WorldWideScience

Sample records for magnetically regulated gas

  1. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities – such as gas storag

  2. Natural Gas Distribution Regulation Natural Gas Distribution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salas

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises. This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises.

  3. Detecting gas molecules via atomic magnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heechae; Lee, Minho; Kim, Seungchul; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Chung, Yong-Chae

    2014-09-14

    Adsorptions of gas molecules were found to alter the directions and magnitudes of magnetic moments of transition metal (Co, Fe) atoms adsorbed on graphene. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that magnetism of surface atoms can be used to identify the kind of existing gas molecules via spin-reorientation and/or demagnetizations caused by the reconfigurations of 3d electron energy levels of Co and Fe. We suggest for the first time that magnetic properties of transition metal-embedded nanostructures can be used in highly selective gas-sensing applications.

  4. Shale gas development: a smart regulation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konschnik, Katherine E; Boling, Mark K

    2014-01-01

    Advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have sparked a natural gas boom from shale formations in the United States. Regulators face a rapidly changing industry comprised of hundreds of players, operating tens of thousands of wells across 30 states. They are often challenged to respond by budget cuts, a brain drain to industry, regulations designed for conventional gas developments, insufficient information, and deeply polarized debates about hydraulic fracturing and its regulation. As a result, shale gas governance remains a halting patchwork of rules, undermining opportunities to effectively characterize and mitigate development risk. The situation is dynamic, with research and incremental regulatory advances underway. Into this mix, we offer the CO/RE framework--characterization of risk, optimization of mitigation strategies, regulation, and enforcement--to design tailored governance strategies. We then apply CO/RE to three types of shale gas risks, to illustrate its potential utility to regulators.

  5. Tag gas capsule with magnetic piercing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ira V.

    1976-06-22

    An apparatus for introducing a tag (i.e., identifying) gas into a tubular nuclear fuel element. A sealed capsule containing the tag gas is placed in the plenum in the fuel tube between the fuel and the end cap. A ferromagnetic punch having a penetrating point is slidably mounted in the plenum. By external electro-magnets, the punch may be caused to penetrate a thin rupturable end wall of the capsule and release the tag gas into the fuel element. Preferably the punch is slidably mounted within the capsule, which is in turn loaded as a sealed unit into the fuel element.

  6. Development of gas pressure vortex regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uss, A. Yu.; Chernyshyov, A. V.; Krylov, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    The present paper describes the applications of vortex regulators and the current state of the issue on the use and development of such devices. A patent review has been carried out. Automatic control systems using a vortex regulator are considered. Based on the analysis and preliminary numerical calculation of gas flow in the working cavity of the regulator, a new design of a vortex gas pressure regulator has been developed. An experimental sample of the device was made using additive technologies and a number of tests were carried out. The results of experimental studies confirmed the adequacy of the created mathematical model. Based on further numerical studies a new design of a vortex regulator with a distributed feed of the process control flow as well as with the regulated swirl of the supply and control process flows has been developed.

  7. Investment in transport infrastructure, regulation, and gas-gas competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasmi, Farid [Toulouse School of Economics (ARQADE and IDEI), Universite Toulouse 1 Capitole (France); Oviedo, Juan Daniel [Universidad del Rosario (Colombia)

    2010-05-15

    This paper develops a simple model in which a regulated (upstream) transporter provides capacity to a marketer competing in output with an incumbent in the (downstream) gas commodity market. The equilibrium outcome of the firms' interaction in the downstream market is explicitly taken into account by the regulator when setting the transport charge. We consider various forms of competition in this market and derive the corresponding optimal transport charge policies. We then run simulations that allow us to perform a comparative welfare analysis of these transport infrastructure investment policies based on different assumptions about the intensity of the competition that prevails in the gas commodity market. (author)

  8. Some Aspects of Statistical Thermodynamics of a Magnetized Fermi Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Tsintsadze, N L; Tsintsadze, L N

    2015-01-01

    We show that at the Landau ground state a Fermi gas remains precisely a three-dimensional for an arbitrary magnetic field in radical contrast to the previous claims that the perpendicular component of the pressure of a Fermi gas vanishes at the Landau ground state and therefore, it becomes strictly a one-dimensional gas.

  9. Regulation of the interplanetary magnetic flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, D.J.; Gosling, J.T.; Phillips, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this study we use a recently developed technique for measuring the 2-D magnetic flux in the ecliptic plane to examine (1) the long term variation of the magnetic flux in interplanetary space and (2) the apparent rate at which coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may be opening new flux from the Sun. Since there is a substantial variation ({approximately}50%) of the flux in the ecliptic plane over the solar cycle, we conclude that there must be some means whereby new flux can be opened from the Sun and previously open magnetic flux can be closed off. We briefly describe recently discovered coronal disconnections events which could serve to close off previously open magnetic flux. CMEs appear to retain at least partial magnetic connection to the Sun and hence open new flux, while disconnections appear to be likely signatures of the process that returns closed flux to the Sun; the combination of these processes could regulate the amount of open magnetic flux in interplanetary space. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Modeling of Hybrid Permanent Magnetic-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    Modern turbomachinery applications require nowadays ever-growing rotational speeds and high degree of reliability. It then becomes natural to focus the attention of the research to contact-free bearings elements. The present alternatives focus on gas lubricated journal bearings or magnetic bearings....... In the present paper both the technologies are combined with the aim of developing a new kind of hybrid permanent magnetic - gas bearing. This new kind of machine is intended to exploit the benefits of the two technologies while minimizing their drawbacks. The poor start-up and low speed operation performance...... of the gas bearing is balanced by the properties of the passive magnetic one. At high speeds the dynamic characteristics of the gas bearing are improved by offsetting the stator ring of the permanent magnetic bearing. Furthermore this design shows a kind of redundancy, which offers soft failure properties...

  11. Gas hydrates and magnetism : comparative geological settings for diagenetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L.; Enkin, R.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Hamilton, T. [Camosun College, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Geophysical and geochemical methods assist in locating and quantifying natural gas hydrate deposits. They are also useful in understanding these resources, their climate impacts and their potential role in geohazards. In order to understand the mechanisms of gas hydrate formation and its natural distribution in sediments, magnetic studies were conducted on cores from three different geological settings. This paper presented the results of a detailed magnetic investigation, as well as petrological observations, that were conducted on cores from a permafrost setting in the Mackenzie Delta located in the Canadian Northwest Territories Mallik region, and two marine settings, from the Cascadia margin off Vancouver Island and the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program from the Bengal Fan. The paper provided background information on the permafrost setting in Mallik region of the Mackenzie Delta as well as the Cascadia margin. The magnetic properties of gas hydrate bearing sediments were found to be a combination of the original detrital content and the diagenetic transformations of iron minerals caused by the unique environment produced by gas hydrate formation. The availability of methane to provide food for bacteria coupled with the concentration of solutes outside gas hydrate accumulation zones led to the creation of iron sulphides. These new minerals were observable using magnetic techniques, which help in delineating the gas hydrate formation mechanism and may be developed into new geophysical methods of gas hydrate exploration. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  12. ENERGY EFFICENCY INCREASE OF PROCESSES ON GASREGULATING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidkov M.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are presented results of the thermodynamic analysis of vortex tubes in recuperative technological schemes and examples of practical implementation of findings in the chemical, oil and gas industry, in particular for the vortex heating of the natural gas on the gas - regulating station.

  13. ENERGY EFFICENCY INCREASE OF PROCESSES ON GASREGULATING STATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidkov M.A.; Zhidkov D.A.

    2012-01-01

    There are presented results of the thermodynamic analysis of vortex tubes in recuperative technological schemes and examples of practical implementation of findings in the chemical, oil and gas industry, in particular for the vortex heating of the natural gas on the gas - regulating station.

  14. Gravitational collapse of a magnetized fermion gas with finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Gaspar, I. [Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia (IGA), La Habana (Cuba); Perez Martinez, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Sussman, Roberto A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), Mexico (Mexico); Ulacia Rey, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    We examine the dynamics of a self-gravitating magnetized fermion gas at finite temperature near the collapsing singularity of a Bianchi-I spacetime. Considering a general set of appropriate and physically motivated initial conditions, we transform Einstein-Maxwell field equations into a complete and self-consistent dynamical system amenable for numerical work. The resulting numerical solutions reveal the gas collapsing into both, isotropic (''point-like'') and anisotropic (''cigar-like''), singularities, depending on the initial intensity of the magnetic field. We provide a thorough study of the near collapse behavior and interplay of all relevant state and kinematic variables: temperature, expansion scalar, shear scalar, magnetic field, magnetization, and energy density. A significant qualitative difference in the behavior of the gas emerges in the temperature range T/m{sub f} {proportional_to} 10{sup -6} and T/m{sub f} {proportional_to} 10{sup -3}. (orig.)

  15. Effects of magnetic fields on HCFC-141b refrigerant gas hydrate formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 郭开华; 梁德青; 樊栓狮

    2003-01-01

    Low-pressure refrigerant gas hydrates have brilliant prospects as a cool storage medium for air-conditioning systems. Intensive effects of some specific magnetic fields on the formation process of HCFC-141b refrigerant gas hydrate are depicted experimentally. Under influence of these specific magnetic fields, the orientation and growth region of gas hydrate are altered; induction time of hydrate crystallization can be shortened extremely, and it can be shortened to 40 min from 9 h; hydrate formation mass can be enhanced considerably, and hydration rate can arrive at 100% in some instances. Meanwhile, the relations of induction time and hydration rate changed with magnetic field intensity are depicted, and some elementary regulations are found.

  16. Danish landfill gas plants with automatic measuring and regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. [Danish Land Development Service (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The first landfill gas plants in the USA were established on large and deep landfills. A number of wells were made and connected to a horizontal suction pipe through which the gas was sucked from the landfill. Most of the gas extraction systems are still constructed that way. However, control and optimising of the gas extraction can be problematic when a great number of drillings are connected to the same suction pipe. Since 1981 the Danish Ministry of Energy has supported selected research and development projects in connection with extraction and utilisation of landfill gas from Danish landfills, including a pilot plant implemented in 1983. In 1985 a EU-financed demonstration plant was established in Viborg, Denmark. In connection with the pilot and EU demonstration plant an automatic measuring and regulation system was developed to secure optimal gas recovery, identical gas quality and furthermore, it has the advantage of remote monitoring and regulation which save operational costs. The automatic measuring and regulation system is in particular well-suited when the landfill is of a relatively low depth and where regulation of the extraction may cause problems embodied in atmospheric air being sucked down in the landfill causing fluctuation of the gas quality and consequently of the gas quantity. (Author)

  17. Ambipolar diffusion regulated collapse of filaments threaded by perpendicular magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Burge, C A; Falle, S A E G; Hartquist, T W

    2016-01-01

    We numerically reproduce the density profiles for filaments that are in magnetohydrostatic and pressure equilibrium with their surroundings obtained in Tomisaka (2014) and show that these equilibria are dynamically stable. If the effect of ambipolar diffusion is considered, these filaments lose magnetic support initiating cloud collapse. The filaments do not lose magnetic flux. Rather the magnetic flux is redistributed within the filament from the centre towards the envelope. The rate of the collapse is inversely proportional to the fractional ionisation and two gravitationally-driven ambipolar diffusion regimes for the collapse are observed as predicted in Mouschovias & Morton (1991). For high values of the ionisation coefficient, that is $X \\geq 10^{-7}$, the gas is strongly coupled to the magnetic field and the Jeans length is larger than the ambipolar diffusion length scale. Then the collapse is governed by magnetically-regulated ambipolar diffusion. For $X \\lesssim 10^{-8}$, the gas is weakly coupled...

  18. Magnetically assisted gas-solid fluidization in a tapered vessel: Part Ⅰ. Magnetization-LAST mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jordan Hristov

    2009-01-01

    This article presents further experimental results of the Magnetization-LAST mode in magnetically assisted gas-fluidized tapered beds, including external transverse magnetic field control of solid phase movement, central channel formation, spout depth and the pressure drop across the bed. Phase diagrams similar to those recently reported for the Magnetization-FIRST mode were also developed. Dimensional analysis based on "pressure transform" of the initial set of variables and involving the magnetic granular Bond number pertinent to particle aggregate formation was applied to develop the scaling relationships.

  19. An Overview of Magnetic Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel J.; Jansen, Mark J.; Montague, Gerald T.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of the magnetic bearing and its use in exotic applications has been conceptualized for many years, over a century, in fact. Patented, passive systems using permanent magnets date back over 150 years. More recently, scientists of the 1930s began investigating active systems using electromagnets for high-speed ultracentrifuges. However, passive magnetic bearings are physically unstable and active systems only provide proper stiffness and damping through sophisticated controllers and algorithms. This is precisely why, until the last decade, magnetic bearings did not become a practical alternative to rolling element bearings. Today, magnetic bearing technology has become viable because of advances in micro-processing controllers that allow for confident and robust active control. Further advances in the following areas: rotor and stator materials and designs which maximize flux, minimize energy losses, and minimize stress limitations; wire materials and coatings for high temperature operation; high-speed micro processing for advanced controller designs and extremely robust capabilities; back-up bearing technology for providing a viable touchdown surface; and precision sensor technology; have put magnetic bearings on the forefront of advanced, lubrication free support systems. This paper will discuss a specific joint program for the advancement of gas turbine engines and how it implies the vitality of magnetic bearings, a brief comparison between magnetic bearings and other bearing technologies in both their advantages and limitations, and an examination of foreseeable solutions to historically perceived limitations to magnetic bearing.

  20. Electricity and gas regulation in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Peter N.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Background Information; The Electricity Chain; The Gas Chain; The Regulatory Structure; International Activity; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Mexico; Peru; Venezuela; Central America; Other Latin American Markets; Non-Latin America Markets; The Caribbean. (Author)

  1. Relativity stability of quantum gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Fan Zhao-Lan; Zhu Hou-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analytical expression of relativistic free energy for a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field,by using the method of quantum statistics,the stability conditions of the system at both high and low temperatures axe given,and the effects of magnetic field and interpaxticle interactions on the stability of the system are analysed. It is shown that at high temperatures,the stability conditions of the system are completely the same,no matter whether it is the ultrarelativistic case or nonrelativistic case. At extremely low temperatures,the mechanical stability conditions of the system show a similar rule through a comparison between the ultrarelativistic case and nonrelativistic case. At the same time,thermal stability of a relativistic Bose gas in a weak magnetic field is discussed,and the influence of the effect of relativity on the thermal stability of the system is investigated.

  2. Magnetic Collapse of a Neutron Gas No Magnetar Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Martínez, A; Cuesta, H J M; Martinez, Aurora Perez; Rojas, Hugo Perez; Mosquera-Cuesta, Herman J.

    2000-01-01

    A degenerate neutron gas in equilibrium with a background of electrons and protons in a magnetic field exerts its pressure anisotropically, having a smaller value perpendicular than along the magnetic field. For critical fields the magnetic pressure may produce the vanishing of the equatorial pressure of the neutron gas, and the outcome could be a transverse collapse of the star. This fixes a limit to the fields to be observable in stable pulsars as a function of their density. The final structure left over after the implosion might be a mixed phase of nucleons and meson ($\\pi^{\\pm,0},\\kappa^{\\pm,0}$) condensate (a strange star also likely) or a black string, but no magnetar at all.

  3. Self-Similar Dynamics of a Magnetized Polytropic Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei-Gang

    2007-01-01

    In broad astrophysical contexts of large-scale gravitational collapses and outflows and as a basis for various further astrophysical applications, we formulate and investigate a theoretical problem of self-similar MHD for a non-rotating polytropic gas of quasi-spherical symmetry permeated by a completely random magnetic field. We derive two coupled nonlinear MHD ordinary differential equations (ODEs), examine properties of the magnetosonic critical curve, obtain various asymptotic and global semi-complete similarity MHD solutions, and qualify the applicability of our results. Unique to a magnetized gas cloud, a novel asymptotic MHD solution for a collapsing core is established. Physically, the similarity MHD inflow towards the central dense core proceeds in characteristic manners before the gas material eventually encounters a strong radiating MHD shock upon impact onto the central compact object. Sufficiently far away from the central core region enshrouded by such an MHD shock, we derive regular asymptotic ...

  4. Self-similar dynamics of a magnetized polytropic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Gang; Lou, Yu-Qing

    2007-10-01

    In broad astrophysical contexts of large-scale gravitational collapses and outflows and as a basis for various further astrophysical applications, we formulate and investigate a theoretical problem of self-similar magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for a non-rotating polytropic gas of quasi-spherical symmetry permeated by a completely random magnetic field. Within this framework, we derive two coupled nonlinear MHD ordinary differential equations (ODEs), examine properties of the magnetosonic critical curve, obtain various asymptotic and global semi-complete similarity MHD solutions, and qualify the applicability of our results. Unique to a magnetized gas cloud, a novel asymptotic MHD solution for a collapsing core is established. Physically, the similarity MHD inflow towards the central dense core proceeds in characteristic manners before the gas material eventually encounters a strong radiating MHD shock upon impact onto the central compact object. Sufficiently far away from the central core region enshrouded by such an MHD shock, we derive regular asymptotic behaviours. We study asymptotic solution behaviours in the vicinity of the magnetosonic critical curve and determine smooth MHD eigensolutions across this curve. Numerically, we construct global semi-complete similarity MHD solutions that cross the magnetosonic critical curve zero, one, and two times. For comparison, counterpart solutions in the case of an isothermal unmagnetized and magnetized gas flows are demonstrated in the present MHD framework at nearly isothermal and weakly magnetized conditions. For a polytropic index γ=1.25 or a strong magnetic field, different solution behaviours emerge. With a strong magnetic field, there exist semi-complete similarity solutions crossing the magnetosonic critical curve only once, and the MHD counterpart of expansion-wave collapse solution disappears. Also in the polytropic case of γ=1.25, we no longer observe the trend in the speed-density phase diagram of finding

  5. The low-cost and precise piston gas pressure regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudasik, Mateusz; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    The present paper discusses the concept and functioning of an innovative instrument for precise stabilization of gas pressure. The piston gas pressure regulator was constructed at the Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The tests to which the instrument was subjected involved observing the values of stabilized pressure at the level of 10 bar and 3 bar, for various gas flow rates at the outlet of the instrument. The piston gas pressure regulator operates within the range of 0-10 bar and the gas flow range of 0-240 cm3 min-1. The precision of the process of stabilizing the initial pressure is  ±0.005 bar, regardless of the gas pressure value and the flow rate observed at the outlet of the instrument. Although the pressure transducer’s accuracy is 0.25% of the full range, the conducted tests of the regulator demonstrated that the obtained changeability of the stabilized pressure is at least two times lower. Unlike some other gas pressure regulators available on the market, the instrument constructed by the authors of the present paper is highly precise when it comes to the process of stabilization, and inexpensive to build.

  6. Modeling of Hybrid Permanent Magnetic-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    Modern turbomachinery applications require nowadays ever-growing rotational speeds and high degree of reliability. It then becomes natural to focus the attention of the research to contact-free bearings elements. The present alternatives focus on gas lubricated journal bearings or magnetic bearings...... concentric rings with radial magnetic orientation - analytical expressions for the calculation of the magnetic flux density and forces are employed, opposed to the main literature trend where finite element software is utilized at least for the calculation of the B-field. Numerical analysis shows how...... the rotor equilibrium position can be made independent on the rotational speed and applied load; it becomes function of the passive magnetic bearing offset. By adjusting the offset it is possible to significantly influence the dynamic coefficients of the hybrid bearing....

  7. China to Regulate Natural Gas Import from Mid-Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government plans to introduce new measures on June 10 to regulate imports of natural gas in order to protect its three major gas importers from intense domestic competition. The Ministry of Commerce said late-May that the move would end the chaotic competition between China's big-three oil and gas companies - China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) - in the purchase of gas,which has helped overseas exporters raise prices. The competition has been blamed on the lax import system for natural gas that is currently in place. Enterprises, at present, do not have to satisfy any conditions to obtain import permits for natural gas. After June 10, each application for an import permit will be examined and approved.

  8. Hematite nanoplates: Controllable synthesis, gas sensing, photocatalytic and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongying; Sun, Dandan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Yaqiu; Gao, Dongzhao

    2016-01-15

    Uniform hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates exposing {001} plane as basal planes have been prepared by a facile solvothermal method under the assistance of sodium acetate. The morphological evolution of the nanoplates was studied by adjusting the reaction parameters including the solvent and the amount of sodium acetate. The results indicated that both the adequate nucleation/growth rate and selective adsorption of alcohol molecules and acetate anions contribute to the formation of the plate-like morphology. In addition, the size of the nanoplates can be adjusted from ca. 180nm to 740nm by changing the reaction parameters. Three nanoplate samples with different size were selected to investigate the gas sensing performance, photocatalytic and magnetic properties. As gas sensing materials, all the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates exhibited high gas sensitivity and stability toward n-butanol. When applied as photocatalyst, the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates show high photodegradation efficiency towards RhB. Both the gas sensing performance and the photocatalytic property of the products exhibit obvious size-dependent effect. Magnetic measurements reveal that the plate-like α-Fe2O3 particles possess good room temperature magnetic properties.

  9. Regulation Strategy in Natural Gas Sector. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a methodological analysis to evaluate the regulation strategy in Romanian natural gas sector. The market oriented reforms are not only associated with the gap between internal prices and world prices. In the same time, the market oriented reforms are mixed with the other forms of government intervention. The industry network theory provides a good pillar for maintaining natural monopoly in public utilities. The conclusions which are presented in this article offer a good theory for the activity of the National Authority of Regulation in Romanian natural gas sector.

  10. Regulation Strategy in Natural Gas Sector. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Socol

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a methodological analysis to evaluate the regulation strategy in Romanian natural gas sector. The market oriented reforms are not only associated with the gap between internal prices and world prices. In the same time, the market oriented reforms are mixed with the other forms of government intervention. The industry network theory provides a good pillar for maintaining natural monopoly in public utilities. The conclusions which are presented in this article offer a good theory for the activity of the National Authority of Regulation in Romanian natural gas sector.

  11. A magnonic gas sensor based on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, D; Kolokoltsev, O V; Qureshi, N; Mejía-Uriarte, E V; Saniger, J M

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we propose an innovative, simple and inexpensive gas sensor based on the variation in the magnetic properties of nanoparticles due to their interaction with gases. To measure the nanoparticle response a magnetostatic spin wave (MSW) tunable oscillator has been developed using an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) epitaxial thin film as a delay line (DL). The sensor has been prepared by coating a uniform layer of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles on the YIG film. The unperturbed frequency of the oscillator is determined by a bias magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the YIG film and perpendicularly to the wave propagation direction. In this device, the total bias magnetic field is the superposition of the field of a permanent magnet and the field associated with the layer of magnetic nanoparticles. The perturbation produced in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle layer due to its interaction with gases induces a frequency shift in the oscillator, allowing the detection of low concentrations of gases. In order to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to detect gases, it has been tested with organic volatile compounds (VOCs) which have harmful effects on human health, such as dimethylformamide, isopropanol and ethanol, or the aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene and xylene more commonly known by its abbreviation (BTX). All of these were detected with high sensitivity, short response time, and good reproducibility.

  12. Magnetic Coupling in the Disks Around Young Gas Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Sano, T

    2013-01-01

    We examine the conditions under which the disks of gas and dust orbiting young gas giant planets are sufficiently conducting to experience turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability. By modeling the ionization and conductivity in the disk around proto-Jupiter, we find that turbulence is possible if the X-rays emitted near the Sun reach the planet's vicinity and either (1) the gas surface densities are in the range of the minimum-mass models constructed by augmenting Jupiter's satellites to Solar composition, while dust is depleted from the disk atmosphere, or (2) the surface densities are much less, and in the range of gas-starved models fed with material from the Solar nebula, but not so low that ambipolar diffusion decouples the neutral gas from the plasma. The results lend support to both minimum-mass and gas-starved models of the protojovian disk: (1) The dusty minimum-mass models have negligible internal angular momentum transfer by magnetic forces, as required for the material to remain in ...

  13. Gas-phase synthesis of magnetic metal/polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starsich, Fabian H L; Hirt, Ann M; Stark, Wendelin J; Grass, Robert N

    2014-12-19

    Highly magnetic metal Co nanoparticles were produced via reducing flame spray pyrolysis, and directly coated with an epoxy polymer in flight. The polymer content in the samples varied between 14 and 56 wt% of nominal content. A homogenous dispersion of Co nanoparticles in the resulting nanocomposites was visualized by electron microscopy. The size and crystallinity of the metallic fillers was not affected by the polymer, as shown by XRD and magnetic hysteresis measurements. The good control of the polymer content in the product nanocomposite was shown by elemental analysis. Further, the successful polymerization in the gas phase was demonstrated by electron microscopy and size measurements. The presented effective, dry and scalable one-step synthesis method for highly magnetic metal nanoparticle/polymer composites presented here may drastically decrease production costs and increase industrial yields.

  14. Gas-phase synthesis of magnetic metal/polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starsich, Fabian H. L.; Hirt, Ann M.; Stark, Wendelin J.; Grass, Robert N.

    2014-12-01

    Highly magnetic metal Co nanoparticles were produced via reducing flame spray pyrolysis, and directly coated with an epoxy polymer in flight. The polymer content in the samples varied between 14 and 56 wt% of nominal content. A homogenous dispersion of Co nanoparticles in the resulting nanocomposites was visualized by electron microscopy. The size and crystallinity of the metallic fillers was not affected by the polymer, as shown by XRD and magnetic hysteresis measurements. The good control of the polymer content in the product nanocomposite was shown by elemental analysis. Further, the successful polymerization in the gas phase was demonstrated by electron microscopy and size measurements. The presented effective, dry and scalable one-step synthesis method for highly magnetic metal nanoparticle/polymer composites presented here may drastically decrease production costs and increase industrial yields.

  15. Magnetized direct current microdischarge I. Effect of the gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-03-01

    Following Paschen's law, electrical breakdown of gaps with small pd, where p is the gas pressure and d is the interelectrode gap, requires extremely high voltages. This means that the breakdown voltage for low-pressure microdischarges is of the order of a few kilovolts. This makes impractical the generation of low-pressure dc microdischarges. The application of dc magnetic field confines electrons in the cathode-anode gap. This leads to the significant decrease in the breakdown voltage because each electron experiences many collisions during its diffusion toward the anode. However, as was obtained experimentally, magnetized low-pressure microdischarges experience numerous instabilities whose nature is still not completely understood. In the present paper, we study the influence of the magnetic field on the low-pressure microdischarges. We use the self-consistent one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model, which takes into account the electron magnetization while ions remain unmagnetized. We obtain striations in the discharge. We show that these striations appear in both homogeneous and non-homogeneous magnetic fields. We find simple expression for the instability growth rate, which shows that the instability results from ionization processes.

  16. High-Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are the subject of a new NASA Lewis Research Center and U.S. Army thrust with significant industry participation, and coordination with other Government agencies. The NASA/Army emphasis is on high-temperature applications for future gas turbine engines. Magnetic bearings could increase the reliability and reduce the weight of these engines by eliminating the lubrication system. They could also increase the DN (diameter of the bearing times rpm) limit on engine speed and allow active vibration cancellation systems to be used--resulting in a more efficient, "more electric" engine. Finally, the Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program, a joint Department of Defense/industry program, identified a need for a hightemperature (as high as 1200 F) magnetic bearing that could be demonstrated in a phase III engine. This magnetic bearing is similar to an electric motor. It has a laminated rotor and stator made of cobalt steel. Wound around the stator are a series of electrical wire coils that form a series of electric magnets around the circumference. The magnets exert a force on the rotor. A probe senses the position of the rotor, and a feedback controller keeps it in the center of the cavity. The engine rotor, bearings, and case form a flexible structure that contains a large number of modes. The bearing feedback controller, which could cause some of these modes to become unstable, could be adapted to varying flight conditions to minimize seal clearances and monitor the health of the system. Cobalt steel has a curie point greater than 1700 F, and copper wire has a melting point beyond that. Therefore, practical limitations associated with the maximum magnetic field strength in the cobalt steel and the stress in the rotating components limit the temperature to about 1200 F. The objective of this effort is to determine the limits in temperature and speed of a magnetic bearing operating in an engine. Our approach is to use our in

  17. Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, David

    2011-12-01

    Federal regulation over the natural gas industry spanned 1938--1978, during which time both the industry and the nature of the regulation changed. The original intent of the law was to reform an industry stagnating because of the Depression, but regulation soon evolved into a public-private partnership to win World War II, then to a framework for the creation and management of a nationwide natural gas grid in the prosperous post-war years, and finally to a confused and chaotic system of wellhead price regulation which produced shortages and discouraged new production during the 1950s and 1960s. By the 1970s, regulation had become ineffective, leading to deregulation in 1978. The natural gas industry operated under the oversight of the Federal Power Commission (FPC) which set gas rates, regulated profits and competition, and established rules for entry and exit into markets. Over the course of four decades, the FPC oversaw the development of a truly national industry built around a system of large diameter pipelines. Tennessee Gas Transmission Company (later Tenneco) was an integral part of this industry. At first, Tenneco prospered under regulation. Regulation provided Tenneco with the means to build its first pipeline and a secure revenue stream for decades. A series of conflicts with the FPC and the difficulties imposed by the Phillips vs. Wisconsin case in 1954 soon interfered with the ambitious long-term goals of Tenneco CEO and president Gardiner Symonds. Tenneco first diversified into unregulated businesses in the 1940s, which accelerated as regulatory changes constrained the company's growth. By the 1960s the company was at the forefront of the conglomeration movement, when Tenneco included a variety of disparate businesses, including oil and gas production, chemicals, consumer packaging, manufacturing, shipbuilding, and food production, among others. Gas transmission became a minority interest in Tenneco's portfolio as newer and larger divisions

  18. Density Functional Theory Studies of Magnetically Confined Fermi Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇俊; 马红孺

    2001-01-01

    A theory is developed for magnetically confined Fermi gas at a low temperature based on the density functional theory. The theory is illustrated by the numerical calculation of the density distributions of Fermi atoms 40K with parameters according to DeMarco and Jin's experiment [Science, 285(1999)1703]. Our results are in close agreement with the experiment. To check the theory, we also performed calculations using our theory at a high temperature, which compared very well to the results of the classical limit.

  19. Thermal and magnetic analyses of gas-insulated lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, I.A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. 33, Al-Khod, Muscat 123 (Oman); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 17, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents the factors affecting current rating ''ampacity'' of buried three-phase, naturally cooled isolated-phase gas-insulated lines (GIL) with flat formation and finite-element simulation of double-circuit, three-phase GIL inside a tunnel to calculate the magnetic-flux and current densities. In the former analysis, the depth of GIL burial, interspacing of phases and soil thermal resistivity are investigated to show their impacts on the GIL ampacity. In the latter analysis, the effects of electrical and physical arrangements of GIL phases on the magnetic-flux density inside and outside the tunnel, and the current density in few installed liquefied natural gas (LNG) pipelines, which run in parallel to the GIL inside the tunnel, are also studied. In any GIL configuration, the magnetic field impact is always extremely low. Localized hot spots along the periphery of the GIL enclosure are found and corrosion can be accelerated due to temperature gradient. Moreover, there is a possibility of galvanic corrosion of the enclosures when they are bonded together and with the gallery steel reinforcement at very short length intervals. The simulation results also give the best location of the LNG pipelines or any cables to have the lowest electromagnetic induction. The configuration that has the best ''magnetic behavior'' is distant-placed arrangement (DPA) with (abc-cba) phase arrangement. The induced eddy-current density in the LNG pipelines is very low and hence its thermal effects can be neglected. (author)

  20. Improving European Gas Infrastructure Regulation. Lessons from Theory and Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Spanjer, A. [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    As an instrument to trigger and speed up new investments in gas infrastructure across the European Union, the European Commission has implemented an exemption regime where new investment projects can apply for an exemption from default third party access regulation and tariff regulation. In this contribution we assess access holiday and transaction cost economics' literature and derive conditions for applying an exemption regime. We test whether these conditions are applied in practice by analysing the exemption application process of the Netherlands - UK interconnector (BBL). We conclude that current practice could substantially be improved.

  1. THERMAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PROCESS OF GAS AND THERMAL PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Spiridonov; I. O. Sokorov; M. V. Niaroda

    2008-01-01

    The paper reveals thermal zones of magnetic and electric grinding process. The influence of electric and physical parameters of magnetic and electric grinding on temperature in the zone of gas and thermal protective coatings has been established in the paper.

  2. Hydrostatic equilibrium of interstellar gas and magnetic fields in the 6 kpc region of the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, B.; Spreckels, H.; Thielheim, K.O.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component gas model is applied to the vertical hydrogen distribution in the 6 kpc region of the Galaxy. Galactic gravitational field and interstellar magnetic field determination of the dynamics of interstellar gas is reviewed.

  3. Magnetic Field Generation and Zonal Flows in the Gas Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L.; Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.

    2013-12-01

    The surface dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn is dominated by a banded system of fierce zonal winds. The depth of these winds remains unclear but they are thought to be confined to the very outer envelopes where hydrogen remains molecular and the electrical conductivity is negligible. The dynamo responsible for the dipole dominated magnetic fields of both Gas Giants, on the other hand, likely operates in the deeper interior where hydrogen assumes a metallic state. We present numerical simulations that attempt to model both the zonal winds and the interior dynamo action in an integrated approach. Using the anelastic version of the MHD code MagIC, we explore the effects of density stratification and radial electrical conductivity variations. The electrical conductivity is assumed to remain constant in the thicker inner metallic region and decays exponentially towards the outer boundary throughout the molecular envelope. Our results show that the combination of stronger density stratification (Δρ≈55) and a weaker conducting outer layer is essential for reconciling dipole dominated dynamo action and a fierce equatorial zonal jet. Previous simulations with homogeneous electrical conductivity show that both are mutually exclusive, with solutions either having strong zonal winds and multipolar magnetic fields or weak zonal winds and dipole dominated magnetic fields. The particular setup explored here allows the equatorial jet to remain confined to the weaker conducting region where is does not interfere with the deeper seated dynamo action. The equatorial jet can afford to remain geostrophic and reaches throughout the whole shell. This is not an option for the additional mid to higher latitude jets, however. In dipole dominated dynamo solutions, appropriate for the Gas Giants, zonal flows remain very faint in the deeper dynamo region but increase in amplitude in the weakly conducting outer layer in some of our simulations. This suggests that the mid to high latitude jets

  4. Gas regulation in Europe: from monopoly to competition. V. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, P. [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    In a number of countries, gas networks are being established for the first time. The appropriate regime for regulating gas supply in countries such as Greece and Portugal raises interesting questions about the requirements in relation to the energy policy implied by the European Commission`s proposals. The Commission proposals have been aimed principally at access to existing networks not at new or recently established pipeline systems. It is not clear what is appropriate for `good European citizenship`. The European Commission`s proposals for an internal market in gas have led to several directives (on transit, price transparency and licensing) and some success in having various import monopolies removed. Its proposals for greater access to networks have been modified and its earlier commitment to third party access replaced by one of commitment to negotiated access. In assessing this programme, the tentative character of the proposals to promote competition in the sector should be balanced against the impact of Community law upon the overall framework in which the gas industry operates. Moreover, the efforts to work out a compromise continue and, should the Commission meet with success with similar proposals in the electricity sector, these efforts are likely to acquire a new momentum. The forthcoming review of the Treaty of Union in 1996 and the possible addition of a new chapter on energy should help to ensure this issue entails a role in Commission plans. (author)

  5. Arc Deflection Length Affected by Transverse Rotating Magnetic Field with Lateral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru; High Current Energy Laboratory (HiCEL) Team

    2016-10-01

    Gas metal arc welding using shielding gas is often used in the welding industry. However, the arc deflection affected by lateral gas is problem because of inappropriate heat transfer. Shielding gas is used in order to prevent the instability affected by the arc deflection. However, the shielding gas causes turbulence, then blowhole of weld defect occurs because the arc affected by the instability is contaminated by the air. Thus, the magnetic field is applied to the arc in order to stabilize the arc using low amount of shielding gas. The method of applying the transverse rotating magnetic field (RMF) to the arc is one of the methods to prevent the arc instability. The RMF drives the arc because of electromagnetic force. The driven arc is considered to be prevented to arc deflection of lateral gas because the arc is restrained by the magnetic field because of the driven arc. In addition, it is assume the RMF prevented to the arc deflection of lateral gas from the multiple directions. In this paper, the arc deflection length affected by the RMF with lateral gas was elucidated in order to know the effect of the RMF for arc stabilization. Specifically, the arc deflection length affected by the magnetic frequency and the magnetic flux density is measured by high speed video camera. As a result, the arc deflection length decreases with increasing magnetic frequency, and the arc deflection length increases with increasing the magnetic flux density.

  6. Influences of different types of magnetic fields on HCFC-141b gas hydrate formation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU; Bifen; MA; Xiaolin; GUO; Kaihua; LI; Jianhong

    2004-01-01

    In this study, visualizations and experiments are carried out on the influence of static and rotating magnetic fields on the characteristics of HCFC-141b gas hydrate formation, such as crystallization form, formation temperature and induction time. It has been found that a proper rotating magnetic field can considerably improve the low-pressure gas hydrate formation process,especially in increasing the formation temperature and shortening the induction time. The morphology of the gas hydrate formation appears rather complex and compact. However, a proper static magnetic field can make the gas hydrate crystal more organized, which will be benefit to heat transfer.

  7. California's new mandatory greenhouse gas reporting regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Gaffney; Doug Thompson; Richard Bode [California Air Resources Board, CA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Beginning in early 2009, approximately 1000 California businesses will begin reporting their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based on the requirements of a new regulation adopted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in December 2007. California's mandatory GHG reporting regulation is the first rule adopted as a requirement of the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, passed by the California Legislature as Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32; Nunez, Chapter 488, Statutes of 2006) and signed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in September 2006. The regulation is the first of its kind in the United States to require facilities to report annual GHG emissions. In general, all facilities subject to reporting are required to report their on-site stationary source combustion emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and methane (CH{sub 4}). Some industrial sectors, such as cement producers and oil refineries, also must report their process emissions, which occur from chemical or other noncombustion activities. Fugitive emissions from facilities are required to be reported when specified in the regulation. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) use is prevalent in electricity facilities and must be reported. CO{sub 2} emissions from biomass-derived fuels must be separately identified during reporting, and reporters must also provide their consumption of purchased or acquired electricity and thermal energy; these requirements will assist facilities in evaluating changes in their fossil fuel carbon footprints. 1 tab.

  8. Sizing of Compression Coil Springs Gas Regulators Using Modern Methods CAD and CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Ionel Tuţă

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for compression coil springs sizing by gas regulators composition, using CAD techniques (Computer Aided Design and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering. Sizing is to optimize the functioning of the regulators under dynamic industrial and house-hold. Gas regulator is a device that automatically and continuously adjusted to maintain pre-set limits on output gas pressure at varying flow and input pressure. The performances of the pressure regulators like automatic systems depend on their behaviour under dynamic opera-tion. Time constant optimization of pneumatic actuators, which drives gas regulators, leads to a better functioning under their dynamic.

  9. Speed Regulator for Permanent Magnet DC Boring Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a variable-speed system for a loaded permanent magnet direct current boring machine (PMDCBM) is described in details. The voltage adjustment of PMDCBM is accomplished by means of solid state switch with a high gain Darlington transistor. The device designed possesses good variable speed characteristic and Iow loss at low speed. The speed can be regulated automatically to hold at an ideal value according to the load.

  10. Regulation of autonomic nervous system in space and magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Petrov, V. M.; Chernikova, A. G.

    Variations in the earth's magnetic field and magnetic storms are known to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. The main ``targets'' for geomagnetic perturbations are the central nervous system and the neural regulation of vascular tone and heart rate variability. This paper presents the data about effect of geomagnetic fluctuations on human body in space. As a method for research the analysis of heart rate variability was used, which allows evaluating the state of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system, vasomotor center and subcortical neural centers activity. Heart rate variability data were analyzed for 30 cosmonauts at the 2-nd day of space flight on transport spaceship Soyuz (32nd orbit). There were formed three groups of cosmonauts: without magnetic storm (n=9), on a day with magnetic storm (n=12) and 1-2 days after magnetic storm (n=9). The present study was the first to demonstrate a specific impact of geomagnetic perturbations on the system of autonomic circulatory control in cosmonauts during space flight. The increasing of highest nervous centers activity was shown for group with magnetic storms, which was more significant on 1-2 days after magnetic storm. The use of discriminate analysis allowed to classify indicated three groups with 88 % precision. Canonical variables are suggested to be used as criterions for evaluation of specific and non-specific components of cardiovascular reactions to geomagnetic perturbations. The applied aspect of the findings from the present study should be emphasized. They show, in particular, the need to supplement the medical monitoring of cosmonauts with predictions of probable geomagnetic perturbations in view of the prevention of unfavorable states appearances if the adverse reactions to geomagnetic perturbations are added to the tension experienced by regulatory systems during various stresses situations (such as work in the open space).

  11. Ambipolar diffusion regulated collapse of filaments threaded by perpendicular magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, C. A.; Van Loo, S.; Falle, S. A. E. G.; Hartquist, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    the collapse is governed by magnetically-regulated ambipolar diffusion. The gas collapses at velocities much lower than the sound speed. For X ≲ 10-8, the gas is weakly coupled to the magnetic field and the magnetic support is removed by gravitationally-dominated ambipolar diffusion. Here, neutrals and ions only collide sporadically, that is the ambipolar diffusion length scale is larger than the Jeans length, and the gas can attain high collapse velocities. When decaying turbulence is included, additional support is provided to the filament. This slows down the collapse of the filament even in the absence of a magnetic field. When a magnetic field is present, the collapse rate increases by a ratio smaller than for the non-magnetic case. This is because of a speed-up of the ambipolar diffusion due to larger magnetic field gradients generated by the turbulence and because the ambipolar diffusion aids the dissipation of turbulence below the ambipolar diffusion length scale. The highest increase in the rate is observed for the lowest ionisation coefficient and the highest turbulent intensity.

  12. The influence of assist gas on magnetic properties of electrotechnical steel sheets cut with laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaworska-Koniarek, Dominika; Szubzda, Bronisław; Wilczyński, Wiesław; Drosik, Jerzy; Karaś, Kazimierz

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the influence of assist gas (air and nitrogen) during laser cutting on magnetization, magnetic permeability and loss characteristics of non-oriented electrical steels. The research was made on an non-oriented M330-50A grade electrical steels by means of single sheet tester. In order to enhance the effect of cutting and the same degradation zone on magnetic properties, strips with different width were achieved. Measurements results indicate that application of air as assist gas has more destructive effect on magnetic properties of electrical steels than nitrogen one.

  13. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    the market power of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries), a cartel of nations which is the single largest oil exporting entity in the world, and is an entity considered unreliable. On the other hand, it reduces the demand for domestic farm subsidies. At the same crops comprise a small share of the retail price of food. As a result, the expected negative impact of biofuel was at worst a small increase in the retail price of food. However, the food price inflation in the year 2008 suggests that the negative impact on food consumers was significantly higher than expected and also outweighed the impact fuel consumers. I estimate the effect on biofuels on food and oil prices and compare them to other estimates in the literature and also relate these to prices observed in the real world. The third topic is the economics of greenhouse gas regulations of transportation fuels. Climate change policies such as United Nations' Kyoto protocol, European Union Emission Trading Scheme, and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the US north-east mandate an aggregate emission target, called a cap and allow regulated entities to trade responsibilities for abatement. Furthermore, these policies have generally and sometimes exclusively targeted the electricity and industrial sector for emission reduction. However, the Low carbon fuel standard and Renewable fuel standard are two policies about to be implemented by the State of California and the US federal government, which exclusively target the transportation sector for emission reduction. Furthermore, these regulations mandate emission intensity target for fuels rather than aggregate emission reduction. I compare the cost-effectiveness of these two types of regulations, namely, aggregate emission caps versus emission intensity standards and discuss how prices, output and emissions vary between these two types of policies.

  14. Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Regulator Developed for a Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2002-01-01

    Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control is a modern state-space technique for designing optimal dynamic regulators. It enables us to trade off regulation performance and control effort, and to take into account process and measurement noise. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed an LQG control for a fault-tolerant magnetic bearing suspension rig to optimize system performance and to reduce the sensor and processing noise. The LQG regulator consists of an optimal state-feedback gain and a Kalman state estimator. The first design step is to seek a state-feedback law that minimizes the cost function of regulation performance, which is measured by a quadratic performance criterion with user-specified weighting matrices, and to define the tradeoff between regulation performance and control effort. The next design step is to derive a state estimator using a Kalman filter because the optimal state feedback cannot be implemented without full state measurement. Since the Kalman filter is an optimal estimator when dealing with Gaussian white noise, it minimizes the asymptotic covariance of the estimation error.

  15. On the possibility of magnetic nano-markers use for hydraulic fracturing in shale gas mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jaroslaw; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Recently shale gas production became essential for the global economy, thanks to fast advances in shale fracturing technology. Shale gas extraction can be achieved by drilling techniques coupled with hydraulic fracturing. Further increasing of shale gas production is possible by improving the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing and assessing the spatial distribution of fractures in shale deposits. The latter can be achieved by adding magnetic markers to fracturing fluid or directly to proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. After that, the range of hydraulic fracturing can be assessed by measurement of vertical and horizontal component of earth's magnetic field before and after fracturing. The difference in these components caused by the presence of magnetic marker particles may allow to delineate spatial distribution of fractures. Due to the fact, that subterranean geological formations may contain minerals with significant magnetic properties, it is important to provide to the markers excellent magnetic properties which should be also, independent of harsh chemical and geological conditions. On the other hand it is of great significance to produce magnetic markers at an affordable price because of the large quantities of fracturing fluids or proppants used during shale fracturing. Examining the properties of nano-materials, it was found, that they possess clearly superior magnetic properties, as compared to the same structure but having a larger particle size. It should be then possible, to use lower amount of magnetic marker, to obtain the same effect. Although a research on properties of new magnetic nano-materials is very intensive, cheap magnetic nano-materials are not yet produced on a scale appropriate for shale gas mining. In this work we overview, in detail, geological, technological and economic aspects of using magnetic nano-markers in shale gas mining. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the NCBiR under Grant "Electromagnetic method to

  16. Magnet power supply regulation comments: 240 kW and 500 kW magnet power supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, A.T.

    1993-03-01

    This note is written for users who need better than about 100 ppm regulated magnet fields in electromagnets. A magnet excitation current regulation of 100 ppm is generally specified to obtain this field regulation, but there are many other variables, in addition to magnet excitation that can change the magnet field. The effects of these other variables are often overlooked or underestimated. If things do not work out, the power supply often gets blamed. A field regulation of 100 ppm requires that the power supply regulates substantially better than 100 ppm and that the effects of other variables are limited. Before we can talk about regulation we must define what regulation is. Power supplies can be regulated for current or voltage. We will only talk about current regulation, since that is the regulation mode used to establish precisely regulated magnetic fields in electromagnets. It is assumed that the same current value will always produce the same corresponding magnetic field value. Later on we will discuss that this assumption is not correct.

  17. Systems and methods for regulating pressure of a filled-in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stautner, Ernst Wolfgang; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2016-05-03

    A system for regulating a pressure of a filled-in gas is presented. The system includes a reservoir that stores a reservoir gas adsorbed in a sorbent material at a storage temperature, a gas-filled tube containing the filled-in gas, a controller configured to determine a pressure change required in the filled-in gas based upon signals representative of a pressure of the filled-in gas inside the gas-filled tube and a required pressure threshold, determine an updated temperature of the sorbent material based upon the pressure change required in the filled-in gas, and regulate the pressure of the filled-in gas by controlling the reservoir to change the storage temperature of the sorbent material to reach the updated temperature of the sorbent material.

  18. Regulation of open access in natural gas pipeline services; Regulacao do livre acesso aos dutos de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Anderson Souza da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: andersonssmagister@yahoo.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The recent development of natural gas market lived nowadays in Brazil brings the discussion about the regulation model designed for this industry, in the face of the flexibility of constitutional monopoly achieved by Constitutional Amendment no. 09 and Petroleum Law (Nbr. 9.478/97). The present paper analyses the introduction of open access conception in the pipeline services - foreseen in Petroleum Law - and the open access regulation in the case of natural gas pipeline services. The paper points out the juridical issues of the introduction of open access and its role for the creation of an environment of competition in natural gas market. (author)

  19. THERMAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PROCESS OF GAS AND THERMAL PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Spiridonov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals thermal zones of magnetic and electric grinding process. The influence of electric and physical parameters of magnetic and electric grinding on temperature in the zone of gas and thermal protective coatings has been established in the paper.

  20. PIV MEASUREMENTS FOR GAS FLOW UNDER GRADIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xiaodong; WU Feng; F.YAMAMOTO

    2004-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques were developed to measure the convective N2-air flow under gradient magnetic fields. The velocity fields were calculated by the Minimum Quadratic Difference (MQD) algorithm and spurious vectors were eliminated by Delaunay Tessellation.The N2-air flow was measured as the magnetic flux density varying from 0 ~ 1.5 T. A strengthened vortex flow of air was observed under the condition that the magnetic field was applied, and the velocity of N2 jet rose with the increase of the magnetic density. The experimental results show that the magnetic force will induce a vortex flow and cause a convection flow of the air mixture when both gradients of the O2 concentration and the magnetic field intensity exist.

  1. Using the EMD method to determine fault criterion for medium-low pressure gas regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Guobin; Du, Yi

    2015-11-01

    By extracting the outlet pressure data of gas regulators, this paper uses the EMD toolbox of the MATLAB software, which can perform data decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang Transform to find the rules with fault data. Eventually, the medium-low pressure gas regulator fault criterion can be established.

  2. Removal of dust from flue gas in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghui Wang; Keting Gui; Mingheng Shi; Changfeng Li

    2008-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB, φ 500mm x 2100mm) was designed to study dust removal from flue gas. Based on the mechanism of dust removal in a fixed bed, the effects on collection efficiency of magnetic field intensity, ratio of flue gas velocity to minimum fluidization velocity, bed height, and particle average diameter, were investigated. Then feasible methods for MSFB to better remove dust were proposed. Over 95% of dust removal with MSFB can be achieved, when stable fluidization is maintained and when magnetic particles are frequently renewed.

  3. Magnetic properties of a Fermi gas in a noncommutative phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Viñas, S Franchino

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the precision attained by SQUID devices in measuring magnetic fields, we study in this article the thermodynamic behaviour of a fermion gas in two and three dimen\\-sional spatial space with noncommutative coordinates and momenta. An explicit expression, both for Landau's diamagnetism and Pauli's paramagnetism, is obtained for the magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of the gas in two and three spatial dimensions. These results show that an upper bound for the noncommutative parameter $\\theta\\lesssim (10 \\,\\text{Gev})^{-2}$ could be obtained.

  4. Influence of hydrogen patterning gas on electric and magnetic properties of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J. H., E-mail: juno@fris.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Hwasung (Korea, Republic of); Endoh, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Center for Innovative Integrated Electronic Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kim, Y.; Kim, W. K.; Park, S. O. [Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-07

    To identify the degradation mechanism in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using hydrogen, the properties of the MTJs were measured by applying an additional hydrogen etch process and a hydrogen plasma process to the patterned MTJs. In these studies, an additional 50 s hydrogen etch process caused the magnetoresistance (MR) to decrease from 103% to 14.7% and the resistance (R) to increase from 6.5 kΩ to 39 kΩ. Moreover, an additional 500 s hydrogen plasma process decreased the MR from 103% to 74% and increased R from 6.5 kΩ to 13.9 kΩ. These results show that MTJs can be damaged by the hydrogen plasma process as well as by the hydrogen etch process, as the atomic bonds in MgO may break and react with the exposed hydrogen gas. Compounds such as MgO hydrate very easily. We also calculated the damaged layer width (DLW) of the patterned MTJs after the hydrogen etching and plasma processes, to evaluate the downscaling limitations of spin-transfer-torque magnetic random-access memory (STT-MRAM) devices. With these calculations, the maximum DLWs at each side of the MTJ, generated by the etching and plasma processes, were 23.8 nm and 12.8 nm, respectively. This result validates that the hydrogen-based MTJ patterning processes cannot be used exclusively in STT-MRAMs beyond 20 nm.

  5. Natural gas industry transformation, competitive institutions and the role of regulation: lessons from open access in US natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vaney, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States) California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States)); Walls, W.D. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong))

    1994-09-01

    Open access pipeline transport transformed the US natural gas industry. This paper examines the role that transport rights played in the industry's transformation. It documents the convergence of gas field prices, pooling area prices and city gate prices that has occurred since the adoption of open access. The analysis suggests the most important reasons for this convergence to be the fact that direct dealing between gas suppliers and users has replaced the pipeline merchant; that gas transactions are made within a competitive market institution; and that transport trading has created an interconnected grid of pipelines in place of the closed and disconnected grid that preceded open access. This open and interconnected grid supplied the means for price arbitrage. These changes have made natural gas markets contestable. The conclusions about the role of regulation in an industry organized around transferable transport rights extend to natural gas markets beyond those in North America. (Author)

  6. Formation of van der Waals molecules in buffer gas cooled magnetic traps

    CERN Document Server

    Brahms, N; Zhang, P; los, J K; Sadeghpour, H R; Dalgarno, A; Doyle, J M; Walker, T G

    2010-01-01

    We show that a large class of helium-containing cold polar molecules form readily in a cryogenic buffer gas, achieving densities as high as 10^12 cm^-3. We explore the spin relaxation of these molecules in buffer gas loaded magnetic traps, and identify a loss mechanism based on Landau-Zener transitions arising from the anisotropic hyperfine interaction. Our results show that the recently observed strong T^6 thermal dependence of spin change in buffer gas trapped silver (Ag) is accounted for by the formation and spin change of AgHe, thus providing evidence for molecular formation in a buffer gas trap.

  7. The use of the gas-filled magnet technique for the detection of medium mass ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, J.M., E-mail: figueira@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Deibel, C.M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de San Martin, B1650BWA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Greene, J.; Jiang, C.L.; Lee, H.Y. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Marley, S.T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Pardo, R.C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Patel, N. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); and others

    2012-04-01

    The use of the gas-filled magnet technique for the detection of intermediate mass (A{approx} 20-40) recoil nuclei produced in (p,{alpha}) reactions in inverse kinematics has been investigated. Through a series of calibration measurements with {sup 27}Al, {sup 28,29}Si and {sup 33}S beams the optimum parameterization for calculating the average charge-state distribution in a gas-filled magnet has been determined. By measuring the magnetic rigidity, the time-of-flight and the differential energy loss of the particles at the focal plane of a gas-filled Enge Split Pole spectrograph it was possible to separate and identify the (p,{alpha}) reaction products from elastically scattered particles at very small scattering angles. This technique was then tested by measuring the p({sup 33}S,{sup 30}P){alpha} and p({sup 37}K,{sup 34}Cl){alpha} reactions.

  8. (129) Xe and (131) Xe nuclear magnetic dipole moments from gas phase NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makulski, Włodzimierz

    2015-04-01

    (3) He, (129) Xe and (131) Xe NMR measurements of resonance frequencies in the magnetic field B0=11.7586 T in different gas phase mixtures have been reported. Precise radiofrequency values were extrapolated to the zero gas pressure limit. These results combined with new quantum chemical values of helium and xenon nuclear magnetic shielding constants were used to determine new accurate nuclear magnetic moments of (129) Xe and (131) Xe in terms of that of the (3) He nucleus. They are as follows: μ((129) Xe) = -0.7779607(158)μN and μ((131) Xe) = +0.6918451(70)μN . By this means, the new 'helium method' for estimations of nuclear dipole moments was successfully tested. Gas phase NMR spectra demonstrate the weak intermolecular interactions observed on the (3) He and (129) Xe and (131) Xe shielding in the gaseous mixtures with Xe, CO2 and SF6 .

  9. Radiation from high-intensity ultrashort-laser-pulse and gas-jet magnetized plasma interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorranian, Davoud; Starodubtsev, Mikhail; Kawakami, Hiromichi; Ito, Hiroaki; Yugami, Noboru; Nishida, Yasushi

    2003-08-01

    Using a gas-jet flow, via the interaction between an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse and plasma in the presence of a perpendicular external dc magnetic field, the short pulse radiation from a magnetized plasma wakefield has been observed. Different nozzles are used in order to generate different densities and gas profiles. The neutral density of the gas-jet flow measured with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is found to be proportional to back pressure of the gas jet in the range of 1 to 8 atm. Strength of the applied dc magnetic field varies from 0 to 8 kG at the interaction region. The frequency of the emitted radiation with the pulse width of 200 ps (detection limit) is in the millimeter wave range. Polarization and spatial distributions of the experimental data are measured to be in good agreement with the theory based on the V(p)xB radiation scheme, where V(p) is the phase velocity of the electron plasma wave and B is the steady magnetic field intensity. Characteristics of the radiation are extensively studied as a function of plasma density and magnetic field strength. These experiments should contribute to the development of a new kind of millimeter wavelength radiation source that is tunable in frequency, pulse duration, and intensity.

  10. Integration of magnetic bearings in the design of advanced gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storace, Albert F.; Sood, Devendra K.; Lyons, James P.; Preston, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings provide revolutionary advantages for gas turbine engine rotor support. These advantages include tremendously improved vibration and stability characteristics, reduced power loss, improved reliability, fault-tolerance, and greatly extended bearing service life. The marriage of these advantages with innovative structural network design and advanced materials utilization will permit major increases in thrust to weight performance and structural efficiency for future gas turbine engines. However, obtaining the maximum payoff requires two key ingredients. The first key ingredient is the use of modern magnetic bearing technologies such as innovative digital control techniques, high-density power electronics, high-density magnetic actuators, fault-tolerant system architecture, and electronic (sensorless) position estimation. This paper describes these technologies. The second key ingredient is to go beyond the simple replacement of rolling element bearings with magnetic bearings by incorporating magnetic bearings as an integral part of the overall engine design. This is analogous to the proper approach to designing with composites, whereby the designer tailors the geometry and load carrying function of the structural system or component for the composite instead of simply substituting composites in a design originally intended for metal material. This paper describes methodologies for the design integration of magnetic bearings in gas turbine engines.

  11. Regenerative characteristics of magnetic or gas Stirling refrigeration cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Yan, Z.

    A general criterion to distinguish whether a Stirling refrigeration cycle possesses the condition of perfect regeneration is given. It is proven using the criterion that a Stirling refrigeration cycle using a simple paramagnetic or ferromagnetic material as the working substance possesses the condition of perfect regeneration, as does a Stirling refrigeration cycle using an ideal or van der Waals gas as the working substance. However, a Stirling refrigeration cycle using a gas which is described by the Redlich-Kwong, Beattie-Bridgeman, Benedict-Webb-Rubin, Dieterici, Berthelot, or Martin-Hou equation as the working substance does not possess the condition of perfect regeneration and its coefficient of performance is always smaller than that of the Carnot refrigeration cycle for the same temperature range. Moreover, the effect of non-perfect regeneration on the level of refrigeration and the coefficient of performance of a Stirling refrigeration cycle is expounded using a strict equation of state.

  12. Features and performance of a large gas Cherenkov detector with threshold regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Alvarez-Taviel, J.; Asenjo, L.; Colino, N.; Diez-Hedo. F.; Duran, I.; Gonzalez, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Marquina, M.A.

    1988-01-15

    We present here the development, main features and calibration procedures for a new type of gas Cherenkov detector, based upon the ability to control its threshold by regulating the temperature of the gas used as radiator. We also include the performance of this detector in particle identification.

  13. Gas regulation in Europe. From monopoly to competition. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, P. [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The regulatory systems which promoted gas expansion for several decades are being challenged from various sources, but - with the exception of the United Kingdom - this is largely from aspiring new market players rather than legislative initiatives. Despite much variation across Europe, the trend is one of growing pressures for competition. The relationship between the state and the principal gas utility in several countries is characterised by a search for ways in which the utility can be made to operate on a more commercial and cost transparent basis. In some cases, like Belgium, Italy and Spain, this may also include or potential privatisation of the utility. The privatisation of gas companies, in whole or in part, is increasingly common in countries which had previously been attached to the idea of a national champion in the gas business. It is accompanied by a search for mechanisms of control by the state over these strategic enterprises which are immune from the normal market constraints and capable of manipulating price levels in socially unacceptable ways. The limits of such restructuring is illustrated by, for example, the emerging pattern of retention of state control through a `golden share` in one form or another. The question of access rights remains an important and sensitive one. In the UK, Germany and Italy a form of access regime for third parties is already in place, although the inadequacies of the German one are highly apparent. There have been challenges to the lack of access in France. In each case, the operation of such regimes is a matter of acute interest to several parties on the domestic scene. The liberalisation trend is being accompanied by a concern to secure a balance between obtaining the benefits of competition and retaining the public service aspects of the gas supply. The terms of the draft British licence to supply gas present some interesting ideas in this respect. (Author)

  14. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  15. Friction Consolidation of Gas-Atomized Fe-Si Powders for Soft Magnetic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiujuan; Whalen, Scott A.; Darsell, Jens T.; Mathaudhu, Suveen; Overman, Nicole R.

    2017-01-01

    Soft magnetic materials are often limited in scalability due to conventional processes that do not retain beneficial microstructures, and their associated physical properties, during densification. In this work, friction consolidation (FC) has been studied to fabricate Fe-Si soft magnetic materials from gas-atomized powder precursors. Fe-Si powder is consolidated using variable pressure and tool rotation speed in an effort to evaluate this unique densification approach for potential improvements in magnetic properties. FC, due to the high shear deformation involved, is shown to result in uniform gradual grain structure refinement across the consolidated workpiece from the center nearest the tool to the edge. Magnetic properties along different orientations indicate little, if any, textural orientation in the refined grain structure. The effect of annealing on the magnetic properties is evaluated and shown to decrease coercivity. FC processing was able to retain the magnetization of the original gas-atomized powders but further process optimization is needed to reach the optimal coercivity for the soft magnetic materials applications.

  16. Thermal stability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fudian Men; Hui Liu; Houyu Zhu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the results derived from pseudopotential method and ensemble theory,thermal stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field is studied by using analytical method of thermodynamics.The exact analytical expressions of stability conditions at different temperatures are given,and the effects of interactions as well as magnetic field on the stability of the system are discussed.It is shown that there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the stability of the system at low temperatures,and there is an attractive dividing value at high temperatures.If attractive interaction is lower than the critical value,the stability of the system has no request for magnetic field,but if attractive interaction is higher than the dividing value,a lower-limit magnetic field exists for the stability of the system.

  17. Magnetic Ignition of Pulsed Gas Discharges in Air of Low Pressure in a Coaxial Plasma Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Karlheinz; Norwood, Joseph, Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The effect of an axial magnetic field on the breakdown voltage of a coaxial system of electrodes has been investigated by earlier workers. For low values of gas pressure times electrode spacing, the breakdown voltage is decreased by the application of the magnetic field. The electron cyclotron radius now assumes the role held by the mean free path in nonmagnetic discharges and the breakdown voltage becomes a function of the magnetic flux density. In this paper the dependence of the formative time lag as a function of the magnetic flux density is established and the feasibility of using a magnetic field for igniting high-voltage, high-current discharges is shown through theory and experiment. With a 36 microfarad capacitor bank charged to 48,000 volts, a peak current of 1.3 x 10( exp 6) amperes in a coaxial type of plasma gun was achieved with a current rise time of only 2 microseconds.

  18. EFFECT OF MAGNETIZATION OF WATER ON INDUCTION TIME AND GROWTH PERIOD OF NATURAL GAS HYDRATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Li; FAN Shuanshi

    2003-01-01

    The effect of diluted solution's magnetization on induction time and growth period of natural gas hydrate (NGH) has been investigated in quiescent reaction system at pressure of 4. 5 MPa and temperature of 274 K with SDS as surfactant, by using volume fixed and pressure falling method. Experimental results show that magnetization will have effect on the induction time of NGH. After magnetization with magnetic field intensity of 0.33 T, the induction time of NGH has been reduced to 47 min (average) from 99 min (average) in which there is no magnetization. On the other hand, the induction time has been prolonged after magnetization of the diluted solution with magnetic field intensity of 0.05 T, 0. 11 T, 0.22 T, 0.44T. Especially with magnetic field intensity of 0.11 T, the induction time had even been prolonged to 431min (average). The effect of magnetization on the growth period of NGH has not been found at the experimental condition.

  19. Angular Momentum Regulates Atomic Gas Fractions of Galactic Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Obreschkow, Danail; Kilborn, Virginia; Lutz, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    We show that the mass fraction f_atm = 1.35*MHI/M of neutral atomic gas (HI and He) in isolated local disk galaxies of baryonic mass M is well described by a straightforward stability model for flat exponential disks. In the outer disk parts, where gas at the characteristic dispersion of the Warm Neutral Medium is stable in the sense of Toomre (1964), the disk consists of neutral atomic gas; conversely the inner part where this medium would be Toomre-unstable, is dominated by stars and molecules. Within this model, f_atm only depends on a global stability parameter q=j*sigma/(GM), where j is the baryonic specific angular momentum of the disk and sigma the velocity dispersion of the atomic gas. The analytically derived first-order solution f_atm = min{1,2.5q^1.12} provides a good fit to all plausible rotation curves. This model, with no free parameters, agrees remarkably well (+-0.2 dex) with measurements of f_atm in isolated local disk galaxies, even with galaxies that are extremely HI-rich or HI-poor for the...

  20. Hot gas and magnetic arms of NGC 6946: indications for reconnection heating?

    CERN Document Server

    Wezgowiec, M; Beck, R

    2016-01-01

    The grand-design face-on spiral galaxy NGC6946 is remarkable because of its high star formation activity, the massive northern spiral arm, and the magnetic arms, which are observed in polarized radio synchrotron emission and are located between the optical arms and possibly are magnetic reconnection regions. X-ray observations of NGC6946 performed with XMM-Newton were used to study the emission from X-ray point sources and diffuse hot gas, including the magnetic arms and the halo. Spectral fitting of the diffuse X-ray emission allowed us to derive temperatures of the hot gas. With assumptions about the emission volume, this allowed us to estimate gas densities, masses, and cooling times. To explain the X-ray emission from the spiral arms of NGC6946 two-temperature plasma models are needed to account for the disk and halo emission. The interarm regions show only one thermal component. We observe that the temperature of the hot gas in and above the magnetic arm regions increases slightly when compared to the av...

  1. Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nizhankovskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of the chemical potential of electrons in a GaAs-AlGa1−As heterojunction was measured in magnetic fields up to 6.5 T at several temperatures from 2.17 to 12.3 K. A thermodynamic equation of state of two-dimensional electron gas well describes the experimental results.

  2. Gas gap heat switch for a cryogen-free magnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, J.; Borges de Sousa, P.; Martins, D.; Kar, S.; Bonfait, G.; Catarino, I.

    2015-12-01

    Cryogen-free superconducting magnet systems (CFMS) have become popular over the last two decades for the simple reason that the use of liquid helium is rather cumbersome and that helium is a scarce resource. Some available CFMS use a mechanical cryocooler as the magnet's cold source. However, the variable temperature insert (VTI) for some existing CFMS are not strictly cryogen-free as they are still based on helium gas circulation through the sample space. We designed a prototype of a gas gap heat switch (GGHS) that allows a thermal management of a completely cryogen-free magnet system, with no helium losses. The idea relies on a parallel cooling path to a variable temperature insert (VTI) of a magnetic properties measurement system under development at Inter-University Accelerator Centre. A Gifford-McMahon cryocooler (1.5 W @ 4.2 K) would serve primarily as the cold source of the superconducting magnet, dedicating 1 W to this cooling, under quite conservative safety factors. The remaining cooling power (0.5 W) is to be diverted towards a VTI through a controlled GGHS that was designed and built with a 80 μm gap width. The built GGHS thermal performance was measured at 4 K, using helium as the exchange gas, and its conductance is compared both with a previously developed analytical model and a finite element method. Lessons learned lead to a new and more functional prototype yet to be reported.

  3. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and Related Items the President Determines No... requirements of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), if and after the President determines that such... USML. The licensing policies and other EAR-specific controls for such items that are also described...

  4. Regulation of natural gas: the issue of open access; Regulacao em materia de gas natural: a questao do livre acesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandes, Ingrid; Siqueira, Mariana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The present work discusses the question of the open access to the natural gas ducts, trying to show the most relevant aspects of it. Analyzing the regulation existent in Brazil and the main important characteristics of the natural gas activities, it will be tried to suggest new directions to be taken in the future. The open access it is a very important way to introduce new agents on the sector and, in that way, the discussions that try to show new aspects of it, are very relevant (author)

  5. Gas pressure reduction and regulation plants: Acoustic impact. Impatto acustico degli impianti di riduzione e regolazione della pressione del gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, G. (Italgas SpA, Turin (Italy)); Torello, P.

    The paper analyses the impacts of the Italian Decree of 1st March, 1991, regarding 'Maximum limits of sound exposition in premises and outside environment' on gas distribution companies. In particular it deals with how Italgas, concerning gas reduction and regulation plants, has done its best to meet some provisions of this decree. In particular, the following subjects are dealt with: intervention time, reclamation plans, measurements, destination classes of territory, estimates of environmental impact, etc. Finally, an example of a structural intervention for the reclamation of an existing plant is given.

  6. Regulation, competition and fraud: evidence from retail gas stations in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga, Julio Cesar; Flores, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Mexican gas stations across the country buy and sell gasoline at regulated common prices. Therefore, authorities that set these prices do not take into account competition conditions of each market. In this paper we establish the effect of a regulated mark-up price as well as competition on the incentives that gas stations in Mexico have to dispense less amount of gasoline than what consumers pay for. The results of theoretical and empirical work indicate that a higher regulated mark-up price...

  7. Single-step gas phase synthesis of stable iron aluminide nanoparticles with soft magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Vernieres

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic alloys at the nanoscale level have long generated a vivid interest as candidate materials for technological and biomedical purposes. Consequently, controlling the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles in order to optimize their magnetic properties, such as high magnetization and low coercivity, can significantly boost their potential for related applications. However, traditional synthesis methods stumble upon the long standing challenge of developing true nanoalloys with effective control over morphology and stability against oxidation. Herein, we report on a single-step approach to the gas phase synthesis of soft magnetic bimetallic iron aluminide nanoparticles, using a versatile co-sputter inert gas condensation technique. This method allowed for precise morphological control of the particles; they consisted of an alloy iron aluminide crystalline core (DO3 phase and an alumina shell, which reduced inter-particle interactions and also prevented further oxidation and segregation of the bimetallic core. Remarkably, the as-deposited alloy nanoparticles show interesting soft magnetic properties, in that they combine a high saturation magnetization (170 emu/g and low coercivity (less than 20 Oe at room temperature. Additional functionality is tenable by modifying the surface of the particles with a polymer, to ensure their good colloidal dispersion in aqueous environments.

  8. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Ni and Carbon Coated Ni by Levitational Gas Condensation (LGC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang Uhm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nickel (Ni, and carbon coated nickel (Ni@C nanoparticles were synthesized by levitaional gas condensation (LGC methods using a micron powder feeding (MPF system. Both metal and carbon coated metal nano powders include a magnetic ordered phase. The synthesis by LGC yields spherical particles with a large coercivity. The abnormal initial magnetization curve for Ni indicates a non-collinear magnetic structure between the core and surface layer of the particles. The carbon coated particles had a core structure diameter at and below 10 nm and were covered by 2-3 nm thin carbon layers. The hysteresis loop of the as-prepared Ni@Cs materials with unsaturated magnetization shows a superparamagnetic state at room temperature.

  9. Determining magnetic phase transitions temperatures in working magnetocaloric coolers bodies and gas cryorefrigerators regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagusov, V. I.; Mayankov, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Due to magnetic phase transitions rare-earth materials possess unique properties near the Curie and Neel temperatures, such as the magneto-caloric effect, the abnormally high heat capacity, the magnetic susceptibility and permeability extremes. Using rare earth materials in gas cryogenic refrigerators regenerators increases the efficiency, reduces the power consumption and allows reaching helium temperatures. The magneto-caloric effect has also extreme values near the Curie and Neel temperatures. The paper presents theoretical and experimental methods allowing to determine magnetic phase transitions temperatures in a wide range of low temperature materials with a various rare-earth components content and expected thermophysical properties of a certain rare-earth materials composition at the temperatures based on starting pure metals characteristics. The results analysis has shown that magnetic phase transitions temperatures are a linear function of the components concentration. Moreover, heat capacity values and MCE also depend linearly on the starting components concentration, which simplifies calculations significantly.

  10. Research on natural gas fuel injection system. Development of high-performance pressure regulator; Tennen gas yo nenryo funsha system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 1. Tennen gas nenryo funshayo no koseino regulator kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Ishii, M.; Takigawa, B.; Makabe, K.; Harada, S.; Ono, H. [Nippon Carburetor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    With the aim of further reducing the exhaust emissions of natural-gas vehicles, vigorous research and development work is under way today on multi point gas injection (MPGI) system. In this studies, a high-performance pressure regulator, which is one of the main components of this MPGI system, has been newly developed. The results showed that a significantly better accuracy of the regulated pressure level using this regulator was obtained under the wide range of operating conditions, including instantaneously greater changes of fuel flow rate. In addition, the advanced studies of gaseous fuel injectors (GFIs) would be also conducted. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Optimization of the output power of a pulsed gas laser by using magnetic pulse compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhibi, D.; Ghobrini, Mourad; Bourai, K.

    1999-12-01

    In pulsed gas lasers, the excitation of the active medium is produced through the discharge of a storage capacitor. Performances of these lasers were essentially linked to the type of switch used and also to its mode of operation. Thyratrons are the most common switches. Nevertheless, their technological limitations do not allow a high repetition rate, necessary for optimization of the output power of this type of laser. These limitations can be surpassed by combining the thyratron to a one stage of a magnetic pulse compression circuit. The mpc driver can improve the laser excitation pulse rise time and increase the repetition rate, increasing the laser output power of pulsed gas laser such as; nitrogen, excimer and copper vapor lasers. We have proposed in this paper a new configuration of magnetic pulse compression, the magnetic switch is place in our case in the charge circuit, and while in the typical utilization of magnetic pulse compression, it is placed in the discharge circuit. In this paper, we are more particularly interested in the design and the modeling of a saturate inductance that represents the magnetic switch in the proposed configuration of a thyratron - mpc circuit combination.

  12. Magnetic collapse of a neutron gas: Can magnetars indeed be formed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A. Perez [Grupo de Fisica Teorica, ICIMAF, Calle E No. 309, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Rojas, H. Perez [Grupo de Fisica Teorica, ICIMAF, Calle E No. 309, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 586, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare 34100, Trieste (Italy); Cuesta, H.J.M. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 586, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare 34100, Trieste (Italy); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Laboratorio de Cosmologia e Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A relativistic degenerate neutron gas in equilibrium with a background of electrons and protons in a magnetic field exerts its pressure anisotropically, having a smaller value perpendicular to than along the magnetic field. For critical fields the magnetic pressure may produce the vanishing of the equatorial pressure of the neutron gas. Taking this as a model for neutron stars, the outcome could be a transverse collapse of the star. This fixes a limit to the fields to be observable in stable neutron star pulsars as a function of their density. The final structure left over after the implosion might be a mixed phase of nucleons and a meson condensate, a strange star, or a highly distorted black hole or black ''cigar'', but not a magnetar, if viewed as a superstrongly magnetized neutron star. However, we do not exclude the possibility of superstrong magnetic fields arising in supernova explosions which lead directly to strange stars. In other words, if any magnetars exist, they cannot be neutron stars. (orig.)

  13. Utility of biogas pressure regulators to enhance the efficiency of gas for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P. [Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, H.P. Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur (India); Kalia, A.K. [Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, H.P. Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur (India)

    1997-09-01

    The diaphragm type regulator was evaluated for its utility in saving gas for cooking meals for five persons on a 1 m{sup 3} Deenbandhu biogas plant. With the use of this regulator, 350 litres of accumulated gas at a time were found to be sufficient for cooking 0.25 kg pulse, 1.0 kg rice and 5 cups of tea while without regulator, only pulse and tea could be prepared. This amount of gas was also sufficient to cook 0.6 kg flour chapati, 0.75 kg green vegetable and 5 cups of tea while using the regulator in comparison to only chapati and tea without regulator. On an average, the biogas regulator daily saved 25% of gas while different types of meal such as pulse and rice (with and without cooker), flour chapati, green vegetable and tea were prepared. Thus, its use is not only economical but also helps to enhance 34.86% utility of produced biogas with less time. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging of inhaled SF6 with respiratory gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander-Wigbert; Wolf, Ursula; Fabel, Michael; Weiler, Norbert; Heussel, Claus P; Eberle, Balthasar; David, Matthias; Schreiber, Wolfgang G

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of inhaled fluorinated inert gases ((19)F-MRI) such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) allows for analysis of ventilated air spaces. In this study, the possibility of using this technique to image lung function was assessed. For this, (19)F-MRI of inhaled SF(6) was compared with respiratory gas analysis, which is a global but reliable measure of alveolar gas fraction. Five anesthetized pigs underwent multiple-breath wash-in procedures with a gas mixture of 70% SF(6) and 30% oxygen. Two-dimensional (19)F-MRI and end-expiratory gas fraction analysis were performed after 4 to 24 inhaled breaths. Signal intensity of (19)F-MRI and end-expiratory SF(6) fraction were evaluated with respect to linear correlation and reproducibility. Time constants were estimated by both MRI and respiratory gas analysis data and compared for agreement. A good linear correlation between signal intensity and end-expiratory gas fraction was found (correlation coefficient 0.99+/-0.01). The data were reproducible (standard error of signal intensity 8% vs. that of gas fraction 5%) and the comparison of time constants yielded a sufficient agreement. According to the good linear correlation and the acceptable reproducibility, we suggest the (19)F-MRI to be a valuable tool for quantification of intrapulmonary SF(6) and hence lung function.

  15. Magnetic-field-driven localization of light in a cold-atom gas

    CERN Document Server

    Skipetrov, S E

    2014-01-01

    We discover a transition from extended to localized quasi-modes for light in a gas of immobile two-level atoms in a magnetic field. The transition takes place either upon increasing the number density of atoms in a strong field or upon increasing the field at a high enough density. It has many characteristic features of a disorder-driven (Anderson) transition but is strongly influenced by near-field interactions between atoms and the anisotropy of the atomic medium induced by the magnetic field.

  16. Thermodynamic magnetization of two-dimensional electron gas measured over wide range of densities

    OpenAIRE

    Reznikov, M.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Teneh, N.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements of dm/dn in Si MOSFET, where m is the magnetization of the two-dimensional electron gas and n is its density. We extended the density range of measurements from well in the metallic to deep in the insulating region. The paper discusses in detail the conditions under which this extension is justified, as well as the corrections one should make to extract dm/dn properly. At low temperatures, dm/dn was found to be strongly nonlinear already in weak magnetic fields, on a sc...

  17. Regulation loops for the ring magnet power supplies in the SSC accelerator complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacconi, E.; Christiansen, C.

    1993-05-01

    The SSC complex consists of five cascaded accelerators: The linear accelerator (linac) and four synchrotrons: The low energy booster (LEB), the medium energy booster (MEB), the high energy booster (HEB), and the collider. Twelve- or 24-pulse phase-controlled SCR power supplies are used to energize the ring magnets. Each power supply has a voltage loop designed to regulate the voltage applied to the magnets. The voltage regulation loops for these synchrotrons and the current regulation for the LEB are analyzed in this work. The digital voltage regulator is fiber-optic isolated from the power converter. It has a closed-loop bandwidth of 150 Hz with band rejections for 60-Hz and 120-Hz perturbations. The LEB has a very precise current regulation system composed of a feedforward compensator, a fast feedback regulator, and a slow synchronous regulator. The current regulation design is corroborated by computer simulations.

  18. Ultrafast Magnetization of a Dense Molecular Gas with an Optical Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A. A.; Korobenko, A.; Milner, V.

    2017-06-01

    Strong laser-induced magnetization of oxygen gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is achieved experimentally on the subnanosecond time scale. The method is based on controlling the electronic spin of paramagnetic molecules by means of manipulating their rotation with an optical centrifuge. Spin-rotational coupling results in a high degree of spin polarization on the order of one Bohr magneton per centrifuged molecule. Owing to the nonresonant interaction with the laser pulses, the demonstrated technique is applicable to a broad class of paramagnetic rotors. Executed in a high-density gas, it may offer an efficient way of generating macroscopic magnetic fields remotely (as shown in this work) and producing a large amount of spin-polarized electrons.

  19. Magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Luise Theil

    1994-01-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas made from a high-mobility GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed on the surf...... on the surface of the sample. A theoretical explanation in excellent agreement with the experiment is given within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. © 1994 The American Physical Society...

  20. Characterizing gas shaly sandstone reservoirs using the magnetic resonance technology in the Anaco area, East Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fam, Maged; August, Howard [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States); Zambrano, Carlos; Rivero, Fidel [PDVSA Gas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    With demand for natural gas on the rise every day, accounting for and booking every cubic foot of gas is becoming very important to operators exploiting natural gas reservoirs. The initial estimates of gas reserves are usually established through the use of petrophysical parameters normally based on wireline and/or LWD logs. Conventional logs, such as gamma ray, density, neutron, resistivity and sonic, are traditionally used to calculate these parameters. Sometimes, however, the use of such conventional logs may not be enough to provide a high degree of accuracy in determining these petrophysical parameters, which are critical to reserve estimates. Insufficient accuracy can be due to high complexities in the rock properties and/or a formation fluid distribution within the reservoir layers that is very difficult to characterize with conventional logs alone. The high degree of heterogeneity in the shaly sandstone rock properties of the Anaco area, East Venezuela, can be characterized by clean, high porosity, high permeability sands to very shaly, highly laminated, and low porosity rock. This wide variation in the reservoir properties may pose difficulties in identifying gas bearing zones which may affect the final gas reserves estimates in the area. The application of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) logging technology in the area, combined with the application of its latest acquisition and interpretation methods, has proven to be very adequate in detecting and quantifying gas zones as well as providing more realistic petrophysical parameters for better reserve estimates. This article demonstrates the effectiveness of applying the MRI logging technology to obtain improved petrophysical parameters that will help better characterize the shaly-sands of Anaco area gas reservoirs. This article also demonstrates the value of MRI in determining fluid types, including distinguishing between bound water and free water, as well as differentiating between gas and liquid

  1. Unified properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    When the orbital motion and the spin motion of particles were considered simultaneously,the thermodynamic potential function of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field was derived using the thermodynamics method. Based on the derived expression,the analytical expressions of energy,heat capacity,chemical potential,susceptibility and stability conditions of the system were given,and the effects of the interparticle interactions as well as the magnetic field on the properties of the system were analyzed. It was shown that the magnetic field always causes energy and stability to decrease,while the chemical potential of the system to increase. The repulsive(attractive) interactions always increase(decrease) energy and stability,but decrease(increase) the chemical potential and paramagnetism. The repulsive(attractive) interactions decrease(increase) heat capacity of the system at high temperatures but increase(decrease) it at low temperatures.

  2. Spectroscopic issues in optical polarization of 3He gas for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of human lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnalik, T.; Głowacz, B.; Olejniczak, Z.; Pałasz, T.; Suchanek, M.; Wojna, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of human lungs for diagnostic purposes became possible by using nuclear spin hyperpolarized noble gases, such as 3He. One of the methods to polarize 3He is the Metastability Exchange Optical Pumping (MEOP), which up to now has been performed at low pressure of about 1 mbar and in low magnetic field below 0.1 T (standard conditions). The equilibrium nuclear polarization can reach up to 80%, but it is dramatically reduced during the subsequent gas compression to the atmospheric pressure that is necessary for the lungs examination. Further polarization losses occur during the transportation of the gas to the hospital scanner. It was shown recently that up to 50% polarization can be obtained at elevated pressure exceeding 20 mbar, by using magnetic field higher than 0.1 T (nonstandard conditions). Therefore, following the construction of the low-field MEOP polarizer located in the lab, a dedicated portable unit was developed, which uses the magnetic field of the 1.5 T MR medical scanner and works in the continuous-flow regime. The first in Poland MRI images of human lungs in vivo were obtained on the upgraded to 3He resonance frequency Siemens Sonata medical scanner. An evident improvement in the image quality was achieved when using the new technique. The paper shows how spectroscopic measurements of 3He carried out in various experimental conditions led both to useful practical results and to significant progress in understanding fundamental processes taking place during MEOP.

  3. Regulation and bilateral monopoly: Long-term contracting in natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, G.R.; Weiner, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In the US, natural gas is sold by producers to pipelines under long-term contracts. Many of these contracts are no longer viable in today's market. The authors develop a simple model of contracting between a single buyer and seller, with and without uncertainty or regulation. They address the implications of introducing contract diversity into the model for the impact of regulation, and discuss empirical application of the model.

  4. Formation of van der Waals molecules in buffer-gas-cooled magnetic traps [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahms, N; Tscherbul, T V; Zhang, P; Kłos, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Dalgarno, A; Doyle, J M; Walker, T G

    2010-07-16

    We predict that a large class of helium-containing cold polar molecules form readily in a cryogenic buffer gas, achieving densities as high as 10(12)  cm(-3). We explore the spin relaxation of these molecules in buffer-gas-loaded magnetic traps and identify a loss mechanism based on Landau-Zener transitions arising from the anisotropic hyperfine interaction. Our results show that the recently observed strong T(-6) thermal dependence of the spin-change rate of silver (Ag) trapped in dense (3)He is accounted for by the formation and spin change of Ag(3)He van der Waals molecules, thus providing indirect evidence for molecular formation in a buffer-gas trap.

  5. Computational studies of suppression of microwave gas breakdown by crossed dc magnetic field using electron fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Guo, Lixin; Shu, Panpan

    2016-08-01

    The gas breakdown induced by a square microwave pulse with a crossed dc magnetic field is investigated using the electron fluid model, in which the accurate electron energy distribution functions are adopted. Simulation results show that at low gas pressures the dc magnetic field of a few tenths of a tesla can prolong the breakdown formation time by reducing the mean electron energy. With the gas pressure increasing, the higher dc magnetic field is required to suppress the microwave breakdown. The electric field along the microwave propagation direction generated due to the motion of electrons obviously increases with the dc magnetic field, but it is much less than the incident electric field. The breakdown predictions of the electron fluid model agree very well with the particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision simulations as well as the scaling law for the microwave gas breakdown.

  6. Legal issues of the natural gas regulation; Aspectos juridicos da regulacao do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Adriano; Nunes, Alessandro; Nascimento, Juliana; Gois, Luciana; Jardim, Mariana; Moura, Tacio; Campos, Vitor [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The present essay analyses a new type of economic intervention of the Brazilian State, by means of overcoming his interventionist position with the opening to private wealth. This creates the need of State fiscalization, which is done by creating the regulatory agencies. Focussing the current regulatory model, the role ANP plays is distinguished in its regulatory, fiscalization and fomenter of gas-related activities functions, established as federal scope. Equally important is the analysis of state sphere activities and guardianship assigned by the Constitution, in its article 25, para. 2nd, to states that now need forensic basement to be able to explore the local service of canalized gas. In this context, a comparative model of the role played by the state regulatory agencies has been created concerning the states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. It is, therefore, perceivable, by means of this study, the necessity to review the current regulatory model and legal dispositions, which, because of its lack of peculiarity, leaves gaps that will be filled in by this regulatory agent. (author)

  7. Conical Magnetic Bearings Developed for Active Stall Control in Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Kascak, Albert F.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Buccieri, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Active stall control is a current research area at the NASA Glenn Research Center that offers a great benefit in specific fuel consumption by allowing the gas turbine to operate beyond the onset of stall. Magnetic bearings are being investigated as a new method to perform active stall control. This enabling global aviation safety technology would result in improved fuel efficiency and decreased carbon dioxide emissions, as well as improve safety and reliability by eliminating oil-related delays and failures of engine components, which account for 40 percent of the commercial aircraft departure delays. Active stall control works by perturbing the flow in front of the compressor stage such that it cancels the pressure wave, which causes the compressor to go into stall. Radial magnetic bearings are able to whirl the shaft so that variations in blade tip leakage would flow upstream causing a perturbation wave that could cancel the rotating stall cell. Axial or thrust magnetic bearings cannot be used to cancel the surge mode in the compressor because they have a very low bandwidth and thus cannot modulate at a high enough frequency. Frequency response is limited because the thrust runner cannot be laminated. To improve the bandwidth of magnetic thrust bearings, researchers must use laminations to suppress the eddy currents. A conical magnetic bearing can be laminated, resulting in increased bandwidth in the axial direction. In addition, this design can produce both radial and thrust force in a single bearing, simplifying the installation. The proposed solution combines the radial and thrust bearing into one design that can be laminated--a conical magnetic bearing. The new conical magnetic bearing test rig, funded by a Glenn fiscal year 2002 Director's Discretionary Fund, was needed because none of the existing rigs has an axial degree of freedom. The rotor bearing configuration will simulate that of the main shaft on a gas turbine engine. One conical magnetic bearing

  8. Feedback Regulated Turbulence, Magnetic Fields, and Star Formation Rates in Galactic Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Goo

    2015-01-01

    We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the quasi-equilibrium states of galactic disks regulated by star formation feedback. We incorporate effects from massive-star feedback via time-varying heating rates and supernova (SN) explosions. We find that the disks in our simulations rapidly approach a quasi-steady state that satisfies vertical dynamical equilibrium. The star formation rate (SFR) surface density self-adjusts to provide the total momentum flux (pressure) in the vertical direction that matches the weight of the gas. We quantify feedback efficiency by measuring feedback yields, \\eta_c\\equiv P_c/\\Sigma_SFR (in suitable units), for each pressure component. The turbulent and thermal feedback yields are the same for HD and MHD simulations, \\eta_th~1 and \\eta_ turb~4, consistent with the theoretical expectations. In MHD simulations, turbulent magnetic fields are rapidly generated by turbulence, and saturate at a level corresponding to \\eta_mag,t~1. The presence of magn...

  9. 78 FR 70248 - Medical Gas Regulation Review; Announcement of Public Meeting; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., ``http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/NewEvents/ucm370351.htm'' is corrected to read ``http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/News... corrected to read ``http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/NewsEvents/ucm370351.htm''. Dated: November 19, 2013. Leslie... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Medical Gas Regulation Review;...

  10. 76 FR 5368 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within-the... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  11. Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security : A New Framework For Energy Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2017-01-01

    `This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as

  12. Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security : A New Framework For Energy Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2017-01-01

    `This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as

  13. Regulations and Practice on Flue Gas Denitrification for Coal-Fired Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Zhao Guohua

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China, according to the relative up-to-date regulations and standards, the maincontrol measure for Nox emission of coal-fired power plants is, in principle, low Noxcombustion. However, in recent years, more and more newly approved coal-fired plantswere required to install flue gas denitrification equipment.

  14. High-Temperature Magnetic Bearings Being Developed for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Albert F.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are the subject of a new NASA Lewis Research Center and U.S. Army thrust with significant industry participation, and cooperation with other Government agencies. The NASA/Army emphasis is on high-temperature applications for future gas turbine engines. Magnetic bearings could increase the reliability and reduce the weight of these engines by eliminating the lubrication system. They could also increase the DN (diameter of bearing times the rpm) limit on engine speed and allow active vibration cancellation systems to be used, resulting in a more efficient, "more electric" engine. Finally, the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) program, a joint Department of Defense/industry program, identified a need for a high-temperature (1200 F) magnetic bearing that could be demonstrated in their Phase III engine. This magnetic bearing is similar to an electric motor. It has a laminated rotor and stator made of cobalt steel. Wound around the stator's circumference are a series of electrical wire coils which form a series of electric magnets that exert a force on the rotor. A probe senses the position of the rotor, and a feedback controller keeps it centered in the cavity. The engine rotor, bearings, and casing form a flexible structure with many modes. The bearing feedback controller, which could cause some of these modes to become unstable, could be adapted to varying flight conditions to minimize seal clearances and monitor the health of the system.

  15. Magnetically self-regulated formation of early protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Chabrier, Gilles; Marchand, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The formation of protoplanetary discs during the collapse of molecular dense cores is significantly influenced by angular momentum transport, notably by the magnetic torque. In turn, the evolution of the magnetic field is determined by dynamical processes and non-ideal MHD effects such as ambipolar diffusion. Considering simple relations between various timescales characteristic of the magnetized collapse, we derive an expression for the early disc radius, $ r \\simeq 18 \\, {\\rm AU} \\, \\left({\\eta_{\\rm AD} / 0.1 \\, {\\rm s}} \\right)^{2/9} \\left({B_z / 0.1\\, {\\rm G}} \\right) ^{-4/9} \\left({M / 0.1 \\msol} \\right) ^{1/3},$ where $M$ is the total disc plus protostar mass, $\\eta_\\mathrm{AD}$ is the ambipolar diffusion coefficient and $B_z$ is the magnetic field in the inner part of the core. This is about significantly smaller than the discs that would form if angular momentum was conserved. The analytical predictions are confronted against a large sample of 3D, non-ideal MHD collapse calculations covering variation...

  16. Magnetically Self-regulated Formation of Early Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Commerçon, Benoît; Chabrier, Gilles; Marchand, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The formation of protoplanetary disks during the collapse of molecular dense cores is significantly influenced by angular momentum transport, notably by the magnetic torque. In turn, the evolution of the magnetic field is determined by dynamical processes and non-ideal MHD effects such as ambipolar diffusion. Considering simple relations between various timescales characteristic of the magnetized collapse, we derive an expression for the early disk radius, r≃ 18 {au} {({η }{AD}/0.1{{s}})}2/9{({B}z/0.1{{G}})}-4/9{(M/0.1{M}⊙ )}1/3, where M is the total disk plus protostar mass, {η }{AD} is the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, and B z is the magnetic field in the inner part of the core. This is significantly smaller than the disks that would form if angular momentum was conserved. The analytical predictions are confronted against a large sample of 3D, non-ideal MHD collapse calculations covering variations of a factor 100 in core mass, a factor 10 in the level of turbulence, a factor 5 in rotation, and magnetic mass-to-flux over critical mass-to-flux ratios 2 and 5. The disk radius estimates are found to agree with the numerical simulations within less than a factor 2. A striking prediction of our analysis is the weak dependence of circumstellar disk radii upon the various relevant quantities, suggesting weak variations among class-0 disk sizes. In some cases, we note the onset of large spiral arms beyond this radius.

  17. Charge and current density profiles of a degenerate magnetized free-electron gas near a hard wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Kettenis; L.G. Suttorp

    1998-01-01

    The charge and current densities of a completely degenerate free-electron gas in a uniform magnetic field are found to have a damped oscillatory spatial dependence near a wall that is parallel to the magnetic field. For large distances from the wall the behaviour of the associated profile functions

  18. System for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow within an oil aging test device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system within an oil aging test device that serves for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow. Following an already realized system that continuously monitors, logs, and regulates transformer oil temperature during the aging process and maintains temperature consistency within strict limits, a model of a flow meter and regulator of air or oxygen through transformer oil samples is developed. A special feature of the implemented system is the measurement of very small gas flows. A short technical description of the realized system is given with a functional block diagram. The basic technical characteristics of the system are specified, and the operating principles and application of the system are described. The paper also gives performance test results in a real exploitation environment.

  19. A new method of evaluating tight gas sands pore structure from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Xiu-hong

    2016-04-01

    Tight gas sands always display such characteristics of ultra-low porosity, permeability, high irreducible water, low resistivity contrast, complicated pore structure and strong heterogeneity, these make that the conventional methods are invalid. Many effective gas bearing formations are considered as dry zones or water saturated layers, and cannot be identified and exploited. To improve tight gas sands evaluation, the best method is quantitative characterizing rock pore structure. The mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves are advantageous in predicting formation pore structure. However, the MICP experimental measurements are limited due to the environment and economy factors, this leads formation pore structure cannot be consecutively evaluated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs are considered to be promising in evaluating rock pore structure. Generally, to consecutively quantitatively evaluate tight gas sands pore structure, the best method is constructing pseudo Pc curves from NMR logs. In this paper, based on the analysis of lab experimental results for 20 core samples, which were drilled from tight gas sandstone reservoirs of Sichuan basin, and simultaneously applied for lab MICP and NMR measurements, the relationships of piecewise power function between nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation T2 time and pore-throat radius Rc are established. A novel method, which is used to transform NMR reverse cumulative curve as pseudo capillary pressure (Pc) curve is proposed, and the corresponding model is established based on formation classification. By using this model, formation pseudo Pc curves can be consecutively synthesized. The pore throat radius distribution, and pore structure evaluation parameters, such as the average pore throat radius (Rm), the threshold pressure (Pd), the maximum pore throat radius (Rmax) and so on, can also be precisely extracted. After this method is extended into field applications, several tight gas

  20. The characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields and the distribution of tight sandstone gas in the eastern Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bingqiang; Zhang, Huaan; Zhang, Chunguan; Xu, Haihong; Yan, Yunkui

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform gas exploration and determine the distribution pattern of gas in the Yanchang Oil Field in the eastern part of the North Shaanxi Slope, Ordos Basin, China, gravity and magnetic survey data were systemically collated, processed and interpreted in combination with the drilling data and recent seismic data. The genesis of gravity and magnetic anomalies and the relationship between the characteristics of the gravity and magnetic fields and known gas distribution were explored in order to predict the favourable exploration targets for gas. Gravity anomalies resulted both from the lateral variation in density of the basement rock and lateral lithologic transformation in the sedimentary cover. The regional magnetic anomalies were mainly caused by the basement metamorphic rocks and the residual magnetic anomalies may reflect the amount and general location of the volcanic materials in the overlying strata. The residual gravity and magnetic anomalies generated by high-density sandstone and high content of volcanics in the gas reservoir of the upper Paleozoic distorted and deformed the anomaly curves when they were stacked onto the primary background anomaly. The gas wells were generally found to be located in the anomaly gradient zones, or the distorted part of contour lines, and the flanks of high and low anomalies, or the transitional zones between anomaly highs and lows. The characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields provide significant information that can be used for guidance when exploring the distribution of gas. Based on these characteristics, five favourable areas for gas exploration were identified; these are quasi-equally spaced like a strip extending from the southeast to the northwest.

  1. Reflection of a strong magnetic-gas-dynamic shock wave from an elliptical cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbachev, L.P.; Sokolov, V.B.

    1977-10-01

    A study is made of a strong, plane shock wave with uniform parameters propagating in a gas with infinite electric conductivity when a homogeneous magnetic field is present tangential to the leading edge of the shock wave when the wave encounters an elliptical cylinder which is stationary in the direction of propagation of the shock wave. The generatrix of the cylinder is parallel to the magnetic field, and the shock wave moves along one of the semiaxes of the ellipse in the perpendicular cross section of the cylinder. Expressions are derived for the flow parameters of the gas beyond the reflected shock wave, ignoring the viscosity and heat conductivity of the gas and assuming the Hall effect to be slight. As t ..-->.. infinity steady supersonic flow is established around the cylinder and the velocity D of the reflected shock wave with respect to the cylinder drops toward zero. A graph shows the results of calculation of the pressure on the surface of the cylinder. 7 references, 1 figure.

  2. Linear response of heat conductivity of normal-superfluid interface of a polarized Fermi gas to orbital magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimian, N., E-mail: n.ebrahimian@aut.ac.ir [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrafarin, M., E-mail: mehrafar@aut.ac.ir [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afzali, R., E-mail: afzali@kntu.ac.ir [Physics Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15418 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Using perturbed Bogoliubov equations, we study the linear response to a weak orbital magnetic field of the heat conductivity of the normal-superfluid interface of a polarized Fermi gas at sufficiently low temperature. We consider the various scattering regions of the BCS regime and analytically obtain the transmission coefficients and the heat conductivity across the interface in an arbitrary weak orbital field. For a definite choice of the field, we consider various values of the scattering length in the BCS range and numerically obtain the allowed values of the average and species-imbalance chemical potentials. Thus, taking Andreev reflection into account, we describe how the heat conductivity is affected by the field and the species imbalance. In particular, we show that the additional heat conductivity due to the orbital field increases with the species imbalance, which is more noticeable at higher temperatures. Our results indicate how the heat conductivity may be controlled, which is relevant to sensitive magnetic field sensors/regulators at the interface.

  3. Operating Point Self-Regulator for Giant Magneto-Impedance Magnetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The giant magneto-impedance (GMI magnetic sensor based on the amorphous wire has been believed to be tiny dimensions, high sensitivity, quick response, and small power consumption. This kind of sensor is usually working under a bias magnetic field that is called the sensor’s operating point. However, the changes in direction and intensity of the external magnetic field, or the changes in sensing direction and position of the sensor, will lead to fluctuations in operating point when the sensor is working without any magnetic shield. In this work, a GMI sensor based on the operating point self-regulator is designed to overcome the problem. The regulator is based on the compensated feedback control that can maintain the operating point of a GMI sensor in a uniform position. With the regulator, the GMI sensor exhibits a stable sensitivity regardless of the external magnetic field. In comparison with the former work, the developed operating point regulator can improve the accuracy and stability of the operating point and therefore decrease the noise and disturbances that are introduced into the GMI sensor by the previous self-regulation system.

  4. Effect of growth regulators on 'Brookfield' apple gas diffusion and metabolism under controlled atmosphere storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of growth regulators on gas diffusion and on metabolism of 'Brookfield' apple, and to determine their correlation with quality characteristics of fruit stored in controlled atmosphere. A completely randomized design was used with four replicates. After eight months of storage, the effects of water (control, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, AVG + ethephon, AVG + naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, ethephon + NAA, sole NAA, 1-MCP, ethylene absorption by potassium permanganate (ABS, AVG + ABS, and of AVG + 1-MCP - applied at different rates and periods - were evaluated on: gas diffusion rate, ethylene production, respiratory rate, internal ethylene concentration, internal CO2 content, mealiness, and intercellular space. Fruit from the control and sole NAA treatments had the highest mealiness occurrence. Growth regulators significantly changed the gaseous diffusion through the pulp of 'Brookfield' apple, mainly in the treatment AVG + ABS, which kept the highest gas diffusion rate. NAA spraying in the field, with or without another growth regulator, increased ripening metabolism by rising ethylene production and respiration rate, and reduced gas diffusion during shelf life. AVG spraying cannot avoid the ethephon effect during the ripening process, and reduces both the internal space and mealiness incidence, but it is not able to induce ethylene production or to increase respiration rates.

  5. Natural gas - the new Argentine regulation and the impact on the international relationships; Gas natural - nueva regulacion argentina y su impacto en las relaciones internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Ximena [Escritorio Marval, O' Farrell and Mairal, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Energia

    2005-07-15

    Under the mentioned regulations important enterprises have been developed such as natural gas exportation to three specific regions of Chile (the mining region of North; the central region supplying the Santiago and Concepcion markets; and the supplying of a methanol plant at the extreme south); the natural gas exportation to a power plant at southern Brazil (Uruguaiana), at Mato Grosso (through Bolivia) and the natural gas exportation to Uruguay.

  6. The Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Quorum Sensing-Regulated Luminescence of Vibrio fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Addie; Hagen, Steve; Son, Minjun

    2015-03-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism by which bacteria communicate through the secretion and detection of extracellular signaling molecules known as autoinducers. This research focuses on the quorum sensing regulated bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, a marine bacterium that lives in symbiosis with certain fish and squid species. Previous studies of V. harveyi, a close relative of V. fisheri, indicate that a strong magnetic field has a positive effect on V.harveyi bioluminescence. However the effect of magnetic fields on quorum sensing-regulated luminescence is in general poorly understood. We grew V. fischeri in solid and liquid growth media, subject to strong static magnetic fields, and imaged the bioluminescence over a period of forty-eight hours. Luminescence patterns were analyzed in both the spatial and time dimensions. We find no indication that a magnetic field influences Vibrio fischeri luminescence either positively or negatively. This research was funded by the Grant Number NSF DMR-1156737.

  7. Evidence for Proportionate Partition Between the Magnetic Field and Hot Gas in Turbulent Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Keohane, J W; Petre, R

    1998-01-01

    We present a deep X-ray observation of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cas A, acquired with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager. This high dynamic range (232 ks) image reveals low-surface-brightness X-ray structure, which appears qualitatively similar to corresponding radio features. We consider the correlation between the X-ray and radio morphologies and its physical implications. After correcting for the inhomogeneous absorption across the remnant, we performed a point by point (4" resolution) surface brightness comparison between the X-ray and radio images. We find a strong (r = 0.75) log-log correlation, implying an overall relationship of $\\log(\\Sigma_{_{\\rm X-ray}}) \\propto (2.21\\pm0.05) \\times \\log(\\Sigma_{_{\\rm radio}})$. This is consistent with proportionate partition (and possibly equipartition) between the local magnetic field and the hot gas --- implying that Cas A's plasma is fully turbulent and continuously amplifying the magnetic field.

  8. Relativistic thermodynamic properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Fan Zhao-Lan; Zhu Hou-Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper derives the analytical expression of free energy for a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field, by using the methods of quantum statistics as well as considering the relativistic effect. Based on the derived expression, the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and low temperatures are given and the relativistic effect on the properties of the system is discussed. It shows that, in comparison with a nonrelativistic situation,the relativistic effect changes the influence of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of the system at high temperatures, and changes the influence of particle-number density on them at extremely low temperature. But the relativistic effect does not change the influence of the magnetic field and inter-particle interactions on the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and extremely low temperatures.

  9. In-gas-cell laser spectroscopy for magnetic dipole moment of $^{199}$Pt toward $N=$ 126

    CERN Document Server

    Hirayama, Y; Watanabe, Y X; Jeong, S C; Jung, H S; Kakiguchi, Y; Kimura, S; Moon, J Y; Oyaizu, M; Park, J H; Schury, P; Wada, M; Miyatake, H

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic dipole moment and mean-square charge radius of $^{199}$Pt ($I^{\\pi}=$ 5/2$^-$) have been evaluated for the first time from the investigation of the hyperfine splitting of the $\\lambda_1=$ 248.792 nm transition by in-gas-cell laser ionization spectroscopy. Neutron-rich nucleus $^{199}$Pt was produced by multi-nucleon transfer reaction at the KISS where the nuclear spectroscopy in the vicinity of $N=$ 126 is planed from the aspect of an astrophysical interest as well as the nuclear structure. Measured magnetic dipole moment $+$0.63(13)$\\mu_{\\rm N}$ is consistent with the systematics of those of nuclei with $I^{\\pi}=$ 5/2$^-$. The deformation parameter $|^{1/2}|$ evaluated from the isotope shift indicates the gradual shape change to spherical shape of platinum isotopes with increasing neutron number toward $N=$ 126.

  10. Economic valuation of gas regulation as a Service by rice-duck-fish complex ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Weiling; Cao Cougui; Wang Jinping

    2008-01-01

    Valuating the function of ecosystem services is crucial for accounting green GDP, making a conserva-tion policy of ecological environment and the decision of regional development as well as sustainable development strategy. Rice-duck-fish symbiosis has been promoted in several developing countries as a way of&creasing incomes for rice farmers, but investigations of its value have mainly focused on direct economic benefits, such as food and raw material production. Few studies have been conducted on the estimation of indirect services provided by rice-duck-fish complex ecosystem. The gas regulation service and its economic values provided by rice-duck-fish complex ecosystem were studied in Wuhan, China. The major components of gas regulation are O2 emission and greenhouse, gases (GHGs, CO2) regulation. The results show that O2 emission from different treatments (including rice-duck (RD) rice-fish (RF), rice-duck-fish (RDF) and rice (CK)) ranged from 26,370 kg/ha to 33,910 kg/ha per year, with an eco- nomic value of 10,050-12,920 yuan/ha per year (Chinese currency: I euro=10.2475 yuan, August 28, 2007). The net GHGs exchange varied from 1,200 to 3,320 kg/ha per year, and its economic value ranged.from 1,040 yuan/ha to 2, 900 yuan/ha per year Consequently, the total economic value of gas regulation provided by symbiosis complex ecosystems ranged from 11,090 yuan/ha to 15,820 yuan/ha per year, and the maximum overall economic value of gas regulation was provided by RDF complex ecosystem. The work will be useful for further understanding of the func tions of rice-duek-fish complex ecosystem services and supplying the theoretical references to agricultural policy.

  11. The instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the analytical expression of free energy expressed by small parameter r of a weakly interacting Fermi Based on the derived expression, the exact instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field at both high and low temperatures are given. From the instability conditions we get the following two results. (1) At the whole low-temperature extent, whether the interactions are repulsive or attractive with (αn + 4εF/3)(n and εF denote the particle-number density and the Fermi energy respectively, c = 4πah2/m, and a is s-wave scattering length) positive, there is a lower-limit magnetic field of instability; in addition, there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the system of attractive interactions with (αn + 4eF/3) negative. (2) At the whole high-temperature extent, the system with repulsive interactions is always stable, but for the system with attractive interactions, the greater the scattering length of attractive interactions |a| is, the stronger the magnetic field is and the larger the particle-number density is,the bigger the possibility of instability in the system will be.

  12. The Formation of Population III Stars in Gas Accretion Stage: Effects of Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2013-01-01

    The formation of Population III stars is investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Starting from a magnetized primordial prestellar cloud, we calculate the cloud evolution several hundreds of years after first protostar formation, resolving the protostellar radius. When the natal minihalo field strength is weaker than B \\lesssim 10^-13 (n/1 cm^-3)^-2/3 G (n is the hydrogen number density), magnetic effects can be ignored. In this case, fragmentation occurs frequently and a stellar cluster forms, in which stellar mergers and mass exchange between protostars contribute to the mass growth of these protostars. During the early gas accretion phase, the most massive protostar remains near the cloud centre, whereas some of the less massive protostars are ejected. The magnetic field significantly affects Population III star formation when B_amb \\gtrsim 10^-12 (n/1 cm^-3)^-2/3 G. In this case, because the angular momentum around the protostar is effectively transferred by both magnetic braking and ...

  13. Preparation of tunable-sized iron nanoparticles based on magnetic manipulation in inert gas condensation (IGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lijuan; ten Brink, Gert H.; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George

    2017-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by inert gas condensation were studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Wulff construction shape analysis. The NP size and shape show strong dependence on the magnetic field above the target surface. The effect of the magnetic field could be tuned by adjusting the thickness of the protective backing plate positioned in-between the target and the magnetron head. With increasing backing plate thickness, the particle size decreases and the NP morphologies evolve from faceted to close-to-spherical polyhedral shapes. Moreover, with changes in size and shape, the particle structure also varies so that the NPs exhibit: (i) a core-shell structure for the faceted NPs with size ˜15-24 nm; (ii) a core-shell structure for the close-to-spherical NPs with size ˜8-15 nm; and (iii) a fully oxidized uniform structure for NPs with sizes less than ˜8 nm having a void in the center due to the Kirkendall effect. The decrease of NP size with the increasing backing plate thickness can be attributed to a reduced magnetic field strength above the iron target surface combined with a reduced magnetic field confinement. These results pave the way to drastically control the NP size and shape in a simple manner without any other adjustment of the aggregation volume within the deposition system.

  14. Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance of Neutral Donors Interacting with a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, C. C.; Lang, V.; George, R. E.; Morton, J. J. L.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, A.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.

    2011-04-20

    We have measured the electrically detected magnetic resonance of donor-doped silicon field-effect transistors in resonant X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavities. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) resonance signal increases by two orders of magnitude from X- to W-band, while the donor resonance signals are enhanced by over one order of magnitude. Bolometric effects and spin-dependent scattering are inconsistent with the observations. We propose that polarization transfer from the donor to the 2DEG is the main mechanism giving rise to the spin resonance signals.

  15. Development of a Gas Filled Magnet spectrometer within the FIPPS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebboubi, A.; Kessedjian, G.; Faust, H.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Méplan, O.; Sage, C.; Serot, O.

    2016-06-01

    The Fission Product Prompt γ -ray Spectrometer, FIPPS, is under development to enable prompt γ -ray spectroscopy correlated with fission fragment identification. This will open new possibilities in the study of fission and of nuclear structure of neutron rich nuclei. FIPPS will consist of an array of γ and neutron detectors coupled with a fission fragment filter. The chosen solution for the filter is a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM). Both experimental and modeling work was performed in order to extract the key parameters of such a device and design the future GFM of the FIPPS project. Experiments performed with a GFM behind the LOHENGRIN spectrometer demonstrated the capability of additional beam purification.

  16. Hyperpolarised sup 3 He gas production for magnetic resonance imaging of the human air ways

    CERN Document Server

    Fichele, S

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental techniques, and methods employed in hyperpolarised sup 3 He gas production and magnetic resonance imaging of the human air-ways, using spin-echo sequences and MR tagging techniques. An in-house polariser utilising the metastability optical pumping technique was constructed. The main results of this work are concerned with engineering difficulties involved in compressing HP sup 3 He and a large proportion of this PhD thesis details the design, construction, and performance of an in-house built peristaltic compressor. In preliminary imaging experiments using RARE, high signal to noise projection images of the lungs were acquired using less than 0.5 cm sup 3 (STP) of purely polarised HP gas. Later, increased HP gas quantities (typically 10 cm sup 3) were obtained by employing the peristaltic compressor. Consequently we could acquire 10 mm thick slices spanning the entire lung following a single sup 3 He gas bolus administration. Finally, the first results using MR tagging t...

  17. Use of the gas-filled-magnet technique for particle identification at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.K.; Jiang, C.L.; Paul, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    1995-08-01

    Reaction studies of interest to astrophysics with radioactive ion beams will be done mainly in inverse reaction kinematics, i.e., heavy particles bombarding a hydrogen target. The low energy of the outgoing heavy reaction products makes particle identification with respect to mass and nuclear charge a major challenge. For the planned {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}) experiment one expects five different types of particles in the outgoing channels: {sup 18}F and {sup 18}O (from elastic scattering of {sup 18}F and {sup 18}O on {sup 12}C), {sup 15}O and {sup 15}N (from the {sup 18}F and {sup 18}O induced (p,{alpha}) reactions) and {sup 12}C recoils from the polypropylene target. While mass determination can be achieved easily by time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, a determination of the nuclear charge presents a challenge, especially if the energy of the particles is below 500 keV/u. We studied the gas-filled magnet technique for Z-identification of light ions between Z = 6-9. In a gas-filled magnet the particles move with an average charge state {bar q} which in one parameterization is given by {bar q} = Z ln(avZ{sup {alpha}})/ln(bZ{sup {beta}}) where Z is the nuclear charge of the ions and v their velocity. Introducing into the expression for the magnetic rigidity B{rho} = mv/{bar q} results in a Z dependence of B{rho} which is valid to very low velocities. As a magnet we used the Enge split-pole spectrograph which was filled with nitrogen gas at a pressure of 0.5 Torr. The particles were detected in the focal plane with a 50 x 10 cm{sup 2} parallel-grid-avalanche counter which measured TOF and magnetic rigidity. The mass and Z separation was tested with {sup 13}C and {sup 18}O beams at energies of about 600 keV/u and recoil particles ranging from {sup 12}C to {sup 19}F. The Z-separation obtained at these energies was {triangle}Z/Z = 0.28 which is sufficient to separate individual elements for Z < 10.

  18. Natural gas power generation: interruptible gas distribution network regulation; Geracao termoeletrica a gas natural: regulacao do segmento interruptivel de distribuicao de gas canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de; Kann, Zevi [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper relates studies regarding the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation. The final conclusion is that interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  19. Hypothalamic metabolic compartmentation during appetite regulation as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca eLizarbe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI, Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast (BOLD and Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI have revealed Mn2+accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. 1H and 13C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks, becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable.

  20. Self-similar fragmentation regulated by magnetic fields in a region forming massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Bai; Yuen, Ka Ho; Otto, Frank; Leung, Po Kin; Sridharan, T. K.; Zhang, Qizhou; Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Qiu, Keping

    2015-04-01

    Most molecular clouds are filamentary or elongated. For those forming low-mass stars (8 solar masses). But whether the core field morphologies are inherited from the intercloud medium or governed by cloud turbulence is unknown, as is the effect of magnetic fields on cloud fragmentation at scales of 10 to 0.1 parsecs. Here we report magnetic-field maps inferred from polarimetric observations of NGC 6334, a region forming massive stars, on the 100 to 0.01 parsec scale. NGC 6334 hosts young star-forming sites where fields are not severely affected by stellar feedback, and their directions do not change much over the entire scale range. This means that the fields are dynamically important. The ordered fields lead to a self-similar gas fragmentation: at all scales, there exist elongated gas structures nearly perpendicular to the fields. Many gas elongations have density peaks near the ends, which symmetrically pinch the fields. The field strength is proportional to the 0.4th power of the density, which is an indication of anisotropic gas contractions along the field. We conclude that magnetic fields have a crucial role in the fragmentation of NGC 6334.

  1. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  2. Initial magnetic field compression studies using gas-puff Z-pinches and thin liners on COBRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Concepcion, R. J.; Evans, M. T.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Hoyt, C. L.; Kroupp, E.; Kusse, B. R.; Maron, Y.; Novick, A. S.; Pikuz, S. A.; Qi, N.; Rondeau, G.; Rosenberg, E.; Schrafel, P. C.; Seyler, C. E.; Shelkovenko, T. C.

    2013-08-01

    This magnetic compression of cylindrical liners filled with DT gas has promise as an efficient way to achieve fusion burn using pulsed-power machines. However, to avoid rapid cooling of the fuel by transfer of heat to the liner an axial magnetic field is required. This field has to be compressed during the implosion since the thermal insulation is more demanding as the compressed DT plasma becomes hotter and its volume smaller. This compression of the magnetic field is driven both by the imploding liner and plasma. To highlight how this magnetic field compression by the plasma and liner evolves we have separately studied Z-pinch implosions generated by gas puff and liner loads. The masses of the gas puff and liner loads were adjusted to match COBRA's current rise times. Our results have shown that Ne gas-puff implosions are well described by a snowplow model where electrical currents are predominately localized to the outer surface of the imploding plasma and the magnetic field is external to the imploding plasma. Liner implosions are dominated by the plasma ablation process on the inside surface of the liner and the electrical currents and magnetic fields are advected into the inner plasma volume; the sharp radial gradient associated with the snowplow process is not present.

  3. Coupling of the magnetic field and gas flows in sunspot penumbra inferred from the Hinode/SOT observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shaltout, Abdelrazek Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    Sunspot penumbrae has been an enigmatic region that consists of fine scale filamentary structures harboring conspicuous gas flows known as the Evershed flow in the base of photosphere and the inverse-Evershed flow in higher layer. Recent high resolution observations including those by Hinode/SOT revealed that the penumbral magnetic field is highly fluctuating in its strength and inclination in space, and the geometry is called as interlocking comb structure. There is a strong coupling of the magnetic field and gas flow, i.e., many observational aspects suggest the origin of the sunspot penumbra as the vigorous thermal-convection of plasma under the inclined strong magnetic field of sunspots. However the relation between the magnetic field and gas flow is still an open issue to be settled. A number of observational and theoretical works suggest that the convective hot gas with a large flow speed is associated with a weak field. In this paper, we present an evidence of contradictory relation, i.e., a positive correlation between the field strength and flow velocity in photosphere. The geometry of the inverse-Evershed flow in conjunction with the interlocking magnetic field structure of penumbra is another issue that is not understood. We present an insight on the relation between the magnetic field structure and the inverse-Evershed flow based on the SOT/SP observations.

  4. Improvement of saturation magnetization of Fe nanoparticles by post-annealing in a hydrogen gas atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kin, Masane, E-mail: masane-kin@denso.co.jp; Tanaka, Masaaki; Hayashi, Yasushi; Hasaegawa, Jun [Research Laboratories, DENSO CORPORATION, 500-1, Minamiyama, Komenoki-cho, Nisshin, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Kura, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Tomoyuki [Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Fe nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of Fe(CO){sub 5} and then post-annealing in a hydrogen gas atmosphere to produce highly monodisperse Fe NPs with high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}). The as-synthesized pre-anneal Fe NPs had an expanded α-Fe structure and M{sub s} was only 39% of that for bulk Fe because of the low crystallinity and the inclusion of a surfactant. Post-annealing of the Fe NPs in a hydrogen gas atmosphere at 200 °C improved the crystallinity of the Fe NPs from an amorphous-like structure to a body centered cubic (bcc) structure without any lattice expansion. This result indicates that hydrogen gas plays a significant role in improvement of the crystallinity of Fe NPs. Accompanying the improvement in crystallinity, M{sub s} for the Fe NPs increased from 86 to 190 emu/g{sub net} at 300 K, the values of which include the weight of surfactant. This enhanced M{sub s} is almost the same as that of bulk Fe (218 emu/{sub Fe}). It was concluded that the crystallinity has a significant influence on the M{sub s} of the Fe NPs because long-range ordering of the lattice can maintain strong direct exchange interactions between Fe atoms.

  5. Hypothalamic metabolic compartmentation during appetite regulation as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarbe, Blanca; Benitez, Ania; Peláez Brioso, Gerardo A.; Sánchez-Montañés, Manuel; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main MRI and MRS strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast (BOLD), and Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) have revealed Mn2+ accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions, and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. 1H and 13C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable. PMID:23781199

  6. NMR Field regulation with the PT2026 Teslameter and the RCS Magnet in Building 287

    CERN Document Server

    Patz, Evan; King, Quentin; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2016-01-01

    In the summer of 2016, the TE-EPC group collaborated with Metrolab Technology SA on a project to regulate magnetic field using a new PT2026 NMR teslameter. Tests using a PT2026 NMR teslameter and the results are presented in this paper.

  7. The Cerebellum in Emotion Regulation: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the cerebellum may play a role in the regulation of emotion. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that inhibition of cerebellar function using slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) would lead to increased negative mood as a

  8. Magnetic susceptibility and Landau diamagnetism of a quantum collisional Plasmas with arbitrary degree of degeneration of electronic gas

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic description of magnetic susceptibility and Landau diamagnetism of quantum collisional plasmas with any degeration of electronic gas is given. The correct expression of electric conductivity of quantum collisional plasmas with any degeration of electronic gas (see A. V. Latyshev and A. A. Yushkanov, Transverse electrical conductivity of a quantum collisional plasma in the Mermin approach. - Theor. and Math. Phys., V. 175(1):559-569 (2013)) is used.

  9. The Gas-Filled-Magnet at PRIME Lab: Increased Sensitivity of Cosmogenic Nuclide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffee, M. W.; Granger, D. E.; Woodruff, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), radionuclides produced either by cosmic-ray interactions or by nucleogenic means can be measured. Typical isotopic abundance ratios range from 1 x 10-10 to 1 x 10-15. The routinely measured radionuclides are 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, and 129I. Be-10, 26Al, and 36Cl have isobaric interferences that cannot be eliminated mass through mass analysis, but dE/dx techniques suppresses these isobars enough to allow successful measurements. There are compromises, the isobar for 26Al, 26Mg, precludes successful measurement of 26Al if AlO- is injected into the accelerator. Mg- doesn't form a stable negative ion so a 26Al measurement requires injection of 26Al-. But the Al- ion is formed inefficiently; secondary ion currents using Al- are ~ 10 times less than an AlO- secondary ion beam. Precision scales with count rate so precise measurement of the 26Al/Al for all but higher ratio samples is difficult. It has long been recognized that a gas-filled-magnet (GFM) could potentially improve the measurement of those radionuclides with intractable isobar interferences. A GFM works on the principle that each element of an isobar pair, e.g. 26Mg and 26Al, has a different average charge state as it traverses a gas (3-4 Torr of N2) contained within the vacuum jacket of a magnet. The magnet steers each species with its own momentum-to-charge ratio on its own distinct radius of curvature. The magnet can be tuned to allow the isotope of interest into a dE/dx detector; most of the isobar doesn't make it into the detector. Using the PRIME Lab GFM we are now able to routinely run 26Al with a precision that is comparable to that obtained with 10Be. We are also using the GFM for routine measurements of 10Be and 36Cl. Although the improvement for these nuclides is not as pronounced as it is for 26Al, the GFM has improved the detection sensitivity for both. Our 10Be background is now ~ 5 x 10-16 and for 36Cl we can now run the source more

  10. Interpreting the cosmic far-infrared background anisotropies using a gas regulator model

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Teyssier, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) is a powerful probe of the history of star formation rate and the connection between baryons and dark matter. In this work, we explore to which extent the CFIRB anisotropies can be reproduced by a simple physical framework for galaxy evolution, the gas regulator (bathtub) model. The model is based on continuity equations for gas, stars, and metals, taking into account cosmic gas accretion, star formation, and gas ejection. Our model not only provides a good fit to the CFIRB power spectra measured by Planck, but also agrees well with the correlation between CFIRB and gravitational lensing, far-infrared galaxy number counts, and bolometric infrared luminosity functions. The strong clustering of CFIRB indicates a large galaxy bias, which corresponds to haloes of mass 10^12.5 Msun at z=2; thus, CFIRB favors strong infrared emission in massive haloes, which is higher than the expectation from the star formation rate. We provide constraints and fitting functions for the cosmic...

  11. Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) highlights pricing effects in the US gas value chain: Do we need wellhead price-floor regulation to bail out the unconventional gas industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijermars, Ruud, E-mail: R.Weijermars@TUDelft.nl [Alboran Energy Strategy Consultants and Department of Geotechnology, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The total annual revenue stream in the US natural gas value chain over the past decade is analyzed. Growth of total revenues has been driven by higher wellhead prices, which peaked in 2008. The emergence of the unconventional gas business was made possible in part by the pre-recessional rise in global energy prices. The general rise in natural gas prices between 1998 and 2008 did not lower overall US gas consumption, but shifts have occurred during the past decade in the consumption levels of individual consumer groups. Industry's gas consumption has decreased, while power stations increased their gas consumption. Commercial and residential consumers maintained flat gas consumption patterns. This study introduces the Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) as a tool to calculate and monitor an average retail price based on the different natural gas prices charged to the traditional consumer groups. The WACORG also provides insight in wellhead revenues and may be used as an instrument for calibrating retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. Such price-floor regulation is advocated here as a possible mitigation measure against excessive volatility in US wellhead gas prices to improve the security of gas supply. - Highlights: > This study introduces an average retail price, WACORG. > WACORG can monitor price differentials for the traditional US gas consumer groups. > WACORG also provides insight in US wellhead revenues. > WACORG can calibrate retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. > Gas price-floor can improve security of gas supply by reducing price volatility.

  12. Multiobjective Policy Analysis to Evaluate Air Quality Impacts of Oil and Gas Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, M.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Milford, J.; Ryan, J. N.; Estep, M.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect the public health of communities in proximity to UOGD and the environmental quality of these regions, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is the setback distance, which dictates the minimum distance between an oil and gas well and an occupied structure, such as a residential or commercial building, or an area of special concern. This presentation discusses a new policy analysis framework for UOGD regulations, using the Borg multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) coupled with AERMOD, a regulatory air dispersion model. The initial results explore how setback distance and well density regulations could impact the number of wells that can be drilled, based on a set of performance objectives that model potential increases in benzene, a hazardous air pollutant that has been linked to cancer and other detrimental health effects. The simulation calculates daily benzene averages using meteorological data from Greeley, CO. An important aspect of this work is to define representative quantitative objectives that accurately capture salient characteristics of the pollutant time series. For example, our framework will characterize the maximum concentration found over the entire spatial domain and over the duration of the simulation. Frequency-based objectives will also be explored, such as the number of exceedances of the benchmark annual average benzene concentration corresponding to a given level of cancer risk. The multiobjective analysis can also be expanded to integrate other objectives that represent performance-based outcomes on UOGD such as energy development profits, increases in noise pollution and decreases in property value. This research represents one application of how MOEAs can be used to inform policymaking for environmental regulations.

  13. Development of a Gas Filled Magnet spectrometer coupled with the Lohengrin spectrometer for fission study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Materna T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate knowledge of the fission of actinides is necessary for studies of innovative nuclear reactor concepts. The fission yields have a direct influence on the evaluation of the fuel inventory or the reactor residual power after shutdown. A collaboration between the ILL, LPSC and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at ILL in order to measure the isotopic and isomeric yields. The method is illustrated using the 233U(n,f98Y reaction. However, the extracted beam from the Lohengrin spectrometer is not isobaric ions which limits the low yield measurements. Presently, the coupling of the Lohengrin spectrometer with a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM is studied at the ILL in order to define and validate the enhanced purification of the extracted beam. This work will present the results of the spectrometer characterisation, along with a comparison with a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation especially developed for this purpose.

  14. Gas phase synthesis of core-shell Fe@FeO x magnetic nanoparticles into fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Sitki; Thornton, Stuart C.; Binns, Chris; Denby, Phil

    2016-12-01

    Sorbitol, short chain molecules, have been used to stabilise of Fe@FeO x nanoparticles produced in the gas phase under the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The sorbitol coated Fe@FeO x nanoparticles produced by our method have a narrow size distribution with a hydrodynamic diameter of 35 nm after NaOH is added to the solution. Magnetisation measurement shows that the magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at 100 K and demonstrate hysteresis at 5 K with an anisotropy constant of 5.31 × 104 J/m3 (similar to bulk iron). Also, it is shown that sorbitol is only suitable for stabilising the Fe@FeO x suspensions, and it does not prevent further oxidation of the metallic Fe core. According to MRI measurement, the nanoparticles have a high transverse relaxation rate of 425 mM-1 s-1.

  15. Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations on the U.S. Sugar Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Richard D; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the changes in U.S. sugar production and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from the sugar industry if the United States regulates GHG emissions from domestic sugar processing facilities. A spatial equilibrium model is developed to optimize sugar production in the United States under a base scenario and three different levels of CO2e taxes or prices of carbon offsets. This research focuses on U.S. sugar production, both beet and cane sugar. In the model ...

  16. Second-Life Batteries on a Gas Turbine Power Plant to Provide Area Regulation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluc Canals Casals

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reach a state of health (SoH of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second-life stationary applications. This study analyzes two possible scenarios where batteries may give power and energy support to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant, and how long these batteries may last under different loads.

  17. The regulation of transportation contracts for natural gas: the issue of contractual dirigisme; A regulacao dos contratos de transporte de gas natural: a questao do dirigismo contratual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Lizziane Souza; Siqueira, Mariana; Vasconcellos, Mariana Vannucci [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The old principals that that rules the liberal idea of contract are replaced for a new Theory that allows the State to interfere in the private sector to please the public interest. The Gas Transport Contract has the influence of open access and its public regulation is necessary to provide the most important needs of Brazilian market. After this word about the problem, we realize the meaning of the public intervention on the Transport Contracts to protect the nation's interests and to limit the private power. This paper try to clear the meaning of the contracts regulation to the gas natural market and its influence in a Brazilian interests. (author)

  18. Influence of a magnetic field on the viscosity of a dilute gas consisting of linear molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert; Vesovic, Velisa

    2015-12-07

    The viscomagnetic effect for two linear molecules, N2 and CO2, has been calculated in the dilute-gas limit directly from the most accurate ab initio intermolecular potential energy surfaces presently available. The calculations were performed by means of the classical trajectory method in the temperature range from 70 K to 3000 K for N2 and 100 K to 2000 K for CO2, and agreement with the available experimental data is exceptionally good. Above room temperature, where no experimental data are available, the calculations provide the first quantitative information on the magnitude and the behavior of the viscomagnetic effect for these gases. In the presence of a magnetic field, the viscosities of nitrogen and carbon dioxide decrease by at most 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results demonstrate that the viscomagnetic effect is dominated by the contribution of the jj¯ polarization at all temperatures, which shows that the alignment of the rotational axes of the molecules in the presence of a magnetic field is primarily responsible for the viscomagnetic effect.

  19. Gas vesicles across kingdoms: a comparative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviso, Eugenio; Belenky, Marina; Griffin, Robert G; Herzfeld, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The buoyancy organelles of aquatic microorganisms have to meet stringent specifications: allowing gases to equilibrate freely across the proteinaceous shell, preventing the condensation of water vapor inside the hollow cavity and resisting collapse under hydrostatic pressures that vary with column depth. These properties are provided by the 7- to 8-kDa gas vesicle protein A (GvpA), repeats of which form all but small, specialized portions of the shell. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance is uniquely capable of providing high-resolution information on the fold and assembly of GvpA. Here we compare results for the gas vesicles of the haloarchaea Halobacterium salinarum with those obtained previously for the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. The data suggest that the two organisms follow similar strategies for avoiding water condensation. On the other hand, in its relatively shallow habitat, H. salinarum is able to avoid collapse with a less costly GvpA fold than is adopted by A. flos-aquae.

  20. Committing to coal and gas: Long-term contracts, regulation, and fuel switching in power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Michael

    Fuel switching in the electricity sector has important economic and environmental consequences. In the United States, the increased supply of gas during the last decade has led to substantial switching in the short term. Fuel switching is constrained, however, by the existing infrastructure. The power generation infrastructure, in turn, represents commitments to specific sources of energy over the long term. This dissertation explores fuel contracts as the link between short-term price response and long-term plant investments. Contracting choices enable power plant investments that are relationship-specific, often regulated, and face uncertainty. Many power plants are subject to both hold-up in investment and cost-of-service regulation. I find that capital bias is robust when considering either irreversibility or hold-up due to the uncertain arrival of an outside option. For sunk capital, the rental rate is inappropriate for determining capital bias. Instead, capital bias depends on the regulated rate of return, discount rate, and depreciation schedule. If policies such as emissions regulations increase fuel-switching flexibility, this can lead to capital bias. Cost-of-service regulation can shorten the duration of a long-term contract. From the firm's perspective, the existing literature provides limited guidance when bargaining and writing contracts for fuel procurement. I develop a stochastic programming framework to optimize long-term contracting decisions under both endogenous and exogenous sources of hold-up risk. These typically include policy changes, price shocks, availability of fuel, and volatility in derived demand. For price risks, the optimal contract duration is the moment when the expected benefits of the contract are just outweighed by the expected opportunity costs of remaining in the contract. I prove that imposing early renegotiation costs decreases contract duration. Finally, I provide an empirical approach to show how coal contracts can limit

  1. Preparation of cold ions in strong magnetic field and its application to gas-phase NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuke, K., E-mail: fuke@kobe-u.ac.jp [Institute for Molecular Science (Japan); Ohshima, Y. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Tona, M. [Ayabo Co. Fukukama (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique is widely used as a powerful tool to study the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, this technique is limited to the materials in condensed phases. To extend this technique to the gas-phase molecular ions, we are developing a gas-phase NMR apparatus. In this note, we describe the basic principle of the NMR detection for molecular ions in the gas phase based on a Stern-Gerlach type experiment in a Penning trap and outline the apparatus under development. We also present the experimental procedures and the results on the formation and the manipulation of cold ions under a strong magnetic field, which are the key techniques to detect the NMR by the present method.

  2. Preparation of cold ions in strong magnetic field and its application to gas-phase NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, K.; Ohshima, Y.; Tona, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique is widely used as a powerful tool to study the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, this technique is limited to the materials in condensed phases. To extend this technique to the gas-phase molecular ions, we are developing a gas-phase NMR apparatus. In this note, we describe the basic principle of the NMR detection for molecular ions in the gas phase based on a Stern-Gerlach type experiment in a Penning trap and outline the apparatus under development. We also present the experimental procedures and the results on the formation and the manipulation of cold ions under a strong magnetic field, which are the key techniques to detect the NMR by the present method.

  3. Magnetically-regulated fragmentation of a massive, dense and turbulent clump

    CERN Document Server

    Fontani, F; Giannetti, A; Beltrán, M T; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Testi, L; Brand, J; Caselli, P; Cesaroni, R; Dodson, R; Longmore, S; Rioja, M; Tan, J C; Walmsley, C M

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars, multiple stellar systems and clusters are born from the gravitational collapse of massive dense gaseous clumps, and the way these systems form strongly depends on how the parent clump fragments into cores during collapse. Numerical simulations show that magnetic fields may be the key ingredient in regulating fragmentation. Here we present ALMA observations at ~0.25'' resolution of the thermal dust continuum emission at ~278 GHz towards a turbulent, dense, and massive clump, IRAS 16061-5048c1, in a very early evolutionary stage. The ALMA image shows that the clump has fragmented into many cores along a filamentary structure. We find that the number, the total mass and the spatial distribution of the fragments are consistent with fragmentation dominated by a strong magnetic field. Our observations support the theoretical prediction that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in the fragmentation process of massive turbulent clump.

  4. Magnetic flux density from the relative circular motion of stars and partially ionized gas in the Galaxy mid-plane vicinity

    CERN Document Server

    Jałocha, Joanna; Pękala, Jan; Sikora, Szymon; Kutschera, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Observations suggest a slower stellar rotation relative to gas rotation in the outer part of the Milky Way Galaxy. This difference could be attributed to an interaction with the interstellar magnetic field. In a simple model, fields of order 10 micro Gauss are then required, consistently with the observed values. This coincidence suggests a tool for estimating magnetic fields in spiral galaxies. A North-South asymmetry in the rotation of gas in the Galaxy could be of magnetic origin too.

  5. Magnetic Properties of Oil-gas-bearing Rocks of The Central Part of Dniper-donetsk Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuderavets, R.; Maksymchuk, V.; Gorodisky, Y.

    Small amplitude positive local delta F anomalies were revealed by the results of high- accuracy magnetic prospecting in the Dniper-Donets trought over a series of oil-gas- bearing structures. Their nature can be explained by lithofacial and epigenetic rock magnetic variations in the oxidized-reduced zones of carbon deposits. Though, there is no trustable experimental data on magnetic properties of rocks in these zones. To study peculiarities of lateral and vertical magnetic perceptability, mineral rock com- position distribution within oil-gas-bearing areas in Dniper-Donetsk trough a series of investigations of these characteristics have been conducted for productive and un- productive holes. In general, the magnetic perceptability of core from 19 holes, near oil-gas deposits and far from theirs as well were determined. A statistic analysis of the obfained cappa values was done, rock mineral composition in some holes was de- termined. The results make it possible to conclude: 1. The cut is composed mainly of terrigenous rocks and is characterized by a slight differentiation by the magnetic perceptability (0-150x10E-5Si) 2. Small values of rock magnetic perceptability (1- 3x10E-5Si) and dispersion for low Visean substage of low carbon with which oil-gas- bearing of the region under study is closely connected were determined. 3. Statistic analysis proved the existence of some types of cappa distribution within the hole in particular it differs within productive and unproductive formations. 4. Larger values of cappa and their dispersion in comparison with analogical deposits in productive formations, were revealed. 5. A series of secondary epigenic minerals: quartz, kaoli- nite, aragonite, ankerite, dolomite, pirite, hematite, siderite was determined in the de- posit zone and out of it. The largest amount of ironminerals (ankerite, pirite, hematite, siderite) was found in terrigeneous rocks (argillite) located over and under carbon de- posits. The analysis of the

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  7. Analysis of Magnetism in High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel and Its Elimination by High Temperature Gas Nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wan; Yibin Ren; Bingchun Zhang; Ke Yang

    2011-01-01

    Stable austenitic structure in medical stainless steels is basically required for surgical implantation. A weak magnetism was found in a high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel for cardiovascular stent application. This magnetic behavior in high nitrogen stainless steel was investigated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The results showed that the magnetism came from the composition segregation of ferrite formation elements such as Cr and Mo in the steel and some δ-ferrites were locally formed during the pressurized electroslag remelting process. The magnetism of high nitrogen stainless steel could be eliminated by a proper high temperature gas nitriding (HTGN).

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of Original Water Saturation and Mobile Water Saturation in Low Permeability Sandstone Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shu-Sheng; YE Li-You; XIONG Wei; GUO He-Kun; HU Zhi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ We use nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR)and centrifugation to measure the original water saturation and mobile water saturation of cores from the Xujiahe low permeability sandstone gas reservoir,and compare the NMR results with the corresponding field data.It is shown that the NMR water saturation after 300 psi centrifugation effectively represents the original water saturation measured by weighing fresh cores.There is a good correlation between mobile water saturation and the water production performance of the corresponding gas wells.The critical mobile water saturation whether reservoir produces water of the Xujiahe low permeability sandstone gas is 6%.The higher the mobile water saturation,the greater the water production rate of gas well.This indicates that well's water production performance can be forecasted by mobile water saturation of cores.

  9. Magnetic resonance studies of jets in a gas-solid fluidised bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meenal Pore; Lynn F. Gladden; John S. Dennis; Thusara C. Chandrasekera; Daniel J. Holland; Aining Wang; Fei Wang; Qussai Marashdeh; Michael D. Mantle; Andrew J. Sederman; Liang-Shih Fan

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to study the behaviour of jets at the distributor of a 50 mm diameter fluidised bed of 0.5 mm diameter poppy seeds.Two perforated-plate distributors were examined,containing either 10 or 14 holes,each 1 mm diameter.Ultra-fast MR imaging was able to show the transient nature of the upper parts of the jets,where discrete bubbles are formed.Imaging in 3D showed that the central jets were the longest for flow rates below minimum fluidisation.Above minimum fluidisation,the outer jets,nearest the wall of the fluidised bed,arched inward towards the central axis.In this latter case,interpretation of the time-averaged 3D image required the use of ultra-fast MR imaging to identify the approximate height above the distributor at which discrete bubbles were formed.The apparently continuous void extending along the central axis above this height in the time-averaged 3D image was thus identified,using ultra-fast MR imaging,as representing the averaged paths of released bubbles.Time-averaged MR velocity mapping was also used to identify dead zones of stationary particles resting on the distributor between the jets.The dead zones could be observed when the superficial velocity of the gas approached minimum fluidisation,but they were smaller than those observed at lower gas superficial velocity.Comparable images of a single jet through 1.2 mm diameter poppy seeds from MRI and electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) are also demonstrated.

  10. Experimental validation of advanced regulations for superconducting magnet cooling undergoing periodic heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Hoa, C.; Bonnay, P.

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting magnets used in tokamaks undergo periodic heat load caused by cycling plasma operations inducing AC losses, neutrons fluxes and eddy currents in magnet structures. In the cryogenic system of JT60-SA tokamak, the Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) distributes helium from the refrigerator to the cryogenic users and in particular to the superconducting magnets. ACB comprises a saturated helium bath with immersed heat exchangers, extracting heat from independent cooling loops. The supercritical helium flow in each cooling loop is driven by a cold circulator. In order to safely operate the refrigerator during plasma pulses, the interface between the ACB and the refrigerator shall be as stable as possible, with well-balanced bath inlet and outlet mass flows during cycling operation. The solution presented in this paper relies on a combination of regulations to smooth pulsed heat loads and to keep a constant refrigeration power during all the cycle. Two smoothing strategies are presented, both regulating the outlet mass flow of the bath: the first one using the bath as a thermal buffer and the second one storing energy in the loop by varying the cold circulator speed. The bath outlet mass flow is also controlled by an immersed resistive heater which enables a constant evaporation rate in the bath when power coming from the loops is decreasing. The refrigeration power is controlled so that the compensating power remains within an acceptable margin. Experimental validation is achieved using the HELIOS facility. This facility running at CEA Grenoble since 2010 is a scaled down model of the ACB bath and Central Solenoid magnet cooling loop of the JT60-SA tokamak. Test results show performances and robustness of the regulations.

  11. Experimental validation of advanced regulations for superconducting magnet cooling undergoing periodic heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Hoa, C.; Bonnay, P. [CEA Grenoble INAC/SBT, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-01-29

    Superconducting magnets used in tokamaks undergo periodic heat load caused by cycling plasma operations inducing AC losses, neutrons fluxes and eddy currents in magnet structures. In the cryogenic system of JT60-SA tokamak, the Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) distributes helium from the refrigerator to the cryogenic users and in particular to the superconducting magnets. ACB comprises a saturated helium bath with immersed heat exchangers, extracting heat from independent cooling loops. The supercritical helium flow in each cooling loop is driven by a cold circulator. In order to safely operate the refrigerator during plasma pulses, the interface between the ACB and the refrigerator shall be as stable as possible, with well-balanced bath inlet and outlet mass flows during cycling operation. The solution presented in this paper relies on a combination of regulations to smooth pulsed heat loads and to keep a constant refrigeration power during all the cycle. Two smoothing strategies are presented, both regulating the outlet mass flow of the bath: the first one using the bath as a thermal buffer and the second one storing energy in the loop by varying the cold circulator speed. The bath outlet mass flow is also controlled by an immersed resistive heater which enables a constant evaporation rate in the bath when power coming from the loops is decreasing. The refrigeration power is controlled so that the compensating power remains within an acceptable margin. Experimental validation is achieved using the HELIOS facility. This facility running at CEA Grenoble since 2010 is a scaled down model of the ACB bath and Central Solenoid magnet cooling loop of the JT60-SA tokamak. Test results show performances and robustness of the regulations.

  12. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre... season for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being hosted by the Alaska... capacity on Alaskan natural gas transportation projects. Both Denali--The Alaska Gas Pipeline LLC and Trans...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of velocity fields, the void fraction and gas dynamics in a cavitating liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastikhin, Igor V.; Arbabi, Aidin; Newling, Benedict; Hamza, Abdelhaq; Adair, Alexander [University of New Brunswick, UNB MRI Centre, Department of Physics, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    In acoustic cavitation, the relationship between the bubble dynamics on the microscale and the flow properties on the macroscale is critical in determining sonochemical reaction kinetics. A new technique was developed to measure the void fraction and estimate water mobility in the vicinity of cavitating bubbles using phase-encoded magnetic resonance imaging with short characteristic measurement timescales (0.1-1 ms). The exponential behavior of the NMR signal decay indicated the fast diffusion regime, with the relationship between local mechanical dispersion D{sub mix} and the average bubble radius R, D{sub mix}>>(2R{sup 2})/(10{sup -4}s), resulting in dispersion of orders of magnitude greater than diffusion in quiescent water. For two different samples (water and a surfactant solution), the independent measurements of three-dimensional void fraction and velocity fields permitted the calculation of compressibility, divergence and vorticity of the cavitating medium. The measured dynamics of the dissolved gas, compared with that of the surrounding liquid, reflected the difference in the bubble coalescence and lifetimes and correlated with the macroscopic flow parameters. (orig.)

  14. Change of Magnetic Field$-$Gas Alignment at Gravity-Driven Alfv\\'enic Transition in Molecular Clouds: Implications for Dust Polarization Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Che-Yu; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse striations in molecular clouds are preferentially aligned with local magnetic fields whereas dense filaments tend to be perpendicular to them. When and why this transition occurs remain uncertain. To explore the physics behind this transition, we compute the histogram of relative orientation (HRO) between the density gradient and the magnetic field in 3D MHD simulations of prestellar core formation in shock-compressed regions within GMCs. We find that, in the magnetically-dominated (sub-Alfv\\'enic) post-shock region, the gas structure is preferentially aligned with the local magnetic field. For overdense sub-regions with super-Alfv\\'enic gas, their elongation becomes preferentially perpendicular to the local magnetic field instead. The transition occurs when self-gravitating gas gains enough kinetic energy from the gravitational acceleration to overcome the magnetic support against the cross-field contraction, which results in a power-law increase of the field strength with density. Similar results ca...

  15. Forbearance, Regulation, and Market Power in Natural Gas Storage: The Case of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.; Ware, R.; Wetston, H.

    2007-07-01

    In late 2006 the Ontario Energy Board rendered a landmark decision to forbear from the price regulation of natural gas storage services. This paper examines the key issues and provides some economic analysis of the evidence. The decision followed a proceeding during which evidence was given on whether the market for storage is competitive or is subject to significant market power possessed by dominant and incumbent utility firms in the province. Intervenors in the proceeding were in broad agreement on the use of standard concepts from North American antitrust analysis of merger reviews: identification of the relevant product and geographic markets, analysis of market structure within the relevant market, and assessment of barriers to entry. A critical issue at the hearing was the extent of the geographic market; a broad market encompassing U.S. storage facilities in neighbouring states supports a finding of competition, whereas a narrower geographic market restricted to Ontario makes market power more likely. Since gas storage is only as functional as the pipelines connected to it, evidence was directed at assessing the availability of pipeline capacity in both primary and secondary markets. (auth)

  16. GAS6 is a key homeostatic immunological regulator of host-commensal interactions in the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Maria; Tabib, Yaara; Capucha, Tal; Mizraji, Gabriel; Nir, Tsipora; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Heyman, Oded; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Bercovier, Herve; Wilensky, Asaf; Elinav, Eran; Burstyn-Cohen, Tal; Hovav, Avi-Hai

    2017-01-17

    The oral epithelium contributes to innate immunity and oral mucosal homeostasis, which is critical for preventing local inflammation and the associated adverse systemic conditions. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the oral epithelium maintains homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of growth arrest specific 6 (GAS6), a ligand of the TYRO3-AXL-MERTK (TAM) receptor family, in regulating oral mucosal homeostasis. Expression of GAS6 was restricted to the outer layers of the oral epithelium. In contrast to protein S, the other TAM ligand, which was constitutively expressed postnatally, expression of GAS6 initiated only 3-4 wk after birth. Further analysis revealed that GAS6 expression was induced by the oral microbiota in a myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent fashion. Mice lacking GAS6 presented higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, elevated frequencies of neutrophils, and up-regulated activity of enzymes, generating reactive nitrogen species. We also found an imbalance in Th17/Treg ratio known to control tissue homeostasis, as Gas6-deficient dendritic cells preferentially secreted IL-6 and induced Th17 cells. As a result of this immunological shift, a significant microbial dysbiosis was observed in Gas6(-/-) mice, because anaerobic bacteria largely expanded by using inflammatory byproducts for anaerobic respiration. Using chimeric mice, we found a critical role for GAS6 in epithelial cells in maintaining oral homeostasis, whereas its absence in hematopoietic cells synergized the level of dysbiosis. We thus propose GAS6 as a key immunological regulator of host-commensal interactions in the oral epithelium.

  17. Diesel and gas engines: evolution facing new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daverat, Ph. [Bergetat Monnoyeur (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the influence of new pollution regulations on the new design of diesel and gas engines with the example of Caterpillar`s experience, one of the leaders of diesel and gas engines manufacturers worldwide. The technical problems to solve are introduced first (reduction of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, unburned compounds and dusts), and then the evolution of engines and of exhaust gas treatment systems are described (fuel injection systems, combustion and ignition control, sensors, catalytic conversion and filtering systems). (J.S.)

  18. New regulations, combustion, environment: responses for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction Commerciale

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French regulations concerning low- to medium-power combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on natural gas fired boilers, are discussed: lower pollutant emission limits are set for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes. The decree gives new regulations concerning plant location, combustion control systems, plant monitoring and maintenance, and air pollution control measures such as chimney stack height and emission limits. The French national gas utility promotes environmental high performance boilers

  19. Three-dimensional simulations of molecular cloud fragmentation regulated by magnetic fields and ambipolar diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kudoh, Takahiro; Ogata, Youichi; Yabe, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We employ the first fully three-dimensional simulation to study the role of magnetic fields and ion-neutral friction in regulating gravitationally-driven fragmentation of molecular clouds. The cores in an initially subcritical cloud develop gradually over an ambipolar diffusion time while the cores in an initially supercritical cloud develop in a dynamical time. The infall speeds on to cores are subsonic in the case of an initially subcritical cloud, while an extended (\\ga 0.1 pc) region of supersonic infall exists in the case of an initially supercritical cloud. These results are consistent with previous two-dimensional simulations. We also found that a snapshot of the relation between density (rho) and the strength of the magnetic field (B) at different spatial points of the cloud coincides with the evolutionary track of an individual core. When the density becomes large, both relations tend to B \\propto \\rho^{0.5}.

  20. Electron gas interacting in a metal, submitted to a strong magnetic field; Gas de eletrons interagentes num metal, sujeito a um campo magnetico forte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, Francisco Castilho

    1977-07-01

    Using the propagator's technique in the grand ensemble developed by Montroll and Ward we investigate the magnetic properties of an interacting electron gas in a strong magnetic field. The free propagator properly constructed shows that the spin paramagnetism does not have a term with strong temperature dependence, contrary to the result of Isihara. Considering the electron density to be constant, the dHVA oscillations in the magnetic susceptibility and sound velocity, considering the effects of first exchange interactions, show only one phase in agreement with experimental result, while Ichimura and Isihara obtained two phases differing by {pi}/2. The effects of first order exchange interactions in the dHVA oscillations of the magnetic susceptibility and sound velocity give rise to an exponential factor in the amplitudes of oscillator (Dingle factor), being the Dingle temperature linearly dependent of the Fermi velocity. The calculations of the ring diagram contribution to the grand partition function, show that the approximation used by Isihara for this calculations is not good and the dHVA oscillations of the contributions from the ring diagrams for the grand partition function have a phase differing by {pi}/2 from that obtained by Isihara. (author)

  1. Gasotransmitters are emerging as new guard cell signaling molecules and regulators of leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mata, Carlos; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2013-03-01

    Specialized guard cells modulate plant gas exchange through the regulation of stomatal aperture. The size of the stomatal pore is a direct function of the volume of the guard cells. The transport of solutes across channels in plasma membrane is a crucial process in the maintenance of guard cell water status. The fine tuned regulation of that transport requires an integrated convergence of multiple endogenous and exogenous signals perceived at both the cellular and the whole plant level. Gasotransmitters are novel signaling molecules with key functions in guard cell physiology. Three gasotransmitters, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) are involved in guard cell regulatory processes. These molecules are endogenously produced by plant cells and are part of the guard cells responses to drought stress conditions through ABA-dependent pathways. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gasotransmitters as versatile molecules interacting with different components of guard cell signaling network and propose them as players in new paradigms to study ABA-independent guard cell responses to water deficit.

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  3. Antibody-integrated and functionalized graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, produced using ammonia gas plasma technology, for capturing Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella spp. is the single and most important causative agent of foodborne infections, especially involving foods such as eggs, milk and meat. To prevent infection, a reliable surveillance system is required that can quickly and sensitively detect Salmonella. Here, we describe the development of antibody-integrated magnetic beads that are functionalized by a novel strategy using ammonia gas plasma. Ammonia plasma, produced by a radio frequency (RF) power supply, was allowed to react with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, resulting in the introduction of amino groups. An anti-Salmonella antibody was then anchored by sulfide groups present on the protein surface to the amino groups of the magnetic beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The potential usefulness of these magnetic beads for capturing Salmonella was examined as follows. The beads were incubated with Salmonella in liquid medium and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thorough washing, adsorption of Salmonella to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction and a direct culture assay. Our findings indicate that the capture and concentration of Salmonella using the antibody-integrated magnetic beads was more efficient than commercial Dynabeads® anti-Salmonella, which are conventionally used for concentrating Salmonella from liquid cultures. We believe this novel bead technology will contribute to the enhanced detection of Salmonella. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon capture and storage: a novel technique for reducing greenhouse gas emissions regulated by the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Íñigo Sanz Rubiles

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with main aspects of a novel technique for carbon dioxide capture and storage released by large combustion plants. Since this novel technique has become essential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it has been regulated by the European Union through the Directive number 2009/31. Therefore, acknowledging relevant legal aspects for regulation, suchas: mandatory, exploration permits, storage among others, the focus has been pointed out on responsibilities and guarantees re...

  5. Carbon capture and storage: a novel technique for reducing greenhouse gas emissions regulated by the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo Sanz Rubiles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with main aspects of a novel technique for carbon dioxide capture and storage released by large combustion plants. Since this novel technique has become essential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it has been regulated by the European Union through the Directive number 2009/31. Therefore, acknowledging relevant legal aspects for regulation, suchas: mandatory, exploration permits, storage among others, the focus has been pointed out on responsibilities and guarantees regime.

  6. Effect of a transverse magnetic field on the generation of electron beams in the gas-filled diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. H.; Burachenko, A. G.; Erofeev, M. V.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2008-06-01

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field (0.080 and 0.016 T) on generation of an electron beam in the gas-filled diode is experimentally investigated. It is shown that, at voltage U = 25 kV across the diode and a low helium pressure (45 Torr), the transverse magnetic field influences the beam current amplitude behind a foil and its distribution over the foil cross section. At elevated pressures and under the conditions of ultrashort avalanche electron beam formation in helium, nitrogen, and air, the transverse magnetic field (0.080 and 0.016 T) has a minor effect on the amplitude and duration of the beam behind the foil. It is established that, when the voltage of the pulse generator reaches several hundreds of kilovolts, some runaway electrons (including the electrons from the discharge plasma near the cathode) are incident on the side walls of the diode.

  7. Two dimensional electron gas confined over a spherical surface: Magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, A; Crespo, P [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-CSIC-ADIF, Las Rozas. P. O. Box 155, Madrid 28230 (Spain) and Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense (Spain); Garcia, M A, E-mail: antonio.hernando@adif.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC c/Kelsen, 5 Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2011-04-01

    Magnetism of capped nanoparticles, NPs, of non-magnetic substances as Au and ZnO is briefly reviewed. The source of the magnetization is discussed on the light of recent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments. As magnetic dichroism analysis has pointed out impurity atoms bonded to the surface act as donor or acceptor of electrons that occupy the surface states. It is proposed that mesoscopic collective orbital magnetic moments induced at the surface states can account for the experimental magnetism characteristic of these nanoparticles. The total magnetic moment of the surface originated at the unfilled Fermi level can reach values as large as 10{sup 2} or 10{sup 3} Bohr magnetons.

  8. Characteristics of the nuclear magnetic resonance logging response in fracture oil and gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Lizhi; Li Kui, E-mail: xiaolizhi@cup.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Fracture oil and gas reservoirs exist in large numbers. The accurate logging evaluation of fracture reservoirs has puzzled petroleum geologists for a long time. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging is an effective new technology for borehole measurement and formation evaluation. It has been widely applied in non-fracture reservoirs, and good results have been obtained. But its application in fracture reservoirs has rarely been reported in the literature. This paper studies systematically the impact of fracture parameters (width, number, angle, etc), the instrument parameter (antenna length) and the borehole condition (type of drilling fluid) on NMR logging by establishing the equation of the NMR logging response in fracture reservoirs. First, the relationship between the transverse relaxation time of fluid-saturated fracture and fracture aperture in the condition of different transverse surface relaxation rates was analyzed; then, the impact of the fracture aperture, dip angle, length of two kinds of antennas and mud type was calculated through forward modeling and inversion. The results show that the existence of fractures affects the NMR logging; the characteristics of the NMR logging response become more obvious with increasing fracture aperture and number of fractures. It is also found that T{sub 2} distribution from the fracture reservoir will be affected by echo spacing, type of drilling fluids and length of antennas. A long echo spacing is more sensitive to the type of drilling fluid. A short antenna is more effective for identifying fractures. In addition, the impact of fracture dip angle on NMR logging is affected by the antenna length.

  9. INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODES OF MAGNETIC-ELECTRIC GRINDING ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF GAS-THERMAL SPRAYED NI–CR–B–SI-COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Spiridonov; M. V. Niaroda; I. O. Sokorov; A. A. Barkun

    2009-01-01

    Influence of technological modes of magnetic-electric grinding on structural changes in a surface layer of gas-thermal sprayed coatings is investigated in the paper. The paper presents optimum modes of  coating roughing and finishing processes.

  10. Identification and regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases Rse and Mer and their ligand Gas6 in testicular somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M C; Mather, J P; McCray, G; Lee, W M

    2000-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases act to convey extracellular signals to intracellular signaling pathways and ultimately control cell proliferation and differentiation. Rse, Axl, and Mer belong to a newly identified family of cell adhesion molecule-related receptor tyrosine kinase. They bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), which is also structurally related to the anticoagulation factor Protein S. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible role of Rse/Axl/Mer tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligand in regulating testicular functions. Gene expression of Rse, Axl, Mer, and Gas6 in the testis was studied by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analysis. The results indicated that receptors Rse and Mer and the ligand Gas6 were expressed in the rat endothelial cell line (TR1), mouse Leydig cell line (TM3), rat peritubular myoid cell line (TRM), mouse Sertoli cell line (TM4), and primary rat Sertoli cells. Axl was not expressed in the testicular somatic cells by RT-PCR or Northern blot analysis. The highest level of expression of Gas6 messenger RNA (mRNA) was observed in the Sertoli cells, and its expression was responsive to the addition of forskolin in vitro. The effects of serum, insulin, and transferrin on Gas6 expression by TM4 cells were examined. It was shown that they all exhibited an up-regulating effect on Gas6 expression. The forskolin-stimulated Gas6 expression was accompanied by an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rse receptor in vitro, suggesting that Gas6 may exhibit an autocrine effect in the Sertoli cells through multiple tyrosine kinase receptors. Our studies so far have demonstrated that tyrosine kinase receptors Rse and Mer and their ligand Gas6 are widely expressed in the testicular somatic cell lines and may play a marked role in promoting testicular cell survival.

  11. Health Impact Assessments, Regulation, and the Unconventional Gas Industry in the UK: Exploiting Resources, Ideology, and Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2016-02-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) across the globe may be used by governments and industries to secure approval for unconventional gas extraction developments. HIA is an umbrella term that covers an array of health review and assessment practices, ranging from the very general to quite specific and technical health studies. Our concern in this paper is principally with the specialist end of the HIA continuum and particularly its application to unconventional gas extraction in the UK. We outline the context within which HIAs in unconventional gas extraction may be conducted. We then explain what HIAs may do. HIAs are often commissioned from consultancy companies to assess unconventional gas extraction project risks and benefits and propose mitigation measures. Communities can rarely afford HIAs in the planning process and may consider them biased when commissioned by vested interests. The oil and gas industry uses these techniques for its own ends. Hiring experts, be they specialist consultants, researchers, lobbyists, ex-government officials, or regulators, to influence planning and regulation is a well-tried tactic and structural advantage exploited by industry in seeking license to operate. Equitable and ethical HIA principles are urgently needed in the UK in relation to unconventional gas to secure the integrity and probity of the emerging regulatory system and address concerns regarding unregulated practitioners.

  12. Thermal regulation of methane hydrate dissociation: Implications for gas production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal self-regulation of methane hydrate dissociation at pressure, temperature conditions along phase boundaries, illustrated by experiment in this report, is a significant effect with potential relevance to gas production from gas hydrate. In surroundings maintained at temperatures above the ice melting point, the temperature in the vicinity of dissociating methane hydrate will decrease because heat flow is insufficient to balance the heat absorbed by the endothermic reaction: CH4??nH2O (s) = CH4 (g) + nH2O (l). Temperature decreases until either all of the hydrate dissociates or a phase boundary is reached. At pressures above the quadruple point, the temperature-limiting phase boundary is that of the dissociation reaction itself. At lower pressures, the minimum temperature is limited by the H2O solid/liquid boundary. This change in the temperature-limiting phase boundary constrains the pressure, temperature conditions of the quadruple point for the CH4-H2O system to 2.55 ?? 0.02 MPa and 272.85 ?? 0.03 K. At pressures below the quadruple point, hydrate dissociation proceeds as the liquid H2O produced by dissociation freezes. In the laboratory experiments, dissociation is not impeded by the formation of ice byproduct per se; instead rates are proportional to the heat flow from the surroundings. This is in contrast to the extremely slow dissociation rates observed when surrounding temperatures are below the H2O solid/liquid boundary, where no liquid water is present. This "anomalous" or "self" preservation behavior, most pronounced near 268 K, cannot be accessed when surrounding temperatures are above the H2O solid/liquid boundary. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  13. Technical and Economical Analysis of Regulation Methods for Intermediate Steam Over-Heating in Gas and Fuel Oil Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Various methods for temperature regulation of intermediate steam over-heating have been investigated. The most economical method, namely, smoke gas recirculation with regular water sprinkling from ПВД-8 drain has been selected in the paper.

  14. A new numerical method to solve modified Reynolds equation for magnetic head/disk working in ultra-thin gas films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howard; H; HU

    2008-01-01

    The modified Reynolds equation for ultra-thin gas films between magnetic head and disk assembly is difficult to solve with conventional numerical methods, since the bearing number is very large and there exist boundary layers where pressure changes rapidly. An iterative finite difference algorithm is introduced to solve the nonlinear modified Reynolds equation, with special treatment for the abrupt change in the thickness of the gas film. The numerical results for two types of magnetic heads demonstrate that the scheme is effective.

  15. The cerebellum in emotion regulation: a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; van Honk, Jack

    2009-03-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the cerebellum may play a role in the regulation of emotion. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that inhibition of cerebellar function using slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) would lead to increased negative mood as a result of impaired emotion regulation. In a randomized counterbalanced within-subjects design, 12 healthy young right-handed volunteers received 20 min of cerebellar, occipital, or sham 1 Hz rTMS on three separate days. Mood state inventories were acquired prior to and immediately after rTMS and after an emotion regulation task (ERT). In the ERT, participants were instructed to either look at aversive and neutral scenes, or to suppress the negative feelings experienced while watching aversive scenes during which the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Results showing no changes in baseline-corrected mood were observed immediately after rTMS. However, significant increases in baseline-corrected negative mood following the ERT were reported after cerebellar rTMS exclusively. No effects on the EEG during the ERT were observed. These findings provide support for the view that the cerebellum is implicated in the regulation of emotion and mood, and concur with evidence of cerebellar abnormalities observed in disorders associated with emotion dysregulation. In order to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms involved, more research is needed.

  16. Improvements in emotion regulation following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Assaf, Michal; Goethe, John W; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Tolin, David F

    2016-10-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by emotion regulation difficulties, which are associated with abnormalities in neural circuits encompassing fronto-limbic regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aim of this study was to determine whether DLPFC neuromodulation improves emotion regulation in patients with GAD. This is a secondary analysis from a randomized-controlled trial comparing 30 sessions of low-frequency right-sided active (n=13) versus sham (n=12, sham coil) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at the right DLPFC in patients with GAD. Results indicated statistically significant improvements in self-reported emotion regulation difficulties at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up in the active group only. Improvements were found primarily in the domains of goal-directed behaviors and impulse control and were significantly associated with a global clinician rating of improvement. These preliminary results support rTMS as a treatment for GAD and suggest improved emotion regulation as a possible mechanism of change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing Oil and Gas Resources On or Near Indigenous Lands in Canada: An Overview of Laws, Treaties, Regulations and Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wright

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of resources on and near Indigenous territories has many potential benefits including employment creation, wealth sharing, and improved service delivery. However, the development of oil and gas resources can also lead to economic inequality, displacement, loss of traditional lifestyles, and significant environmental damage. This paper is a review of the how oil and gas development on Indigenous lands and traditional territories has been regulated in Canada to balance these benefits and risks. Some of the legislation discussed include the Indian Oil and Gas Act, the First Nations Oil and Gas and Moneys Management Act, the Umbrella Final Agreement in the Canadian North, as well as unregulated impact benefit agreements between First Nations and industry. These regimes and others are examined in terms of their provisions for environmental protection and meaningful Aboriginal consultation, and is intended to inform discussions on how to improve the policy approach to resource development.

  18. Significant contribution from foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange in Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; McAdam, Scott A M; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    The complex regulatory system controlling stomata involves physical and chemical signals that affect guard cell turgor to bring about changes in stomatal conductance (gs). Abscisic acid (ABA) closes stomata, yet the mechanisms controlling foliar ABA status in tree species remain unclear. The importance of foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange was evaluated under treatments that affected phloem export through girdling and reduced water availability in the tree species, Pinus radiata (D. Don). Branch- and whole-plant girdling increased foliar ABA levels leading to declines in gs, despite no change in plant water status. Changes in gs were largely independent of the more transient increases in foliar non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), suggesting that gradual accumulation of foliar ABA was the primary mechanism for reductions in gs and assimilation. Whole-plant girdling eventually reduced root NSC, hindering root water uptake and decreasing foliar water potential, causing a dramatic increase in ABA level in leaves and concentrations in the xylem sap of shoots (4032 ng ml-1), while root xylem sap concentrations remained low (43 ng ml-1). Contrastingly, the drought treatment caused similar increases in xylem sap ABA in both roots and shoots, suggesting that declines in water potential result in relatively consistent changes in ABA along the hydraulic pathway. ABA levels in plant canopies can be regulated independently of changes in root water status triggered by changes by both phloem export and foliar water status. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Diagenesis of magnetic minerals in a gas hydrate/cold seep environment off the Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Basavaiah, N.; Badesab, F.K.; Usapkar, A.; Mazumdar, A.; Joshi, R.; Ramprasad, T.

    Detailed magnetic measurements of the core (MD161/8) located in the vicinity of Site NGHP-01-10 was carried out, where approx. 128 m of hydrate is confirmed by drilling/coring, to understand the diagenesis of magnetic minerals in a gas hydrates...

  20. Effects of anisotropy and magnetic fields on the specific heat of a quasi-two-dimensional Boltzmann gas in an elliptical parabolic quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Zhi-Yuan; Li Yu-Qi; Pan Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects due to anisotropy and magnetic field interaction for a quasi-two-dimensional Boltzmann gas in an elliptical parabolic quantum dot.The specific heat is studied with varying temperature,anisotropy,and magnetic field strength.The cases without and with the inclusion of the spin Zeeman interaction are considered.

  1. The Magnetization of Free Electron Gas for the Entireregimes%广义电子气体的磁化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆军; 朱春花; 吕国梁

    2014-01-01

    电子气体磁化是热力学与统计物理等学科教学中经常采用的理论应用方面的范例。就广义电子气体的磁化展开讨论,涵盖了从经典到量子、从简并到非简并、从非相对论到相对论、从弱场到强场等的许多范围,对学生掌握概念、体会物理理论的使用范围等方面具有很好的示范作用。其中相对论电子气体磁化的结果来自作者的科研成果,没有详细论述,可参阅文中所列举的参考文献进行了解。另外,文中所包含的磁相变内容也是教学中讨论各种相变的实例之一。%Magnetization of free electron gas for the entire regime is an ideal example for the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics et al. The entire regime includes degenerate and non-degenerate, classical and quantum, non-relativistic and relativistic, low magnetic field and high magnetic field et al. From this, students can understand the conception of physics and the differences between application range of physical theory. The relativistic parts about magnetization of electron gas come from the results of author, which can be referenced from corresponding references. However, the magnetic phase transition in this paper is also an ideal example for the teaching and the study of general phase transitions.

  2. Gas enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum using carbon dioxide and oxygen - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Ohlhues, Anders

    compared. Results The TOF series showed an increase in MRA signal and vessel conspicuousness, when adding CO2 to air (gas I vs. gas II) and an additional increase was seen on MRA when adding O2 to CO2 (gas II vs. gas III). The increase in MRA signal was present on both volunteers. The volume flow increased...... and the meninges may obscure the signal from the arteries of interest. It is known that oxygen enhances the T1-weighted signal and that carbon dioxide increases the arterial blood flow. This paper presents preliminary results of gas enhanced MRA using combinations of atmospheric air, O2 and CO2. Subjects...... and Methods Two healthy volunteers were scanned during inhalation of three different gas mixtures: Gas I (air), Gas II (5% CO2, 21 % O2, 74 % N2), Gas III (5% CO2, 95% O2). For each gas mixture a time of flight (TOF) series on the cerebral arteries was performed. Following each TOF series an ECG-gated phase...

  3. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  4. 75 FR 6370 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing Workshop... Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being held at the Commission's headquarters in... commitments for the acquisition of capacity on Alaska natural gas transportation projects. TransCanada Alaska...

  5. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. Gas magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  7. Regulating power for gas boilers in houses. Surplus power from wind power plants for natural gas boilers; Regulerkraft pae villakedelomraedet. Overskuds-el fra vindmoeller til naturgaskedler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Michael; Frederiksen, Karsten V.

    2011-08-15

    The aim of the project is to clarify the potential development of a simple electric heating unit to gas installations in houses, so that natural gas for heating can be replaced with surplus wind power. The gas network in this way becomes an energy storage for power. In this preliminary project the aim is to estimate the value of these solutions and to verify in the lab, whether it is possible to establish and activate a simple and inexpensive electric heating unit on a typical gas boiler installation. In addition, it must be clarified whether it is possible to establish a simple communication with price signal from the balancing responsible. Based on the preliminary analyses and based on the electric heating unit, which is used in this project, it is estimated that there is a potential for the use of an electric heating unit on gas boilers in houses, and there is also a market, although there are limitations in relation to space and possibly also to the price. The price is estimated to be between 1,500 and 3,000 DKK per. installation (installed). However, this should be further investigated, including that the power balancing responsible /electricity trading companies assess the social value of using the electric heating unit as an element in the regulating power market. Regarding price signal, it is clear that communication opportunities are present at least with two of the balancing responsible companies, but it requires adaptation before a simple price signal to a gas boiler installation can be established. Price wise it is considered feasible. (LN)

  8. Gas enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum using carbon dioxide and oxygen - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Ohlhues, Anders

    and the meninges may obscure the signal from the arteries of interest. It is known that oxygen enhances the T1-weighted signal and that carbon dioxide increases the arterial blood flow. This paper presents preliminary results of gas enhanced MRA using combinations of atmospheric air, O2 and CO2. Subjects...... as a response to the added CO2 (gas II). Free oxygen (gas III) enhanced the MRA blood signal but invoked a slight decrease in the volume flow. Discussion/conclusion Inhaling gas mixture during MRA examination containing CO2 and O2 increased the cerebral MRA signal. These preliminary results indicate...

  9. From Haloes to Galaxies - I: The dynamics of the gas regulator model and the implied cosmic sSFR-history

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yingjie

    2014-01-01

    We explore the basic parameters that drive the evolution of the fundamental properties of star forming galaxies within the gas regulator model, or bathtub-model. We derive the general analytic form of the evolution of the key galaxy properties, i.e. gas mass, star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, specific SFR, gas fraction, gas phase metallicity and stellar metallicity, without assuming that galaxies live in the equilibrium state. We find that the timescale required to reach equilibrium, tau_eq, which is determined by the product of star-formation efficiency and mass-loading factor, is the central parameter in the gas regulator model that is essentially in control of the evolution of all key galaxy properties. The scatters in most of the key scaling relations are primarily governed by tau_eq. Most strikingly, the predicted sSFR evolution is controlled solely by tau_eq (apart from the cosmic time). Although the precise evolution of the sSFR depends on tau_eq, the sSFR history is largely insensitive to diffe...

  10. Voltage Regulation Using a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Series Compensator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Ping; Wu, Ziping; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-08-24

    A wind power plant (WPP) is often operated at unity power factor, and the utility host where the WPP connects prefers to regulate the voltage. Although this may not be an issue in a stiff grid, the connection to a weak grid can be a problematic. This paper explores the advantages of having voltage regulation capability via reactive power control. Another issue in wind power generation is that not all turbines are able to control their reactive power due to technical reasons or contractual obligations. A synchronous condenser (SC) using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is proposed to provide necessary reactive power for regulating voltage at a weak grid connection. A PMSG has the advantage of higher efficiency and reliability. Because of its lack of a field winding, a PMSG is typically controlled by a full-power converter, which can be costly. In the proposed system, the reactive power of the SC is controlled by a serially connected compensator operating in a closed-loop configuration. The compensator also damps the PMSG’s tendency to oscillate. The compensator’s VA rating is only a fraction of the rating of the SC and the PMSG. In this initial investigation, the proposed scheme is shown to be effective by computer simulations.

  11. Magnetic discharge accelerating diode for the gas-filled pulsed neutron generators based on inertial confinement of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskij, K. I.; Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Shatokhin, V. L.; Isaev, A. A.; Martynenko, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with magnetic discharge diode module with inertial electrostatic ions confinement for the gas-filled pulsed neutron generators. The basis of the design is geometry with the central hollow cathode surrounded by the outer cylindrical anode and electrodes made of permanent magnets. The induction magnitude about 0.1-0.4 T in the central region of the discharge volume ensures the confinement of electrons in the space of hollow (virtual) cathode and leads to space charge compensation of accelerated ions in the centre. The research results of different excitation modes in pulsed high-voltage discharge are presented. The stable form of the volume discharge preserveing the shape and amplitude of the pulse current in the pressure range of 10-3-10-1 Torr and at the accelerating voltage up to 200 kV was observed.

  12. Nonsimilar Solution for Shock Waves in a Rotational Axisymmetric Perfect Gas with a Magnetic Field and Exponentially Varying Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.; Sinha, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in an ideal gas in the presence of a constant azimuthal magnetic field with consideration for the axisymmetric rotational effects is investigated. The ambient medium is assumed to have the radial, axial, and azimuthal velocity components. The fluid velocities and density of the ambient medium are assumed to vary according to an exponential law. Nonsimilar solutions are obtained by taking into account the vorticity vector and its components. The dependences of the characteristics of the problem on the Alfven-Mach number and time are obtained. It is shown that the presence of a magnetic field has a decaying effect on the shock wave. The pressure and density are shown to vanish at the inner surface (piston), and hence a vacuum forms at the line of symmetry.

  13. The identification of acetylcholine and choline in oat seedlings by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tretyn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Four methods of isolation and purification of choline esters from green 7-day-old oat ( Avena sativa L. cv. Diadem seedlings were tested The results showed that the best recovery of acetylcholine and choline from plant tissues was obtained using an extraction solution composed of 15% 1N formic acid and 85%, acetone followed by precipitation of both these substances with ammonium reineckate. The presence of acetylcholine and choline in the plant extracts was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography. In the case of gas chromatography, after isolation and purification of the studied compounds from the plant material, estrification of choline followed by N-demethylation of acetylcholine and estrified choline were performed The demethylation reaction was conducted in a reaction mixture of 50 mM sodium thiophenolate and 25 mM thiophenol in anhydrous acetone. After its completion, the mixture was removed with pentanone and the demethylated esters were extracted into chloroform.

  14. The unitization process in the oil and gas Brazilian sector: regulations analysis; A regulacao no processo de unitizacao na exploracao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Felipe A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Silva, Moises E. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Bone, Rosemarie B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEI/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the withdraw of 41 blocks of the 9th Round of Auctions by ANP rose questions about the possible unitization of oil fields, particularly on the pre-salt areas and the likelihood of future litigation from licensees against the Brazilian Government on the issue. Based on the international experience from Nigeria and East Timor/Australia, we propose improvements to the Brazilian law on the issue (Law 9478/97, article 27). We conclude that a clear and specific regulation on the unitization issue should be passed, so to protect investors and the non-renewable resources at stake (oil and gas). (author)

  15. Toward a multi-objective decision support framework to support regulations of unconventional oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, M.; Howard, C.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect environmental quality of areas surrounding UOGD, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is a setback distance, which dictates the minimum proximity between an oil and gas well and an object such as a residential or commercial building, property line, or water source. In general, most setback regulations have been strongly politically motivated without a clear scientific basis for understanding the relationship between the setback distance and various performance outcomes. This presentation discusses a new decision support framework for setback regulations, as part of a large NSF-funded sustainability research network (SRN) on UOGD. The goal of the decision support framework is to integrate a wide array of scientific information from the SRN into a coherent framework that can help inform policy regarding UOGD. The decision support framework employs multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) optimization coupled with simulation models of air quality and other performance-based outcomes on UOGD. The result of the MOEA optimization runs are quantitative tradeoff curves among different objectives. For example, one such curve could demonstrate air pollution concentrations versus estimates of energy development profits, for different levels of setback distance. Our results will also inform policy-relevant discussions surrounding UOGD such as comparing single- and multi-well pads, as well as regulations on the density of well development over a spatial area.

  16. Conference on natural gas use state regulation and market dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Reports in this Record of Proceedings explore a wide variety of issues related to the regulation of natural gas and its future role as one of the critical fuels that powers the economy of the United States. The focus is mainly on problems, obstacles, barriers, and the incredibly complex system created to bring a fuel from wellhead to burner tip. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  17. New combustion, environment regulations: the answers for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on the point of view from Gaz de France (GdF) company concerning the potential consequences of the use of natural gas in combustion systems with respect to the new regulations about combustion and environment. Details concerning the measures relative to the limitation of pollutants in small combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) are given (chimney height, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and dusts content in exhaust gases). (J.S.)

  18. The open-access era. [Regulations on natural gas pipeline access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. (Stone and Webster Management Consultants Inc., New York, NY (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This article examines the effects on the natural gas transportation industry that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's recent proposed rulemaking will have. The topics of the article include take-or-pay pricing, the changing role of the pipeline in the natural gas market, unbundling of the services a pipeline provides, and achieving the fullest possible use of the pipeline network.

  19. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: Atomic Gas and the Regulation of Star Formation in Barred Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Haynes, Martha P; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' HI content from the ALFALFA blind HI survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas rich disc galaxies than gas poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation, and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangu...

  20. The Hedgehog-binding proteins Gas1 and Cdo cooperate to positively regulate Shh signaling during mouse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L; Tenzen, Toyoaki; McMahon, Andrew P

    2007-05-15

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for patterning and growth during mammalian embryogenesis. Transcriptional profiling identified Growth-arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) as a general negative target of Shh signaling. Data presented here define Gas1 as a novel positive component of the Shh signaling cascade. Removal of Gas1 results in a Shh dose-dependent loss of cell identities in the ventral neural tube and facial and skeletal defects, also consistent with reduced Shh signaling. In contrast, ectopic Gas1 expression results in Shh-dependent cell-autonomous promotion of ventral cell identities. These properties mirror those of Cdo, an unrelated, cell surface Shh-binding protein. We show that Gas1 and Cdo cooperate to promote Shh signaling during neural tube patterning, craniofacial, and vertebral development. Overall, these data support a new paradigm in Shh signaling whereby positively acting ligand-binding components, which are initially expressed in responding tissues to promote signaling, are then down-regulated by active Hh signaling, thereby modulating responses to ligand input.

  1. Nonlinear predictive control for the concentrations profile regulation under unknown reaction disturbances in a fuel cell anode gas channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Julio; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Serra, Maria

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy is proposed to regulate the concentrations of the different gas species inside a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) anode gas channel. The purpose of the regulation relies on the rejection of the unmeasurable perturbations that affect the system: the hydrogen reaction and water transport terms. The model of the anode channel is derived from the discretisation of the partial differential equations that define the nonlinear dynamics of the system, taking into account spatial variations along the channel. Forward and backward discretisations of the distributed model are employed to take advantage of the boundary conditions of the problem. A linear observer is designed and implemented to perform output-feedback control of the plant. This information is fed to the controller to regulate the states towards their desired values. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed control method over a given case study. Different cost functions are compared and the one with minimum state-regulation error is identified. Suitable dynamic responses are obtained facing the different considered disturbances.

  2. Capture of dengue viruses using antibody-integrated graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads produced using gas plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAKUDO, AKIKAZU; VISWAN, ANCHU; CHOU, HAN; SASAKI, TADAHIRO; IKUTA, KAZUYOSHI; NAGATSU, MASAAKI

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in medicine, global health is threatened by emerging infectious diseases caused by a number of viruses. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus, which can be transmitted to humans via mosquito vectors. Previously, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan reported the country's first domestically acquired case of dengue fever for almost 70 years. To address this issue, it is important to develop novel technologies for the sensitive detection of DENV. The present study reported on the development of plasma-functionalized, graphite-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (GrMNPs) conjugated with anti-DENV antibody for DENV capture. Radiofrequency wave-excited inductively-coupled Ar and ammonia gas plasmas were used to introduce amino groups onto the surface of the GrMNPs. The GrMNPs were then conjugated with an antibody against DENV, and the antibody-integrated magnetic beads were assessed for their ability to capture DENV. Beads incubated in a cell culture medium of DENV-infected mosquito cells were separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field and were then washed. The adsorption of DENV serotypes 1–4 onto the beads was confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, which detected the presence of DENV genomic RNA on the GrMNPs. The methodology described in the present study, which employed the plasma-functionalization of GrMNPs to enable antibody-integration, represents a significant improvement in the detection of DENV. PMID:27221214

  3. Capture of dengue viruses using antibody-integrated graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads produced using gas plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Viswan, Anchu; Chou, Han; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant advances in medicine, global health is threatened by emerging infectious diseases caused by a number of viruses. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito‑borne virus, which can be transmitted to humans via mosquito vectors. Previously, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan reported the country's first domestically acquired case of dengue fever for almost 70 years. To address this issue, it is important to develop novel technologies for the sensitive detection of DENV. The present study reported on the development of plasma-functionalized, graphite-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (GrMNPs) conjugated with anti-DENV antibody for DENV capture. Radiofrequency wave‑excited inductively‑coupled Ar and ammonia gas plasmas were used to introduce amino groups onto the surface of the GrMNPs. The GrMNPs were then conjugated with an antibody against DENV, and the antibody‑integrated magnetic beads were assessed for their ability to capture DENV. Beads incubated in a cell culture medium of DENV‑infected mosquito cells were separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field and were then washed. The adsorption of DENV serotypes 1‑4 onto the beads was confirmed using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, which detected the presence of DENV genomic RNA on the GrMNPs. The methodology described in the present study, which employed the plasma-functionalization of GrMNPs to enable antibody‑integration, represents a significant improvement in the detection of DENV.

  4. The long non-coding RNA GAS5 cooperates with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E to regulate c-Myc translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Hu

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are important regulators of transcription; however, their involvement in protein translation is not well known. Here we explored whether the lncRNA GAS5 is associated with translation initiation machinery and regulates translation. GAS5 was enriched with eukaryotic translation initiation factor-4E (eIF4E in an RNA-immunoprecipitation assay using lymphoma cell lines. We identified two RNA binding motifs within eIF4E protein and the deletion of each motif inhibited the binding of GAS5 with eIF4E. To confirm the role of GAS5 in translation regulation, GAS5 siRNA and in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA were used to knock down or overexpress GAS5, respectively. GAS5 siRNA had no effect on global protein translation but did specifically increase c-Myc protein level without an effect on c-Myc mRNA. The mechanism of this increase in c-Myc protein was enhanced association of c-Myc mRNA with the polysome without any effect on protein stability. In contrast, overexpression of in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA suppressed c-Myc protein without affecting c-Myc mRNA. Interestingly, GAS5 was found to be bound with c-Myc mRNA, suggesting that GAS5 regulates c-Myc translation through lncRNA-mRNA interaction. Our findings have uncovered a role of GAS5 lncRNA in translation regulation through its interactions with eIF4E and c-Myc mRNA.

  5. Pulsed Magnetic Field Driven Gas Core Reactors for Space Power & Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghaie, Samim; Smith, Blair; Knight, Travis; Butler, Carey

    2003-01-01

    The present results indicated that: 1. A pulsed magnetic driven fission power concept, PMD-GCR is developed for closed (NER) and semi-open (NTR) operations. 2. In power mode, power is generated at alpha less than 1 for power levels of hundreds of KW or higher 3. IN semi open NTR mode, PMD-GCR generates thrust at I(sub sp) approx. 5,000 s and jet power approx. 5KW/Kg. 4. PMD-GCR is highly subcritical and is actively driven to critically. 5. Parallel path with fusion R&D needs in many areas including magnet and plasma.

  6. Down-regulation of adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells by oscillating high-gradient magnetic fields and mechanical vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, V.; Lunov, O.; Novotná, B.; Churpita, O.; Trošan, P.; HoláÅ, V.; Syková, E.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Š.

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus in medicine on molecular genetics has resulted in a disregard for the physical basis of treatment even though many diseases originate from changes in cellular mechanics. Perturbations of the cellular nanomechanics promote pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Furthermore, whilst the biological and therapeutic effects of magnetic fields are a well-established fact, to date the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we show that oscillating high-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) and mechanical vibration affect adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by the transmission of mechanical stress to the cell cytoskeleton, resulting in F-actin remodelling and subsequent down-regulation of adipogenic genes adiponectin, PPARγ, and AP2. Our findings propose an insight into the regulation of cellular nanomechanics, and provide a basis for better controlled down-regulation of stem cell adipogenesis by HGMF, which may facilitate the development of challenging therapeutic strategies suitable for the remote control of biological systems.

  7. 75 FR 8329 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Alaska natural gas transportation projects. TransCanada Alaska Company LLC (TC Alaska) has recently filed... Regulatory Commission, 888 1st Street, NE.--Room 3M-2 A&B, Washington, DC 20426. All interested parties may...

  8. The self regulating star formation of gas rich dwarf galaxies in quiescent phase

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, M A R; Kobayashi, Masakazu A.R.; Kamaya, Hideyuki

    2004-01-01

    The expected episodic or intermittent star formation histories (SFHs) of gas rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) are the longstanding puzzles to understand their whole evolutional history. Solving this puzzle, we should grasp what physical mechanism causes the quiescent phase of star formation under the very gas rich condition after the first starburst phase. We consider that this quiescent phase is kept by lack of H2, which can be important coolant to generate the next generation of stars in the low-metal environment like dIrrs. Furthermore, in dIrrs, H2 formation through gas-phase reactions may dominate the one on dust-grain surfaces because their interstellar medium (ISM) are very plentiful and the typical dust-to-gas ratio of dIrrs (D_dIrrs = 1.31 x 10^-2 D_MW, where D_MW is its value for the local ISM) is on the same order with a critical value D_cr ~ 10^-2 D_MW. We show that the lack of H2 is mainly led by H- destruction when gas-phase H2 formation dominates since H- is important intermediary of gas-p...

  9. DETERMINATION OF MARGINALLY STABLE ZONE OF GAS-SOLID MAGNETICALLY FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The void fluctuation of magnotically fluidized beds was analyzed and their maginally stable zone was determined. The analysis was based on the two-phase model of magnetically fluidized bed and wave theory. The marginally stable zone determined by this paper matches well with the experimental results.

  10. Influence of magnetic field on the turbulence of plane high temperature gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitan, Yu.S.

    1977-01-01

    Expressions are obtained within the framework of the Prandtl hypothesis and proposition on local-isotropic turbulence for turbulent friction and thermal flow in a channel flow of an electrical-conducting medium with a current along the channel's axis in the internal magnetic field, and which account for temperature fluctuations of the medium. 6 references.

  11. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  12. Epigenetic transcriptional regulation of the growth arrest-specific gene 1 (Gas1 in hepatic cell proliferation at mononucleosomal resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sacilotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gas1 (growth arrest-specific 1 gene is known to inhibit cell proliferation in a variety of models, but its possible implication in regulating quiescence in adult tissues has not been examined to date. The knowledge of how Gas1 is regulated in quiescence may contribute to understand the deregulation occurring in neoplastic diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gas1 expression has been studied in quiescent murine liver and during the naturally synchronized cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy. Chromatin immunoprecipitation at nucleosomal resolution (Nuc-ChIP has been used to carry out the study preserving the in vivo conditions. Transcription has been assessed at real time by quantifying the presence of RNA polymerase II in coding regions (RNApol-ChIP. It has been found that Gas1 is expressed not only in quiescent liver but also at the cell cycle G(1/S transition. The latter expression peak had not been previously reported. Two nucleosomes, flanking a nucleosome-free region, are positioned close to the transcription start site. Both nucleosomes slide in going from the active to the inactive state and vice versa. Nuc-ChIP analysis of the acquisition of histone epigenetic marks show distinctive features in both active states: H3K9ac and H3K4me2 are characteristic of transcription in G(0 and H4R3me2 in G(1/S transition. Sequential-ChIP analysis revealed that the "repressing" mark H3K9me2 colocalize with several "activating" marks at nucleosome N-1 when Gas1 is actively transcribed suggesting a greater plasticity of epigenetic marks than proposed until now. The recruitment of chromatin-remodeling or modifying complexes also displayed distinct characteristics in quiescence and the G(1/S transition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding that Gas1 is transcribed at the G(1/S transition suggests that the gene may exert a novel function during cell proliferation. Transcription of this gene is modulated by specific "activating" and

  13. Gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice as affected by plant regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice, as affected by type and application time of plant growth regulators. A randomized block design, in a 4x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates was used. Treatments consisted of three growth regulators (mepiquat chloride, trinexapac-ethyl, and paclobutrazol, besides a control treatment applied at two different phenological stages: early tillering or panicle primordial differentiation. The experiment was performed under sprinkler-irrigated field conditions. Net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, plant transpiration, and water-use efficiency were measured four times in Primavera upland rice cultivar, between booting and milky grain phenophases. Gas exchange rates were neither influenced by growth regulators nor by application time. There was, however, interaction between these factors on the other variables. Application of trinexapac-ethyl at both tillering and differentiation stages reduced plant height and negatively affected yield components and rice productivity. However, paclobutrazol and mepiquat chloride applied at tillering, reduced plant height without affecting rice yield. Mepiquat chloride acted as a growth stimulator when applied at the differentiation stage, and significantly increased plant height, panicle number, and grain yield of upland rice.

  14. Forced-flow gas cooled current leads for SCQ magnets in BEPC Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-bin; WANG Li; JIA Lin-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Current leads are used to connect the superconducting magnets in cryogenic temperature to the power station in room temperature. It is the main source of heat leak into the cryostat of magnets on static operation.This paperpresents the optimized methods of the leads for BEPC Ⅱ, and the effects of different cross section area on the heat leak, temperature profile as well as the voltage drop of the leads. The multi-tube structure is adopted and improved for the leads. The results of numerical simulation using CFD software package Fluent6.0 for the multi-tube-structure leads are presented, which can be used to improve the design of the leads.

  15. Regulation of the natural gas distribution sector: a comparison of Brazilian and Colombian industries; Regulacao do setor de distribuicao de gas natural: uma comparacao dos casos brasileiro e colombiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Mariana Peralva; Ferraro, Marcelo Colomer [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Bolivia oil industry nationalization in 2006 and the high price of oil on the international market called the public and government attention to the problems of the natural gas industry regulation in Brazil. Recently, the establishment of a specific law for the natural gas industry had been debated in academic circles and in government institutions. In Brazil, the absence of an integrated energy policy and the absence of a homogeneous regulatory framework interfere with natural gas industry development, especially in distribution. Thus, the objective of the work will be contrast the Colombia distribution natural gas regulatory structure sector to the Brazilian natural gas regulatory framework. The comparison of the Brazilian regulatory framework and the Colombian natural gas regulation shows that the existence of different kinds of concession contracts in distribution is one of the explanations for the different levels of investment in Brazil. The contract with exclusive right to explore the distribution service in geographic territories also contributes to explain the low coverage rate of public distribution companies. Thus, the rapid expansion of the natural gas distribution network in Colombia after the regulatory reforms shows the importance of the establishment of a regulatory structure to push private investment. The Colombian case can be considered a good model for other countries in South America, especially to the natural gas distribution regulation. (author)

  16. FIssion Product Prompt γ-ray spectrometer: Development of an instrumented gas-filled magnetic spectrometer at the ILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, A.; Chebboubi, A.; Faust, H.; Jentschel, M.; Kessedjian, G.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Panebianco, S.; Sage, C.; Urban, W.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate thermal neutron-induced fission data are important for applications in reactor physics as well as for fundamental nuclear physics. FIPPS is the new FIssion Product Prompt γ-ray Spectrometer being developed at the Institut Laue Langevin for neutron-induced fission studies. FIPPS is based on the combination of a large Germanium detector array surrounding a fission target, a Time-Of-Flight detector and a Gas-Filled Magnet (GFM) to identify mass, nuclear charge and kinetic energy of one of the fission fragments. The GFM will be instrumented with a Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) for individual 3D tracking of the fragments. A conceptual design study of the new spectrometer is presented.

  17. FIssion Product Prompt γ-ray spectrometer: Development of an instrumented gas-filled magnetic spectrometer at the ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A., E-mail: blanc@ill.fr [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Chebboubi, A.; Faust, H.; Jentschel, M. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Kessedjian, G. [LPSC CNRS/IN2P3, UJF Grenoble 1, INPG, Grenoble (France); Köster, U. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Materna, T.; Panebianco, S. [DSM/IRFU/SPhN, CEA Saclay (France); Sage, C. [LPSC CNRS/IN2P3, UJF Grenoble 1, INPG, Grenoble (France); Urban, W. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2013-12-15

    Accurate thermal neutron-induced fission data are important for applications in reactor physics as well as for fundamental nuclear physics. FIPPS is the new FIssion Product Prompt γ-ray Spectrometer being developed at the Institut Laue Langevin for neutron-induced fission studies. FIPPS is based on the combination of a large Germanium detector array surrounding a fission target, a Time-Of-Flight detector and a Gas-Filled Magnet (GFM) to identify mass, nuclear charge and kinetic energy of one of the fission fragments. The GFM will be instrumented with a Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) for individual 3D tracking of the fragments. A conceptual design study of the new spectrometer is presented.

  18. Comments on 'The magnetic field of Mars - Implications from gas dynamic modeling' by C. T. Russell, J. C. Luhmann, J. R. Spreiter, and S. S. Stahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolginov, Sh. SH.

    1986-01-01

    The Russell et al. (1984) claim that gas dynamic modeling allows a determination of interplanetary and magnetosheath field configurations resembling the Mars 3 magnetic field observations during the January 21, 1972 encounter, and their proposal of a draped magnetic field pattern model for these data, are presently disputed. Extensive use is made of Martian magnetic field analyses undertaken by Dolginov between 1973 and 1984, which are held to prove the existence of an intrinsic Martian magnetic field. Russell replies that the Russell et al. analysis of the variation in the Mars 2, 3, and 5 data suggests the presence of both zero-level and sensor polarity errors in these data. The rejection of an intrinsic Martian magnetic field is accordingly reaffirmed, pending the availability of less ambiguous data.

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography as Complementary Methods for the Analysis of Beer Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Johnson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the organic components in beer has applications to quality control, authenticity and improvements to the flavor characteristics and brewing process. This study aims to show the complementary nature of two instrumental techniques which, in combination, can identify and quantify a number of organic components in a beer sample. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR was used to provide concentrations of 26 different organic compounds including alcohols, organic acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Calorie content was also estimated for the samples. NMR data for ethanol concentrations were validated by comparison to a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR method. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS was used to identify a range of volatile compounds such as alcohols, esters and hop-derived aroma compounds. A simple and inexpensive conversion of a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC FID instrument to allow the use of Solid-Phase Microextraction was found to be useful for the quantification of volatile esters.

  1. Galactosylated magnetic nanovectors for regulation of lipid metabolism based on biomarker-specific RNAi and MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Dan; Lee, Chanjoo; Ku, Minhee; Haam, Seungjoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Park, Sahng Wook; Yang, Jaemoon

    2015-08-01

    The specific delivery of ribonucleic acid (RNA) interfering molecules to disease-related cells is still a critical blockade for in vivo systemic treatment. Here, this study suggests a robust delivery carrier for targeted delivery of RNA-interfering molecules using galactosylated magnetic nanovectors (gMNVs). gMNVs are an organic-inorganic polymeric nanomaterial composed of polycationics and magnetic nanocrystal for delivery of RNA-interfering molecules and tracking via magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In particular, the surface of gMNVs was modified by galactosylgluconic groups for targeted delivering to asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) of hepatocytes. Moreover, the small interfering RNAs were used to regulate target proteins related with low-density lipoprotein level and in vivo MR imaging was conducted for tracking of nanovectors. The obtained results show that the prepared gMNVs demonstrate potential as a systemic theragnostic nanoplatform for RNA interference and MR imaging.

  2. Structural and magnetic ordering of CrNb3S6 single crystals grown by gas transport method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, E. B.; Berezin, V. A.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Gartman, V. K.; Matveev, D. V.; Shakhlevich, O. F.

    2017-07-01

    Paramagnetic layered semiconductor NbS2 doped with some transition metals can transform into ferromagnetic material. That is why such materials are promising candidates for spintronic devices. It is found that only at certain concentrations of a doping metal T crystallographic ordering is possible, which is essential for magnetic ordering of ternary compounds TNbS2. In particular, CrNb3S6 crystals are studied, which form almost completely ordered superstructure with intercalated Cr between NbS2 layers. The main difficulty in crystal growth is reaching stoichiometry of the compound. This problem is solved in the developed method of two-staged gas transport chemical reaction. This new approach provides growth of CrNb3S6 single crystals of several millimeters in diameter and 0.3-0.5 mm thickness. X-ray phase analysis (XRD) of powders is performed to identify all phases involved in synthesis and growth of the crystals. High frequency absorption in external periodic magnetic field as a function of temperature and intensity of magnetic field is used to estimate the temperature of ferromagnetic transition in CrNb3S6 single crystals. The Curie temperature is estimated as 115 K. Growth of CrNb3S6 crystals from vapor phase is studied in detail and full analysis of phase transitions during growth is given. It has been shown that using of high frequency absorption in the crystal provides reliable estimation of the point of ferromagnetic transition in this semiconductor. The authors are grateful to the Physical Science Department of Russian Academy of Sciences for financial support of the studies in the frameworks of the program "Physics of new materials and structures" (project no. 00-12-10).

  3. Imaging appetite-regulating pathways in the central nervous system using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, James R C; Chaudhri, Owais B; Bell, Jimmy D

    2009-01-01

    The global increase in obesity has led to a redoubling of efforts directed at understanding the control of energy homeostasis. Insight into the mechanisms which govern appetite regulation is central to understanding the pathophysiology of obesity and the design of effective therapeutic interventions. Exploitation of hormonal satiety signals secreted by the gut requires greater insight into their interaction with central nervous system (CNS) circuits of appetite control. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a novel technique, recently adapted to investigate the effects of gut peptides on CNS appetite circuits. Using manganese ion accumulation as a marker of neuronal activity, changes in signal intensity in key appetite centres within the hypothalamus following peripheral injection of gut hormones have been demonstrated. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging offers several advantages over methodologies currently used for the study of gut hormone interactions with the CNS and has the potential for application in fields beyond appetite regulation. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODES OF MAGNETIC-ELECTRIC GRINDING ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF GAS-THERMAL SPRAYED NI–CR–B–SI-COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Spiridonov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of technological modes of magnetic-electric grinding on structural changes in a surface layer of gas-thermal sprayed coatings is investigated in the paper. The paper presents optimum modes of  coating roughing and finishing processes.

  5. High Radiation Resistant DC-DC Converter Regulators for use in Magnetic fields for LHC High Luminosity Silicon Trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Dhawan, S; Tipton, P; Kierstead, J; Lynn, D; rescia, S; Weber, M

    2007-01-01

    For more efficient power transport to the electronics embedded inside large colliding beam detectors, we explore the feasibility of supplying higher DC voltage and using local DC-DC conversion to 1.3 V (or lower, depending upon on the lithography of the embedded electronics) using switch mode regulators located very close to the front end electronics. These devices will be exposed to high radiation and high magnetic fields, 10 – 100 Mrads and 2 - 4 Tesla at the SLHC.

  6. Prediction of magnetic orientation in driver gas associated -Bz events. [in interplanetary medium observed at earth when solar source is identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, J. T.; Zhao, Xuepu

    1992-01-01

    The source regions of five strong -Bz events detected at 1 AU for which solar sources were identified by Tang et al. (1989) and Tsurutani et al. (1992) are investigated in order to determine whether the magnetic orientation of driver gas in the interplanetary medium observed at the earth can be predicted when its solar source is identified. Three -Bz events were traced to flare-associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs), one to an eruptive prominence associated CME, and one to three possible solar sources. The computed magnetic orientations at the candidate 'release height' (the height where the front of a CME ceases to accelerate) above the flare sites associated with CMEs show the existence of the expected southward field component. It is concluded that the magnetic orientation in flare-associated CME generated driver gas may be predictable.

  7. Spin-anisotropic magnetic impurity in a Fermi gas: Integration of poor man's scaling equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Eugene; Noda, Kazuto; Yunoki, Seiji

    2017-04-01

    We consider a single magnetic impurity described by the spin-anisotropic s -d (f ) exchange (Kondo) model and formulate a scaling equation for the spin-anisotropic model when the density of states (DOS) of electrons is a power-law function of energy (measured relative to the Fermi energy). We solve this equation containing terms up to the second order in coupling constants in terms of elliptic functions. From the obtained solution we find the phases corresponding to the infinite isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange, to the impurity spin decoupled from the electron environment (only for the pseudogap DOS), and to the infinite Ising exchange (only for the diverging DOS). We analyze the critical surfaces, corresponding to the finite isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange for the pseudogap DOS.

  8. Proposal of law relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated prices; Proposition de loi relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    This proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, concerns one important modification of the article 66 from the law no 2005-781 of July 13, 2005 about the main guidelines of the French energy policy. This modification allows the households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. This document presents the items added in this way to the article 66. (J.S.)

  9. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF OBLIQUE COLLISION OF THE GASKET OF A GAS REGULATOR ON SAFETY SHUTDOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author presents a theoretical study on the conduct during the impact of the gasket at the intake of combustible gas, when the regulatory mechanism is controlled by a thermostat. For this case, the author analyzed two aspects involved in the operation of the proposed experimental model: - The oblique impact of the cinematic elements of the regulatory mechanism; - The influence of elasticity on deformation of the gasket at impact. Furthermore, the paper presents the modeling and dynamic analysis of the mechanism MSC ADAMS

  13. Phase separation in NiCrN coatings induced by N2 addition in the gas phase: A way to generate magnetic thin films by reactive sputtering of a non-magnetic NiCr target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciu, I.; Duday, D.; Choquet, P.; Perigo, E. A.; Michels, A.; Wirtz, T.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic coatings are used for a lot of applications from data storage in hard discs, spintronics and sensors. Meanwhile, magnetron sputtering is a process largely used in industry for the deposition of thin films. Unfortunately, deposition of magnetic coatings by magnetron sputtering is a difficult task due to the screening effect of the magnetic target lowering the magnetic field strength of the magnet positioned below the target, which is used to generate and trap ions in the vicinity of the target surface to be sputtered. In this work we present an efficient method to obtain soft magnetic thin films by reactive sputtering of a non-magnetic target. The aim is to recover the magnetic properties of Ni after dealloying of Ni and Cr due to the selective reactivity of Cr with the reactive nitrogen species generated during the deposition process. The effects of nitrogen content on the dealloying and DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS) deposition processes are studied here. The different chemical compositions, microstructures and magnetic properties of DCMS thin films obtained by sputtering in reactive gas mixtures with different ratios of Ar/N2 from a non-magnetic Ni-20Cr target have been determined. XPS data indicate that the increase of nitrogen content in the films has a strong influence on the NiCr phase decomposition into Ni and CrN, leading to ferromagnetic coatings due to the Ni phase. XRD results show that the obtained Ni-CrN films consist of a metallic fcc cubic Ni phase mixed with fcc cubic CrN. The lattice parameter decreases with the N2 content and reaches the theoretical value of the pure fcc-Ni, when Cr is mostly removed from the Ni-Cr phase. Dealloying of Cr from a Ni80-Cr20 solid solution is achieved in our experimental conditions and the deposition of Ni ferromagnetic coatings embedding CrN from a non-magnetic target is possible with reactive DC magnetron sputtering.

  14. Effects of phosphine on the neural regulation of gas exchange in Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, James D; Haritos, Victoria S; Cooper, Paul D

    2008-04-01

    Phosphine is used for fumigating stored commodities, however an understanding of the physiological response to phosphine in insects is limited. Here we show how the central pattern generator for ventilation in the central nervous system (CNS) responds to phosphine and influences normal resting gas exchange. Using the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, that perform discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) at rest, we simultaneously measure ventilatory nervous output from the intact CNS, VCO(2) and water loss from live specimens. Exposure to 800 ppm phosphine at 25 degrees C for 2 h (n=13) during recording did not cause any mortality or obvious sub-lethal effects. Within 60 s of introducing phosphine into the air flow, all animals showed a distinct CNS response accompanied by a burst release of CO(2). The initial ventilatory response to phosphine displaced DGE and was typically followed by low, stable and continuous CO(2) output. CNS output was highest and most orderly under normoxic conditions during DGE. Phosphine caused a series of ventilatory CNS spikes preceding almost complete cessation of CNS output. Minimal CNS output was maintained during the 2 h normoxic recovery period and DGE was not reinstated. VCO(2) was slightly reduced and water loss significantly lower during the recovery period compared with those rates prior to phosphine exposure. A phosphine narcosis effect is rejected based on animals remaining alert at all times during exposure.

  15. Interacting Large-Scale Magnetic Fields and Ionised Gas in the W50/SS433 System

    CERN Document Server

    Farnes, J S; Purcell, C; Sun, X H; Haverkorn, M; Lenc, E; O'Sullivan, S P; Akahori, T

    2016-01-01

    The W50/SS433 system is an unusual Galactic outflow-driven object of debatable origin. We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to observe a new 198 pointing mosaic, covering $3^\\circ \\times 2^\\circ$, and present the highest-sensitivity full-Stokes data of W50 to date using wide-field, wide-band imaging over a 2 GHz bandwidth centred at 2.1 GHz. We also present a complementary H$\\alpha$ mosaic created using the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H$\\alpha$ Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS). The magnetic structure of W50 is found to be consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the nebula is a reanimated shell-like supernova remnant (SNR), that has been re-energised by the jets from SS433. We observe strong depolarization effects that correlate with diffuse H$\\alpha$ emission, likely due to spatially-varying Faraday rotation measure (RM) fluctuations of $\\ge48$ to 61 rad m$^{-2}$ on scales $\\le4.5$ to 6 pc. We also report the discovery of numerous, faint, H$\\alpha$ filaments tha...

  16. A new Jeans resolution criterion for (M)HD simulations of self-gravitating gas: Application to magnetic field amplification by gravity-driven turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, Christoph; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic structure formation is characterized by the complex interplay between gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. The processes by which gravitational energy is converted into turbulent and magnetic energies, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we show with high-resolution, adaptive-mesh simulations that MHD turbulence is efficiently driven by extracting energy from the gravitational potential during the collapse of a dense gas cloud. Compressible motions generated during the contraction are converted into solenoidal, turbulent motions, leading to a natural energy ratio of E_sol/E_tot of approximately 2/3. We find that the energy injection scale of gravity-driven turbulence is close to the local Jeans scale. If small seeds of the magnetic field are present, they are amplified exponentially fast via the small-scale dynamo process. The magnetic field grows most efficiently on the smallest scales, for which the stretching, twisting, and folding of field lines, and the turbulent vortices are sufficientl...

  17. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  1. System design and performance prediction of a free-piston Stirling engine/magnetic coupling/compressor assembly in a gas residential heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Beale, W. T.

    Based on the previous evaluation of a magnetic coupling and the described system-design targets, a gas fired free piston Stirling engine/magnetic coupling/compressor (FPSE/MC/C) assembly as a power module for a residential heat pump application was designed and analyzed. A porous combustor/FPSE/magnetic coupling/variable gas control spring/reciprocating compressor assembly was the design selected. Based on the system characteristics, design efforts are described on the following issues: (1) design of a combustor allowing low pressure of natural gas supply; (2) the means to achieve engine power-load matching; (3) the method to maintain the assembly as a resonant system tuning over a wide range of operating conditions; (4) the design of an engine/coupling structure to minimize the magnet mass without sacrificing its mechanical properties; and (5) compressor load capacity modulation. The system analysis and the system performance, which is analytically predicted and described, indicate all the system design goals can be met leading to a strong recommendation for further development.

  2. Magnetic, Geochemical and Mineralogical Charac-teristics of Soils in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, China:Implications for Prospective Oil and Gas Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The alteration of iron-bearing minerals induced by hydrocarbon microseepage above oil/gas reservoirs has been evaluated using measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility κ, geochemical compositions (gas hydrocarbon and alteration carbonate ΔC), and composition and concentration of iron-bearing minerals. The analyses were performed along two profiles across the Qiangtang basin in Tibet, China: the Nuoermahu-Xuehuanhu profile (C) and the Mugari-Huochetoushan profile (E). Results show that three strong magnetic anomalies (C1, E1 and E2 anomalies) are related to the distribution of Neogene volcanic rocks on the surface in the Gangmacuo-Xiyaergang uplift. Two other anomalies (C2 and E4 anomalies), characterized by both moderately amplitude magnetic susceptibility and elevated soil gas hydrocarbons, occur near fault zones in the Cuoni-Donghu synclinorium. These latter anomalies display characteristics of hydrocarbon microseepage anomalies commonly associated with oil and gas accumulations. Their presence in the Cuoni-Donghu synclinorium suggests that parts of the Qiangtang basin may have significant petroleum potential.

  3. The pipeline transportation of natural gas and the regulation of open access in Brazil: historical perspectives and current; Os dutos de transporte do gas natural e a regulacao do livre acesso no Brasil: perspectivas historicas e atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Mariana de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present research, attempting for the economic relevance of the natural gas sector, for the inexistence of a law that disciplines it and, still, for the structural question of the natural gas ducts activity; it analyzes the monopoly of the natural gas ducts activity and the mechanism of competition chosen to brighten up it: the open access. The regulation of the open access and the viability that the insert of this practice has to Brazil nowadays are very important points to be discussed and, in that way, the present research also analyses them. (author)

  4. MAGNETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacker, H.B.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.

  5. Magnetic field regulated infall on the disc around the massive protostar Cepheus A HW2

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; Torstensson, K J E; van Langevelde, H J

    2010-01-01

    We present polarization observations of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers around the massive protostar Cepheus A HW2 and its associated disc. The data were taken with the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network. The maser polarization is used to determine the full three-dimensional magnetic field structure around Cepheus A HW2. The observations suggest that the masers probe the large scale magnetic field and not isolated pockets of a compressed field. We find that the magnetic field is predominantly aligned along the protostellar outflow and perpendicular to the molecular and dust disc. From the three-dimensional magnetic field orientation and measurements of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight, we are able to determine that the high density material, in which the masers occurs, is threaded by a large scale magnetic field of ~23 mG. This indicates that the protostellar environment at ~1000 AU from Cepheus A HW2 is slightly supercritical (lambda approximately 1.7) and the relation between d...

  6. Magnetic susceptibility as a direct measure of oxidation state in LiFePO4 batteries and cyclic water gas shift reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyk, Thomas; Eikerling, Michael

    2015-08-14

    The possibility of correlating the magnetic susceptibility to the oxidation state of the porous active mass in a chemical or electrochemical reactor was analyzed. The magnetic permeability was calculated using a hierarchical model of the reactor. This model was applied to two practical examples: LiFePO4 batteries, in which the oxidation state corresponds with the state-of-charge, and cyclic water gas shift reactors, in which the oxidation state corresponds to the depletion of the catalyst. In LiFePO4 batteries phase separation of the lithiated and delithiated phases in the LiFePO4 particles in the positive electrode gives rise to a hysteresis effect, i.e. the magnetic permeability depends on the history of the electrode. During fast charge or discharge, non-uniform lithium distributionin the electrode decreases the hysteresis effect. However, the overall sensitivity of the magnetic response to the state-of-charge lies in the range of 0.03%, which makes practical measurement challenging. In cyclic water gas shift reactors, the sensitivity is 4 orders of magnitude higher and without phase separation, no hysteresis occurs. This shows that the method is suitable for such reactors, in which large changes of the magnetic permeability of the active material occurs.

  7. Hemoglobin: a gas transport molecule that is hormonally regulated in the ovarian follicle in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah M; Anastasi, Marie R; Frank, Laura A; Kind, Karen L; Richani, Dulama; Robker, Rebecca L; Russell, Darryl L; Gilchrist, Robert B; Thompson, Jeremy G

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of nonerythroid tissues are found to express hemoglobin mRNA and protein. Hemoglobin is a well-described gas transport molecule, especially for O2, but also for NO, CO2, and CO, and also acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger. We previously found Hba-a1 and Hbb mRNA and protein at high levels within mouse periovulatory cumulus cells, but not in cumulus following in vitro maturation. This led us to investigate the temporal and spatial regulation in follicular cells during the periovulatory period. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from equine chorionic gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin-treated peripubertal SV129 female mice and collected and analyzed for gene expression and protein localization at a variety of time points over the periovulatory period. A further cohort matured in vitro with different forms of hemoglobin (ferro- and ferrihemoglobin) under different O2 atmospheric conditions (2%, 5%, and 20% O2) were subsequently fertilized in vitro and cultured to the blastocyst stage. Murine mRNA transcripts for hemoglobin were regulated by stimulation of the ovulatory cascade, in both granulosa and cumulus cells, and expression of HBA1 and HBB was highly significant in human granulosa and cumulus, but erythrocyte cell marker genes were not. Several other genes involved in hemoglobin function were similarly luteinizing hormone-regulated, including genes for heme biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry revealed a changing localization pattern of HBA-A1 protein in murine cumulus cells and oocytes following the ovulatory signal. Significantly, no positive staining for HBA-A1 protein was observed within in vitro-matured oocytes, but, if coincubated with ferro- or ferrihemoglobin, cytoplasmic HBA-A1 was observed, similar to in vivo-derived oocytes. Addition of ferro-, but not ferrihemoglobin, had a small, positive effect on blastocyst yield, but only under either 2% or 20% O2 gas atmosphere. The identification of hemoglobin within

  8. Strategies of diversification in regulated energy markets: the natural gas and electric power industries in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Gonzalez, Gerado; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Eibenschutz Hartman, Juan

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show a structured and systematic approach to analyze the strategies of diversification undertaken by the State-owned companies Petroleos Mexicanos and Comision Federal de Electricidad, during the period 1938-2006, in the Mexican energy market that has been strongly dominated by the State control. Furthermore, we explore the future of these strategies by using a Strengthens, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix. This analyze also include changes in regulation that should happen in order to consolidated the proposed strategies. (auth)

  9. Strategies of diversification in regulated energy markets: the natural gas and electric power industries in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Gonzalez, Gerado; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Eibenschutz Hartman, Juan

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show a structured and systematic approach to analyze the strategies of diversification undertaken by the State-owned companies Petroleos Mexicanos and Comision Federal de Electricidad, during the period 1938-2006, in the Mexican energy market that has been strongly dominated by the State control. Furthermore, we explore the future of these strategies by using a Strengthens, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix. This analyze also include changes in regulation that should happen in order to consolidated the proposed strategies. (auth)

  10. CAPRICE98: a balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer equipped with a gas RICH and a silicon calorimeter to study cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbiellini, G.; Bartalucci, S.; Bellotti, R.; Bergstroem, D.; Bidoli, V.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V. E-mail: bonvicini@trieste.infn.it; Bravar, U.; Cafagna, F.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Marzo, C. De; Pascale, M.P. De; Finetti, N.; Francke, T.; Grinstein, S.; Hof, M.; Khalchukov, F.; Kremer, J.; Menn, W.; Mitchell, J.W.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Papini, P.; Piccardi, S.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Simon, M.; Schiavon, P.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stochaj, S.J.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Stephens, S.A.; Suffert, M.; Vacchi, A.; Weber, N.; Zampa, N

    2001-04-01

    CAPRICE98 is a superconducting magnetic spectrometer, equipped with a gas RICH and a silicon calorimeter, launched from Ft. Sumner (USA), on the 28th of May 1998, by the WiZard collaboration. For the first time a gas RICH detector flew together with a silicon electromagnetic calorimeter, allowing mass resolved antiprotons, with E>18 GeV, to be detected. The detector configuration was completed by a time of flight for particle identification, and a set of three drift chambers for rigidity measurement. The science objectives are the study of antimatter in cosmic rays and the cosmic ray composition in the atmosphere with special focus on muons.

  11. Salt tolerance and regulation of gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis by auxin-priming in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the regulatory effects of auxin-priming on gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis in spring wheat subjected to saline conditions. Seeds of MH-97 (salt-intolerant and Inqlab-91 (salt-tolerant cultivars were subjected to 11 priming treatments (three hormones x three concentrations + two controls and evaluated under saline (15 dS m-1 and nonsaline (2.84 dS m-1 conditions. The priming treatments consisted of: 5.71, 8.56, and 11.42 × 10-4 mol L-1 indoleacetic acid; 4.92, 7.38, and 9.84 × 10-4 mol L-1 indolebutyric acid; 4.89, 7.34, and 9.79 × 10-4 mol L-1 tryptophan; and a control with hydroprimed seeds. A negative control with nonprimed seeds was also evaluated. All priming agents diminished the effects of salinity on endogenous abscisic acid concentration in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Grain yield was positively correlated with net CO2 assimilation rate and endogenous indoleacetic acid concentration, and it was negatively correlated with abscisic acid and free polyamine concentrations. In general, the priming treatment with tryptophan at 4.89 × 10-4 mol L-1 was the most effective in minimizing yield losses and reductions in net CO2 assimilation rate, under salt stress conditions. Hormonal homeostasis increases net CO2 assimilation rate and confers tolerance to salinity on spring wheat.

  12. Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-10-01

    Raw biogas can be an alternative feedstock to pure methane (CH4) for methanol production. In this investigation, we evaluated the methanol production potential of Methylosinus sporium from raw biogas originated from an anaerobic digester. Furthermore, the roles of different gases in methanol production were investigated using synthetic gas mixtures of CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen (H2). Maximum methanol production was 5.13, 4.35, 6.28, 7.16, 0.38, and 0.36mM from raw biogas, CH4:CO2, CH4:H2, CH4:CO2:H2, CO2, and CO2:H2, respectively. Supplementation of H2 into raw biogas increased methanol production up to 3.5-fold. Additionally, covalent immobilization of M. sporium on chitosan resulted in higher methanol production from raw biogas. This study provides a suitable approach to improve methanol production using low cost raw biogas as a feed containing high concentrations of H2S (0.13%). To our knowledge, this is the first report on methanol production from raw biogas, using immobilized cells of methanotrophs.

  13. Emotion regulation before and after transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S J; van der Werf, Y D; Mataix-Cols, D; Trujillo, J P; van Oppen, P; Veltman, D J; van den Heuvel, O A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired emotion regulation may underlie exaggerated emotional reactivity in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet instructed emotion regulation has never been studied in the disorder. METHOD: This study aimed to assess the neural correlates of emotion processing and reg

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  15. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  16. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  17. The regulation of greenhouse gas emissions in the field of transport; La regulation des emissions de gaz a effet de serre dans le domaine du transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    Since 1990, CO{sub 2} emissions in the transport sector have increased by nearly 20%, mainly because of increased car traffic. Reducing them by 20% between now and 2020, in accordance with the draft law tabled by the Grenelle Environment Forum - and by much more between now and 2050 in the context of reducing European emissions by 75% - presupposes recourse to economic instruments such as the climate-energy contribution envisaged by the Forum. However, the methods of evaluation and implementation remain to be defined. The order of magnitude of such instruments could correspond to the value defined for the socio-economic calculations of public projects by a Centre d'Analyse Strategique mission that was set up at the request of the Prime Minister and chaired by Alain Quinet. It will thus be close to 30 euros per CO{sub 2} ton today, rising to 100 euros in 2030 and between 150 and 350 euros in 2050. However, this value cannot be used as such in the economy - and particularly in the form of a tax - without precautions, both for social reasons and reasons of economic competitiveness. The purpose of this Strategic Newswatch is to contribute to the debate by envisaging, within a European framework, the different forms that the regulation of transport greenhouse gas emissions could take. (author)

  18. A Noninvasive Method to Study Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Volume in Rats Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR)-based measurement of body composition of rodents is an effective method to quickly and repeatedly measure proportions of fat, lean, and fluid without anesthesia. TD-NMR provides a measure of free water in a living animal, termed % f...

  19. [Polish regulations on maximum admissible intensities for electric and magnetic frequencies of 60 Hz and the European Union recommendations for electrical power engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszko, Marian

    2003-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields of 50 Hz from electric power devices affect not only workers, but also the general population, as these devices are also located in populated areas, hence the duality of regulations on maximum admissible intensities. This paper presents these regulations and discusses in detail the changes of 2001. Based on the Polish regulations, hygienic evaluation of electric power devices has been attempted. The Polish regulations on the 50 Hz electromagnetic fields were compared with relevant international regulations of CENELEC and the European Union recommendations. Our maximum admissible intensities have been found to conform with the international standards.

  20. Upgrade of the Gas Flow Control System of the Resistive Current Leads of the LHC Inner Triplet Magnets: Simulation and Experimental Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Perin, A; Casas-Cubillos, J; Pezzetti, M

    2014-01-01

    The 600 A and 120 A circuits of the inner triplet magnets of the Large Hadron Collider are powered by resistive gas cooled current leads. The current solution for controlling the gas flow of these leads has shown severe operability limitations. In order to allow a more precise and more reliable control of the cooling gas flow, new flowmeters will be installed during the first long shutdown of the LHC. Because of the high level of radiation in the area next to the current leads, the flowmeters will be installed in shielded areas located up to 50 m away from the current leads. The control valves being located next to the current leads, this configuration leads to long piping between the valves and the flowmeters. In order to determine its dynamic behaviour, the proposed system was simulated with a numerical model and validated with experimental measurements performed on a dedicated test bench.

  1. Vertical Equilibrium, Energetics, and Star Formation Rates in Magnetized Galactic Disks Regulated by Momentum Feedback from Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Recent hydrodynamic (HD) simulations have shown that galactic disks evolve to reach well-defined statistical equilibrium states. The star formation rate (SFR) self-regulates until energy injection by star formation feedback balances dissipation and cooling in the interstellar medium (ISM), and provides vertical pressure support to balance gravity. In this paper, we extend our previous models to allow for a range of initial magnetic field strengths and configurations, utilizing three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We show that a quasi-steady equilibrium state is established as rapidly for MHD as for HD models unless the initial magnetic field is very strong or very weak, which requires more time to reach saturation. Remarkably, models with initial magnetic energy varying by two orders of magnitude approach the same asymptotic state. In the fully saturated state of the fiducial model, the integrated energy proportions E_kin:E_th:E_mag,t:E_mag,o are 0.35:0.39:0.15:0.11, while the proportions...

  2. Negative differential conductivity induced current instability in two-dimensional electron gas system in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ping; Komiyama, Susumu; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2015-03-01

    High mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in the interface of a GaAs/AlGaAs hetero-structure in high magnetic field (B) exhibits interring nonlinear response either under microwave radiation or to a dc electric field (E). It is general believed that this kind nonlinear behavior is closely related to the occurrence of negative-differential conductance (NDC) in the presence of strong B and E. We observe a new type NDC state driven by a direct current above a threshold value (Ith) applied to a 2DEG as a function of B at relatively high temperatures (T). A current instability is observed in 2DEG system at high B ~6-8 T and at high T ~ 20- 30 K while the applied current is over Ith. The longitudinal voltage Vxx shows sub-linear behavior with the increase of I. As the current exceed Ith, Vxx suddenly drops a ΔVxx and becomes irregular associated with the appearance of hysteresis with sweeping I. We find that Ith increases with the increase of B and of T; meanwhile, ΔVxx is larger at higher B but lower T. Data analysis suggest that the onset of voltage fluctuation can be described by a NDC model proposed by Kurosawa et al. in 1976. The general behaviors of T and B dependence of current instability are analog to those recently reported at lower both T and B. This consistence suggests the same genuine mechanism of NDC phenomena observed in 2DEG system.

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  5. X-rays from Magnetically Confined Wind Shocks: Effect of Cooling-Regulated Shock Retreat

    CERN Document Server

    ud-Doula, Asif; Townsend, Richard; Petit, Veronique; Cohen, David

    2014-01-01

    We use 2D MHD simulations to examine the effects of radiative cooling and inverse Compton (IC) cooling on X-ray emission from magnetically confined wind shocks (MCWS) in magnetic massive stars with radiatively driven stellar winds. For the standard dependence of mass loss rate on luminosity $\\Mdot \\sim L^{1.7} $, the scaling of IC cooling with $L$ and radiative cooling with $\\Mdot$ means that IC cooling become formally more important for lower luminosity stars. However, because the sense of the trends is similar, we find the overall effect of including IC cooling is quite modest. More significantly, for stars with high enough mass loss to keep the shocks radiative, the MHD simulations indicate a linear scaling of X-ray luminosity with mass loss rate; but for lower luminosity stars with weak winds, X-ray emission is reduced and softened by a {\\em shock retreat} resulting from the larger post-shock cooling length, which within the fixed length of a closed magnetic loop forces the shock back to lower pre-shock w...

  6. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks; La restructuration des industries gazieres americaine et britannique: la reglementation de la charge d'acces aux reseaux de gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L

    2000-10-01

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  7. Adiabatic Magnetooptical and Magnetocaloric Effects of Tb3GasO12 at Low Temperature in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-Ying; CHEN Hui; YANG Dan; HU Feng; LIU Hai-Shun

    2012-01-01

    In a strong magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility χ and equivalent magnetic susceptibility λχ of some paramagnetic materials depend sensitively on the applied field He. Here A is the coefficient of the effective field Hm, which relates to the superexchange interaction between the electrons in different magnetic ions. We present the forms of the adiabatic equivalent λχ and the effective field Hm. The adiabatic magneto-caloric and magneto-optical effects of paramagnetic terbium gallate garnet Tb3 Ga5 O12 are calculated at 6K in strong magnetic fields. Our calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data.%In a strong magnetic field,the magnetic susceptibility χ and equivalent magnetic susceptibility λχ of some paramagnetic materials depend sensitively on the applied field He.Here λ is the coefficient of the effective field Hm,which relates to the superexchange interaction between the electrons in different magnetic ions.We present the forms of the adiabatic equivalent λχ and the effective field Hm.The adiabatic magneto-caloric and magnetooptical effects of paramagnetic terbium gallate garnet Tb3Ga5O12 are calculated at 6 K in strong magnetic fields.Our calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Regulation of GAs-binding protein on dwarfism of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGPing; CAOXianzu; WUYonghong; LIANGJiansheng

    1994-01-01

    The levels of endogenous hormones (GAs and ABA) in rice seedlings (7d) were measured by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detoctor (GLC-FID) and the GAs-binding protein on meanbrane of young rice shoot was also analysed as dascribed by Chiharu.

  9. GAS REGULATION OF GALAXIES: THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, THE METALLICITY-MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION, AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles from the gas phase; Strukturelle und magnetische Eigenschaften von FePt-Nanopartikeln aus der Gasphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrieva, O.

    2007-09-21

    In this work, we present the structural and magnetic characterization of FePt nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with mean size of about 6 nm were prepared by sputtering in the gas and subsequent inert gas condensation. The particles are annealed in the furnace during their flight prior to deposition on a substrate. The aim of this work is to prepare magnetically hard FePt nanoparticles in the L1{sub 0}-ordered phase. The structure of the particles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and the investigations were supported by contrast simulations. The morphology of the particles varies with the sputter-gas pressure and with the annealing temperature. At a pressure of 0.5 mbar, the FePt-nanoparticles are multiply-twinned with an icosahedral structure and exhibit no formation of the L1{sub 0}-ordered phase. At a higher pressure of 1 mbar and an annealing temperature of 1000 C, the particles are partially single-crystalline. About 36 % of the particles are found to be in the L1{sub 0}-ordered state as was estimated by statistical counting supported by simulations. In order to activate the volume diffusion in the particles and to stabilize the formation of the L1{sub 0}-ordered state, the addition of nitrogen was used during the sputtering phase. In this phase, atomic nitrogen is incorporated interstitially into the structure of the primary particles. After annealing nitrogen effuses out of the particles and, thereby, increases the volume diffusion of the Fe and Pt atoms. The incorporation of nitrogen atoms during nucleation and their effusion at an annealing temperature of 1000 C was verified by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Structural investigations on particles prepared in the presence of nitrogen shows that most of the particles are single-crystalline and about 70 % of them are L1{sub 0}-ordered. Detailed structural analysis of the nanoparticles was done by the exit wave

  11. Metal-rich multi-phase gas in M87: AGN-driven metal transport, magnetic-field supported multi-temperature gas, and constraints on non-thermal emission observed with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Simionescu, A; Finoguenov, A; Böhringer, H; Brüggen, M

    2007-01-01

    We use deep (~120 ks) XMM-Newton data of the M87 halo to analyze its spatially resolved temperature structure and chemical composition. We focus particularly on the regions of enhanced X-ray brightness associated with the inner radio lobes. Compared to a simple two-temperature fit, we obtain a better and more physical description of the spectra using a model which involves a continuous range of temperatures in each spatial bin. The range of temperatures of the multiphase gas spans between ~0.6-3.2 keV. Such a multiphase structure is only possible if thermal conduction is suppressed by magnetic fields. In the multi-temperature regions, we find a correlation between the amount of cool gas (with a temperature below that of the surrounding X-ray plasma) and the metallicity, and conclude that the cool gas is more metal-rich than the ambient halo. We estimate the Fe abundance of the cool gas to ~2.2 solar. Our results thus point toward the key role of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in transporting heavy elements...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  15. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  16. Regulations concerning the cooking installations using the natural gas in the bakeries and the cake shops of the shopping Centers; Reglementation des installations de cuisson au gaz naturel en boulangerie-patisserie dans les centres commerciaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This brochure presents the regulation relative to the cooking installations using the natural gas in bakeries and cake shops of the shopping Centers. Following the general regulation context, the guide presents the ovens which can be installed and the associated technical restraints. The necessary conditions for the buildings, the gas alimentation, the natural gas pipelines in the buildings and the installations conditions are also presented. Finally the guide presents the maintenance facilities obligations. (A.L.B.)

  17. Owners responsibility of refrigeration equipment according F-Gas-regulation 'EC 842/2006' and answers; Betreiberpflichten nach 'F-Gas-Verordnung' EG 842/2006 und Antworten darauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beermann, Karsten [IKKE gGmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The results of the F-Gas-regulation EC 842/2006 are some responsibilities for owners of refrigeration equipment. To fulfill these duties exist e-learning training modules and different tools which are the result of a European LEONARDO- project. Particularly the awareness of the equipment owner and the certified person (refrigeration technician) according the regulation will be the main background of a safe handling of refrigerants for an effective environmental protection. Interested persons and companies will find helpful information to learn good practice. (orig.)

  18. The regulation in the unitization process in the petroleum and natural gas exploration in Brazil; A regulacao no processo de unitization na exploracao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Felipe Alvite; Silva, Moises Espindola [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents and analyses the unitization of exploration and production process of petroleum and natural gas in Brazil, focusing the regulatory aspects under the Petroleum Law 9478/97. Considering the deficiency and blanks of the existent regulation when referring the utilization, this work intends to present and discuss those non resolved points and, in concise way, to present international unitization cases, applying when possible, their resolutions to Brazil.

  19. The gas and electric power markets opening in Europe, the implementation of the regulation authorities; L'ouverture des marches du gaz et de l'electricite en Europe, la mise en place des instances de regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    Because the gas and the electric power are not simple goods, the opening of their market needs a whole reflexion where the governments must be involved. To analyse this opening, this report presents in a first part the traditional organization of the gas and electric power sectors marked by the strong presence of the government and the end of this organization at the end of the years 1980. It details then the new regulation, the operators and the effects of the competition. In a last part it provides propositions for the institutional framework in France. (A.L.B.)

  20. Technical study of brazilian vehicular natural gas program and impact of normative regulators; Estudo tecnico do programa de gas natural veicular e o impacto das normas reguladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Newton; Fragoso, Karine; Caselli, Bruno [Servicco Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burrowes, Mariana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2004-07-01

    This paper it concept to present the evaluation of the Brazilian natural gas program in the last decade, our technological aspects and use, as those economical implications of this program. Verification of environment advantages from this gas system and the relation between another fuel system from the bibliographic review. Discussions of future scenarios in this market share, those threats and opportunities. The impact of new stands from next years and it considerations. Finally will be present proposes for sustainable grow of this program with base in the relationship of market, stand and technology, in expose aspects. (author)

  1. Two-Dimensional MHD Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection Triggered by A Supernova Shock in Interstellar Medium, Generation of X-Ray Gas in Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, S; Kudoh, T; Shibata, K; Tanuma, Syuniti; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Kudoh, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    2001-01-01

    We examine the magnetic reconnection triggered by a supernova (or a point explosion) in interstellar medium, by performing two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations with high spatial resolution. We found that the magnetic reconnection starts long after a supernova shock (fast-mode MHD shock) passes a current sheet. The current sheet evolves as follows: (i) Tearing-mode instability is excited by the supernova shock, and the current sheet becomes thin in its nonlinear stage. (ii) The current-sheet thinning is saturated when the current-sheet thickness becomes comparable to that of Sweet-Parker current sheet. After that, Sweet-Parker type reconnection starts, and the current-sheet length increases. (iii) ``Secondary tearing-mode instability'' occurs in the thin Sweet-Parker current sheet. (iv) As a result, further current-sheet thinning occurs and anomalous resistivity sets in, because gas density decreases in the current sheet. Petschek type reconnection starts and heats interste...

  2. Evolution and structure of the plasma of current sheets forming in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line at low initial gas ionization and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the experimental data obtained by holographic interferometry in our work [1] makes it possible to explain most of the observed specific features of the structure and evolution of the plasma sheets developing in a two-dimensional magnetic field with a null line in a plasma with a low initial degree of ionization (≈10-4). The following two processes are shown to play a key role here: additional gas ionization in an electric field and the peculiarities of plasma dynamics in a current sheet expanding in time.

  3. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Cold Helium Injection into Gas Storage Tanks made of Carbon Steel Following Resistive Transition of the LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M

    1998-01-01

    A resistive transition (quench) of the LHC sector magnets will be followed by cold helium venting to a quench buffer volume of 2000 m3 at ambient temperature. The volume will be composed of eight medi um-pressure (2 MPa) gas storage tanks made of carbon steel, which constrains the temperature of the wall to be higher than -50oC (223 K). The aim of the analysis is the assessment of a possible spot c ooling intensity and thermo-mechanical stresses in the tank wall following helium injection.

  4. Development of TIMP1 magnetic nanoformulation for regulation of synaptic plasticity in HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atluri VSR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Venkata Subba Rao Atluri* Rahul Dev Jayant* Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Gabriella Garcia, Thangavel Samikkannu, Adriana Yndart, Ajeet Kaushik, Madhavan Nair Center for Personalized Nanomedicine, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has reduced the prevalence of severe forms of neurocognitive disorders, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders were observed in 50% of HIV-infected patients globally. The blood–brain barrier is known to be impermeable to most of antiretroviral drugs. Successful delivery of antiretroviral drugs into the brain may induce an inflammatory response, which may further induce neurotoxicity. Therefore, alternate options to antiretroviral drugs for decreasing the HIV infection and neurotoxicity may help in reducing neurocognitive impairments observed in HIV-infected patients. In this study, we explored the role of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP-bound tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1 protein in reducing HIV infection levels, oxidative stress, and recovering spine density in HIV-infected SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. We did not observe any neuronal cytotoxicity with either the free TIMP1 or MNP-bound TIMP1 used in our study. We observed significantly reduced HIV infection in both solution phase and in MNP-bound TIMP1-exposed neuronal cells. Furthermore, we also observed significantly reduced reactive oxygen species production in both the test groups compared to the neuronal cells infected with HIV alone. To observe the effect of both soluble-phase TIMP1 and MNP-bound TIMP1 on spine density in HIV-infected neuronal cells, confocal microscopy was used. We observed significant recovery of spine density in both the test groups when compared to the cells infected with HIV alone, indicting the

  5. The Hedgehog-binding proteins Gas1 and Cdo cooperate to positively regulate Shh signaling during mouse development

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Tenzen, Toyoaki; McMahon, Andrew P.

    2007-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for patterning and growth during mammalian embryogenesis. Transcriptional profiling identified Growth-arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) as a general negative target of Shh signaling. Data presented here define Gas1 as a novel positive component of the Shh signaling cascade. Removal of Gas1 results in a Shh dose-dependent loss of cell identities in the ventral neural tube and facial and skeletal defects, also consistent with reduced Shh signaling. In contrast, ectopi...

  6. Absence of localization in disordered two-dimensional electron gas at weak magnetic field and strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.

    2016-09-01

    The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical.

  7. Codex EU energy law. The most relevant directives, regulations and decisions on electricity, gas and oil, renewables, energy efficiency, energy taxation, energy infrastructures, energy labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deketelaere, Kurt (ed.) [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Chair of Energy and Environmental Law

    2012-07-01

    This Codex EU Energy Law brings together the most important, presently applicable, legislation on energy, as adopted by the EU. The legislation has been booming in recent years, after decades of very limited European activity in the field, with the exception of coal and nuclear. Several drivers explain this increase: the liberalisation of the European gas and electricity markets, the awareness to improve the security of energy supply, the necessity to be more energy-efficient, and the protection of the environment. All this has been translated in several, recent (i.e. 2009/2010) legislative energy packages: the liberalisation package, the climate and energy package, and the energy efficiency package. As a consequence, a serious amount of new regulations, directives and decisions on gas, electricity, renewables, biofuels, regulators, appliances, buildings, etc. must be implemented and/or applied by the Member States. Practitioners and academics will find this codex to be a good working tool. (orig.)

  8. 谈燃气调压器的选用及安装%Discussion on the selection and installation of gas voltage regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet different pressure needs in urban gas transmission and application, the article describes the selection and installation of voltage regulation device according relevant experience, so as to guarantee safe and stable operation of voltage regulator in actual application and to ensure favorable development of gas industry.%为了满足城镇燃气在输配与应用过程中不同压力的需要,根据相关经验对调压装置的选用和安装进行了阐述,从而使调压器能在实际应用中安全稳定的运行,保证燃气事业的良好发展。

  9. Self-similar Fragmentation Regulated by Magnetic Fields in a Massive Star Forming Filament

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hua-bai; Otto, Frank; Leung, Po Kin; Sridharan, T K; Zhang, Qizhou; Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Qiu, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Most molecular clouds are filamentary or elongated. Among those forming low-mass stars, their long axes tend to be either parallel or perpendicular to the large-scale (10-100 pc) magnetic field (B-field) in the surrounding inter cloud medium. This arises because, along the dynamically dominant B-fields, the competition between self-gravity and turbulent pressure will shape the cloud to be elongated either perpendicular or parallel to the fields. Recent study also suggested that, on the scales of 0.1-0.01 pc, fields are dynamically important within cloud cores forming massive stars. But whether the core field morphologies are inherited from the inter cloud medium or governed by cloud turbulence is under vigorous debate, so is the role played by B-fields in cloud fragmentation at 10 - 0.1 pc scales. Here we report B-field maps covering 100-0.01 pc scales inferred from polarimetric observations of a massive-star forming region, NGC 6334. First, the main filament also lies perpendicular to the ambient field. NGC ...

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolo, N.R.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the potential for and limitations of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for quantitation of glucose flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (shunt). Interest in the shunt is motivated by the possibility that its activity may be greatly increased in cancer and in the pathological states of cardiac and cerebral ischemia. The ability to dynamically monitor flux through the pentose shunt can give new knowledge about metabolism in pathological states. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor shunt activity by determination of the ratios of ({sup 13}C-4) to ({sup 13}C-5)-glutamate, ({sup 13}C-3) to ({sup 13}C-2)-alanine or ({sup 13}C-3) to ({sup 13}C-2)-lactate produced when ({sup 13}C-2)-glucose is infused. These methods provide measures of the effect of oxidative stresses on shunt activity in systems ranging from cell free enzyme-substrate preparations to cell suspensions and whole animals. In anaerobic cell free preparations, the fraction of glucose flux through the shunt was monitored with a time resolution of 3 minutes. This work predicts the potential for in vivo human studies of pentose phosphate pathway activity based on the mathematical simulation of the {sup 13}C fractional enrichments of C4 and C5-glutamate as a function of shunt activity and on the signal-to- noise ratio acquired in {sup 13}C NMR human studies from the current literature.

  11. An Analysis of the Effectiveness and Impact of Mandatory Company Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting Under The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, Celina

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research is to examine the effectiveness and impact of the UK’s mandatory reporting of company greenhouse gas emissions, otherwise known as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions, in accordance to The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013, especially regarding the regulations’ influence on quality of a company’s CO2e emission reporting, setting of CO2e emission reduction targets, and the comparability to other companies...

  12. Individual variation in macronutrient regulation measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngja; Kim, Seoung Bum; Wang, Bing; Blanco, Roberto A; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Wu, Shaoxiong; Accardi, Carolyn J; Alexander, R Wayne; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2009-07-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy of plasma provides a global metabolic profiling method that shows promise for clinical diagnostics. However, cross-sectional studies are complicated by a lack of understanding of intraindividual variation, and this limits experimental design and interpretation of data. The present study determined the diurnal variation detected by (1)H NMR spectroscopy of human plasma. Data reduction methods revealed three time-of-day metabolic patterns, which were associated with morning, afternoon, and night. Major discriminatory regions for these time-of-day patterns included the various kinds of lipid signals (-CH(2)- and -CH(2)OCOR), and the region between 3 and 4 ppm heavily overlapped with amino acids that had alpha-CH and alpha-CH(2). The phasing and duration of time-of-day patterns were variable among individuals, apparently because of individual difference in food processing/digestion and absorption and clearance of macronutrient energy sources (fat, protein, carbohydrate). The times of day that were most consistent among individuals, and therefore most useful for cross-sectional studies, were fasting morning (0830-0930), postprandial afternoon (1430-1630), and nighttime samples (0430-0530). Importantly, the integrated picture of metabolism provided by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy of plasma suggests that this approach is suitable to study complex regulatory processes, including eating patterns/eating disorders, upper gastrointestinal functions (gastric emptying, pancreatic, biliary functions), and absorption/clearance of macronutrients. Hence, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy of plasma could provide a global metabolic tolerance test to assess complex processes involved in disease, including eating disorders and the range of physiological processes causing dysregulation of energy homeostasis.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure and dynamics of the response regulator Sma0114 from Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftic, Sarah R; Garcia, Preston P; White, Emma; Robinson, Victoria L; Gage, Daniel J; Alexandrescu, Andrei T

    2012-09-04

    Receiver domains control intracellular responses triggered by signal transduction in bacterial two-component systems. Here, we report the solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure and dynamics of Sma0114 from the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the first such characterization of a receiver domain from the HWE-kinase family of two-component systems. The structure of Sma0114 adopts a prototypical α(5)/β(5) Rossman fold but has features that set it apart from other receiver domains. The fourth β-strand of Sma0114 houses a PFxFATGY sequence motif, common to many HWE-kinase-associated receiver domains. This sequence motif in Sma0114 may substitute for the conserved Y-T coupling mechanism, which propagates conformational transitions in the 455 (α4-β5-α5) faces of receiver domains, to prime them for binding downstream effectors once they become activated by phosphorylation. In addition, the fourth α-helix of the consensus 455 face in Sma0114 is replaced with a segment that shows high flexibility on the pico- to nanosecond time scale by (15)N relaxation data. Secondary structure prediction analysis suggests that the absence of helix α4 may be a conserved property of the HWE-kinase-associated family of receiver domains to which Sma0114 belongs. In spite of these differences, Sma0114 has a conserved active site, binds divalent metal ions such as Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) that are required for phosphorylation, and exhibits micro- to millisecond active-site dynamics similar to those of other receiver domains. Taken together, our results suggest that Sma0114 has a conserved active site but differs from typical receiver domains in the structure of the 455 face that is used to effect signal transduction following activation.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolo, Nicolas Robin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the potential for and limitations of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for quantitation of glucose flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (shunt). Interest in the shunt is motivated by the possibility that its activity may be greatly increased in cancer and in the pathological states of cardiac and cerebral ischemia. The ability to dynamically monitor flux through the pentose shunt can give new knowledge about metabolism in pathological states. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor shunt activity by determination of the ratios of [13C-4] to [13C-5]-glutamate, [13C-3] to [13C-2]-alanine or [13C-3] to [13C-2]-lactate produced when [13C-2]-glucose is infused. These methods provide measures of the effect of oxidative stresses on shunt activity in systems ranging from cell free enzyme-substrate preparations to cell suspensions and whole animals. In anaerobic cell free preparations, the fraction of glucose flux through the shunt was monitored with a time resolution of 3 minutes. This work predicts the potential for in vivo human studies of pentose phosphate pathway activity based on the mathematical simulation of the 13C fractional enrichments of C4 and C5-glutamate as a function of shunt activity and on the signal-to- noise ratio acquired in 13C NMR human studies from the current literature.

  15. Shale Gas Extraction in Europe and Germany - The Impacts of Environmental Protection and Energy Security on Emerging Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2016-01-01

    Shale gas extraction is a technology that is recently arriving in Europe and Germany. The technology brings about a considerable amount of potential environmental threats, but the extraction of shale gas also promises energy security rewards. When the European and German systems for energy and envir

  16. Evaluation of magnetic nanoparticles to serve as solid-phase extraction sorbents for the determination of endocrine disruptors in milk samples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synaridou, Maria-Evangelia S; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Stalikas, Constantine D; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2014-06-27

    A rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) is proposed based on C18-functionalized magnetic silica nanoparticles as sorbents, for the determination of endocrine disruptors - 20 organochlorine pesticides and 6 polychlorinated biphenyls - in milk samples. Magnetic nanoparticles are characterized by several techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and Fourier transform-infrared. The MSPE is performed by dispersion of the Fe3O4@SiO2@C18 nanoparticles in milk samples with sonication, after protein precipitation. Then, the sorbent is collected by applying an external magnetic field and the analytes are desorbed by n-hexane. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of target analytes by the magnetic nanoparticles are investigated, including washing and elution solvents, amount of sorbents, time of extraction and elution, sample and elution solvent volume. The proposed method is optimized by means of experimental design and response surface methodology. When coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection and under optimum extraction conditions, average recoveries of target analytes are found to be in the range of 79% to 116%. The proposed MSPE-GC-MS analytical method has a linear calibration curve for all target analytes with coefficients of determination to range from 0.9950 to 0.9999. The limits of quantification are found to be between 0.2 and 1μg/L ensuring compliance with the maximum residue limits established by European Commission and Codex Alimentarius, for OCPs and PCBs residues in milk. The proposed method is applied to the determination of target analytes in milk samples from local markets.

  17. A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand: Solvothermal synthesis, crystal structure, gas adsorption and magnetic property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingfu, E-mail: zhangqingfu@lcu.edu.cn; Zhang, Haina; Geng, Aijing; Wang, Suna; Zhang, Chong

    2014-04-01

    A new cobalt(II)–organic framework, [Co{sub 2}(L)(py){sub 2}(DMSO)]{sub n}• 0.5nDMF• 2nDMSO (1) [H{sub 4}L=5,5'-((naphthalene-2,6-dicarbonyl)bis(azanediyl))diisophthalic acid, py=pyridine, DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide], has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, PXRD and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The structural analysis reveals that complex 1 is a 3D framework built from nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligands (L{sup 4−}) and dinuclear [Co{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}] secondary building units (SBUs), exhibiting a uninodal (4,4)-connected crb topology with the Schläfli symbol of (4• 6{sup 5}). The desolvated complex (1a) displays higher adsorption capability for CO{sub 2} than N{sub 2}, which may be due to the relatively strong binding affinity between the CO{sub 2} molecules and acylamide groups in the framework. The magnetic investigation shows that the dominant antiferromagnetic interaction is observed in complex 1. - Graphical abstract: A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand was solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized, its thermal stability, gas adsorption and magnetic property were studied. - Highlights: • A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized. • Complex 1 exhibits a uninodal (4,4)-connected crb topology. • The thermal stability, gas adsorption and magnetic property were studied.

  18. Diesel and gas engines: evolution following new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverat, Ph. [Bergerat Monnoyeur (France). Direction Industrie

    1997-12-31

    Engine emissions of CO, NMHC and ashes are easily lowered through a low-cost exhaust gas processing, while NOx processing in fumes is rather complex and environmentally hazardous; thus, engine manufacturers have emphasized their researches for NOx decrease on the engine design: lower combustion temperature in diesel engines through water cooling or air/air exchanger, lean mixture with excess air (open chamber or pre-chamber) in spark ignition gas engines. Examples of modifications in Caterpillar engines are given. Exhaust gas processing for CO, NMHC, NOx (3 way catalytic purifier, selective catalytic reduction) and ashes is also discussed

  19. Solid-phase extraction based on chloromethylated polystyrene magnetic nanospheres followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to determine phthalate esters in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoji; Kong, Qiaoling; Cai, Ruonan; Zhu, Kundan; Ye, Xuemin; Chen, Jiaoyu; Mo, Weimin; Wang, Jianli

    2014-12-01

    An ultrasound-assisted magnetic solid-phase extraction procedure with chloromethylated polystyrene-coated Fe3 O4 nanospheres as magnetic adsorbents has been developed to determine eight phthalate esters (bis(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, dihexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, and dinonyl phthalate) simultaneously in beverage samples, in combination with gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Several factors related to magnetic solid-phase extraction efficiencies, such as amount of adsorbent, extracting time, ionic strength, and desorption conditions were investigated. The enrichment factors of the method for the eight analytes were over 2482. A good linearity was observed in the range of 10-500 ng/L for bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate and 2-500 ng/L for the other phthalate esters with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9980 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and quantification for the eight phthalate esters were in the range of 0.20-2.90 and 0.67-9.67 ng/L, respectively. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels were 75.8-117.7%, the coefficients of variations were esters in beverage samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Magnetic Ni-Co alloys induced by water gas shift reaction, Ni-Co oxides by CO oxidation and their supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Kang, Jung-Soo; Leung, Kam Tong; Kim, Seog K.; Sohn, Youngku

    2016-11-01

    Ni-Co alloys and oxides have attracted considerable attention in diverse fields, such as magnetic materials, energy storage and environmental/energy producing catalysts. Herein, the formation of magnetic Ni-Co alloys was induced by the water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) and the oxides were prepared by post-annealing and a CO oxidation reaction. The materials were characterized using a range of techniques. The annealed and post-CO oxidation Ni and Co-rich samples showed the crystal structures of NiCo2O4(Co3O4)/NiO and NiCo2O4/Co3O4, respectively. The Ni-Co oxides showed better supercapacitor performance than the corresponding Ni-Co alloys. The Co-rich samples exhibited better supercapacitor performance and CO oxidation activity than the Ni-rich sample. In addition, the Co-rich alloy showed a magnetization of 114 emu/g, which was approximately 2× larger than that of the Ni-rich alloy. The WGS reaction and the wide application tests are useful for designing new materials applicable to a wide range of areas.

  1. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation regulates L-type Ca(2+) channel activity inhibited by early sevoflurane exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Huiyun; Tang, Xiaohong; Bai, Wenwen; Wang, Guolin; Tian, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Sevoflurane might be harmful to the developing brain. Therefore, it is essential to reverse sevoflurane-induced brain injury. This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can regulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, which is inhibited by early sevoflurane exposure. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, sevoflurane, and rTMS groups. A Whole-cell patch clamp technique was applied to record L-type Ca(2+) channel currents. The I-V curve, steady-state activation and inactivation curves were studied in rats of each group at different ages (1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks old). In the control group, L-type Ca(2+) channel current density significantly increased from week 2 to week 3. Compared with the control group, L-type Ca(2+) channel currents of rats in the sevoflurane group were significantly inhibited from week 1 to week 3. Activation curves of L-type Ca(2+) channel shifted significantly towards depolarization at week 1 and week 2. Moreover, steady-state inactivation curves shifted towards hyperpolarization from week 1 to week 3. Compared with the sevoflurane group, rTMS significantly increased L-type Ca(2+) channel currents at week 2 and week 3. Activation curves of L-type Ca(2+) channel significantly shifted towards hyperpolarization at week 2. Meanwhile, steady-state inactivation curves significantly shifted towards depolarization at week 2. The period between week 2 and week 3 is critical for the development of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Early sevoflurane exposure inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channel activity and rTMS can regulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity inhibited by sevoflurane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Geomodel constructs of the Earth's crust for water continuation of the Korotaikha depression from gravity and magnetic data for revealing promising areas of oil and gas accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Kudryavtsev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the results of re-interpretation of geophysical data within the water continuation of the Korotaikha depression. To solve the issue of identifying promising areas of oil and gas accumulation in the region, magnetic and gravity materials were reprocessed: digital maps of potential fields at 1: 500 000 scale were compiled on a frame network of seismic lines (3 lines on land and 3 lines in water area) made by reflection-CDP, density models to a depth of 20 km by solving the direct problem of gravity prospecting in GM-SYS module (Geosoft) in 2D formulation were constructed. Deep reflection-CDP seismic sections specified according to the deep wells were used as starting models. Correctness of the selected density models was controlled by comparing the theoretical curve with the values interpolated on the profile line from the digital model of gravity anomaly (Bouguer, density of the intermediate layer of 2.67 g/cm3). Magnetic modeling was performed using geometry of blocks from the obtained density models to a depth of 20 km and is based on selection of local anomaly sources in the upper section (in the Triassic strata). Blocks of the Precambrian basement were used as sources of regional magnetic anomalies in the considered models. Modeling constructs show the defining role of the topography of terrigenous and carbonate complex boundary within the Paleozoic section as a source of gravity anomalies for the region under study. These findings are confirmed by comparison of gravity and seismic data (maps of local gravity anomalies and structural maps of reflecting horizons) and additionally substantiated by analysis of the nature of local magnetic anomalies distribution. The latter are associated with the Triassic basalt horizons at the top of the terrigenous complex and thus also reflect structures of the sedimentary cover, which are registered independently by gravity data.

  3. LHC-GCS Process Tuning selection and use of PID and Smith predictor for the regulations of the LHC experiments' gas systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cabaret, S; Rachid, A; Coppier, H

    2005-01-01

    The LHC experiment’s Gas Control System (LHC GCS) has to provide LHC experiments with homogeneous control systems (supervision and process control layers) for their 23 gas systems. The LHC GCS process control layer is based on Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Field-Buses and on a library, UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System). Its supervision layer is based on a commercial SCADA system and on the JCOP and UNICOS PVSS frameworks. A typical LHC experiment’s gas system is composed of up to ten modules, dedicated to specific functions (e.g. mixing, purification, circulation). Most of modules require control loops for the regulation of pressures, temperatures and flows or ratios of gases. The control loops of the 23 gas systems can be implemented using the same tools, but need specific tuning according to their respective size, volume, pipe lengths and required accuracy. Most of the control loops can be implemented by means a standard PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) controller. When this...

  4. Microstructual investigation of mixed rar earth iron boron processed vis melt-spinning and high-pressure gas-atomization for isotrophic bonded permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, Nicholas Lee [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A solid solution of three rare earths (RE) in the RE2Fe14B structure have been combined to create the novel mixed rare earth iron boron (MRE2Fe14B) alloy family. MRE2Fe14B exhibits reduced temperature dependent magnetic properties; remanence and coercivity. The desired form of MRE2Fe14B is a powder that can be blended with a polymer binder and compression or injection molded to form an isotropic polymer bonded permanent magnet (PBM). Commercially, Nd2Fe14B is the alloy of choice for PBMs. Powders of Nd2Fe14B are made via melt-spinning as can be MRE2Fe14B which allows for direct comparisons. MRE2Fe14B made using melt-spinning at high wheel speeds is overquenched and must be annealed to an optimal hard magnetic state. Due to the rare earth content in the MRE2Fe14B powders, they must be protected from the environment in which they operate. This protection is accomplished by using a modified fluidized bed process to grow a protective fluoride coating nominally 15nm thick, to reduce air oxidation. MRE2Fe14B has demonstrated reduced temperature dependent magnetic properties in ribbon and PBM form. The real challenge has been modifying alloy designs that were successfully melt-spun to be compatible with high-pressure gas-atomization (HPGA). The cooling rates in HPGA are lower than melt-spinning, as the powders are quenched via convective cooling, compared to melt-spinning, which quenches initially by conductive cooling. Early alloy designs, in gas atomized and melt-spun form, did not have similar phase compositions or microstructures. Alloy additions, such as the addition of zirconium as a nucleation catalyst, were successful in creating similar phases and microstructures in the HPGA powders and melt-spun ribbon of the same MRE2Fe14

  5. COEVOLUTION BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND BULGES IS NOT VIA INTERNAL FEEDBACK REGULATION BUT BY RATIONED GAS SUPPLY DUE TO ANGULAR MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen, Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.

  6. Long Step out Umbilicals for Oil and Gas Subsea Pump or Compressor Application - Starting of Permanent Magnet Machine

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Topside Variable Speed Drive (VSD) feeding a subsea load via a long cable is not a new technological challenge and many features in systems feeding asynchronous machines are well known. For a synchronous machine the situation is different as a net positive machine torque is not guaranteed. Therefor an analysis of the start sequence of such machine is of interest. In this work starting of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) powered by a VSD via a long subsea cable have been studi...

  7. The identification of acetylcholine and choline in oat seedlings by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Tretyn; Wiesława Bobkiewicz; Małgorzata Tretyn; Leszek Michalski

    2014-01-01

    Four methods of isolation and purification of choline esters from green 7-day-old oat ( Avena sativa L. cv. Diadem) seedlings were tested The results showed that the best recovery of acetylcholine and choline from plant tissues was obtained using an extraction solution composed of 15% 1N formic acid and 85%, acetone followed by precipitation of both these substances with ammonium reineckate. The presence of acetylcholine and choline in the plant extracts was confirmed by nuclear magnetic reso...

  8. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  9. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan monitoring study in the northeast of Spain using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay and confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantiani, Lina; Farré, Marinella; Asperger, Danijela; Rubio, Fernando; González, Susana; López de Alda, Maria J.; Petrović, Mira; Shelver, Weilin L.; Barceló, Damià

    2008-10-01

    SummaryFor the first time, the occurrence of triclosan and its metabolite methyl-triclosan was investigated in a typical Mediterranean area using a two-step methodology based on screening using a magnetic particle immunoassay (IA) and confirmatory analysis by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, 95 environmental samples were analyzed. A commercial immunoassay was assessed for use in the different types of water selected for this study. A large monitoring study was performed on the influent and the effluent of eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), water samples from Ebro and Llobregat rivers, and drinking water. All wastewater samples tested in this study (influents and effluents) showed the presence of triclosan, with concentrations for raw influents being high (10 μg/L as average value). The percentages of triclosan removal for the WWTPs were evaluated (30-70%) along the different treatment processes showing that the best removal rates were obtained by the processes equipped with membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, important concentrations of triclosan were detected even after treatment by MBRs. The presence of this biocide was confirmed in 50% of the river samples analyzed. Twenty two drinking water samples from the Barcelona city area were investigated, and in this case no triclosan was detected. Due to its properties and the widespread usage of triclosan, there is a need for monitoring and controlling the amounts present in wastewater effluents, river water, drinking water catchments areas, and drinking water. To this end, we present a feasible methodology using a magnetic particle-based immunoassay as a screening, followed by confirmatory analysis using solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS).

  10. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  11. Coupling of the magnetic field and gas flows inferred from the net circular polarization in a sunspot penumbra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdelrazek M. K.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2015-04-01

    We analyze penumbral fine structure using high-resolution spectropolarimetric data obtained by the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. The spatial correlation between the net circular polarization (NCP) and Evershed flow is investigated in detail. Here we obtain that negative NCP structures are correlated with the Evershed flow channels in the limb-side penumbra, and that negative NCP or depressions of positive NCP are associated with the Evershed flow channels in the disk center-side of the penumbra for a negative-polarity sunspot in NOAA 10923. The positive NCP dominant in the disk center-side penumbra is essentially attributed to interflow channels instead of Evershed flow channels. The stratification of magnetic field and velocity are investigated by using SIR-JUMP inversion with a one-component atmosphere, and the NCP of spectral lines in the limb-side and disk center-side of the penumbra is successfully reproduced. The inversion results show that an increased Evershed flow is associated with a strong magnetic field located in the deep photosphere. Our result does not match with the simple two-component penumbral models in which the penumbra consists of Evershed flow and interflow channels and the global NCP is attributed only to the Evershed flow channels.

  12. HIV Triggers a cGAS-Dependent, Vpu- and Vpr-Regulated Type I Interferon Response in CD4+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Vermeire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several pattern-recognition receptors sense HIV-1 replication products and induce type I interferon (IFN-I production under specific experimental conditions. However, it is thought that viral sensing and IFN induction are virtually absent in the main target cells of HIV-1 in vivo. Here, we show that activated CD4+ T cells sense HIV-1 infection through the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS and mount a bioactive IFN-I response. Efficient induction of IFN-I by HIV-1 infection requires proviral integration and is regulated by newly expressed viral accessory proteins: Vpr potentiates, while Vpu suppresses cGAS-dependent IFN-I induction. Furthermore, Vpr also amplifies innate sensing of HIV-1 infection in Vpx-treated dendritic cells. Our results identify cGAS as mediator of an IFN-I response to HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells and demonstrate that this response is modulated by the viral accessory proteins Vpr and Vpu. Thus, viral innate immune evasion is incomplete in the main target cells of HIV-1.

  13. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics.

  14. Amplification, Saturation, and Q Thresholds for Runaway Growth of Self-Gravitating Structures in Models of Magnetized Galactic Gas Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, W T; Kim, Woong-Tae; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the susceptibility of gaseous, magnetized galactic disks to formation of self-gravitating condensations using two-dimensional, local models. We focus on two issues: (1) determining the threshold condition for gravitational runaway, taking into account nonlinear effects, and (2) distinguishing the magneto-Jeans instability (MJI) that arises under inner-galaxy rotation curves from the modified swing amplification (MSA) that arises under outer-galaxy rotation curves. For axisymmetric density fluctuations, instability is known to require a Toomre parameter Q<1. For nonaxisymmetric fluctuations, any nonzero shear $q \\equiv -d\\ln \\Omega /d \\ln R$ winds up wavefronts such that in linear theory amplification saturates. Any Q threshold for nonaxisymmetric gravitational runaway must originate from nonlinear effects. We use numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations to demonstrate the anticipated threshold phenomenon, to analyze the nonlinear processes involved, and to evaluate the critical value $Q_c$ ...

  15. Structure, dynamical impact and origin of magnetic fields in nearby galaxies in the SKA era

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Ferrière, Katia; Fletcher, Andrew; Heald, George; Heesen, Volker; Horellou, Cathy; Krause, Marita; Lou, Yu-Qing; Mao, Sui Ann; Paladino, Rosita; Schinnerer, Eva; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Stil, Jeroen; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields are an important ingredient of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides their importance for star formation, they govern the transport of cosmic rays, relevant to the launch and regulation of galactic outflows and winds, which in turn are pivotal in shaping the structure of halo magnetic fields. Mapping the small-scale structure of interstellar magnetic fields in many nearby galaxies is crucial to understand the interaction between gas and magnetic fields, in particular how gas flows are affected. Elucidation of the magnetic role in, e.g., triggering star formation, forming and stabilising spiral arms, driving outflows, gas heating by reconnection and magnetising the intergalactic medium has the potential to revolutionise our physical picture of the ISM and galaxy evolution in general. Radio polarisation observations in the very nearest galaxies at high frequencies (>= 3 GHz) and with high spatial resolution (<= 5") hold the key here. The galaxy survey with SKA1 that we propose will also be a...

  16. Scaling laws for magnetic reconnection, set by regulation of the electron pressure anisotropy to the firehose threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohia, O.; Egedal, J.; Lukin, V. S.; Daughton, W.; Le, A.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection in a weakly collisional plasma, such as in the Earth's magnetosphere, is known to be accompanied by electron pressure anisotropy. For reconnection scenarios including moderate guide magnetic field, electrons are magnetized throughout the reconnection region, and the anisotropy drives extended electron current layers. Along these layers, the anisotropy nears the firehose threshold. We describe how the anisotropy stagnates at this threshold by a mechanism that does not involve pitch-angle mixing. Using previously established anisotropic equations of state and by imposing the marginal firehose condition, scaling laws are obtained for quantities along the current layers as functions of plasma parameters upstream of the reconnection region. The predicted reconnection region quantities include the magnetic field strength, plasma density, and the parallel and perpendicular electron pressures, allowing for a characterization of electron energization solely as a function of the upstream plasma conditions. This characterization is in agreement with simulations and spacecraft observations.

  17. Structural, magnetic and gas sensing properties of nanosized copper ferrite powder synthesized by sol gel combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumangala, T.P.; Mahender, C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Barnabe, A. [Université de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT – UMR CNRS-UPS-INP 5085, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31062 (France); Venkataramani, N. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Prasad, Shiva, E-mail: shiva.pd@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Stoichiometric nano sized copper ferrite particles were synthesized by sol gel combustion technique. They were then calcined at various temperatures ranging from 300–800 °C and were either furnace cooled or quenched in liquid nitrogen. A high magnetisation value of 48.2 emu/g signifying the cubic phase of copper ferrite, was obtained for sample quenched to liquid nitrogen temperature from 800 °C. The ethanol sensing response of the samples was studied and a maximum of 86% response was obtained for 500 ppm ethanol in the case of a furnace cooled sample calcined at 800 °C. The chemical sensing is seen to be correlated with the c/a ratio and is best in the case of tetragonal copper ferrite. - Highlights: • One of the first study on ethanol sensing of cubic copper ferrite. • In-situ High temperature XRD done shows phase transition from cubic to tetragonal. • A non-monotonic increase in magnetization was seen with calcination temperature. • A response of 86% was obtained towards 500 ppm ethanol. • Tried to correlate sensing response and ion content in spinel structure.

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles of nitrogen enriched carbon (mnNEC) for analysis of pesticides and metabolites in zebrafish by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youe; Xia, Qian; Ding, Mengjie; Kageruka, Hubert; Jiang, Haiying; Jiang, Yan; Jing, Huifen; Xiao, Xiao; Zhong, Hongying

    2013-02-01

    Nanosized carbon based sorbents have been widely used for separation, enrichment and desalting of biological samples because of their distinguished characteristics. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles of nitrogen enriched carbon (mnNEC) have been developed for enrichment of organochlorine pesticide DDT and metabolite DDE that have been accumulated in zebrafish during the course of environmental exposure. Polymerization of pyrrole was performed in the aqueous suspension of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. Resultant core-shell nanoparticules coated with polypyrrole were then subjected to a process of carbonization under high temperature and nitrogen atmospheric condition. The presence of nitrogen atoms in carbon nanoparticles increases the hydrophilicity and dispersability in aqueous samples. It has been experimentally demonstrated that mnNEC can be effectively dispersed in aqueous samples and rapidly isolated by the application of an external magnetic field. Recoveries of DDT and DDE from water range from 90% to 102% and 85-97% respectively. In combination with Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) experiments of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the detection limit can be down to low ng/mL level. By using mnNEC approach, two interesting results have been found for zebrafish with 60 days exposure to DDT (1 μg/l). (1) There is higher concentration of DDT (37-143 ng/g) and DDE (173-1108 ng/g) in male zebrafish body tissues than that of female (7-52 ng/g and 146-362 ng/g for DDT and DDE respectively). (2) There is high ratio of DDE/DDT for both female and male zebrafish, implying high environmental persistence and ongoing bioaccumulation.

  19. Liquid chromatography "on-flow" 1H nuclear magnetic resonance on native glycosphingolipid mixtures together with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on the released oligosaccharides for screening and characterisation of carbohydrate-based antigens from pig lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcker, A E; Thorbert, S; Rakotonirainy, O; Hallberg, E C; Olling, A; Gustavsson, M; Samuelsson, B E; Soussi, B

    1999-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids were prepared from pig lung and pooled into two fractions with (i) or = 3 sugar residues. Oligosaccharides were prepared and used for gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The glycolipid fractions i and ii were further characterised and purified using a novel method based on high performance liquid chromatography "on-flow" proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The LC "on-flow" NMR technique showed good chromatographic separation and gave NMR spectral information which could be used as guidance for pooling of the separated mixture glycolipids. Conventional 1H NMR, thin layer immunostaining, gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry were used to characterise the glycolipids and to validate LC-NMR spectral data.

  20. Windmill Co4 {Co4 (μ4 -O)} with 16 Divergent Branches Forming a Family of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Organic Metrics Control Topology, Gas Sorption, and Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Xue, Wei; Lin, Jian-Bin; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Yin, Zheng; Zeng, Ming-Hua; Kurmoo, Mohamedally; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2016-08-16

    A series of highly connected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Co8 (O)(OH)4 (H2 O)4 (ina)8 ](NO3 )2 ⋅2 C2 H5 OH⋅4 H2 O (1), [Co8 (O)(OH)4 (H2 O)4 (pba)8 ](NO3 )2 ⋅8 C2 H5 OH⋅28 H2 O (2), and [Co8 (O)(OH)4 (H2 O)4 (pbba)8 ](NO3 )2 ⋅guest (3), in which ina=isonicotinate, pba=4-pyridylbenzoate, and pbba=4-(pyridine-4-yl)phenylbenzoate, is reported. These MOFs contain a new secondary building unit (SBU), with a square Co4 (μ4 -O) central unit having the rare μ4 -O(2-) motif, which is decorated by the other four peripheral cobalt atoms through μ3 -OH in a windmill-like shape. This SBU holds 16 divergent connecting organic ligands, pyridyl-carboxylates, to form three different frameworks. The high porosity of desolvated 2 is shown by the efficient gas absorption of N2 , CO2 , CH4 , and H2 . In addition, 1 and 2 exhibit unusual canted antiferromagnetic behavior with spin-glass-like relaxation, with blocking temperatures that are fairly high, 20 K (1) and 10 K (2), for cobalt materials. The relationship between the metal clusters and linkers has been studied, in which the size and rotational degrees of freedom of the ligands are found to control the topology, gas sorption, and magnetic properties.

  1. Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  2. Legal and regulation stability of the pipeline gas distribution market as strong tools for the sustainable development; A estabilidade juridica e regulatoria no mercado de distribuicao de gas canalizado como poderosas ferramentas de alcance de desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Katia Valverde [Companhia Distribuidora de Gas (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This study examines, in general, the transformation of the role of the Brazilian state to intervener in supervisory of the services, through the delegation of responsibility for the exploitation of public services to private enterprise, and the creation of regulatory agencies. The study pointing to the necessity of a legal and regulatory stable scenario in the regulation of these services, as enables of private investment mechanisms and, as a consequence of sustainable economic development. The success of the neo liberal state model is examined, specifically in relation to the market of pipeline gas distribution, showing the environmental, economic and social benefits that brought in this sector, the private investment and stability so far reasonably observed in this segment. The work also indicating, in general, the risks and issues most relevant, from the investor and markets point of view, to attract and maintain investment and to reduce the cost of private capital, concluding, in an objective, that to respect investors rights is in fact, to preserve the public interest, which means that the success of the investor does not mean the failure of regulator/judge.

  3. The LacI–Family Transcription Factor, RbsR, Is a Pleiotropic Regulator of Motility, Virulence, Siderophore and Antibiotic Production, Gas Vesicle Morphogenesis and Flotation in Serratia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin M. Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas vesicles (GVs are proteinaceous, gas-filled organelles used by some bacteria to enable upward movement into favorable air/liquid interfaces in aquatic environments. Serratia sp. ATCC39006 (S39006 was the first enterobacterium discovered to produce GVs naturally. The regulation of GV assembly in this host is complex and part of a wider regulatory network affecting various phenotypes, including antibiotic biosynthesis. To identify new regulators of GVs, a comprehensive mutant library containing 71,000 insertion mutants was generated by random transposon mutagenesis and 311 putative GV-defective mutants identified. Three of these mutants were found to have a transposon inserted in a LacI family transcription regulator gene (rbsR of the putative ribose operon. Each of these rbsR mutants was GV-defective; no GVs were visible by phase contrast microscopy (PCM or transmission electron microscopy (TEM. GV deficiency was caused by the reduction of gvpA1 and gvrA transcription (the first genes of the two contiguous operons in the GV gene locus. Our results also showed that a mutation in rbsR was highly pleiotropic; the production of two secondary metabolites (carbapenem and prodigiosin antibiotics was abolished. Interestingly, the intrinsic resistance to the carbapenem antibiotic was not affected by the rbsR mutation. In addition, the production of a siderophore, cellulase and plant virulence was reduced in the mutant, whereas it exhibited increased swimming and swarming motility. The RbsR protein was predicted to bind to regions upstream of at least 18 genes in S39006 including rbsD (the first gene of the ribose operon and gvrA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA confirmed that RbsR bound to DNA sequences upstream of rbsD, but not gvrA. The results of this study indicate that RbsR is a global regulator that affects the modulation of GV biogenesis, but also with complex pleiotropic physiological impacts in S39006.

  4. Diagnosis of high-intensity pulsed heavy ion beam generated by a novel magnetically insulated diode with gas puff plasma gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, H; Miyake, H; Masugata, K

    2008-10-01

    Intense pulsed heavy ion beam is expected to be applied to materials processing including surface modification and ion implantation. For those applications, it is very important to generate high-purity ion beams with various ion species. For this purpose, we have developed a new type of a magnetically insulated ion diode with an active ion source of a gas puff plasma gun. When the ion diode was operated at a diode voltage of about 190 kV, a diode current of about 15 kA, and a pulse duration of about 100 ns, the ion beam with an ion current density of 54 A/cm(2) was obtained at 50 mm downstream from the anode. By evaluating the ion species and the energy spectrum of the ion beam via a Thomson parabola spectrometer, it was confirmed that the ion beam consists of nitrogen ions (N(+) and N(2+)) of energy of 100-400 keV and the proton impurities of energy of 90-200 keV. The purity of the beam was evaluated to be 94%. The high-purity pulsed nitrogen ion beam was successfully obtained by the developed ion diode system.

  5. The Feedback-Regulated Growth of Black Holes and Bulges through Gas Accretion and Starbursts in Cluster Central Dominant Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, D A; Nulsen, P E J; Wise, M W

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of the growth of black holes through accretion and bulges through star formation in 33 galaxies at the centers of cooling flows. Most of these systems show evidence of cavities in the intracluster medium (ICM) inflated by radio jets emanating from their active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present a new and extensive analysis of X-ray cavities in these systems. We find that AGN are energetically able to balance radiative losses (cooling) from the ICM in more than half of our sample. Using a subsample of 17 systems, we examine the relationship between cooling and star formation. We find that the star formation rates are approaching or are comparable to X-ray and far UV limits on the rates of gas condensation onto the central galaxy. The remaining radiative losses could be offset by AGN feedback. The vast gulf between radiative losses and the sink of cooling material, which has been the primary objection to cooling flows, has narrowed and, in some cases, is no longer a serious issue. Using th...

  6. A high throughput gas exchange screen for determining rates of photorespiration or regulation of C4 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Burgess, Steven J; Griffiths, Howard; Hibberd, Julian M

    2014-07-01

    Large-scale research programmes seeking to characterize the C4 pathway have a requirement for a simple, high throughput screen that quantifies photorespiratory activity in C3 and C4 model systems. At present, approaches rely on model-fitting to assimilatory responses (A/C i curves, PSII quantum yield) or real-time carbon isotope discrimination, which are complicated and time-consuming. Here we present a method, and the associated theory, to determine the effectiveness of the C4 carboxylation, carbon concentration mechanism (CCM) by assessing the responsiveness of V O/V C, the ratio of RuBisCO oxygenase to carboxylase activity, upon transfer to low O2. This determination compares concurrent gas exchange and pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence under ambient and low O2, using widely available equipment. Run time for the procedure can take as little as 6 minutes if plants are pre-adapted. The responsiveness of V O/V C is derived for typical C3 (tobacco, rice, wheat) and C4 (maize, Miscanthus, cleome) plants, and compared with full C3 and C4 model systems. We also undertake sensitivity analyses to determine the impact of R LIGHT (respiration in the light) and the effectiveness of the light saturating pulse used by fluorescence systems. The results show that the method can readily resolve variations in photorespiratory activity between C3 and C4 plants and could be used to rapidly screen large numbers of mutants or transformants in high throughput studies.

  7. Legal regulation of the reuse of water resources in the oil, natural gas and biofuels industry; A regulamentacao juridica do reuso dos recursos hidricos na Industria do petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Flaviana Marques de; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Constitution of 1988 is a guide for protect natural resources in the country, it was from her that the right to an ecologically balanced environment was elevated to the category of fundamental human right of all was changed understanding regarding the use water resources, irrigation water is characterized as a resource with economic value. In this scenario emerging legal standards for protecting the environment and water resources, which must necessarily be committed to the development of economic activities that use natural resources, and still worry about their conservation and preservation for the use of present and future generations, in line with the desires dictated by sustainable development. Therefore, this work has the scope to verify the legal regulation of reuse of water resources in the context of activities developed by the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, to promote optimum use of water resources in the country, and this can lead to benefits social, economic and environmental. The importance of the study emerges precisely in the industrial sector, and specifically in the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, in order that through these activities is increased the negative potential of natural resources, consequently increasing the ability to cause negative externalities either by adopting systematic contrary to sustainable development, as the high standards of environmental degradation caused by the activities of this kind. The methodology for conducting this study is theoretical and descriptive, developing through the analysis and interpretation of data obtained from the verification of magazines, books and monographs, concerning the subject of water resources and, by examining done about the current environmentalist doctrine and appreciation of constitutional and legislative documents infra constitutional above existing on the subject. (author)

  8. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis.

  9. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  10. Gas in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) can be thought of as the galactic atmosphere which fills the space between stars. When clouds within the ISM collapse, stars are born. When the stars die, they return their matter to the surrounding gas. Therefore the ISM plays a vital role in galactic evolution. The medium includes starlight, gas, dust, planets, comets, asteroids, fast moving charged particles (cosmic rays) and magnetic fields. The gas can be further divided into hot, warm and cold components, e...

  11. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals.

  12. Preparation of amino acid-based polymer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents for analysis of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Qi, Li; Li, Nan; Wang, Minglin

    2016-09-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent has been developed for enriching two plant growth regulators, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), in bean sprouts. For preparing the MSPE adsorbent, poly(N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)), amino acid-based polymer, was modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via "grafting to" method by free radical polymerization. The resultant P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The adsorption amount of Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles to 2,4-D and 4-CPA were 39.82mgg(-1) and 29.02mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the prepared MSPE adsorbents showed good selectivity towards 2,4-D and 4-CPA due to the hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the target analytes and Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe). The results demonstrated that the proposed MSPE adsorbents have high affinity to the targets 2,4-D and 4-CPA. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed materials were successfully applied to enrich 2,4-D and 4-CPA in bean sprouts samples. The recovery values of the bean sprouts solution spiked the targets were from 90.9% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations of 2.3-3.9%. Our work proved that the novel Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles were the good adsorbents of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and have good potential for the analysis of trace compound in real samples.

  13. Dynamic regulation of GDP binding to G proteins revealed by magnetic field-dependent NMR relaxation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yuki; Kano, Hanaho; Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2017-02-22

    Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signalling pathways, by coupling the activation of cell surface receptors to intracellular responses. Mutations in the G protein α-subunit (Gα) that accelerate guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation cause hyperactivation of the downstream effector proteins, leading to oncogenesis. However, the structural mechanism of the accelerated GDP dissociation has remained unclear. Here, we use magnetic field-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analyses to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of GDP bound Gα on a microsecond timescale. We show that Gα rapidly exchanges between a ground-state conformation, which tightly binds to GDP and an excited conformation with reduced GDP affinity. The oncogenic D150N mutation accelerates GDP dissociation by shifting the equilibrium towards the excited conformation.

  14. Dynamic regulation of GDP binding to G proteins revealed by magnetic field-dependent NMR relaxation analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yuki; Kano, Hanaho; Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signalling pathways, by coupling the activation of cell surface receptors to intracellular responses. Mutations in the G protein α-subunit (Gα) that accelerate guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation cause hyperactivation of the downstream effector proteins, leading to oncogenesis. However, the structural mechanism of the accelerated GDP dissociation has remained unclear. Here, we use magnetic field-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analyses to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of GDP bound Gα on a microsecond timescale. We show that Gα rapidly exchanges between a ground-state conformation, which tightly binds to GDP and an excited conformation with reduced GDP affinity. The oncogenic D150N mutation accelerates GDP dissociation by shifting the equilibrium towards the excited conformation. PMID:28223697

  15. AN INVESTIGATION OF MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürcan SAMTAŞ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic bearing consists of levitating a shaft so that it is free to rotate about its axis. The magnetic bearing has the advantages of being very quiet work and very cleanliness because there is no mechanical friction or lubricants. The shaft has two permanent magnets attached to it. These two magnets determine a straight line rotation axis of the rotor shaft. The magnets are radially levitated and centered within a cavity by a passive permanent magnetic field in the adding stator housing assembly. The levitation and centering of the shaft axially is stabilized by a closed loop electronic servo circuit that regulates an electromagnetic field in the stator housing that pushes and pulls on the shaft magnets. The rotor weight can be between one gram and forty five thousand, four hundred grams. In 1985, the first magnetic bearing was developed that it had used to applications of gas turbines and other compressors. In these days, they can be used by many applications which are Medical, Transportation, Machine and Tools Industry, Aerospace, Vacuum and Clean room Environments... etc.

  16. In-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and silylation prior gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultraviolet filters determination in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Sabrina; Avivar, Jessica; Suárez, Ruth; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-04-22

    A novel online approach involving in-syringe magnetic stirring assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of seven UV filters extensively used in cosmetic products in environmental water samples. The effect of parameters such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, dispersive solvent and derivatization agent, pH, ionic strength and stirring time, was studied using multivariate experimental design. Extraction, derivatization and preconcentration were simultaneously performed using acetone as dispersive solvent, N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) as derivatization agent and trichloroethylene as extraction solvent. After stirring during 160s, the sedimented phase was transferred to a rotary micro-volume injection valve (3 μL) and introduced by an air stream into the injector of the GC through a stainless-steel tube used as interface. The detection limits were in the range of 0.023-0.16 μg L(-1) and good linearity was observed up to 500 μg L(-1) of the studied UV filters, with R(2) ranging between 0.9829 and 0.9963. The inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (n=5) varied between 5.5 and 16.8%. Finally, the developed method was satisfactorily applied to assess the occurrence of the studied UV filters in seawater and pool water samples. Some of the studied UV filters were found in these samples and an add-recovery test was also successfully performed with recoveries between 82 and 111%.

  17. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Hydrogen Gas Protects Against Intestinal Injury in Wild Type But Not NRF2 Knockout Mice With Severe Sepsis by Regulating HO-1 and HMGB1 Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Yongyan; Bian, Yingxue; Li, Yuan; Liu, Lingling; Zhang, Hongtao; Xie, Keliang; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Yonghao

    2017-09-01

    The intestine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Hydrogen gas (H2), which has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects, can be effectively used to treat septic mice. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive master switch that regulates the expression of antioxidant and protective enzymes. This study investigated the effects of 2% H2 on intestinal injuries and the underlying mechanisms in a mouse model of severe sepsis. Male Nrf2 knockout mice (Nrf2-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were randomized into four groups: sham, sham+H2, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and CLP+H2. The survival rate was observed and recorded within 7 days, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, HMGB1), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, and catalase ), and oxidative products (MDA, 8-iso-PGF2α) were detected in the serum and intestine using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the protein and mRNA levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were measured by Western blotting and quantitative PCR, respectively. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to measure HMGB1 and HO-1 release into the intestine, respectively. The results showed that therapy with 2% H2 increased the survival rate, alleviated the injuries caused by oxidative stress and inflammation, reduced HMGB1 levels but increased HO-1 levels in WT septic mice, but not in Nrf2-KO mice. These data demonstrate that 2% H2 inhalation may be a promising therapeutic strategy for intestinal injuries caused by severe sepsis through the regulation of HO-1 and HMGB1 release. In addition, Nrf2 plays a key role in the protective effects of H2 against intestinal damage in this disease.

  19. Regulation of acccess to natural gas on the basis of European competition law; Die Regulierung des Zugangs zu Erdgas mittels europaeischen Wettbewerbsrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzel, Reto H.

    2010-07-01

    It is a fact that competition in the natural gas sector has not been established so far. The author believes that this failure of the market structure in the European gas industries is a result of the world-wide increasing demand for natural gas, which is a finite commodity. The publication comprises four parts. The first part presents the legal fundamentals of the investigation. The second part explains how the fact that newcomers cannot compete for access to natural gas prevents competition in the European gas markets. The third part shows how equal access to natural gas of all market partners can be re-established on the basis of European cartel law, which is a precondition of competition in the European gas markets. The fourth part is an appendix with tables and graphs. The investigation was carried out on behalf of the German gas industry. (orig./RHM)

  20. Strong magnetism observed in carbon nanoparticles produced by the laser vaporization of a carbon pellet in hydrogen-containing Ar balance gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Hirohito; Muraki, Susumu; Endo, Hiroki; Bandow, Shunji; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: bandow@meijo-u.ac.j [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tenpaku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-25

    Nanometer-scale carbon particles driven by the pulsed-laser vaporization of pelletized pure carbon powder at 1000 {sup 0}C in a hydrogen-containing environment show anomalous magnetism like a superparamagnet, while the sample prepared in 100% of Ar does not show such magnetism. The observed magnetism was unchanged over months in the ambient. The structure of this nanomaterial resembles the foam of a laundry detergent and transmission electron microscopy indicates a clear corrugated line contrast. On the other hand, a sample without strong magnetism does not give such an image contrast. The x-ray diffraction pattern coincides with that of graphite and no other peak is detected. Thermogravimetry indicates that all samples completely burn out up to approx. 820 {sup 0}C and no material remains after combustion, indicating that the sample does not contain impurity metals. Magnetization is easily saturated by {approx} 10 000 G at 280 K with no hysteresis, but the hysteresis appears at 4.2 K. This phenomenon is explained by introducing a crystalline anisotropy which restricts the motion of the magnetic moment and stabilizes the remnant magnetization at zero magnetic field. Magnitudes of the saturation magnetization are in the range of 1-5 emu G g{sup -1} at 4.2 K, which correspond to 0.002-0.01 Bohr magneton per carbon atom. This concentration may be increased by ten times or more, because only about 4-10% of particles have a magnetic domain in the present samples.

  1. Strong magnetism observed in carbon nanoparticles produced by the laser vaporization of a carbon pellet in hydrogen-containing Ar balance gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hirohito; Muraki, Susumu; Endo, Hiroki; Bandow, Shunji; Iijima, Sumio

    2010-08-25

    Nanometer-scale carbon particles driven by the pulsed-laser vaporization of pelletized pure carbon powder at 1000 °C in a hydrogen-containing environment show anomalous magnetism like a superparamagnet, while the sample prepared in 100% of Ar does not show such magnetism. The observed magnetism was unchanged over months in the ambient. The structure of this nanomaterial resembles the foam of a laundry detergent and transmission electron microscopy indicates a clear corrugated line contrast. On the other hand, a sample without strong magnetism does not give such an image contrast. The x-ray diffraction pattern coincides with that of graphite and no other peak is detected. Thermogravimetry indicates that all samples completely burn out up to approx. 820 °C and no material remains after combustion, indicating that the sample does not contain impurity metals. Magnetization is easily saturated by ∼10,000 G at 280 K with no hysteresis, but the hysteresis appears at 4.2 K. This phenomenon is explained by introducing a crystalline anisotropy which restricts the motion of the magnetic moment and stabilizes the remnant magnetization at zero magnetic field. Magnitudes of the saturation magnetization are in the range of 1-5 emu G g(-1) at 4.2 K, which correspond to 0.002-0.01 Bohr magneton per carbon atom. This concentration may be increased by ten times or more, because only about 4-10% of particles have a magnetic domain in the present samples.

  2. Strong magnetism observed in carbon nanoparticles produced by the laser vaporization of a carbon pellet in hydrogen-containing Ar balance gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hirohito; Muraki, Susumu; Endo, Hiroki; Bandow, Shunji; Iijima, Sumio

    2010-08-01

    Nanometer-scale carbon particles driven by the pulsed-laser vaporization of pelletized pure carbon powder at 1000 °C in a hydrogen-containing environment show anomalous magnetism like a superparamagnet, while the sample prepared in 100% of Ar does not show such magnetism. The observed magnetism was unchanged over months in the ambient. The structure of this nanomaterial resembles the foam of a laundry detergent and transmission electron microscopy indicates a clear corrugated line contrast. On the other hand, a sample without strong magnetism does not give such an image contrast. The x-ray diffraction pattern coincides with that of graphite and no other peak is detected. Thermogravimetry indicates that all samples completely burn out up to approx. 820 °C and no material remains after combustion, indicating that the sample does not contain impurity metals. Magnetization is easily saturated by ~ 10 000 G at 280 K with no hysteresis, but the hysteresis appears at 4.2 K. This phenomenon is explained by introducing a crystalline anisotropy which restricts the motion of the magnetic moment and stabilizes the remnant magnetization at zero magnetic field. Magnitudes of the saturation magnetization are in the range of 1-5 emu G g - 1 at 4.2 K, which correspond to 0.002-0.01 Bohr magneton per carbon atom. This concentration may be increased by ten times or more, because only about 4-10% of particles have a magnetic domain in the present samples.

  3. Regulating wave front dynamics from the strongly discrete to the continuum limit in magnetically driven colloidal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Tierno, Pietro; Johansen, Tom H; Straube, Arthur V

    2016-02-03

    The emergence of wave fronts in dissipative driven systems is a fascinating phenomenon which can be found in a broad range of physical and biological disciplines. Here we report the direct experimental observation of discrete fronts propagating along chains of paramagnetic colloidal particles, the latter propelled above a traveling wave potential generated by a structured magnetic substrate. We develop a rigorously reduced theoretical framework and describe the dynamics of the system in terms of a generalized one-dimensional dissipative Frenkel-Kontorova model. The front dynamics is explored in a wide range of field parameters close to and far from depinning, where the discrete and continuum limits apply. We show how symmetry breaking and finite size of chains are used to control the direction of front propagation, a universal feature relevant to different systems and important for real applications.

  4. Gas Exchange and Co-regulation of Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Bean during Chilling at Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Jeffrey; Owens, Thomas G; Wolfe, David W

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated (700 micromol mol(-1)) and ambient (350 micromol mol(-1)) CO(2) on gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) during 24 h chilling treatments at 6.5 degrees C. Consistent with previous research on this cultivar, photosynthetic decline during chilling was not significantly affected by CO(2) while post-chilling recovery was more rapid at elevated compared to ambient CO(2). Our primary focus was whether there were also CO(2)-mediated differences in demand on nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) processes during the chilling treatments. We found that photosystem II quantum yield and total NPQ were similar between the CO(2) treatments during chilling. In both CO(2) treatments, chilling caused a shift from total NPQ largely composed of q(E), the protective, rapidly responding component of NPQ, to total NPQ dominated by the more slowly relaxing q(I), related to both protective and damage processes. The switch from q(E) to q(I) during chilling was more pronounced in the elevated CO(2) plants. Using complementary plots of the quantum yields of photochemistry and NPQ we demonstrate that, despite CO(2) effects on the partitioning of NPQ into q(E) and q(I) during chilling, total NPQ was regulated at both CO(2) levels to maximize photochemical utilization of absorbed light energy and dissipate only that fraction of light energy that was in excess of the capacity of photosynthesis. Photodamage did occur during chilling but was repaired within 3 h recovery from chilling in both CO(2) treatments.

  5. Stringent regulation of the power and gas market in the EU. Suggestions of the commission for a third guideline package; Verschaerfte Regulierung der Strom- und Gasmaerkte in der EU.. Vorschlaege der Kommission fuer ein 3. Richtlinienpaket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neveling, S. [Bundesnetzagentur, Bonn (Germany). Referat Zugang zu Gasfernleitungsnetzen und Internationaler Gashandel

    2008-02-15

    The competition in the energy market does not start. Therefore, in September, 2007 designs for a third guideline package were submitted for the further liberalisation of the power and gas markets. The quintessential points of this guideline package are stringent rules for ownership unbundling, a stabilization of the national regulation authorities as well as the creation of a European regulation authority, a new European investment planning of power grids and a monitoring of the energy trade. The author of the contribution under consideration gives an overview of the substantial reorganizations including a first evaluation.

  6. Research on Regulator Performance of Magnetic Leakage Transformer Used In Microwave Oven%微波炉用漏磁变压器稳压性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌兰; 柴建云

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic leakage transformer is a kind of particular transformers which achieves voltage regulation function by dividing the main flux with the leakage magnetic branch.Around a basic structure of magnetic leakage transformer used in microwave oven,the paper elaborated on the regulator principle of the magnetic leakage transformer and presented its design principles.Meanwhile,the paper presented a widely applicable equivalent circuit of the magnetic flux leakage transformer and built a solving model based on the magnetic circuit method.Simulations and experiments have performed to indicate the regulator performance of magnetic leakage transformer.%漏磁变压器,是指通过漏磁支路对主磁通的分流作用,而实现稳压功能的一种特种变压器.文中针对一种微波炉用漏磁变压器,详细地阐述了其利用主磁路的饱和效应及漏磁支路的非饱和特性,实现稳压的工作原理与工作条件,并在此基础上,给出了漏磁变压器的设计原则.基于电磁关系的分析,文中建立了漏磁变压器的等效电路与仿真模型.最后,通过实验验证了等效电路与仿真模型的准确性,对漏磁变压器的设计提供了有效的指导.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk GalaxyFormation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2007-12-18

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform 10{sup -9} G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting {approx} 500 Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk GalaxyFormation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2007-12-18

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform 10{sup -9} G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting {approx} 500 Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  9. Magnetic fields in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Most of the visible matter in the Universe is ionized, so that cosmic magnetic fields are quite easy to generate and due to the lack of magnetic monopoles hard to destroy. Magnetic fields have been measured in or around practically all celestial objects, either by in-situ measurements of spacecrafts or by the electromagnetic radiation of embedded cosmic rays, gas or dust. The Earth, the Sun, solar planets, stars, pulsars, the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, more distant (radio) galaxies, quasars and even intergalactic space in clusters of galaxies have significant magnetic fields, and even larger volumes of the Universe may be permeated by "dark" magnetic fields. Information on cosmic magnetic fields has increased enormously as the result of the rapid development of observational methods, especially in radio astronomy. In the Milky Way, a wealth of magnetic phenomena was discovered, which are only partly related to objects visible in other spectral ranges. The large-scale structure of the Milky Way's magnetic fie...

  10. Gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-15

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  11. Magnetic Fields in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Milky Way is magnetized. Invisible magnetic fields thread the Galaxy on all scales and play a vital but still poorly understood role in regulating flows of gas in the interstellar medium and the formation of stars. I will present highlights from my thesis work on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas and in accretion disks. At high Galactic latitudes, diffuse neutral hydrogen is organized into an intricate network of slender linear features. I will show that these neutral hydrogen “fibers” are extremely well aligned with the ambient magnetic field as traced by both starlight polarization (Clark et al. 2014) and Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission (Clark et al. 2015). The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. Because the orientation of neutral hydrogen is an independent predictor of the local dust polarization angle, our work provides a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. Magnetic fields also drive accretion in astrophysical disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I analytically derive the behavior of this instability in the weakly nonlinear regime and show that the saturated state of the instability depends on the geometry of the background magnetic field. The analytical model describes the behavior of the MRI in a Taylor-Couette flow, a set-up used by experimentalists in the ongoing quest to observe MRI in the laboratory (Clark & Oishi 2016a, 2016b).

  12. Comparative study of regulated and unregulated air pollutant emissions before and after conversion of automobiles from gasoline power to liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline dual-fuel retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Cheng, Man-Ting; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2007-12-15

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly being examined as an alternative to gasoline use in automobiles as interest grows in reducing air pollutant emissions. In this study, emissions of regulated (CO, THC, NO(x)) and unregulated air pollutants, including CO2, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and BTEX (acronym for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), were measured before and after conversion of nine gasoline-powered automobiles to LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. The tests were conducted on a standard chassis dynamometer in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency FTP-75 test procedure, with the exception that all tests were conducted under hot-start driving conditions. The influences of LPG on air pollutant emission levels and carcinogenic potency were investigated and compared with gasoline. The results showed average emission factors of 0.14 g/km, 0.33 mg/km, 0.09 g/km, 0.44 g/km, and 197 g/km for CO, THC, NO(x), PM, and CO2, respectively, for LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. Paired-sample t-test results indicated that the emissions of CO (p = 0.03), THC (p = 0.04), and CO2 (p = 4.6 x 10(-8)) were significantly reduced with the retrofit in comparison with gasoline-powered automobiles. The reduction percentages were 71%, 89%, and 14% for CO, THC, and CO2, respectively. The average total PAH emission factor for LPG was 217 microg/km, which is significantly lower than gasoline (863 microg/km; p = 0.05). The PAH corresponding carcinogenicities (BaP(eq)) were calculated via toxic equivalencies based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Paired-sample t-test results fortotal BaP(eq) emissions showed no significant difference between gasoline (30.0 microg/km) and LPG (24.8 microg/km) at a confidence level of 95%. The discrepancy between PAH and BaP(eq) emissions resulted from the higher emission percentages of high molecular weight PAHs for LPG, which might be from lubricant oil. The average emission factors of

  13. Natural gas shortage. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorstin, D.

    1975-11-07

    Curtailments of gas supplies in the winter of 1975-76 were estimated to be 2.9 trillion cubic feet or 15 percent of demand, which represented a 45 percent increase over curtailments in 1974-75. The scarcities are discussed under the following topics: probable dimensions of natural gas curtailment; effects of winter shortages, possibility of relief; debate over attempt to remove price ceilings; and charges of gas withholding and underreporting. The history of gas use and regulation is reviewed under the following: from unwanted oil by-product to useful fuel; development of regulation and extent of control; and policy change at the Federal Power Commission. The outlook for overcoming the shortage is discussed under the following: revised estimates of undiscovered resources; rival proposals to make Alaskan gas available; and continuing search for substitute energy sources. 37 references. (MCW)

  14. Magnetic bearings for cryogenic turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannello, Victor; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic bearings offer a number of advantages over gas bearings for the support of rotors in cryogenic turboexpanders and compressors. Their performance is relatively independent of the temperature or pressure of the process gas for a large range of conditions. Active magnetic bearing systems that use capacitive sensors have been developed for high speed compressors for use in cryogenic refrigerators. Here, the development of a magnetic bearing system for a miniature ultra high speed compressor is discussed. The magnetic bearing has demonstrated stability at rotational speeds exceeding 250,000 rpm. This paper describes the important features of the magnetic bearing and presents test results demonstrating its performance characteristics.

  15. New methods for processing and interpreting marine magnetic anomalies: Application to structure, oil and gas exploration, Kuril forearc, Barents and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Gorodnitskiy

    2013-01-01

    In the southern and central parts of Barents Sea, tectonic blocks with widths of 30–100 km, and upper and lower boundaries of magnetic layers ranging from depths of 10 to 5 km and 18 to 30 km are calculated. Models of the magnetic layer underlying the Mezen Basin in an inland part of the White Sea–Barents Sea paleorift indicate depths to the lower boundary of the layer of 12–30 km. Weak local magnetic anomalies of 2–5 nT in the northern and central Caspian Sea were identified using the new methods, and drilling confirms that the anomalies are related to concentrations of hydrocarbon. Two layers causing magnetic anomalies are identified in the northern Caspian Sea from magnetic anomaly spectra. The upper layer lies immediately beneath the sea bottom and the lower layer occurs at depths between 30–40 m and 150–200 m.

  16. Application of magnetic solvent bar liquid-phase microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in fruit juice samples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Cui; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive sample pretreatment technique, magnetic solvent bar liquid-phase microextraction (MSB-LPME) was developed for extracting organophosphorus pesticides from fruit juice. The analytes were extracted from the sample to the organic solvent immobilized in the fiber. The magnetic solvent bar not only can be used to stir the samples but also extract the analytes. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed magnetic solvent bar can be readily isolated from the sample solution by a magnet, which could greatly simplify the operation and reduce the whole pretreatment time. The bar was eluted with methanol. The elute was evaporated to dryness and residue was dissolved in hexane. Several experimental parameters were investigated and optimized, including type of extraction solvent, number of magnetic solvent bar, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 81.3-104.6%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviation below 6.1%.

  17. Three-dimensional graphene aerogel-supported iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices followed by gas chromatographic determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2016-04-22

    In this research, a magnetic three dimensional-graphene nanocomposite (3D-G-Fe3O4) was prepared, characterized and used as an effective nanoadsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from juice samples prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). The properties and morphology of 3D-G-Fe3O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The main experimental parameters affecting extraction recoveries including extraction time, amount of adsorbent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration and desorption conditions were carefully studied and optimized. The results showed wide linear concentration ranges with determination coefficients between 0.9973 and 0.9999. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were from 1.2 to 5.1 ng L(-1) and 3.4-17.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.6-5.1% and 3.5-6.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPPs in fruit juices (apple, orange, grape, sour-cherry and apricot) with recoveries in range of 86.6-107.5%. The GC-NPD results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that with combination of highly interconnected 3D network structure and magnetism property of adsorbent, 3D-G-Fe3O4 aerogel exhibited exceptional extraction ability towards the OPPs.

  18. Centrifugal gas-phase transition magnetophoresis (GTM)--a generic method for automation of magnetic bead based assays on the centrifugal microfluidic platform and application to DNA purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Oliver; Emperle, Alexander; Roth, Günter; Mark, Daniel; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2013-01-07

    Transportation of magnetic beads between different reagents plays a crucial role in many biological assays e.g. for purification of biomolecules or cells where the beads act as a mobile solid support. Therefore, usually a complex set-up either for fluidic processing or for manipulation of magnetic beads is required. To circumvent these drawbacks, we present a facile and automated method for the transportation of magnetic beads between multiple microfluidic chambers on a centrifugal microfluidic cartridge "LabDisk". The method excels by requiring only one stack of stationary permanent magnets, a specific microfluidic layout without actively controlled valves and a predefined frequency protocol for rotation of the LabDisk. Magnetic beads were transported through three fluidically separated chambers with a yield of 82.6% ± 3.6%. Bead based DNA purification from a dilution series of a Listeria innocua lysate and from a lambda phage DNA standard was demonstrated where the three chambers were used for binding, washing and elution of DNA. Recovery of L. innocua DNA was up to 68% ± 24% and for lambda phage DNA 43% ± 10% compared to manual reference purification in test tubes. Complete purification was conducted automatically within 12.5 min. Since all reagents can be preloaded onto the LabDisk prior to purification, no further hands-on steps are required during processing. Due to its modular and generic character, the presented method could also be adapted to other magnetic bead based assays e.g. to immunoassays or protein affinity purification, solely requiring the adjustment of number and volumes of the fluidic chambers.

  19. Charge-regulation phase transition on surface lattices of titratable sites adjacent to electrolyte solutions: An analog of the Ising antiferromagnet in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Joel D.; Thurston, George M.

    2015-12-01

    We report a charge-patterning phase transition on two-dimensional square lattices of titratable sites, here regarded as protonation sites, placed in a low-dielectric medium just below the planar interface between this medium and a salt solution. We calculate the work-of-charging matrix of the lattice with use of a linear Debye-Hückel model, as input to a grand-canonical partition function for the distribution of occupancy patterns. For a large range of parameter values, this model exhibits an approximate inverse cubic power-law decrease of the voltage produced by an individual charge, as a function of its in-lattice separation from neighboring titratable sites. Thus, the charge coupling voltage biases the local probabilities of proton binding as a function of the occupancy of sites for many neighbors beyond the nearest ones. We find that even in the presence of these longer-range interactions, the site couplings give rise to a phase transition in which the site occupancies exhibit an alternating, checkerboard pattern that is an analog of antiferromagnetic ordering. The overall strength W of this canonical charge coupling voltage, per unit charge, is a function of the Debye length, the charge depth, the Bjerrum length, and the dielectric coefficients of the medium and the solvent. The alternating occupancy transition occurs above a curve of thermodynamic critical points in the (p H-p K ,W ) plane, the curve representing a charge-regulation analog of variation of the Néel temperature of an Ising antiferromagnet as a function of an applied, uniform magnetic field. The analog of a uniform magnetic field in the antiferromagnet problem is a combination of p H-p K and W , and 1 /W is the analog of the temperature in the antiferromagnet problem. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the occupancy patterns of the titratable sites, including interactions out to the 37th nearest-neighbor category (a distance of √{74 } lattice constants), first validating simulations

  20. TRICLOSAN AND METHYL-TRICLOSAN MONITORING STUDY IN THE NORTHEAST OF SPAIN USING A MAGNETIC PARTICLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY AND CONFIRMATORY ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of triclosan in the water environment around a Mediterranean region was investigated. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan content of ninety five environmental samples were screened using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay. Positive samples were confirmed by solid phase extraction (SPE...

  1. Magnetic oscillations in two-dimensional Dirac systems and Shear viscosity and spin diffusion in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küppersbusch, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of the thesis I derive a full quantitative formula which describes the amplitude and frequency of magnetic oscillations in two-dimensional Dirac systems. The investigations are on the basis of graphene, but they generally also hold for other two-dimensional Dirac systems. Starting

  2. INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PARAMETERS ON HARDNESS, WEAR-RESISTANCE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROTECTIVE GAS AND THERMAL COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Spiridonov; M. V. Neroda; I. O. Sokorov

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates influence of magnetic and electric grinding parameters on formation of physical and mechanical properties of protective coatings. It has been established that it is possible to control chemical composition, properties and qualitative characteristics of hardening coatings while changing technological process parameters. 

  3. INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PARAMETERS ON HARDNESS, WEAR-RESISTANCE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROTECTIVE GAS AND THERMAL COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Spiridonov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates influence of magnetic and electric grinding parameters on formation of physical and mechanical properties of protective coatings. It has been established that it is possible to control chemical composition, properties and qualitative characteristics of hardening coatings while changing technological process parameters. 

  4. Quantification of liquid products from the electroreduction of CO2 and CO using static headspace-gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Abghoui, Younes; Jovanov, Zarko P.

    2017-01-01

    Static headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) useful for ex-situ liquid product analysis. Could complement high-performance liquid chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. Particularly high sensitivity towards compounds with high vapor pressure. Detection limits below 0.5μM were shown for acetaldehyde ...

  5. Magnetic Nanoparticles in Non-magnetic CNTs and Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayondo, Moses; Seifu, Dereje

    Magnetic nanoparticles were embedded in non-magnetic CNTs and graphene matrix to incorporate all the advantages and the unique properties of CNTs and graphene. Composites of CNTs and graphene with magnetic nanoparticles may offer new opportunities for a wide variety of potential applications such as magnetic data storage, magnetic force microscopy tip, electromagnetic interference shields, thermally conductive films, reinforced polymer composites, transparent electrodes for displays, solar cells, gas sensors, magnetic nanofluids, and magnetically guided drug delivery systems. Magnetic nanoparticles coated CNTs can also be used as an electrode in lithium ion battery to replace graphite because of the higher theoretical capacity. Graphene nanocomposites, coated with magnetic sensitive nanoparticles, have demonstrated enhanced magnetic property. We would like to acknowledge support by NSF-MRI-DMR-1337339.

  6. Abnormal functional connectivity with mood regulating circuit in unmedicated individual with major depression: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dai-hui; SHEN Ting; ZHANG Jie; HUANG Jia; LIU Jun; LIU Shu-yong; JIANG Kai-da; XU Yi-feng; FANG Yi-ru

    2012-01-01

    Background Reports on mood regulating circuit (MRC) indicated different activities between depressed patients and healthy controls.The functional networks based on MRC have not been described in major depression disorder (MDD).Both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and thalamus are all the key regions of MRC.This study was to investigate the two functional networks related to ACC and thalamus in MDD.Methods Sixteen patients with MDD on first episode which never got any medication and sixteen matched health controls were scanned by 3.0 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during resting-state.The pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) was used as seed region to construct the functional network by cortex section.The thalamus was used as seed region to construct the functional network by limbic section.Paired-t tests between-groups were performed for the seed-target correlations based on the individual fisher z-transformed correlation maps by SPM2.Results Depressed subjects exhibited significantly great functional connectivity (FC) between pgACC and the parahippocampus gyrus in one cluster (size 923) including left parahippocampus gyrus (-21,-49,7),left parietal lobe (-3,-46,52) and left frontal lobe (-27,-46,28).The one cluster (size 962) of increased FC on thalamus network overlapped the precuneus near to right parietal lobe (9,-52,46) and right cingulate gyrus (15,-43,43) in health controls.Conclusions Abnormal functional networks exist in earlier manifestation of MDD related to MRC by both cortex and limbic sections.The increased functional connectivity of pgACC and decreased functional connectivity of thalamus is mainly involved in bias mood processing and cognition.

  7. Integration of antibody by surface functionalization of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads using ammonia gas plasma technology for capturing influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Antibody-integrated magnetic beads have been functionalized for influenza A virus capture. First, ammonia plasma produced by a radio frequency power source was reacted with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads to introduce amino groups. Anti-influenza A virus hemagglutinin antibody was then anchored by its surface sulfide groups to the amino groups on the beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate. After incubation with influenza A virus, adsorption of the virus to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inoculation of chicken embryonated eggs, indicating that virus infectivity is maintained and that the proposed method is useful for the enhanced detection and isolation of influenza A virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems with gas if you: Are lactose or gluten intolerant Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes Drink carbonated beverages Have a chronic intestinal condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease Neither age nor sex ...

  9. To Develop Narrow Gap Gas Metal Arc Welding Systems and Study the Effect of Magnetic Field and Torch Oscillation Parameters on Sidewall Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badheka, Vishvesh J.

    The rapidly expanding oil sands of western Canada, the third largest reserves in the world, are creating serious challenges, such as ecological harm, labour shortages, and extensive natural gas consumption. This thesis develops three practical real options models to evaluate the feasibility of oil sands projects and to estimate the optimal rate of oil sands expansion, while accounting for the stated concerns. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  10. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  11. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  12. Preparation of phenyl group-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres for fast extraction and analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danni; Sha, Yunfei; Zheng, Saijing; Liu, Baizhan; Deng, Chunhui

    2013-10-15

    Acetaldehyde is regarded as a toxic mainstream cigarette smoke constituent, and measurement of acetaldehyde in complex real samples is difficult owing to its high volatility and reactivity. In this work, phenyl group-functionalized magnetic mesoporous microspheres were developed as the solid-phase extraction sorbents for enrichment and analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke. The functional magnetic microspheres were first synthesized through a facile one-pot co-condensation approach. The prepared nanomaterials possessed abundant silanol groups in the exterior surface and numerous phenyl groups in the interior pore-walls, as well as a large surface area (273.5m(2)/g), strong superparamagnetism and uniform mesopores (3.3 nm). Acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke was collected in water and derivatizated with O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine. The formed acetaldehyde oximes were extracted and enriched by the prepared adsorbents via π-π interactions and subsequently analyzed using GC-MS. Extraction conditions such as amounts of sorbents, eluting solvent, adsorption and desorption time were investigated and optimized to achieve the best efficiency. Method validations including linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limit of detection were also studied. It was found that the suggested methodology provided low detection limit of 0.04 mg/mL, good recovery of 88-92%, intra-day and inter-day RSD values of 4.5% and 10.1%, and linear range of 0.25-4 mg/mL (R(2)=0.999). The results indicated that the proposed method based on phenyl-functionalized magnetic mesoporous microspheres was rapid, efficient and convenient for the enrichment and analysis of acetaldehyde in tobacco.

  13. Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline (GASYRG), in Bolivia. The development of a company and the construction of the pipeline in a regulated and competitive environment; Gasoducto Yacuiba - Rio Grande (GASYRG), in Bolivia - experiencias de la creacion de una empresa y de la construccion del gasoducto bajo las condiciones de un escenario competitivo e regulado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de Oliveira; Montano, Jose Ruben [Transierra S.A. (Bolivia)

    2003-07-01

    In order to fulfill contractual agreements, three Bolivian companies decided to create Transierra S.A., a gas transportation company that would increase the gas transportation capacity from the gas fields, located in the Southern part of Bolivia. The overall objective was to build and operate a gas pipeline from Yacuiba to Rio Grande in time to comply with already agreed dates to star commercial operation. The creation of the company and the construction process were conducted in a highly competitive and regulated environment. Construction completion schedules were tight; therefore, under the previously mentioned scenario, the company implemented creative strategies to achieve its goals. (author)

  14. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  15. Magnetic Fields and Galactic Star Formation Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Van Loo, Sven; Falle, Sam A E G

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of molecular clouds within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas ($n_{\\rm{H}}>10^5\\:{\\rm{cm}^{-3}}$) at an efficiency of 2\\% per local free fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated $B$-field case of $80\\:{\\rm{\\mu}}$G. However, our chosen kpc scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbu...

  16. Spin equilibrium in strongly-magnetized accreting stars

    CERN Document Server

    D'Angelo, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The spin rate of a strongly-magnetized accreting star is regulated by the interaction between the star's magnetic field and the accreting gas. These systems are often hypothesized to be in `spin equilibrium' with their surrounding accretion flows such that the net spin change of the star as a result of accretion is very small. This condition requires that the accretion rate changes more slowly than it takes the star to reach spin equilibrium. However, this is not true for most magnetically accreting stars, which have strongly variable accretion outbursts (by one to many orders of magnitude) on timescales much shorter than the time it would take to reach spin equilibrium. This paper examines how accretion outbursts affect the time a star takes to reach spin equilibrium and its final equilibrium spin period. I consider several different models for angular momentum loss -- where angular momentum is carried away in an outflow (the standard `propeller', centrifugally-launched outflow), where most angular momentum ...

  17. The challenges of the implantation of the regulation of AGERBA (State Agency of Regulation of Public Services for Energy and Transport and Communications of Bahia) for residential natural gas in the State of Bahia; Os desafios da implantacao do regulamento da AGERBA (Agencia Estadual de Regulacao de Servicos Publicos de Energia e Transportes e Comunicacoes da Bahia) para o gas natural residencial no estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], e-mail: eduardosousa@bahiagas.com.br

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, important structural and institutional transformations are observed, for consequence the questions on the energy industries had started to incorporate, the regulation problems. Thus, the simple creation of new regulating agencies does not assure the automatic fulfilment of the functions of public interest. In this new context, these tasks are much more complex, demanding a learning process: how much to the structures of market and how much to the strategical behavior of the companies. In the local scene, to consolidate the distribution of the natural gas for the residential segment is one of the challenges of the Bahiagas, mainly after the publication of the Resolution that will go to establish the General Conditions of Gas Supply Canalized in the Residential Classroom in the State of the Bahia (hearing publishes carried through N. 002/2006 in June/2006). In this context, it is important to deeply understand the Resolution, that consequently will go to print a new dynamics for the Bahiagas. (author)

  18. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  19. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  20. Magnetic refrigeration materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴闻; 沈保根; 高政祥

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration has drawn much attention because of its greater efficiency and higher reliability than the traditional gas-cycle refrigeration technology. Recently, a kind of new materials with a giant magnetocaloric effect in the subroom temperature range, Gd5 (Six Ge1- x)4, was discovered, which boosts the search for high-performance magnetic refrigerants. However, the intermetallic compounds Gd5 (SixGe1 - x )4 belong to the first order transition materials; their performance in practical magnetic refrigeration cycles remains controversial. In this paper the developing tendency of the refrigerants are discussed on the basis of our work.

  1. The challenges of the implementation of regulation AGERBA for residential natural gas distribution in the state of Bahia, Brazil; Os desafios da implantacao do regulamento AGERBA (Agencia Estadual de Regulacao de Servicos Publicos de Energia, Transportes e Comunicacoes da Bahia) para o gas natural residencial no estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Bahiagas, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, important structural and institutional transformations are observed, for consequence the questions on the energy industries had started to incorporate, the regulation problems. Thus, the simple creation of new regulating agencies does not assure the automatic fulfilment of the functions of public interest. In this new context, these tasks are much more complex, demanding a learning process: how much to the structures of market and how much to the strategical behavior of the companies. In the local scene, to consolidate the distribution of the natural gas for the residential segment is one of the challenges of the Bahiagas, mainly after the publication of the Resolution that will go to establish the General Conditions of Gas Supply Canalized in the Residential Classroom in the State of the Bahia (hearing publishes carried through N. 002/2006 in June/2006). In this context, it is important to deeply understand the Resolution, that consequently will go to print a new dynamics for the Bahiagas. (author)

  2. Scaling of permeabilities and friction factors of homogeneously expanding gas-solids fluidized beds: Geldart’s A powders and magnetically stabilized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a variable friction factor of fluid-driven de form able powder beds undergoing fluidization is discussed. The special problem discussed addresses the friction factor and bed permeability relationships of Geldart’s A powders and magnetically stabilized beds in axial fields. Governing equations and scaling relation ships are developed through three approaches (1 Minimization of the pressure drop with respect to the fluid velocity employing the Darcy-Forchheimer equation together with the Richardson-Zaki scaling law, (2 Minimization of the pres sure drop across an equivalent-channel replacing the actual packed beds by a straight pipe with bed-equivalent obstacle of a simple geometry, and (3 Entropy minimization method applied in cases of the Darcy-Forchheimer equation and the equivalent-channel model. Bed-to-surface heat transfer coefficients are commented in the context of the porosity/length scale relationships developed. Both the pressure drop curves developments and phase diagram de signs are illustrated by applications of the intersection of asymptotes technique to beds exhibiting certain degree of cohesion.

  3. Characterization of tetra-aryl benzene isomers by using preparative gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Christian P G; Niere, Julie; Morrison, Paul D; Jones, Roderick C; Caradoc-Davies, Tom; Canty, Allan J; Gardiner, Michael G; Tolhurst, Vicki-Anne; Marriott, Philip J

    2010-06-01

    The present study describes a preparative gas chromatographic (GC) approach employed to study a series of products arising from reaction of phenylacetylene with para-substituted aryl-iodides under Sonogashira catalysis conditions. GC analysis resolves the isomers from each reaction; however, it cannot provide structural details (their MS data are virtually identical). Since classical liquid chromatography cannot resolve the isomers, preparative-scale GC is the only practical approach to provide further spectroscopic characterization of the isomers. The products are well separated by GC so a single thick-film capillary column is adequate for this case, with operation up to approximately +300 degrees C. By collection of 50+ repeat injections, sufficient material could be isolated for (1)H NMR spectral analysis of the isomers, and for one isomer (isomer I) of a number of analogous related catalytic reaction mixtures, X-ray crystal structure determination enabled complete structural elucidation (absolute configuration) of the substitution pattern of the structure of this isomer. This confirmed isomer I to be the 2-para-aryl-substituted 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene product in all cases. (1)H NMR spectra of isomer I products generally had similar patterns but differed markedly from the second major isomer product (isomer II).

  4. Integrated Voltage—Current Monitoring and Control of Gas Metal Arc Weld Magnetic Ball-Jointed Open Source 3-D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenyong Nilsiam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To provide process optimization of metal fabricating self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure current (I and voltage (V of the gas metal arc welders (GMAW. This paper builds on previous open-source hardware development to provide a real-time measurement of welder I-V where the measuring circuit is connected to two analog inputs of the Arduino that is used to control the 3-D printer itself. Franklin firmware accessed through a web interface that is used to control the printer allows storing the measured values and downloading those stored readings to the user’s computer. To test this custom current and voltage monitoring device this study reports on its use on an upgraded all metal RepRap during the printing of aluminum alloy (ER1100, ER4043, ER4943, ER4047, and ER5356. The voltage and current data were analyzed on a per alloy basis and also layer-by-layer in order to evaluate the device’s efficacy as a monitoring device for 3-D printing and the results of the integrated design are discussed.

  5. β-cyclodextrin functionalized meso-/macroporous magnetic titanium dioxide adsorbent as extraction material combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the detection of chlorobenzenes in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabin; Gan, Ning; Chen, Si; Pan, Muyun; Wu, Dazhen; Cao, Yuting

    2015-07-03

    A high-performance and selective adsorbent was developed for simultaneous extraction of 6 chlorobenzenes residues in soil samples by using magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with automated SPE followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The adsorbent was synthesized by grafting carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) on the surface of porous core-shell magnetic Fe3O4@flower like TiO2 microspheres (Fe3O4@fTiO2-CMCD), used as a carrier. The main factors (adsorbent amount, adsorption time, elution solvent, elution volume, and elution flow rate) affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. The adsorbent exhibited high loading capacity (25.6 mg g(-1) for 1,3-dichlorobenzene). This maybe due to meso-/macroporous TiO2 having high specific surface area; as a carrier of the β-cyclodextrin film, it could obviously increase the number of recognition sites. The newly developed adsorbent also showed good selectivity towards chlorobenzenes based on host-guest interactions between β-cyclodextrin (on adsorbent's surface) and targets, which can minimize complex matrix interference in soil samples. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of environmental soil samples with recovery ranging from 87.3 to 104.3%. All target compounds showed good linearities with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.996. The limits of quantitation for the 6 CBs were 0.03-0.09 μg kg(-1). These findings confirmed meso-/macroporous structure Fe3O4@fTiO2-CMCD as a highly effective extraction material for use in trace CB analyses in complex soil samples.

  6. Zeolite/iron oxide composite as sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes from water samples prior to gas chromatography⬜mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Elena; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio

    2016-08-05

    This study reports a new composite based on ZSM-5 zeolite decorated with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles as a valuable sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). A proposal is made to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) as model analytes in water samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A two-step multivariate optimization strategy, using Plackett⬜Burman and circumscribed central composite designs, was employed to optimize experimental parameters affecting MSPE. The method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions (i.e., amount of sorbent, 138mg; extraction time, 11min; sample pH, pH of water (i.e., 5.5⬜6.5); eluent solvent volume, 0.5mL; and elution time, 5min), obtaining a linear response from 1 to 100μgL(↙1) for benzene; from 10 to 100μgL(↙1) for toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene; and from 10 to 75μgL(↙1) for m,p-xylene. The repeatability of the proposed method was evaluated at a 40μgL(↙1) spiking level and coefficients of variation ranged between 8 and 11% (n=5). Limits of detection were found to be 0.3μgL(↙1) for benzene and 3μgL(↙1) for the other analytes. These values satisfy the current normative of the Environmental Protection Agency and European Union for BTEX content in waters for human consumption. Finally, drinking water, wastewater and river water were selected as real water samples to assess the applicability of the method. Relative recoveries varied between 85% and 114% showing negligible matrix effects.

  7. Magnetic Bearing Consumes Low Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    Energy-efficient linear magnetic bearing maintains a precise small separation between its moving and stationary parts. Originally designed for cryogenic compressors on spacecraft, proposed magnetic bearing offers an alternative to roller or gas bearing in linear motion system. Linear noncontacting bearing operates in environments where lubricants cannot be used.

  8. Hygroscopic properties of magnetic recording tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    Relative humidity has been recognized as an important environmental factor in many head-tape interface phenomena such as headwear, friction, staining, and tape shed. Accordingly, the relative humidity is usually specified in many applications of tape use, especially when tape recorders are enclosed in hermetically sealed cases. Normally, the relative humidity is believed regulated by humidification of the fill gas to the specification relative humidity. This study demonstrates that the internal relative humidity in a sealed case is completely controlled by the time-dpendence of the hygroscopic properties of the pack of magnetic recording tape. Differences are found in the hygroscopic properties of the same brand of tape, which apparently result from aging, and which may have an effect on the long-term humidity-regulating behavior in a sealed case, and on the occurrence of head-tape interface phenomena from the long-term use of the tape. Results are presented on the basic hygroscopic properties of magnetic tape, its humidity-regulating behavior in a sealed case, and a theoretical commentary on the relative humidity dependence of head-wear by tape, is included.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1509 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a) The exhaust gas sampling system shall transport...

  10. Magnetizing a complex plasma without a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kählert, H; Bonitz, M; Löwen, H; Greiner, F; Piel, A

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a concept that mimics the magnetization of the heavy dust particles in a complex plasma while leaving the properties of the light species practically unaffected. It makes use of the frictional coupling between a complex plasma and the neutral gas, which allows to transfer angular momentum from a rotating gas column to a well-controlled rotation of the dust cloud. This induces a Coriolis force that acts exactly as the Lorentz force in a magnetic field. Experimental normal mode measurements for a small dust cluster with four particles show excellent agreement with theoretical predictions for a magnetized plasma.

  11. Fluid phase thermodynamics : I) nucleate pool boiling of oxygen under magnetically enhanced gravity and II) superconducting cavity resonators for high-stability frequency references and precision density measurements of helium-4 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcovilos, Theodore Allen

    Although fluids are typically the first systems studied in undergraduate thermodynamics classes, we still have only a rudimentary phenomenological understanding of these systems outside of the classical and equilibrium regimes. Two experiments will be presented. First, we present progress on precise measurements of helium-4 gas at low temperatures (1 K-5 K). We study helium because at low densities it is an approximately ideal gas but at high densities the thermodynamic properties can be predicted by numerical solutions of Schroedinger's equation. By utilizing the high resolution and stability in frequency of a superconducting microwave cavity resonator we can measure the dielectric constant of helium-4 to parts in 109, corresponding to an equivalent resolution in density. These data will be used to calculate the virial coefficients of the helium gas so that we may compare with numerical predictions from the literature. Additionally, our data may allow us to measure Boltzmann's constant to parts in 108, a factor of 100 improvement over previous measurements. This work contains a description of the nearly-completed apparatus and the methods of operation and data analysis for this experiment. Data will be taken by future researchers.The second experiment discussed is a study of nucleate pool boiling. To date, no adequate quantitative model exists of this everyday phenomenon. In our experiment, we vary one parameter inaccessible to most researchers, gravity, by applying a magnetic force to our test fluid, oxygen. Using this technique, we may apply effective gravities of 0-80 times Earth's gravitational acceleration (g). In this work we present heat transfer data for the boiling of oxygen at one atmosphere ambient pressure for effective gravity values between 1g and 16g . Our data describe two relationships between applied heat flux and temperature differential: at low heat flux the system obeys a power law and at high heat flux the behavior is linear. We find that the

  12. Compliance by Design: Influence of Acceleration Trade-offs on CO2 Emissions and Costs of Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefoot, Kate S; Fowlie, Meredith L; Skerlos, Steven J

    2017-09-19

    The ability of automakers to improve the fuel economy of vehicles using engineering design modifications that compromise other performance attributes, such as acceleration, is not currently considered when setting fuel economy and greenhouse-gas emission standards for passenger cars and light trucks. We examine the role of these design trade-offs by simulating automaker responses to recently reformed vehicle standards with and without the ability to adjust acceleration performance. Results indicate that acceleration trade-offs can be important in two respects: (1) they can reduce the compliance costs of the standards, and (2) they can significantly reduce emissions associated with a particular level of the standards by mitigating incentives to shift sales toward larger vehicles and light trucks relative to passenger cars. We contrast simulation-based results with observed changes in vehicle attributes under the reformed standards. We find evidence that is consistent with firms using acceleration trade-offs to achieve compliance. Taken together, our analysis suggests that acceleration trade-offs play a role in automaker compliance strategies with potentially large implications for both compliance costs and emissions.

  13. 论我国油气田污水监管制度的完善--以美国的实践为借鉴%On the Perfection of Oil -Gas Field Sewage Regulation in China:Taking the Practice of the United States for Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许胜晴

    2015-01-01

    加强能源生产的环境监管是生态文明建设的重--求。油气田污水业已成为油气生产中的主要废水来源。然而,我国的油气田污水监管制度存在侧重外排控制而忽视回注监管;重事后救济而轻过程监管;依赖行业自律而缺乏强制性规范等问题。相对而言,美国有着较为严格的油气田污水监管制度。基于我国油气田污水监管制度的问题和美国的监管经验,我国需要从建立油气田污水回注监管制度以及鼓励油气田污水循环利用2个方面完善油气田污水监管制度,从而填补监管漏洞,实现合理有效的油气田污水处理,预防和减轻油气开采造成的环境损害。%To strengthen the environmental regulation of energy production is an important requirement for the construction of ecological civilization.Oil -gas field sewage has already become a main source of wastewater in oil and gas production.However,a few problems exist in the environmental regulation system of oil -gas field sewage in China,such as ignoring the reinjection regulation,emphasizing post -relief while neglecting process regulation,and relying on industry self -discipline while lacking mandatory standards.By contrast,the United States has a more strict regulation system of oil -gas field sewage.Based on this regulation system in China and the regulatory experience by the United States,China needs to improve its oil -gas field sewage regulation system through establishing the reinjection regulation system and encouraging the recycling of oil -gas field sewage,so as to fill the regulatory loopholes,realize the reasonable and effective treatment of oil -gas field sewage,and prevent and mitigate environment damages caused by oil and gas exploitation.

  14. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN FLATTENED PROTOSTELLAR INFALL ENVELOPES AND AMBIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Davidson, Jacqueline A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 264-782, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matthews, Brenda [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng Ruisheng [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present 350 {mu}m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 {mu}m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15 Degree-Sign ). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

  15. Magnetically controlled solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that a primordial solar nebula, the precursor of the Sun and its planetary system, could be best described in terms of an accretion disk. Such an accretion disk is though to be turbulent, and it is usually imagined that turbulent viscosity alone provides the torque responsible for the structure and the evolution of the nebula. However, it was found that an MHD dynamo operating in a turbulent nebula can contemporaneously produce magnetic fields capable of significantly altering or even dominating the total torque. Thus, it seems that no model of a viscous solar nebula is complete without taking magnetic fields into consideration. It was demonstrated that there are usually two distinct regions of nebular disk where a dynamo can operate: the inner region, where the magnetic field coupled to gas due to relatively high thermal ionization; and the outer region, where this coupling is achieved due to nonthermal ionization. Most models also show the existence of an intermediate region, 'the magnetic gap,' where neither thermal nor nonthermal sources can produce enough ionization to provide the necessary coupling between the magnetic field and the gas. The location and width of the gap change substantially from one model to another. At present, we can only estimate the strength of a generated magnetic field. It seems that a large-scale magnetic field is likely to be in the equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy; however, the intense magnetic fluctuations may greatly exceed this equipartition strength on short time and length scales. To show how a dynamo-generated magnetic field changes the structure of a viscous nebula, we consider four nebula models extensively.

  16. Eco gases for future particle gas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kjølbro, Jógvan Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Due to global regulations of non environmental refrigerants, some of the gas mixtures used in gas detectors at CERN has to be replaced. This report is a review that summarises and predicts some properties that are important when selecting new gases to operate in the gas detectors.

  17. The determination of regulated and some unregulated exhaust gas components from ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel and ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, D.; Nordstroem, F.; Niva, M.; Bergenudd, L.; Hellberg, S. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    Investigations that have been carried out at Luleaa University of Technology (LTU) show how exhaust gas emissions and engine performance are affected by the composition of the fuels. The fuels that have been tested and compared are two different ethanol blended diesel fuels, `neat` diesel fuels and neat ethanol fuels. Two different, heavy-duty engines were used for the investigations; one for the neat ethanol fuels and the other for the ethanol blended diesel fuels and neat diesel fuels. The investigation also includes some tests with two oxidizing catalysts. Results from the investigation show that none of the fuels produce emissions exceeding the values of the 13-mode test (ECE R-49, 1997). Lowest HC-emission levels were found for the two `neat` ethanol fuels although the difference between the HC-emissions can be considered negligible for the studied fuels. An effective reduction in the hydrocarbon emissions was achieved by using a catalyst. The investigation also shows that the NO{sub x} emissions were much lower for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other fuels. Even if the CO emissions from the two ethanol fuels were approximately three times higher than for the other investigated fuels the use of a catalyst equalize the CO emissions from the studied fuels. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions were clearly higher for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other investigated fuels. However, by using a catalyst the formaldehyde emission from the ethanol fuels could be decreased. Unfortunately, the use of a catalyst also resulted in an increase in the emission of acetaldehyde from the ethanol fuelled engine 10 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs, 6 appendixes

  18. Intelligent control system for the temperature regulation in a gas turbine of a combined cycle fossil fuel power plant; Sistema de control inteligente para regular la temperatura en la turbina de gas de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espindola Vasquez, Agustin

    2004-11-15

    In the Turbogas Units (UTG short for Spanish acronym) of a Thermoelectric Power station of Combined Cycle (CTCC short for Spanish acronym), from an operative, as well as a safety standpoint the turbine blade temperature is a critical variable. The best performance of a turbogas unit based in the electrical generation is obtained when the greatest thermal efficiency is reached. From the point of view of safety, it is desirable to keep the blades temperature at the limit established by the manufacturer, guaranteeing with this, the integrity of the UTG internal parts; avoiding that great thermal efforts decrease their useful life. In order to keep the blades temperature at the established limit, the UTG control system have a supervision system of blades temperature, that system modifies the controllers reference of the speed or power PI's which regulate the fuel valve of the UTG combustion chamber. This supervision system is based on logic conditions to generate its exit signal. In the process plants whose operation is complex and its dynamic behavior is nonlinear, the strategies of control of single loop do not provide the wished performance when they are applied in control loops to regulate critical variables; thing doing necessary the design of structures with two hierarchical levels; one with direct control and the other with supervisory control. The fuzzy logic has found a wide acceptance [Chiu, 1998] when is used to handle control functions of high level which are outside of the dominion of the conventional control methods. One of these cases is the application of the fuzzy logic to the supervisory control. In this thesis document is presented the accomplishment of a temperature fuzzy supervision system in a turbogas unit, whose purpose is to keep the turbine blades temperature within the established limits, conserving a satisfactory performance from an operative, as well as a safety standpoint. The temperature supervisor was designed with base on fuzzy

  19. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  20. 磁绝缘线振荡器内气体碰撞电离数值模拟%Numerical simulation on gas ionization course in magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董烨; 董志伟; 杨温渊; 陈军; 周前红; 孙会芳; 周海京

    2012-01-01

    The Monte-Carlo collision (MMC) method was introduced for description of the gas collision ionization course. The MCC gas ionization module based on the method was developed for 3D fully electromagnetic and PIC code NEPTUNE. The magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) model with He gas was simulated by the developed NEPTUNE code. The simulated results indicate that, in the condition of lower He gas density, He+ ions produced by ionization collision can not move freely because of their weight, and form channels which can neutralize space-charge field perfectly and then improve the bunching and beam-wave interaction efficiency obviously, so the output power of microwave increases, and the oscillation forming time shortens markedly. When the density of He gas increases to a higher level, the numbers of electrons and He+ ions increasequickly because of stronger ionization collision, the energy of electrons is separated due to collision courses, which goes against the bunching and beam-wave interaction improvement, and then the output power of microwave is decreased or cut off. The shortening of oscillation forming time is induced by the initial ionization stage with lower electron and ion densities. With the increasing gas density, the output power pulse will be shortened, and the diode of MILO will be shut down. In addition, the MILO models with air, vapor and carbon dioxide gas were simulated, respectively. The simulated results indicate that, in these conditions, the shortening of output microwave pulse is more severe compared with that for the MILO filled with He gas at the same pressure.%针对气体碰撞电离过程,介绍了蒙特卡罗碰撞(MMC)的处理方法,利用MMC方法编写了气体碰撞电离模块,将其移植到3维全电磁粒子模拟程序NEPTUNE之中,模拟了充有He气的磁绝缘线振荡器(MILO).模拟结果表明:当He气密度较低时,电离的正离子由于较重无法自由移动,形成了正离子通道,可以

  1. Gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiochon, Georges; Guillemin, Claude L.

    1990-11-01

    Gas chromatography is a powerful separation technique for gas and vapor mixtures. Combining separation and on-line detection permits accurate quantitative analysis of complex mixtures, including traces of compounds down to parts per trillions in some particular cases. The importance of gas chromatography in quality control and process control in the chemical and drug industry, in environmental pollution investigations and in clinical analysis is critical. The principles of the technique are discussed, the main components of a gas chromatograph are described and some idea of the importance of the applications is given.

  2. Magnetism and magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Coey, J M D

    2010-01-01

    Covering basic physical concepts, experimental methods, and applications, this book is an indispensable text on the fascinating science of magnetism, and an invaluable source of practical reference data. Accessible, authoritative, and assuming undergraduate familiarity with vectors, electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, this textbook is well suited to graduate courses. Emphasis is placed on practical calculations and numerical magnitudes - from nanoscale to astronomical scale - focussing on modern applications, including permanent magnet structures and spin electronic devices. Each self-contained chapter begins with a summary, and ends with exercises and further reading. The book is thoroughly illustrated with over 600 figures to help convey concepts and clearly explain ideas. Easily digestible tables and data sheets provide a wealth of useful information on magnetic properties. The 38 principal magnetic materials, and many more related compounds, are treated in detail

  3. Magnetic Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab M. Obaidat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized magnetic hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs under the application of small magnetic fields is a promising tool for treating small or deep-seated tumors. For this method to be applicable, the amount of MNPs used should be minimized. Hence, it is essential to enhance the power dissipation or heating efficiency of MNPs. Several factors influence the heating efficiency of MNPs, such as the amplitude and frequency of the applied magnetic field and the structural and magnetic properties of MNPs. We discuss some of the physics principles for effective heating of MNPs focusing on the role of surface anisotropy, interface exchange anisotropy and dipolar interactions. Basic magnetic properties of MNPs such as their superparamagnetic behavior, are briefly reviewed. The influence of temperature on anisotropy and magnetization of MNPs is discussed. Recent development in self-regulated hyperthermia is briefly discussed. Some physical and practical limitations of using MNPs in magnetic hyperthermia are also briefly discussed.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Magnetic Pulse Welding Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. Jassim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the benefits of using Magnetic Pulse machine which is belong to Non-conventional machine instead of conventional machine. Magnetic Pulse Technology is used for joining dissimilar metals, and for forming and cutting metals. It is a non contact technique. Magnetic field is used to generate impact magnetic pressure for welding and forming the work piece by converted the electrical energy to mechanical energy. It is enable us to design previously not possible by welding dissimilar materials and allowing to welds light and stronger materials together. It can be used to weld metallic with non metallic materials to created mechanical lock on ceramics, polymers, rubbers and composites. It is green process; there is no heat, no radiation, no gas, no smoke and sparks, therefore the emissions are negligible.

  6. 1D-3D mixed-ligand frameworks with an unusual dmp topology tuned by intersection angles of isomeric benzenedicarboxylates: magnetic properties, gas-dependent calcination-thermolysis and energy storage performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuo-Xi; Ye, Gan; Han, Juan; Yang, Ying; Zou, Kang-Yu; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Gou, Xiao-Feng

    2015-05-21

    In this work, three isomeric benzenedicarboxylates, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (o-H2bdc), 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid (m-H2bdc), and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (p-H2bdc) have been utilized as the ancillary ligands to perform a systematic study on the structural diversity of mixed-ligand frameworks. The solvothermal reactions of Co(NO3)2 with these aromatic acids and the primary ligand 4,4'-bis(imidazolyl)biphenyl (bibp) afford three novel coordination polymers, {[Co6(bibp)3(o-bdc)6(H2O)](CH3CN)1.5}∞ (1), [Co(bibp)(m-bdc)]∞ (2), and [Co(bibp)(p-bdc)]∞ (3). Owing to the different orientations of the carboxylate groups, the benzenedicarboxylates adopt various bridging modes to connect the Co(II) ions into a series of 1D carboxylate∩cobalt architectures based on the 1D chain, binuclear and single-ion magnetic units, respectively. These 1D architectures are further decorated by the bibp ligand to afford a 1D belt for , 2D double-bridging (4,4) sheet for 2, and an unusual 3D dmp framework for 3. Significantly in 3, three equivalent frameworks are interlocked with each other to represent an unprecedented three-fold interpenetrating dmp network. The structural diversity indicates that the benzenedicarboxylate plays an essential role in the assembly of mixed-ligand frameworks, and the orientation of the carboxylate group exerts an important influence on the nucleation, dimensionality and also interpenetration. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied by fitting the experimental data as possible, and the magneto-structural correlation of 2 has also been well discussed. Importantly, CoO and Co3O4 were obtained from the controllable thermolysis of crystals of 1 via simple calcination treatment under different gas environments. The as-synthesized cobalt oxides display good crystallinity and appear as micro- or nanoparticles, which can be applied as supercapacitor electrodes as demonstrated by their energy storage performance in 2 M KOH

  7. Legal Regime of Shale Gas Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some countries with large reserves intend to promote shale gas production, in order to reduce their dependency on imported gas. Shale gas will be an important new aspect in the world energy scene, with many effects.European Union wants secure and affordable sources of energy. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel and a vital component of European Union's energy strategy. One of the most important aspects is that gas produces significantly cleaner energy than other fossil fuels.From a legal point of view, extraction of oil and natural gas is one of the most highly-regulated activities.In European Union, the regulation of shale gas activities is different if we compare with United States. United States has a complete framework of federal and state regulation of shale gas extraction. More than that, these regulations have evolved in order to respond to the United States shale gas boom.Legal regime of shale gas extraction in every member state of European Union must put together national and European Union regulations in this field of activity.

  8. Condensate formation in a Bose gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Using magnetically trapped atomic hydrogen as an example, we investigate the prospects of achieving Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute Bose gas. We show that, if gas is quenched sufficiently far into the critical region of the phase transition, the typical time scale for the nucleation of the co

  9. LARGE MAGNETIC ENTROPY CHANGE IN La0. 67-xGdxCa0. 33MNO3.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangHe; GuoZaibing; WangDunhui; DuYouwei

    1998-01-01

    Recently, more and more people focus their attention on the magnetic refrigeration because it has lots of advantages over the gas refrigeration. In the magnetic refrigeration, choosing what kind of magnetic refrigerant is the nost critical problem. Usually, ferromagnetic sub-

  10. Exposure to static magnetic fields increases insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Libin; Wang, Huiqin; Ma, Fenghui; Guo, Zhixia; He, Hongpeng; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nan

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on insulin secretion and explore the mechanisms underlying exposure to SMF-induced insulin secretion in rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells were exposed to a 400 mT SMF for 72 h, and the proliferation of INS-1 cells was detected by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The secretion of insulin was measured with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), the expression of genes was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of proteins was measured by Western blotting. Exposure to an SMF increased the expression and secretion of insulin by INS-1 cells but did not affect cell proliferation. Moreover, SMF exposure up-regulated the expression of several pancreas-specific transcriptional factors. Specifically, the activity of the rat insulin promoter was enhanced in INS-1 cells exposed to an SMF, and the expression levels of synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and syntaxin-1A were up-regulated after exposure to an SMF. SMF exposure can promote insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.

  11. Advances in magnetic resonance 6

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 6 focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of applying magnetic resonance methods to various problems in physical chemistry, emphasizing the different aspects of the exegesis of these problems. This book discusses the gas phase magnetic resonance of electronically excited molecules; techniques for observing excited electronic states; NMR studies in liquids at high pressure; and effect of pressure on self-diffusion in liquids. The nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of organic free radicals; measurement of proton coupling constants by NMR; an

  12. Environment Regulation and Suggestion of Fracturing Flowback Fluids of Shale Gas Development%页岩气开发压裂返排液环境监管及对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史聆聆; 李小敏; 马建锋; 邹广迅

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing treatment is widely used in shale gas extraction, but this means produce flowback fluids, the disposal of huge amounts of flowback fluids arouses public concern. This paper collected the chemical composition of fracturing fluid, water quantity and quality of flowback fluids, analyzed the problems of flowback fluid environment regulation in China from deep well injection, discharging after disposing in municipal sewage treatment plants, reusing after disposing at well area, disposing after disposing at well area, and gave suggestions, including report and registration for chemicals, formulating the industry standard for wastewater discharge, segmenting the shale gas development project acceptance, encouraging developing new technology of sewage treatment, etc.%水力压裂技术是目前页岩气开发广泛采用的储层改造技术,但该技术的应用产生大量的返排液,返排液如何处置和监管引起了人们的广泛关注。本文收集了国内外压裂液的成分、返排液的水量和水质等资料,从深井灌注、市政污水处理厂处理后外排、现场处理后回用、现场处理后外排四种处理方式上,分析我国返排液环境监管存在的问题,针对实际问题提出对策建议,包括对化学品进行申报登记、制订污水排放的行业标准、对页岩气开发项目进行分段验收、鼓励研发污水处理新技术等。

  13. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  14. On electron-proton energy exchange in strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.; Manykin, E. A.; Bronin, S. Y.; Bobrov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    Heating of protons in cold electron gas in strong magnetic field is studied. Calculations of heating process are preformed using molecular dynamics method. Estimations of heating rate depending on initial proton energies and electron gas temperatures are made.

  15. Study on Defect Detect of Oil and Gas Pipeline by Metal Magnetic Memory Testing Technology Based on Wavelet Analysis%基于小波分析的油气管道缺陷磁记忆检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书俊; 李著信; 龚利红; 郭联欢

    2011-01-01

    金属磁记忆检测技术是目前唯一能对铁磁性构件早期损伤进行诊断的无损检测手段,能检测识别油气管道早期损伤以及以应力集中为特征的裂纹缺陷.小波分析由于具有良好的时频局部性,能很好地克服傅里叶变换的不足,得到广泛的应用.针对目前金属磁记忆检测技术以过零点作为缺陷判定准则存在的不足,利用小波尺度谱和再分配的尺度谱对磁记忆信号进行分析.试验结果表明,小波再分配尺度谱能有效应用于管道缺陷的磁记忆检测之中.%Metal magnetic memory testing (MMMT) technology is the only feasible NDT method in the aspect of early diagnosis till now, which can detect and recognize the early damnification and oil and gas pipeline crack in the character of stress concentration. Wavelet is widely applied for it has good time-frequency location character and can get over the deficiency of Fourier transform. Aiming at the deficiency of using MMMT to recognize pipeline defect, the reassigned wavelet scalogram analysis method was put forward to analyze the MMMT signal. The experimental result proves that the reassigned wavelet scalogram is effective in pipeline defect recognition by MMMT.

  16. Rapid collection and identification of a novel component from Clausena lansium Skeels leaves by means of three-dimensional preparative gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance/infrared/mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciarrone, Danilo [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Chromaleont s.r.l. A start-up of the University of Messina, c/o University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Pantò, Sebastiano [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Rotondo, Archimede [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Via D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Tedone, Laura; Tranchida, Peter Quinto [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus Bio-Medico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21 - 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: lmondello@unime.it [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus Bio-Medico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21 - 00128 Roma (Italy)

    2013-06-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A recently-developed three-dimensional prep-GC system has been applied to wampee essential oil. •The prep GC system enables the rapid collection of pure compounds from complex samples. •An isolated unknown solute was identified through NMR, IR and MS data. •The structure of an oxygenated sesquiterpene is here reported for the first time. -- Abstract: The present research reports the use of a three-dimensional preparative gas chromatography (prep GC) system, equipped with three Deans-switch devices and 5%diphenyl/wax/mid-polarity ionic liquid stationary phases, for the isolation of volatile components from a complex natural source, namely wampee essential oil (derived from Clausena lansium Skeels leaves). Collection was performed by using a simple and effective lab-constructed trapping device. Initially, an unknown (and abundant) wampee oil constituent was erroneously identified as α-sinensal, through an MS database search (a low similarity match was attained), performed after a GC-quadMS experiment., The unknown compound was then the isolated by using the novel prep GC system, in a highly pure form (at the mg level), and was correctly identified by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Both FTIR and MS data were used to confirm the NMR information. The name given to the molecule was (2E,6E)-2-methyl-6-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enylidene)hept-2-enal. The results herein described will demonstrate the need for a high-resolution GC step, prior to analyte collection, in the prep GC analysis of complex samples.

  17. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. (Crone and Koch, Viborg (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    In most landfills, the refuse deposit usually has a high content of organic matter consisting of a mixture of household, industrial and garden waste. Immediately after the refuse has been placed in the landfill, aerobic decomposition of the organic waste begins. Once the oxygen has been exhausted, anaerobic decomposition begins. 'Biogas' is produced which has a methane content of approximately 50% and can be used as a fuel. The exploitation of landfill gas for energy purposes was initiated in the USA around 1975 and later in Europe. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery system and a production system. A recovery system can consist of vertical perforated pipe wells, horizontal perforated pipes or ditches, or membrane covers to collect the generated gas. Under normal conditions it will not be necessary to process the gas except for the removal of water and other impurities (e.g. solid particles) if the gas is to be used in a boiler or engine. In the USA most often only power is produced, whereas in Europe the waste heat is normally exploited, making the plant function as a combined power and heating plant. It is also possible to upgrade the landfill gas to a methane content of nearly 100, after which it can be distributed with natural gas. There are several such plants in the USA. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  19. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  20. New model of work of the gas-turbine engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Дихановський

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  Problem questions of the gas-turbine engines exploitation are analysed. It is shown, that the gas-mechanics regulation of aerodynamic profile attack corner theorem allowed to design the regulation of the axial compressor system. This system is ability to provide reliable functioning of the gas-turbine engine at any service conditions.

  1. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  2. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    and the role it plays in the global climate and the future of fuels. Russia, Japan, Nigeria, Peru, Chile, Pakistan, Indonesia, Korea, etc are various countries who are perusing the gas hydrates studies as a future resource for fuel. Indian Initiative..., 1993, Free gas at the base of the gas hydrate zone in the vicinity of the Chile Triple junction: Geology, v. 21, pp. 905-908. Borowski, W.S., C.K. Paull, and U. William, III, 1999, Global and local variations of interstitial sulfate gradients...

  3. Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyży, K. T.; Weżgowiec, M.; Beck, R.; Bomans, D. J.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: We wish to clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and to assess the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. Methods: We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 GHz. Three galaxies were detected. A higher frequency (4.85 GHz) was used to search for polarized emission in five dwarfs that are the most luminous ones in the infrared domain, of which three were detected. Results: Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are weak, with a mean value of the total field strength of regulated mainly by the star-formation surface density (with the power-law exponent of 0.30 ± 0.04) or by the gas surface density (with the exponent 0.47 ± 0.09). In addition, we find systematically stronger fields in objects of higher global star-formation rate. The dwarf galaxies follow a similar far-infrared relationship (with a slope of 0.91 ± 0.08) to that determined for high surface brightness spiral galaxies. The magnetic field strength in dwarf galaxies does not correlate with their maximum rotational velocity, indicating that a small-scale rather than a large-scale dynamo process is responsible for producting magnetic fields in dwarfs. If magnetization of the Universe by galactic outflows is coeval with its metal enrichment, we show that more massive objects (such as Lyman break galaxies) can efficiently magnetize the intergalactic medium with a magnetic field strength of about 0.8 nG out to a distance of 160-530 kpc at redshifts 5-3, respectively. Magnetic fields that are several times weaker and shorter magnetization distances are expected for primordial dwarf galaxies. We also predict that most star-forming local dwarfs might have magnetized their surroundings up to a field strength about 0.1 μG within about a 5 kpc distance. Conclusions: Strong magnetic

  4. Magnetic Fields in a Sample of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Van Eck, Cameron; Shukurov, Anvar; Fletcher, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Both observations and modelling of magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas of spiral galaxies are well developed but the theory has been confronted with observations for only a handful of individual galaxies. There is now sufficient data to consider statistical properties of galactic magnetic fields. We have collected data from the literature on the magnetic fields and interstellar media (ISM) of 20 spiral galaxies, and tested for various physically motivated correlations between magnetic field and ISM parameters. Clear correlations emerge between the total magnetic field strength and molecular gas density as well as the star formation rate. The magnetic pitch angle exhibits correlations with the total gas density, the star formation rate and the strength of the axisymmetric component of the mean magnetic field. The total and mean magnetic field strengths exhibit noticeable degree of correlation, suggesting a universal behaviour of the degree of order in galactic magnetic fields. We also compare the p...

  5. Gas gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also can be caused by group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio vulnificus . Clostridium is found nearly everywhere. As the bacteria grow inside the body, it makes gas and harmful substances (toxins) that can damage body tissues, cells, and blood ...

  6. Magnetostrictive Pressure Regulating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor); Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A magnetostrictive pressure regulating system includes a magnetostrictive valve that incorporates a magnetostrictive actuator with at least one current-carrying coil disposed thereabout. A pressure force sensor, in fluid communication with the fluid exiting the valve, includes (i) a magnetostrictive material, (ii) a magnetic field generator in proximity to the magnetostrictive material for inducing a magnetic field in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material wherein lines of magnetic flux passing through the magnetostrictive material are defined, and (iii) a sensor positioned adjacent to the magnetostrictive material and in the magnetic field for measuring changes in at least one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux. The pressure of the fluid exiting the valve causes the applied force. A controller coupled to the sensor and to the current-carrying coil adjusts a current supplied to the current-carrying coil based on the changes so-measured.

  7. Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hull, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the principles of magnetic levitation presented in the physics classroom and applied to transportation systems. Topics discussed include three classroom demonstrations to illustrate magnetic levitation, the concept of eddy currents, lift and drag forces on a moving magnet, magnetic levitation vehicles, levitation with permanent magnets…

  8. Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hull, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the principles of magnetic levitation presented in the physics classroom and applied to transportation systems. Topics discussed include three classroom demonstrations to illustrate magnetic levitation, the concept of eddy currents, lift and drag forces on a moving magnet, magnetic levitation vehicles, levitation with permanent magnets…

  9. Hoosier Magnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-09-30

    Hoosier Magnetics proposes to replace the indirect clinker water cooling system with a cooling system that recycles heat from the hot ferrite to preheat the combustion air. This innovative process would significantly reduce the amount of natural gas required to heat the combustion air while eliminating Hoosier’s largest source of downtime. According to the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, process temperature is customarily used as a rough indication of where preheating air will be cost effective. Previous studies have concluded that processes operating above 1,600° F are ideal candidates for the utilization of pre-heated combustion air. Hoosier Magnetics’ operating temperatures run between 1800-2200° F making Hoosier the perfect candidate. Using preheated air at 1200° F will result in 35% fuel savings, or $298,935 annually. Additionally, the new system would have improved process reliability and result in both production efficiency increases and cost savings. This technology is NOT practiced or utilized on a wide-spread basis but could have a significant energy reduction impact in many different high heat utilizing industries in the country. While the energy savings is apparent with this theory the application and design of such a process has not been studied.

  10. Magnetic Nanocapsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhidong ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    A brief review on recent advances in the area of the magnetic nanocapsules is given. The most applicable nanoencapsulation procedures are introduced, which include: (1) physical techniques such as arc-discharge,evaporating, etc.; (2) chemical techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, solid-state reactions, etc. The structure and magnetic properties of various nanocapsules with different core/shell structures are studied in details, for possibly applications in magnetic recording, magnetic refrigerator, magnetic fluids, superconductors and medicine.

  11. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, V.; Wang, Z.; Ray, A.; Sridhar, I.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (ΔT) by ~20 °C and ~28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink.

  12. Power Frequency Magnetic Fields Affect the p38 MAPK-Mediated Regulation of NB69 Cell Proliferation Implication of Free Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Úbeda, Alejandro; Moreno, Jorge; Trillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative response of the neuroblastoma line NB69 to a 100 µT, 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) has been shown mediated by activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 pathway. This work investigates the MF effect on the cell cycle of NB69, the participation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) kinases in the field-induced proliferative response and the potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 and -p38 signaling pathways. NB69 cultures were exposed to the 100 µT MF, either intermittently for 24, 42 or 63 h, or continuously for periods of 15 to 120 min, in the presence or absence of p38 or JNK inhibitors: SB203580 and SP600125, respectively. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as ROS scavenger. Field exposure induced transient activation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2. The MF proliferative effect, which was mediated by changes in the cell cycle, was blocked by the p38 inhibitor, but not by the JNK inhibitor. NAC blocked the field effects on cell proliferation and p38 activation, but not those on ERK1/2 activation. The MF-induced proliferative effects are exerted through sequential upregulation of MAPK-p38 and -ERK1/2 activation, and they are likely mediated by a ROS-dependent activation of p38. PMID:27058530

  13. Power Frequency Magnetic Fields Affect the p38 MAPK-Mediated Regulation of NB69 Cell Proliferation Implication of Free Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Martínez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The proliferative response of the neuroblastoma line NB69 to a 100 µT, 50 Hz magnetic field (MF has been shown mediated by activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 pathway. This work investigates the MF effect on the cell cycle of NB69, the participation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal (JNK kinases in the field-induced proliferative response and the potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 and -p38 signaling pathways. NB69 cultures were exposed to the 100 µT MF, either intermittently for 24, 42 or 63 h, or continuously for periods of 15 to 120 min, in the presence or absence of p38 or JNK inhibitors: SB203580 and SP600125, respectively. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC was used as ROS scavenger. Field exposure induced transient activation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2. The MF proliferative effect, which was mediated by changes in the cell cycle, was blocked by the p38 inhibitor, but not by the JNK inhibitor. NAC blocked the field effects on cell proliferation and p38 activation, but not those on ERK1/2 activation. The MF-induced proliferative effects are exerted through sequential upregulation of MAPK-p38 and -ERK1/2 activation, and they are likely mediated by a ROS-dependent activation of p38.

  14. Construction of Six Coordination Polymers Based on a 5,5′-(1,2-Ethynyl)bis-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic Ligand: Synthesis, Structure, Gas Sorption, and Magnetic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bing

    2013-03-06

    Six novel coordination polymers based on a multifunctional ligand, 5,5\\'-(1,2-ethynyl)bis-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic (H4EBDC), namely, |(C3H7NO)2(H2O)7(C 2H5OH)3| [Zn2(C18H 6O8)(C10H8N2) 2] (1), |(C3H7NO)3(H2O)30- (CH3CN)2|[Zn 6(C18H6O8)3(C 6H12N2O2)2] (2), |(C 3H7NO)2- (H2O)2(H 3O)2|[Cd3(C18H6O 8)2] (3), |(C3H7NO)|[Mn- (C 18H8O8)(C3H7NO) 2] (4), |(C3H7NO)2(H2O)(C 2H7N)3| [Mn6(C18H 7O8)4(H2O)8] (5), and [Mn2(C18H6O8)(C3H 7NO)2] (6), have been constructed under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In these compounds, the ligand, H4EBDC, exhibits different coordination modes and conformations, constructing various architectures by bridging a variety of metal ions or polynuclear clusters. Compound 1 forms a three-dimensional (3D) FSC network constructed from two-dimensional (2D) layer motifs joined by EBDC4- and 4,4\\'-bipyridine bridges. Compound 2 possesses an NbO topology by linking Zn2(CO2)4 units with the ligand, coordinated amine molecules fill the pores, while compound 3 exhibits a 3D FLU network with Cd2+ as the cation and features an infinite framework built from tricadmium clusters. Compound 4 is based on PtS net, constructed of 4-connected rectangular H4EBDC units with tetrahedral monometallic Mn(CO2)4 nodes. Compound 5 is composed of 2D layers with (3,6)-connected KGD topology, and compound 6 consists of a 3D PtS-X network, built by bridging a metal chain with the ligand. The structures of these compounds have been discussed together with their corresponding properties, such as gas storage, separation, and magnetic properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography–time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (APGC–ToF-MS) for the determination of regulated and emerging contaminants in aqueous samples after stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintado-Herrera, Marina G.; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A., E-mail: pablo.lara@uca.es

    2014-12-03

    Graphical abstract: Examples of identification of target (triclosan, TCS) and non-target (tributhyl phosphate, TBP) compounds in environmental water samples by APGC–ToF-MS. Some confirmation criteria are shown (i.e. mass spectra, isotopic distribution, and accurate mass). - Highlights: • 102 regulated and emerging contaminants are simultaneously extracted by SBSE. • APGC–ToF-MS is presented as an alternative to EI for the analysis of microcontaminants. • Identification of non-target compounds in environmental matrices is also explored. - Abstract: This work presents the development, optimization and validation of a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 102 contaminants, including fragrances, UV filters, repellents, endocrine disruptors, biocides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several types of pesticides in aqueous matrices. Water samples were processed using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) after the optimization of several parameters: agitation time, ionic strength, presence of organic modifiers, pH, and volume of the derivatizing agent. Target compounds were extracted from the bars by liquid desorption (LD). Separation, identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to time-of-flight (ToF-MS) mass spectrometry. A new ionization source, atmospheric pressure gas chromatography (APGC), was tested. The optimized protocol showed acceptable recovery percentages (50–100%) and limits of detection below 1 ng L{sup −1} for most of the compounds. Occurrence of 21 out of 102 analytes was confirmed in several environmental aquatic matrices, including seawater, sewage effluent, river water and groundwater. Non-target compounds such as organophosphorus flame retardants were also identified in real samples by accurate mass measurement of their molecular ions using GC-APGC–ToF-MS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this

  16. More effectivity in the gas supply through network codes; Mehr Effektivitaet bei der Gasversorgung durch Netzkodizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Andreas [EVB Energy Solutions GmbH, Velbert (Germany). EVB Akademie

    2013-02-15

    Already in the year 2003, the European Commission has regulated the complete opening of the market by means of the regulation 2003/55/EG in order to develop the European Single Market positively. Practically, in Germany industrial customers can freely choose their gas suppliers since 1st July, 2004, while private customers can choose their gas suppliers since 1st July, 2007. The regulation 2003/55/EG is valid for the gas market inclusive natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), biogas, gas from biomass and any other types of gas which can be transported through the natural gas distribution system.

  17. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  18. Development Planning of Natural Gas Power Generation and Its Influence on Power System's Peak Load Regulation and Economy%燃气发电的发展及其对电网调峰和经济性影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾德香; 韩净

    2013-01-01

    The large-scale development of natural gas power generation in China is subject to natural gas supply,price and peak load regulation,etc.It is important to research natural gas power generation's planning and its influence on power system and its economy.The principle and method of natural gas power generation's planning is proposed.Based on the minimum total system cost of the power supply,with the constraints of power system's construction ans operation,balance of power and energy,balance of natural gas demand and its supply,etc.,the recommended scenario of total generation development planning scale and its structure is proposed,including natural gas power generation's scale.Furthermore,considering natural gas power station' s prelimninary work,natural gas supply and system peak load regulation,the recommended scale of natural gas power generation and its economy is proposed.The study conclusion provides the guidance for the development of the natural gas power generation in China.%中国燃气电站大规模发展面临气源、气价和系统调峰等多种约束,需要深入研究气电发展及其对电网调峰和经济性的影响.提出了燃气电站规划研究的原则和方法,以系统电力供应总成本最小为目标,以电力电量平衡、燃气等能源供需平衡、系统建设和运行等各种要求为约束条件,研究总体电源规模和结构,包括燃气电站建设规模.在此基础上,综合考虑燃气电站前期工作进展情况、气源落实情况以及系统调峰平衡状况,提出地区电网燃气电站推荐装机容量并进行经济性分析,为地区电网制定燃气电站发展规划提供参考.

  19. Magnetic propeller in symbiotic stars

    OpenAIRE

    Panferov, Alexander; Mikolajewski, Maciej

    2000-01-01

    Rapidly spinning magnetic white dwarfs in symbiotic stars may pass through the propeller stage. It is believed that a magnetic propeller acts in two such stars CH Cyg and MWC 560. We review a diversity of manifestations of the propeller there. In these systems in a quiescent state the accretion onto a white dwarf from the strong enough wind of a companion star is suppressed by the magnetic field, and the hot component luminosity is low. Since the gas stored in the envelope eventually settles ...

  20. Current Regulator Design for Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Servo Systems%表贴式永磁同步电机伺服系统电流环设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩德; 黄声华

    2012-01-01

    电流环直接影响表贴式永磁同步电机(surface permanent magnet synchronous motor,SPMSM)伺服系统的电流波形和电磁转矩,使系统的动、静态性能变差.当系统运行工况变化使得电机电感饱和时,电流环中含有电感参数的解耦项就会失效.从合成矢量的角度出发,提出了一种同步dq旋转坐标系下无需电感参数的电流解耦调节器,实现了无电感参数解耦控制,改善了SPMSM系统的动态性能.另外,由于死区、电机制造工艺、磁场饱和等原因,电机电流中含有影响系统性能的5、7、11、13等低次谐波.提出了同步旋转dq坐标系下比例积分+比例谐振(proportional integral+ proportional resonance,PI+PR)的电流复合调节器,对低次电流谐波进行闭环调节,从而显著减小了谐波电流,改善了系统性能.仿真分析和实验结果均验证了该方案的可行性.%The current control loop directly affects the current of the surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM) and the electromagnetic torque, which makes the static and dynamic performance of the motor deteriorate. The decoupling control cannot be realized with the changes of the motor's inductance parameters due to saturation effects when the operating condition changes. This paper proposed a decoupling control to improve the dynamic performance, without the inductance value with the perspective of complex vector. As the dead zone, the motor manufacturing process and the magnetic saturation, the servo system current often contains low-order harmonics, such as 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, which produce torque ripple and affect the motor's performance. The current regulation with the proportional Integral and proportional resonance based on the synchronous rotating dq coordinate was used for the closed loop control of the low harmonic currents, to improve the system performance. Simulation and experimental results verify the feasibility of the schemes proposed by this paper.

  1. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  2. Magnetic Reconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schep, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    This lecture deals with the concept of magnetic field lines and with the conservation of magnetic flux. In high temperature fusion devices like tokamaks flux conservation can be violated and reconnection can occur at closed magnetic field lines. Reconnection processes lead to changes in the global t

  3. The Regulation of pH Value of Liquid Feed on Blood Gas Parameters in Holstein Bull Calves%液体饲料pH值对荷斯坦公犊血气指标的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠焰; 邱国梁; 周怿; 云强; 齐东; 王家杰; 刁其玉

    2014-01-01

    0.8126、0.8298。血液pH值和pCO2随日龄变化有显著改变(P<0.05);除HCO3-、ABE、SBE外,其他血气指标符合正态分布规律(P>0.05)。代乳品中植物蛋白占总蛋白的比例由50%提高到80%时,犊牛平均日增重和干物质采食量降低,但血气指标并未受到影响(P>0.05)。【结论】随代乳品乳液pH值的降低,21-63 d犊牛血液HCO3-、ABE、TCO2、SBC、SBE显著降低,可作为评价日粮酸度效果的敏感指标。%Objective] Due to the immature gastrointestinal function and low ability digest dietary, diarrhea or other nutritional diseases were easy to arise in suckling calves that bring about low survival rate. Compared with adult cattle, liquid milk replacer is the main feed for the early weaned calves. Thus, acidity of milk replacer emulsions has more important effect on calf health. But the change regulation, the normal value scope of blood gas parameters in calves are not in any systematic manner, so that it is unable to determine whether the appropriate dietary acidity is. To study the change regulations of blood gas parameter in calves, an experiment was carried out to investigate the variations of blood gas parameters in calves which fed liquid feed with different pH.[Method]The pH values of a milk replacer (6.2, 5.5, 5.0 or 4.5) and the ratio of vegetable protein to total protein in the milk replacer (50% or 80%) were used to form an 2 × 4 factorial design in this experiment. Forty-eight neonatal healthy Chinese Holstein male calves were allotted into eight groups and each group was fed with one of the 8 milk replacer emulsions. The experiment lasted 63 d with 21 d for adaptation and 42 d for test. Growth performance was determined fortnightly, the intake of milk replacers and pellet diet were recorded every day. Blood samples were collected on 21 d and 49 d. The pH value, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), oxygen saturation (SO2

  4. SUMO: regulating the regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossis Guillaume

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.

  5. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  6. Effects of Strong Magnetic Fields on Photoionised Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Simulations are presented of the photoionisation of three dense gas clouds threaded by magnetic fields, showing the dynamical effects of different initial magnetic field orientations and strengths. For moderate magnetic field strengths the initial radiation-driven implosion phase is not strongly affected by the field geometry, and the photoevaporation flows are also similar. Over longer timescales, the simulation with an initial field parallel to the radiation propagation direction (parallel field) remains basically axisymmetric, whereas in the simulation with a perpendicular initial field the pillar of neutral gas fragments in a direction aligned with the magnetic field. For stronger initial magnetic fields, the dynamics in all gas phases are affected at all evolutionary times. In a simulation with a strong initially perpendicular field, photoevaporated gas forms filaments of dense ionised gas as it flows away from the ionisation front along field lines. These filaments are potentially a useful diagnostic of...

  7. Natural Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  8. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  9. Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

  10. Properties of Simulated Magnetized Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dolag, K

    2000-01-01

    We study the evolution of magnetized clusters in a cosmological environment using magneto-hydro dynamical simulations. Large scale flows and merging of subclumps generate shear flows leading to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which, in addition to the compression of the gas where the magnetic field is frozen in, further amplify the magnetic field during the evolution of the cluster. Therefore, well-motivated initial magnetic fields of $^{1/2}=10^{-9} {\\rm G}$ reach the observed $\\sim\\mu{\\rm G}$ field strengths in the cluster cores at $z=0$. These magnetized clusters can be used to study the final magnetic field structure, the dynamical importance of magnetic fields for the interpretation of observed X-Ray properties, and help to constrain further processes in galaxy clusters like the population of relativistic particles giving rise to the observed radio halos or the behavior of magnetized cooling flows.

  11. Wood gas; Holz gibt Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Claudia

    2011-06-17

    Sixty years ago, wood gas was even used as a car fuel. Today, this ancient technology is experiencing a renaissance. Small cogeneration plants with wood gasifiers are ideal for renewable and decentral power supply concepts for tomorrow. Until then, there is much pioneering work to do until plants will be ready for serial production.

  12. The origin and evolution of cluster magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Shukurov, A; Haugen, N E L

    2006-01-01

    Random motions can occur in the intergalactic gas of galaxy clusters at all stages of their evolution. Depending on the poorly known value of the Reynolds number, these motions can or cannot become turbulent, but in any case they can generate random magnetic fields via dynamo action. We argue that magnetic fields inferred observationally for the intracluster medium require dynamo action, and then estimate parameters of random flows and magnetic fields at various stages of the cluster evolution.

  13. Pair annihilation in superstrong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, J. K.; Bussard, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The kinematical and dynamical aspects of the annihilation processes in superstrong magnetic fields are studied. The feasibility and potential significance of detecting from magnetic neutron stars are discussed. The discussion proceeds from the derivation of the fully relativistic differential cross sections and annihilation rates for both one- and two-photon emission from a ground-state gas of electrons and positrons in a static, uniform magnetic field.

  14. Double Compton and Cyclo-Synchrotron in Super-Eddington Discs, Magnetized Coronae, and Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chluba, Jens; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Black hole accretion discs accreting near the Eddington rate are dominated by bremsstrahlung cooling, but above the Eddington rate the double Compton process can dominate in radiation-dominated regions while the cyclo-synchrotron can dominate in strongly-magnetized regions like in a corona or jet. We present an extension to the general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic code HARMRAD to account for emission and absorption by thermal cyclo-synchrotron, double Compton, bremsstrahlung, low-temperature OPAL opacities as well as Thomson and Compton scattering. We approximate the radiation field as a Bose-Einstein distribution and evolve it using the radiation number-energy-momentum conservation equations in order to track photon hardening. We perform various simulations to study how these extensions affect the radiative properties of magnetically-arrested discs accreting at Eddington to super-Eddington rates. We find that double Compton dominates bremsstrahlung in the disc within a radius of r ˜ 15rg (gravitational radii) at a hundred times the Eddington accretion rate, and within smaller radii at lower accretion rates. Double Compton and cyclo-synchrotron regulate radiation and gas temperatures in the corona, while cyclo-synchrotron regulates temperatures in the jet. Interestingly, as the accretion rate drops to Eddington, an optically thin corona develops whose gas temperature of T ˜ 109K is ˜100 times higher than the disc's black body temperature. Our results show the importance of double Compton and synchrotron in super-Eddington discs, magnetized coronae, and jets.

  15. Magnetic properties of the magnetic hybrid membranes based on various polymer matrices and inorganic fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybak, Aleksandra, E-mail: Aleksandra.Rybak@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kaszuwara, Waldemar [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-05

    Magnetic hybrid membranes based on ethylcellulose (EC), poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and various magnetic praseodymium and neodymium powder microparticles as fillers were obtained. Permeability, diffusion and sorption coefficients of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and synthetic air components were estimated for homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes using the Time Lag method based on constant pressure permeation technique. The microstructure studies and the phase analysis of magnetic membranes were also performed using SEM and XRD. The influence of magnetic parameters, like coercivity, remanence and saturation magnetization of created membranes on the gas transport properties was studied. The results showed that their coercivity depended on composition and microstructure of the magnetic powder. On the other hand, remanence and saturation magnetization increased with the increase of the powder addition in the membrane. It was found that the magnetic membrane's gas transport properties were improved with the increase of membrane's remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The decrease in powder particle size and associated increase of the membrane's coercivity also positively influenced the gas transport and separation properties of investigated membranes. It was observed that the magnetic ethylcellulose and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) membranes had higher gas permeability, while their permselectivity and solubility coefficient values were rather maintained or slightly increased. The results also showed that the magnetic powder content enhanced significantly gas diffusivity in EC and PPO membranes. It was also analyzed the dependence of the drift coefficient w on the magnetic parameters of investigated membranes. The correlation between the membrane selectivity, permeability and magnetic properties with their XRD characteristics was stated. - Highlights: • Membrane's production consisting of EC or PPO

  16. Volcanic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.

    1995-01-01

    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  17. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  18. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bgas of the star. The magnetic field introduces anisotropic pressures, even for the moderate values present in white dwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  19. Magnetic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, G.D.; Jahren, C.E.; Rosenbaum, J.G. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Baldwin, M.J. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Mercury, NV (USA)

    1983-12-31

    Air and ground magnetic anomalies in the Climax stock area of the NTS help define the gross configuration of the stock and detailed configuration of magnetized rocks at the Boundary and Tippinip faults that border the stock. Magnetizations of geologic units were evaluated by measurements of magnetic properties of drill core, minimum estimates of magnetizations from ground magnetic anomalies for near surface rocks, and comparisons of measured anomalies with anomalies computed by a three-dimensional forward program. Alluvial deposits and most sedimentary rocks are nonmagnetic, but drill core measurements reveal large and irregular changes in magnetization for some quartzites and marbles. The magnetizations of quartz monzonite and granodiorite near the stock surface are weak, about 0.15 A/m, and increase at a rate of 0.00196 A/m/m to 1.55 A/m, at depths greater than 700 m (2300 ft). The volcanic rocks of the area are weakly magnetized. Aeromagnetic anomalies 850 m (2800 ft) above the stock are explained by a model consisting of five vertical prisms. Prisms 1, 2, and 3 represent the near surface outline of the stock, prism 4 is one of the models developed by Whitehill (1973), and prism 5 is modified from the model developed by Allingham and Zietz (1962). Most of the anomaly comes from unsampled and strongly-magnetized deep sources that could be either granite or metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. 48 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Transboundary natural gas sales and North American Free Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzienkowski, J.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    During the last 25 years American natural gas producers have seen wide fluctuations in gas supply, demand and price, and changes in the transboundary natural gas sales regulations have added to the instability. The history of such changes is outlined, and the impact of free trade agreements is discussed. Such agreements may significantly limit the power of the executive branch to restrict natural gas imports with a contracting nation. Topics include: FERC control of transportation and rate design of imported gas; foreign regulatory schemes for the explortation of natural gas; free trade agreements and transboundary natural gas sales; Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  1. Gas stream cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Gas stream cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  4. Quantum Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barbara, Bernard; Sawatzky, G; Stamp, P. C. E

    2008-01-01

    This book is based on some of the lectures during the Pacific Institute of Theoretical Physics (PITP) summer school on "Quantum Magnetism", held during June 2006 in Les Houches, in the French Alps. The school was funded jointly by NATO, the CNRS, and PITP, and entirely organized by PITP. Magnetism is a somewhat peculiar research field. It clearly has a quantum-mechanical basis – the microsopic exchange interactions arise entirely from the exclusion principle, in conjunction with respulsive interactions between electrons. And yet until recently the vast majority of magnetism researchers and users of magnetic phenomena around the world paid no attention to these quantum-mechanical roots. Thus, eg., the huge ($400 billion per annum) industry which manufactures hard discs, and other components in the information technology sector, depends entirely on room-temperature properties of magnets - yet at the macroscopic or mesoscopic scales of interest to this industry, room-temperature magnets behave entirely classic...

  5. Investigation of Continuous Gas Engine CHP Operation on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 hours of gas engine operation with producer gas from biomass as fuel has been conducted on the gasification CHP demonstration and research plant, named “Viking” at the Technical University of Denmark. The gas engine is an integrated part of the entire gasification plant. The excess...... investigated. The engine and the plant are equipped with continuously data acquisition that monitors the operation including the composition of the producer gas and the flow. Producer gas properties and contaminations have been investigated. No detectable tar or particle content was observed...... conditions when compared to the current regulation for CO emissions. Measurements of the PAH showed that there were no detectable PAH in exhaust gas from the engine when it is operated on producer gas. The emissions of aldehydes were measured to be significantly lower for producer gas operation than...

  6. Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Stephen A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.

  7. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  8. Magnet Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Over the decades, Fermilab has been responsible for the design, construction, test and analysis of hundreds of conventional and superconducting accelerator magnets...

  9. Sweet gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    When poisonous hydrogen sulfide contaminates a natural gas deposit, the drilling company usually caps the well and moves on to other areas that may contain larger reserves and offer stronger economic incentives. Chemical and biological methods exist to purify these wells, but most are complex and costly. However, a group of scientists now is developing what could be a cheaper, easier method to clean up and utilize this polluted natural gas.The technique—which involves growing “enrichment” cultures of bacteria that metabolize the hydrogen sulfide into harmless compounds—could be particularly useful to poor and energy-starved developing nations, says Norman Wainwright, a senior scientist at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory. “We're hoping the technique can be robust enough and inexpensive enough to be used in a developing country,” Wainwright says. Other scientists involved with the project are Porter Anderson, a University of Rochester professor emeritus associated with the lab and Ben Ebenhack, also of Rochester.

  10. QCD thermodynamics and magnetization in nonzero magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Ezzelarab, Nada; Shalaby, Asmaa G

    2016-01-01

    In nonzero magnetic field, the magnetic properties and thermodynamics of the quantum-chromodynamic (QCD) matter is studied in the hadron resonance gas and the Polyakov linear-sigma models and compared with recent lattice calculations. Both models are fairly suited to describe the degrees of freedom in the hadronic phase. The partonic ones are only accessible by the second model. It is found that the QCD matter has paramagnetic properties, which monotonically depend on the temperature and are not affected by the hadron-quark phase-transition. Furthermore, raising the magnetic field strength increases the thermodynamic quantities, especially in the hadronic phase but reduces the critical temperature, i.e. inverse magnetic catalysis.

  11. Magnetized sheath near positively biased wall between two permanent magnetic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan; Wei, Zi-an; Ma, J. X., E-mail: jxma@ustc.edu.cn; Jiang, Zheng-qi; Wu, Fei [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The characteristics of magnetized electron sheath near a positively biased conducting wall parallel to magnetic field formed between two permanent magnetic plates were experimentally investigated in a double plasma device. The magnetic field strength between the magnetic plates is about 1200 G which is sufficient to magnetize the plasma such that the ion gyroradius is comparable to the electron Debye length. A virtual cathode (or potential dip) structure was found between the electron-rich sheath and bulk plasma. For a given neutral gas pressure, the potential minimum (dip position) remains almost the same for different positive biases on the wall. For a given bias on the wall, however, the electron sheath thickness and the potential drop from the bulk plasma to the dip decrease with the increase of the neutral gas pressure. In addition, the electron sheath and potential dip appear to be wider and deeper in the downstream side of the wall.

  12. Electromagnetic drift modes in an inhomogeneous electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices......A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.350 - Gas welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas welding and cutting. 1926.350 Section 1926.350 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Welding and Cutting § 1926.350 Gas welding and cutting. (a) Transporting, moving, and storing compressed gas cylinders. (1) Valve protection caps...

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk Galaxy Formation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng

    2007-01-01

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a $10^{10}$ \\msun halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform $10^{-9}$ G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting $\\sim500$ Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase ...

  15. Canada - gas supply, demand and current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, K.W. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the trends in natural gas supply and demand during the decade since deregulation, and provides an assessment of the degree to which the goals of the deregulation agreement have been met. The author then turns to a discussion of current issues in the natural gas industry as seen from a regulator`s perspective. The issues discussed include: excess deliverability and price; pipeline integrity; the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; new pipeline certification; pipeline jurisdiction; export licensing; financial regulation; and electronic information exchange. (Author)

  16. Monitoring gas quality green gas feeding in; Monitoring gaskwaliteit groengasinvoeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstein, J. [DNV KEMA Energy and Sustainability, Arnhem (Netherlands); Polman, E. [Kiwa Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Due to the growing number of green gas facilities in the Netherlands more practical knowledge is collected about the production and injection of green gas. Also there was the need to gather data about more practical experiences and knowledge about the gas quality, the performance of gas cleaning and gas treatment systems, as well the integration of green gas in the gas infrastructure. In addition to this, there is a need to get insight in the safety aspects of green gas injection. In order to comply this demand, DNV KEMA en Kiwa Technology measured the quality parameters continuously between June 2012 en January 2013 (three weeks) and discontinuously (gas samples) of green gas at eight production facilities. The measurements have been performed at designated places and are independent from the measurements of the biomethane producer. In order to be sure that the results of DNV KEMA and Kiwa are comparable, a combined measurement program was executed. It results in uniformity for all the measured values: the differences are within the uncertainty level for each component. During the measurement period of three weeks, the gas quality parameters were compared to specifications, written down in the national regulations for the transport and the distribution grid respectively [Dutch] Door het groeiend aantal groengasinvoedingen in Nederland wordt steeds meer praktijkkennis verzameld. Er dient meer praktijkkennis te worden verzameld over de chemische gaskwaliteit, prestaties van de gasreiniging- en gasopwaardering en de wijze van inpassing in de bestaande infrastructuur. Daarnaast is het wenselijk om inzicht te verkrijgen in de veiligheid van groengasinvoeding. Daarop is de groengaskwaliteit op acht locaties over een periode van drie weken continu en discontinu gemeten tussen juni 2012 en januari 2013. De metingen zijn uitgevoerd op een aangewezen plaats door de netbeheerder en staan los van de metingen van de invoeders zelf. Voor het waarborgen van de uniformiteit van

  17. 直驱风电机组无功功率调节性能概述%Reactive Power Regulation Performance of Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      直驱永磁风电机组经过交-直-交全功率变流器与电网相接,因变流器采用了矢量控制技术,风电机组具备有功功率和无功功率的解耦控制特性。因此,风电场可以深度挖掘直驱永磁风电机组的无功功率调节能力,从而实现对风电场并网点的恒电压控制或恒功率因数控制。本文从直驱风电机组单机的无功功率调节性能出发,结合实际工程案例和测试数据,对单机的无功功率调节性能进行了总结,并提出了需要注意的重要技术问题。%Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet wind turbines (DDPM) connected to the grid via the fully-fed AC/DC/AC converter. The output reactive power and active power decoupling control is possible for DDPMs because of the implementation of space vector control algorithm inside converter, so the constant voltage/power factor control at PCC of wind farm will be realistic so as wind farm operators would like to give full play to the reactive power adjustment capability of DDPM. is paper focused on the reactive power regulation performance of single DDPMs rstly, and then summarizes the important technical issues related to the reactive power control of wind farms in China, also a conclusion has been taken to the reactive power adjustment capabilities of DDPMs, which is related to some real measured data and engineering facts.

  18. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  19. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  20. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...