the interchange model and the Antiochos conjecture. We use a synoptic map for Carrington Rotation 1913 as the boundary condition for the model, with two small bipoles introduced into the region where a positive polarity extended coronal hole forms. We introduce flows at the photospheric boundary surface to see if open flux associated with the bipoles can be moved into the closed-field region. Interchange reconnection does occur in response to these motions. However, we find that the open magnetic flux cannot be simply injected into closed-field regions - the flux eventually closes down and disconnected flux is created. Flux either opens or closes, as required, to maintain topologically distinct open and closed field regions, with no indiscriminate mixing of the two. The early evolution conforms to the Antiochos conjecture in that a narrow corridor of open flux connects the portion of the coronal hole that is nearly detached by one of the bipoles. In the later evolution, a
THE EVOLUTION OF OPEN MAGNETIC FLUX DRIVEN BY PHOTOSPHERIC DYNAMICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Antiochos, Spiro K.
2011-01-01
The coronal magnetic field is of paramount importance in solar and heliospheric physics. Two profoundly different views of the coronal magnetic field have emerged. In quasi-steady models, the predominant source of open magnetic field is in coronal holes. In contrast, in the interchange model, the open magnetic flux is conserved, and the coronal magnetic field can only respond to the photospheric evolution via interchange reconnection. In this view, the open magnetic flux diffuses through the closed, streamer belt fields, and substantial open flux is present in the streamer belt during solar minimum. However, Antiochos and coworkers, in the form of a conjecture, argued that truly isolated open flux cannot exist in a configuration with one heliospheric current sheet-it will connect via narrow corridors to the polar coronal hole of the same polarity. This contradicts the requirements of the interchange model. We have performed an MHD simulation of the solar corona up to 20 R sun to test both the interchange model and the Antiochos conjecture. We use a synoptic map for Carrington rotation 1913 as the boundary condition for the model, with two small bipoles introduced into the region where a positive polarity extended coronal hole forms. We introduce flows at the photospheric boundary surface to see if open flux associated with the bipoles can be moved into the closed-field region. Interchange reconnection does occur in response to these motions. However, we find that the open magnetic flux cannot be simply injected into closed-field regions-the flux eventually closes down and disconnected flux is created. Flux either opens or closes, as required, to maintain topologically distinct open- and closed-field regions, with no indiscriminate mixing of the two. The early evolution conforms to the Antiochos conjecture in that a narrow corridor of open flux connects the portion of the coronal hole that is nearly detached by one of the bipoles. In the later evolution, a detached
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snezhko, Alexey
2011-01-01
Colloidal dispersions of interacting particles subjected to an external periodic forcing often develop nontrivial self-assembled patterns and complex collective behavior. A fundamental issue is how collective ordering in such non-equilibrium systems arises from the dynamics of discrete interacting components. In addition, from a practical viewpoint, by working in regimes far from equilibrium new self-organized structures which are generally not available through equilibrium thermodynamics can be created. In this review spontaneous self-assembly phenomena in magnetic colloidal dispersions suspended at liquid-air interfaces and driven out of equilibrium by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Experiments reveal a new type of nontrivially ordered self-assembled structures emerging in such systems in a certain range of excitation parameters. These dynamic structures emerge as a result of the competition between magnetic and hydrodynamic forces and have complex unconventional magnetic ordering. Nontrivial self-induced hydrodynamic fields accompany each out-of-equilibrium pattern. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the self-induced surface flows leading to a formation of self-propelled microstructures has been discovered. Some features of the self-localized structures can be understood in the framework of the amplitude equation (Ginzburg-Landau type equation) for parametric waves coupled to the conservation law equation describing the evolution of the magnetic particle density and the Navier-Stokes equation for hydrodynamic flows. To understand the fundamental microscopic mechanisms governing self-assembly processes in magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces a first-principle model for a non-equilibrium self-assembly is presented. The latter model allows us to capture in detail the entire process of out-of-equilibrium self-assembly in the system and reproduces most of the observed phenomenology. (topical review)
Beam dynamics study in the C235 cyclotron for proton therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karamysheva, G.A.; Kostromin, S.A.
2008-01-01
Study of the beam dynamics in the C235 cyclotron dedicated to the proton therapy is presented. Results of the computer simulations of the particle motion in the measured magnetic field are given. Study of the resonance influence on the acceleration process was carried out. The corresponding tolerances on the magnetic field imperfections and transverse beam parameters were defined using these simulations
Assessment of pelvic floor dysfunctions using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoda Salah Darwish
2014-03-01
Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is an ideal, non invasive technique which does not require patient preparation for evaluation of pelvic floor. It acts as one stop shop for diagnosing single or multiple pelvic compartment involvement in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction.
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beaulieu, C.F.
1989-01-01
Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ( 31 P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the 31 P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. 1 H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T 1 and T 2 with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T 1 or T 2 , consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. 1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T 1 relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine γ-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T 1 with increasing magnetic field
Dynamics of the solar magnetic field. V. Velocities associated with changing magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, R.H.; Nakagawa, Y.
1975-01-01
Methods of determining horizontal velocities from the magnetic induction equation on the basis of a time series of magnetogram observations are discussed. For the flare of 1972 August 7, it is shown that a previously developed method of predicting positions of likely flare activity provides reasonable agreement with observations. Limitations to this type of solution of the magnetic induction equation are pointed out, and unambiguous solutions, corresponding to phenomenological determinations of velocity patterns under various physical circumstances, are presented for simple magnetic configurations. Implications for the analysis of changes in a series of magnetogram observations are discussed
Gilbert's De Magnete: An early study of magnetism and electricity
Malin, Stuart; Barraclough, David
Four hundred years might seem an excessively long time to wait for a book review, but there are reasons why a prompt review would have been difficult. Not only is De Magnete written in Latin, but it is also in the form of a scientific textbook. The language problem was overcome by Paul Fleury Mottelay and Silvanus P. Thompson, who translated the book into English in 1893 and 1900, respectively. The latter was published in connection with a beautiful tercentenary limited edition by the Chiswick Press that retains much of the flavor and appearance of the original. But the notion of a scientific textbook was unfamiliar when De Magnete first appeared in 1600. Certainly, scientific subjects and even geomagnetism had been written about (for example, by Petrus Peregrinus in his Epistola De Magnete, 1269), but as reports of equipment and phenomena rather than as in-depth investigations of a subject with experimental evidence and interpretation.
Contribution to magnetic refrigeration study at liquid helium study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lacaze, A.
1985-10-01
An experimental prototype of magnetic refrigerator operates, following a Carnot cycle, with gallium gadolinium garnet, from liquid helium at 4.2 0 K. Analysis of the cyle and heat exchanges allowed to improve performance up to get more than 50% of Carnot yield at 1.8 0 K and nearly 80% at 2.1 0 K. Operation conditions of a regenerator refrigerator between 4 and 20 0 K are studied. The association of a magnetic refrigerator and a gas refrigerator is analyzed. Among different ways to realize the magnetic stage, an active regenerator cycle is chosen. An experimental device is described [fr
Lifting particle coordinate changes of magnetic moment type to Vlasov-Maxwell Hamiltonian dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, P. J.; Vittot, M.; Guillebon, L. de
2013-01-01
Techniques for coordinate changes that depend on both dependent and independent variables are developed and applied to the Maxwell-Vlasov Hamiltonian theory. Particle coordinate changes with a new velocity variable dependent on the magnetic field, with spatial coordinates unchanged, are lifted to the field theoretic level, by transforming the noncanonical Poisson bracket and Hamiltonian structure of the Vlasov-Maxwell dynamics. Several examples are given including magnetic coordinates, where the velocity is decomposed into components parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetic field, and the case of spherical velocity coordinates. An example of the lifting procedure is performed to obtain a simplified version of gyrokinetics, where the magnetic moment is used as a coordinate and the dynamics is reduced by elimination of the electric field energy in the Hamiltonian.
A stochastic model for magnetic dynamics in single-molecule magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López-Ruiz, R., E-mail: rlruiz@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Almeida, P.T. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Vaz, M.G.F. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-150 Niterói (RJ) (Brazil); Novak, M.A. [Instituto de Física - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (RJ) (Brazil); Béron, F.; Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil)
2016-04-01
Hysteresis and magnetic relaxation curves were performed on double well potential systems with quantum tunneling possibility via stochastic simulations. Simulation results are compared with experimental ones using the Mn{sub 12} single-molecule magnet, allowing us to introduce time dependence in the model. Despite being a simple simulation model, it adequately reproduces the phenomenology of a thermally activated quantum tunneling and can be extended to other systems with different parameters. Assuming competition between the reversal modes, thermal (over) and tunneling (across) the anisotropy barrier, a separation of classical and quantum contributions to relaxation time can be obtained. - Highlights: • Single-molecule magnets are modeled using a simple stochastic approach. • Simulation reproduces thermally-activated tunnelling magnetization reversal features. • The time is introduced in hysteresis and relaxation simulations. • We can separate the quantum and classical contributions to decay time.
Magnetic resonance studies of intercalation compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.R.
1990-01-01
During the last three or four years, nearly tow hundred papers have been published that used NMR or ESR spectroscopy to study compounds formed by the intercalation of molecules or ions into the van der Waals gap of a layered hast compound. The host lattices have ranged from the simple, such as graphite, to the complex, such as clay. In many cases, magnetic resonance techniques now enable one to obtain quite detailed information on even fairly complex intercalated species, on the nature of the changes in the host lattice accompanying intercalation, and on the nature of the interactions between the intercalant species and the host lattice. Magnetic resonance is used in conunction with many other techniques to obtain a fuller picture of these interesting systems, but this review will limit its focus to the use of NMR and ESR techniques. (author). 51 refs
Magneto-optic studies of magnetic oxides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gehring, Gillian A., E-mail: g.gehring@shef.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Alshammari, Marzook S.; Score, David S.; Neal, James R.; Mokhtari, Abbas; Fox, A. Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)
2012-10-15
A brief review of the use of magneto-optic methods to study magnetic oxides is given. A simple method to obtain the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of a thin film on a transparent substrate is described. The method takes full account of multiple reflections in the film and substrate. Examples of the magneto-optic spectra of Co-doped ZnO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and GdMnO{sub 3} are given. The Maxwell-Garnett method is used to describe the effects of metallic cobalt inclusions in Co:ZnO samples, and the change of the MCD spectra of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at the Verwey temperature is discussed. Data showing different MCD signals at different energies is presented for GdMnO{sub 3}.
Magneto-optic studies of magnetic oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gehring, Gillian A.; Alshammari, Marzook S.; Score, David S.; Neal, James R.; Mokhtari, Abbas; Fox, A. Mark
2012-01-01
A brief review of the use of magneto-optic methods to study magnetic oxides is given. A simple method to obtain the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of a thin film on a transparent substrate is described. The method takes full account of multiple reflections in the film and substrate. Examples of the magneto-optic spectra of Co-doped ZnO, Fe 3 O 4 , and GdMnO 3 are given. The Maxwell–Garnett method is used to describe the effects of metallic cobalt inclusions in Co:ZnO samples, and the change of the MCD spectra of Fe 3 O 4 at the Verwey temperature is discussed. Data showing different MCD signals at different energies is presented for GdMnO 3 .
Satellite to study earth's magnetic field
1979-01-01
The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remmer, Hilke; Dieckhoff, Jan; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank
2015-01-01
We investigated the binding of biotinylated proteins to various streptavidin functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with different dynamic magnetic measurement techniques to examine their potential for homogeneous bioassays. As particle systems, single-core nanoparticles with a nominal core diameter of 30 nm as well as multi-core nanoparticles with hydrodynamic sizes varying between nominally 60 nm and 100 nm were chosen. As experimental techniques, fluxgate magnetorelaxometry (MRX), complex ac susceptibility (ACS) and measurements of the phase lag between rotating field and sample magnetization are applied. MRX measurements are only suited for the detection of small analytes if the multivalency of functionalized nanoparticles and analytes causes cross-linking, thus forming larger aggregates. ACS measurements showed for all nanoparticle systems a shift of the imaginary part's maximum towards small frequencies. In rotating field measurements only the single-core nanoparticle systems with dominating Brownian mechanism exhibit an increase of the phase lag upon binding in the investigated frequency range. The coexistence of Brownian and Néel relaxation processes can cause a more complex phase lag change behavior, as demonstrated for multi-core nanoparticle systems. - Highlights: • Cealization of homogeneous magnetic bioassays using different magnetic techniques. • Comparison of single- and multi-core nanoparticle systems. • ac Susceptibility favorable for detection of small analytes. • Magnetorelaxometry favorable for detection of large analytes or cross-linking assays
Dynamics of a longitudinal current during a magnetic storm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolginov, S.Sh.; Zhuzgov, L.N.; Kosacheva, V.P.; Strunnikova, L.N.; Tyurmina, L.O.; Sharova, V.A.; Shkol'nikova, S.I.
1984-01-01
Results, investigating a spatial distribution and the structure of longitudinal currents during a magnetic storm at 18-19.09.81, are presented. It is shown that during the main phase of the storm the large-scale current system expands to the equator, and current density increases. Inside the current layer and to the pole of it there appears intensive small scale longitudinal l currents. During magnetic storm restopation phase the current system segregates into several pairs of opposite directed currents. During further decreasing of geomagnetic activity the large-scale current system is restored+ and its center is shifted to the pole, longitudinal current density being decreased. The invariant width of longitudinal currents is decreased, while the magnitude, Dsub(st), being increased, that is connected to the displacement of an auroral oval to the equator
Dynamics of post-flare ejections and magnetic loop geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mein, P.; Mein, N.
1982-01-01
Flare-associated mass ejections have been observed at the solar limb on June 29, 1980 in the Hα line, with the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph of the Meudon solar tower. Radial velocities were measured as a function of time in a two dimensional field, and kinematics investigated in one selected fine structure. A simple model of locally dipole-type magnetic field increasing with time can be fitted to the data. It can be checked from extrapolation that the model is consistent with an ejection starting roughly from the same point at the same time. Height of the loops (approx. equal to 135,000 km) is consistent with other determinations. Magnetic field is found to be increasing locally by a factor 1.14 within 10 min. (orig.)
Fundamental studies of superconductors using scanning magnetic imaging
Kirtley, J. R.
2010-12-01
In this review I discuss the application of scanning magnetic imaging to fundamental studies of superconductors, concentrating on three scanning magnetic microscopies—scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM), scanning Hall bar microscopy (SHM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). I briefly discuss the history, sensitivity, spatial resolution, invasiveness and potential future developments of each technique. I then discuss a selection of applications of these microscopies. I start with static imaging of magnetic flux: an SSM study provides deeper understanding of vortex trapping in narrow strips, which are used to reduce noise in superconducting circuitry. Studies of vortex trapping in wire lattices, clusters and arrays of rings and nanoholes show fascinating ordering effects. The cuprate high-Tc superconductors are shown to have predominantly d-wave pairing symmetry by magnetic imaging of the half-integer flux quantum effect. Arrays of superconducting rings act as a physical analog for the Ising spin model, with the half-integer flux quantum effect helping to eliminate one source of disorder in antiferromagnetic arrangements of the ring moments. Tests of the interlayer tunneling model show that the condensation energy available from this mechanism cannot account for the high critical temperatures observed in the cuprates. The strong divergence in the magnetic fields of Pearl vortices allows them to be imaged using SSM, even for penetration depths of a millimeter. Unusual vortex arrangements occur in samples comparable in size to the coherence length. Spontaneous magnetization is not observed in Sr2RuO4, which is believed to have px ± ipy pairing symmetry, although effects hundreds of times bigger than the sensitivity limits had been predicted. However, unusual flux trapping is observed in this superconductor. Finally, unusual flux arrangements are also observed in magnetic superconductors. I then turn to vortex dynamics: imaging of vortices in rings of highly underdoped
Fundamental studies of superconductors using scanning magnetic imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirtley, J R [Center for Probing the Nanoscale, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
2010-12-01
In this review I discuss the application of scanning magnetic imaging to fundamental