WorldWideScience

Sample records for magnetic ucn trap

  1. A Superconducting Magnet UCN Trap for Precise Neutron Lifetime Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, R; Altarev, I; Bröcker, J; Gutsmiedl, E; Hartmann, J; Müller, A; Paul, S; Schott, W; Trinks, U; Zimmer, O

    2005-01-01

    Finite-element methods along with Monte Carlo simulations were used to design a magnetic storage device for ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure their lifetime. A setup was determined which should make it possible to confine UCN with negligible losses and detect the protons emerging from β-decay with high efficiency: stacked superconducting solenoids create the magnetic storage field, an electrostatic extraction field inside the storage volume assures high proton collection efficiency. Alongside with the optimization of the magnetic and electrostatic design, the properties of the trap were investigated through extensive Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Monte Carlo Modeling the UCN τ Magneto-Gravitational Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, A. T.; UCNτ Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The current uncertainty in our knowledge of the free neutron lifetime is dominated by the nearly 4 σ discrepancy between complementary ``beam'' and ``bottle'' measurement techniques. An incomplete assessment of systematic effects is the most likely explanation for this difference and must be addressed in order to realize the potential of both approaches. The UCN τ collaboration has constructed a large-volume magneto-gravitational trap that eliminates the material interactions which complicated the interpretation of previous bottle experiments. This is accomplished using permanent NdFeB magnets in a bowl-shaped Halbach array to confine polarized UCN from the sides and below and the earth's gravitational field to trap them from above. New in situ detectors that count surviving UCN provide a means of empirically assessing residual systematic effects. The interpretation of that data, and its implication for experimental configurations with enhanced precision, can be bolstered by Monte Carlo models of the current experiment which provide the capability for stable tracking of trapped UCN and detailed modeling of their polarization. Work to develop such models and their comparison with data acquired during our first extensive set of systematics studies will be discussed.

  3. Progress towards magnetic trapping of ultra-cold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, P R; Butterworth, J S; Coakley, K J; Dewey, M S; Dzhosyuk, S N; Gilliam, D M; Golub, R; Greene, G L; Habicht, K; Lamoreaux, S K; Mattoni, C E H; McKinsey, D N; Wietfeldt, F E; Doyle, J M

    2000-01-01

    We report progress towards magnetic trapping of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in preparation for a neutron lifetime measurement. UCN will be produced by inelastic scattering of cold (0.89 nm) neutrons in a reservoir of superfluid sup 4 He and confined in a three-dimensional magnetic trap. As the trapped neutrons decay, recoil electrons will generate scintillations in the liquid He, which should be detectable with nearly 100% efficiency. This direct measure of the number of UCN decays vs. time can be used to determine the neutron beta-decay lifetime.

  4. Measurement of Systematic effects in the UCN τ neutron lifetime experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Nathan; UCNtau Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The UCN τ experiment at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCe) measures the neutron β decay lifetime (τn) by trapping Ultracold Neutrons (UCN) in a magneto-gravitational trap. UCN are confined from below by magnetic fields and above by gravity. UCN are loaded into the trap, held for times on the order of τn, and counted. Several systematic effects can potentially shift the measured τn including heating and other losses of UCN during storage, insufficient removal of UCN with energies above the traping potential, and phase space evolution of UCN during storage which can cause changes in detection efficiency. The UCN τ collaboration has put limits on these systematic effects via measurements in the 2016-2017 run cycle at LANSCE. For the first two effects, a limit is placed by searching for high-energy UCN at the end of storage. A limit is placed on the effects of phase space evolution by comparing arrival time distributions for UCN under different conditions. Data from the 2016-2017 run cycle and systematic limits derived from it will be discussed.

  5. Progress on the Magnetic Trapping of Ultra-cold Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John M.

    1998-04-01

    Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) have been instrumental in making improved measurements of the neutron beta-decay lifetime and in searches for a permanent electric dipole moment.(R. Golub, D. Richardson and S.K. Lamoreaux, Ultra-cold Neutrons), Adam Hilger, 1991 The most accurate experiments have taken place using in-core devices at ILL (Grenoble, France) and PNPI (St. Petersburg, Russia). Superthermal techniques offer the promise of high-density sources of UCN via scattering of cold neutrons. Cold neutron beams are available at many neutron facilities. We are currently working on the development of a superfluid helium UCN source using the Cold Neutron Research Facility at the NIST Research Reactor (Gaithersburg) . Our first experiment plans to use superthermal scattering of neutrons in superfluid helium to produce UCN within a magnetic trapping volume. A magnetic trap 30 cm long and 4 cm diameter will be filled with helium at about 100 mK. Cold neutrons (around 11 K) will be introduced into the trapping region where some of them scatter to low enough energies (around 1 mK) so that they are magnetically trapped. Once trapped the UCN travel undisturbed; they have a very small probability of upscattering. Detection will be accomplished as the UCN beta-decay. The resultant high-energy electron creates excited molecular helium dimers, a portion which decay in less than 10 ns and emit radiation in the XUV (50-100 nm). We have developed techniques to measure these scintillations. Analysis indicates that a high accuracy measurement of the neutron beta decay lifetime should be possible using our techniques. An apparatus has been constructed and initial runs are underway. An overview of the experiment, discussion of systematic errors and recent experimental progress will be presented. This work is done in collaboration with C. Brome, J. Butterworth, S. Dzhosyuk, P. Huffman, C. Mattoni, D. McKinsey, M. Cooper, G. Greene, S. Lamoreaux, R. Golub, K. Habicht, K. Coakley, S. Dewey, D

  6. Quasi-elastic spectral change of stored UCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geltenbort, P.; Butterworth, J.; Steyerl, A.; Kwon, O.; Yerozolimsky, B.; Achiwa, N.

    2001-01-01

    UCN within a narrow spectral range were stored in a Fomblin grease coated trap. After filling the trap the bandwidth of storable UCN could be reduced to zero by an absorber. This procedure did, however, not remove all UCN. As in our previous measurements, the remaining UCN were found to leave the trap with an efflux time constant significantly larger than the value measured for the initial UCN spectrum. The remaining fraction of UCN was reduced to zero only when the absorber was brought down almost to the bottom of the trap. The data can be explained, qualitatively, by quasi-elastic UCN down-scattering by about 4 neV during the filling process. The deduced probability for this process is compared to a calculation for a model of hydrogen diffusing within a thin hydrogenous layer on top of the Fomblin grease. (author)

  7. Development of a new superfluid helium ultra-cold neutron source and a new magnetic trap for neutron lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kent Kwan Ho

    2013-01-01

    The development of an Ultra-Cold Neutron (UCN) source at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) based on super-thermal down-scattering of a Cold Neutron (CN) beam in superfluid 4 He is described. A continuous flow, self-liquefying 3 He cryostat was constructed. A beryllium coated prototype converter vessel with a vertical, window-less extraction system was tested on the PF1b CN beam at the ILL. Accumulation measurements with a mechanical valve, and continuous measurements with the vessel left open, were made. The development of a new magnetic UCN trap for neutron lifetime (τ β ) measurements is also described. A 1.2 m long octupole made from permanent magnets, with a bore diameter of 94 mm and surface field of 1.3 T, was assembled. This will be combined with a superconducting coil assembly and used with vertical confinement of UCN by gravity. A discussion of the systematic effects, focussing on the cleaning of above-threshold UCNs, is given. The possibility of detecting the charged decay products is also discussed. UCN storage experiments with the magnetic array and a fomblin-coated piston were performed on PF2 at the ILL. These measurements studied depolarization, spectrum cleaning, and loss due to material reflections in the trap experimentally.

  8. Magnetic field mapping of the UCNTau magneto-gravitational trap: design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libersky, Matthew Murray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-04

    The beta decay lifetime of the free neutron is an important input to the Standard Model of particle physics, but values measured using different methods have exhibited substantial disagreement. The UCN r experiment in development at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plans to explore better methods of measuring the neutron lifetime using ultracold neutrons (UCNs). In this experiment, UCNs are confined in a magneto-gravitational trap formed by a curved, asymmetric Halbach array placed inside a vacuum vessel and surrounded by holding field coils. If any defects present in the Halbach array are sufficient to reduce the local field near the surface below that needed to repel the desired energy level UCNs, loss by material interaction can occur at a rate similar to the loss by beta decay. A map of the magnetic field near the surface of the array is necessary to identify any such defects, but the array's curved geometry and placement in a vacuum vessel make conventional field mapping methods difficult. A system consisting of computer vision-based tracking and a rover holding a Hall probe has been designed to map the field near the surface of the array, and construction of an initial prototype has begun at LANL. The design of the system and initial results will be described here.

  9. Magnetic trapping of Rydberg atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niestadt, D.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic trapping is a well-established technique for ground state atoms. We seek to extend this concept to Rydberg atoms. Rydberg atoms are important for current visions of quantum simulators that will be used in the near future to simulate and analyse quantum problems. Current efforts in Amsterdam

  10. Magnetic traps with a sperical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1979-11-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphesis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasmas in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In additio, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is being described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps for the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (author)

  11. Magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphasis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasms in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In addition, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps in the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (orig.)

  12. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  13. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Liang, Cai; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  14. UCN storage experiment for the investigation of the anomalous interaction with wall surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji; Utsuro, Masahiko; Steyerl, A.; Malik, S.S.; Geltenbort, P.; Neumair, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The UCN experiment for the investigation of the anomalous interaction with wall surfaces was performed in the ILL UCN source. UCN is monochromated by the gravity and stored in the spectrometer with rectangular trap which is the Fombrin-grease coated box of 67x67cm 2 cross section and 20cm height. The measured energy distribution of stored UCN shows the indication of 'initial micro-heating'. The order of energy gain is ∼ 10 -10 eV in the initial several 100sec of storage. (author)

  15. Review of inelastic losses of UCN and quantum mechanics of the de Broglie wave packet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.; Utsuro, M.

    1998-01-01

    Different inelastic processes of ultracold neutrons (UCN) losses in traps are considered. A hypothesis of the de Broglie singular wave-packet description of the neutron wave-function to explain anomalous losses of UCN is proposed. An experiment to check the hypothesis and its results are discussed

  16. Experiment on search for neutron-antineutron oscillations using a projected UCN source at the WWR-M reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, A. K.; Serebrov, A. P.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Leonova, E. N.; Chaikovskii, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    We propose an experiment on search for neutron-antineutron oscillations based on the storage of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a material trap. The sensitivity of the experiment mostly depends on the trap size and the amount of UCN in it. In Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) a high-intensity UCN source is projected at the WWR-M reactor, which must provide UCN density 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sources. The results of simulations of the designed experimental scheme show that the sensitivity can be increased by ˜ 10-40 times compared to sensitivity of previous experiment depending on the model of neutron reflection from walls.

  17. Magnetic trapping of cold bromine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P

    2014-01-17

    Magnetic trapping of bromine atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.

  18. Results and Systematic Studies of the UCN Lifetime Experiment at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffer, Craig Reeves

    The neutron beta-decay lifetime is important in understanding weak interactions in the framework of the Standard Model, and it is an input to nuclear astrophysics and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Current measurements of the neutron beta-decay lifetime disagree, which has motivated additional experiments that are sensitive to different sets of systematic effects. An effort continues at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) to improve the statistical and systematic limitations of an experiment to measure the neutron beta-decay lifetime using magnetically trapped UCN. In the experiment, a monoenergetic 0:89 nm cold neutron is incident on a superfluid 4He target within the minimum field region of an Ioffe type magnetic trap. Some of the neutrons are subsequently downscattered by single phonons in the helium to low energies (≈ 200 neV), and those in the appropriate spin state become trapped. The inverse process, upscattering of UCN, is suppressed by the low phonon density in the analysis, data, and systematics will be discussed. After accounting for the systematic effects the measured lifetime disagrees with the current PDG mean neutron beta-decay lifetime by about 9 of our standard deviations, which is a strong indication of unaccounted for systematic effects. Additional 3He contamination will be shown to be the most likely candidate for the additional systematic shift, which motivated the commissioning and initial operation of a heat flush purifier for purifying additional 4He. This work ends with a description of the 4He purifier and its performance.

  19. On the superthermal UCN production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiki, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, the production of ultracold neutrons (UCN) by means of superthermal method predicted by Golub and Pendlebury was verified quantitatively by changing incident cold neutron wavelength to observe the maximum of UCN production at a certain wavelength. At this wavelength, the dispersion curve of superfluid liquid helium and the energy momentum curve of a free neutron cross, and the energy and momentum of incident neutrons can be converted entirely to those of produced phonons, thus the neutrons with infinitesimal energy are left, which are UCN. It was learned that the calculation by Cohen and Feynman is correct, and now the rate of UCN production per unit time can be calculated. The comparison of this with other methods is discussed. The heat that would be produced in liquid helium if it was exposed to a cold neutron field was calculated. The proposed set of the circulation pumps for 3 He combined with a new heat exchanger gives the answer to the problem. Two main objectives for getting a strong UCN source are the precise determination of neutron lifetime and the search for the electric dipole moment of neutrons. The e.d.m. measurement machine integrated with refrigeration parts is shown. Preliminary measurement was done for the three-layer high permeability shield. (K.I.)

  20. On the superthermal UCN production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiki, Hajime [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    In 1992, the production of ultracold neutrons (UCN) by means of superthermal method predicted by Golub and Pendlebury was verified quantitatively by changing incident cold neutron wavelength to observe the maximum of UCN production at a certain wavelength. At this wavelength, the dispersion curve of superfluid liquid helium and the energy momentum curve of a free neutron cross, and the energy and momentum of incident neutrons can be converted entirely to those of produced phonons, thus the neutrons with infinitesimal energy are left, which are UCN. It was learned that the calculation by Cohen and Feynman is correct, and now the rate of UCN production per unit time can be calculated. The comparison of this with other methods is discussed. The heat that would be produced in liquid helium if it was exposed to a cold neutron field was calculated. The proposed set of the circulation pumps for {sup 3}He combined with a new heat exchanger gives the answer to the problem. Two main objectives for getting a strong UCN source are the precise determination of neutron lifetime and the search for the electric dipole moment of neutrons. The e.d.m. measurement machine integrated with refrigeration parts is shown. Preliminary measurement was done for the three-layer high permeability shield. (K.I.)

  1. UCN anomalous losses and the UCN capture cross section on material defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrov, A.; Romanenko, N.; Zherebtsov, O.; Lasakov, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Fomin, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Krasnoshekova, I.; Kharitonov, A.; Varlamov, V.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental data shows anomalously large ultra cold neutrons (UCN) reflection losses and that the process of UCN reflection is not completely coherent. UCN anomalous losses under reflection cannot be explained in the context of neutron optics calculations. UCN losses by means of incoherent scattering on material defects are considered and cross-section values calculated. The UCN capture cross section on material defects is enhanced by a factor of 10 4 due to localization of UCN around defects. This phenomenon can explain anomalous losses of UCN

  2. Trapped particles at a magnetic discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    At a tangential discontinuity between two constant magnetic fields a layer of trapped particles can exist, this work examines the conditions under which the current carried by such particles tends to maintain the discontinuity. Three cases are examined. If the discontinuity separates aligned vacuum fields, the only requirement is that they be antiparallel. With arbitrary relative orientations, the field must have equal intensities on both sides. Finally, with a guiding center plasma on both sides, the condition reduces to a relation which is also derivable from hydromagnetic theory. Arguments are presented for the occurrence of such trapped modes in the magnetopause and for the non-existence of specular particle reflection.

  3. A large area silicon UCN detector with the analysis of UCN polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasakov, M.S.; Serebrov, A.P.; Khusainov, A.Kh.; Pustovoit, A.; Borisov, Yu.V.; Fomin, A.K.; Geltenbort, P.; Kon'kov, O.I.; Kotina, I.M.; Shablii, A.I.; Solovei, V.A.; Vasiliev, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A silicon UCN detector with an area of 45cm 2 and with a 6 LiF converter was developed at PNPI. The spectral efficiency of the silicon UCN detector was measured by means of a gravitational spectrometer at ILL. The sandwich-type detector from two silicon plates with a 6 LiF converter placed between them was also studied. Using this type of technology the UCN detector with analysis of polarization was developed and tested. The analyzing power of this detector assembly reaches up to 75% for the main part of UCN spectrum. This UCN detector with analysis of UCN polarization can be used in the new EDM spectrometer

  4. Magnetic field stabilization in THe-Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    THe-Trap is a Penning trap mass spectrometer dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio aiming to a relative mass uncertainty better than 10{sup -11}. The most vital prerequisite for this measurement is a stable magnetic field: The relative temporal fluctuations during a measurement cycle of typically 1 hour, should be better than 10{sup -11}. The 5.26 T field is provided by a superconducting magnet. Unfortunately, the materials within the cryostat have a temperature-dependent susceptibility which necessitates a temperature stabilization. The stabilization is achieved by controlling the liquid helium level above the traps, and by keeping the pressure of the liquid helium constant. An important part of the system is the pressure reference, which is stable at a 0.04 Pa level. In addition to the stabilization of the field fluctuations within the cryostat itself, a system to cancel external fluctuations is set up consisting of a passive coil with a shielding factor of up to 180 build into the cryostat. Furthermore, a Helmholtz coil pair is placed around the cryostat. The compensation signal is provided by a custom-built flux-gate magnetometer. Technical details about the stabilization systems are given.

  5. Trapping of Rydberg atoms in tight magnetic microtraps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetes, A.Q.G.; Skannrup, R.V.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the possibility to trap Rydberg atoms in tightly confining magnetic microtraps. The trapping frequencies for Rydberg atoms are expected to be influenced strongly by magnetic-field gradients. We show that there are regimes where Rydberg atoms can be trapped. Moreover, we show that

  6. Characterization of a magnetic trap by polarization dependent Zeeman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Vandel; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian; Thorseth, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a detailed experimental study of our cloverleaf magnetic trap for sodium atoms. By using polarization dependent Zeeman spectroscopy of our atomic beam, passing the magnetic trap region, we have determined important trap parameters such as gradients, their curvatures...

  7. Magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' experimental trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Lysyanskij, P.B.; Tadber, M.V.; Timoshin, I.Ya.; Shrajner, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    A magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' ambipolar trap under construction is described. The trap magnetic field configuration, geometry of the main coils and diagram of the whole device magnet system are outlined. Drift surface cross sections in the equatorial plane of the ring mirror device, in the median plane and at different distances from the trap median plane are presented. The magnet system design is described in brief

  8. Recent UCN source developments at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seestrom, S.J.; Anaya, J.M.; Bowles, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The most intense sources of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) have bee built at reactors where the high average thermal neutron flux can overcome the low UCN production rate to achieve usable densities of UCN. At spallation neutron sources the average flux available is much lower than at a reactor, though the peak flux can be comparable or higher. The authors have built a UCN source that attempts to take advantage of the high peak flux available at the short pulse spallation neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to generate a useful number of UCN. In the source UCN are produced by Doppler-shifted Bragg scattering of neutrons to convert 400-m/s neutrons down into the UCN regime. This source was initially tested in 1996 and various improvements were made based on the results of the 1996 running. These improvements were implemented and tested in 1997. In sections 2 and 3 they discuss the improvements that have been made and the resulting source performance. Recently an even more interesting concept was put forward by Serebrov et al. This involves combining a solid Deuterium UCN source, previously studied by Serebrov et al., with a pulsed spallation source to achieve world record UCN densities. They have initiated a program of calculations and measurements aimed at verifying the solid Deuterium UCN source concept. The approach has been to develop an analytical capability, combine with Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production, and perform benchmark experiments to verify the validity of the calculations. Based on the calculations and measurements they plan to test a modified version of the Serebrov UCN factory. They estimate that they could produce over 1,000 UCN/cc in a 15 liter volume, using 1 microamp of 800 MeV protons for two seconds every 500 seconds. They will discuss the result UCN production measurements in section 4

  9. Continuous magnetic trapping of laser cooled atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.S.; Lafyatis, G.; Martin, A.G.; Raab, E.L.; Landry, J.; Ahmad-Bitar, R.N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present here initial results of the deceleration of a thermal atomic beam from -- 1000 to -- 100 m/s. The experiment was conducted in the 1.4-m long vertical superconducting solenoid which produced the slowing field. The fluorescence of the slowed atomic beam has been studied as a function of laser frequency. Figure 2 is a 12-GHz scan showing the fluorescence at a position 150 cm from the beginning of the solenoid. The wide peak corresponds to unslowed atoms with generally the initial velocity distribution. The second, narrower, peak corresponds to slowed atoms with a velocity of -- 150 m/s. Similar spectra have been obtained for various positions along the magnetic slower and trap. These data should allow better understanding of the cooling process and will be compared to computer models

  10. Possibilities for achieving antihydrogen recombination and trapping using a nested Penning trap and a magnetic well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.A.; Dolliver, D.D.; Chang Yongbin; Correa, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented regarding some possibilities for achieving antihydrogen recombination and trapping using a nested Penning trap and a magnetic well. The work reported consists of a review, an extension, and applications of the relevant knowledge base. A nested Penning trap produces a magnetic field, which provides plasma confinement perpendicular to the magnetic field, and an electric field associated with a nested-well potential profile. The nested-well potential profile provides plasma confinement parallel to the magnetic field for oppositely signed plasma species that can have overlapping confinement regions. A configuration is considered in which the electric field is applied in two regions of uniform magnetic field that reside on opposite sides of a magnetic well region. The electric field confines overlapping positron and antiproton plasmas, which thread the magnetic well region. The magnetic well region would serve to trap a fraction of any antihydrogen atoms that are formed. Two different methods are considered for achieving overlap of positron and antiproton plasmas. For each, a set of conditions is predicted for achieving antihydrogen recombination and trapping. Although the study reported specifically considers simultaneous confinement of positron and antiproton plasmas in nested Penning traps, much of the information presented is also relevant to the prospect of merging other pairs of oppositely signed plasmas (e.g., electron and positron plasmas)

  11. Double-well magnetic trap for Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, N.R.; Wilson, A.C.; Foot, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a magnetic trapping scheme for neutral atoms based on a hybrid of Ioffe-Pritchard and time-averaged orbiting potential traps. The resulting double-well magnetic potential has readily controllable barrier height and well separation. This offers a new tool for studying the behavior of Bose condensates in double-well potentials, and in particular for atom optics and interferometry. We formulate a description for the potential of this magnetic trap and discuss practical issues such as loading with atoms, evaporative cooling and manipulating the potential

  12. Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsikata, E; Campbell, W C; Hummon, M T; Lu, H-I; Doyle, J M, E-mail: tsikata@fas.harvard.ed [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Buffer gas cooling is used to trap NH molecules with 1/e lifetimes exceeding 20 s. Helium vapor generated by laser desorption of a helium film is employed to thermalize 10{sup 5} molecules at a temperature of 500 mK in a 3.9 T magnetic trap. Long molecule trapping times are attained through rapid pumpout of residual buffer gas. Molecules experience a helium background gas density below 1x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}.

  13. Anisotropy of magnetoresistance on trapping magnetic fields in granular HTSC

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhanov, A A

    2003-01-01

    The features of magnetoresistance in Bi (Pb)-HTSC ceramics with the magnetic fields trapped are investigated. It is found that on trapping magnetic flux the magnetoresistance in granular HTSC becomes anisotropic. Moreover, for magnetic fields H parallel and currents perpendicular to field H sub i which induces the trapping the magnetoresistance field dependence DELTA R(H) is nonmonotonic and the magnetoresistance is negative for small fields H < Hinv. The effect of trapped field and transport current and their orientations on the dependence DELTA R(H) is investigated. In particular, it is found that the field of magnetoresistance sign inversion Hinv almost linearly grows with increase of the effective trapped magnetic fields. Hinv decreases down to zero as the angle between fields H and H sub i increases up to pi/2 and slightly decreases with increasing transport current. The results are treated in terms of the model of magnetic flux trapping in superconducting grains or 'loops' embedded in a matrix of wea...

  14. Tornado type closed magnetic trap for an ECR source

    CERN Document Server

    Abramova, K B; Voronin, A V; Zorin, V G

    1999-01-01

    We propose to use a Tornado type closed magnetic trap for creation of a source of mul-ticharged ions with plasma heating by microwave radiation. Plasma loss in closed traps is deter-mined by diffusion across the magnetic field, which increases substantially plasma confinement time as compared to the classical mirror trap [1]. We propose to extract ions with the aid of additional coils which partially destroy the closed structure of the magnetic lines in the trap, but don not influence the total confinement time. This allows for producing a controlled plasma flux that depends on the magnetic field of the additional coil. The Tornado trap also possesses merits such as an opportunity to produce high magnetic fields up to 3 T, which makes possible heating and confinement of plasma with a high density of electrons; plasma stability to magneto-hydrodynamic perturbations because the magnetic field structure corresponds to the "min B" configuration; and relatively low costs. All estimates and calculations were carrie...

  15. Deep superconducting magnetic traps for neutral atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.G.E.; Michniak, R.A.; Nguyen, S.V.; Campbell, W.C.; Egorov, D.; Maxwell, S.E.; Buuren, L.D. van; Doyle, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of three realizations of a high-field superconducting magnetic trap for neutral atoms and molecules. Each of these traps utilizes a pair of coaxial coils in the anti-Helmholtz geometry and achieves depths greater than 4 T, allowing it to capture magnetic atoms and molecules cooled in a cryogenic buffer gas. Achieving this depth requires that the repulsive force between the coils (which can exceed 30 metric tons) be contained. We also describe additional features of the traps, including the elimination of trapped fluxes from the coils and the integration of the coils into a cryogenic vacuum environment suitable for producing cold atoms and molecules

  16. Magnetic Trapping and Coherent Control of Laser-Cooled Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. J.; Caldwell, L.; Fitch, N. J.; Truppe, S.; Rodewald, J.; Hinds, E. A.; Sauer, B. E.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate coherent microwave control of the rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman states of ultracold CaF molecules, and the magnetic trapping of these molecules in a single, selectable quantum state. We trap about 5 ×103 molecules for almost 2 s at a temperature of 70 (8 ) μ K and a density of 1.2 ×105 cm-3. We measure the state-specific loss rate due to collisions with background helium.

  17. Manipulating Neutral Atoms in Chip-Based Magnetic Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Kohel, James

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques for manipulating neutral atoms (more precisely, ultracold clouds of neutral atoms) in chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides have been demonstrated. Such traps and waveguides are promising components of future quantum sensors that would offer sensitivities much greater than those of conventional sensors. Potential applications include gyroscopy and basic research in physical phenomena that involve gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The developed techniques make it possible to control atoms with greater versatility and dexterity than were previously possible and, hence, can be expected to contribute to the value of chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides. The basic principle of these techniques is to control gradient magnetic fields with suitable timing so as to alter a trap to exert position-, velocity-, and/or time-dependent forces on atoms in the trap to obtain desired effects. The trap magnetic fields are generated by controlled electric currents flowing in both macroscopic off-chip electromagnet coils and microscopic wires on the surface of the chip. The methods are best explained in terms of examples. Rather than simply allowing atoms to expand freely into an atomic waveguide, one can give them a controllable push by switching on an externally generated or a chip-based gradient magnetic field. This push can increase the speed of the atoms, typically from about 5 to about 20 cm/s. Applying a non-linear magnetic-field gradient exerts different forces on atoms in different positions a phenomenon that one can exploit by introducing a delay between releasing atoms into the waveguide and turning on the magnetic field.

  18. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRAPPING IONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.

    1962-04-17

    A method and apparatus are described for trapping ions within an evacuated container and within a magnetic field utilizing dissociation and/or ionization of molecular ions to form atomic ions and energetic neutral particles. The atomic ions are magnetically trapped as a result of a change of charge-to- mass ratio. The molecular ions are injected into the container and into the path of an energetic carbon arc discharge which dissociates and/or ionizes a portion of the molecular ions into atomic ions and energetic neutrals. The resulting atomic ions are trapped by the magnetic field to form a circulating beam of atomic ions, and the energetic neutrals pass out of the system and may be utilized in a particle accelerator. (AEC)

  19. Object Tracking Vision System for Mapping the UCN τ Apparatus Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Rowan; UCNtau Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The UCN τ collaboration has an immediate goal to measure the lifetime of the free neutron to within 0.1%, i.e. about 1 s. The UCN τ apparatus is a magneto-gravitational ``bottle'' system. This system holds low energy, or ultracold, neutrons in the apparatus with the constraint of gravity, and keeps these low energy neutrons from interacting with the bottle via a strong 1 T surface magnetic field created by a bowl-shaped array of permanent magnets. The apparatus is wrapped with energized coils to supply a magnetic field throughout the ''bottle'' volume to prevent depolarization of the neutrons. An object-tracking stereo-vision system will be presented that precisely tracks a Hall probe and allows a mapping of the magnetic field throughout the volume of the UCN τ bottle. The stereo-vision system utilizes two cameras and open source openCV software to track an object's 3-d position in space in real time. The desired resolution is +/-1 mm resolution along each axis. The vision system is being used as part of an even larger system to map the magnetic field of the UCN τ apparatus and expose any possible systematic effects due to field cancellation or low field points which could allow neutrons to depolarize and possibly escape from the apparatus undetected. Tennessee Technological University.

  20. Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zigang@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    A series of initial trapped fields after ZFC or FC magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. It is possible and easy to recover the lost trapped field and regain the best trapped field performance as before. In the re-magnetization process, the initial magnetic flux inside the bulk magnets will help to recover the trapped field. The optimum recovery field is recommended to be 2.5 times the saturation field of the bulk at LN2 temperature. Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.

  1. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro; Kimura, Yosuke; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  2. Dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat for measurements at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahirul; Das, Ritesh K.; Weinstein, Roy

    2015-04-14

    A method and a dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat apparatus are provided for implementing enhanced measurements at high magnetic fields. The dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat system includes a trapped-flux magnet (TFM). A sample, for example, a single crystal, is adjustably positioned proximate to the surface of the TFM, using a translation stage such that the distance between the sample and the surface is selectively adjusted. A cryostat is provided with a first separate thermal stage provided for cooling the TFM and with a second separate thermal stage provided for cooling sample.

  3. Automatic plasma control in magnetic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Y.; Chuyanov, V.

    1984-01-01

    Hot plasma is essentially in thermodynamic non-steady state. Automatic plasma control basically means monitoring deviations from steady state and producing a suitable magnetic or electric field which brings the plasma back to its original state. Briefly described are two systems of automatic plasma control: control with a magnetic field using a negative impedance circuit, and control using an electric field. It appears that systems of automatic plasma stabilization will be an indispensable component of the fusion reactor and its possibilities will in many ways determine the reactor economy. (Ha)

  4. Superconductive magnetic-field-trapping device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    An apparatus which enables the establishment of a magnetic field in air that has the same intensity as the ones in ferromagnetic materials is described. The apparatus is comprised of a core of ferromagnetic material and is surrounded by a cylinder made of a material that has superconducting properties when cooled below a critical temperature. A method is provided for producing a magnetic field through the ferromagnetic core. The core can also be split and pulled apart when it is required that the center of the cavity be left empty.

  5. Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M.

    2011-11-01

    Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa2Cu3Oy (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.

  6. A biodetection method using magnetic particles and micro traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-03-09

    The general working principle of magnetoresistive sensors for biological applications is to specifically attach bioanalytesto magnetic particles and then detect the particles that are immobilized on the sensor surface. The immobilization of the particles on the sensor surface commonly uses biomolecular interactions, e.g., antigen-antibody. Thus, the sensor surface needs to be functionalized via biological treatments in order to capture certain bioanalytes. In the presented work, a new method is proposed, which does not rely on functionalization of the sensor surface. Current carrying microstructures in combination with mechanical micro traps are used to immobilize magnetic particles. Analyte detection is based on the difference in size between bare magnetic particles and particles with analyte attached, which causes a different number of particles to be captured in the micro traps.

  7. A magnetic method to concentrate and trap biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-11-01

    Magnetoresistive sensors in combination with magnetic particles have been used in biological applications due to, e.g., their small size and high sensitivity. A growing interest is to integrate magnetoresistive sensors with microchannels and electronics to fabricate devices that can perform complex analyses. A major task in such systems is to immobilize magnetic particles on top of the sensor surface, which is required to detect the particles\\' stray field. In the presented work, a bead concentrator, consisting of gold microstructures, at the bottom of a microchannel, is used to attract and move magnetic particles into a trap. The trap is made of a chamber with a gold microstructure underneath and is used to attract and immobilize a defined number of magnetic beads. In order to detect targets, two kinds of solutions were prepared; one containing only superparamagnetic particles, the other one containing beads with the protein Bovine serum albumin as the target and fluorescent markers. Due to the size difference between bare beads and beads with target, less magnetic beads were immobilized inside the volume chamber in case of magnetic beads with target as compared to bare magnetic beads. © 1965-2012 IEEE.

  8. Measurements of flux pumping activation of trapped field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States); Davey, Kent [Physics Department, 617 Science and Research Building I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Large grains of high temperature superconducting (HTS) material can be utilized as trapped field magnets (TFMs). Persistent currents are set up in the HTS when it is cooled in a magnetic field, or exposed to a magnetic field after cooling. TFMs have been improved over the past two decades by the efforts of a large number of worldwide research groups. However, applications using TFMs have lagged, in part due to the problem of high fields needed for activation. We describe herein experiments designed to observe the behaviour of TFM activation using repeated applications of low fields (called 'pumping'). Significant partial activation is obtained using a non-uniform pumping field (e.g., a small permanent magnet) which is higher in the centre of the HTS than at the periphery. Cooling in zero field followed by pumping with such a field results in trapping the full applied field, in comparison to half of the applied field being trapped by cooling in zero field followed by application of a uniform field. We find that for partial activation by cooling in a field and subsequent activation by pumping, the resulting fields are additive. We also conclude that for activation by fluxoid pumping, creep assists the process.

  9. Characteristics of single-atom trapping in a magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seokchan; Choi, Youngwoon; Park, Sangbum; Ji, Wangxi; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap with a single or a few atoms is presented. A very small number of 85 Rb atoms were trapped in a micron-size magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient. In order to find the optimum condition for a single-atom trap, we have investigated how the number of atoms and the size of atomic cloud change as various experimental parameters, such as a magnetic-field gradient and the trapping laser intensity and detuning. The averaged number of atoms was measured very accurately with a calibration procedure based on the single-atom saturation curve of resonance fluorescence. In addition, the number of atoms in a trap could be controlled by suppressing stochastic loading events by means of a real-time active feedback on the magnetic-field gradient

  10. ELECTRON TRAPPING IN WIGGLER AND QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS OF CESRTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lanfa

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R and D (1). One of the primary goals of the CesrTA program is to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with low emittance positron beam to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies and benchmark predictions by simulation codes. This paper reports the simulation of the electron-cloud formation in the wiggler and quadrupole magnets using the 3D code CLOUDLAND. We found that electrons can be trapped with long lifetime in a quadrupole magnet due to the mirror field trapping mechanism and photoelectrons produced in the wiggler zero field zone have long lifetime due to their complicated trajectory.

  11. A new concept of a hybrid trapped field magnet lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keita; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Ainslie, Mark D.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new concept of a hybrid trapped field magnet lens (HTFML) is proposed. The HTMFL exploits the ‘vortex pinning effect’ of an outer superconducting bulk cylinder, which is magnetized as a trapped field magnet (TFM) using field-cooled magnetization (FCM), and the ‘diamagnetic shielding effect’ of an inner bulk magnetic lens to generate a concentrated magnetic field higher than the trapped field from the TFM in the bore of the magnetic lens. This requires that, during the zero-field-cooled magnetization process, the outer cylinder is in the normal state (T> superconducting transition temperature, T c) and the inner lens is in the superconducting state (T operating temperature, then removing the external field. This is explored for two potential cases: (1) exploiting the difference in T c of two different bulk materials (‘case-1’), e.g. MgB2 (T c = 39 K) and GdBaCuO (T c = 92 K) or (2) using the same material for the whole HTFML, e.g., GdBaCuO, but utilizing individually controlled cryostats, the same cryostat with different cooling loops or coolants, or heaters that keep the outer bulk cylinder at a temperature above T c to achieve the same desired effect. The HTFML is verified using numerical simulations for ‘case-1’ using an MgB2 cylinder and GdBaCuO lens pair and for ‘case-2’ using a GdBaCuO cylinder and GdBaCuO lens pair. As a result, the HTFML could reliably generate a concentrated magnetic field B c = 4.73 T with the external magnetizing field B app = 3 T in the ‘case-1’, and a higher B c = 13.49 T with higher B app = 10 T in the ‘case-2’, respectively. This could, for example, be used to enhance the magnetic field in the bore of a bulk superconducting NMR/MRI system to improve its resolution.

  12. Magnetic conveyor belt for transporting and merging trapped atom clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, W; Reichel, J; Hommelhoff, P; Hänsch, T W

    2001-01-22

    We demonstrate an integrated magnetic device which transports cold atoms near a surface with very high positioning accuracy. Time-dependent currents in a lithographic conductor pattern create a moving chain of potential wells; atoms are transported in these wells while remaining confined in all three dimensions. We achieve mean fluxes up to 10(6) s(-1) with a negligible heating rate. An extension of this device allows merging of atom clouds by unification of two Ioffe-Pritchard potentials. The unification, which we demonstrate experimentally, can be performed without loss of phase space density. This novel, all-magnetic atom manipulation offers exciting perspectives, such as trapped-atom interferometry.

  13. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Krempel, J. [Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ries, D., E-mail: dieter.ries@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  14. UCN-VCN facility and experiments in Kyoto University Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji; Okumura, Kiyoshi; Utsuro, Masahiko

    1993-01-01

    An ultracold and very cold neutron facility was installed in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The facility consists of a very cold neutron (VCN) guide tube, a VCN bender, a supermirror neutron turbine and experimental equipments with ultracold neutrons (UCN). The properties of each equipments are presented. UCN is generated by a supermirror neutron turbine combined with the cold neutron source operated with liquid deuterium, and the UCN output spectrum was measured by the time-of-flight method. A gravity analyzer for high resolution spectroscopy and a neutron bottle for decay experiments are now developing as the UCN research in KUR. (author)

  15. Insolubility of trapped particle motion in a magnetic dipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.J.; Finn, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Topological and numerical techniques are used to show that the problem of trapped charged particle motion in a magnetic dipole field is insoluble. Similar results hold for motion in the earth's magnetic field and are of interest for radiation belt phenomena. Pedagogical discussion is devoted to the subject of how it can happen that a classical mechanics problem is insoluble and in what sense. It is shown that the complete adiabatic magnetic moment series is divergent and that due to the existence of homoclinic points the solutions to the equations of motion are too complicated to be written in closed form. As a consequence, there is currently no rigorous theoretical explanation for the empirical success of adiabatic orbit theory, and a completely satisfactory mathematical justification will be far from easy

  16. Simultaneous diamagnetic and magnetic particle trapping in ferrofluid microflows via a single permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yilong; Kumar, Dhileep Thanjavur; Lu, Xinyu; Kale, Akshay; DuBose, John; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Dongqing; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2015-07-01

    Trapping and preconcentrating particles and cells for enhanced detection and analysis are often essential in many chemical and biological applications. Existing methods for diamagnetic particle trapping require the placement of one or multiple pairs of magnets nearby the particle flowing channel. The strong attractive or repulsive force between the magnets makes it difficult to align and place them close enough to the channel, which not only complicates the device fabrication but also restricts the particle trapping performance. This work demonstrates for the first time the use of a single permanent magnet to simultaneously trap diamagnetic and magnetic particles in ferrofluid flows through a T-shaped microchannel. The two types of particles are preconcentrated to distinct locations of the T-junction due to the induced negative and positive magnetophoretic motions, respectively. Moreover, they can be sequentially released from their respective trapping spots by simply increasing the ferrofluid flow rate. In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed, which predicts with a reasonable agreement the trajectories of diamagnetic and magnetic particles as well as the buildup of ferrofluid nanoparticles.

  17. Simultaneous diamagnetic and magnetic particle trapping in ferrofluid microflows via a single permanent magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yilong; Kumar, Dhileep Thanjavur; Lu, Xinyu; Kale, Akshay; DuBose, John; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Dongqing; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2015-01-01

    Trapping and preconcentrating particles and cells for enhanced detection and analysis are often essential in many chemical and biological applications. Existing methods for diamagnetic particle trapping require the placement of one or multiple pairs of magnets nearby the particle flowing channel. The strong attractive or repulsive force between the magnets makes it difficult to align and place them close enough to the channel, which not only complicates the device fabrication but also restricts the particle trapping performance. This work demonstrates for the first time the use of a single permanent magnet to simultaneously trap diamagnetic and magnetic particles in ferrofluid flows through a T-shaped microchannel. The two types of particles are preconcentrated to distinct locations of the T-junction due to the induced negative and positive magnetophoretic motions, respectively. Moreover, they can be sequentially released from their respective trapping spots by simply increasing the ferrofluid flow rate. In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed, which predicts with a reasonable agreement the trajectories of diamagnetic and magnetic particles as well as the buildup of ferrofluid nanoparticles. PMID:26221197

  18. Flux Trapping Properties of Bulk HIGH-TC Superconductors in Static Field-Cooling Magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M.

    2013-06-01

    The trapping process and saturation effect of trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductors by static field-cooling magnetization (FCM) are reported in the paper. With a cryogenic Bell Hall sensor attached on the center of the bulk surface, the synchronous magnetic signals were recorded during the whole magnetization process. It enables us to know the flux trapping behavior since the removal of the excitation field, as well as the subsequent flux relaxation phenomenon and the flux dissipation in the quench process of the bulk sample. With the help of flux mapping techniques, the relationship between the trapped flux and the applied field was further investigated; the saturation effect of trapped flux was discussed by comparing the peak trapped field and total magnetic flux of the bulk sample. These studies are useful to understand the basic flux trapping properties of bulk superconductors.

  19. Time-of-flight Fourier spectrometry of UCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulin, G.V.; Frank, A.I.; Goryunov, S.V.; Kustov, D.V.; Geltenbort, P.; Jentshel, M.; Strepetov, A.N.; Bushuev, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    The results of preliminary experiments on TOF Fourier UCN spectrometry are presented. The description of the new Fourier spectrometer that may be used for the measurement of the UCN spectra arising from diffraction by a moving grating is given. The results of preliminary experiments and Monte Carlo calculations give reason to hope for the success of the planned experiment.

  20. Trapped magnetic field of a superconducting bulk magnet in high- Tc RE-Ba-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Yoo, Sang Im; Higuchi, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Yuichi; Kamijo, Hiroki; Nagashima, Ken; Murakami, Masato

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting magnets made of high-T c superconductors are promising for industrial applications. It is well known that REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and LRE (light rare-earth) Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical current density, J c , at 77 K and high magnetic fields. Therefore, the materials are very prospective for high magnetic field application as a superconducting permanent/bulk magnet with liquid-nitrogen refrigeration. LREBaCuO bulks, compared with REBaCuO bulks, exhibit a larger J c in high magnetic fields and a much improved irreversibility field, H irr , at 77 K. In this study, we discuss the possibility and trapped field properties of a superconducting bulk magnet, as well as the melt processing for bulk superconductors and their characteristic superconducting properties. One of the applications is a superconducting magnet for the future magnetically levitated (Maglev) train

  1. A magnetic trap for living cells suspended in a paramagnetic buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkleman, Adam; Gudiksen, Katherine L.; Ryan, Declan; Whitesides, George M.; Greenfield, Derek; Prentiss, Mara

    2004-09-01

    This manuscript describes the fabrication and use of a three-dimensional magnetic trap for diamagnetic objects in an aqueous solution of paramagnetic ions; this trap uses permanent magnets. It demonstrates trapping of polystyrene spheres, and of various types of living cells: mouse fibroblast (NIH-3T3), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). For a 40mM solution of gadolinium (III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd .DTPA) in aqueous buffer, the smallest cell (particle) that could be trapped had a radius of ˜2.5μm. The trapped particle and location of the magnetic trap can be translated in three dimensions by independent manipulation of the permanent magnets. This letter a1so characterizes the biocompatibility of the trapping solution.

  2. Continuous loading of cold atoms into a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Piet O; Hensler, Sven; Werner, Joerg; Binhammer, Thomas; Goerlitz, Axel; Pfau, Tilman

    2003-01-01

    We present a robust continuous optical loading scheme for a Ioffe-Pritchard (IP) type magnetic trap (MT). Chromium atoms are cooled and trapped in a modified magneto-optical trap (MOT) consisting of a conventional 2D-MOT in the radial direction and an axial molasses. The MOT and IP trap share the same magnetic field configuration. Continuous loading of atoms into the IP trap is provided by radiative leakage from the MOT to a metastable level which is magnetically trapped and decoupled from the MOT light. We are able to accumulate 30 times more atoms in the MT than in the MOT. The absolute number of 2 x 10 8 atoms is limited by inelastic collisions. A model based on rate equations shows good agreement with the data. Our scheme can also be applied to other atoms with similar level structure like alkaline earth metals

  3. Trapping a magnetic field of 7.9 T using a bulk magnet fabricated from stack of coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, T.; Hirai, T.; Sun, Y.; Pyon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • A bulk magnet is fabricated using double stack of coated conductors (CC). • Magneto-optical imaging of the CC confirmed its homogeneity. • The fabricated bulk magnet has successfully trapped a magnetic field of 7.9 T. • The trapped magnetic field is consistent with the magnetic induction calculated from J_c(B) characteristics of the CC. - Abstract: We have fabricated a bulk magnet using double stack, each 130 layers, of short segments of coated conductors (CCs). The bulk magnet is magnetized by field-cooling in a magnetic field of 9 T down to 4.2 K. After reducing the magnetic field down to zero, we have successfully trapped a magnetic field of 7.9 T at the centre of the double stack. The magnetic field profile of the bulk magnet is calculated by fully considering the J_c(B) characteristics of the short segment of the CC. The trapped magnetic field values measured by Hall probes at three locations near the centre of the double stacks agree reasonably well with the calculated magnetic induction.

  4. Temperature and phase-space density of a cold atom cloud in a quadrupole magnetic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S. P.; Mishra, S. R.; Tiwari, S. K.; Rawat, H. S. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2014-08-15

    We present studies on modifications in the temperature, number density and phase-space density when a laser-cooled atom cloud from optical molasses is trapped in a quadrupole magnetic trap. Theoretically, for a given temperature and size of the cloud from the molasses, the phase-space density in the magnetic trap is shown first to increase with increasing magnetic field gradient and then to decrease with it after attaining a maximum value at an optimum value of the magnetic-field gradient. The experimentally-measured variation in the phase-space density in the magnetic trap with changing magnetic field gradient is shown to exhibit a similar trend. However, the experimentally-measured values of the number density and the phase-space density are much lower than the theoretically-predicted values. This is attributed to the experimentally-observed temperature in the magnetic trap being higher than the theoretically-predicted temperature. Nevertheless, these studies can be useful for setting a higher phase-space density in the trap by establishing an optimal value of the field gradient for a quadrupole magnetic trap.

  5. Progress In Research On Open - Ended Magnetic Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglyakov, E. P.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    At present, three modern types of mirror machines for plasma confinement and heating exist in Novosibirsk (Multi-mirror,-GOL-3, Gas Dynamic Trap,-GDT, and Tandem Mirror,- AMBAL-M). From the engineering point of view all these systems are very attractive because of simple axisymmetric geometry of magnetic configurations. In this paper, the status of GOL-3 and GDT machines is presented. The most crucial experiments for the mirror concept are described such as a demonstration of different principles of suppression of longitudinal electron heat conductivity (GDT, GOL-3), finding of MHD stable regimes of confinement of high β (more than 0.4) plasma in axisymmetric geometry of magnetic field, an effective heating of a dense plasma (of order of 10 21 m-3) by high current relativistic electron beam (GOL-3), etc. In the case of multi-mirror geometry (GOL-3) significant increase of confinement time of hot plasma (up to several tens times) was obtained in comparison with single mirror geometry. Besides, electron heating (up to 2 keV) in result of high current electron beam -- plasma interaction, the heating of ions (up to 2 keV) was discovered in the multi-mirror geometry (55 mirror cells with total length of the trap equal to 12 meters). There was no any effect of ion heating in the single mirror geometry. The reasons of appearance of the ion heating in multi-mirror geometry are discussed. It should be mentioned that on the basis of the GOL-3 and GDT one can obtain an important information for ITER and for future fusion program. In the case of GOL-3 the longitudinal energy density flux of plasma after heating by REB can be so high as 50 MJ/m2. A lot of experiments can be made on plasma-wall interaction (evaporation, erosion and ionization of wall material, propagation of the impurity ions along magnetic field lines at long distances, etc). Some of these experiments are described in this paper. Using principle of confinement of 'warm' collisional plasma placed in gas dynamic

  6. Levitation performance of the magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconducting magnet with different trapped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University (ASCLab), Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Wang, J.S., E-mail: tonny@mars.swjtu.edu.c [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University (ASCLab), Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Liao, X.L.; Zheng, S.J.; Ma, G.T.; Zheng, J. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University (ASCLab), Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Wang, S.Y. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University (ASCLab), Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The different trapped fields bring entirely different levitation performance. {yields} The force relaxation characters is directly bound up with the trapped field. {yields} The higher trapped field not means better levitation performance. {yields} An profitable internal induced current configuration will benefit to suppress flux motion. - Abstract: To a high-T{sub c} superconducting (HTS) maglev system which needs large levitation force density, the magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor (HTSC) magnet is a good candidate because it can supply additional repulsive or attractive force above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). Because the induced supercurrent within a magnetized bulk HTSC is the key parameter for the levitation performance, and it is sensitive to the magnetizing process and field, so the magnetized bulk HTSC magnets with different magnetizing processes had various levitation performances, not only the force magnitude, but also its force relaxation characteristics. Furthermore, the distribution and configuration of the induced supercurrent are also important factor to decide the levitation performance, especially the force relaxation characteristics. This article experimentally investigates the influences of different magnetizing processes and trapped fields on the levitation performance of a magnetized bulk HTSC magnet with smaller size than the magnetic inter-pole distance of PMG, and the obtained results are qualitatively analyzed by the Critical State Model. The test results and analyses of this article are useful for the suitable choice and optimal design of magnetized bulk HTSC magnets.

  7. Trapped-ion quantum logic gates based on oscillating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospelkaus, Christian; Langer, Christopher E.; Amini, Jason M.; Brown, Kenton R.; Leibfried, Dietrich; Wineland, David J.

    2009-05-01

    Oscillating magnetic fields and field gradients can be used to implement single-qubit rotations and entangling multiqubit quantum gates for trapped-ion quantum information processing. With fields generated by currents in microfabricated surface-electrode traps, it should be possible to achieve gate speeds that are comparable to those of optically induced gates for realistic distances between the ions and the electrode surface. Magnetic-field-mediated gates have the potential to significantly reduce the overhead in laser-beam control and motional-state initialization compared to current QIP experiments with trapped ions and will eliminate spontaneous scattering decoherence, a fundamental source of decoherence in laser-mediated gates. A potentially beneficial environment for the implementation of such schemes is a cryogenic ion trap, because small length scale traps with low motional heating rates can be realized. A cryogenic ion trap experiment is currently under construction at NIST.

  8. On the self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Pichkhadze, Sh.D.

    1987-06-01

    The possibility of relativistic self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that in the case of propagation of fast wave packet of electromagnetic wave in plasma, self-trapping is possible due to the effect of relativistic non-linearity, which is effective even for small amplitudes of the pumping wave. (author). 7 refs

  9. Concepts of UCN sources for the FRM-II

    CERN Document Server

    Trinks, U; Paul, S; Schott, W

    2000-01-01

    Three concepts for sources of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) for the reactor FRM-II at Garching near Munich are studied: one, Mini-D sub 2 , is a source with 170 cm sup 3 of solid deuterium in the beam tube SR4 and the second one a large solid-deuterium source (volume about 30 dm sup 3), mounted in the beam tube SR5 as an advanced cold source with a number of neutron guides. The third one, Mark 3000, uses superfluid sup 4 He at a cold-neutron guide. A UCN density of up to 7x10 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3 may possibly be achieved in the storage volumes of Mini-D sub 2 yielding more than 10 sup 9 UCN for extraction to an attached experimental setup. The usable UCN flux at the periphery of the large deuterium source is predicted to be 2x10 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1. Mark 3000, finally, is expected to yield a UCN density of about 10 sup 5 cm sup - sup 3.

  10. A micro-pillar array to trap magnetic beads in microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    A micro-pillar array (MPA) is proposed in this paper to trap and separate magnetic beads (MBs) in microfluidic systems. MBs are used in many biomedical applications due to being compatible in dimension to biomolecules, the large surface area

  11. Minimum Contradictions Physics and Propulsion via Superconducting Magnetic Field Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassikas, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    All theories are based on Axioms which obviously are arbitrary; e.g. SRT, GRT, QM Axioms. Instead of manipulating the experience through a new set of Arbitrary Axioms it would be useful to search, through a basic tool that we have at our disposal i.e. Logic Analysis, for a set of privileged axioms. Physics theories, beyond their particular axioms, can be restated through the basic communication system as consisting of the Classical Logic, the Sufficient Reason Principle and the Anterior-Posterior Axiom. By means of a theorem this system can be proven as contradictory. The persistence in logic is the way for a set of privileged axioms to be found. This can be achieved on the basis of the Claim for Minimum Contradictions. Further axioms beyond the ones of the basic communications imply further contradictions. Thus, minimum contradictions can be achieved when things are described through anterior-posterior terms; due to existing contradictions through stochastic space-time, which is matter itself, described through a Ψ wave function and distributed, in a Hypothetical Measuring Field (HMF), through the density probability function P(r, t). On this basis, a space-time QM is obtained and this QM is a unified theory satisfying the requirements of quantum gravity. There are both mass-gravitational space-time (g) regarded as real and charge-electromagnetic (em) space-time that could be regarded as imaginary. In a closed system energy conversion-conservation and momentum action take place through photons, which can be regarded either as (g) or (em) space-time formation whose rest mass is equal to zero. Universe Evolution is described through the interaction of the gravitational (g) with the electromagnetic (em) space-time-matter field and not through any other entities. This methodology implies that there is no need for dark matter. An experiment is proposed relative to the (g)+(em) interaction based on Superconducting Magnetic Field Trapping to validate this approach.

  12. Trapped-ion quantum logic gates based on oscillating magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospelkaus, C; Langer, C E; Amini, J M; Brown, K R; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2008-08-29

    Oscillating magnetic fields and field gradients can be used to implement single-qubit rotations and entangling multiqubit quantum gates for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP). With fields generated by currents in microfabricated surface-electrode traps, it should be possible to achieve gate speeds that are comparable to those of optically induced gates for realistic distances between the ion crystal and the electrode surface. Magnetic-field-mediated gates have the potential to significantly reduce the overhead in laser-beam control and motional-state initialization compared to current QIP experiments with trapped ions and will eliminate spontaneous scattering, a fundamental source of decoherence in laser-mediated gates.

  13. Magnetic trapping of spin-polarized neutral atoms at its limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the limits of magnetic methods of trapping neutral atoms in a spot of small size and small polarization misalignment. The analysis covers various methods of trapping with static and rotating magnetic field. In particular, new rotating field methods having advantages are proposed. They differ from the recently invented 'top' type by employing a slow rotating field, resonant to the orbiting atoms, rather than much faster rotation. Also a theory of the top trap is developed. It elucidates important features of trapping lying beyond the time-averaged potential concept. General criteria on the trapping temperature as a function of size and misalignment parameters are established for various methods. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  14. Gap-related trapped magnetic flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.

    2011-05-01

    Aiming at examining the trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors for field-pole applications, three rectangular Y 1.65Ba 2Cu 3O 7-x (YBCO) bulks with a possibly compact combination were employed to investigate the trapped-flux characteristics of single and combined bulks with a field-cooling magnetization (FCM) method. A gap-related dependence was found between them. At lower gaps of 1 mm and 5 mm, the peak trapped fields and total magnetic flux of combined bulks are both smaller than the additive values of each single bulk, which can be ascribed to the demagnetization influences of the field around the bulk generated by the adjacent ones. While, at larger gaps like 10 mm, the situation becomes reversed. The combined bulks can attain bigger peak trapped fields as well as total magnetic flux, which indicates that the magnetic field by the bulk combination can reach higher gaps, thanks to the bigger magnetic energy compared with the single bulk. The presented results show that, on one hand, it is possible to estimate the total trapped magnetic flux of combined bulks by an approximate additive method of each single bulk while considering a demagnetization factor; on the other hand, it also means that the performance of combined bulks will be superior to the addition of each single bulk at larger gaps, thus preferable for large-scaled magnet applications.

  15. Gap-related trapped magnetic flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rectangular YBCO bulks to realize a compact combination. → The gap effect was added to consider in the trapped flux density mapping. → The trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulks is gap related. → It is possible to estimate the total magnetic flux of bulk combinations. - Abstract: Aiming at examining the trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors for field-pole applications, three rectangular Y 1.65 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) bulks with a possibly compact combination were employed to investigate the trapped-flux characteristics of single and combined bulks with a field-cooling magnetization (FCM) method. A gap-related dependence was found between them. At lower gaps of 1 mm and 5 mm, the peak trapped fields and total magnetic flux of combined bulks are both smaller than the additive values of each single bulk, which can be ascribed to the demagnetization influences of the field around the bulk generated by the adjacent ones. While, at larger gaps like 10 mm, the situation becomes reversed. The combined bulks can attain bigger peak trapped fields as well as total magnetic flux, which indicates that the magnetic field by the bulk combination can reach higher gaps, thanks to the bigger magnetic energy compared with the single bulk. The presented results show that, on one hand, it is possible to estimate the total trapped magnetic flux of combined bulks by an approximate additive method of each single bulk while considering a demagnetization factor; on the other hand, it also means that the performance of combined bulks will be superior to the addition of each single bulk at larger gaps, thus preferable for large-scaled magnet applications.

  16. Gap-related trapped magnetic flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.co [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} Rectangular YBCO bulks to realize a compact combination. {yields} The gap effect was added to consider in the trapped flux density mapping. {yields} The trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulks is gap related. {yields} It is possible to estimate the total magnetic flux of bulk combinations. - Abstract: Aiming at examining the trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors for field-pole applications, three rectangular Y{sub 1.65}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) bulks with a possibly compact combination were employed to investigate the trapped-flux characteristics of single and combined bulks with a field-cooling magnetization (FCM) method. A gap-related dependence was found between them. At lower gaps of 1 mm and 5 mm, the peak trapped fields and total magnetic flux of combined bulks are both smaller than the additive values of each single bulk, which can be ascribed to the demagnetization influences of the field around the bulk generated by the adjacent ones. While, at larger gaps like 10 mm, the situation becomes reversed. The combined bulks can attain bigger peak trapped fields as well as total magnetic flux, which indicates that the magnetic field by the bulk combination can reach higher gaps, thanks to the bigger magnetic energy compared with the single bulk. The presented results show that, on one hand, it is possible to estimate the total trapped magnetic flux of combined bulks by an approximate additive method of each single bulk while considering a demagnetization factor; on the other hand, it also means that the performance of combined bulks will be superior to the addition of each single bulk at larger gaps, thus preferable for large-scaled magnet applications.

  17. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y.; Onodera, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The spherical solenoid magnet can make a various magnetic field distributions. •We generated a large magnetic gradient at inner space of HTS bulks. •The levitation height of samples was improved by the reapplied field method. •The levitation height depends on the variation rate of magnetic field gradient. -- Abstract: We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method

  18. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters.

  19. Controlled trapping and detection of magnetic particles by a magnetic microactuator and a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kokkinis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and testing of an integrated micro-chip for the controlled trapping and detection of magnetic particles (MPs). A unique magnetic micro-actuator consisting of square-shaped conductors is used to manipulate the MPs

  20. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulks as representatives. A coupling ratio to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside multi-seeded bulks. An averaged trapped magnetic flux density parameter was introduced. The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  1. Measurement of the time of storage of ultracold neutrons in a magnetic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Y.G.; Borovlev, S.P.; Vasil'ev, V.V.; Vladimirskii, V.V.; Mospan, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The storage time of ultracold neutrons in an axial magnetic trap with a simple singly connected confinement region is measured. It is shown that the storage of the neutrons is due just to the magnetic field. The storage time achieved is tau = 303 +- 37 sec. In a working cycle 3.6 neutrons are accumulated

  2. Relevance of sub-surface chip layers for the lifetime of magnetically trapped atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H. B.; Henkel, C; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    on the thickness of that layer, as long as the layers below have a much smaller conductivity; essentially the same magnetic noise would be obtained with a metallic membrane suspended in vacuum. Based on our theory we give general scaling laws of how to reduce the effect of surface magnetic noise on the trapped...... measurements where the center of a side guide trap is laterally shifted with respect to the current carrying wire using additional bias fields. Comparing the experiment to theory, we find a fair agreement and demonstrate that for a chip whose topmost layer is metallic, the magnetic noise depends essentially...

  3. Formation of Antihydrogen Rydberg atoms in strong magnetic field traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, T.; Sadeghpour, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that several features of antihydrogen production in nested Penning traps can be described with accurate and efficient Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that cold deeply-bound Rydberg states of antihydrogen (H-bar) are produced in three-body capture in the ATRAP experiments and an additional formation mechanism -Rydberg charge transfer-, particular to the nested Penning trap geometry, is responsible for the observed fast (hot) H-bar atoms. Detailed description of the numerical propagation technique for following extreme close encounters is given. An analytic derivation of the power law behavior of the field ionization spectrum is provided

  4. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux

  5. Deep cooling of optically trapped atoms implemented by magnetic levitation without transverse confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zhou, Tianwei; Zhai, Yueyang; Xiang, Jinggang; Luan, Tian; Huang, Qi; Yang, Shifeng; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Xuzong

    2017-05-01

    We report a setup for the deep cooling of atoms in an optical trap. The deep cooling is implemented by eliminating the influence of gravity using specially constructed magnetic coils. Compared to the conventional method of generating a magnetic levitating force, the lower trap frequency achieved in our setup provides a lower limit of temperature and more freedoms to Bose gases with a simpler solution. A final temperature as low as ˜ 6 nK is achieved in the optical trap, and the atomic density is decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude during the second stage of evaporative cooling. This deep cooling of optically trapped atoms holds promise for many applications, such as atomic interferometers, atomic gyroscopes, and magnetometers, as well as many basic scientific research directions, such as quantum simulations and atom optics.

  6. A micro-pillar array to trap magnetic beads in microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2012-12-01

    A micro-pillar array (MPA) is proposed in this paper to trap and separate magnetic beads (MBs) in microfluidic systems. MBs are used in many biomedical applications due to being compatible in dimension to biomolecules, the large surface area available to attach biomolecules, and the fact that they can be controlled by a magnetic field. Trapping and separating these labeled biomolecules is an important step toward achieving reliable and accurate quantification for disease diagnostics. Nickel Iron (Ni50Fe 50) micro-pillars were fabricated on a Silicon (Si) substrate by standard microfabrication techniques. Experimental results showed that MBs could be trapped on the MPA at the single bead level and separated from other non-target particles. This principle can easily be extended to trap and separate target biomolecules in heterogeneous biological samples. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Trapping of Electron Cloud LLC/Cesrta Quadrupole and Sextupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R and D (1). One of the primary goals of the CesrTA program is to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with low emittance positron beam to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies and benchmark predictions by simulation codes. This paper reports the simulation of the electron-cloud formation in CESRTA and ILC quadrupole and sextupole magnets using the 3D code CLOUDLAND. We found that electrons can be trapped with a long lifetime in a quadrupole and sextupole magnet due to the mirror field trapping mechanism. We study the effects of magnet strength, bunch current, ante-chamber effect, bunch spacing effect and secondary emission yield (SEY) in great detail. The development of an electron cloud in magnets is the main concern where a weak solenoid field is not effective. Quadrupole and sextupole magnets have mirror field configurations which may trap electrons by the mirror field trapping mechanism (2). Fig.1 shows the orbit of a trapped electron in a quadrupole magnet. The electron makes gyration motion (called transverse motion) and also moves along the field line (called longitudinal motion). At the mirror point (middle of the field line), there is a maximum longitudinal energy and minimum transverse energy. When the electron moves away from the mirror point, its longitudinal energy reduces and the transverse energy increases as the magnetic field increases. If the magnetic field is strong enough, the longitudinal energy becomes zero at one point and then the electron is turned back by the strong field. Note that the electrons are trapped in the region near the middle of the field lines. Although all quadrupole and sextupole magnets can trap electrons in principle, the

  8. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo [Univ Lyon, ECL, UCB Lyon1, CNRS, Ampere, F-69134 Ecully (France); Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes - CNRS, Inst Neel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Bonfim, Marlio [Universidade Federal do Paraná, DELT, Curitiba (Brazil); Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie [Univ Lyon, ECL, UCB Lyon1, CNRS, Ampere, F-69134 Ecully (France)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters. - Highlights: • Soft and hard magnetic PDMS composites were microstructured by injection molding. • Tunable or autonomous magnetic microdevices can be fabricated using this approach. • Continuous-flow bacterial cell trapping and deviation were demonstrated.

  9. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters. - Highlights: • Soft and hard magnetic PDMS composites were microstructured by injection molding. • Tunable or autonomous magnetic microdevices can be fabricated using this approach. • Continuous-flow bacterial cell trapping and deviation were demonstrated.

  10. Trapped magnetic field of a mini-bulk magnet using YBaCuO at 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Hiroki

    2001-09-01

    Melt-processed rare earth (RE)123 superconductors have a high Jc at 77 K and high magnetic field. Solidification processes for producing (L)RE123 superconductors and pinning centers in the (L)RE123 matrix are effective for obtaining high Jc, leading to high-field application as a superconducting quasi-permanent bulk magnet with the liquid nitrogen refrigeration. One of the promising applications is a superconducting magnet for the magnetically levitated train. We fabricated a mini-superconducting bulk magnet of 200×100 mm2, consisting of 18 bulks, which are a square 33 mm on a side and 10 mm in thickness, and magnetized the mini-magnet by field cooling. The mini-magnet showed the trapped magnetic field of larger than 0.1 T on the surface of the outer vessel of the magnet. The present preliminary study discusses trapped magnetic field properties of the mini-bulk magnet using YBaCuO superconductors at 77 K.

  11. Magnetic monopole search with the MoEDAL test trapping detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IMoEDAL is designed to search for monopoles produced in high-energy Large Hadron Collider (LHC collisions, based on two complementary techniques: nucleartrack detectors for high-ionisation signatures and other highly ionising avatars of new physics, and trapping volumes for direct magnetic charge measurements with a superconducting magnetometer. The MoEDAL test trapping detector array deployed in 2012, consisting of over 600 aluminium samples, was analysed and found to be consistent with zero trapped magnetic charge. Stopping acceptances are obtained from a simulation of monopole propagation in matter for a range of charges and masses, allowing to set modelindependent and model-dependent limits on monopole production cross sections. Multiples of the fundamental Dirac magnetic charge are probed for the first time at the LHC.

  12. Magnetic monopole search with the MoEDAL test trapping detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Akshay

    2016-11-01

    IMoEDAL is designed to search for monopoles produced in high-energy Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions, based on two complementary techniques: nucleartrack detectors for high-ionisation signatures and other highly ionising avatars of new physics, and trapping volumes for direct magnetic charge measurements with a superconducting magnetometer. The MoEDAL test trapping detector array deployed in 2012, consisting of over 600 aluminium samples, was analysed and found to be consistent with zero trapped magnetic charge. Stopping acceptances are obtained from a simulation of monopole propagation in matter for a range of charges and masses, allowing to set modelindependent and model-dependent limits on monopole production cross sections. Multiples of the fundamental Dirac magnetic charge are probed for the first time at the LHC.

  13. Electron Fermi acceleration in collapsing magnetic traps: Computational and analytical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Lemons, D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors consider the heating and acceleration of electrons trapped on magnetic field lines between approaching magnetic mirrors. Such a collapsing magnetic trap and consequent electron energization can occur whenever a curved (or straight) flux tube drifts into a relatively straight (or curved) perpendicular shock. The relativistic, three-dimensional, collisionless test particle simulations show that an initial thermal electron distribution is bulk heated while a few individual electrons are accelerated to many times their original energy before they escape the trap. Upstream field-aligned beams and downstream pancake distributions perpendicular to the field are predicted. In the appropriate limit the simulation results agree well with a nonrelativistic analytic model of the distribution of escaping electrons which is based on the first adiabatic invariant and energy conservation between collisions with the mirrors. Space science and astrophysical applications are discussed

  14. Exciton trapping in interface defects/quantum dots in narrow quantum wells: magnetic-field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barticevic, Z.; Pacheco, M.; Duque, C.A.; Oliveira, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of applied magnetic fields on excitons trapped in quantum dots/interface defects in narrow GaAs/Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells are studied within the effective-mass approximation. The magnetic fields are applied in the growth direction of the quantum wells, and exciton trapping is modeled through a quantum dot formed by monolayer fluctuations in the z-direction, together with lateral confinement via a truncated or infinite parabolic potential in the exciton in-plane coordinate. Theoretical results are found in overall agreement with available experimental measurements

  15. Proton ring trapping in a gated magnetic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrow, P.D.; Greenly, J.B.; Hammer, D.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An axis-encircling proton ring has been trapped for times (roughly-equal4 μs) much longer than the ion cyclotron period (roughly-equal80 ns). The rings, with mean radius 10 cm and with particle energies 15 protons during the first pass and 2 x 10 13 protons during the eighth and final pass. With a central solenoidal field of 0.8 T, the peak diamagnetism and azimuthal current density of the injected ring were typically 10 mT (100 G) and 10 A/cm 2 , respectively

  16. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  17. A magnetic method to concentrate and trap biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    Magnetoresistive sensors in combination with magnetic particles have been used in biological applications due to, e.g., their small size and high sensitivity. A growing interest is to integrate magnetoresistive sensors with microchannels

  18. A biodetection method using magnetic particles and micro traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    The general working principle of magnetoresistive sensors for biological applications is to specifically attach bioanalytesto magnetic particles and then detect the particles that are immobilized on the sensor surface. The immobilization

  19. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.

    2011-09-01

    The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  20. Magnetic trapping of buffer-gas-cooled chromium atoms and prospects for the extension to paramagnetic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, Joost M [Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Stoll, Michael [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Weise, Dennis R [Universitaet Konstanz, Fachbereich Physik, 78457 Constance (Germany); Vogelsang, Oliver [Universitaet Konstanz, Fachbereich Physik, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Meijer, Gerard [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Peters, Achim [Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-10-14

    We report the successful buffer-gas cooling and magnetic trapping of chromium atoms with densities exceeding 10{sup 12} atoms per cm{sup 3} at a temperature of 350 mK for the trapped sample. The possibilities of extending the method to buffer-gas cool and magnetically trap molecules are discussed. To minimize the most important loss mechanism in magnetic trapping, molecules with a small spin-spin interaction and a large rotational constant are preferred. Both the CrH ({sup 6}{sigma}{sup +} ground state) and MnH ({sup 7}{sigma}{sup +}) radicals appear to be suitable systems for future experiments.

  1. Magnetic trapping of buffer-gas-cooled chromium atoms and prospects for the extension to paramagnetic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, Joost M; Stoll, Michael; Weise, Dennis R; Vogelsang, Oliver; Meijer, Gerard; Peters, Achim

    2006-01-01

    We report the successful buffer-gas cooling and magnetic trapping of chromium atoms with densities exceeding 10 12 atoms per cm 3 at a temperature of 350 mK for the trapped sample. The possibilities of extending the method to buffer-gas cool and magnetically trap molecules are discussed. To minimize the most important loss mechanism in magnetic trapping, molecules with a small spin-spin interaction and a large rotational constant are preferred. Both the CrH ( 6 Σ + ground state) and MnH ( 7 Σ + ) radicals appear to be suitable systems for future experiments

  2. Trapping and cooling of rf-dressed atoms in a quadrupole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morizot, O; Alzar, C L Garrido; Pottie, P-E; Lorent, V; Perrin, H

    2007-01-01

    We observe the spontaneous evaporation of atoms confined in a bubble-like radio frequency (rf)-dressed trap (Zobay and Garraway 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 1195; 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 023605). The atoms are confined in a quadrupole magnetic trap and are dressed by a linearly polarized rf field. The evaporation is related to the presence of holes in the trap, at the positions where the rf coupling vanishes, due to its vectorial character. The final temperature results from a competition between residual heating and evaporation efficiency, which is controlled via the height of the holes with respect to the bottom of the trap. The experimental data are modelled by a Monte Carlo simulation predicting a small increase in phase-space density limited by the heating rate. This increase was within the phase-space density determination uncertainty of the experiment

  3. Optimal design of a 7 T highly homogeneous superconducting magnet for a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; He Yuan; Ma Lizhen; Huang Wenxue; Xia Jiawen

    2010-01-01

    A Penning trap system called Lanzhou Penning Trap (LPT) is now being developed for precise mass measurements at the Institute of Modern Physics(IMP). One of the key components is a 7 T actively shielded superconducting magnet with a clear warm bore of 156 mm. The required field homogeneity is 3 x 10 -7 over two 1 cubic centimeter volumes lying 220 mm apart along the magnet axis. We introduce a two-step method which combines linear programming and a nonlinear optimization algorithm for designing the multi-section superconducting magnet. This method is fast and flexible for handling arbitrary shaped homogeneous volumes and coils. With the help of this method an optimal design for the LPT superconducting magnet has been obtained. (authors)

  4. Dependence of the confinement time of an electron plasma on the magnetic field in a quadrupole Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyavappa, B.M.; Datar, Durgesh; Prakash; Ananthamurthy, Sharath [Bangalore University, Department of Physics, Bangalore (India)

    2017-12-15

    A quadrupole Penning trap is used to confine electrons in weak magnetic fields. Perturbations due to space charge and imperfections in the trap geometry, as well as collisions with the background gas molecules, lead to loss of the electrons from the trap. We present in this work the results on measurements of the electron confinement time and its dependence on the magnetic field in a quadrupolar Penning trap. We describe a method to measure the confinement time of an electron cloud under weak magnetic fields (0.01 T - 0.1 T). This time is found to scale as τ ∝ B{sup 1.41} in variance with the theoretically expected confinement time that scales as τ ∝ B{sup 2} for trapped electrons that are lost through collisions with the neutrals present in the trap. A measurement of the expansion rate of the electron plasma in the trap through controlled variation of the trap voltage, yields expansion times that depend on the energy of escaping electrons. This is found to vary in our case in the scaling range B{sup 0.32} to B{sup 0.43}. Distorting the geometry of the trap, results in a marked change in the confinement time's dependence on the magnetic field. The results indicate that the confinement time of the electron cloud in the trap is limited by both, effects of collisions and perturbations that result in the plasma loss through expansion in the trap. (orig.)

  5. Trapped magnetic field in a (NdFeB)–(MgB{sub 2}) pair-type bulk magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldica, Gheorghe [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Burdusel, Mihail [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, ‘‘Politehnica’’ University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 316, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Badica, Petre, E-mail: badica2003@yahoo.com [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dense MgB{sub 2} discs were obtained by ex-situ Spark Plasma Sintering. • A NdFeB–MgB{sub 2} pair-type bulk magnet was tested for different working conditions. • The polarity of the NdFeB permanent magnet influences macro flux jumps of MgB{sub 2}. • Trapped field of the pair was 2.45 T (20 K) and 3.3 T (12 K). - Abstract: Superconducting bulk discs, S, of 20 mm in diameter and 3.5 or 3.3 mm thickness of MgB{sub 2} (pristine or added with cubic BN, respectively) with density above 97% were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering. Discs were combined in a pair-type sandwich-like arrangement with a permanent NdFeB axially magnetised magnet, PM (∼0.5 T). Measurement of the trapped field, B{sub tr}, with temperature, time, and the reduction rate of the applied magnetic field was performed using a Hall sensor positioned at the centre between the superconductor and the permanent magnet. It is shown that the permanent magnet with certain polarity favors higher trapped field of the superconductor owing to suppression of flux jumps specific for high density MgB{sub 2} samples. The B{sub tr} of the PM–S pair was 2.45 T (20 K) and 3.3 T (12 K)

  6. Trapped magnetic field in a (NdFeB)–(MgB2) pair-type bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldica, Gheorghe; Burdusel, Mihail; Badica, Petre

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dense MgB 2 discs were obtained by ex-situ Spark Plasma Sintering. • A NdFeB–MgB 2 pair-type bulk magnet was tested for different working conditions. • The polarity of the NdFeB permanent magnet influences macro flux jumps of MgB 2 . • Trapped field of the pair was 2.45 T (20 K) and 3.3 T (12 K). - Abstract: Superconducting bulk discs, S, of 20 mm in diameter and 3.5 or 3.3 mm thickness of MgB 2 (pristine or added with cubic BN, respectively) with density above 97% were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering. Discs were combined in a pair-type sandwich-like arrangement with a permanent NdFeB axially magnetised magnet, PM (∼0.5 T). Measurement of the trapped field, B tr , with temperature, time, and the reduction rate of the applied magnetic field was performed using a Hall sensor positioned at the centre between the superconductor and the permanent magnet. It is shown that the permanent magnet with certain polarity favors higher trapped field of the superconductor owing to suppression of flux jumps specific for high density MgB 2 samples. The B tr of the PM–S pair was 2.45 T (20 K) and 3.3 T (12 K)

  7. Production of antihydrogen at reduced magnetic field for anti-atom trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G.B.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P.D.; Cesar, C.L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Chartier, M.; Deutsch, A.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D.R.; Gomberoff, K.; Hangst, J.S.; Hayano, R.S.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M.J.; Jorgensen, L.V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R.D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D.M.; Storey, J.W.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated production of antihydrogen in a 1$,$T solenoidal magnetic field. This field strength is significantly smaller than that used in the first generation experiments ATHENA (3$,$T) and ATRAP (5$,$T). The motivation for using a smaller magnetic field is to facilitate trapping of antihydrogen atoms in a neutral atom trap surrounding the production region. We report the results of measurements with the ALPHA (Antihydrogen Laser PHysics Apparatus) device, which can capture and cool antiprotons at 3$,$T, and then mix the antiprotons with positrons at 1$,$T. We infer antihydrogen production from the time structure of antiproton annihilations during mixing, using mixing with heated positrons as the null experiment, as demonstrated in ATHENA. Implications for antihydrogen trapping are discussed.

  8. A user facilitated autonomous load balancing framework for UCN

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Mürsel

    2013-01-01

    Neben dem klassischen, providerzentrierten Konzept eines zentralen Internet-Anbieters und Benutzern als Internetkonsumenten, verspricht das Konzept des User Centric Networking (UCN) ein alternativen Lösungsansatz. Dieses Konzept ist attraktiv für Internetanbieter sowie für Endnutzer, da Endnutzer, als Internet-Stakeholder, sowohl Mikro-Netzbetreiber als auch Nutzer des Inhalts sind [1]. Der IEEE 802.11-Standard stellt aufgrund seiner weltweiten Verfügbarkeit, Effizienz und Kosteneffizienz ein...

  9. Magnetic atom optics: mirrors, guides, traps, and chips for atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, E.A.; Hughes, I.G. [Sussex Centre for Optical and Atomic Physics, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-21

    For the last decade it has been possible to cool atoms to microkelvin temperatures ({approx}1 cm s{sup -1}) using a variety of optical techniques. Light beams provide the very strong frictional forces required to slow atoms from room temperature ({approx}500 m s{sup -1}). However, once the atoms are cold, the relatively weak conservative forces of static electric and magnetic fields play an important role. In our group we have been studying the interaction of cold rubidium atoms with periodically magnetized data storage media. Here we review the underlying principles of the forces acting on atoms above a suitably magnetized substrate or near current-carrying wires. We also summarize the status of experiments. These structures can be used as smooth or corrugated reflectors for controlling the trajectories of cold atoms. Alternatively, they may be used to confine atoms to a plane, a line, or a dot and in some cases to reach the quantum limit of confinement. Atoms levitated above a magnetized surface can be guided electrostatically by wires deposited on the surface. The flow and interaction of atoms in such a structure may form the basis of a new technology, 'integrated atom optics' which might ultimately be capable of realizing a quantum computer. (author)

  10. The decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk superconducting actuator by AC controlled magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Uwani, Y.; Joo, J.H.; Kawamoto, R.; Jo, Y.S.

    2011-01-01

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet, having stable levitation and suspension properties according to their strong flux pinning force, have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating a three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulks to develop a non-contract transportation device which moves freely in space. It is certain for our proposed 3-D superconducting actuator to be useful as a transporter used in a clean room where silicon wafers, which do not like mechanical contact and dust, are manufactured. The proposed actuator consists of the trapped HTS bulk as a mover and two-dimensionally arranged electromagnets as a stator. Up to now, the electromagnets consisted with iron core and copper coil were used as a stator, and each electromagnet was individually controlled using DC power supplies. In our previous work, the unstable movement characteristics of HTS bulk were observed under the DC operation, and the AC electromagnets driven with AC controlled current was proposed to solve these problems. In general, the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk was decayed by a time-varying external magnetic field. Thus, it needs to optimize the shapes of AC electromagnets and operating patterns, the decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in the HTS bulk mover by the AC magnetic field should be cleared. In this paper, the influences of the frequency, the overall operating time, the strength of magnetization field and drive current against the decay of trapped magnetic field were experimentally studied using the fabricated AC electromagnets.

  11. In-Pile 4He Source for UCN Production at the ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanini, Luca; Batkov, Konstantin; Takibayev, Alan; Mezei, Ferenc; Klinkby, Esben; Schönfeldt, Troels; Pitcher, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ESS will be a premier neutron source facility. Unprecedented neutron beam intensities are ensured by spallation reactions of a 5 MW, 2.0 GeV proton beam impinging on a tungsten target equipped with advanced moderators. The work presented here aims at investigating possibilities for installing an ultra cold neutron (UCN) source at the ESS. One consequence of using the recently proposed flat moderators is that they take up less space than the moderators originally foreseen and thus leave more freedom to design a UCN source, close to the spallation hotspot. One of the options studied is to place a large 4 He UCN source in a through-going tube which penetrates the shielding below the target. First calculations of neutron flux available for UCN production are given, along with heat-load estimates. It is estimated that the flux can give rise to a UCN production at a rate of up to 1.5·10 8 UCN/s. A production in this range potentially allows for a number of UCN experiments to be carried out at unprecedented precision, including, for example, quantum gravitational spectroscopy with UCNs which rely on high phase-space density

  12. Motion of guiding center drift atoms in the electric and magnetic field of a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, S.G.; O'Neil, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The ApparaTus for High precision Experiment on Neutral Antimatter and antihydrogen TRAP collaborations have produced antihydrogen atoms by recombination in a cryogenic antiproton-positron plasma. This paper discusses the motion of the weakly bound atoms in the electric and magnetic field of the plasma and trap. The effective electric field in the moving frame of the atom polarizes the atom, and then gradients in the field exert a force on the atom. An approximate equation of motion for the atom center of mass is obtained by averaging over the rapid internal dynamics of the atom. The only remnant of the atom internal dynamics that enters this equation is the polarizability for the atom. This coefficient is evaluated for the weakly bound and strongly magnetized (guiding center drift) atoms understood to be produced in the antihydrogen experiments. Application of the approximate equation of motion shows that the atoms can be trapped radially in the large space charge field near the edge of the positron column. Also, an example is presented for which there is full three-dimensional trapping, not just radial trapping. Even untrapped atoms follow curved trajectories, and such trajectories are discussed for the important class of atoms that reach a field ionization diagnostic. Finally, the critical field for ionization is determined as an upper bound on the range of applicability of the theory

  13. Peculiarities of the temperature dependences of trapped magnetic field in Y-HTSC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, A.A.; Omel'chenko, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature dependence H t (T) of trapped magnetic field (TMF) in Y-HTSC ceramics are studied. For the fields-cooled trapping the H t (T) dependences coincide with the dependences of H t on trapping temperature T t . Both dependences fall off monotonously with increasing temperature, and for low fields they reach saturation as temperature is decreased. When the trapping is induced by the field pulse after zero cooling the H t (T t ) dependences show a maximum while the H t (T) curves drop monotonously with increase in temperature. In this case the rate of their dropping increases with decrease in pulse magnitude and the temperature of TMF vanishing decreases with T t and H. The results are discussed and it is shown that contrast to the Been model the theory based on the model of TMF in superconductive loops gives an adequate analytical description of the observed features of the temperature dependences of trapped magnetic field in the Y-HTSC ceramics

  14. 40Ar/39Ar dating and paleo-magnetism of traps from Ethiopia, Deccan and Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that major flood basalt provinces have been emplaced as short events (∼ 1 Myr), more or less synchronous with climatic crises and mass extinctions. We present new geochronologic ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar) and magneto-stratigraphic results for the Ethiopian traps, one of the last remaining flood basalts for which little of such data were available. The ages obtained in a 2000 m thick section are indistinguishable. Moreover, magneto-stratigraphy reveals a simple 3-chron reverse-normal-reverse sequence. Although magnetic chrons cannot be yet unambiguously identified, there is more likelihood for the normal sub-chron in the main basaltic pile to correspond to 11N, supporting a brief duration (less than 1.5 Ma). The Ethiopian traps erupted near 30 Ma at or near the time of the cold and dry climate, major Antarctic ice sheet advance, and the largest sea-level drop in the Tertiary. Bhandari et al. (GRL, 1995) have discovered inter-traps sediments with a triple iridium anomaly in a series of seven basaltic lava flows in the Kutch area of the North Western Deccan traps of India. Plagioclases from three flows above the iridium bearing sediments yield 39 Ar/ 40 Ar plateau ages near 65.0 Ma: these flows have unambiguously reversed magnetic polarity interpreted as chron 29R. As a preliminary summary, evidence of the KTB asteroid impact is confirmed in the Deccan traps, showing that they are coeval events in a general sense (in a Ma long window) though clearly with vastly different time constants. This is compatible with paleontologic evidence of two scales of extinctions, one quasi-instantaneous and the other on the order of 10 5 to 10 6 yrs. Clearly, the impact cannot have caused trap eruptions. On the other hand, the exact age and significance of the lower flows more altered remains to be analyzed further as they pertained to the much debated question of duration of Deccan trap volcanism. (author)

  15. Magnetic multipole induced zero-rotation frequency bounce-resonant loss in a Penning–Malmberg trap used for antihydrogen trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bray, C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jørgensen, L V; Kerrigan, S J; Keller, J; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2009-01-01

    In many antihydrogen trapping schemes, antiprotons held in a short-well Penning–Malmberg trap are released into a longer well. This process necessarily causes the bounce-averaged rotation frequency $\\overline{\\Omega}_r$ of the antiprotons around the trap axis to pass through zero. In the presence of a transverse magnetic multipole, experiments and simulations show that many antiprotons (over 30% in some cases) can be lost to a hitherto unidentified bounce-resonant process when $\\overline{\\Omega}_r$ is close to zero.

  16. Influence of the inductor shape, and the magnetization processes on a trapped magnetic flux in a superconducting bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gony, B., E-mail: bashar.gony@univ-lorraine.fr; Linares, R.; Lin, Q.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.; Leveque, J.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We tested two inductors: vortex coil and system of three coils. • The system of three coils is better than the vortex coil. • We presented and compared two processes of PFM method. • Similar results were found for the two processes. - Abstract: In this paper, we study the form of the inductor for producing a magnetic field in a superconductor bulk by using a method of PFM (Pulsed Field Magnetization). We tested two inductors: vortex coil and system of three coils, where we found the best results with the system of three coils. After that, we presented two processes for trapping a magnetic field in the bulk: direct magnetization and successive magnetization where we found similar results.

  17. Sharp Trapping Boundaries in the Random Walk of Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Chuychai, P.; Meechai, J.; Pongkitiwanichkul, P.; Kimpraphan, N.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Rowlands, G.

    2004-05-01

    Although magnetic field lines in space are believed to undergo a diffusive random walk in the long-distance limit, observed dropouts of solar energetic particles, as well as computer simulations, indicate sharply defined filaments in which interplanetary magnetic field lines have been temporarily trapped. We identify mechanisms that can explain such sharp boundaries in the framework of 2D+slab turbulence, a model that provides a good explanation of solar wind turbulence spectra and the parallel transport of solar energetic particles. Local trapping boundaries (LTBs) are empirically defined as trajectories of 2D turbulence where the mean 2D field is a local maximum. In computer simulations, the filaments (or ``islands'' in the two dimensions perpendicular to the mean field) that are most resistant to slab diffusion correspond closely to the mathematically defined LTBs, that is, there is a mathematical prescription for defining the trapping regions. Furthermore, we provide computational evidence and a theoretical explanation that strong 2D turbulence can inhibit diffusion due to the slab component. Therefore, while these filaments are basically defined by the small-scale topology of 2D turbulence, there can be sharp trapping boundaries where the 2D field is strongest. This work was supported by the Thailand Research Fund, the Rachadapisek Sompoj Fund of Chulalongkorn University, and NASA Grant NAG5-11603. G.R. thanks Mahidol University for its hospitality and the Thailand Commission for Higher Education for travel support.

  18. UCN gravity spectrometry using neutron interference filters for fundamental investigations in neutron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, I V; Cimmino, A; Geltenbort, P; Frank, A I; Hoghoj, P; Klein, A G; Masalovich, S V; Nosov, V G

    2000-01-01

    A Gravity Spectrometer for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) using neutron interference filters has been designed and tested. An energy resolution of the order of 6.5 neV was obtained which is good enough for performing a number of neutron-optical experiments proposed in an earlier paper. Experimental tests of the UCN dispersion law are currently in progress.

  19. UCN gravity spectrometry using neutron interference filters for fundamental investigations in neutron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, I.V.; Balashov, S.N.; Cimmino, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Frank, A.I.; Hoghoj, P.; Klein, A.G.; Masalovich, S.V.; Nosov, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    A Gravity Spectrometer for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) using neutron interference filters has been designed and tested. An energy resolution of the order of 6.5 neV was obtained which is good enough for performing a number of neutron-optical experiments proposed in an earlier paper. Experimental tests of the UCN dispersion law are currently in progress

  20. Hidden in the light: Magnetically induced afterglow from trapped chameleon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, Holger; Mota, David F.; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2008-01-01

    We propose an afterglow phenomenon as a unique trace of chameleon fields in optical experiments. The vacuum interaction of a laser pulse with a magnetic field can lead to a production and subsequent trapping of chameleons in the vacuum chamber, owing to their mass dependence on the ambient matter density. Magnetically induced reconversion of the trapped chameleons into photons creates an afterglow over macroscopic timescales that can conveniently be searched for by current optical experiments. We show that the chameleon parameter range accessible to available laboratory technology is comparable to scales familiar from astrophysical stellar energy-loss arguments. We analyze quantitatively the afterglow properties for various experimental scenarios and discuss the role of potential background and systematic effects. We conclude that afterglow searches represent an ideal tool to aim at the production and detection of cosmologically relevant scalar fields in the laboratory

  1. MAGNETIC GRAIN TRAPPING AND THE HOT EXCESSES AROUND EARLY-TYPE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, G. H.; Gáspár, András; Ballering, N. P., E-mail: grieke@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: agaspar@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: ballerin@email.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    A significant fraction of main sequence stars observed interferometrically in the near-infrared have slightly extended components that have been attributed to very hot dust. To match the spectrum appears to require the presence of large numbers of very small (<200 nm in radius) dust grains. However, particularly for the hotter stars, it has been unclear how such grains can be retained close to the star against radiation pressure force. We find that the expected weak stellar magnetic fields are sufficient to trap nm-sized dust grains in epicyclic orbits for a few weeks or longer, sufficient to account for the hot excess emission. Our models provide a natural explanation for the requirement that the hot excess dust grains be smaller than 200 nm. They also suggest that magnetic trapping is more effective for rapidly rotating stars, consistent with the average vsini measurements of stars with hot excesses being larger (at ∼2σ) than those for stars without such excesses.

  2. Optical and magnetic measurements of gyroscopically stabilized graphene nanoplatelets levitated in an ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornykh, Pavel; Coppock, Joyce E.; Murphy, Jacob P. J.; Kane, B. E.

    2017-07-01

    Using optical measurements, we demonstrate that the rotation of micron-scale graphene nanoplatelets levitated in a quadrupole ion trap in high vacuum can be frequency-locked to an applied radiofrequency electric field Erf. Over time, frequency-locking stabilizes the nanoplatelet so that its axis of rotation is normal to the nanoplatelet and perpendicular to Erf. We observe that residual slow dynamics of the direction of the axis of rotation in the plane normal to Erf is determined by an applied magnetic field. We present a simple model that accurately describes our observations. From our data and model, we can infer both a diamagnetic polarizability and a magnetic moment proportional to the frequency of rotation, which we compare to theoretical values. Our results establish that trapping technologies have applications for materials measurements at the nanoscale.

  3. Controlled trapping and detection of magnetic particles by a magnetic microactuator and a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the design and testing of an integrated micro-chip for the controlled trapping and detection of magnetic particles (MPs). A unique magnetic micro-actuator consisting of square-shaped conductors is used to manipulate the MPs towards a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing element which rapidly detects the majority of MPs trapped around the square-shaped conductors. The ability to precisely transport a small number of MPs in a controlled manner over long distances by magnetic forces enables the rapid concentration of a majority of MPs to the sensing zone for detection. This is especially important in low concentration samples. The conductors are designed in such a manner so as to increase the capture efficiency as well as the precision and speed of transportation. By switching current to different conductors, MPs can be manipulated and immobilized on the innermost conductor where the GMR sensor is located. This technique rapidly guides the MPs towards the sensing zone. Secondly, for optimum measurement capability with high spatial resolution the GMR sensor is fabricated directly underneath and all along the innermost conductor to detect the stray fields originating from the MPs. Finally, a microfluidic channel is fabricated on top of this micro-chip. Experiments inside the microchannel were carried out and the MPs were successfully trapped at the sensing area. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications.

  4. Spatial configuration of a plasma bunch formed under gyromagnetic resonance in a magnetic mirror trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V.; Novitskii, A. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Chuprov, D. V., E-mail: chu-d@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The spatial configuration of a relativistic plasma bunch generated under the gyromagnetic autoresonance and confined in a magnetic mirror trap has been studied experimentally and numerically. The characteristics of bremsstrahlung generated by the plasma bunch from the gas and chamber walls were investigated using X-ray spectroscopy and radiometry, which made it possible to determine the localization of the bunch and analyze the dynamics of its confinement.

  5. Development of a flexible microfluidic system integrating magnetic micro-actuators for trapping biological species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulcrand, R; Jugieu, D; Escriba, C; Bancaud, A; Bourrier, D; Boukabache, A; Gué, A M

    2009-01-01

    A flexible microfluidic system embedding microelectromagnets has been designed, modeled and fabricated by using a photosensitive resin as structural material. The fabrication process involves the integration of micro-coils in a multilayer SU-8 microfluidic system by combining standard electroplating and dry films lamination. This technique offers numerous advantages in terms of integration, biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Various designs of micro-coils, including spiral, square or serpentine wires, have been simulated and experimentally tested. It has been established that thermal dissipation in micro-coils depends strongly on the number of turns and current density but remains compatible with biological applications. Real-time experimentations show that these micro-actuators are efficient in trapping magnetic micro-beads without any external field source or a permanent magnet and highlight that the size of microfluidic channels has been adequately designed for optimal trapping. Moreover, we trap magnetic beads in less than 2 s and release them instantaneously into the micro-channel. The actuation solely relies on electric fields, which are easier to control than standard magneto-fluidic modules

  6. Development of a flexible microfluidic system integrating magnetic micro-actuators for trapping biological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcrand, R.; Jugieu, D.; Escriba, C.; Bancaud, A.; Bourrier, D.; Boukabache, A.; Gué, A. M.

    2009-10-01

    A flexible microfluidic system embedding microelectromagnets has been designed, modeled and fabricated by using a photosensitive resin as structural material. The fabrication process involves the integration of micro-coils in a multilayer SU-8 microfluidic system by combining standard electroplating and dry films lamination. This technique offers numerous advantages in terms of integration, biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Various designs of micro-coils, including spiral, square or serpentine wires, have been simulated and experimentally tested. It has been established that thermal dissipation in micro-coils depends strongly on the number of turns and current density but remains compatible with biological applications. Real-time experimentations show that these micro-actuators are efficient in trapping magnetic micro-beads without any external field source or a permanent magnet and highlight that the size of microfluidic channels has been adequately designed for optimal trapping. Moreover, we trap magnetic beads in less than 2 s and release them instantaneously into the micro-channel. The actuation solely relies on electric fields, which are easier to control than standard magneto-fluidic modules.

  7. Local Magnetic Measurements of Trapped Flux Through a Permanent Current Path in Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Markus; Esquinazi, Pablo D.; Quiquia, José Barzola; Precker, Christian E.

    2018-04-01

    Temperature- and field-dependent measurements of the electrical resistance of different natural graphite samples suggest the existence of superconductivity at room temperature in some regions of the samples. To verify whether dissipationless electrical currents are responsible for the trapped magnetic flux inferred from electrical resistance measurements, we localized them using magnetic force microscopy on a natural graphite sample in remanent state after applying a magnetic field. The obtained evidence indicates that at room temperature a permanent current flows at the border of the trapped flux region. The current path vanishes at the same transition temperature T_c≈ 370 K as the one obtained from electrical resistance measurements on the same sample. This sudden decrease in the phase is different from what is expected for a ferromagnetic material. Time-dependent measurements of the signal show the typical behavior of flux creep of a permanent current flowing in a superconductor. The overall results support the existence of room-temperature superconductivity at certain regions in the graphite structure and indicate that magnetic force microscopy is suitable to localize them. Magnetic coupling is excluded as origin of the observed phase signal.

  8. Magnetic trapping of energetic particles on open dayside boundary layer flux tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.W.H.; Lewis, Z.V.

    1990-01-01

    Both simple as well as detailed empirical magnetic models of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere suggest that field lines near the magnetopause boundary in the noon quadrant (∼ 09:00 to ∼ 15:00 M.L.T.) possess an unusual property due to the compressive effect of the impinging solar wind flow, namely that the equatorial region represents a local maximum in the magnetic field strength, and not a minimum as elsewhere in the magnetosphere. In this region the field lines can therefore support two distinct particle populations, those which bounce across the equator between mirror points on either side, and those which are trapped about the off-equatorial field strength minima and are confined to one side of the equator. When these field lines become magnetically open due to the occurrence of magnetic reconnection at the equatorial magnetopause, the former particles will rapidly escape into the magnetosheath by field-aligned flow, while the latter population may be sustained within the boundary layer over many bounce periods, as the flux tubes contract and move tailward. Consequently, trapped distributions of energetic particles may commonly occur on open field lines in the dayside boundary layer in the noon quadrant, particularly at high latitudes. The existence of such particles is thus not an infallible indicator of the presence of closed magnetic field lines in this region. At earlier and later local times, however, the boundary layer field lines revert to possessing a minimum in the field strength at the equator. (author)

  9. Cryogenic buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of CrH and MnH molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoll, M.; Bakker, J. M.; Steimle, T. C.; Meijer, G.; Peters, A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the buffer- gas cooling and trapping of CrH and MnH molecules in a magnetic quadrupole trap with densities on the order of 10(6) cm(-3) at a temperature of 650 mK. Storage times of up to 180 ms have been observed, corresponding to a 20- fold lifetime enhancement with respect to the

  10. Trapped magnetic field of a superconducting bulk magnet in high- T sub c RE-Ba-Cu-O

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, H; Higuchi, T; Nakamura, Y; Kamijo, H; Nagashima, K; Murakami, M

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting magnets made of high-T sub c superconductors are promising for industrial applications. It is well known that REBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x and LRE (light rare-earth) Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical current density, J sub c , at 77 K and high magnetic fields. Therefore, the materials are very prospective for high magnetic field application as a superconducting permanent/bulk magnet with liquid-nitrogen refrigeration. LREBaCuO bulks, compared with REBaCuO bulks, exhibit a larger J sub c in high magnetic fields and a much improved irreversibility field, H sub i sub r sub r , at 77 K. In this study, we discuss the possibility and trapped field properties of a superconducting bulk magnet, as well as the melt processing for bulk superconductors and their characteristic superconducting properties. One of the applications is a superconducting magnet for the future magnetically levitated (Maglev) train.

  11. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  12. Theory of the time orbiting potential (TOP) quadrupole magnetic trap for cold atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minogin, V.G.; Richmond, J.A.; Opat, G.I.

    1997-12-31

    An analytical theory of the time orbiting potential (TOP) quadrupole magnetic trap for cold atoms is developed. It is shown that the rotating magnetic filed used to create the time-average harmonic potential is responsible for the formation of quasi-energy states of an atom in the trap. It is found that the motion of an atom near the origin of the trap can be represented as consisting of slow motion in the effective potential and fast oscillations with small amplitude. Dipole, quadrupole and higher order atomic transitions between quasi-energy states are shown to be responsible for an additional effective potential for slow atomic motion which is proportional to the fourth power of the atomic co-ordinate. Eigenstates and eigenfunctions are used to calculate the co-ordinate distribution for a single atom. It is concluded that at low temperature the quantum statistical co-ordinate distribution for a single atom exhibits a narrow central peak due to the ground state population, together with relatively broad wings due to the excited state population. (authors). 20 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  13. Properties and parameters of the electron beam injected into the mirror magnetic trap of a plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V., E-mail: temple18@mail.ru; Novitsky, A. A.; Vinnichenko, L. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Ndong, D. O. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The parameters of the injector of an axial plasma beam injected into a plasma accelerator operating on the basis of gyroresonance acceleration of electrons in the reverse magnetic field are determined. The trapping of the beam electrons into the regime of gyroresonance acceleration is numerically simulated by the particle- in-cell method. The optimal time of axial injection of the beam into a magnetic mirror trap is determined. The beam parameters satisfying the condition of efficient particle trapping into the gyromagnetic autoresonance regime are found.

  14. Magnetic field extraction of trap-based electron beams using a high-permeability grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    A method to form high quality electrostatically guided lepton beams is explored. Test electron beams are extracted from tailored plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap. The particles are then extracted from the confining axial magnetic field by passing them through a high magnetic permeability grid with radial tines (a so-called “magnetic spider”). An Einzel lens is used to focus and analyze the beam properties. Numerical simulations are used to model non-adiabatic effects due to the spider, and the predictions are compared with the experimental results. Improvements in beam quality are discussed relative to the use of a hole in a high permeability shield (i.e., in lieu of the spider), and areas for further improvement are described

  15. Estafette of drift resonances, stochasticity and control of particle motion in a toroidal magnetic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, Alexander A.

    2001-02-01

    A new method of particle motion control in toroidal magnetic traps with rotational transform using the estafette of drift resonances and stochasticity of particle trajectories is proposed. The use of the word estafette' here means that the particle passes through a set of resonances in consecutive order from one to another during its motion. The overlapping of adjacent resonances can be moved radially from the center to the edge of the plasma by switching on the corresponding perturbations in accordance with a particular rule in time. In this way particles (e.g. cold alpha-particle) can be removed from the center of the confinement volume to the plasma periphery. For the analytical treatment of the stochastic behaviour of particle motion the stochastic diffusion coefficients D r, r, D r,θ , D θ,θ are introduced. The new approach is demonstrated by numerical computations of the test helium particle trajectories in the toroidal trap Large Helical Device. (author)

  16. Developing Density of Laser-Cooled Neutral Atoms and Molecules in a Linear Magnetic Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Joe, III; Walstrom, Peter; di Rosa, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this poster we show that neutral particle injection and accumulation using laser-induced spin flips may be used to form dense ensembles of ultracold magnetic particles, i.e., laser-cooled paramagnetic atoms and molecules. Particles are injected in a field-seeking state, are switched by optical pumping to a field-repelled state, and are stored in the minimum-B trap. The analogous process in high-energy charged-particle accumulator rings is charge-exchange injection using stripper foils. The trap is a linear array of sextupoles capped by solenoids. Particle-tracking calculations and design of our linear accumulator along with related experiments involving 7Li will be presented. We test these concepts first with atoms in preparation for later work with selected molecules. Finally, we present our preliminary results with CaH, our candidate molecule for laser cooling. This project is funded by the LDRD program of Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  17. UCN sources at external beams of thermal neutrons. An example of PIK reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychagin, E.V.; Mityukhlyaev, V.A.; Muzychka, A.Yu.; Nekhaev, G.V.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Onegin, M.S.; Sharapov, E.I.; Strelkov, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    We consider ultracold neutron (UCN) sources based on a new method of UCN production in superfluid helium ("4He). The PIK reactor is chosen as a perspective example of application of this idea, which consists of installing "4He UCN source in the beam of thermal or cold neutrons and surrounding the source with moderator-reflector, which plays the role of cold neutron (CN) source feeding the UCN source. CN flux in the source can be several times larger than the incident flux, due to multiple neutron reflections from the moderator–reflector. We show that such a source at the PIK reactor would provide an order of magnitude larger density and production rate than an analogous source at the ILL reactor. We estimate parameters of "4He source with solid methane (CH_4) or/and liquid deuterium (D_2) moderator–reflector. We show that such a source with CH_4 moderator–reflector at the PIK reactor would provide the UCN density of ~1·10"5 cm"−"3, and the UCN production rate of ~2·10"7 s"−"1. These values are respectively 1000 and 20 times larger than those for the most intense UCN user source. The UCN density in a source with D_2 moderator-reflector would reach the value of ~2·10"5 cm"−"3, and the UCN production rate would be equal ~8·10"7 s"−"1. Installation of such a source in a beam of CNs would slightly increase the density and production rate.

  18. Fast Transverse Beam Instability Caused by Electron Cloud Trapped in Combined Function Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Electron cloud instabilities affect the performance of many circular high-intensity particle accelerators. They usually have a fast growth rate and might lead to an increase of the transverse emittance and beam loss. A peculiar example of such an instability is observed in the Fermilab Recycler proton storage ring. Although this instability might pose a challenge for future intensity upgrades, its nature had not been completely understood. The phenomena has been studied experimentally by comparing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam, numerically by simulating the build-up of the electron cloud and its interaction with the beam, and analytically by constructing a model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function dipoles. Stabilization of the beam by a clearing bunch reveals that the instability is caused by the electron cloud, trapped in beam optics magnets. Measurements of microwave propagation confirm the presence of the cloud in the combined function dipoles. Numerical simulations show that up to 10$^{-2}$ of the particles can be trapped by their magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a combined function dipole this multi-turn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The estimated fast instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions and low mode frequency of 0.4 MHz are consistent with experimental observations and agree with the simulations. The created instability model allows investigating the beam stability for the future intensity upgrades.

  19. Microfluidic biosensing device for controlled trapping and detection of magnetic microparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2013-05-01

    A magnetic microfluidic device is proposed to transport and trap magnetic microparticles (MPs) to a sensing area. Once the MPs are concentrated in the vicinity of the sensing area, a spin valve type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor is used to detect their presence. The device is used for the detection of biological targets once they are labeled with functionalized MPs. Manipulation of the MPs is achieved by employing a microstructure which consists of planar ringshaped conducting microloops. These microloops are designed to produce high magnetic field gradients which are directly proportional to the force applied to manipulate the MPs. Upon sequential application of current, starting from the outermost loop, MPs are directed to move from the outermost to the innermost loop. The speed with which the MPs move towards the sensing area is controlled by the speed with which current is switched between the loops. On top of the microstructure, a microfluidic channel is fabricated using a standard photolithography technique and a dry film resist layer (Ordyl SY355). Experimental results showed that MPs of different diameters were successfully trapped at the sensing area and detected by the GMR sensor located directly under the innermost square loop. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Kinetic features and non-stationary electron trapping in paraxial magnetic nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G.; Zhou, J.; Ahedo, E.; Martínez-Sánchez, M.; Ramos, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    The paraxial expansion of a collisionless plasma jet into vacuum, guided by a magnetic nozzle, is studied with an Eulerian and non-stationary Vlasov-Poisson solver. Parametric analyzes varying the magnetic field expansion rate, the size of the simulation box, and the electrostatic potential fall are presented. After choosing the potential fall leading to a zero net current beam, the steady states of the simulations exhibit a quasi-neutral region followed by a downstream sheath. The latter, an unavoidable consequence of the finite size of the computational domain, does not affect the quasi-neutral region if the box size is chosen appropriately. The steady state presents a strong decay of the perpendicular temperature of the electrons, whose profile versus the inverse of the magnetic field does not depend on the expansion rate within the quasi-neutral region. As a consequence, the electron distribution function is highly anisotropic downstream. The simulations revealed that the ions reach a higher velocity during the transient than in the steady state and their distribution functions are not far from mono-energetic. The density percentage of the population of electrons trapped during the transient, which is computed self-consistently by the code, is up to 25% of the total electron density in the quasi-neutral region. It is demonstrated that the exact amount depends on the history of the system and the steady state is not unique. Nevertheless, the amount of trapped electrons is smaller than the one assumed heuristically by kinetic stationary theories.

  1. Microstructured segmented Paul trap with tunable magnet field gradient; Mikrostrukturierte segmentierte Paul-Falle mit einstellbarem Magnetfeldgradienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Delia

    2012-02-03

    Strings of laser cooled ions stored in microstructured Paul traps (microtraps) have promising potential for quantum information science. They provide a system which can be screened from a decohering environment, accurately prepared, manipulated and state selectively detected with efficiency close to unity. Magnetic field gradients allow for addressing trapped ions in frequency space. Furthermore, coupling of the ions' motional and spin states and long range spin-spin coupling of the ions' internal states are induced by such a gradient. This method is called Magnetic Gradient Induced Coupling, MAGIC. In this thesis, the design, construction and first characterization of a novel microtrap with an integrated solenoid is reported. The solenoid is designed to create a high magnetic field gradient per dissipated heat. The microtrap consists of three layers stacked onto each other. The outer layers provide a trapping potential, while the inner layer creates the switchable magnetic field gradient. Another specialty of this trap is the 33 pairs of DC-electrodes, allowing to move the ions along the trap axis and to adjust the range and the strength of the ions' spin-spin interactions. The microtrap is fixed on top of a ceramic block that provides the necessary electrical connections via thick film printed wires, a technique adopted in the context of microtraps for the first time, and in addition acts as a vacuum interface. The volume of the vacuum chamber is quite small, allowing for pressures in the low 10{sup -11} mbar range. In this microtrap, {sup 172}Yb{sup +}-ions are trapped, cooled and shuttled over a distance of about 2 mm. Trapped ions are used as magnetic field gradient probes, with a relative magnetic field precision of {delta}B/B{sub 0}=7.10{sup -6}. The addressing of two ions with the MAGIC method in the solenoid's magnetic field gradient is demonstrated.

  2. Permanent magnet electron beam ion source/trap systems with bakeable magnets for improved operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Zschornack, G.; Kentsch, U.; Ritter, E.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic system of a Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS) generating the necessary magnetic field with a new type of permanent magnet made of high energy density NdFeB-type material operable at temperatures above 100 °C has been investigated and tested. The employment of such kind of magnets provides simplified operation without the time-consuming installation and de-installation procedures of the magnets for the necessary baking of the ion source after commissioning and maintenance work. Furthermore, with the use of a new magnetization technique the geometrical filling factor of the magnetic Dresden EBIS design could be increased to a filling factor of 100% leading to an axial magnetic field strength of approximately 0.5 T exceeding the old design by 20%. Simulations using the finite element method software Field Precision and their results compared with measurements are presented as well. It could be shown that several baking cycles at temperatures higher than 100 °C did not change the magnetic properties of the setup

  3. Permanent magnet electron beam ion source/trap systems with bakeable magnets for improved operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M., E-mail: mike.schmidt@dreebit.com [DREEBIT GmbH, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G.; Kentsch, U.; Ritter, E. [Department of Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The magnetic system of a Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS) generating the necessary magnetic field with a new type of permanent magnet made of high energy density NdFeB-type material operable at temperatures above 100 °C has been investigated and tested. The employment of such kind of magnets provides simplified operation without the time-consuming installation and de-installation procedures of the magnets for the necessary baking of the ion source after commissioning and maintenance work. Furthermore, with the use of a new magnetization technique the geometrical filling factor of the magnetic Dresden EBIS design could be increased to a filling factor of 100% leading to an axial magnetic field strength of approximately 0.5 T exceeding the old design by 20%. Simulations using the finite element method software Field Precision and their results compared with measurements are presented as well. It could be shown that several baking cycles at temperatures higher than 100 °C did not change the magnetic properties of the setup.

  4. Permanent magnet electron beam ion source/trap systems with bakeable magnets for improved operation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Zschornack, G; Kentsch, U; Ritter, E

    2014-02-01

    The magnetic system of a Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS) generating the necessary magnetic field with a new type of permanent magnet made of high energy density NdFeB-type material operable at temperatures above 100 °C has been investigated and tested. The employment of such kind of magnets provides simplified operation without the time-consuming installation and de-installation procedures of the magnets for the necessary baking of the ion source after commissioning and maintenance work. Furthermore, with the use of a new magnetization technique the geometrical filling factor of the magnetic Dresden EBIS design could be increased to a filling factor of 100% leading to an axial magnetic field strength of approximately 0.5 T exceeding the old design by 20%. Simulations using the finite element method software Field Precision and their results compared with measurements are presented as well. It could be shown that several baking cycles at temperatures higher than 100 °C did not change the magnetic properties of the setup.

  5. Coulomb scatter of diamagnetic dust particles in a cusp magnetic trap under microgravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasnikov, M. I., E-mail: miasnikovmi@mail.ru; D’yachkov, L. G.; Petrov, O. F.; Vasiliev, M. M., E-mail: mixxy@mail.ru; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Savin, S. F.; Serova, E. O. [Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, ul. Lenina 4A (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The effect of a dc electric field on strongly nonideal Coulomb systems consisting of a large number (~10{sup 4}) of charged diamagnetic dust particles in a cusp magnetic trap are carried out aboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) within the Coulomb Crystal experiment. Graphite particles of 100–400 μm in size are used in the experiments. Coulomb scatter of a dust cluster and the formation of threadlike chains of dust particles are observed experimentally. The processes observed are simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method.

  6. A variational study of the self-trapped magnetic polaron formation in double-exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Feng Mang; Wang Kelin

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation of self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in an antiferro/ferromagnetic double-exchange model semi-analytically by variational solutions. It is shown that the Jahn-Teller effect is not essential to the STMP formation and the STMP forms in the antiferromagnetic material within the region of the order of the lattice constant. We also confirm that no ground state STMP exists in the ferromagnetic background, but the ground state bound MP could appear due to the impurity potential

  7. A half-ring GMR sensor for detection of magnetic beads immobilized on a circular micro-trap

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-11-01

    Utilizing magnetic principles in biological immunoassays is an attractive option given its ability to remotely and non-invasively manipulate and detect cells tagged with micro/nano size superparamagnetic type beads and due to the fact that even the most complex biological immunoassays will have very little magnetic effect. The presence of magnetic beads can be detected by a magnetic sensor which quantifies the amount of target cells present in the immunoassay. In order to increase the detection rate a circular conducting micro-trap is employed to attract, trap and transport the magnetic beads to the sensing area. In this research we propose a half-ring spin valve type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor for the measurement of stray fields produced by 2 μm magnetic beads which are around the circular micro-trap. A couple of half-ring GMR sensors can be used to cover the entire circular border width, in order to detect the majority of the immobilized magnetic beads. Analytical and numerical analysis leading towards the fabrication of the half-ring GMR sensor are presented. DC characterization of the fabricated sensor showed a magnetoresistance of 5.9 %. Experimental results showed that the half-ring GMR sensor detected the presence of 2 μm magnetic beads. Hence, half-ring GMR sensors integrated with a circular micro-trap have great potential to be used as an effective disease diagnostic device. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. A half-ring GMR sensor for detection of magnetic beads immobilized on a circular micro-trap

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Liang, Cai; Useinov, Arthur; Kosel, Jü rgen; Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing magnetic principles in biological immunoassays is an attractive option given its ability to remotely and non-invasively manipulate and detect cells tagged with micro/nano size superparamagnetic type beads and due to the fact that even the most complex biological immunoassays will have very little magnetic effect. The presence of magnetic beads can be detected by a magnetic sensor which quantifies the amount of target cells present in the immunoassay. In order to increase the detection rate a circular conducting micro-trap is employed to attract, trap and transport the magnetic beads to the sensing area. In this research we propose a half-ring spin valve type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor for the measurement of stray fields produced by 2 μm magnetic beads which are around the circular micro-trap. A couple of half-ring GMR sensors can be used to cover the entire circular border width, in order to detect the majority of the immobilized magnetic beads. Analytical and numerical analysis leading towards the fabrication of the half-ring GMR sensor are presented. DC characterization of the fabricated sensor showed a magnetoresistance of 5.9 %. Experimental results showed that the half-ring GMR sensor detected the presence of 2 μm magnetic beads. Hence, half-ring GMR sensors integrated with a circular micro-trap have great potential to be used as an effective disease diagnostic device. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Nonlinear Simulations of Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence in Low Magnetic Shear Stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, B. J.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hegna, C. C.

    2017-10-01

    Optimized stellarators, like the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX), often operate with small global magnetic shear to avoid low-order rational surfaces and magnetic islands. Nonlinear, flux-tube gyrokinetic simulations of density-gradient-driven Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence in HSX shows two distinct spectral fluctuation regions: long-wavelength slab-like TEMs localized by global magnetic shear that extend along field lines and short-wavelength TEMs localized by local magnetic shear to a single helical bad curvature region. The slab-like TEMs require computational domains significantly larger than one poloidal turn and are computationally expensive, making turbulent optimization studies challenging. A computationally more efficient, zero-average-magnetic-shear approximation is shown to sufficiently describe the relevant nonlinear physics and replicate finite-shear computations, and can be exploited in quasilinear models based on linear gyrokinetics as a feasible optimization tool. TEM quasilinear heat fluxes are computed with the zero-shear approximation and compared to experimentally-relevant nonlinear gyrokinetic TEM heat fluxes for HSX. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-FG02-93ER54222 and DE-FG02-89ER53291.

  10. Impact of nitrogen doping of niobium superconducting cavities on the sensitivity of surface resistance to trapped magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnella, Dan; Kaufman, John; Liepe, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Future particle accelerators such as the SLAC "Linac Coherent Light Source-II" (LCLS-II) and the proposed Cornell Energy Recovery Linac require hundreds of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) niobium cavities operating in continuous wave mode. In order to achieve economic feasibility of projects such as these, the cavities must achieve a very high intrinsic quality factor (Q0) to keep cryogenic losses within feasible limits. To reach these high Q0's in the case of LCLS-II, nitrogen-doping of niobium cavities has been selected as the cavity preparation technique. When dealing with Q0's greater than 1 × 1010, the effects of ambient magnetic field on Q0 become significant. Here, we show that the sensitivity to RF losses from trapped magnetic field in a cavity's walls is strongly dependent on the cavity preparation. Specifically, standard electropolished and 120 °C baked cavities show a sensitivity of residual resistance from trapped magnetic flux of ˜0.6 and ˜0.8 nΩ/mG trapped, respectively, while nitrogen-doped cavities show a higher sensitivity of residual resistance from trapped magnetic flux of ˜1 to 5 nΩ/mG trapped. We show that this difference in sensitivities is directly related to the mean free path of the RF surface layer of the niobium: shorter mean free paths lead to less sensitivity of residual resistance to trapped magnetic flux in the dirty limit (ℓ ≪ ξ0), while longer mean free paths lead to lower sensitivity of residual resistance to trapped magnetic flux in the clean limit (ℓ ≫ ξ0). These experimental results are also shown to have good agreement with recent theoretical predictions for pinned vortex lines oscillating in RF fields.

  11. Countering the stray magnetic field of the CUSP trap by using additional coils

    CERN Document Server

    Thole, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The ASACUSA experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN tries to measure the Hyperfine Structure (HFS) of Antihydrogen (H ̄) using a Rabi spectroscopy set-up. In measuring this HFS it will yield a very precise test of CPT-symmetry. For this set-up to work a homogeneous magnetic field is needed in the cavity where the Hyperfine transition of H ̄ occurs. Due to the stray fields from the CUSP trap, where H ̄ is produced, additional coils are needed to counter these fields. It is found, using COMSOL simulations, that two coils are suitable for this. Leading to a relative standard deviation of the magnetic field of σB/B = 1.06%.

  12. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INJECTING AND TRAPPING ELECTRONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.

    1962-05-29

    An apparatus is designed for the manipulation of electrons in an exially symmetric magnetic field region and may be employed to trap electrons in such a field by directing an electron beam into a gradientially intensified field region therein to form an annular electron moving axially in the field and along a decreasing field gradient. Dissipative loop circuits such as resistive loops are disposed along at least the decreasing field gradient so as to be inductively coupled to the electron bunch so as to extract energy of the electron bunch and provide a braking force effective to reduce the velocity of the bunch. Accordingly, the electron bunch upon entering a lower intensity magnetic field region is retained therein since the electrons no longer possess sufficient energy to escape. (AEC)

  13. Solid deuterium and UCN factory: application to the neutron electric dipole moment measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Serebrov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Present experiments which search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron use ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) and are limited by counting statistics. One way to solve this problem is to improve the source of UCN. The present article briefly reviews two possibilities which employ solid deuterium at the temperature of liquid helium. The possibility of installing a solid deuterium UCN source at the FRM-II reactor and at spallation neutron sources at PSI, LANL and KEK is discussed. An increase of the UCN density up to the level of 10 sup 3 -10 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3 is expected. Compared to existing sources, this corresponds to an improvement by two to three orders of magnitude. Such experimental facilities will make it possible to improve measurements of the EDM of the neutron down to the level of 10 sup - sup 2 sup 7 e cm.

  14. Dependence of direct losses and trapping properties with the magnetic configuration in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1998-05-01

    The former studies concerning direct losses, disymmetries, trapping and radial electric field effects for intermediate energy ions have been extended to several magnetic configurations in TJ-II. In the absence of electric field there are strong similarities in the behaviour of all configurations: disymmetries, loss distributions at plasma border, radial and angular profiles, etc. Generally the differences are only quantitative and dominated by the magnetic ripple at border, that is clearly related with the configuration radius. This qualitative similarity disappears in the presence of a radial electric field. The field resonance are at the origin of these differences. A simple model reproduces correctly the ordering and degree of influence of these resonances. Except when the 0 resonance predominates the los distributions at plasma border move always in the direction of the induced poloidal rotation. The los radial profiles are strongly affected by the -2 Resonance, that can provoke the appearance of lost passing ions well inside the plasma. Instead the radial and angular profiles for trapping are only slightly affected by the -2 Resonance, while the 0 Resonance has a very strong influence there

  15. Observation of Poincaré-Andronov-Hopf Bifurcation in Cyclotron Maser Emission from a Magnetic Plasma Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Izotov, I. V.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Skalyga, V. A.; Tarvainen, O.

    2018-04-01

    We report the first experimental evidence of a controlled transition from the generation of periodic bursts of electromagnetic radiation into the continuous-wave regime of a cyclotron maser formed in magnetically confined nonequilibrium plasma. The kinetic cyclotron instability of the extraordinary wave of weakly inhomogeneous magnetized plasma is driven by the anisotropic electron population resulting from electron cyclotron plasma heating in a MHD-stable minimum-B open magnetic trap.

  16. Evaluation of load rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun; Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool

    1998-01-01

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as completeness of the plant design

  17. Setup for precise measurement of neutro lifetime by UCN storage method with inelastically scattered neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanov, S.S; Bondarenko, L.N.; Gel'tenbort, P.; Morozov, V.I.; Nesvizhevskij, V.V.; Panin, Yu.N.; Strepetov, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental setup and the method of measuring the neutron lifetime with a precision less then 1 s is described. The measurements will be carried out by storage of ultracold neutrons (UCN) into vessels with inner walls coated with fluorine polymer oil with simultaneous registration of inelastically scattered UCN leaving storage vessels. The analysis of statistical and methodical errors is carried out. The calculated estimation of the measurement accuracy is presented [ru

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of trapped particle echoes in a magnetic mirror machine. Application to diffusion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    A simple mechanical model is used to investigate the various physical mechanisms originating the echoes. The model is applied to nuclear spins and echoes from particles trapped in a magnetostatic well. The theory of echoes from trapped ions in a magnetic machine is developed. The effects that may be observed when two magnetic perturbations are applied to the plasma are described. Diffusion effects in the velocity space are then taken into account when the diffusion is due either to Coulomb collisions or to a microturbulence at the ion cyclotron frequency. The experimental results obtained with the DECA II B machine are described. Emphasis is put upon the effects observed when magnetic perturbations are applied to the plasma and echoes observation independently of the diffusion study, as it is the first time that trapped particle echoes are observed in a hot plasma [fr

  19. An experiment on the investigation of the possibilities of the detection of heated UCN at the IBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchev, S.D.; Strelkov, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment on the investigation of the heating of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in the reactor IBR-2 is described. By measuring the flux of thermal neutrons (upscattered UCN heated on polyethylene) the UCN flux density in a neutron guide is estimated to be approx. 25 cm -2 s -1 . The paper reports on the analysis of the background of a counter of heated neutrons. 9 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Impurity coupled to an artificial magnetic field in a Fermi gas in a ring trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, F. Nur; Hetényi, B.; Oktel, M. Ã.-.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of a single impurity interacting with a many-particle background is one of the central problems of condensed-matter physics. Recent progress in ultracold-atom experiments makes it possible to control this dynamics by coupling an artificial gauge field specifically to the impurity. In this paper, we consider a narrow toroidal trap in which a Fermi gas is interacting with a single atom. We show that an external magnetic field coupled to the impurity is a versatile tool to probe the impurity dynamics. Using a Bethe ansatz, we calculate the eigenstates and corresponding energies exactly as a function of the flux through the trap. Adiabatic change of flux connects the ground state to excited states due to flux quantization. For repulsive interactions, the impurity disturbs the Fermi sea by dragging the fermions whose momentum matches the flux. This drag transfers momentum from the impurity to the background and increases the effective mass. The effective mass saturates to the total mass of the system for infinitely repulsive interactions. For attractive interactions, the drag again increases the effective mass which quickly saturates to twice the mass of a single particle as a dimer of the impurity and one fermion is formed. For excited states with momentum comparable to number of particles, effective mass shows a resonant behavior. We argue that standard tools in cold-atom experiments can be used to test these predictions.

  1. Neutron lifetime experiments using magnetically trapped neutrons: optimal background correction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the first stage of each run of a neutron lifetime experiment, a magnetic trap is filled with neutrons. In the second stage of each run, decay events plus background events are observed. In a separate experiment, background is measured. The mean lifetime is estimated by fitting a two parameter exponential model to the background-corrected data. For two models of the background signal, I determine the optimal ratio of the number of 'background-only' measurements to the number of primary 'neutron decay plus background' measurements. Further, for each run, I determine the optimal allocation of time for filling and for observing decay events. For the case where the background consists of an activated material (aluminum) plus a stationary Poisson process, the asymptotic standard error of the lifetime estimate computed from the background-corrected data is lower than the asymptotic standard error computed from the uncorrected data. For the case where the background is a stationary Poisson process, background correction is desirable provided that the background intensity is sufficiently small compared to the rate at which neutrons enter the trap

  2. Cold molecules: formation, trapping and spectroscopy. - Piling up of cesium dimers in a quadrupolar magnetic trap. - Spectroscopy by lack of photo-association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhaecke, N.

    2003-10-01

    This thesis deals with the study of cold molecules obtained through the cold atom photo-association technique. Our study is focused both on manipulating external degrees of freedom of these Cs 2 molecules and on studying their internal interactions. A quadrupolar magnetic trap of about 2.10 5 cold Cs 2 molecules is demonstrated. The trap lifetime is on the order of 600 ms, mainly limited by the background gas pressure. The trapped molecules are identified, which allows the determination of the trapped molecule cloud temperature, which is about 35 μK. A dipolar trap is set up by the use of a focused CO 2 laser beam. Moreover, this thesis describes a two-photon photo-association spectroscopy. We report the first study of two-photon photo-association line shapes, which exhibit typical Fano profiles. Taking advantage of the detailed understanding of these line shapes, we measure over one hundred high-lying level energies with an accuracy on the order of 10 MHz. Then we interpret theoretically these energies. The huge hyperfine structure of the Cesium atom binds us to solve a coupled channel Schroedinger equation for internuclear distances above 15 a 0 . Hence we use an asymptotic theory to fit the potential parameters of the Cs 2 dimer. We adjust those parameters by the mean of both evolutionary strategies and deterministic optimum seeking. This is followed by a careful statistics study, which leads to a very accurate determination of the Vander Waals coefficient. Moreover we report the first experimental determination of the exchange interaction amplitude. (author)

  3. Resonant tunneling of UCN through the moving interference filter and experimental test of the UCN dispersion law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.I.; Bondarenko, I.V.; Balashov, S.N.; Geltenbort, P.; Hoghoj, P.; Kozlov, A.V.; Masalovich, S.V.; Toperverg, B.P.

    2004-01-01

    With the aim to test experimentally the dispersion law validity for very slow neutrons a spectrum of ultracold neutrons (UCN) under the condition of resonance tunneling through the moving Neutron Interference Filter was investigated. The neutron spectrum in this case has a narrow width resonance, whose parameters depend on the filter characteristics and dispersion law of neutron waves in matter. For a number of samples a noticeable shift of the resonance position when the filter moved parallel to its surface was detected. This shift is in strong contradiction with the commonly accepted dispersion law. Further investigations have shown that the spectrum of tunneling neutrons is not exactly defined by the solution of one-dimensional quantum problem, but substantially affected by neutron scattering from filter imperfections. The cross section of this scattering depends on the neutron wave number and increases dramatically in resonance conditions. Experimental results as well as comprehensive theoretical analysis have led us to the unambiguous conclusion that observed phenomena of the resonance shift in a moving sample are caused by scattering of neutron tunneling states rather than by a deviation from the commonly accepted dispersion law. (author)

  4. Electron Cloud Generation and Trapping in a Quadrupole Magnet at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, Robert J.; Browman, Andrew A.; Ledford, John E.; TechSource, Santa Fe; Los Alamos; Borden, Michael J.; O'Hara, James F.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Spickermann, Thomas; Zaugg, Thomas J.; Pivi, Mauro T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent beam physics studies on the two-stream e-p instability at the LANL proton storage ring (PSR) have focused on the role of the electron cloud generated in quadrupole magnets where primary electrons, which seed beam-induced multipacting, are expected to be largest due to grazing angle losses from the beam halo. A new diagnostic to measure electron cloud formation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet has been developed, installed, and successfully tested at PSR. Beam studies using this diagnostic show that the 'prompt' electron flux striking the wall in a quadrupole is comparable to the prompt signal in the adjacent drift space. In addition, the 'swept' electron signal, obtained using the sweeping feature of the diagnostic after the beam was extracted from the ring, was larger than expected and decayed slowly with an exponential time constant of 50 to 100 (micro)s. Other measurements include the cumulative energy spectra of prompt electrons and the variation of both prompt and swept electron signals with beam intensity. Experimental results were also obtained which suggest that a good fraction of the electrons observed in the adjacent drift space for the typical beam conditions in the 2006 run cycle were seeded by electrons ejected from the quadrupole

  5. Electron cloud generation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Macek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent beam physics studies on the two-stream e-p instability at the LANL proton storage ring (PSR have focused on the role of the electron cloud generated in quadrupole magnets where primary electrons, which seed beam-induced multipacting, are expected to be largest due to grazing angle losses from the beam halo. A new diagnostic to measure electron cloud formation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet has been developed, installed, and successfully tested at PSR. Beam studies using this diagnostic show that the “prompt” electron flux striking the wall in a quadrupole is comparable to the prompt signal in the adjacent drift space. In addition, the “swept” electron signal, obtained using the sweeping feature of the diagnostic after the beam was extracted from the ring, was larger than expected and decayed slowly with an exponential time constant of 50 to 100  μs. Other measurements include the cumulative energy spectra of prompt electrons and the variation of both prompt and swept electron signals with beam intensity. Experimental results were also obtained which suggest that a good fraction of the electrons observed in the adjacent drift space for the typical beam conditions in the 2006 run cycle were seeded by electrons ejected from the quadrupole.

  6. Particle Trapping and Dropouts in Magnetic Turbulence in a Spherical Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooprakai, P.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.

    2006-12-01

    The observed dropouts of solar energetic particles from impulsive solar events (i.e., the inhomogeneity and sharp gradients in particle density) indicate the partial filamentation of magnetic connection from small regions of the corona to Earth orbit. This can be understood in terms of persistent trapping of field lines due to small- scale topological structures in the solar wind. We further explore how this turbulence structure should be manifest in particle observations, by evaluating particle trajectories obtained from the Newton-Lorentz equations. By adapting a two-component model of turbulence to spherical geometry, we include the adiabatic focusing of particles. The 2D magnetic field is generated by either 1) a 2D fast Fourier transform, a valid approximation over a small angular region, or 2) a spherical harmonic series with ℓ up to 2000. Dropout features at 1 AU are clearly indicated for low-energy particles, but these features are washed out for E >~ 100 MeV. Different time-intensity profiles are found at locations at 1 AU that are distinct with regard to the small-scale topology. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund, the Rachadapisek Sompoj Fund of Chulalongkorn University, and NASA Grant NNG05GG83G.

  7. Screening conditions in a magnetized plasma with electron beam, with application to ripple trapped electron losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S. [Nancy-1 Univ. Henri Poincare, LPMIA, UMR CNRS 7040, 54 (France); Colas, L.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Martin, G.; Basiuk, V. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    In Tore Supra, electrons are accelerated by lower hybrid waves in the direction parallel to the confinement magnetic field, in order to drive non-inductive current. But electrons have also on increase of their perpendicular velocity, then 10% of the most energetic electrons get trapped in the magnetic ripple between 2 adjacent toroidal coils, thus forming a beam. The electron beam follows a banana trajectory, the 20 mm wide protection represented by a cooled copper tube is assumed to protect the VP entrance from this energetic flux. Nevertheless, this beam is able to go beyond the copper tube and creates a hot spot on the steel panel edge able to melt the metal. Heat fluxes deposition on the vertical port (VP) can be understood with a beam+sheath theory including the fact that the sheaths can be obstructed when their length becomes greater than flux tube length. By this way, we identify 4 deposition regimes: 2 free sheath regimes and 2 obstructed sheath regimes. Beam flux deposits either at the entrance of the VP along first 2 cm behind the copper tube or until the end of the VP when beam flux is high and for free sheath. Obstructed sheaths make the repulsive, potential for electrons decrease and so accelerate the flux deposition. (authors)

  8. Magnetic Nickel iron Electroformed Trap (MagNET): a master/replica fabrication strategy for ultra-high throughput (>100 mL h−1) immunomagnetic sorting†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jina; Yelleswarapu, Venkata; Singh, Anup; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices can sort immunomagnetically labeled cells with sensitivity and specificity much greater than that of conventional methods, primarily because the size of microfluidic channels and micro-scale magnets can be matched to that of individual cells. However, these small feature sizes come at the expense of limited throughput (ϕ 10 mL whole blood. Here, we report a new approach to micromagnetic sorting that can achieve highly specific cell separation in unprocessed complex samples at a throughput (ϕ > 100 mL h−1) 100× greater than that of conventional microfluidics. To achieve this goal, we have devised a new approach to micromagnetic sorting, the magnetic nickel iron electroformed trap (MagNET), which enables high flow rates by having millions of micromagnetic traps operate in parallel. Our design rotates the conventional microfluidic approach by 90° to form magnetic traps at the edges of pores instead of in channels, enabling millions of the magnetic traps to be incorporated into a centimeter sized device. Unlike previous work, where magnetic structures were defined using conventional microfabrication, we take inspiration from soft lithography and create a master from which many replica electroformed magnetic micropore devices can be economically manufactured. These free-standing 12 µm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20) films contain micropores of arbitrary shape and position, allowing the device to be tailored for maximal capture efficiency and throughput. We demonstrate MagNET's capabilities by fabricating devices with both circular and rectangular pores and use these devices to rapidly (ϕ = 180 mL h−1) and specifically sort rare tumor cells from white blood cells. PMID:27170379

  9. Assessment of Rock Magnetic Parameters for Fly Ash Pollution Screening in Topsoil of the Deccan Trap Basalt Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, U.; Basavaiah, N.; Das, P. K.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2012-04-01

    Rock magnetic parameters of highly magnetic topsoil of the Deccan Trap basalt area are evaluated for their suitability for efficient environmental magnetic pollution screening. Parameters, such as magnetic susceptibility (χ), frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (κ fd%), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), soft isothermal remanent magnetization (Soft IRM), as well as thermo-magnetic analysis (κ-T) are compared and assessed for best depiction of topsoil contamination due to ash deposition around the Nashik thermal power station (NTPS). Fifty-five topsoil samples, collected along north-south and west-east stretching transects of 24 km length, are the basis for evaluation of the specific ash distribution pattern around the plant and its adjacent ash pond. Similar decline of the magnetic signals with increasing distance from the point source is observed in the concentration dependent magnetic parameters and can be modeled. The magnetic grain size parameters instead reveal increasing trends with increasing distance. Verwey-transition and Hopkinson peak obtained from κ-T analyses demonstrate to be important parameters to prove fly ash accumulation in soils of basaltic origin. The importance of magnetic parameters for indirect tracing of pollutants, such as heavy metals, is shown by Pb, Zn and Cu data, revealing similar distribution pattern as obtained from the concentration dependent magnetic parameters. Confirmation of the presence of a very high amount of ash particles in the vicinity of the NTPS and a low number of particles in more distant areas is provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on quantitatively extracted magnetic particles at 5.5 km and 11.9 km distance in eastern direction. The investigation demonstrates that the majority of the rock magnetic parameters has the potential to be successfully applied in environmental magnetic studies in areas with high magnetic background

  10. Evaluation of Load Rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as the completeness of the plant design. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of Load Rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as the completeness of the plant design. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  12. Dissipative dust-acoustic shock waves in a varying charge electronegative magnetized dusty plasma with trapped electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha, Mustapha [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud, E-mail: mouloudtribeche@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Algerian Academy of Sciences and Technologies, Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-08-15

    The combined effects of an oblique magnetic field and electron trapping on dissipative dust-acoustic waves are examined in varying charge electronegative dusty plasmas with application to the Halley Comet plasma (∼10{sup 4} km from the nucleus). A weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to derive a modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger-like equation. Making use of the equilibrium current balance equation, the physically admissible values of the electron trapping parameter are first constrained. We then show that the Burger dissipative term is solely due to the dust charge variation process. It is found that an increase of the magnetic field obliqueness or a decrease of its magnitude renders the shock structure more dispersive.

  13. Magnetic field fluctuations analysis for the ion trap implementation of the quantum Rabi model in the deep strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Ricardo; Casanova, Jorge; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of the quantum Rabi model (QRM) in the deep strong coupling regime is theoretically analyzed in a trapped-ion set-up. Recognizably, the main hallmark of this regime is the emergence of collapses and revivals, whose faithful observation is hindered under realistic magnetic dephasing noise. Here, we discuss how to attain a faithful implementation of the QRM in the deep strong coupling regime which is robust against magnetic field fluctuations and at the same time provides a large tunability of the simulated parameters. This is achieved by combining standing wave laser configuration with continuous dynamical decoupling. In addition, we study the role that amplitude fluctuations play to correctly attain the QRM using the proposed method. In this manner, the present work further supports the suitability of continuous dynamical decoupling techniques in trapped-ion settings to faithfully realize different interacting dynamics.

  14. Magnetic field and dielectric environment effects on an exciton trapped by an ionized donor in a spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghoutane, N.; Feddi, E.; El-Yadri, M.; Bosch Bailach, J.; Dujardin, F.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic field and host dielectric environment effects on the binding energy of an exciton trapped by an ionized donor in spherical quantum dot are investigated. In the framework of the effective mass approximation and by using a variational method, the calculations have been performed by developing a robust ten-terms wave function taking into account the different inter-particles correlations and the distortion of symmetry induced by the orientation of the applied magnetic field. The binding and the localization energies are determined as functions of dot size and magnetic field strength. It appears that the variation of magnetic shift obeys a quadratic law for low magnetic fields regime while, for strong magnetic fields, this shift tends to be linear versus the magnetic field strength. The stability of this complex subjected to a magnetic field is also discussed according to the electron-hole ratio and the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium. A last point to highlight is that the Haynes' rule remains valid even in the presence of an applied magnetic field.

  15. Characterization of solid D{sub 2} as a source material for ultra cold neutrons (UCN) and development of a detector concept for the detection of protons from the neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Axel Reimer

    2008-12-09

    In the first part of this thesis, properties of the UCN-converter material solid deuterium (sD{sub 2}) are studied. A series of investigations of various sD{sub 2} crystals by means of optical spectroscopy and neutron scattering resulted in: (i) a freezing technique suitable for UCN sources (ii) an efficient method to achieve a high ortho concentration, (iii) a direct way to calculate the UCN production cross-section from the dynamic structure factor S(q, {omega}), (iv) the identification of six excitations responsible for UCN production (v) the interpretation of one excitation at E=12 meV as a multi-phonon process (vi) the discovery of an additional spin-dependent UCN loss mechanism at q=2.1A{sup -1} and E=1.8 meV. A complementary series of experiments was performed at the FRMII, testing the production of UCN with the studied sample preparation after different the characterization mentioned above. Besides establishing a technique for annealing sD{sub 2} crystals to improve the UCN production rate, an additional loss cross section ({sigma}{sub x}=8 barn at 4.5 K indirect proportional to the ortho concentration) was found. Based on these findings, a new conceptual layout of the miniD{sub 2} source was developed. In the second part, the diffuse scattering probability f and the loss probability per wall collision {mu} were measured for differently prepared UCN guides using the storageand the so called two-hole method. Electropolished, rough stainless steel and Al tubes with different coatings at temperature variation and surface conditions were measured. The third part deals with the development of a proton detector for the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE, which is based on gravitational and magnetic UCN storage and counting of the protons from the decay. A concept for a large-area proton detector based on thin scintillation counters operating in cryogenic environment was developed based on simulations and experimental studies. In addition to the characterization

  16. Characterization of solid D2 as a source material for ultra cold neutrons (UCN) and development of a detector concept for the detection of protons from the neutron decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Axel Reimer

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis, properties of the UCN-converter material solid deuterium (sD 2 ) are studied. A series of investigations of various sD 2 crystals by means of optical spectroscopy and neutron scattering resulted in: (i) a freezing technique suitable for UCN sources (ii) an efficient method to achieve a high ortho concentration, (iii) a direct way to calculate the UCN production cross-section from the dynamic structure factor S(q, ω), (iv) the identification of six excitations responsible for UCN production (v) the interpretation of one excitation at E=12 meV as a multi-phonon process (vi) the discovery of an additional spin-dependent UCN loss mechanism at q=2.1A -1 and E=1.8 meV. A complementary series of experiments was performed at the FRMII, testing the production of UCN with the studied sample preparation after different the characterization mentioned above. Besides establishing a technique for annealing sD 2 crystals to improve the UCN production rate, an additional loss cross section (σ x =8 barn at 4.5 K indirect proportional to the ortho concentration) was found. Based on these findings, a new conceptual layout of the miniD 2 source was developed. In the second part, the diffuse scattering probability f and the loss probability per wall collision μ were measured for differently prepared UCN guides using the storageand the so called two-hole method. Electropolished, rough stainless steel and Al tubes with different coatings at temperature variation and surface conditions were measured. The third part deals with the development of a proton detector for the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE, which is based on gravitational and magnetic UCN storage and counting of the protons from the decay. A concept for a large-area proton detector based on thin scintillation counters operating in cryogenic environment was developed based on simulations and experimental studies. In addition to the characterization of CsI(Tl) and CsI scintillators, a

  17. Laser spectroscopy of the 4s4p(3) P-2-4s3d(1) D-2 transition on magnetically trapped calcium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; Norris, I.; Burrows, C.; Riis, E.

    2011-01-01

    Laser excitation of the 4s4p(3) P-2-4s3d(1) D-2 transition in atomic calcium has been observed and the wavelength determined to 1530.5298(6) nm. The metastable 4s4p(3) P-2 atoms were magnetically trapped in the quadrupole magnetic field of a magneto-optical trap. This state represents the only

  18. Cryogenic buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of CrH and MnH molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Michael; Bakker, Joost M.; Steimle, Timothy C.; Meijer, Gerard; Peters, Achim

    2008-09-01

    We report on the buffer-gas cooling and trapping of CrH and MnH molecules in a magnetic quadrupole trap with densities on the order of 106cm-3 at a temperature of 650mK . Storage times of up to 180ms have been observed, corresponding to a 20-fold lifetime enhancement with respect to the field-free diffusion through the He3 buffer-gas. Using Monte Carlo trajectory simulations, inelastic molecule- He3 collision cross sections of 1.6×10-18 and 3.1×10-17cm2 are extracted for CrH and MnH, respectively. Furthermore, elastic molecule- He3 collision cross sections of 1.4(±0.5)×10-14cm2 are determined for both species. We conclude that the confinement time of these molecules in a magnetic trapping field is limited by inelastic collisions with the helium atoms leading to Zeeman relaxation.

  19. Progress toward magnetic confinement of a positron-electron plasma: nearly 100% positron injection efficiency into a dipole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    The hydrogen atom provides the simplest system and in some cases the most precise one for comparing theory and experiment in atomics physics. The field of plasma physics lacks an experimental counterpart, but there are efforts underway to produce a magnetically confined positron-electron plasma that promises to represent the simplest plasma system. The mass symmetry of positron-electron plasma makes it particularly tractable from a theoretical standpoint and many theory papers have been published predicting modified wave and stability properties in these systems. Our approach is to utilize techniques from the non-neutral plasma community to trap and accumulate electrons and positrons prior to mixing in a magnetic trap with good confinement properties. Ultimately we aim to use a levitated superconducting dipole configuration fueled by positrons from a reactor-based positron source and buffer-gas trap. To date we have conducted experiments to characterize and optimize the positron beam and test strategies for injecting positrons into the field of a supported permanent magnet by use of ExB drifts and tailored static and dynamic potentials applied to boundary electrodes and to the magnet itself. Nearly 100% injection efficiency has been achieved under certain conditions and some fraction of the injected positrons are confined for as long as 400 ms. These results are promising for the next step in the project which is to use an inductively energized high Tc superconducting coil to produce the dipole field, initially in a supported configuration, but ultimately levitated using feedback stabilization. Work performed with the support of the German Research Foundation (DFG), JSPS KAKENHI, NIFS Collaboration Research Program, and the UCSD Foundation.

  20. Broad self-trapped and slow light bands based on negative refraction and interference of magnetic coupled modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Ni, Zhi-yao; Zhu, Na; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism to achieve light localization and slow light. Through the study on the coupling of two magnetic surface modes, we find a special convex band that takes on a negative refraction effect. The negative refraction results in an energy flow concellation effect from two degenerated modes on the convex band. The energy flow concellation effect leads to forming of the self-trapped and slow light bands. In the self-trapped band light is localized around the source without reflection wall in the waveguide direction, whereas in the slow light band, light becomes the standing-waves and moving standing-waves at the center and the two sides of the waveguide, respectively. (paper)

  1. Cryogenic buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of CrH and MnH molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, M.; Bakker, J.; Steimle, T.; Meijer, G.; Peters, A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the buffer-gas cooling and trapping of CrH and MnH molecules in a magnetic quadrupole trap with densities on the order of 106 cm−3 at a temperature of 650 mK. Storage times of up to 180 ms have been observed, corresponding to a 20-fold lifetime enhancement with respect to the field-free diffusion through the 3He buffer-gas. Using Monte Carlo trajectory simulations, inelastic molecule-3He collision cross sections of 1.6×10−18 and 3.1×10−17 cm2 are extracted for CrH and MnH, respec...

  2. Broad self-trapped and slow light bands based on negative refraction and interference of magnetic coupled modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Tuan; Ni, Zhi-Yao; Zhu, Na; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-13

    We propose a new mechanism to achieve light localization and slow light. Through the study on the coupling of two magnetic surface modes, we find a special convex band that takes on a negative refraction effect. The negative refraction results in an energy flow concellation effect from two degenerated modes on the convex band. The energy flow concellation effect leads to forming of the self-trapped and slow light bands. In the self-trapped band light is localized around the source without reflection wall in the waveguide direction, whereas in the slow light band, light becomes the standing-waves and moving standing-waves at the center and the two sides of the waveguide, respectively.

  3. From crisis to sustainability - the UCN approach to doing business in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Hanan, Anne

    This paper highlights on the UCN approach to doing business in Africa. The UCN approach offers a specialization for social entrepreneurship and also helps to create new forms of partnership between Danish businesses and local companies in the focus countries (Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda......). The approach operates in line with international principles and guidelines for responsible business operations in a sustainable development perspective in Africa. The cardinal focus of the approach seeks to assist Danish businesses/researchers with some of the important considerations as to how investment...... strategies could fit into the focus countries in African working environments. Some of which include corporate governance, anti-corruption, bureaucracies of the law, the appropriate CSR/CSI methods, project/professional management, and cultural integration, gender, workers and disability rights....

  4. Trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, E., E-mail: eoin.butler@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, A. J. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only {approx}1 T ({approx}0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be 'born' inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 10{sup 4} times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released-the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state.

  5. A Study on Fire Ignition Frequency of UCN 3 during Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Kang, DaeIl; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    A fire ignition frequency of UCN 3 during shutdown, i.e., during POS 3, 4, 5, 6 was calculated by using the new fire PSA method suggested in NUREG/CR-7114. As the fire ignition frequency during full power is calculated by the fixed ignition source and the transient ignition source, the one during shutdown is also calculated by the fixed and the transient ignition source. Since the fixed ignition source was already verified through the walkdown although the walkdown is for the fixed ignition source during full power, additional walkdown for the one during shutdown is not necessary. In the paper, how the fire ignition frequency of UCN 3 during shutdown was calculated is described. A fire ignition frequency of UCN 3 during shutdown, i.e., during POS 3, 4, 5, 6 was calculated by using the new fire PSA method suggested in NUREG/CR-7114. We make the transient ignition fire frequency of each BIN vary according to the daily work order of each POS

  6. Compact toroid challenge experiment with the increasing in the energy input into plasma and the level of trapped magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romadanov, I.V.; Ryzhkov, S.V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Compact torus formation method with high level of magnetic flux is proposed. • A compact torus is produced in a theta-pinch-coil with pulse mode of operation. • Key feature is a pulse of current in an axial direction. • We report a level of linked magnetic flux is higher than theta-pinch results. - Abstract: The present work reports on compact toroid hydrogen plasma creation by means of a specially designed discharge system and results of magnetic fields introduction. Experiments in the compact toroid challenge (CTC) device at P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN) have been conducted since 2005. The CTC device differs from the conventional theta-pinch formation in the use of an axial current for enhanced efficiency. We have used a novel technique to maximize the flux linked to the plasma. The purpose of this method is to increase the energy input into the plasma and the level of trapped magnetic flux using an additional toroidal magnetic field. A study of compact torus formation with axial and toroidal currents was done and a new method is proposed and implemented.

  7. Double-trap measurement of the proton magnetic moment at 0.3 parts per billion precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Georg; Mooser, Andreas; Bohman, Matthew; Schön, Natalie; Harrington, James; Higuchi, Takashi; Nagahama, Hiroki; Sellner, Stefan; Smorra, Christian; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Ulmer, Stefan

    2017-11-24

    Precise knowledge of the fundamental properties of the proton is essential for our understanding of atomic structure as well as for precise tests of fundamental symmetries. We report on a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment μ p of the proton in units of the nuclear magneton μ N The result, μ p = 2.79284734462 (±0.00000000082) μ N , has a fractional precision of 0.3 parts per billion, improves the previous best measurement by a factor of 11, and is consistent with the currently accepted value. This was achieved with the use of an optimized double-Penning trap technique. Provided a similar measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment can be performed, this result will enable a test of the fundamental symmetry between matter and antimatter in the baryonic sector at the 10 -10 level. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Algunos logros del convenio internacional entre la UCN (Chile y ORSTOM (Francia - 1991-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available QUELQUES ACQUIS DE LA CONVENTION INTERNATIONALE ENTRE L’UCN (CHILI ET L’ORSTOM (FRANCE - 1991-1997. Les quelques pages de cet article sont insuffisantes pour exposer in extenso la teneur des résultats scientifiques obtenus pendant six ans d’études, une partie étant reprise dans d’autres communications du colloque auxquelles on est prié de se référer. L’auteur présente simplement les acquis se rapportant aux divers objectifs spécifiques définis par la convention UCN-ORSTOM : organisation du travail, choix des secteurs étudiés, activités d’enseignement et de recherche, réalisation de thèses et de mémoires, obtention et diffusion des résultats, établissement de priorités pour les activités futures et bibliographie. Las pocas páginas de este artículo no permiten exponer in extenso el tenor de los resultados científicos obtenidos a lo largo de seis años de estudios, siendo una parte de ellos presentada en las demás comunicaciones del coloquio a las que se puede remitir. El autor no hace más que referirse al cumplimiento de los objetivos específicos definidos por el convenio UCN-ORSTOM: organización del trabajo, áreas de estudio, actividades académicas e investigadoras, realización de tesis y memorias, obtención y difusión de los resultados, planteamiento de prioridades para el futuro y bibliografía. SOME ATTAINMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT BETWEEN UCN (CHILE AND ORSTOM (FRANCE - 1991-1997. The few pages of this paper are insufficient to expose in extenso the contents of scientific results obtained after six years of studies you may have references of part of them exhibited in other papers of this event. The author presents only some attainment about the numerous specific objectives of the UCN-ORSTOM covenant: work organization, selection of the study areas, academic and research activities, realization of thesis and memories, obtaining and diffusion of results, establishment of future priorities and

  9. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, I. V.; Razin, S. V.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Beklemishev, A. D.; Prikhodko, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap (''vortex'' confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of ''vortex'' confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  10. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, I V; Razin, S V; Sidorov, A V; Skalyga, V A; Zorin, V G; Bagryansky, P A; Beklemishev, A D; Prikhodko, V V

    2012-02-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap ("vortex" confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of "vortex" confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  11. Fast modeling of flux trapping cascaded explosively driven magnetic flux compression generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Zhang, Jiande; Chen, Dongqun; Cao, Shengguang; Li, Da; Liu, Chebo

    2013-01-01

    To predict the performance of flux trapping cascaded flux compression generators, a calculation model based on an equivalent circuit is investigated. The system circuit is analyzed according to its operation characteristics in different steps. Flux conservation coefficients are added to the driving terms of circuit differential equations to account for intrinsic flux losses. To calculate the currents in the circuit by solving the circuit equations, a simple zero-dimensional model is used to calculate the time-varying inductance and dc resistance of the generator. Then a fast computer code is programmed based on this calculation model. As an example, a two-staged flux trapping generator is simulated by using this computer code. Good agreements are achieved by comparing the simulation results with the measurements. Furthermore, it is obvious that this fast calculation model can be easily applied to predict performances of other flux trapping cascaded flux compression generators with complex structures such as conical stator or conical armature sections and so on for design purpose.

  12. Effects of a strong magnetic field on internal gravity waves: trapping, phase mixing, reflection and dynamical chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2018-04-01

    The spectrum of oscillation modes of a star provides information not only about its material properties (e.g. mean density), but also its symmetries. Spherical symmetry can be broken by rotation and/or magnetic fields. It has been postulated that strong magnetic fields in the cores of some red giants are responsible for their anomalously weak dipole mode amplitudes (the "dipole dichotomy" problem), but a detailed understanding of how gravity waves interact with strong fields is thus far lacking. In this work, we attack the problem through a variety of analytical and numerical techniques, applied to a localised region centred on a null line of a confined axisymmetric magnetic field which is approximated as being cylindrically symmetric. We uncover a rich variety of phenomena that manifest when the field strength exceeds a critical value, beyond which the symmetry is drastically broken by the Lorentz force. When this threshold is reached, the spatial structure of the g-modes becomes heavily altered. The dynamics of wave packet propagation transitions from regular to chaotic, which is expected to fundamentally change the organisation of the mode spectrum. In addition, depending on their frequency and the orientation of field lines with respect to the stratification, waves impinging on different parts of the magnetised region are found to undergo either reflection or trapping. Trapping regions provide an avenue for energy loss through Alfvén wave phase mixing. Our results may find application in various astrophysical contexts, including the dipole dichotomy problem, the solar interior, and compact star oscillations.

  13. Neutron lifetime measurements with a large gravitational trap for ultracold neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Kolomensky, E. A.; Fomin, A. K.; Krasnoshchekova, I. A.; Vassiljev, A. V.; Prudnikov, D. M.; Shoka, I. V.; Chechkin, A. V.; Chaikovskiy, M. E.; Varlamov, V. E.; Ivanov, S. N.; Pirozhkov, A. N.; Geltenbort, P.; Zimmer, O.; Jenke, T.; Van der Grinten, M.; Tucker, M.

    2018-05-01

    Neutron lifetime is one of the most important physical constants: it determines parameters of the weak interaction and predictions of primordial nucleosynthesis theory. There remains the unsolved problem of a 3.9σ discrepancy between measurements of this lifetime using neutrons in beams and those with stored ultracold neutrons (UCN). In our experiment we measure the lifetime of neutrons trapped by Earth's gravity in an open-topped vessel. Two configurations of the trap geometry are used to change the mean frequency of UCN collisions with the surfaces; this is achieved by plunging an additional surface into the trap without breaking the vacuum. The trap walls are coated with a hydrogen-less fluorine-containing polymer to reduce losses of UCN. The stability of this coating over multiple thermal cycles between 80 and 300 K was tested. At 80 K, the probability of UCN loss due to collisions with the trap walls is just 1.5% of the probability of β decay. The free neutron lifetime is determined by extrapolation to an infinitely large trap with zero collision frequency. The result of these measurements is τn=881.5 ±0 .7stat ±0 .6syst s which is consistent with the conventional value of 880.2 ± 1.0 s presented by the Particle Data Group. Future prospects for this experiment are in further cooling to 10 K, which will lead to an improved accuracy of measurement. In conclusion we present an analysis of currently available data on various measurements of the neutron lifetime.

  14. Biochemical characterization of the deafness-associated mitochondrial tRNASer(UCN) A7445G mutation in osteosarcoma cell cybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming; Zhang, Linda S.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Guan Minxin

    2005-01-01

    The deafness-associated A7445G mutation in the precursor of mitochondrial tRNA Ser(UCN) has been identified in several pedigrees from different ethnic backgrounds. To determine the role of nuclear background in the biochemical manifestation associated with the A7445G mutation, we performed a biochemical characterization of this mutation using cybrids constructed by transferring mitochondria from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a New Zealand family into human osteosarcoma mtDNA-less (ρ 0 ) cells. Compared with three control cybrids, three cybrids derived from an affected matrilineal relative carrying the homoplasmic A7445G mutation exhibited ∼38-57% decrease in the steady-state level of tRNA Ser(UCN) , which is less reduced levels than in lymphoblastoid cells in the previous study. Furthermore, ∼22% reduction in the level of aminoacylation of tRNA Ser(UCN) was observed in the mutant cybrid cells. Interestingly, ∼60-63% decrease of steady-state level of ND6 gene, which belongs to the same precursor as that of tRNA Ser(UCN) , in cybrid cell lines carrying the A7445G mutation, is more than that observed in lymphoblastoid cells. These observations strongly point out a mechanistic link between the processing defect of the tRNA Ser(UCN) precursor and decreased stability of ND6 mRNA precursor. These results also imply the influence of nuclear background on the biochemical phenotype associated with the A7445G mutation

  15. A rare-earth-magnet ion trap for confining low-Z, bare nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Samuel M.; Tan, Joseph N.

    2009-05-01

    Simplifications in the theory for Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions allow a substantial improvement in the accuracy of predicted levels, which can yield information on the values of fundamental constants and test theory if they can be compared with precision frequency measurements.[1] We consider the trapping of bare nuclei (fully-stripped) to be used in making Rydberg states of one-electron ions with atomic number 1Wundt, ``Fundamental constants and tests of theory in Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 160404 (2008).

  16. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Measurements of crossed-field demagnetisation rate of trapped field magnets at high frequencies and below 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskys, A.; Patel, A.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2018-06-01

    Design requirements of the next generation of electric aircraft place stringent requirements on the power density required from electric motors. A future prototype planned in the scope of the European project ‘Advanced Superconducting Motor Experimental Demonstrator’ (ASuMED) considers a permanent magnet synchronous motor, where the conventional ferromagnets are replaced with superconducting trapped field magnets, which promise higher flux densities and thus higher output power without adding weight. Previous work has indicated that stacks of tape show lower cross-field demagnetisation rates to bulk (RE)BCO whilst retaining similar performance for their size, however the crossed-field demagnetisation rate has not been studied in the temperature, the magnetic field and frequency range that are relevant for the operational prototype motor. This work investigates crossed-field demagnetisation in 2G high temperature superconducting stacks at temperatures below 77 K and a frequency range above 10 Hz. This information is crucial in developing designs and determining operational time before re-magnetisation could be required.

  18. Probing the dynamic response of antivortex, interstitial and trapped vortex lattices on magnetic periodic pinning potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A; Gonzalez, E M; Vicent, J L; Gilbert, D A; Liu Kai; Milošević, M V

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the pinned vortex, antivortex and interstitial vortex have been studied in superconducting/magnetic hybrids consisting of arrays of Co/Pd multilayer nanodots embedded in Nb films. The magnetic nanodots show out-of-plane magnetization at the remanent state. This magnetic state allows for superconducting vortex lattices of different types in an applied homogeneous magnetic field. We experimentally and theoretically show three such lattices: (i) a lattice containing only antivortices; (ii) a vortex lattice entirely pinned on the dots; and (iii) a vortex lattice with pinned and interstitial vortices. Between the flux creep (low vortex velocity) and the free flux flow (high vortex velocity) regimes the interaction between the magnetic array and the vortex lattice governs the vortex dynamics, which in turn enables distinguishing experimentally the type of vortex lattice which governs the dissipation. We show that the vortex lattice with interstitial vortices has the highest onset velocity where the lattice becomes ordered, whereas the pinned vortex lattice has the smallest onset velocity. Further, for this system, we directly estimate that the external force needed to depin vortices is 60% larger than the one needed to depin antivortices; therefore we are able to decouple the antivortex–vortex motion. (paper)

  19. Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) response to olfactory attractant- and light emitting diode-modified Mosquito Magnet X (MM-X) traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E; Butler, Jerry F

    2009-09-01

    Mosquito Magnet-X traps were modified for use with blue, green, red, and blue-green-red light-emitting diodes and olfactory attractants to determine the response of Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) and Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett) (Diptera: Psychodidae) field populations to these attractants. Red and blue-green-red-baited traps captured the highest numbers of Lu. shannoni and Lu. vexator, respectively, although, there were no significant differences between the colors. Baiting the traps with CO, attracted significantly higher numbers of Lu. shannoni but showed no effect on Lu. vexator capture. In comparison with CO, alone, Lu. shannoni preferred 1-octen-3-ol and 1-hexen-3-ol (0.05 g per trap) in combination with CO.

  20. Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B. K.; Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2014-01-01

    A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region

  1. Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B. K., E-mail: bdyt.ds@rediffmail.com; Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia-782402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India)

    2014-07-15

    A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region.

  2. Trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, E; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kemp, S L; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ∼1 T (∼0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been ...

  3. Highly versatile atomic micro traps generated by multifrequency magnetic field modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, Ph W; Deh, B; Fortagh, J; Guenther, A; Kraft, S; Marzok, C; Slama, S; Zimmermann, C

    2006-01-01

    We propose the realization of custom-designed adiabatic potentials for cold atoms based on multimode radio frequency radiation in combination with static inhomogeneous magnetic fields. For example, the use of radio frequency combs gives rise to periodic potentials acting as gratings for cold atoms. In strong magnetic field gradients, the lattice constant can be well below 1 μm. By changing the frequencies of the comb in time the gratings can easily be propagated in space, which may prove useful for Bragg scattering atomic matter waves. Furthermore, almost arbitrarily shaped potentials are possible such as disordered potentials on a scale of several 100 nm or lattices with a spatially varying lattice constant. The potentials can be made state selective and, in the case of atomic mixtures, also species selective. This opens new perspectives for generating tailored quantum systems based on ultracold single atoms or degenerate atomic and molecular quantum gases

  4. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetic levitation force and trapped magnetic field of single grain YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.; Go, S. J.; Joo, H. T. [Korea Science Academy of Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. J.; Park, S. D.; Jun, B. H.; KIm, C. J. [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of the crystallographic orientation and sample thickness on the magnetic levitation forces (F) and trapped magnetic field (B) of single grain YBCO bulk superconductors were examined. Single grain YBCO samples with a (001), (110) or (100) surface were used as the test samples. The samples used for the force-distance (F-d) measurement were cooled at 77 K without a magnetic field (zero field cooling, ZFC), whereas the samples used for the B measurement were cooled under the external magnetic field of a Nd-B-Fe permanent magnet (field cooling, FC). It was found that F and B of the (001) surface were higher than those of the (110) or (100) surface, which is attributed to the higher critical current density (J{sub c}) of the (001) surface. For the (001) samples with t=5–18 mm, the maximum magnetic levitation forces (F{sub max}s) of the ZFC samples were larger than 40 N. About 80% of the applied magnetic field was trapped in the FC samples. However, the F and B decreased rapidly as t decreased below 5 mm. There exists a critical sample thickness (t=5 mm for the experimental condition of this study) for maintaining the large levitation/trapping properties, which is dependent on the material properties and magnitude of the external magnetic fields.

  5. The method of UCN "small heating" measurement in the big gravitational spectrometer (BGS) and studies of this effect on Fomblin oil Y-HVAC 18/8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Lychagin, E. V.; Muzychka, A. Yu.; Nekhaev, G. V.; Strelkov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    The Big Gravitational Spectrometer (BGS) takes advantage of the strong influence of the Earth's gravity on the motion of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) that makes it possible to shape and measure UCN spectra. We optimized the BGS to investigate the "small heating" of UCNs, that is, the inelastic reflection of UCNs from a surface accompanied by an energy change comparable with the initial UCN energy. UCNs whose energy increases are referred to as "Vaporized UCNs" (VUCNs). The BGS provides the narrowest UCN spectra of a few cm and the broadest "visible" VUCN energy range of up to ˜150 cm (UCN energy is given in units of its maximum height in the Earth's gravitational field, where 1.00 cm ≈ 1.02 neV). The dead-zone between the UCN and VUCN spectra is the narrowest ever achieved (a few cm). We performed measurements with and without samples without breaking vacuum. BGS provides the broadest range of temperatures (77-600 K) and the highest sensitivity to the small heating effect, up to ˜10-8 per bounce, i.e., two orders of magnitude higher than the sensitivity of alternative methods. We describe the method to measure the probability of UCN "small heating" using the BGS and illustrate it with a study of samples of the hydrogen-free oil Fomblin Y-HVAC 18/8. The data obtained are well reproducible, do not depend on sample thickness, and do not evolve over time. The measured model-independent probability P+ of UCN small heating from an energy "mono-line" 30.2 ± 2.5 cm to the energy range 35-140 cm is in the range (1.05 ±0.02s t a t )×1 0-5-(1.31 ±0.24s t a t )×1 0-5 at a temperature of 24 °C. The associated systematic uncertainty would disappear if a VUCN spectrum shape were known, for instance, from a particular model of small heating. This experiment provides the most precise and reliable value of small heating probability on Fomblin measured so far. These results are of importance for studies of UCN small heating as well as for analyzing and designing neutron

  6. The method of UCN "small heating" measurement in the big gravitational spectrometer (BGS) and studies of this effect on Fomblin oil Y-HVAC 18/8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvizhevsky, V V; Voronin, A Yu; Lambrecht, A; Reynaud, S; Lychagin, E V; Muzychka, A Yu; Nekhaev, G V; Strelkov, A V

    2018-02-01

    The Big Gravitational Spectrometer (BGS) takes advantage of the strong influence of the Earth's gravity on the motion of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) that makes it possible to shape and measure UCN spectra. We optimized the BGS to investigate the "small heating" of UCNs, that is, the inelastic reflection of UCNs from a surface accompanied by an energy change comparable with the initial UCN energy. UCNs whose energy increases are referred to as "Vaporized UCNs" (VUCNs). The BGS provides the narrowest UCN spectra of a few cm and the broadest "visible" VUCN energy range of up to ∼150 cm (UCN energy is given in units of its maximum height in the Earth's gravitational field, where 1.00 cm ≈ 1.02 neV). The dead-zone between the UCN and VUCN spectra is the narrowest ever achieved (a few cm). We performed measurements with and without samples without breaking vacuum. BGS provides the broadest range of temperatures (77-600 K) and the highest sensitivity to the small heating effect, up to ∼10 -8 per bounce, i.e., two orders of magnitude higher than the sensitivity of alternative methods. We describe the method to measure the probability of UCN "small heating" using the BGS and illustrate it with a study of samples of the hydrogen-free oil Fomblin Y-HVAC 18/8. The data obtained are well reproducible, do not depend on sample thickness, and do not evolve over time. The measured model-independent probability P + of UCN small heating from an energy "mono-line" 30.2 ± 2.5 cm to the energy range 35-140 cm is in the range 1.05±0.02 stat ×10 -5 -1.31±0.24 stat ×10 -5 at a temperature of 24 °C. The associated systematic uncertainty would disappear if a VUCN spectrum shape were known, for instance, from a particular model of small heating. This experiment provides the most precise and reliable value of small heating probability on Fomblin measured so far. These results are of importance for studies of UCN small heating as well as for analyzing and designing neutron lifetime

  7. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating and paleo-magnetism of traps from Ethiopia, Deccan and Siberia; Datation {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar et paleomagnetisme des traps d'Ethiopie, du Deccan et de Siberie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, C

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that major flood basalt provinces have been emplaced as short events ({approx} 1 Myr), more or less synchronous with climatic crises and mass extinctions. We present new geochronologic ({sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar) and magneto-stratigraphic results for the Ethiopian traps, one of the last remaining flood basalts for which little of such data were available. The ages obtained in a 2000 m thick section are indistinguishable. Moreover, magneto-stratigraphy reveals a simple 3-chron reverse-normal-reverse sequence. Although magnetic chrons cannot be yet unambiguously identified, there is more likelihood for the normal sub-chron in the main basaltic pile to correspond to 11N, supporting a brief duration (less than 1.5 Ma). The Ethiopian traps erupted near 30 Ma at or near the time of the cold and dry climate, major Antarctic ice sheet advance, and the largest sea-level drop in the Tertiary. Bhandari et al. (GRL, 1995) have discovered inter-traps sediments with a triple iridium anomaly in a series of seven basaltic lava flows in the Kutch area of the North Western Deccan traps of India. Plagioclases from three flows above the iridium bearing sediments yield {sup 39}Ar/{sup 40}Ar plateau ages near 65.0 Ma: these flows have unambiguously reversed magnetic polarity interpreted as chron 29R. As a preliminary summary, evidence of the KTB asteroid impact is confirmed in the Deccan traps, showing that they are coeval events in a general sense (in a Ma long window) though clearly with vastly different time constants. This is compatible with paleontologic evidence of two scales of extinctions, one quasi-instantaneous and the other on the order of 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} yrs. Clearly, the impact cannot have caused trap eruptions. On the other hand, the exact age and significance of the lower flows more altered remains to be analyzed further as they pertained to the much debated question of duration of Deccan trap volcanism. (author)

  8. Hybrid Optical-Magnetic Traps for Studies of 2D Quantum Turbulence in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jessica Ann

    Turbulence appears in most natural and man-made flows. However, the analysis of turbulence is particularly difficult. Links between microscopic fluid dynamics and statistical signatures of turbulence appear unobtainable from the postulates of fluid dynamics making turbulence one of the most important unsolved theoretical problems in physics. Two-dimensional quantum turbulence (2DQT), an emerging field of study, involves turbulence in two-dimensional (2D) flows in superfluids, such as Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). In 2D superfluids, a turbulent state can be characterized by a disordered distribution of numerous vortex cores. The question of how to effectively and efficiently generate turbulent states in superfluids is a fundamental question in the field of quantum turbulence. Therefore, experimental studies of vortex nucleation and the onset of turbulence in a superfluid are important for achieving a deeper understanding of the overall problem of turbulence. My PhD dissertation involves the study of vortex nucleation and the onset of turbulence in quasi-2D BECs. First, I discuss experimental apparatus advancements that now enable BECs to be created in a hybrid optical-magnetic trap, an atom trapping configuration conducive to 2DQT experiments. Next, I discuss the design and construction of a quantum vortex microscope and initial vortex detection tests. Finally, I present the first experiments aimed at studying 2DQT carried out in the updated apparatus. Thermal counterflow in superfluid helium, in which the normal and superfluid components flow in opposite directions, is known to create turbulence in the superfluid. However, this phenomenon has not been simulated or studied in dilute-gas BECs as a possible vortex nucleation method. In this dissertation, I present preliminary data from the first experiments aimed at understanding thermal counterflow turbulence in dilute-gas BECs.

  9. Trapping of dilute ion components in wells and double wells in higher equatorial magnetic regions: A kinetic theory including collisions, varying background and additional fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeien, Alf H.

    2001-08-01

    The component of the ambipolar field along the magnetic field B, though weak, may, acting together with the gravitational field, give rise to along-B ''ambipolar wells'' where light ions (test particles) in the ionosphere in equatorial regions are trapped. We also take into account magnetic field wells, especially in cases when the along-B velocity of test particles are much less than the transverse-B velocities. For heavy ions, or, for light ions high up, when the ambipolar trap ceases to function, the along-B ambipolar- and gravitational field effects may combine with the magnetic field trap to form a double well for the along-B movement of test particles. The magnetic field trap and its contribution to the double well may be nearly stationary for particles obeying the same velocity condition as above even when collisional effects between the test particles and the background plasma are incorporated. Ions trapped in wells like this, may ''feel'' a varying background, for instance because of Earth rotation, that may be incorporated as time-variation of parameters in the along-B motion. An along-B kinetic equation for groups of test particles is solved both for the case of simple wells and for double wells, including time-varying collisional coefficients and additional fields, and in some cases analytic solutions are obtained. Peculiar along-B distribution functions may arise due to the time-dependency of coefficients and to various combinations of collision- and field parameter values. In particular ''breathing'' distributions that alternate between wide and narrow forms in phase-space may arise, and also distributions where strange attractors may play some role.

  10. Dynamics of small dust clouds trapped in a magnetized anodic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, Iris; Piel, Alexander; Trottenberg, Thomas; Koepke, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Small dust clouds, which are confined in an anodic plasma, are studied with respect to their structure and their response to modulation of the anode bias. The dust cloud is displaced from the center of the discharge by a process similar to the void mechanism in radio-frequency discharges under microgravity. The top layers of the dust cloud are in a crystalline state and the cloud performs a slow rotation about the magnetic field direction. For modulation frequencies below 15 Hz, a sloshing and stretching motion in the confining potential well is found. Spontaneously excited dust density waves are observed when the dust cloud exceeds a minimum size. The waves are characterized by sickle-shaped wave fronts. No standing waves were found. The wave dispersion shows an influence of the boundedness of the system in terms of a frequency cutoff

  11. Cross species association examination of UCN3 and CRHR2 as potential pharmacological targets for antiobesity drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity now constitutes a leading global public health problem. Studies have shown that insulin resistance affiliated with obesity is associated with intramyocellular lipid (IMCL accumulation. Therefore, identification of genes associated with the phenotype would provide a clear target for pharmaceutical intervention and care for the condition. We hypothesized that urocortin 3 (UCN3 and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2 are associated with IMCL and subcutaneous fat depth (SFD, because the corticotropin-releasing hormone family of peptides are capable of strong anorectic and thermogenic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We annotated both bovine UCN3 and CRHR2 genes and identified 12 genetic mutations in the former gene and 5 genetic markers in the promoter region of the latter gene. Genotyping of these 17 markers on Wagyu times Limousin F(2 progeny revealed significant associations between promoter polymorphisms and SFD (P = 0.0203-0.0685 and between missense mutations of exon 2 and IMCL (P = 0.0055-0.0369 in the bovine UCN3 gene. The SFD associated promoter SNPs caused a gain/loss of 12 potential transcription regulatory binding sites, while the IMCL associated coding SNPs affected the secondary structure of UCN3 mRNA. However, none of five polymorphisms in CRHR2 gene clearly co-segregated with either trait in the population (P>0.6000. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because UCN3 is located on human chromosome 10p15.1 where quantitative trait loci for obesity have been reported, our cross species study provides further evidence that it could be proposed as a potential target for developing antiobesity drugs. None of the markers in CRHR2 was associated with obesity-type traits in cattle, which is consistent with findings in human. Therefore, CRHR2 does not lend itself to the development of antiobesity drugs.

  12. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nuclear-track detectors with surface area ∼18 m2, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb−1. No magnetic charge exceeding 0.5gD (where gD is ...

  13. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B.

    2016-08-10

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nuclear-track detectors with surface area $\\sim$18 m$^2$, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb$^{-1}$. No magnetic charge exceeding $0.5g_{\\rm...

  14. Oxygen trapped by rare earth tetrahedral clusters in Nd4FeOS6: Crystal structure, electronic structure, and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qisheng; Taufour, Valentin; Zhang, Yuemei; Wood, Max; Drtina, Thomas; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of Nd 4 FeOS 6 were grown from an Fe–S eutectic solution. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a Nd 4 MnOSe 6 -type structure (P6 3 mc, a=9.2693(1) Å, c=6.6650(1)Å, V=495.94(1) Å 3 , Z=2), featuring parallel chains of face-sharing [FeS 6×1/2 ] 4− trigonal antiprisms and interlinked [Nd 4 OS 3 ] 4+ cubane-like clusters. Oxygen atoms were found to be trapped by Nd 4 clusters in the [Nd 4 OS 3 ] 4 + chains. Structural differences among Nd 4 MnOSe 6 -type Nd 4 FeOS 6 and the related La 3 CuSiS 7 − and Pr 8 CoGa 3 -type structures have been described. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on Nd 4 FeOS 6 suggested the dominance of antiferromagnetic interactions at low temperature, but no magnetic ordering down to 2 K was observed. Spin-polarized electronic structure calculations revealed magnetic frustration with dominant antiferromagnetic interactions. - Graphical abstract: Trapping of oxygen in Nd 4 tetrahedral clusters results in the formation of the Nd 4 MnOSe 6 -type Nd 4 FeOS 6 , in contrast to the La 3 CuSiS 7 -type oxygen-free Nd 4 FeS 7 and related Pr 8 CoGa 3 -type structures. Complex magnetic frustration inhibits magnetic ordering at low temperature. - Highlights: • Single crystals of Nd 4 FeOS 6 were grown using self-flux method. • Oxygen was found trapped by Nd 4 tetrahedral clusters. • Comparison with two closely related structural types were discussed. • Magnetic measurements revealed antiferromagnetic (AFM) interaction. • VASP calculations confirmed strong magnetic frustration in AFM model

  15. UCN up-scattering as a source of highly intense monochromatic pulsed beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.; Geltenborg, P.; Zimmer, O.

    2011-01-01

    The present proposal opens new possibilities to increase the usable neutron flux by advanced neutron cooling and phase space transformation methods. Thus a new instrument should be installed where the available neutron flux is used more efficiently. The essential point is an increase of phase space density and brilliance due to a more effective production of ultra-cold neutrons and a following transformation of these neutrons to higher energies. Recently reported progresses in the production of UCN's and in the up-scattering of such neutrons make the time mature to step towards a new method to produce high intense pulsed neutron beams. The up-scattering is made by fast moving Bragg crystals

  16. Classical states of an electric dipole in an external magnetic field: Complete solution for the center of mass and trapped states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atenas, Boris; Pino, Luis A. del; Curilef, Sergio, E-mail: scurilef@ucn.cl

    2014-11-15

    We study the classical behavior of an electric dipole in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Using the Lagrangian formulation, we obtain the equations of motion, whose solutions are represented in terms of Jacobi functions. We also identify two constants of motion, namely, the energy E and a pseudomomentumC{sup →}. We obtain a relation between the constants that allows us to suggest the existence of a type of bound states without turning points, which are called trapped states. These results are consistent with and complementary to previous results. - Highlights: • Bound states without turning points. • Lagrangian Formulation for an electric dipole in a magnetic field. • Motion of the center of mass and trapped states. • Constants of motion: pseudomomentum and energy.

  17. Towards trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, L V; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the nascent field of antihydrogen physics. The next big step forward is expected to be the trapping of the formed antihydrogen atoms using a magnetic multipole trap. ALPHA is a new international project that started to take data in 2006 at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms to facilitate measurements of its properties. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  18. Search for Magnetic Monopoles with the MoEDAL Forward Trapping Detector in 13 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B.; Alexandre, J.; Baines, S.; Benes, P.; Bergmann, B.; Bernabéu, J.; Branzas, H.; Campbell, M.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; de Montigny, M.; De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J. R.; Fairbairn, M.; Felea, D.; Flores, J.; Frank, M.; Frekers, D.; Garcia, C.; Hirt, A. M.; Janecek, J.; Kalliokoski, M.; Katre, A.; Kim, D.-W.; Kinoshita, K.; Korzenev, A.; Lacarrère, D. H.; Lee, S. C.; Leroy, C.; Lionti, A.; Mamuzic, J.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Mavromatos, N. E.; Mermod, P.; Mitsou, V. A.; Orava, R.; Parker, B.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pǎvǎlaş, G. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Popa, V.; Pozzato, M.; Pospisil, S.; Rajantie, A.; Ruiz de Austri, R.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sakellariadou, M.; Sarkar, S.; Semenoff, G.; Shaa, A.; Sirri, G.; Sliwa, K.; Soluk, R.; Spurio, M.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Suk, M.; Swain, J.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Tuszyński, J. A.; Vento, V.; Vives, O.; Vykydal, Z.; Whyntie, T.; Widom, A.; Willems, G.; Yoon, J. H.; Zgura, I. S.; MoEDAL Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    MoEDAL is designed to identify new physics in the form of long-lived highly ionizing particles produced in high-energy LHC collisions. Its arrays of plastic nuclear-track detectors and aluminium trapping volumes provide two independent passive detection techniques. We present here the results of a first search for magnetic monopole production in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions using the trapping technique, extending a previous publication with 8 TeV data during LHC Run 1. A total of 222 kg of MoEDAL trapping detector samples was exposed in the forward region and analyzed by searching for induced persistent currents after passage through a superconducting magnetometer. Magnetic charges exceeding half the Dirac charge are excluded in all samples and limits are placed for the first time on the production of magnetic monopoles in 13 TeV p p collisions. The search probes mass ranges previously inaccessible to collider experiments for up to five times the Dirac charge.

  19. Search for Magnetic Monopoles with the MoEDAL Forward Trapping Detector in 13 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B; Alexandre, J; Baines, S; Benes, P; Bergmann, B; Bernabéu, J; Branzas, H; Campbell, M; Caramete, L; Cecchini, S; de Montigny, M; De Roeck, A; Ellis, J R; Fairbairn, M; Felea, D; Flores, J; Frank, M; Frekers, D; Garcia, C; Hirt, A M; Janecek, J; Kalliokoski, M; Katre, A; Kim, D-W; Kinoshita, K; Korzenev, A; Lacarrère, D H; Lee, S C; Leroy, C; Lionti, A; Mamuzic, J; Margiotta, A; Mauri, N; Mavromatos, N E; Mermod, P; Mitsou, V A; Orava, R; Parker, B; Pasqualini, L; Patrizii, L; Păvălaş, G E; Pinfold, J L; Popa, V; Pozzato, M; Pospisil, S; Rajantie, A; Ruiz de Austri, R; Sahnoun, Z; Sakellariadou, M; Sarkar, S; Semenoff, G; Shaa, A; Sirri, G; Sliwa, K; Soluk, R; Spurio, M; Srivastava, Y N; Suk, M; Swain, J; Tenti, M; Togo, V; Tuszyński, J A; Vento, V; Vives, O; Vykydal, Z; Whyntie, T; Widom, A; Willems, G; Yoon, J H; Zgura, I S

    2017-02-10

    MoEDAL is designed to identify new physics in the form of long-lived highly ionizing particles produced in high-energy LHC collisions. Its arrays of plastic nuclear-track detectors and aluminium trapping volumes provide two independent passive detection techniques. We present here the results of a first search for magnetic monopole production in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions using the trapping technique, extending a previous publication with 8 TeV data during LHC Run 1. A total of 222 kg of MoEDAL trapping detector samples was exposed in the forward region and analyzed by searching for induced persistent currents after passage through a superconducting magnetometer. Magnetic charges exceeding half the Dirac charge are excluded in all samples and limits are placed for the first time on the production of magnetic monopoles in 13 TeV pp collisions. The search probes mass ranges previously inaccessible to collider experiments for up to five times the Dirac charge.

  20. PSI-ECRIT(S) a hybrid magnetic system with a mirror ratio of 10 for H-like heavy ion production and trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Biri, S; Hitz, D

    1999-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institut ( PSI, Switzerland) an experimental program is started to measure the ground state shift and width of pionic hydrogen. To calibrate the crystal spectrometer X-ray transitions in hydrogen-like heavy ions (e.g. Ar17+) produced by ECR ion sources, are necessary. In PSI a superconducting cyclotron trap magnet originally developed for high energy experiments will be transformed into an ECR Ion Trap (ECRIT). The SC-magnet can deliver more than 4 Tesla magnetic fields with a mirror ratio of 2. A careful calculation showed this mirror ratio can be increased upto 10 and the trap can operate with frequencies between 5 and 20 GHz. To form a closed resonance zone a relatively large open structure (LBL-AECRU-type) NdFeB hexapole will be applied. The first tests will be performed with 6.4 GHz. Later higher frequencies (10 or 14.5 GHz) and the 2-frequency heating (6.4+10, 6.4+14.5 or 10+14.5) are planned to be applied to get enough quantity of H-like heavy ions. Since the main goal of this mach...

  1. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL forward trapping detector in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B.; Baines, S.; Benes, P.; Bergmann, B.; Bernabéu, J.; Branzas, H.; Campbell, M.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; de Montigny, M.; De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J.R.; Fairbairn, M.; Felea, D.; Flores, J.; Frank, M.; Frekers, D.; Garcia, C.; Hirt, A.M.; Janecek, J.; Kalliokoski, M.; Katre, A.; Kim, D.-W.; Kinoshita, K.; Korzenev, A.; Lacarrère, D.H.; Lee, S.C.; Leroy, C.; Lionti, A.; Mamuzic, J.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Mavromatos, N.E.; Mermod, P.; Mitsou, V.A.; Orava, R.; Parker, B.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Păvălaş, G.E.; Pinfold, J.L.; Popa, V.; Pozzato, M.; Pospisil, S.; Rajantie, A.; Ruiz de Austri, R.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sakellariadou, M.; Sarkar, S.; Semenoff, G.; Shaa, A.; Sirri, G.; Sliwa, K.; Soluk, R.; Spurio, M.; Srivastava, Y.N.; Suk, M.; Swain, J.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Tuszyński, J.A.; Vento, V.; Vives, O.; Vykydal, Z.; Whyntie, T.; Widom, A.; Willems, G.; Yoon, J.H.; Zgura, I.S.

    2017-02-10

    MoEDAL is designed to identify new physics in the form of long-lived highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy LHC collisions. Its arrays of plastic nuclear-track detectors and aluminium trapping volumes provide two independent passive detection techniques. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopole production in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions using the trapping technique, extending a previous publication with 8~TeV data during LHC run-1. A total of 222~kg of MoEDAL trapping detector samples were exposed in the forward region and analysed by searching for induced persistent currents after passage through a superconducting magnetometer. Magnetic charges exceeding half the Dirac charge are excluded in all samples and limits are placed for the first time on the production of magnetic monopoles in 13 TeV collisions. The search probes mass ranges previously inaccessible to collider experiments for up to five times the Dirac charge.

  2. Direct observation of high-spin states in manganese dimer and trimer cations by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in an ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamudio-Bayer, V. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hirsch, K.; Langenberg, A.; Kossick, M. [Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ławicki, A.; Lau, J. T., E-mail: tobias.lau@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Terasaki, A. [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute, 717-86 Futamata, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Issendorff, B. von [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-06-21

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and Mn{sub 3}{sup +} are characterized by 2p x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results directly show that localized magnetic moments of 5 μ{sub B} are created by 3d{sup 5}({sup 6}S) states at each ionic core, which are coupled ferromagnetically to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly occupied 4s derived antibonding molecular orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 μ{sub B} for Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and 16 μ{sub B} for Mn{sub 3}{sup +}, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum.

  3. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B.; Alexandre, J.; Bendtz, K.; Benes, P.; Bernabéu, J.; Campbell, M.; Cecchini, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Chatterjee, A.; de Montigny, M.; Derendarz, D.; De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J. R.; Fairbairn, M.; Felea, D.; Frank, M.; Frekers, D.; Garcia, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Hasegan, D.; Kalliokoski, M.; Katre, A.; Kim, D.-W.; King, M. G. L.; Kinoshita, K.; Lacarrère, D. H.; Lee, S. C.; Leroy, C.; Lionti, A.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Mavromatos, N. E.; Mermod, P.; Milstead, D.; Mitsou, V. A.; Orava, R.; Parker, B.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Păvălas, G. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Platkevič, M.; Popa, V.; Pozzato, M.; Pospisil, S.; Rajantie, A.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sakellariadou, M.; Sarkar, S.; Semenoff, G.; Sirri, G.; Sliwa, K.; Soluk, R.; Spurio, M.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Staszewski, R.; Suk, M.; Swain, J.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Trzebinski, M.; Tuszynski, J. A.; Vento, V.; Vives, O.; Vykydal, Z.; Whyntie, T.; Widom, A.; Willems, G.; Yoon, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nucleartrack detectors with surface area ~18m2, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb-1. No magnetic charge exceeding 0:5 g D (where g D is the Dirac magnetic charge) is measured in any of the exposed samples, allowing limits to be placed on monopole production in the mass range 100 GeV≤ m ≤ 3500 GeV. Model-independent cross-section limits are presented in fiducial regions of monopole energy and direction for 1 g D ≤ | g| ≤ 6 g D, and model-dependent cross-section limits are obtained for Drell-Yan pair production of spin-1/2 and spin-0 monopoles for 1 g D ≤ | g| ≤ 4 g D. Under the assumption of Drell-Yan cross sections, mass limits are derived for | g| = 2 g D and | g| = 3 g D for the first time at the LHC, surpassing the results from previous collider experiments.

  4. A Pilot Study on Applying Option 2 to Two Systems in the UCN 3, 4 - HPSI, ESWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, D. I.; Hwang, M J.; Yang, J. E.

    2005-04-01

    This report describes the Option 2 method applied to high pressure safety injection system(HPSI) and essential service water system(ESW) UCN 3,4 based on the U.S NEI 00-04 Option 2 methodology. Thus, in the Option 2 applications under the 10 CFR 50.69 requirement, the special treatment requirements for 'RISC-3' SSCs could be relaxed, while the regulartory requirements for 'RISC-2' SSCs will be enhanced. The results of Option 2 applications for the two systems of UCN 3,4 show that 161 out of 277 safety related SSCs can be treated with relaxed requirements in the HPSI, while 20 non-safety related SSCs should be treated with special treatment requirements. Also, in the ESW, special treatment requirements for the 121 out of 238 safety related SSCs can be relaxed, and new special treatments are required for 4 non-safety related SSCs

  5. Dynamics of plasma−dust structures formed in a trap created in the narrowing of a current channel in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzlieva, E. S., E-mail: plasmadust@yandex.ru; Karasev, V. Yu., E-mail: v.karasev@spbu.ru; Pavlov, S. I. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The geometry and dynamics of plasma−dust structures in a longitudinal magnetic field is studied experimentally. The structures are formed in a glow-discharge trap created in the double electric layer produced as a result of discharge narrowing by means of a dielectric insert introduced in the discharge tube. Studies of structures formed in the new type of glow-discharge trap are of interest from the standpoint of future experiments with complex plasmas in superstrong magnetic fields in which the dust component is magnetized. Different types of dielectric inserts were used: conical and plane ones with symmetric and asymmetric apertures. Conditions for the existence of stable dust structures are determined for dust grains of different density and different dispersity. According to the experimental results, the angular velocity of dust rotation is ≥10 s{sup –1}, which is the fastest type of dust motion for all types of discharges in a magnetic field. The rotation is interpreted by analyzing the dynamics of individual dust grains.

  6. A Pilot Study on Applying Risk Informed Application Option 2 to Two Systems in UCN 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon

    2005-01-01

    To reduce the unnecessary burden of a regulation, NRC prepared three options for the risk informed regulatory framework known as Option 1, Option 2 and Option 3. In Option 2, all safety related Structure, System and Components (SSCs) and non-safety related SSCs are evaluated from a safety point of view, and the low safety significant SSCs belonging to the safety related group are called 'Risk Informed Safety Class (RISC) - 3' SSCs. The 'RISC-3' SSCs can be exempted from the special treatment requirements such as a seismic and environmental requirement, of 10 CFR 50. For Option 2, 10 CFR 50.69 was issued by US NRC, and NEI 00-04 was prepared by US industry as a categorization guideline for 10 CFR 50.69, and US NRC endorsed the NEI 00-04 methodology for Option 2 in Reg. Guide 1.201. This paper describes the Option 2 method applied to the high pressure safety injection system (HPSI) and the essential service water system (ESW) of UCN 3

  7. A Pilot Study on Applying Risk Informed Application Option 2 to Six Systems in UCN 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil-Yoo; Yang, Joon-Eon; Lee, Young-Joo; Chung, Hye-Won

    2007-01-01

    To reduce the unnecessary burden of a regulation, NRC prepared three options for the risk informed regulatory framework known as Option 1, Option 2 and Option 3. In Option 2, all safety related Structure, System and Components (SSCs) and non-safety related SSCs are evaluated from a safety point of view, and the low safety significant SSCs belonging to the safety related group are called 'Risk Informed Safety Class (RISC) - 3' SSCs. The 'RISC-3' SSCs can be exempted from the special treatment requirements such as a seismic and environmental requirement, of 10 CFR 50. Two years ago, a paper was published which described the Option 2 method applied to the high pressure safety injection system (HPSI) and the essential service water system (ESW) of UCN 3. However, this paper describes the results when Option 2 is applied to the other 4 systems such as a low pressure safety injection system(LPSI), safety depressurization system(SDS), instrument air system(IAS), safety injection tank(SIT). First of all, this paper includes the results from the importance analysis in view of a Fire PSA and Level 2 PSA

  8. Construction of a stable and homogeneous magnetic field at 10 milligauss for neutron electric dipole moment measurements: preparatory phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravador, E.; Yoshiki, Hajime; Feizeng, H. [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A superthermal UCN edm measuring machine is currently under construction at KEK. It utilizes a magnetically shielded superconducting solenoid at liquid helium temperature to generate a stable and homogeneous magnetic field at 10 milligauss. The design of the magnetic shield and solenoid and preliminary evaluation of shielding effectiveness is presented. (author)

  9. An ultracold neutron (UCN) detector with Ti/ sup 6 LiF multi-layer converter and sup 5 sup 8 Ni reflector

    CERN Document Server

    Maier-Komor, P; Bergmaier, A; Dollinger, G; Paul, S; Petzoldt, G; Schott, W

    2002-01-01

    High efficient detectors for ultracold neutrons (UCN) must be developed for the new high flux neutron source Forschungsreaktor Muenchen II (FRM II). On silicon PIN diodes 76 mu g/cm sup 2 sup 5 sup 8 Ni was deposited as a UCN reflector. On this 100 double layers of sup n sup a sup t Ti (4.7 mu g/cm sup 2) and sup 6 LiF (1.8 mu g/cm sup 2) were deposited to function as a UCN converter. On top of this, 33 double layers of sup n sup a sup t Ti (3.4 mu g/cm sup 2) and sup 6 LiF (0.92 mu g/cm sup 2) were condensed in addition to provide sensitivity to very low-energy UCN. Finally, 6.0 mu g/cm sup 2 sup n sup a sup t V was deposited to protect the multi-layers. Vanadium has nearly zero optical potential for UCN and thus should not hinder their transmission. Since no expensive isotopes were involved, a source to substrate distance of 24 cm could be chosen, leading to excellent uniformity. The setup designed for deposition under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and the evaporation procedures are described.

  10. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, B. [Theoretical Particle Physics & Cosmology Group, Physics Dept., King’s College London (United Kingdom); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Alexandre, J. [Theoretical Particle Physics & Cosmology Group, Physics Dept., King’s College London (United Kingdom); Bendtz, K. [Physics Department, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Benes, P. [IEAP, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Collaboration: The MoEDAL collaboration; and others

    2016-08-10

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nuclear-track detectors with surface area ∼18 m{sup 2}, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb{sup −1}. No magnetic charge exceeding 0.5g{sub D} (where g{sub D} is the Dirac magnetic charge) is measured in any of the exposed samples, allowing limits to be placed on monopole production in the mass range 100 GeV≤m≤ 3500 GeV. Model-independent cross-section limits are presented in fiducial regions of monopole energy and direction for 1g{sub D}≤|g|≤6g{sub D}, and model-dependent cross-section limits are obtained for Drell-Yan pair production of spin-1/2 and spin-0 monopoles for 1g{sub D}≤|g|≤4g{sub D}. Under the assumption of Drell-Yan cross sections, mass limits are derived for |g|=2g{sub D} and |g|=3g{sub D} for the first time at the LHC, surpassing the results from previous collider experiments.

  11. Discriminating between antihydrogen and mirror-trapped antiprotons in a minimum-B trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Kurchaninov, L; Jonsell, S; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-01-01

    Recently, antihydrogen atoms were trapped at CERN in a magnetic minimum (minimum-B) trap formed by superconducting octupole and mirror magnet coils. The trapped antiatoms were detected by rapidly turning off these magnets, thereby eliminating the magnetic minimum and releasing any antiatoms contained in the trap. Once released, these antiatoms quickly hit the trap wall, whereupon the positrons and antiprotons in the antiatoms annihilated. The antiproton annihilations produce easily detected signals; we used these signals to prove that we trapped antihydrogen. However, our technique could be confounded by mirror-trapped antiprotons, which would produce seemingly-identical annihilation signals upon hitting the trap wall. In this paper, we discuss possible sources of mirror-trapped antiprotons and show that antihydrogen and antiprotons can be readily distinguished, often with the aid of applied electric fields, by analyzing the annihilation locations and times. We further discuss the general properties of antipr...

  12. ATRAP - Progress Towards Trapped Antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzonka, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E.A.; Storry, C.H.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Lesage, D.; Levitt, B.; Speck, A.; Haensch, T.W.; Pittner, H.; Walz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom.Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen.For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trapping tests of charged particles within a combined magnetic/Penning trap have started at ATRAP

  13. ATRAP Progress Towards Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grzonka, D; Gabrielse, G; Goldenbaum, F; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Oelert, W; Pittner, H; Sefzick, T; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Walz, J; Zhang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s‐2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom. Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen. For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trapping tests of charged particles within a combined magnetic/Penning trap have started at ATRAP.

  14. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Michael

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation. The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  15. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D 2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  16. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, M

    2004-07-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D{sub 2} molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  17. A novel technique to measure interface trap density in a GaAs MOS capacitor using time-varying magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Aditya N. Roy, E-mail: aditya@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Venkataraman, V. [Dept. of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560012 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Interface trap density (D{sub it}) in a GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor can be measured electrically by measuring its impedance, i.e. by exciting it with a small signal voltage source and measuring the resulting current through the circuit. We propose a new method of measuring D{sub it} where the MOS capacitor is subjected to a (time-varying) magnetic field instead, which produces an effect equivalent to a (time-varying) voltage drop across the sample. This happens because the electron chemical potential of GaAs changes with a change in an externally applied magnetic field (unlike that of the gate metal); this is not the voltage induced by Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. So, by measuring the current through the MOS, D{sub it} can be found similarly. Energy band diagrams and equivalent circuits of a MOS capacitor are drawn in the presence of a magnetic field, and analyzed. The way in which a magnetic field affects a MOS structure is shown to be fundamentally different compared to an electrical voltage source.

  18. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan [UC Berkeley and LBNL

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  19. Laser-cooling and electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Migdall, A.L.; Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently it has been impossible to confine and trap neutral atoms using electromagnetic fields. While many proposals for such traps exist, the small potential energy depth of the traps and the high kinetic energy of available atoms prevented trapping. We review various schemes for atom trapping, the advances in laser cooling of atomic beams which have now made trapping possible, and the successful magnetic trapping of cold sodium atoms

  20. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  1. Holes in magneto electrostatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    1996-01-01

    We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)

  2. Development of new NSSS thermal-hydraulic model for Korean standard nuclear power plant(UCN-3/4) simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Doo; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2001-09-01

    The NSSS thermal-hydraulic programs installed in the domestic full-scope power plant simulators were provided in early 1980s by foreign vendors. Because of limited computational capability at that time, they usually adopt very simplified physical models for a real-time simulation of NSSS thermal-hydraulic phenomena, which entails inaccurate results and the possibility of so-called 'negative training', especially for complicated two-phase flows in the reactor coolant system. To resolve the problem, we developed a realistic NSSS T/H program (named 'ARTS-UCN' code) for the improvement of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant full-scope simulator. ARTS Code, developed as an NSSS T/H model for the KNPEC no. 2 simulator using the RETRAN03 code, was selected as a reference code for ARTS-UCN code development. For the development of ARTS, the followings have been performed: - Improvement of the robustness of RETRAN - Improvement of the real-time simulation capability of RETRAN - Optimum input data generation for the NSSS simulation - New model development that cannot be efficiently modeled by RETRAN - Assessment of the ARTS code. The systematic assessment of ARTS has been conducted in both personal computers (Windows 98, Visual fortran) and the simulator development environment (Windows NT, GSE simulator development tool). The results were resonable in terms of accuracy, real-time simulation and robustness

  3. Search For Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B.; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D.; Bray, Crystal C.; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L.; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Gill, David R.; Hangst, Jeffrey S.; Hardy, Walter N.; Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hayden, Michael E.; Humphries, Andrew J.; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Jorgensen, Lars V.; Kurchaninov, Lenoid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Nasr, Sarah Seif El; Silveira, Daniel M.; So, Chukman; Storey, James W.; Thompson, Robert I.; van der Werf, Dirk P.; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ~30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10^7 antiprotons with 1.3 10^9 positrons to produce 6 10^5 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consist...

  4. Mutational analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNASer(UCN) genes in Tunisian patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Saber; Louhichi, Nacim; Charfeddine, Ilhem; Amor, Mohamed Ben; Lahmar, Imed; Driss, Nabil; Drira, Mohamed; Ayadi, Hammadi; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2006-01-01

    We explored the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes in 100 Tunisian families affected with NSHL and in 100 control individuals. We identified the mitochondrial A1555G mutation in one out of these 100 families and not in the 100 control individuals. Members of this family harbouring the A1555G mutation showed phenotypic heterogeneity which could be explained by an eventual nuclear-mitochondrial interaction. So, we have screened three nuclear genes: GJB2, GJB3, and GJB6 but we have not found correlation between the phenotypic heterogeneity and variants detected in these genes. We explored also the entire mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes. We detected five novel polymorphisms: T742C, T794A, A813G, C868T, and C954T, and 12 known polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. None of the 100 families or the 100 controls were found to carry mutations in the tRNA Ser(UCN) gene. We report here First mutational screening of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes in the Tunisian population which describes the second family harbouring the A1555G mutation in Africa and reveals novel polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  6. Perspectives of optical lattices with state-dependent tunneling in approaching quantum magnetism in the presence of the external harmonic trapping potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically potential advantages of two-component mixtures in optical lattices with state-dependent tunneling for approaching long-range-order phases and detecting easy-axis antiferromagnetic correlations. While we do not find additional advantages of mixtures with large hopping imbalance for approaching quantum magnetism in a harmonic trap, it is shown that a nonzero difference in hopping amplitudes remains highly important for a proper symmetry breaking in the pseudospin space for the single-site-resolution imaging and can be advantageously used for a significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and thus detecting long-range easy-axis antiferromagnetic correlations in the corresponding experiments. - Highlights: • The most optimal ways to observe magnetic correlations in a quantum-gas microscope are presented. • Importance of a controlled symmetry breaking for antiferromagnetism is studied. • A quantitative theoretical analysis for the entropy in ultracold fermionic mixtures is performed. • No advantages from realizations with the strong hopping asymmetry are found.

  7. Physics with Trapped Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Michael

    2017-04-01

    For more than a decade antihydrogen atoms have been formed by mixing antiprotons and positrons held in arrangements of charged particle (Penning) traps. More recently, magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been superimposed upon the anti-atom production region, promoting the trapping of a small quantity of the antihydrogen yield. We will review these advances, and describe some of the first physics experiments performed on anrtihydrogen including the observation of the two-photon 1S-2S transition, invesigation of the charge neutrailty of the anti-atom and studies of the ground state hyperfine splitting. We will discuss the physics motivations for undertaking these experiments and describe some near-future initiatives.

  8. Energy measurement of fast ions trapped in the toroidal magnetic field ripple of Tore Supra during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Grisolia, C.; Hutter, T.; Mayaux, G.; Martin, G.; Saoutic, B.; Vartanian, S.

    1995-01-01

    Direct losses of ions trapped in the toroidal field ripple of Tore Supra using two techniques were made. The first (DRIPPLE I) correlates the ion loss current measured by an electric probe with the ion loss power measured by a calorimeter. As the calorimeter integrates over all particle energies and time, it yields only the averaged lost ion energy. The second technique (DRIPPLE II), still under development, is a Faraday cup positioned and filtered so as to select ions by their Larmor radius. The currents measured are small (1-100 nA), and improvements in instrumentation are needed to take full advantage of the data, but the preliminary results are still useful. During ICRH (hydrogen minority regime, resonance on axis) a direct correlation between the lost ion mean energy and the density of hydrogen was seen. The energy increased when the hydrogen minority density decreased. Moreover, the line averaged density and the lower hybrid heating (LH) had also an effect on fast ion losses. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs

  9. Status and outlook of CHIP-TRAP: The Central Michigan University high precision Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, M.; Bryce, R. A.; Hawks, P.; Gamage, N. D.; Hunt, C.; Kandegedara, R. M. E. B.; Ratnayake, I. S.; Sharp, L.

    2016-06-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP) that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m / q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  10. arXiv Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL forward trapping detector in 2.11 fb$^{-1}$ of 13 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B.; The MoEDAL collaboration; Baines, S.; Benes, P.; Bergmann, B.; Bernabéu, J.; Bevan, A.; Branzas, H.; Campbell, M.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; de Montigny, M.; De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J.R.; Fairbairn, M.; Felea, D.; Frank, M.; Frekers, D.; Garcia, C.; Hays, J.; Hirt, A.M.; Janecek, J.; Kim, D.-W; Kinoshita, K.; Korzenev, A.; Lacarrère, D.H.; Lee, S.C.; Leroy, C.; Levi, G.; Lionti, A.; Mamuzic, J.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Mavromatos, N.E.; Mermod, P.; Mitsou, V.A.; Orava, R.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Parker, B.; Patrizii, L.; Păvălaş, G.E.; Pinfold, J.L.; Popa, V.; Pozzato, M.; Pospisil, S.; Rajantie, A.; Ruiz de Austri, R.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sakellariadou, M.; Santra, A.; Sarkar, S.; Semenoff, G.; Shaa, A.; Sirri, G.; Sliwa, K.; Soluk, R.; Spurio, M.; Srivastava, Y.N.; Suk, M.; Swain, J.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Tuszyński, J.A.; Vento, V.; Vives, O.; Vykydal, Z.; Widom, A.; Willems, G.; Yoon, J.H.; Zgura, I.S.

    2018-07-10

    We update our previous search for trapped magnetic monopoles in LHC Run 2 using nearly six times more integrated luminosity and including additional models for the interpretation of the data. The MoEDAL forward trapping detector, comprising 222~kg of aluminium samples, was exposed to 2.11~fb$^{-1}$ of 13 TeV proton-proton collisions near the LHCb interaction point and analysed by searching for induced persistent currents after passage through a superconducting magnetometer. Magnetic charges equal to the Dirac charge or above are excluded in all samples. The results are interpreted in Drell-Yan production models for monopoles with spins 0, 1/2 and 1: in addition to standard point-like couplings, we also consider couplings with momentum-dependent form factors. The search provides the best current laboratory constraints for monopoles with magnetic charges ranging from two to five times the Dirac charge.

  11. Trapped field properties of a Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk by pulsed field magnetization using a split coil inserted by iron yokes with various geometries and electromagnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K., E-mail: t2216017@iwate-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Ainslie, M.D. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T. [Department of Physical Science and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Shi, Y-H.; Cardwell, D.A. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The trapped field characteristics of a standard Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk magnetized by PFM was investigated using a split coil with three kinds of iron yokes inserted in the bores of coil,both experimentally and numerically. • Numerical results encourage better understanding of the role of yoke, including the typical behavior of the magnetic flux, such as a flux jump during PFM. • A higher saturation magnetic flux density of the yoke material was effective to reduce flux flow in the descending stage of the pulsed field. • A conductivity of the yoke material also acts to reduce the velocity of the flux intruding the bulk because of eddy currents that flow in the yoke that oppose the magnetization, which reduces the temperature rise in the bulk. - Abstract: We have investigated, both experimentally and numerically, the trapped field characteristics of a standard Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk of 30 mm in diameter and 14 mm in thickness magnetized by pulsed field magnetization (PFM) using a split coil, in which three kinds of iron yoke are inserted in the bore of the coil: soft iron with a flat surface, soft iron with a taper, and permendur (50Fe + 50Co alloy) with a flat surface. The highest trapped field, B{sub Tmax}, of 2.93 T was achieved at 40 K in the case of the permendur yoke, which was slightly higher than that obtained for the flat soft iron or the tapered soft iron yokes, and was much higher than 2.20 T in the case without the yoke. The insertion effect of the yoke on the trapped field characteristics was also investigated using numerical simulations. The results suggest that the saturation magnetic flux density, B{sub sat}, of the yoke acts to reduce the flux flow due to its hysteretic magnetization curve and the higher electrical conductivity, σ, of the yoke material also acts to suppress the flux increase rate. A flux jump (or flux leap) can be reproduced in the ascending stage of PFM using numerical simulation, using an assumption of relatively

  12. Spin resonance with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-03-14

    A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +}, we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states.

  13. Spin resonance with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E

    2003-01-01

    A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped 171 Yb + , we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states

  14. Sky-distribution of intensity of synchrotron radio emission of relativistic electrons trapped in Earth’s magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenko V.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculations of synchrotron radio emission intensity from Van Allen belts with Gaussian space distribution of electron density across L-shells of a dipole magnetic field, and with Maxwell’s relativistic electron energy distribution. The results of these calculations come to a good agreement with measurements of the synchrotron emission intensity of the artificial radiation belt’s electrons during the Starfish nuclear test. We have obtained two-dimensional distributions of radio brightness in azimuth — zenith angle coordinates for an observer on Earth’s surface. The westside and eastside intensity maxima exceed several times the maximum level of emission in the meridian plane. We have also constructed two-dimensional distributions of the radio emission intensity in decibels related to the background galactic radio noise level. Isotropic fluxes of relativistic electrons (Е~1 MeV should be more than 107 cm–2s–1 for the synchrotron emission intensity in the meridian plane to exceed the cosmic noise level by 0.1 dB (riometer sensitivity threshold.

  15. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  16. Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process

  17. TAS1R3 and UCN2 Transcript Levels in Blood Cells Are Associated With Sugary and Fatty Food Consumption in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego, T; Sánchez, J; Picó, C; Ahrens, W; De Henauw, S; Kourides, Y; Lissner, L; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Russo, P; Siani, A; Veidebaum, T; Palou, A

    2015-09-01

    New types of dietary exposure biomarkers are needed to implement effective strategies for obesity prevention in children. Of special interest are biomarkers of consumption of food rich in simple sugars and fat because their intake has been associated with obesity development. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) represent a promising new tool for identifying novel, transcript-based biomarkers. This study aimed to study potential associations between the transcripts of taste receptor type 1 member 3 (TAS1R3) and urocortin II (UCN2) genes in PBCs and the frequency of sugary and fatty food consumption in children. Four hundred sixty-three children from the IDEFICS cohort were selected to include a similar number of boys and girls, both normal-weight and overweight, belonging to eight European countries. Anthropometric parameters (measured at baseline and in a subset of 193 children after 2 years), food consumption frequency and transcript levels of TAS1R3 and UCN2 genes in PBCs were measured. Children with low-frequency consumption of sugary foods displayed higher TAS1R3 expression levels with respect to those with intermediate or high frequency. In turn, children with high-frequency consumption of fatty foods showed lower UCN2 expression levels with respect to those with low or intermediate frequency. Moreover, transcripts of TAS1R3 were related with body mass index and fat-mass changes after a 2-year follow-up period, with low expression levels of this gene being related with increased fat accumulation over time. The transcripts of TAS1R3 and UCN2 in PBCs may be considered potential biomarkers of consumption of sugary and fatty food, respectively, to complement data of food-intake questionnaires.

  18. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.

    2009-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  19. Ripple Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the margin of a lava flow on a cratered plain in the Athabasca Vallis region of Mars. Remarkably, the cratered plain in this scene is essentially free of bright, windblown ripples. Conversely, the lava flow apparently acted as a trap for windblown materials, illustrated by the presence of the light-toned, wave-like texture over much of the flow. That the lava flow surface trapped windblown sand and granules better than the cratered plain indicates that the flow surface has a rougher texture at a scale too small to resolve in this image. Location near: 10.7oN, 204.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  20. Trapping and Evolution Dynamics of Ultracold Two-Component Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-H.; Knuffman, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Povilus, A. P.; Raithel, G.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping of a strongly magnetized, quasineutral ultracold plasma in a nested Penning trap with a background field of 2.9 T. Electrons remain trapped in this system for several milliseconds. Early in the evolution, the dynamics are driven by a breathing-mode oscillation in the ionic charge distribution, which modulates the electron trap depth. Over longer times scales, the electronic component undergoes cooling. Trap loss resulting from ExB drift is characterized

  1. Prediction of the secondary structure of the mitochondrial tRNASer (UCN) of Lutzomyia hartmanni (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Doria, Alveiro; Bejarano, Eduar E

    2011-01-01

    Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni is a sand fly that has been implicated in the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) colombiensis, an etiologic agent of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia. The objective of this work was to explore the potential usefulness of the mitochondrial serine transfer RNA (UCN) (tRNASer) in the taxonomic determination of L. hartmanni. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted, amplified and sequenced from entomological material collected in Envigado, Antioquia, Colombia. The tRNASer gene length was 68 nucleotide pairs, with an average adenine-thymine content of 80.9%. The studied tRNASer differs from other sand fly tRNASer known to date, on the basis of its primary and secondary structure. The observed number of intrachain base pairing was 7 in the acceptor arm, 3 in the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm, 5 in the anticodon arm, and 5 in the ribothymidine-pseudouridine-cytosine (TC) arm. The size of the DHU, anticodon, variable and TC loops was estimated to be 5, 7, 4, and 8 nucleotides, respectively. The notorious absence of non-Watson-Crick base pairs in the four arms of the tRNASer distinguishes that of L. hartmanni from others Lutzomyia spp.

  2. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  3. Cold molecules: formation, trapping and spectroscopy. - Piling up of cesium dimers in a quadrupolar magnetic trap. - Spectroscopy by lack of photo-association; Molecules froides: formation, piegeage et spectroscopie. - Accumulation de dimeres de cesium dans un piege quadrupolaire magnetique. - Spectroscopie par frustration de photoassociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhaecke, N

    2003-10-15

    This thesis deals with the study of cold molecules obtained through the cold atom photo-association technique. Our study is focused both on manipulating external degrees of freedom of these Cs{sub 2} molecules and on studying their internal interactions. A quadrupolar magnetic trap of about 2.10{sup 5} cold Cs{sub 2} molecules is demonstrated. The trap lifetime is on the order of 600 ms, mainly limited by the background gas pressure. The trapped molecules are identified, which allows the determination of the trapped molecule cloud temperature, which is about 35 {mu}K. A dipolar trap is set up by the use of a focused CO{sub 2} laser beam. Moreover, this thesis describes a two-photon photo-association spectroscopy. We report the first study of two-photon photo-association line shapes, which exhibit typical Fano profiles. Taking advantage of the detailed understanding of these line shapes, we measure over one hundred high-lying level energies with an accuracy on the order of 10 MHz. Then we interpret theoretically these energies. The huge hyperfine structure of the Cesium atom binds us to solve a coupled channel Schroedinger equation for internuclear distances above 15 a{sub 0}. Hence we use an asymptotic theory to fit the potential parameters of the Cs{sub 2} dimer. We adjust those parameters by the mean of both evolutionary strategies and deterministic optimum seeking. This is followed by a careful statistics study, which leads to a very accurate determination of the Vander Waals coefficient. Moreover we report the first experimental determination of the exchange interaction amplitude. (author)

  4. Inelastic collision rates of trapped metastable hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landhuis, D; Matos, L; Moss, SC; Steinberger, JK; Vant, K; Willmann, L; Greytak, TJ; Kleppner, D

    We report the first detailed decay studies of trapped metastable (2S) hydrogen. By two-photon excitation of ultracold H samples, we have produced clouds of at least 5x10(7) magnetically trapped 2S atoms at densities greater than 4x10(10) cm(-3) and temperatures below 100 muK. At these densities and

  5. Descripción del ARN de transferencia mitocondrial para Serina (UCN de Lutzomyia columbiana (Diptera, Psychodidae Description of the mitochondrial serine transfer RNA (UCN of Lutzomyia columbiana (Diptera, Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alveiro Pérez-Doria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia columbiana es un flebotomíneo considerado como vector sospechoso de Leishmania mexicana y Leishmania braziliensis en Colombia. Este insecto pertenece al grupo verrucarum, que incluye algunos taxones isomórficos, lo que ha estimulado la búsqueda de marcadores moleculares que permitan, además de diferenciar las especies, estudiar sus relaciones de parentesco. En este artículo se describe por primera vez la estructura putativa del ARN de transferencia mitocondrial para serina que reconoce el codón UCN (ARNtSer de Lu. columbiana. El ADN genómico fue extraído, amplificado y secuenciado a partir de seis especímenes colectados con cebo humano. La estructura secundaria del ARNtSer fue inferida con el programa tRNAscan-SE 1.21. El gen ARNts consistió de 67 pares de bases (pb, encontrándose un solo haplotipo en los seis individuos secuenciados. El ARNtSer de Lu. columbiana mostró 7 apareamientos intracatenarios en el brazo aceptor del aminoácido, 3 en el brazo dihidrouridina (DHU, 5 en el brazo del anticodón y 5 en el brazo ribotimidina-pseudouridina-citosina (TøC. El tamaño de las lupas correspondió a 5 nucleótidos en la DHU, 7 en la anticodón, 4 en la variable y 7 en la TøC. Lu. columbiana se distingue del resto de especies de Lutzomyia y Phlebotomus secuenciadas a la fecha por la presencia de una guanina en la posición nucleotídica 64, que produce un apareamiento no canónico tipo uracilo-guanina en el brazo aceptor. Se necesitan más estudios para confirmar la utilidad del ARNtSer como marcador molecular para la discriminación de especies de flebotomíneos.The sand fly Lutzomyia columbiana is considered a suspected vector of Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania braziliensis in Colombia. Lu. columbiana belongs to the Lutzomyia verrucarum species group, which included some sibling species. This has motivated the search for molecular markers to distinguish these taxa. In this paper, we described for the first time the

  6. Status of THe-Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    THe-Trap (short for Tritium-{sup 3}He Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass-ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. The ratio is of relevance for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN), which aims to measure the electron anti-neutrino mass, by measuring the shape of the β-decay energy spectrum close to its endpoint. An independent measurement of the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass-ratio pins down this endpoint, and thus will help to determine the systematics of KATRIN. The trap setup consists of two Penning-traps: One trap for precision measurements, the other trap for ion storage. Ideally, the trap content will be periodically switched, which reduces the time between the measurements of the two ions' motional frequencies. In 2012, a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 14}N{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects of the traps. This measurement yielded a accuracy of 10{sup -9}. Further investigations revealed that a major reason for the modest accuracy is the large axial amplitude of ∼100 μm, compared to a ideal case of 3 μm at 4 K. In addition, relative magnetic fluctuations at a 3 x 10{sup -10} level on a 10 h timescale need to be significantly improved. In this contribution, the aforementioned findings and further systematic studies will be presented.

  7. Characterization of a solid deuterium converter for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the framework of the Mini-D{sub 2} project at the FRM-II reactor in Munich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorella, D.

    2007-02-07

    Spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries is an attractive topic in modern particles physic. Understanding qualitative and quantitative the parameters involved in these kind of processes could help to explain the unbalanced presence in the universe of matter (baryons) with respect to antimatter (anti-baryons). Due to their intrinsic properties, ultra cold neutrons (UCN) are excellent candidates in experiments measuring with high level of accuracy parameters like the electric dipole moment (EDM), the axial-vector coupling constant (g{sub A}), the neutron lifetime ({tau}{sub n}) or in search of quantum effect of gravity. In this work are presented several contributions in the framework of the Mini-D2 project, an innovative strong UCN source under construction at the FRM-II reactor in Munich. An important component of this facility, the solid deuterium UCN converter, is one subject of the thesis. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of a solid deuterium converter for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the framework of the Mini-D2 project at the FRM-II reactor in Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorella, D.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries is an attractive topic in modern particles physic. Understanding qualitative and quantitative the parameters involved in these kind of processes could help to explain the unbalanced presence in the universe of matter (baryons) with respect to antimatter (anti-baryons). Due to their intrinsic properties, ultra cold neutrons (UCN) are excellent candidates in experiments measuring with high level of accuracy parameters like the electric dipole moment (EDM), the axial-vector coupling constant (g A ), the neutron lifetime (τ n ) or in search of quantum effect of gravity. In this work are presented several contributions in the framework of the Mini-D2 project, an innovative strong UCN source under construction at the FRM-II reactor in Munich. An important component of this facility, the solid deuterium UCN converter, is one subject of the thesis. (orig.)

  9. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julian; Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  10. Globalisation Trapped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caraça

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The promise of making society progress through the direct applications of science was finally fulfilled in the mid-20th century. Science progressed immensely, propelled by the effects of the two world wars. The first science-based technologies saw the daylight during the 1940s and their transformative power was such that neither the military, nor subsequently the markets, allowed science to return intact to its curiosity-driven nest. Technoscience was born then and (being progressively pulled away from curiosity-driven science was able to grow enormously, erecting a formidable structure of networks of institutions that impacted decisively on the economy. It is a paradox, or maybe a trap, that the fulfillment of science’s solemn promise of ‘transforming nature’ means seeing ourselves and our Western societies entangled in crises after crises with no clear outcome in view. A redistribution of geopolitical power is under way, along with the deployment of information and communication technologies, forcing dominant structures to oscillate, as knowledge about organization and methods, marketing, design, and software begins to challenge the role of technoscience as the main vector of economic growth and wealth accumulation. What ought to be done?

  11. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  12. Investigation of two-frequency Paul traps for antihydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leefer, Nathan; Krimmel, Kai, E-mail: kkrimmel@students.uni-mainz.de [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Bertsche, William [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Budker, Dmitry [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Fajans, Joel [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Folman, Ron [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics (Israel); Häffner, Hartmut [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Radio-frequency (rf) Paul traps operated with multifrequency rf trapping potentials provide the ability to independently confine charged particle species with widely different charge-to-mass ratios. In particular, these traps may find use in the field of antihydrogen recombination, allowing antiproton and positron clouds to be trapped and confined in the same volume without the use of large superconducting magnets. We explore the stability regions of two-frequency Paul traps and perform numerical simulations of small samples of multispecies charged-particle mixtures of up to twelve particles that indicate the promise of these traps for antihydrogen recombination.

  13. Trapped atoms along nanophotonic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Brian; Kim, May; Chang, Tzu-Han; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Many-body systems subject to long-range interactions have remained a very challenging topic experimentally. Ultracold atoms trapped in extreme proximity to the surface of nanophotonic structures provides a dynamic system combining the strong atom-atom interactions mediated by guided mode photons with the exquisite control implemented with trapped atom systems. The hybrid system promises pair-wise tunability of long-range interactions between atomic pseudo spins, allowing studies of quantum magnetism extending far beyond nearest neighbor interactions. In this talk, we will discuss our current status developing high quality nanophotonic ring resonators, engineered on CMOS compatible optical chips with integrated nanostructures that, in combination with a side illuminating beam, can realize stable atom traps approximately 100nm above the surface. We will report on our progress towards loading arrays of cold atoms near the surface of these structures and studying atom-atom interaction mediated by photons with high cooperativity.

  14. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Yassine, Omar; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20

  15. Trapping, self-trapping and the polaron family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A M; Gavartin, J; Shluger, A L; Kimmel, A V; Ramo, D Munoz; Roennow, H M; Aeppli, G; Renner, C

    2007-01-01

    The earliest ideas of the polaron recognized that the coupling of an electron to ionic vibrations would affect its apparent mass and could effectively immobilize the carrier (self-trapping). We discuss how these basic ideas have been generalized to recognize new materials and new phenomena. First, there is an interplay between self-trapping and trapping associated with defects or with fluctuations in an amorphous solid. In high dielectric constant oxides, like HfO 2 , this leads to oxygen vacancies having as many as five charge states. In colossal magnetoresistance manganites, this interplay makes possible the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) observation of polarons. Second, excitons can self-trap and, by doing so, localize energy in ways that can modify the material properties. Third, new materials introduce new features, with polaron-related ideas emerging for uranium dioxide, gate dielectric oxides, Jahn-Teller systems, semiconducting polymers and biological systems. The phonon modes that initiate self-trapping can be quite different from the longitudinal optic modes usually assumed to dominate. Fourth, there are new phenomena, like possible magnetism in simple oxides, or with the evolution of short-lived polarons, like muons or excitons. The central idea remains that of a particle whose properties are modified by polarizing or deforming its host solid, sometimes profoundly. However, some of the simpler standard assumptions can give a limited, indeed misleading, description of real systems, with qualitative inconsistencies. We discuss representative cases for which theory and experiment can be compared in detail

  16. Open trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Zakajdakov, V.V.; Kishinevskij, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of numerical calculations on the behaviour of a thermonuclear plasma, allowing for α-particles in a trap with longitudinal confinement of the main ions by ambipolar electric fields are presented. This trap is formed by connecting two small-volume ''mirrortrons'' to an ordinary open trap. Into the extreme mirrortrons, approximately 1-MeV ions are introduced continuously by ionization of atomic beams on the plasma, and approximately 10-keV ions are similarly introduced into the main central region of the trap. By a suitable choice of injection currents, the plasma density established in the extreme mirrortrons is higher than in the central region. As a result of the quasi-neutrality condition, a longitudinal ambipolar field forming a potential well not only for electrons but also for the central ions is formed in the plasma. When the depth of the well for the central ions is much greater than their temperature, their life-time considerably exceeds the time of confinement by the magnetic mirrors. As a result, the plasma density is constant over the entire length of the central mirrortron, including the regions near the mirrors, and an ambipolar field is formed only in the extreme mirrortrons. The distribution of central ions and ambipolar potential in the extreme mirrortrons is uniquely determined by the density distribution of fast extreme ions. It is shown in the present study that an amplification coefficient Q as high as desired can, in principle, be reached in the trap under consideration, allowing for α-particles. However, this requires high magnetic fields in the mirrors and a sufficient length of the central mirrotron. It is shown that for moderate values of Q=3-8, it is desirable not to confine the central fast α-particles. To achieve a coefficient of Q=5, it is necessary to create fields of 250 kG in the mirrors, and the length of the trap must not be greater than 100 m. (author)

  17. Detection of trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydomako, Richard [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2013-02-01

    A landmark thesis describing the first ever trapping of antihydrogen atoms in CERN's ALPHA apparatus. Opens the way to crucial tests of fundamental theories. Nominated as an outstanding contribution by the University of Calgary. In 2010, the ALPHA collaboration achieved a first for mankind: the stable, long-term storage of atomic antimatter, a project carried out a the Antiproton Decelerator facility at CERN. A crucial element of this observation was a dedicated silicon vertexing detector used to identify and analyze antihydrogen annihilations. This thesis reports the methods used to reconstruct the annihilation location. Specifically, the methods used to identify and extrapolate charged particle tracks and estimate the originating annihilation location are outlined. Finally, the experimental results demonstrating the first-ever magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms are presented. These results rely heavily on the silicon detector, and as such, the role of the annihilation vertex reconstruction is emphasized.

  18. UCN gravitational spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)

  19. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer

  20. Antimatter Plasmas in a Multipole Trap for Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies.

  1. Antimatter plasmas in a multipole trap for antihydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, G; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2007-01-12

    We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies.

  2. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap......, our results indicate that pitfall traps are the most efficient for capturing shrews: not only do they have a higher efficiency (yield), but the taxonomic diversity of shrews is also higher when pitfall traps are used....

  3. An atom trap relying on optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, P.; Lemonde, P.; Ben Dahan, M.; Michaud, A.; Salomon, C.; Dalibard, J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated a new radiation pressure trap which relies on optical pumping and does not require any magnetic field. It employs six circularly polarized divergent beams and works on the red of a J g →J e = J g + 1 atomic transition with J g ≥1/2. We have demonstrated this trap with cesium atoms from a vapour cell using the 852 nm J g = 4→J e = 5 resonance transition. The trap contained up to 3.10 7 atoms in a cloud of 1/√e radius of 330 μm. (orig.)

  4. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  5. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  6. Controlling spin flips of molecules in an electromagnetic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reens, David; Wu, Hao; Langen, Tim; Ye, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Doubly dipolar molecules exhibit complex internal spin dynamics when electric and magnetic fields are both applied. Near magnetic trap minima, these spin dynamics lead to enhancements in Majorana spin-flip transitions by many orders of magnitude relative to atoms and are thus an important obstacle for progress in molecule trapping and cooling. We conclusively demonstrate and address this with OH molecules in a trap geometry where spin-flip losses can be tuned from over 200 s-1 to below our 2 s-1 vacuum-limited loss rate with only a simple external bias coil and with minimal impact on trap depth and gradient.

  7. Angular trap for macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksyonov, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    Properties of angular macroparticle traps were investigated in this work. These properties are required to design vacuum arc plasma filters. The correlation between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators which contain such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of angular traps in filters of different builds are given.

  8. Experimental pseudo-symmetric trap EPSILON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovoroda, A.A.; Arsenin, V.V.; Dlougach, E.D.; Kulygin, V.M.; Kuyanov, A.Yu.; Timofeev, A.V.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Zvonkov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the conceptual project 'Adaptive Plasma EXperiment' a trap with the closed magnetic field lines 'Experimental Pseudo-Symmetric trap' is examined. The project APEX is directed at the theoretical and experimental development of physical foundations for stationary thermonuclear reactor on the basis of an alternative magnetic trap with tokamak-level confinement of high β plasma. The fundamental principle of magnetic field pseudosymmetry that should be satisfied for plasma to have tokamak-like confinement is discussed. The calculated in paraxial approximation examples of pseudosymmetric curvilinear elements with poloidal direction of B isolines are adduced. The EPSILON trap consisting of two straight axisymmetric mirrors linked by two curvilinear pseudosymmetric elements is considered. The plasma currents are short-circuited within the curvilinear element what increases the equilibrium β. The untraditional scheme of MHD stabilization of a trap with the closed field lines by the use of divertor inserted into axisymmetric mirror is analyzed. The experimental installation EPSILON-OME that is under construction for experimental check of divertor stabilization is discussed. The possibility of ECR plasma production in EPSILON-OME under conditions of high density and small magnetic field is examined. (author)

  9. Multipole traps for non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiouririne, T.N.; Turner, L.; Lau, A.W.C.

    1994-01-01

    A multipolar generalization of the Penning trap is presented. The case of l=1 is that of standard Penning trap. For the case of a quadrupolar magnetic field, analytic solutions are presented for cold, confined, one-species plasmas with spheroidal or spherical boundaries; for higher l values analytic solutions are given only for spherically bounded plasmas. By virtue of the sheared flow present for solutions with l>1, the classical Brillouin ratio (stored rest energy of particles/stored magnetic energy) of unity is exceeded and attains a global limit of 2 at infinitely high l

  10. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Schmidt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  11. An efficient biosensor made of an electromagnetic trap and a magneto-resistive sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, we report a new setup for magnetic biosensors, replacing the conventional "sandwich" concept with an electromagnetic trap. We demonstrate the capability of the biosensor in the detection of E. coli. The trap is formed by a current

  12. Cryogenic magnetic coil and superconducting magnetic shield for neutron electric dipole moment searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, S.; Swank, C. M.; Biswas, A.; Carr, R.; Escribano, J.; Filippone, B. W.; Griffith, W. C.; Mendenhall, M.; Nouri, N.; Osthelder, C.; Pérez Galván, A.; Picker, R.; Plaster, B.

    2017-08-01

    A magnetic coil operated at cryogenic temperatures is used to produce spatial, relative field gradients below 6 ppm/cm, stable for several hours. The apparatus is a prototype of the magnetic components for a neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) search, which will take place at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). That search requires a uniform magnetic field to mitigate systematic effects and obtain long polarization lifetimes for neutron spin precession measurements. This paper details upgrades to a previously described apparatus [1], particularly the introduction of super-conducting magnetic shielding and the associated cryogenic apparatus. The magnetic gradients observed are sufficiently low for the nEDM search at SNS.

  13. Luminescence and charge trapping in Cs.sub.2./sub.HfCl.sub.6./sub. single crystals: optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Robert; Babin, Vladimir; Mihóková, Eva; Buryi, Maksym; Laguta, Valentyn; Nitsch, Karel; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 22 (2017), s. 12375-12382 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA17-09933S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Cs2HfCl6 * single crystal * luminescence * temperature dependence * EPR spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  14. ATRAP on the way to trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grzonka, D; Gabrielse, G; Goldenbaum, F; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Oelert, W; Pittner, H; Sefzick, T; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Walz, J; Zhang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s‐2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom. Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen. The shape parameters of the antiproton and positron clouds, the n‐state distribution of the produced Rydberg antihydrogen atoms and the antihydrogen velocity have been studied. Furthermore an alternative method of laser controlled antihydrogen production was successfully applied. For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trappi...

  15. Whistler wave trapping in a density crest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, H.; Niki, H.; Inutake, M.; Takeda, S.

    1979-11-01

    The linear trapping process of whistler waves in a field-aligned density crest is investigated theoretically and experimentally below ω = ωsub(c)/2 (half gyrofrequency). The conditions of the crest trapping are derived in terms of the frequency ω/ωsub(c), the incident wave-normal angle theta sub(i), and the density ratio n sub(i)/n sub(o), where n sub(i) and n sub(o) denote the density at the incident point and that at the ridge, respectively. The oscillation length of the trapped ray path is calculated for a parabolic density profile. The experiment on antenna-excited whistler wave has been performed in a large magnetized plasma with the density crest. The phase and amplitude profile of the whistler wave is measured along and across the crest. The measurement has verified characteristic behaviors of the crest trapping. (author)

  16. High trapped fields in bulk YBCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Günter; Gruss, Stefan; Krabbes, Gernot; Schätzle, Peter; Verges, Peter; Müller, Karl-Hartmut; Fink, Jörg; Schultz, Ludwig

    The trapped field properties of bulk melt-textured YBCO material were investigated at different temperatures. In the temperature range of liquid nitrogen, maximum trapped fields of 1.1 T were found at 77 K by doping of YBCO with small amounts of zinc. The improved pinning of zinc-doped YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) results in a pronounced peak effect in the field dependence of the critical current density. the trapped field at lower temperatures increases due to the increasing critical current density, however, at temperatures around 50 K cracking of the material is observed which is exposed to considerably tensile stresses due to Lorentz forces. Very high trapped fields up to 14.4 T were achieved at 22.5 K for a YBCO disk pair by the addition of silver improving the tensile strength of YBCO and by using a bandage made of a steel tube. The steel tube produces a compressive stress on YBCO after cooling down from 300 K to the measuring temperature, which is due to the higher coeeficient of thermal expansion of steel compared with that of YBCO in the a,b plane. The application of superconducting permanent magnets with trapped fields of 10 T and more in superconducting bearings would allow to obtain very high levitation pressures up to 2500 N/cm2 which is two orders of magnitude higher than the levitation pressure achievable in superconducting bearings with conventional permanent magnets. The most important problem for the application of superconducting permanent magnets is the magnetizing procedure of the YBCO material. Results of magnetizing YBCO disks by using of pulsed magnetic fields will be presented.

  17. Observation of Hyperfine Transitions in Trapped Ground-State Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Olin, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the first observation of stimulated magnetic resonance transitions between the hyperfine levels of trapped ground state atomic antihydrogen, confirming its presence in the ALPHA apparatus. Our observations show that these transitions are consistent with the values in hydrogen to within 4~parts~in~$10^3$. Simulations of the trapped antiatoms in a microwave field are consistent with our measurements.

  18. Observation of hyperfine transitions in trapped ground-state antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: A. Olin for the ALPHA Collaboration

    2015-08-15

    This paper discusses the first observation of stimulated magnetic resonance transitions between the hyperfine levels of trapped ground state atomic antihydrogen, confirming its presence in the ALPHA apparatus. Our observations show that these transitions are consistent with the values in hydrogen to within 4 parts in 10{sup 3}. Simulations of the trapped antiatoms in a microwave field are consistent with our measurements.

  19. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    variations of ion traps, including (1) the cylindrically symmetric 3D ring trap; (2) the linear trap with a combination of cavity QED; (#) the symmetric...concepts of quantum information. The major demonstration has been the test of a Bell inequality as demonstrated by Rowe et al. [50] and a decoherence...famous physics experiment [62]. Wolfgang Paul demonstrated a similar apparatus during his Nobel Prize speech [63]. This device is hyperbolic- parabolic

  20. Low temperature delayed recombinationand trap tunneling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Schulman, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 7 (2015), 1-8 ISSN 0953-8984 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101212 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * tunneling * traps Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2015

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  2. Antihydrogen Formation, Dynamics and Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Eoin; Charlton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Antihydrogen, the simplest pure-antimatter atomic system, holds the promise of direct tests of matter-antimatter equivalence and CPT invariance, two of the outstanding unanswered questions in modern physics. Antihydrogen is now routinely produced in charged-particle traps through the combination of plasmas of antiprotons and positrons, but the atoms escape and are destroyed in a minuscule fraction of a second. The focus of this work is the production of a sample of cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic atom trap. This poses an extreme challenge, because the state-of-the-art atom traps are only approximately 0.5 K deep for ground-state antihydrogen atoms, much shallower than the energies of particles stored in the plasmas. This thesis will outline the main parts of the ALPHA experiment, with an overview of the important physical processes at work. Antihydrogen production techniques will be described, and an analysis of the spatial annihilation distribution to give indications of the temperature and binding ene...

  3. Magneto-mechanical trapping systems for biological target detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fuquan; Kodzius, Rimantas; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Foulds, Ian G.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a magnetic microsystem capable of detecting nucleic acids via the size difference between bare magnetic beads and bead compounds. The bead compounds are formed through linking nonmagnetic beads and magnetic beads by the target nucleic acids. The system comprises a tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensor, a trapping well, and a bead-concentrator. The TMR sensor detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside the trapping well, while the sensor output depends on the number of beads. The size of the bead compounds is larger than that of bare magnetic beads, and fewer magnetic beads are required to fill the trapping well. The bead-concentrator, in turn, is capable of filling the trap in a controlled fashion and so to shorten the assay time. The bead-concentrator includes conducting loops surrounding the trapping well and a conducting line underneath. The central conducting line serves to attract magnetic beads in the trapping well and provides a magnetic field to magnetize them so to make them detectable by the TMR sensor. This system excels by its simplicity in that the DNA is incubated with magnetic and nonmagnetic beads, and the solution is then applied to the chip and analyzed in a single step. In current experiments, a signal-to-noise ratio of 40.3 dB was obtained for a solution containing 20.8 nM of DNA. The sensitivity and applicability of this method can be controlled by the size or concentration of the nonmagnetic bead, or by the dimension of the trapping well. (author)

  4. Magneto-mechanical trapping systems for biological target detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2014-03-29

    We demonstrate a magnetic microsystem capable of detecting nucleic acids via the size difference between bare magnetic beads and bead compounds. The bead compounds are formed through linking nonmagnetic beads and magnetic beads by the target nucleic acids. The system comprises a tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensor, a trapping well, and a bead-concentrator. The TMR sensor detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside the trapping well, while the sensor output depends on the number of beads. The size of the bead compounds is larger than that of bare magnetic beads, and fewer magnetic beads are required to fill the trapping well. The bead-concentrator, in turn, is capable of filling the trap in a controlled fashion and so to shorten the assay time. The bead-concentrator includes conducting loops surrounding the trapping well and a conducting line underneath. The central conducting line serves to attract magnetic beads in the trapping well and provides a magnetic field to magnetize them so to make them detectable by the TMR sensor. This system excels by its simplicity in that the DNA is incubated with magnetic and nonmagnetic beads, and the solution is then applied to the chip and analyzed in a single step. In current experiments, a signal-to-noise ratio of 40.3 dB was obtained for a solution containing 20.8 nM of DNA. The sensitivity and applicability of this method can be controlled by the size or concentration of the nonmagnetic bead, or by the dimension of the trapping well.

  5. Versatile electrostatic trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, J.; Bethlem, H.L.; Schnell, M.; Meijer, G.

    2006-01-01

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole field. A cold packet of ND315 molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to

  6. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  7. Cooling and trapping neutral atoms with radiative forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.S.; Castro, J.C.; Li, M.S.; Zilio, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques to slow and trap neutral atoms at high densities with radiative forces are discussed in this review articles. Among several methods of laser cooling, it is emphasized Zeeman Tuning of the electronic levels and frequency-sweeping techniques. Trapping of neutral atoms and recent results obtained in light and magnetic traps are discussed. Techniques to further cool atoms inside traps are presented and the future of laser cooling of neutral atoms by means of radiation pressure is discussed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  8. Simple atom trap in a conical hollow mirror: Numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. A.; Lee, K. I.; Nha, H.; Noh, H. R.; Yoo, S. H.; Jhe, W

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the trap dynamic in a conical hollow (axicon) mirror system. Atom's trajectory is ring shaped if we move the coil (magnetic field) axis off the mirror axis and if we overlap these two axes trap cloud is ball shaped and it is consistent with experiment. We also make a simple comparison between 6-beam MOT and axicon MOT in the ball shaped case, and it shows that at low velocity limit the axicon MOT and typical 6-beam MOT have nearly same trap properties. The axicon trap may be useful as precooled atom source for many other atomic physics experiments such as cold atomic beam, atom funnel, and atom waveguide.

  9. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  10. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  14. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  15. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, M.; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Ashkezari, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which...... is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed....... Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed....

  16. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Humphries, A J [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Hangst, J S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M D; Hayden, M E [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bray, C C; Chapman, S; Fajans, J [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Cesar, C L [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Friesen, T; Hydomako, R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hardy, W N [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hayano, R S, E-mail: M.Charlton@Swansea.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed. Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed.

  17. The NSSDC trapped radiation model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, J.D. Jr.; Bilitza, D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) trapped radiation models calculate the integral and differential electron and proton flux for given values of the particle energy E, drift shell parameter L, and magnetic field strength B for either solar maximum or solar minimum. The most recent versions of the series of models, which have been developed and continuously improved over several decades by Dr. James Vette and coworkers at NSSDC, are AE-8 for electrons and AP-8 for protons. The present status of the NSSDC trapped particle models is discussed. The limits of validity of the models are described. 17 refs

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  1. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  2. Design of a high field uniformity electromagnet for Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itteera, Janvin; Singh, Kumud; Teotia, Vikas; Ukarde, Priti; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K.; Joshi, Manoj; Rao, Pushpa

    2013-01-01

    An ion trap (Penning trap) facility is being developed at BARC for spectroscopy studies. This requires the design of an iron core electromagnet capable of generating high magnetic fields (∼1.7T) at the centre of an 88 mm long air gap. This electromagnet provides the requisite dipole magnetic field which when superimposed on the electrostatic quadrupoles ensures a stable trapping of ions. To conduct high precision spectroscopy studies, we need to ensure a high degree of magnetic field uniformity ( 3 volume (Trap zone). Various pole shoe profiles were studied and modelled, FEM simulation of the same were conducted to compute the magnetic field intensity and field uniformity. Owing to the large air gap and requirement of high field intensity in the GFR, the exciting coils need to handle high current densities, which require water cooled systems. Double Pan-Cake coil design is selected for powering the magnet. Electrical, thermal and hydraulic designs of the coils are completed and a prototype double pancake coil was fabricated and tested for verifying the electrical and thermal parameter. The spatial field homogeneity is achieved by shimming the pole tip. Temporal stability of magnet requires a highly stable power supply for exciting the coils and its stability class is derived from FEM simulations. This paper discusses the electromagnetic design and development of the penning trap magnet being developed at BARC. (author)

  3. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Joseph N.; Guise, Nicholas D.; Brewer, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  4. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  6. EBIT trapping program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Beck, B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Church, D.; DeWitt, D.; Knapp, D.K.; Marrs, R.E.; Schneider, D.; Schweikhard, L.

    1993-01-01

    The LLNL electron beam ion trap provides the world's only source of stationary highly charged ions up to bare U. This unique capability makes many new atomic and nuclear physics experiments possible. (orig.)

  7. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  8. A circularly polarized optical dipole trap and other developments in laser trapping of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Kristan Lee

    Several innovations in laser trapping and cooling of alkali atoms are described. These topics share a common motivation to develop techniques for efficiently manipulating cold atoms. Such advances facilitate sensitive precision measurements such as parity non- conservation and 8-decay asymmetry in large trapped samples, even when only small quantities of the desired species are available. First, a cold, bright beam of Rb atoms is extracted from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) using a very simple technique. This beam has a flux of 5 × 109 atoms/s and a velocity of 14 m/s, and up to 70% of the atoms in the MOT were transferred to the atomic beam. Next, a highly efficient MOT for radioactive atoms is described, in which more than 50% of 221Fr atoms contained in a vapor cell are loaded into a MOT. Measurements were also made of the 221Fr 7 2P1/2 and 7 2P3/2 energies and hyperfine constants. To perform these experiments, two schemes for stabilizing the frequency of the light from a diode laser were developed and are described in detail. Finally, a new type of trap is described and a powerful cooling technique is demonstrated. The circularly polarized optical dipole trap provides large samples of highly spin-polarized atoms, suitable for many applications. Physical processes that govern the transfer of large numbers of atoms into the trap are described, and spin-polarization is measured to be 98(1)%. In addition, the trap breaks the degeneracy of the atomic spin states much like a magnetic trap does. This allows for RF and microwave cooling via both forced evaporation and a Sisyphus mechanism. Preliminary application of these techniques to the atoms in the circularly polarized dipole trap has successfully decreased the temperature by a factor of 4 while simultaneously increasing phase space density.

  9. Portable Pbars, traps that travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Hynes, M.V.; Picklesimer, A.

    1987-10-01

    The advent of antiproton research utilizing relatively small scale storage devices for very large numbers of these particles opens the possibility of transporting these devices to a research site removed from the accelerator center that produced the antiprotons. Such a portable source of antiprotons could open many new areas of research and make antiprotons available to a new research community. At present antiprotons are available at energies down to 1 MeV. From a portable source these particles can be made available at energies ranging from several tens of kilovolts down to a few millielectron volts. These low energies are in the domain of interest to the atomic and condensed matter physicist. In addition such a source can be used as an injector for an accelerator which could increase the energy domain even further. Moreover, the availability of such a source at a university will open research with antiprotons to a broader range of students than possible at a centralized research facility. This report focuses on the use of ion traps, in particular cylindrical traps, for the antiproton storage device. These devices store the charged antiprotons in a combination of electric and magnet fields. At high enough density and low enough temperature the charged cloud will be susceptible to plasma instabilities. Present day ion trap work is just starting to explore this domain. Our assessment of feasibility is based on what could be done with present day technology and what future technology could achieve. We conclude our report with a radiation safety study that shows that about 10 11 antiprotons can be transported safely, however the federal guidelines for this transport must be reviewed in detail. More antiprotons than this will require special transportation arrangements. 28 refs., 8 figs

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  14. [Analysis of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ser(UCN)) genes in patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss from various regions of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhemileva, L U; Posukh, O L; Tazetdinov, A M; Barashkov, N A; Zhuravskiĭ, S G; Ponidelko, S N; Markova, T G; Tadinova, V N; Fedorova, S A; Maksimova, N R; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2009-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations play an important role in etiology of hereditary hearing loss. In various regions of the world, patients suffer from nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss initiated by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Mutations that had been shown as pathogenetically important for hearing function disturbance were identified in mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ser(UCN)) genes while pathogenic role of several DNA sequences requires additional studies. This work presents the results of studying the spectrum of mutations and polymorphic variations in mtDNA genes 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ser(UGN)) in 410 patients with nonsyndromal sensoneural hearing impairment/loss from the Volga Ural region, St Petersburg, Yakutia, and Altai and in 520 individuals with normal hearing, which represent several ethnic groups (Russians, Tatars, Bashkirs, Yakuts, Altaians) residing in the Russian Federation. Pathogenetically significant mutation A1555G (12S rRNA) was found in two families (from Yakutia and St Peresburg) with hearing loss, probably caused by treatment with aminoglucosides, and in the population sample of Yakuts with a frequency of 0.83%. Further research is needed to confirm the role in hearing impairment of mutations 961insC, 961insC(n), 961delTinsC(n), T961G, T1095C (12S rRNA) and G7444A, A7445C (tRNA(Ser(UGN revealed in the patients. In addition, in the patients and the population groups, polymorphic mt DNA variants were detected, which are characteristic also of other Eurasian populations both in spectrum and frequency.

  15. PREDICCIÓN DE LA ESTRUCTURA SECUNDARIA DEL tRNASer (UCN MITOCONDRIAL DEL FLEBOTOMÍNEO Lutzomyia hartmanni (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar Elías Bejarano Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia hartmanni es un flebotomíneo implicado en la transmisión de Leishmania (Viannia colombiensis, uno de los agentes etiológicos de la leishmaniasis cutánea en Colombia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar la utilidad potencial del RNA de transferencia mitocondrial para Serina (UCN (tRNASer, en la discriminación taxonómica de L. hartmanni. El DNA mitocondrial se extrajo, amplificó y secuenció a partir de material entomológico recolectado en Envigado, Antioquia, Colombia. El gen tRNASer de L. hartmanni mostró una longitud de 68 pares de bases, con un contenido AT del 80,9%. Éste se diferencia de los demás tRNASer de Lutzomyia conocidos a la fecha tanto por sustituciones en la secuencia primaria de nucleótidos como por los cambios que éstas generan en la estructura secundaria.  El número de apareamientos intracatenarios fue 7 en el brazo aceptor del aminoácido, 3 en el brazo dihidrouridina (DHU, 5 en el brazo del anticodón y 5 en el brazo ribotimidina-pseudouridina-citosina (TψC. El tamaño de las lupas DHU, anticodón, variable y TψC correspondió a 5, 7, 4 y 8 nucleótidos, respectivamente. La notoria ausencia de pares de bases no-Watson-Crick en los cuatro brazos del tRNASer de L. hartmanni, la distingue de otras especies de Lutzomyia.

  16. Flux trapping and shielding in irreversible superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, D.J.

    1978-05-01

    Flux trappings and shielding experiments were carried out on Pb, Nb, Pb-Bi, Nb-Sn, and Nb-Ti samples of various shapes. Movable Hall probes were used to measure fields near or inside the samples as a function of position and of applied field. The trapping of transverse multipole magnetic fields in tubular samples was accomplished by cooling the samples in an applied field and then smoothly reducing the applied field to zero. Transverse quadrupole and sextupole fields with gradients of over 2000 G/cm were trapped with typical fidelity to the original impressed field of a few percent. Transverse dipole fields of up to 17 kG were also trapped with similar fidelity. Shielding experiments were carried out by cooling the samples in zero field and then gradually applying an external field. Flux trapping and shielding abilities were found to be limited by two factors, the pinning strength of the material, and the susceptibility of a sample to flux jumping. The trapping and shielding behavior of flat disk samples in axial fields and thin-walled tubular samples in transverse fields was modeled. The models, which were based on the concept of the critical state, allowed a connection to be made between the pinning strength and critical current level, and the flux trapping and shielding abilities. Adiabatic and dynamic stability theories are discussed and applied to the materials tested. Good qualitative, but limited quantitative agreement was obtained between the predictions of the theoretical stability criteria and the observed flux jumping behavior

  17. Observation of Diamond Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Photoluminescence under High Vacuum in a Magneto-Gravitational Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Hsu, Jen-Feng; Lewandowski, Charles W.; Dutt, M. V. Gurudev; D'Urso, Brian

    2016-05-01

    We report the observation of photoluminescence from nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond nanocrystals levitated in a magneto-gravitational trap. The trap utilizes a combination of strong magnetic field gradients and gravity to confine diamagnetic particles in three dimensions. The well-characterized NV centers in trapped diamond nanocrystals provide an ideal built-in sensor to measure the trap magnetic field and the temperature of the trapped diamond nanocrystal. In the future, the NV center spin state could be coupled to the mechanical motion through magnetic field gradients, enabling in an ideal quantum interface between NV center spin and the mechanical motion. National Science Foundation, Grant No. 1540879.

  18. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M F; van Mourik, M W; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with 40 Ca + and 88 Sr + ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in 40 Ca + is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ⋅ 10 -15 at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped 40 Ca + ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  1. Nonadiabatic particle motion in magnetic mirror traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, H.; Otsuka, S.; Varma, R.K.; Watanabe, T.; Nishikawa, Kyoji.

    1982-01-01

    By numerical integration of the equation of single particle motion, the basic features of the actual nonadiabatic escape of particles are studied. The results are compared with the predictions of two existing theoretical models: ''diffusion'' model derived by B. V. Chirikov and ''tunneling'' model introduced by R. K. Varma. (author)

  2. Plasma automatic control in magnetic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.I.; Chuyanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Principles of constructing the systems providing a plasma equilibrium and stability in thermonuctear devices are laid down. Operation of the servo system to maintain a plasma equilibrium is described using the tokamak plasma filament as an example. Operation of the system to suppress a flute instability is also described. This system measures electric disturbances on the plasma body surface and controls charge distribution on external electrodes. It is pointed out that systems of automatic control of plasma equilibrium and stability become an essential element of a future thermonuclear reactor and the system potentialities would much determine the reactor economic efficiency

  3. Magnetically operated check valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed. The valve is comprised of a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  4. Ion trap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  5. Asymmetric ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Alexander, Michael L.; Follansbee, James C.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  6. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  7. Diffusion and trapping of positive muons in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekema, C.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Kossler, W.J.; Numan, M.; Dodds, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Using zero- and longitudinal-field muon spin relaxation, the conventional interpretation of the ''double-humped'' behavior of the μ + -depolarization rate in Nb has been established unambiguously. Thus the μ + mobility is shown to increase monotonically with temperature. The widths of the magnetic field distributions (due to the Nb nuclear moments) and the rates for finding or escaping from traps have been measured at several temperatures. In addition, equations are presented which govern the time evolution of the μ + polarization, when the muons are finding traps, escaping from traps, or both, for zero, longitudinal, and transverse external magnetic fields. A method for including the effect of more than one kind of trap acting at a particular temperature is given

  8. Diffusion and trapping of positive muons in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekema, C.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Kossler, W.J.; Numan, M.; Dodds, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Using zero- and longitudinal-field μSR, the conventional interpretation of the double-humped behavior of the μ + -depolarization rate in Nb has been established unambiguously. Thus the μ + mobility is shown to increase monotonically with temperature. The widths of the magnetic field distributions (due to the Nb nuclear moments) and the rates for finding or escaping from traps have been measured at several temperatures. In addition, equations are presented which govern the time-evolution of the μ + polarization, when the muons are finding traps, escaping from traps, or both, for zero, longitudinal, and transverse external magnetic fields. A method for including the effect of more than one kind of trap acting at a particular temperature is given

  9. Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-03-07

    The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves.

  10. Radiation of electrons in an electromagnetic axial trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropova, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    The version of a trap. wherein particles move in a homogeneous constant magnetic field and electrostatic field, formed by two equipotential planes and rotation axial surface, is proposed. The solution of canonic equations is found. It is shown that interaction of electrons with the radiation field leads to damping parametric resonance. The trap model, accounting for the finite conductivity of the resonator walls and losses by collisions with gas, is studied

  11. Performance improvement of charge trap flash memory by using a composition-modulated high-k trapping layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhen-Jie; Li Rong; Yin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    A composition-modulated (HfO 2 ) x (Al 2 O3) 1−x charge trapping layer is proposed for charge trap flash memory by controlling the Al atom content to form a peak and valley shaped band gap. It is found that the memory device using the composition-modulated (HfO 2 ) x (Al 2 O 3 ) 1−x as the charge trapping layer exhibits a larger memory window of 11.5 V, improves data retention even at high temperature, and enhances the program/erase speed. Improvements of the memory characteristics are attributed to the special band-gap structure resulting from the composition-modulated trapping layer. Therefore, the composition-modulated charge trapping layer may be useful in future nonvolatile flash memory device application. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Magnetic particle separation using controllable magnetic force switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zunghang; Lee, C.-P.; Lai, M.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic particle separation is very important in biomedical applications. In this study, a magnetic particle microseparator is proposed that uses micro magnets to produce open/closed magnetic flux for switching on/off the separation. When all magnets are magnetized in the same direction, the magnetic force switch for separation is on; almost all magnetic particles are trapped in the channel side walls and the separation rate can reach 95%. When the magnetization directions of adjacent magnets are opposite, the magnetic force switch for separation is off, and most magnetic particles pass through the microchannel without being trapped. For the separation of multi-sized magnetic particles, the proposed microseparator is numerically demonstrated to have high separation rate.

  13. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO 2 as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe

  14. Redesigning octopus traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In order to minimise the identified problems in the actual traps, the present work proposes a new design with the aim of reducing the volume and weight during transport, and also during onshore storage. Alternative materials to avoid corrosion and formation of encrustations were also proposed.

  15. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  16. Weak Interaction Measurements with Optically Trapped Radioactive Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Crane, S.G.; Guckert, R.; Zhao, X.; Brice, S.J.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; Tupa, D.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project is to apply the latest in magneto-optical and pure magnetic trapping technology to concentrate, cool, confine, and polarize radioactive atoms for precise electroweak interaction measurements. In particular, the authors have concentrated their efforts on the trapping of 82 Rb for a parity-violating, beta-asymmetry measurement. Progress has been made in successfully trapping of up to 6 million 82 Rb(t 1/2 =75s) atoms in a magneto-optical trap coupled to a mass separator. This represents a two order of magnitude improvement in the number trapped radioactive atoms over all previous work. They have also measured the atomic hyperfine structure of 82 Rb and demonstrated the MOT-to-MOT transfer and accumulation of atoms in a second trap. Finally, they have constructed and tested a time-orbiting-potential magnetic trap that will serve as a rotating beacon of spin-polarized nuclei and a beta-telescope detection system. Prototype experiments are now underway with the initial goal of making a 1% measurements of the beta-asymmetry parameter A which would match the world's best measurements

  17. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  1. [Trapping techniques for Solenopsis invicta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-song; Zhang, Qiang; Zhuang, Yiong-lin; Li, Gui-wen; Ji, Lin-peng; Wang, Jian-guo; Dai, Hua-guo

    2007-06-01

    A field study was made to investigate the trapping effects of different attractants, traps, and wind directions on Solenopsis invicta. The results showed that among the test attractants, TB1 (50 g fishmeal, 40 g peptone, 10 ml 10% sucrose water solution and 20 ml soybean oil) had the best effect, followed by TB2 (ham), TB6 (100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB4 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g sugarcane powder and 20 ml soybean oil), with a mean capture efficiency being 77.6, 58.7, 29 and 7.7 individuals per trap, respectively. No S. invicta was trapped with TB3 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB5 (honey). Tube trap was superior to dish trap, with a trapping efficiency of 75.2 and 35 individuals per trap, respectively. The attractants had better effects in leeward than in windward.

  2. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  3. Microwave quantum logic gates for trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospelkaus, C; Warring, U; Colombe, Y; Brown, K R; Amini, J M; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2011-08-10

    Control over physical systems at the quantum level is important in fields as diverse as metrology, information processing, simulation and chemistry. For trapped atomic ions, the quantized motional and internal degrees of freedom can be coherently manipulated with laser light. Similar control is difficult to achieve with radio-frequency or microwave radiation: the essential coupling between internal degrees of freedom and motion requires significant field changes over the extent of the atoms' motion, but such changes are negligible at these frequencies for freely propagating fields. An exception is in the near field of microwave currents in structures smaller than the free-space wavelength, where stronger gradients can be generated. Here we first manipulate coherently (on timescales of 20 nanoseconds) the internal quantum states of ions held in a microfabricated trap. The controlling magnetic fields are generated by microwave currents in electrodes that are integrated into the trap structure. We also generate entanglement between the internal degrees of freedom of two atoms with a gate operation suitable for general quantum computation; the entangled state has a fidelity of 0.76(3), where the uncertainty denotes standard error of the mean. Our approach, which involves integrating the quantum control mechanism into the trapping device in a scalable manner, could be applied to quantum information processing, simulation and spectroscopy.

  4. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Andriessen, R.; Rijk, de M.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG) Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel) and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles

  5. Measurement and simulation of the pressure ratio between the two traps of double Penning trap mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidherr, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Ferrer, R.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Weber, C.

    2008-01-01

    Penning traps are ideal tools to perform high-precision mass measurements. For this purpose the cyclotron frequency of the stored charged particles is measured. In case of on-line mass measurements of short-lived nuclides produced at radioactive beam facilities the ions get in general first prepared and cooled by buffer-gas collisions in a preparation trap to reduce their motional amplitudes and are then transported to a precision trap for the cyclotron frequency determination. In modern Penning trap mass spectrometers both traps are placed in the homogeneous region of one superconducting magnet to optimize the transport efficiency. Because the gas pressure inside the precision trap has to be very low in order to minimize the damping of the ion motion caused by collisions with rest gas molecules during the frequency determination, a pumping barrier is installed between both traps. To predict the pressure difference between the two traps in the region of molecular gas flow the motion of each particle can be simulated without consideration of the other particles. Thus, it is possible to calculate the transit probability through a tube of a given geometry. The results are compared with experimentally obtained pressure differences.

  6. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  7. Trapped Ion Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].

  8. Configuration analysis and optimization on multipolar Galatea trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, W. M., E-mail: dianqi@hit.edu.cn; Tao, B. Q.; Jin, X. J.; Li, Z. W. [Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation (China)

    2016-10-15

    Multipolar Galatea magnetic trap simulation model was established with the finite element simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics. Analyses about the magnetic section configuration show that better magnetic configuration should make more plasma stay in the weak magnetic field rather than the annular magnetic shell field. Then an optimization model was established with axial electromagnetic force, weak magnetic field area and average magnetic mirror ratio as the optimization goals and with the currents of myxines as design variables. Select appropriate weight coefficients and get optimization results by applying genetic algorithm. Results show that the superiority of the target value of typical application parameters, including the average magnetic mirror can reduce more than 5%, the weak magnetic field area can increase at least 65%, at the same time, axial electromagnetic force acting on the outer myxines can be reduced to less than 50 N. Finally, the results were proved by COMSOL Multiphysics and the results proved the optimized magnetic trap configuration with more plasma in the weak magnetic field can reduce the plasma diffusion velocity and is more conducive for the constraint of plasma.

  9. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  10. Ripple induced trapped particle loss in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    The threshold for stochastic transport of high energy trapped particles in a tokamak due to toroidal field ripple is calculated by explicit construction of primary resonances, and a numerical examination of the route to chaos. Critical field ripple amplitude is determined for loss. The expression is given in magnetic coordinates and makes no assumptions regarding shape or up-down symmetry. An algorithm is developed including the effects of prompt axisymmetric orbit loss, ripple trapping, convective banana flow, and stochastic ripple loss, which gives accurate ripple loss predictions for representative Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor equilibria. The algorithm is extended to include the effects of collisions and drag, allowing rapid estimation of alpha particle loss in tokamaks

  11. Ultra-Cold Neutrons (UCN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers working at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and eight other member institutions of an international collaboration are constructing the most intense...

  12. Utilization of the ion traps by SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, C.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Tamain, B.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap is a device capable of confine particles, ions or atoms in a well-controlled environment isolated from any exterior perturbations. There are different traps. They are utilized to collect or stock ions, to cool them after in order to subject them to high precision measurement of masses, magnetic moments, hyperfine properties, beta decay properties, etc. Some dozen of traps are currently used all over the world to study stable or radioactive ions.. SPIRAL has been designed and built to produce radioactive ions starting from various heavy ion beams. SPIRAL has the advantage that the projectile parameters, the target and the energy can be chosen to optimize the production in various regions of the nuclear chart. Also, in SPIRAL it is possible to extract more rapidly the radioactive ions formed in the targets. In addition, in SPIRAL the multicharged ion production in a ECR source is possible. The utilization of multicharged ions is indeed very useful for fast mass measurements or for the study of the interaction between the nucleus and the electronic cloud. Finally, utilization of a ion trap on SPIRAL can be designed first at the level of production target by installing a low energy output line. Than, the trap system could be up-graded and brought to its full utilization behind of the recoil spectrometer. It must be capable of selecting and slowing down the ions produced in the reactions (fusion transfer, very inelastic collisions, etc.) induced by the radioactive ions accelerated in CIME. At present, the collaboration is debating on the most favored subject to study and the most suited experimental setups. The following subjects were selected: ion capture, purification and manipulation; isomers (separation and utilization); mass measurements; hyperfine interactions; lifetimes, nuclear electric cloud; β decays; study of the N = Z nuclei close to the proton drip line; physical and chemical properties of transuranium systems

  13. Stable Trapping of Multielectron Helium Bubbles in a Paul Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. M.; Vadakkumbatt, V.; Pal, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-06-01

    In a recent experiment, we have used a linear Paul trap to store and study multielectron bubbles (MEBs) in liquid helium. MEBs have a charge-to-mass ratio (between 10^{-4} and 10^{-2} C/kg) which is several orders of magnitude smaller than ions (between 10^6 and 10^8 C/kg) studied in traditional ion traps. In addition, MEBs experience significant drag force while moving through the liquid. As a result, the experimental parameters for stable trapping of MEBs, such as magnitude and frequency of the applied electric fields, are very different from those used in typical ion trap experiments. The purpose of this paper is to model the motion of MEBs inside a linear Paul trap in liquid helium, determine the range of working parameters of the trap, and compare the results with experiments.

  14. Containment of Plasma Trapped in a Magnetic Well; Confinement d'un Plasma Piege dans un Puits Magnetique; Uderzhanie plazmy, zakhvachennoj v magnitnoj yame; Confinamiento de un Plasma Atrapado en un Pozo Magnetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, G.; Hill, J. W.; Mason, D. W. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Culham Laboratory, Abingdon, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-04-15

    Plasma from a coaxial gun is guided along an injection line by a converging magnetic field into a central glass vacuum chamber. Here part of the plasma is reflected from a magnetic mirror, and then trapped by the application of another rapidly-pulsed mirror field. Stabilising fields can also be applied by currents in six Ioffe bars parallel to the axis. The fields, of short rise time, are maintained roughly constant for 1 msec. In earlier experiments on plasma of mean density 4 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and ion energy 1 keV, a rotating flute instability was present in simple mirror geometry, the plasma being lost in 60 {mu}sec. With stabilising fields applied, the lifetime of energetic ions (measured by the emission of charge exchanged neutral atoms) increased to 250 -400 {mu}sec. This decay rate was faster than that due to charge exchange at the background gas pressure of 3 x 10{sup -7} Torr, indicating a large transient influx of gas from the walls of the chamber. Later experiments on higher density plasma (n {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, #Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol# {approx} 5 keV) have confirmed these results. In these the fast atom flux lasted 140-200 {mu}sec in both simple mirror and complex fields. The signal due to charge exchange emission peaked about 30 {mu}sec after the instant of trapping. This signal measures the product of the fast ion and neutral gas densities. A deliberate increase of background pressure up to 10{sup -5} Torr made little difference in the amplitude of the signal. Attempts to change the influx of gas by baking the chamber and evaporating lithium were unsuccessful, but the lithium coating showed signs of severe bombardment along the cusp lines between the Ioffe bars. A compensated diamagnetic loop placed inside the vacuum chamber showed that the value of {beta} for the trapped plasma was at least 0.1; the diamagnetism fell sharply within 50 usee, confirming that the longer-lasting neutral atom signal must be due largely to the influx

  15. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  16. Atom trap trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  17. Unified theory of ballooning instabilities and temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.

    1990-08-01

    A unified theory of temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes and ballooning instabilities is developed using kinetic theory in banana regimes. All known results, such as electrostatic and purely magnetic trapped particle modes and ideal MHD ballooning modes (or shear Alfven waves) are readily derived from our single general dispersion relation. Several new results from ion-ion collision and trapped particle modification of ballooning modes are derived and discussed and the interrelationship between those modes is established. 24 refs

  18. Resilience of quasi-isodynamic stellarators against trapped-particle instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proll, J H E; Helander, P; Connor, J W; Plunk, G G

    2012-06-15

    It is shown that in perfectly quasi-isodynamic stellarators, trapped particles with a bounce frequency much higher than the frequency of the instability are stabilizing in the electrostatic and collisionless limit. The collisionless trapped-particle instability is therefore stable as well as the ordinary electron-density-gradient-driven trapped-electron mode. This result follows from the energy balance of electrostatic instabilities and is thus independent of all other details of the magnetic geometry.

  19. Characteristics of trapped electrons and electron traps in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Potienko, G.; Box, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two additional carbohydrates are reported whose crystal structures trap electrons intermolecularly in single crystals x irradiated at low temperature, namely sucrose and rhamnose. Five carbohydrate and polyhydroxy compounds are now known which exhibit this phenomenon. The following characteristics of the phenomenon were investigated: (1) the hyperfine couplings of the electron with protons of the polarized hydroxy groups forming the trap; (2) the distances between these protons and the trapped electron; (3) the spin density of the electron at the protons and (4) the relative stabilities of the electron trapped in various crystal structures

  20. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to do precision spectroscopic measurements on these ions. ... Bonn, investigated the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter, .... the details of which will be discussed in the subse- ... the radial plane the ion undergoes a circular motion with the.

  1. Observation of a new magneto-optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, O.; Bardou, F.; Salomon, C.; Laurent, P.; Nadir, A.; Clairon, A.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the observation of a new laser trap for neutral atoms. It uses three orthogonal pairs of counterpropagating laser beams having linear polarizations at 45deg and a quadrupole magnetic field. 10 8 cesium atoms were thus confined in a 0.15 mm 3 volume at a temperature of 60 μK, a factor of 2 below the Doppler cooling limit. We interpret this trapping as being due to the new magneto-optical force recently observed by Grimm et al. and which is essentially a dipole force rectified by the magnetic field. This trap opens new possibilities for increasing the phase-space density of laser-cooled atoms. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic Field Design for the LANL nEDM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadisman, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    A recent UCN source upgrade at LANSCE makes possible an order of magnitude advancement in the measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment by use of the familiar Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields. A highly uniform B0 magnetic field is required to achieve sufficiently long spin-relaxation times and to suppress the false EDM caused by the geometric phase effect. We identified a multi-gap solenoid as an ideal candidate to simultaneously achieve the uniformity requirements, via optimization of the gap lengths between and current within different sections, and provide plentiful access to the fiducial region. Results from initial tests of the coil when installed in the magnetic shield house enclosing the experiment will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-SC-0014622.

  3. Coexistence of mitochondrial 12S rRNA C1494T and CO1/tRNASer(UCN) G7444A mutations in two Han Chinese pedigrees with aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Huijun; Chen Jing; Liu Xin; Cheng Jing; Wang Xinjian; Yang Li; Yang Shuzhi; Cao Juyang; Kang Dongyang; Dai Pu; Zha, Suoqiang; Han Dongyi; Young Wieyen; Guan Minxin

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA are one of the important causes of hearing loss. We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of two Han Chinese pedigrees with maternally transmitted aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic bilateral hearing loss. Clinical evaluation revealed the wide range of severity, age-at-onset, and audiometric configuration of hearing impairment in matrilineal relatives in these families. The penetrances of hearing loss in these pedigrees were 20% and 18%, when aminoglycoside-induced deafness was included. When the effect of aminoglycosides was excluded, the penetrances of hearing loss in these seven pedigrees were 10% and 15%. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the presence of the deafness-associated 12S rRNA C1494T and CO1/tRNA Ser(UCN) G7444A mutations. Their distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphism belonged to Eastern Asian haplogroup C4a1, while other previously identified six Chinese mitochondrial genomes harboring the C1494T mutation belong to haplogroups D5a2, D, R, and F1, respectively. This suggested that the C1494T or G7444A mutation occurred sporadically and multiplied through evolution of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The absence of functionally significant mutations in tRNA and rRNAs or secondary LHON mutations in their mtDNA suggest that these mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants may not play an important role in the phenotypic expression of the 12S rRNA C1494T and CO1/tRNA Ser(UCN) G7444A mutations in those Chinese families. However, aminoglycosides and other nuclear modifier genes play a modifying role in the phenotypic manifestation of the C1494T mutation in these Chinese families

  4. Calibration of optically trapped nanotools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carberry, D M; Simpson, S H; Grieve, J A; Hanna, S; Miles, M J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wang, Y; Schaefer, H; Steinhart, M [Institute for Chemistry, University of Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck (Germany); Bowman, R; Gibson, G M; Padgett, M J, E-mail: m.j.miles@bristol.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Science Road, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-30

    Holographically trapped nanotools can be used in a novel form of force microscopy. By measuring the displacement of the tool in the optical traps, the contact force experienced by the probe can be inferred. In the following paper we experimentally demonstrate the calibration of such a device and show that its behaviour is independent of small changes in the relative position of the optical traps. Furthermore, we explore more general aspects of the thermal motion of the tool.

  5. Electrostatic and electromagnetic traps for high-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrent'ev, O.A.

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of thermal isolation are considered for a high-temperature plasma in systems with electrostatic as well as electric and magnetic fields. Specific types of traps are discussed, together with diagnostic methods and fundamental experimental results. (U.S.)

  6. Optical traps with geometric aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G.

    2006-01-01

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems

  7. Impurity Trapping of Positive Muons in Metals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Polarized positive muons are implanted into metal samples. In an applied magnetic field the muon spin precession is studied. The line width in the precession frequency spectrum gives information about the static and dynamic properties of muons in a metal lattice. At temperatures where the muon is immobile within its lifetime the line width gives information about the site of location. At temperatures where the muon is mobile, the line width gives information on the diffusion process. It is known from experiments on quasi-elastic neutron scattering on hydrogen in niobium that interstitial impurities like nitrogen tend to act as traps for hydrogen. These trapping effects have now been studied systematically for muons in both f.c.c. metals (aluminium and copper) and b.c.c. metals (mainly niobium). Direct information on the trapping rates and the nature of the diffusion processes can be obtained since the muonic lifetime covers a time range where many of these processes occur.\\\\ \\\\ Mathematical models are set up ...

  8. Free radicals trapped in polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, S.; Maeda, M.; Hori, Y.; Kashiwabara, H.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of alkyl radicals were found to be trapped in irradiated crystals grown from polyethylene solution. One of them corresponds to the broad sextet pattern of the e.s.r. spectrum and the other corresponds to the sharp sextet pattern. The free radicals attributed to the broad sextet began to disappear at a lower temperature than the temperature at which the free radicals attributed to the sharp sextet disappeared. When butadiene molecules were brought into contact with the specimen, the decay of the free radicals corresponding to the broad sextet was accelerated. When the specimen was subjected to fuming nitric acid treatment, no broad sextet was observed. The mat of the crystals was aligned so that the c-axes of its crystallites were perpendicular to its surface. The broad sextet showed no anisotropy when the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and that of the c-axis of the crystallite was varied. On the other hand, the sharp component of the spectrum showed apparent anisotropy. It can be concluded that the broad component comes from the free radicals trapped in the lamellar surface and the sharp component is attributed to the free radicals trapped in the inner part of the crystallite. (author)

  9. Charge trapping at the step edges of TiO.sub.2./sub. anatase (101)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Setvín, Martin; Hao, X.; Daniel, B.; Pavelec, J.; Novotný, Z.; Parkinson, G.S.; Schmid, M.; Kresse, G.; Franchini, C.; Diebold, U.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 18 (2014), s. 4714-4716 ISSN 1433-7851 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : trapping * STM * DFT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 11.261, year: 2014

  10. A live-trap and trapping technique for fossorial mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mammals. G.C. Hickman. An effective live-trap was designed for Cryptomys hottentotus .... that there is an animal in the burrow system, and to lessen the likelihood of the .... the further testing and modification of existing trap types. Not only is it ...

  11. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers : Exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H. T.; Mandoc, M. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  12. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers: exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H.T.; Mandoc, M.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  13. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  14. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  15. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  17. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  18. Trapped surfaces in spherical stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, P.; Malec, E.; O'Murchadha, N.

    1988-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis

  19. High gradient magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothero, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    In a process in which magnetic material is trapped in a filter disposed in a magnetic field, and is unloaded by passing a fluid through the filter in the absence of the initial magnetic field, the magnetic field is first reduced to an intermediate value to allow unloading of the more weakly magnetic particles, the more strongly magnetic particles being retained and subsequently unloaded by further reduction of the magnetic field. Stage by stage reduction of the magnetic field during unloading allows separation of different species from the mixture. As an example the method can be applied to the separation of uranium compounds from mine ores. The uranium compounds are magnetic, while most of the other constituents of the ore are non-magnetic. The starting material is a suspension of the ore. Water is used for unloading. The filter material in this case is stainless steel balls. (author)

  20. The motion of trapped secondary particles in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamovskij, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The longitudinal motion of secondary electrons and ions trapped by an electron circulating beam field in nonuniform magnetic field of the storage ring is studied analytically. The conditions for their reflection in the fringe field of the storage ring magnet and in the sing-alternating field of the undulator are found. The calculations are made for the probability of this reflection in the case of ion generated in a straight section, in the region of a zero magnetic field. 12 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Effects of electrostatic trapping on neoclassical transport in an impure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Ware, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Contamination of a toroidally confined plasma by highly charged impurity ions can produce substantial variation of the electrostatic potential within a magnetic surface. The resulting electrostatic trapping and electrostatic drifts, of hydrogen ions and electrons, yields significant alterations in neoclassical transport theory. A transport theory which includes these effects is derived from the drift-kinetic equation, with an ordering scheme modeled on the parameters of recent tokamak experiments. The theory self-consistently predicts that electrostatic trapping should be fully comparable to magnetic trapping, and provides transport coefficients which, depending quadratically upon the temperature and pressure gradients, differ markedly from the standard neoclassical coefficients for a pure plasma

  2. Observation of Spin Flips with a Single Trapped Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, S.; Blaum, K.; Kracke, H.; Mooser, A.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spin transitions of an isolated trapped proton are observed for the first time. The spin quantum jumps are detected via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect which is used in an experiment with a single proton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap. This opens the way for a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton and a new test of the matter-antimatter symmetry in the baryon sector. This method can also be applied to other light atomic nuclei.

  3. Synthesis of antihydrogen atoms in a CUSP trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Naofumi; Enomoto, Yoshinori; Michishio, Koji; Kim, Chanhyoun; Higaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Yugo; Kanai, Yasuyuki; Torii, Hiroyuki A.; Corradini, Maurizzio; Leali, Marco; Lodi-Rizzini, Evandro; Mascagna, Valerio; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola; Fujii, Koki; Ohtsuka, Miki; Tanaka, Kazuo; Imao, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Matsuda, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    ASACUSA collaboration has been making a path to realize high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atom in flight for stringent test of the CPT symmetry. Recently, we have succeeded in synthesizing our first cold antihydrogen atoms employing a CUSP trap. It is expected that synthesized antihydrogen atoms in the low-field-seeking states are preferentially focused along the cusp magnetic field axis whereas those in the high-field-seeking states are not focused, resulting in the formation of a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam. We report the recent results of antihydrogen atom synthesis and beam production developed with the CUSP trap.

  4. Synthesis of antihydrogen atoms in a CUSP trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Naofumi, E-mail: kuroda@phys.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Enomoto, Yoshinori [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Michishio, Koji [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Kim, Chanhyoun [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Higaki, Hiroyuki [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter (Japan); Nagata, Yugo; Kanai, Yasuyuki [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Torii, Hiroyuki A. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Corradini, Maurizzio; Leali, Marco; Lodi-Rizzini, Evandro; Mascagna, Valerio; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola [Universita di Brescia and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l' Ingegneria e per i Materiali (Italy); Fujii, Koki; Ohtsuka, Miki; Tanaka, Kazuo [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Imao, Hiroshi [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); Nagashima, Yasuyuki [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Matsuda, Yasuyuki [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); and others

    2012-05-15

    ASACUSA collaboration has been making a path to realize high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atom in flight for stringent test of the CPT symmetry. Recently, we have succeeded in synthesizing our first cold antihydrogen atoms employing a CUSP trap. It is expected that synthesized antihydrogen atoms in the low-field-seeking states are preferentially focused along the cusp magnetic field axis whereas those in the high-field-seeking states are not focused, resulting in the formation of a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam. We report the recent results of antihydrogen atom synthesis and beam production developed with the CUSP trap.

  5. One-Dimensional Rydberg Gas in a Magnetoelectric Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, Michael; Hezel, Bernd; Lesanovsky, Igor; Schmelcher, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We study the quantum properties of Rydberg atoms in a magnetic Ioffe-Pritchard trap which is superimposed by a homogeneous electric field. Trapped Rydberg atoms can be created in long-lived electronic states exhibiting a permanent electric dipole moment of several hundred Debye. The resulting dipole-dipole interaction in conjunction with the radial confinement is demonstrated to give rise to an effectively one-dimensional ultracold Rydberg gas with a macroscopic interparticle distance. We derive analytical expressions for the electric dipole moment and the required linear density of Rydberg atoms

  6. About stability of levitating states of superconducting myxini of plasma traps-galateas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishaev, A.M.; Bush, A.A.; Denis'uk, A.I.; D'yakonitsa, O.Y.; Kamentsev, K.Y.; Kozintseva, M.V.; Kolesnikova, T.G.; Shapovalov, M.M.; Voronchenko, S.A.; Gavrikov, M.B.; Savelyev, V.V.; Smirnov, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    To develop a plasma trap with levitating superconducting magnetic coils it is necessary to carry out the search of their stable levitating states. With this purpose, based upon the superconductor property to conserve the trapped magnetic flux, in the uniform gravitational field the analytical dependence of the potential energy of one or two superconducting rings, having trapped the given magnetic fluxes, in the field of the fixed ring with the constant current from the coordinates of the free rings and the deflection angle of their axes from the common axis of the magnetic system has been obtained in the thin ring approximation. Under magnetic fluxes of the same polarity in coils the existence of the found from the calculations equilibrium levitating states for the manufactured HTSC rings stable relative to the vertical shifts of levitating rings and to the deflection angle of their axes from the vertical has been confirmed experimentally

  7. Schemes for loading a Bose-Einstein condensate into a two-dimensional dipole trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombe, Yves; Kadio, Demascoth; Olshanii, Maxim; Mercier, Brigitte; Lorent, Vincent; Perrin, Helene

    2003-01-01

    We propose two loading mechanisms of a degenerate Bose gas into a surface trap. This trap relies on the dipole potential produced by two evanescent optical waves far detuned from the atomic resonance, yielding a strongly anisotropic trap with typical frequencies 40 Hz x 65 Hz x 30 kHz. We present numerical simulations based on the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation of the transfer process from a conventional magnetic trap into the surface trap. We show that, despite a large discrepancy between the oscillation frequencies along one direction in the initial and final traps, a loading time of a few tens of milliseconds would lead to an adiabatic transfer. Preliminary experimental results are presented

  8. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  9. Urban fall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia de Almeida Valsecchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the repercussion of falls in the elderly peoplewho live in the city of São Paulo and address - though synthetically- some questions regarding the city and its relation to aging and thequality of life of the elderly. Methods: This is a qualitative study. As fordata collection, “in-depth individual interviews” were applied. Selectionof subjects was guided by a procedure named as “network”. Results:Ten interviews were performed, nine with elderly individuals who werevictims of falls and one with a public authority representative. Dataresulting from interviews confirmed that significant changes occurin live of the elderly, who are victims of what has been called “urbantraps”, and that, by extrapolating mobility and dependence contexts,invade feelings, emotions and desires. The inappropriate environmentprovided by the city of São Paulo is confirmed by absence of adequateurban planning and lack of commitment of public authorities. It alsorevealed that the particular way of being old and living an elderlylife, in addition to right to citizenship, is reflected by major or lesserdifficulties imposed to the elderly to fight for their rights and have theirpublic space respected. Conclusion: The city of São Paulo is not anideal locus for an older person to live in. To the traps that are found inpublic places one can add those that are found in private places andthat contribute to the hard experience of falls among the elderly, anexperience that is sometimes fatal. In Brazil, the attention is basicallyfocused on the consequences of falls and not on prevention, by meansof urban planning that should meet the needs of the most vulnerablegroups - the physically disabled and the elderly.

  10. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    these traps.

  11. Charged particle traps II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werth, Günther; Major, Fouad G

    2009-01-01

    This, the second volume of Charged Particle Traps, is devoted to applications, complementing the first volume’s comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice of charged particle traps, their many variants and refinements. In recent years, applications of far reaching importance have emerged ranging from the ultra-precise mass determinations of elementary particles and their antiparticles and short-lived isotopes, to high-resolution Zeeman spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions, to microwave and optical spectroscopy, some involving "forbidden" transitions from metastable states of such high resolution that optical frequency standards are realized by locking lasers to them. Further the potential application of trapped ions to quantum computing is explored, based on the extraordinary quantum state coherence made possible by the particle isolation. Consideration is given to the Paul and Penning traps as potential quantum information processors.

  12. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  13. Plasma manipulation techniques for positron storage in a multicell trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, J. R.; Weber, T. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    New plasma manipulation techniques are described that are central to the development of a multicell Penning trap designed to increase positron storage by orders of magnitude (e.g., to particle numbers N≥10 12 ). The experiments are done using test electron plasmas. A technique is described to move plasmas across the confining magnetic field and to deposit them at specific radial and azimuthal positions. Techniques to fill and operate two in-line plasma cells simultaneously, and the use of 1 kV confinement potentials are demonstrated. These experiments establish the capabilities to create, confine, and manipulate plasmas with the parameters required for a multicell trap; namely, particle numbers >10 10 in a single cell with plasma temperature ≤0.2 eV for plasma lengths ∼10 cm and radii ≤0.2 cm. The updated design of a multicell positron trap for 10 12 particles is described

  14. New permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.

    2001-05-01

    Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).

  15. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  16. Status of THe-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketter, Jochen; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Originally developed at the University of Washington and relocated to the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in 2008, the Penning-trap spectrometer THe-Trap is specially tailored for a {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He mass-ratio measurement, from which the Q-value of the beta-decay of {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He can be derived. Improving the current best value by at least an order of magnitude will provide an important independent test parameter for the determination of the electron-antineutrino's mass by the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). However, Penning-trap mass spectrometry has to be pushed to its limits in a dedicated experiment for a sufficiently accurate mass-ratio measurement with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. Unlike the closed-envelope, single-trap predecessor, the new spectrometer features an external ion source, owing to the radioactive nature of tritium, and two traps in order to speed up the measurement cycle. While the double-trap technique holds great promise, it also calls for more intricate procedures, such as ion transfer. Details about the recent progress of the experiment are given.

  17. Moving converter as the possible tool for producing ultra-cold neutrons on pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.

    1991-01-01

    A method is proposed for producing ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) at aperiodic pulse neutron sources. It is based on the use of the fast moving cooled converter of UCN in the time of the neutron pulse and includes the trapping of generated UCN's in a moving trap. 6 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Superconducting magnet and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf E. (Inventor); Strayer, Donald M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method of trapping a field in a block of superconductor material, includes providing (i) a block of material defining a bore, (ii) a high permeability core within the bore that defines a low reluctance path through the bore, (iii) a high permeability external structure on the exterior of the block of material that defines a low reluctance path between opposite ends of the core, and (iv) an electromagnet configured to apply a magnetic field around the high permeability core. The method proceeds by energizing the electromagnet to produce an applied magnetic field around the high permeability core, cooling the block of material sufficiently to render the block of material superconducting, de-energizing the electromagnet to result in a trapped magnetic field, and at least partially removing the low reluctance path defined by the core and the external structure in order to increase the magnetic flux density of the trapped magnetic field.

  19. Effects of oxide traps, interface traps, and ''border traps'' on metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Riewe, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have identified several features of the 1/f noise and radiation response of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices that are difficult to explain with standard defect models. To address this issue, and in response to ambiguities in the literature, we have developed a revised nomenclature for defects in MOS devices that clearly distinguishes the language used to describe the physical location of defects from that used to describe their electrical response. In this nomenclature, ''oxide traps'' are simply defects in the SiO 2 layer of the MOS structure, and ''interface traps'' are defects at the Si/SiO 2 interface. Nothing is presumed about how either type of defect communicates with the underlying Si. Electrically, ''fixed states'' are defined as trap levels that do not communicate with the Si on the time scale of the measurements, but ''switching states'' can exchange charge with the Si. Fixed states presumably are oxide traps in most types of measurements, but switching states can either be interface traps or near-interfacial oxide traps that can communicate with the Si, i.e., ''border traps'' [D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-39, 269 (1992)]. The effective density of border traps depends on the time scale and bias conditions of the measurements. We show the revised nomenclature can provide focus to discussions of the buildup and annealing of radiation-induced charge in non-radiation-hardened MOS transistors, and to changes in the 1/f noise of MOS devices through irradiation and elevated-temperature annealing

  20. Recent developments in trapping and manipulation of atoms with adiabatic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraway, Barry M.; Perrin, Hélène

    2016-09-01

    A combination of static and oscillating magnetic fields can be used to ‘dress’ atoms with radio-frequency (RF), or microwave, radiation. The spatial variation of these fields can be used to create an enormous variety of traps for ultra-cold atoms and quantum gases. This article reviews the type and character of these adiabatic traps and the applications which include atom interferometry and the study of low-dimensional quantum systems. We introduce the main concepts of magnetic traps leading to adiabatic dressed traps. The concept of adiabaticity is discussed in the context of the Landau-Zener model. The first bubble trap experiment is reviewed together with the method used for loading it. Experiments based on atom chips show the production of double wells and ring traps. Dressed atom traps can be evaporatively cooled with an additional RF field, and a weak RF field can be used to probe the spectroscopy of the adiabatic potentials. Several approaches to ring traps formed from adiabatic potentials are discussed, including those based on atom chips, time-averaged adiabatic potentials and induction methods. Several proposals for adiabatic lattices with dressed atoms are also reviewed.

  1. Characteristics of trapped proton anisotropy at Space Station Freedom altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The ionizing radiation dose for spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) is produced mainly by protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Current data bases describing this trapped radiation environment assume the protons to have an isotropic angular distribution, although the fluxes are actually highly anisotropic in LEO. The general nature of this directionality is understood theoretically and has been observed by several satellites. The anisotropy of the trapped proton exposure has not been an important practical consideration for most previous LEO missions because the random spacecraft orientation during passage through the radiation belt 'averages out' the anisotropy. Thus, in spite of the actual exposure anisotropy, cumulative radiation effects over many orbits can be predicted as if the environment were isotropic when the spacecraft orientation is variable during exposure. However, Space Station Freedom will be gravity gradient stabilized to reduce drag, and, due to this fixed orientation, the cumulative incident proton flux will remain anisotropic. The anisotropy could potentially influence several aspects of Space Station design and operation, such as the appropriate location for radiation sensitive components and experiments, location of workstations and sleeping quarters, and the design and placement of radiation monitors. Also, on-board mass could possible be utilized to counteract the anisotropy effects and reduce the dose exposure. Until recently only omnidirectional data bases for the trapped proton environment were available. However, a method to predict orbit-average, angular dependent ('vector') trapped proton flux spectra has been developed from the standard omnidirectional trapped proton data bases. This method was used to characterize the trapped proton anisotropy for the Space Station orbit (28.5 degree inclination, circular) in terms of its dependence on altitude, solar cycle modulation (solar minimum vs. solar maximum), shielding thickness

  2. Vortex trapping by tilted columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladie, I.; Buzdin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The irradiation of high-T c superconductors by inclined heavy-ion beam can create columnar defects (CD's) practically at any angle towards the crystal c axis. We calculate the energy of a tilted vortex trapped on an inclined columnar defect within the framework of an electromagnetic model. Under a weak perpendicular magnetic field, and if the CD radius is larger than the superconducting coherence length, vortices always prefer to be on a tilted CD than to be aligned along the external field. We calculate also the interaction energy between two tilted vortices and find that large attractive regions appear. In particular, in the plane defined by c axis and the CD axis, tilted vortices attract each other at long distances, leading to the formation of vortex chains. The equilibrium distance between vortices in a chain is of the order of the magnitude of the in-plane London penetration depth. The existence of the inclined trapped vortices could be revealed by torque measurements, and could also lead to the anisotropy of the in-plane resistivity and the critical current

  3. Proposed LLNL electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Egan, P.O.; Proctor, I.; Levine, M.A.; Hansen, L.; Kajiyama, Y.; Wolgast, R.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of energetic electrons with highly charged ions is of great importance to several research fields such as astrophysics, laser fusion and magnetic fusion. In spite of this importance there are almost no measurements of electron interaction cross sections for ions more than a few times ionized. To address this problem an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is being developed at LLNL. The device is essentially an EBIS except that it is not intended as a source of extracted ions. Instead the (variable energy) electron beam interacting with the confined ions will be used to obtain measurements of ionization cross sections, dielectronic recombination cross sections, radiative recombination cross sections, energy levels and oscillator strengths. Charge-exchange recombinaion cross sections with neutral gasses could also be measured. The goal is to produce and study elements in many different charge states up to He-like xenon and Ne-like uranium. 5 refs., 2 figs

  4. Phase-Space Density Analyses of the AE-8 Trapped Electron and the AP-8 Trapped Proton Model Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayton, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, μ, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of μ and K, and for 3.5 R E E , the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R E for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits μ-dependent local minima around L = 5 R E . Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K c . Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons

  5. Aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss is associated with the G7444A mutation in the mitochondrial COI/tRNASer(UCN) genes in two Chinese families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yi; Qian Yaping; Tang Xiaowen; Wang Jindan; Yang Li; Liao Zhisu; Li Ronghua; Ji Jinzhang; Li Zhiyuan; Chen Jianfu; Choo, Daniel I.; Lu Jianxin; Guan Minxin

    2006-01-01

    We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of two Chinese families with aminoglycoside induced and non-syndromic hearing impairment. Clinical and genetic evaluations revealed the variable severity and age-of-onset in hearing impairment in these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of hearing impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphism, in addition to the identical G7444A mutation associated with hearing loss. Indeed, the G7444A mutation in the CO1 gene and the precursor of tRNA Ser(UCN) gene is present in homoplasmy only in the maternal lineage of those pedigrees but not other members of these families and 164 Chinese controls. Their mitochondrial genomes belong to the Eastern Asian haplogroups C5a and D4a, respectively. In fact, the occurrence of the G7444A mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by hearing impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of hearing impairment. However, there was the absence of other functionally significant mtDNA mutations in two Chinese pedigrees carrying the G7444A mutation. Therefore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or aminoglycoside(s) may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the deafness-associated G7444A mutation in these Chinese pedigrees

  6. Particle trapping in stimulated scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Particle trapping effects on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are investigated. A time and space dependent model assumes a Maxwellian plasma which is taken to be homogeneous in the interaction region. Ion trapping has a rather weak effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering and large reflectivities are obtained even in strong trapping regime. Stimulated Raman scattering is considerably reduced by electron trapping. Typically 15-20 times larger laser intensities are required to obtain same reflectivity levels than without trapping. (author)

  7. Calcium Atom Trap for Atom Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Artificially produced fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of them has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10-10. The ultra-trace radio isotopes have been analyzed by the radio-chemical method, accelerator mass spectrometer, and laser based method. The radiochemical method has been used in the nuclear industry. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The accelerator mass spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and it has the isobar effects. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) is a basically isobar-effect free method. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis), one of the laser based method, has been successfully demonstrated sufficient isotope selectivity with small system size. It has been applied for the detection of Kr-81 and Kr-85. However, it is not suitable for real sample detection, because it requires steady atomic beam generation during detection and is not allowed simultaneous detection of other isotopes. Therefore, we proposed the coupled method of Atom Trap and Mass Spectrometer. It consists of three parts, neutral atom trap, ionization and mass spectrometer. In this paper, we present the demonstration of the magneto-optical trap of neutral calcium. We discuss the isotope selective characteristics of the MOT (Magneto Optical Trap) of calcium by the fluorescence measurement. In addition, the frequency stabilization of the trap beam will be presented

  8. Suitability of a magnetic particle immunoassay for the analysis of PBDEs in Hawaiian euryhaline fish and crabs in comparison with gas chromatography/electron capture detection-ion trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ting; Cho, Il Kyu; Wang Dongli; Rubio, Fernando M.; Shelver, Weilin L.; Gasc, Anne M.E.; Li, Ji; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    A gas chromatograph/electron capture detector-ion trap mass spectrometer (GC/ECD-ITMS) was used for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in euryhaline fish and crabs. GC/ECD-ITMS results showed that average recoveries from the spiked fish samples are in a range of 58-123% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5-19%. PBDE concentrations obtained from GC/ECD-ITMS ranged from 28 ng/g to 1845 ng/g lipid weight (lw) in all aquatic species collected from Hawaiian brackish waters. The general BDE congener concentration profile observed in this study is BDE-47 > BDE-100 > BDE-154 > BDE-99 > BDE-153 > BDE-28 > BDE-183. The ELISA results expressed as BDE-47 equivalents correlated well with those of GC/ECD-ITMS, with a correlation coefficient (R 2 = 0.68) and regression coefficient (slope = 0.82). Comparison of ELISA with GC/ECD-ITMS results demonstrated that ELISA provides a timely and cost-effective method to screen PBDEs in fish and crab samples. - PBDEs (with the most abundant being BDE-47) at concentrations of 28-1845 ng/g lipid weight in fish and crabs from Hawaiian freshwater were detected with both ELISA and GC/MS

  9. Superconducting multi-cell trapped mode deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Andrei; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Gonin, Ivan; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Zholents, Alexander

    2017-10-10

    A method and system for beam deflection. The method and system for beam deflection comprises a compact superconducting RF cavity further comprising a waveguide comprising an open ended resonator volume configured to operate as a trapped dipole mode; a plurality of cells configured to provide a high operating gradient; at least two pairs of protrusions configured for lowering surface electric and magnetic fields; and a main power coupler positioned to optimize necessary coupling for an operating mode and damping lower dipole modes simultaneously.

  10. Measurement of the neutron lifetime by counting trapped protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.; Dawber, P.G.; Spain, J.A.; Williams, A.P.; Dewey, M.S.; Gilliam, D.M.; Greene, G.L.; Lamaze, G.P.; Scott, R.D.; Pauwels, J.; Eykens, R.; Lamberty, A.

    1990-01-01

    The neutron lifetime τ n has been measured by counting decay protons stored in a Penning trap whose magnetic axis coincided with a neutron-beam axis. The result of the measurement is τ n =893.6±5.3 s, which agrees well with the value predicted by precise measurements of the β-decay asymmetry parameter A and the standard model

  11. Nonlinear saturation of dissipative trapped ion instability and anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1977-04-01

    An expression for the turbulent collision frequency is derived by summing up the most dominant terms from each order in the perturbation expansion in order to obtain the nonlinear saturation level of the dissipative trapped ion instability. Numerical calculation shows that the anomalous diffusion coefficient at the saturated state is in good agreement with the result of Kadomtsev and Pogutse when the effect of the magnetic shear is taken into account. (auth.)

  12. PENTATRAP. A novel Penning-trap system for high-precision mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas

    2015-01-21

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims at mass-ratio determinations of medium-heavy to heavy ions with relative uncertainties below 10{sup -11}. From the mass ratios of certain ion species, the corresponding mass differences will be determined with sub-eV/c{sup 2} uncertainties. These mass differences are relevant for neutrino-mass experiments, a test of special relativity and tests of bound-state QED. Means to obtain the required precision are very stable trapping fields, the use of highly-charged ions produced by EBITs, a non-destructive cyclotron-frequency determination scheme employing detectors with single-ion sensitivity and a five-trap tower, that allows for measurement schemes being insensitive to magnetic field drifts. Within this thesis, part of the detection electronics was set up and tested under experimental conditions. A single-trap setup was realized. A Faraday cup in the trap tower enabled the proper adjustment of the settings of the beamline connecting the EBIT and the Penning-trap system, resulting in the first trapping of ions at PENTATRAP. A stabilization of switched voltages in the beamline and detailed studies of ion bunch characteristics allowed for reproducible loading of only a few ions. Detection of the axial oscillation of the trapped ions gave hints that in some cases, even single ions had been trapped. Furthermore, valuable conclusions about necessary modifications of the setup could be drawn.

  13. Mobile quantum sensing with spins in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awschalom, David D.

    2013-03-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond has emerged as a powerful, optically addressable, spin-based probe of electromagnetic fields and temperature. For nanoscale sensing applications, the NV center's atom-like nature enables the close-range interactions necessary for both high spatial resolution and the detection of fields generated by proximal nuclei, electrons, or molecules. Using a custom-designed optical tweezers apparatus, we demonstrate three-dimensional position control of nanodiamonds in solution with simultaneous optical measurement of electron spin resonance (ESR)[3]. Despite the motion and random orientation of NV centers suspended in the optical trap, we observe distinct peaks in the ESR spectra from the ground-state spin transitions. Accounting for the random dynamics of the trapped nanodiamonds, we model the ESR spectra observed in an applied magnetic field and estimate the dc magnetic sensitivity based on the ESR line shapes to be 50 μT/√{ Hz }. We utilize the optically trapped nanodiamonds to characterize the magnetic field generated by current-carrying wires and ferromagnetic structures in microfluidic circuits. These measurements provide a pathway to spin-based sensing in fluidic environments and biophysical systems that are inaccessible to existing scanning probe techniques, such as the interiors of living cells. This work is supported by AFOSR and DARPA.

  14. Decreasing the stable trapping region during geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, Yu.P.; Feshchenko, E.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    Within the frameworks of the magnetic field model, depending on the solar wind pressure, the B = B s (B s is the magnetic field in the undersolar point) contour behaviour in the equatorial plane is calculated. The boundary of stable trapping in the quiet time is at the distance of 10-11 R E by day and ∼ 7 R E by night. During strong storms this distance may be decreased up 4-5 R E . The calculation results coincide satisfactorily with satellite measurements

  15. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear β decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left up to other presenters

  16. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J A

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear beta decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left...

  17. Quantized motion of trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and numerical study of the preparation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in the external and internal degrees of freedom of trapped ions. In its first part, this thesis proposes and investigates schemes for generating several nonclassical states for the quantized vibrational motion of a trapped ion. Based on dark state preparation specific laser excitation configurations are presented which, given appropriately chosen initial states, realize the desired motional states in the steady-state, indicated by the cessation of the fluorescence emitted by the ion. The focus is on the SU(1,1) intelligent states in both their single- and two-mode realization, corresponding to one- and two-dimensional motion of the ion. The presented schemes are also studied numerically using a Monte-Carlo state-vector method. The second part of the thesis describes how two vibrational degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion can be coupled through the action of suitably chosen laser excitation. Concentrating on a two-dimensional ion trap with dissimilar vibrational frequencies a variety of quantized two-mode couplings are derived. The focus is on a linear coupling that takes excitations from one mode to another. It is demonstrated how this can result in a state rotation, in which it is possible to coherently transfer the motional state of the ion between orthogonal directions without prior knowledge of that motional state. The third part of this thesis presents a new efficient method for generating maximally entangled internal states of a collection of trapped ions. The method is deterministic and independent of the number of ions in the trap. As the essential element of the scheme a mechanism for the realization of a controlled NOT operation that can operate on multiple ions is proposed. The potential application of the scheme for high-precision frequency standards is explored. (author)

  18. Polarization-dependent atomic dipole traps behind a circular aperture for neutral-atom quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Copsey, Bert D.

    2011-01-01

    The neutral-atom quantum computing community has successfully implemented almost all necessary steps for constructing a neutral-atom quantum computer. We present computational results of a study aimed at solving the remaining problem of creating a quantum memory with individually addressable sites for quantum computing. The basis of this quantum memory is the diffraction pattern formed by laser light incident on a circular aperture. Very close to the aperture, the diffraction pattern has localized bright and dark spots that can serve as red-detuned or blue-detuned atomic dipole traps. These traps are suitable for quantum computing even for moderate laser powers. In particular, for moderate laser intensities (∼100 W/cm 2 ) and comparatively small detunings (∼1000-10 000 linewidths), trap depths of ∼1 mK and trap frequencies of several to tens of kilohertz are achieved. Our results indicate that these dipole traps can be moved by tilting the incident laser beams without significantly changing the trap properties. We also explored the polarization dependence of these dipole traps. We developed a code that calculates the trapping potential energy for any magnetic substate of any hyperfine ground state of any alkali-metal atom for any laser detuning much smaller than the fine-structure splitting for any given electric field distribution. We describe details of our calculations and include a summary of different notations and conventions for the reduced matrix element and how to convert it to SI units. We applied this code to these traps and found a method for bringing two traps together and apart controllably without expelling the atoms from the trap and without significant tunneling probability between the traps. This approach can be scaled up to a two-dimensional array of many pinholes, forming a quantum memory with single-site addressability, in which pairs of atoms can be brought together and apart for two-qubit gates for quantum computing.

  19. Levitated atoms in a CO2 laser trap: towards BEC with cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbig, J.; Weber, T.; Naegerl, H.-C.; Grimm, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the standard approach towards Bose-Einstein condensation has failed for cesium, we are exploring a novel concept employing an optical dipole trap formed by intense CO2 lasers. These provide a conservative and large-volume trapping potential. In order to compensate the gravitational force, a magnetic field gradient along the vertical axis is applied. This counterbalances gravitation for the absolute internal ground state of Cs (F=3, mF=3), effectively levitating those atoms. Other spin states are expelled from the trap, opening up a path for rf exploration. Our approach to trap the lowest spin state at low densities minimizes inelastic processes. The free choice of a magnetic bias field allows exploration of Feshbach resonances to tune scattering properties. (author)

  20. Stability of Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap with storage-ring-like confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Niels; Mølhave, Kristian; Drewsen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We report experiments on the stability of ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap with storage-ring-like confinement. The transverse dynamics of charged particles in a trap of this type is analogous to that of a fast beam traveling through a channel with periodic, magnetic alternating gradient...... confinement. The experimentally observed stability conditions for stationary crystals comply remarkably well with current theory of crystalline plasmas and beams.......We report experiments on the stability of ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap with storage-ring-like confinement. The transverse dynamics of charged particles in a trap of this type is analogous to that of a fast beam traveling through a channel with periodic, magnetic alternating gradient...

  1. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  2. In-trap decay spectroscopy for ββ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in ββ decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from β decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and β detection with almost no β-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in ββ decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in ββ decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10 -5 and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating β background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge detectors, for the detection of X-rays, were

  3. Ion trap architectures and new directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, James D.; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2017-12-01

    Trapped ion technology has seen advances in performance, robustness and versatility over the last decade. With increasing numbers of trapped ion groups worldwide, a myriad of trap architectures are currently in use. Applications of trapped ions include: quantum simulation, computing and networking, time standards and fundamental studies in quantum dynamics. Design of such traps is driven by these various research aims, but some universally desirable properties have lead to the development of ion trap foundries. Additionally, the excellent control achievable with trapped ions and the ability to do photonic readout has allowed progress on quantum networking using entanglement between remotely situated ion-based nodes. Here, we present a selection of trap architectures currently in use by the community and present their most salient characteristics, identifying features particularly suited for quantum networking. We also discuss our own in-house research efforts aimed at long-distance trapped ion networking.

  4. Direct Experimental Evidence of Hole Trapping in Negative Bias Temperature Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiao-Li; Liao Yi-Ming; Yan Feng; Shi Yi; Zhang Guan; Guo Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) in ultrathin-plasma-nitrided-oxide (PNO) based p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (pMOSFETs) is investigated at temperatures ranging from 220K to 470K. It is found that the threshold voltage V T degradation below 290 K is dominated by the hole trapping process. Further studies unambiguously show that this process is unnecessarily related to nitrogen but the incorporation of nitrogen in the gate dielectric increases the probability of hole trapping in the NBTI process as it introduces extra trap states located in the upper half of the Si band gap. The possible hole trapping mechanism in NBTI stressed PNO pMOSFETs is suggested by taking account of oxygen and nitrogen related trap centers. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Developments in the theory of trapped particle pressure gradient driven turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Biglari, H.; Gang, F.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory of trapped particle pressure gradient driven turbulence are summarized. A novel theory of trapped ion convective cell turbulence is presented. It is shown that non-linear transfer to small scales occurs, and that saturation levels are not unphysically large, as previously thought. As the virulent saturation mechanism of ion Compton scattering is shown to result in weak turbulence at higher frequencies, it is thus likely that trapped ion convective cells are the major agent of tokamak transport. Fluid like trapped electron modes at short wavelengths (k θ ρ i > 1) are shown to drive an inward particle pinch. The characteristics of convective cell turbulence in flat density discharges are described, as is the stability of dissipative trapped electron modes in stellarators, with flexible magnetic field structure. The role of cross-correlations in the dynamics of multifield models of drift wave turbulence is discussed. (author). 32 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  6. Laser Cooling without Repumping: A Magneto-Optical Trap for Erbium Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.J.; Hanssen, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a novel mechanism that allows for strong laser cooling of atoms that do not have a closed cycling transition. This mechanism is observed in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for erbium, an atom with a very complex energy level structure with multiple pathways for optical-pumping losses. We observe surprisingly high trap populations of over 10 6 atoms and densities of over 10 11 atoms cm -3 , despite the many potential loss channels. A model based on recycling of metastable and ground state atoms held in the quadrupole magnetic field of the trap explains the high trap population, and agrees well with time-dependent measurements of MOT fluorescence. The demonstration of trapping of a rare-earth atom such as erbium opens a wide range of new possibilities for practical applications and fundamental studies with cold atoms

  7. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  8. Dependence of the trapping regions with the radial electric field in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the electric field upon the radial and angular distributions of trapped ions of energies between 0.1 and 1 keV in TJ-II is analysed. Near the magnetic axis, with moderate electric fields, the trapped fraction increases for negative potentials and decreases for positive ones. Nevertheless for high potentials this decreasing for positive sign can be reversed. Near the plasma periphery trapping is affected only for high potentials and always increases, independently of the potential sign. The sensibility to negative potentials is always higher than for the positive ones. These trapping changes are almost uniform in poloidal and toroidal angular profiles and affect mainly to marginally trapped or passing particles. Nevertheless for high potentials or energie the resonances modify this behaviour and inhibit the increasing of trapping in the outer side or the torus. For the locally trapped population fraction a steady decrease with the potential appears independently of the sign, except very near the magnetic axis or the plasma periphery. The global result of all these partial effects is the presence of a wide trapping minimum for moderate positive electric potential, potential that increases with the ion energy as well as a strong increase for high electric fields of either sign, more visible for negative potentials and high energies. For the locally trapped population a steady decrease with potential appears independently of the sign. All these effects can be explained by the combined action of the appearance and elimination of radial magnetic barriers and of the electric field resonances. (Author)

  9. Effect of finited pressure on plasma stability and particle motion i axial-assymetrical open traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotel'nikov, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrodynamic equilibrium confiqurations of plasma are investigated as well as the processes of cross-section transfer in axial-asymmetrical open traps. It is shown that drift surfaces are essentially deformed allowing for the final β, and, as a rule, the property of local injection is disturbed. But non-injection of particle drift surfaces with different energies and a magnetic moment in a paraxial trap turns out to be small by the perimeter of paraxiallity even at βapproximately1

  10. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A [Albuquerque, NM; Blain, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM; Linker, Kevin L [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  11. Asymmetric Penning trap coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez, David J.

    2010-01-01

    By using a matrix technique, which allows to identify directly the ladder operators, the coherent states of the asymmetric Penning trap are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. They are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator method.

  12. Indeterminacy, sunspots, and development traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2005), s. 159-185 ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : indeterminacy * development trap * stochastic stability Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jedc.2003.04.011

  13. Efficiency of subaquatic light traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, Tomáš; Čihák, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2017), s. 171-184 ISSN 0165-0424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29857S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Heteroptera * Diptera * light trap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2016

  14. The rise of trapped populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April T Humble

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As border security increases and borders become less permeable, cross-border migration is becoming increasingly difficult, selective and dangerous. Growing numbers of people are becoming trapped in their own countries or in transit countries, or being forced to roam border areas, unable to access legal protection or basic social necessities.

  15. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeffner, H.; Roos, C.F.; Blatt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum computers hold the promise of solving certain computational tasks much more efficiently than classical computers. We review recent experimental advances towards a quantum computer with trapped ions. In particular, various implementations of qubits, quantum gates and some key experiments are discussed. Furthermore, we review some implementations of quantum algorithms such as a deterministic teleportation of quantum information and an error correction scheme

  16. Vortex trapping in Pb-alloy Josephson junctions induced by strong sputtering of the base electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nakano, J.; Yanagawa, F.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that strong rf sputtering of the Pb-alloy base electrodes causes the junctions to trap magnetic vortices and thus induces Josephson current (I/sub J/) suppression. Trapping begins to occur when the rf sputtering that removes the native thermal oxide on the base electrode is carried out prior to rf plasma oxidation. Observed large I/sub J/ suppression is presumably induced by the concentration of vortices into the sputtered area upon cooling the sample below the transition temperature. This suggests a new method of the circumvention of the vortex trapping by strongly rf sputtering the areas of the electrode other than the junction areas

  17. Hexapole-compensated magneto-optical trap on a mesoscopic atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jöllenbeck, S.; Mahnke, J.; Randoll, R.

    2011-01-01

    Magneto-optical traps on atom chips are usually restricted to small atomic samples due to a limited capture volume caused primarily by distorted field configurations. Here we present a magneto-optical trap based on a millimeter-sized wire structure which generates a magnetic field with minimized...... distortions. Together with the loading from a high-flux two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, we achieve a loading rate of 8.4×1010 atoms/s and maximum number of 8.7×109 captured atoms. The wire structure is placed outside of the vacuum to enable a further adaptation to new scientific objectives. Since all...

  18. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20, and SPB motion is controlled by current-carrying, tapered, conducting lines made of Au. The MMC was realized using standard microfabrication techniques and provides a cheap and versatile platform for microfluidic systems for cell manipulation. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one or...

  20. Scaling ion traps for quantum computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a chipscale, multi-zone, surface electrode ion trap is reported. The modular design and fabrication techniques used are anticipated to advance scalability of ion trap quantum computing architectures...

  1. Servo control of an optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Kurt D; Cole, Daniel G; Clark, Robert L

    2007-08-01

    A versatile optical trap has been constructed to control the position of trapped objects and ultimately to apply specified forces using feedback control. While the design, development, and use of optical traps has been extensive and feedback control has played a critical role in pushing the state of the art, few comprehensive examinations of feedback control of optical traps have been undertaken. Furthermore, as the requirements are pushed to ever smaller distances and forces, the performance of optical traps reaches limits. It is well understood that feedback control can result in both positive and negative effects in controlled systems. We give an analysis of the trapping limits as well as introducing an optical trap with a feedback control scheme that dramatically improves an optical trap's sensitivity at low frequencies.

  2. Pumped helium system for cooling positron and electron traps to 1.2 K

    CERN Document Server

    Wrubel, J; Kolthammer, W S; Larochelle, P; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Borbely, J S; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Mullers, A; Walz, J; Speck, A

    2011-01-01

    Extremely precise tests of fundamental particle symmetries should be possible via laser spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen ((H) over bar) atoms. (H) over bar atoms that can be trapped must have an energy in temperature units that is below 0.5 K-the energy depth of the deepest magnetic traps that can currently be constructed with high currents and superconducting technology. The number of atoms in a Boltzmann distribution with energies lower than this trap depth depends sharply upon the temperature of the thermal distribution. For example, ten times more atoms with energies low enough to be trapped are in a thermal distribution at a temperature of 1.2 K than for a temperature of 4.2 K. To date, (H) over bar atoms have only been produced within traps whose electrode temperature is 4.2 K or higher. A lower temperature apparatus is desirable if usable numbers of atoms that can be trapped are to eventually be produced. This report is about the pumped helium apparatus that cooled the trap electrodes of an (H) ove...

  3. The Multipole Plasma Trap-PIC Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Nathaniel; Bowman, Amanda; Godden, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) multipole structure is studied via particle-in-cell computer modeling, to assess the response of quasi-neutral plasma to the imposed RF fields. Several regimes, such as pair plasma, antimatter plasma, and conventional (ion-electron) plasma are considered. In the case of equal charge-to-mass ratio of plasma species, the effects of the multipole field are symmetric between positive and negative particles. In the case of a charge-to-mass disparity, the multipole RF parameters (frequency, voltage, structure size) may be chosen such that the light species (e.g. electrons) is strongly confined, while the heavy species (e.g. positive ions) does not respond to the RF field. In this case, the trapped negative space charge creates a potential well that then traps the positive species. 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of this concept are presented, to assess plasma response and trapping dependences on multipole order, consequences of the formation of an RF plasma sheath, and the effects of an axial magnetic field. The scalings of trapped plasma parameters are explored in each of the mentioned regimes, to guide the design of prospective experiments investigating each. Supported by U.S. NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering Grant PHY-1619615.

  4. Two-baffle trap for macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksyonov, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, properties of two-baffle macroparticle traps were investigated. These properties are needed for designing and optimization of vacuum arc plasma filters. The dependencies between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations made allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators containing such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of two-baffle traps in filters of different builds are given

  5. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Morigi, Giovanna; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping

  6. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, Tavis; O'Brien, Tim; Fegraus, Eric; Jansen, P.A.; Palmer, Jonathan; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge; Stern, Beth; McShea, William

    2016-01-01

    Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an

  7. Calculation of stationary plasma parameters in an electromagnetic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpukhin, V.I.; Lavrent'ev, O.A.; Sappa, N.N.

    1978-01-01

    The model of energy and particle balance is considered and the numerical calculations for stationary plasma parameters, supported by the electron injection, are obtained for a hypothetical electromagnetic trap with linear dimensions, magnetic field strength and energy contribution to plasma of the order of these parameters for the modern tokamak-type traps. The process of limitation of an effective injection current and energy contribution to plasma caused by returning of electrons to the injector due to diffusion in the velocity space is simulated. In approximation of a classical diffusion dependences are obtained of the effective energy contribution to plasma and of the parameters ntausub(E) and Tsub(i) (n is a plasma density; tausub(E)- energetic lifetime; Tsub(i) ion temperature) on electron injection current and power and on the confining magnetic field strength. It had been established that at classical character of diffusion in electromagnetic trap with above parameters one could obtain stationary plasma with ntausub(E)=10 12 cm -3 s and Tsub(i)=1keV, maintaining only by electron injection

  8. Cluster observations of trapped ions interacting with magnetosheath mirror modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soucek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mirror modes are among the most intense low frequency plasma wave phenomena observed in the magnetosheaths of magnetized planets. They appear as large amplitude non-propagating fluctuations in the magnetic field magnitude and plasma density. These structures are widely accepted to represent a non-linear stage of the mirror instability, dominant in plasmas with large ion beta and a significant ion temperature anisotropy T⊥/T∥>1. It has long been recognized that the mirror instability both in the linear and non-linear stage is a kinetic process and that the behavior of resonant particles at small parallel velocities is crucial for its development and saturation. While the dynamics of the instability and the effect of trapped particles have been studied extensively in theoretical models and numerical simulations, only spurious observations of the trapped ions were published to date. In this work we used data from the Cluster spacecraft to perform the first detailed experimental study of ion velocity distribution associated with mirror mode oscillations. We show a conclusive evidence for the predicted cooling of resonant ions at small parallel velocities and heating of trapped ions at intermediate pitch angles.

  9. Influence of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2013-03-07

    The trapping process in polymer systems constitutes a fundamental mechanism for various other dynamical processes taking place in these systems. In this paper, we study the trapping problem in two representative polymer networks, Cayley trees and Vicsek fractals, which separately model dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers. Our goal is to explore the impact of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in these two important polymer systems, with the efficiency being measured by the average trapping time (ATT) that is the average of source-to-trap mean first-passage time over every staring point in the whole networks. For Cayley trees, we derive an exact analytic formula for the ATT to an arbitrary trap node, based on which we further obtain the explicit expression of ATT for the case that the trap is uniformly distributed. For Vicsek fractals, we provide the closed-form solution for ATT to a peripheral node farthest from the central node, as well as the numerical solutions for the case when the trap is placed on other nodes. Moreover, we derive the exact formula for the ATT corresponding to the trapping problem when the trap has a uniform distribution over all nodes. Our results show that the influence of trap location on the trapping efficiency is completely different for the two polymer networks. In Cayley trees, the leading scaling of ATT increases with the shortest distance between the trap and the central node, implying that trap's position has an essential impact on the trapping efficiency; while in Vicsek fractals, the effect of location of the trap is negligible, since the dominant behavior of ATT is identical, respective of the location where the trap is placed. We also present that for all cases of trapping problems being studied, the trapping process is more efficient in Cayley trees than in Vicsek fractals. We demonstrate that all differences related to trapping in the two polymer systems are rooted in their underlying topological structures.

  10. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  11. Trapping and spectroscopy of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, Claudio Lenz

    1997-01-01

    I review the results and techniques used by the MIT H↑ group to achieve a fractional resolution of 2 parts in 10 12 in the 1S-2S transition in hydrogen [Cesar, D. Fried, T. Killian, A. Polcyn, J. Sandberg, I.A. Yu, T. Greytak, D. Kleppner and J. Doyle, Two-photon spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 255.] With some improvements, this system should deliver 100 times higher resolution with an improved signal count rate getting us closer to an old advertised goal of a precision of 1 part in 10 18 . While these developments are very important for the proposed test of the CPT theorem through the comparison with anti-hydrogen, some of the techniques used with hydrogen are not applicable to anti-hydrogen and I discuss some difficulties and alternatives for the trapping and spectroscopy of anti-hydrogen

  12. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    Full Text Available Particles leaving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E×B drift. This effect which we refer to as "centrifugal trapping" appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E×B drift speed plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  13. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Particles leaving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E×B drift. This effect which we refer to as "centrifugal trapping" appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E×B drift speed plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  14. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  15. Optical trapping for analytical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-02-01

    We describe the exciting advances of using optical trapping in the field of analytical biotechnology. This technique has opened up opportunities to manipulate biological particles at the single cell or even at subcellular levels which has allowed an insight into the physical and chemical mechanisms of many biological processes. The ability of this technique to manipulate microparticles and measure pico-Newton forces has found several applications such as understanding the dynamics of biological macromolecules, cell-cell interactions and the micro-rheology of both cells and fluids. Furthermore we may probe and analyse the biological world when combining trapping with analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calculation of the transport processes in an ambipolar trap by direct statistic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysyanskij, P.B.; Tiunov, M.A.; Fomel', B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma of an open magnetic trap is simulated with a set of test particles. Transverse drift movement of particles in axial-asymmetric magnetic fields is described with the method of finite transformations. Effects of collisions are simulated with arbitrary changes of velocity vectors of test particles which corresponds to their scattering with ''background'' plasma. The model takes account of longitudinal and transverse losses as well as atomic beam injection. The simulation permitted to obtain values and characteristics of longitudinal and transverse loss flows, ion temperature and radial profile of ma density in the central part of the ''AMBALplas'' ambipolar trap

  17. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  18. Experimental investigation of the trapping and energy loss mechanisms of intense relativistic electron rings in hydrogen gas and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an experimental study on the trapping and energy loss mechanisms of intense, relativistic electron rings confined in Astron-like magnetic field geometries are presented. The work is subdivided into four sections: gas trapping; average ring electron energetics; plasma trapping, and hollow-beam cusp-injection into gas and plasma. The mechanisms by which the injected beam coalesces into a current ring in the existing Cornell RECE-Berta facility are considered. To investigate the nature of ring electron energy loss mechanisms following completion of the trapping process, a diagnostic was developed utilizing multi-foil X-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze the Bremsstrahlung generated by the electrons as they impinge upon a thin tungsten wire target suspended in the circulating current. Finally, a set of preliminary experimental results is presented in which an annular electron beam was passed through a coaxial, non-adiabatic magnetic cusp located at one end of a magnetic mirror well

  19. Charged particle confinement in magnetic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, D.; John, P.I.; Saxena, Y.C.; Varma, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of single charged particle trapped in a magnetic mirror has been investigated experimentally. The particle injected off axis and trapped in a magnetic mirror, leak out of the mirror with the leakage characterized by multiple decay times. The observed decay times are in good agreement with predictions of a ''wave mechanical like'' model by Varma, over a large range of relevant parameters. (author)

  20. Cold atoms in microscopic traps: from wires to chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassettari, D.

    2000-05-01

    This thesis reports on the experimental demonstration of magnetic guides, traps and beam splitters for neutral atoms using current carrying wires. A straight wire allows to create two basic guide configurations: the magnetic field generated by the wire alone produces a guide where atoms in a strong field seeking state perform orbits around the wire (Kepler guide); by adding an external magnetic field, atoms in a weak field seeking state are guided at the location where the external field and the field generated by the wire cancel out (side guide). Furthermore, bending the wire in various shapes allows to modify the side guide potential and hence to create a large variety of three dimensional traps. A relevant property of these potentials is that higher trapping gradients are obtained by decreasing the current flowing in the wires. As the trap is compressed, it also moves closer to the wire. This feature has allowed us to create microscopic potentials by using thin wires designed on a surface (atom chip) by means of high resolution microfabrication techniques. Wires mounted on a surface have the advantage of being more robust and able to sustain larger currents due to their thermal coupling with the substrate. In our experiment we have developed methods to load these traps and guides with laser cooled atoms. Our first investigations have been performed with free standing wires which we have used to study the Kepler guide, the side guide and a three dimensional Ioffe-Pritchard trap. In the latter we have achieved the trapping parameters required in the experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates with much reduced power consumption. In a second time we have replaced the free standing wires with an atom chip, which we have used to compress the atomic cloud in potentials with trap frequencies above 100 kHz and ground state sizes below 100 nm. Such potentials are especially interesting for quantum information proposals of performing quantum gate operations with controlled

  1. Sognenavne, Albertslund Kommune (3 artikler). trap.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kællerød, Lars-Jakob Harding

    2019-01-01

    Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Herstedvester, Herstedøster og Opstandelseskirkens Sogn......Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Herstedvester, Herstedøster og Opstandelseskirkens Sogn...

  2. Data on rotating plasma operation in Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1976-01-01

    Rotating plasma operation in spiral coil 'Tornado' traps provides a unique combination of confinement and heating properties. Such a system consists of a closed and compact magnetic bottle to which the crossed-field technique can be applied, in absence of end insulators and their critical velocity limitation effect. This should make possible the generation and heating of fully ionized plasmas by simple means, within a large range of ion densities, temperatures, and rotational velocities. Provided that stable operation becomes possible at high temperatures, it is likely that Tornado traps can be used as strong neutron sources of moderately large dimensions and technically realizable parameter values. Some detailed data and operation ranges are given for the 'Tornado 650' device in Leningrad, and for a somewhat larger device to be operated as neutron source. (Auth.)

  3. Data on rotating plasma operation in Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1977-01-01

    Rotating plasma operation in spiral coil 'Tornado' traps provides a unique combination of confinement and heating properties. Such a system consists of a closed and compact magnetic bottle to which the crossed-field technique can be applied, in absence of end insulators and their critical velocity limitation effect. This is expected to lead to the generation and heating of fully ionized plasmas within a large range of ion densities, temperatures, and rotational velocities. Provided that stable operation becomes possible at high temperatures and the effects due to the asymmetries of the spiral coil structure can be neglected, it is likely that Tornado traps can be used as strong neutron sources of moderately large dimensions and technically realizable parameter values. Some detailed data and operation ranges are outlined for the 'Tornado 650' device in Leningrad, and for a somewhat larger device which may be operated as a neutron source. (Auth.)

  4. Resonances of coherent population trapping in samarium vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Akimov, A V; Kiselev, N A; Papchenko, A A; Sorokin, Vadim N; Kanorskii, S I

    2001-01-01

    Resonances of coherent population trapping were detected in atomic vapours of the rare-earth element samarium. The coherent population trapping was produced by two external-cavity diode lasers (672 and 686 nm) in a Λ-system formed by the three levels of 154 Sm: the 4f 6 6s 2 ( 7 F 0 ) ground state, the first fine-structure 4f 6 6s 2 ( 7 F 1 ) sublevel of the ground state and the 4f 6 ( 7 F)6s6p( 3 P o ) 9 F o 1 upper level. The dependence of the spectral shapes and resonance contrasts on the polarisation of the laser beams and the direction of the applied magnetic field was studied. The obtained results were analysed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. X.; Wei, L. F.; Johansson, J. R.; Tsai, J. S.; Nori, F.

    2009-03-01

    Exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of superconducting Josephson junctions, we propose a scalable circuit with superconducting qubits (SCQs) which is very similar to the successful one now being used for trapped ions. The SCQs are coupled to the ``vibrational'' mode provided by a superconducting LC circuit or its equivalent (e.g., a superconducting quantum interference device). Both single-qubit rotations and qubit-LC-circuit couplings and/or decouplings can be controlled by the frequencies of the time-dependent magnetic fluxes. The circuit is scalable since the qubit-qubit interactions, mediated by the LC circuit, can be selectively performed, and the information transfer can be realized in a controllable way. [4pt] Y.X. Liu, L.F. Wei, J.R. Johansson, J.S. Tsai, F. Nori, Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions, Phys. Rev. B 76, 144518 (2007). URL: http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v76/e144518

  6. Trapping of gun-injected plasma by a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    It is shown that a plasma produced by a Marshall gun can be injected into and trapped by a tokamak plasma. Gun injection raises the line-averaged density and peaks the density profile. Trapping of the gun-injected plasma is explainable in terms of a depolarization current mechanism. A model is developed which describes the slowing of a plasma beam crossing into the magnetic field of a tokamak. The slowing down time is shown to go as tau/sub s/ ∞ n -1 /sub b/T 3 /sub e/(α 0 /L) 2 , where n/sub b/ and T/sub e/ are the density and temperature of the plasma beam and α 0 /L is the pitch of the field lines per unit length in the direction in which the beam is traveling. Experimental tests of this model are consistent with the scaling predictions

  7. Trapping of gun-injected plasma by a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    It has been seen that a plasma produced by a Marshall gun can be injected into and trapped by a tokamak plasma. This trapping of a gun-injected plasma is explained in terms of a depolarization current mechanism. A model is developed that describes the slowing of a plasma beam crossing into the magnetic field of a tokamak. The slowing down time is shown to go as tau/sub s/proportionalT/sup 3/2//sub e/L 2 /n/sub b/α 2 0 , where n/sub b/ and T/sub e/ are the density and temperature of the plasma beam and α 0 /L is the pitch of the field lines per unit length in the direction in which the beam is traveling. Experimental tests of this model are consistent with the scaling predictions

  8. Advanced ion trap structures with integrated tools for qubit manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, J. D.; Benito, F.; Clark, C. R.; Haltli, R.; Highstrete, C.; Nordquist, C. D.; Scott, S.; Stevens, J. E.; Tabakov, B. P.; Tigges, C. P.; Moehring, D. L.; Stick, D.; Blain, M. G.

    2012-06-01

    We survey the ion trap fabrication technologies available at Sandia National Laboratories. These include four metal layers, precision backside etching, and low profile wirebonds. We demonstrate loading of ions in a variety of ion traps that utilize these technologies. Additionally, we present progress towards integration of on-board filtering with trench capacitors, photon collection via an optical cavity, and integrated microwave electrodes for localized hyperfine qubit control and magnetic field gradient quantum gates. [4pt] This work was supported by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program and the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  10. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  11. Trapping Dust to Form Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Growing a planet from a dust grain is hard work! A new study explores how vortices in protoplanetary disks can assist this process.When Dust Growth FailsTop: ALMA image of the protoplanetary disk of V1247 Orionis, with different emission components labeled. Bottom: Synthetic image constructed from the best-fit model. [Kraus et al. 2017]Gradual accretion onto a seed particle seems like a reasonable way to grow a planet from a grain of dust; after all, planetary embryos orbit within dusty protoplanetary disks, which provides them with plenty of fuel to accrete so they can grow. Theres a challenge to this picture, though: the radial drift problem.The radial drift problem acknowledges that, as growing dust grains orbit within the disk, the drag force on them continues to grow as well. For large enough dust grains perhaps around 1 millimeter the drag force will cause the grains orbits to decay, and the particles drift into the star before they are able to grow into planetesimals and planets.A Close-Up Look with ALMASo how do we overcome the radial drift problem in order to form planets? A commonly proposed mechanism is dust trapping, in which long-lived vortices in the disk trap the dust particles, preventing them from falling inwards. This allows the particles to persist for millions of years long enough to grow beyond the radial drift barrier.Observationally, these dust-trapping vortices should have signatures: we would expect to see, at millimeter wavelengths, specific bright, asymmetric structures where the trapping occurs in protoplanetary disks. Such disk structures have been difficult to spot with past instrumentation, but the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has made some new observations of the disk V1247 Orionis that might be just what were looking for.Schematic of the authors model for the disk of V1247 Orionis. [Kraus et al. 2017]Trapped in a Vortex?ALMAs observations of V1247 Orionis are reported by a team of scientists led by Stefan

  12. Trapped

    OpenAIRE

    Storvik, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the Muslim Sunni Women in the city of Tripoli- Lebanon perceive the the inequity in the rights of women in terms of those of men within the Personal Status codes practiced today in the Sunni Muslim Sharīʻa Courts in the country. Lebanese women and men in general are subject to an imbalanced patronage as a result of the patriarchal conditions dominating the Lebanese society and its various communities. This project further explores the factors that have led to the failu...

  13. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of 2s l/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U 82+ through U 89+ have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer -39.21 ± 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 transition energy of lithiumlike U 89+ . A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell

  14. Electron cooling of highly charged ions in penning traps; Elektronenkuehlung hochgeladener Ionen in Penningfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, B.

    2007-02-08

    For many high precision experiments with highly charged ions in ion traps it is necessary to work with low energy ions. One possibility to slow ions down to a very low energy in a trap is electron cooling, a method, which is already successfully used in storage rings to produce ion beams with high phase space density. Fast ions and a cold electron plasma are inserted into a Penning trap. The ions lose their energy due to Coulomb interaction with the electrons while they cross the plasma, the electrons are heated. The cooling time is the time, which is needed to cool an ion from a given initial energy to a low final energy. To calculate cooling times it is necessary to solve coupled differential equations for the ion energy and electron temperature. In a Penning trap the strong external magnetic field constitutes a theoretical challenge, as it influences the energy loss of the ions in an electron plasma, which can no longer be calculated analytically. In former estimates of cooling times this influence is neglected. But simulations show a dramatic decrease of the energy loss in the presence of a strong magnetic field, so it is necessary to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on the cooling times. This work presents a model to calculate cooling times, which includes both the magnetic field and the trap geometry. In a first step a simplified model without the external trap potential is developed. The energy loss of the ions in the magnetized electron plasma is calculated by an analytic approximation, which requires a numerical solution of integrals. With this model the dependence of the cooling time on different parameters like electron and ion density, magnetic field and the angle between ion velocity and magnetic field is studied for fully ionized uranium. In addition the influence of the electron heating is discussed. Another important topic in this context is the recombination between ions and electrons. The simplified model for cooling times allows to

  15. Confinement in a cryogenic Penning trap of highest charge state ions from EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1994-01-01

    The retrapping of highly charged Xe 44+ and Th 68+,72+ ions extracted from an open-quotes Electron Beam Ion Trapclose quotes (EBIT) is demonstrated after injection of the ions into RETRAP, a cryogenic Penning trap (up to 6 Tesla magnetic field) currently with an open cylinder design. Ion extraction in a short pulse (5-20 μsec) from EBIT, essential for efficient retrapping, is employed. The ions are slowed down upon entering a deceleration tube mounted above the trap within the magnetic field. The potential is then rapidly (100 ns) decreased, enabling low energy ions to enter the trap. Capture efficiencies up to 25% are observed via detection of the delayed ion release pulse with a detector below the trap. Signal voltages induced in a tuned circuit due to single and multiple ions have been observed by tuning the ion resonant axial oscillation frequencies for different ions. Results from transporting and retrapping of the ions, as well as their detection, are described and the trapping efficiency is discussed, The motivation for these studies is to cool the trapped very highly charged ions to low temperatures (< 4 K) in order to perform ultrahigh resolution precision spectroscopy, collision studies at ultra low energies and to observe phase transitions in Coulomb clusters of highly charged ions

  16. All-optical atom trap as a target for MOTRIMS-like collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Acharya, B. P.; De Silva, A. H. N. C.; Parris, N. W.; Ramsey, B. J.; Romans, K. L.; Dorn, A.; de Jesus, V. L. B.; Fischer, D.

    2018-04-01

    Momentum-resolved scattering experiments with laser-cooled atomic targets have been performed since almost two decades with magneto-optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (MOTRIMS) setups. Compared to experiments with gas-jet targets, MOTRIMS features significantly lower target temperatures allowing for an excellent recoil ion momentum resolution. However, the coincident and momentum-resolved detection of electrons was long rendered impossible due to incompatible magnetic field requirements. Here we report on an experimental approach which is based on an all-optical 6Li atom trap that—in contrast to magneto-optical traps—does not require magnetic field gradients in the trapping region. Atom temperatures of about 2 mK and number densities up to 109 cm-3 make this trap ideally suited for momentum-resolved electron-ion coincidence experiments. The overall configuration of the trap is very similar to conventional magneto-optical traps. It mainly requires small modifications of laser beam geometries and polarization which makes it easily implementable in other existing MOTRIMS experiments.

  17. Improvement of a magnetization method on a small-size superconducting bulk magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Oka, T.; Noto, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposed an effective magnetizing method of high-T c bulk superconductors. The magnetic pass was artificially formed by field-cooling using a permanent magnet. The trapped field was increased by 20-25% as compared with the conventional method. We observed that the channel was formed partially in the trapped field distribution. A pulsed-filed magnetization (PFM) is an important technique for industrial applications of superconducting bulk magnets, and several advanced PFM methods are proposed to enhance the trapped field. In the well-known IMRA method, the channel through the magnetic flux is formed by the flux flow caused by heat generation when applying the strong pulsed-field, and the magnetic flux is made to penetrate into the bulk through the channel in the following pulse application. On the other hand, large applied field leads to large heat generation, and, therefore, the trapped field is decreased greatly. This paper proposes an effective magnetizing method in which the channel composed of magnetic field is artificially formed by field-cooling (FC) using a permanent magnet and the magnetic flux by PFM is induced to the channel. To confirm the validity of this method, the bulk was magnetized by FC using Nd-Fe-B magnets of the rectangular and the ring shapes, and thereafter, a pulsed-field of 6.2 T was applied. As a result, the trapped field of the bulk magnetized by FC using the ring magnet was increased by about 20-25% as compared with that of the conventional PFM, and, moreover, it was observed that the channel was formed partially by measurement of the magnetic field distribution.

  18. Maximum repulsed magnetization of a bulk superconductor with low pulsed field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimoto, M.; Kamijo, H.; Fujimoto, H.

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed field magnetization of a bulk high-T c superconductor (HTS) is important technique especially for practical applications of a bulk superconducting magnet. Full magnetization is not obtained for low pulsed field and trapped field is decreased by reversed current in the HTS. The trapped field distribution by repulsed magnetization was previously reported in experiments with temperature control. In this study, repulsed magnetization technique with the low pulsed field is numerically analyzed under assumption of variable shielding current by the temperature control. The shielding current densities are discussed to obtain maximum trapped field by two times of low pulsed field magnetizations

  19. Trapped Ion Oscillation Frequencies as Sensors for Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Nörtershäuser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The oscillation frequencies of charged particles in a Penning trap can serve as sensors for spectroscopy when additional field components are introduced to the magnetic and electric fields used for confinement. The presence of so-called “magnetic bottles” and specific electric anharmonicities creates calculable energy-dependences of the oscillation frequencies in the radiofrequency domain which may be used to detect the absorption or emission of photons both in the microwave and optical frequency domains. The precise electronic measurement of these oscillation frequencies therefore represents an optical sensor for spectroscopy. We discuss possible applications for precision laser and microwave spectroscopy and their role in the determination of magnetic moments and excited state lifetimes. Also, the trap-assisted measurement of radiative nuclear de-excitations in the X-ray domain is discussed. This way, the different applications range over more than 12 orders of magnitude in the detectable photon energies, from below μeV in the microwave domain to beyond MeV in the X-ray domain.

  20. Portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Yang, Renfu; Nian, Feng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cui, Yongshun; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Nuanrang; Feng, Keming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping is designed and demonstrated. To achieve a portable prototype, in the system, a single transverse mode 795nm VCSEL modulated by a 3.4GHz RF source is used as a pump laser which generates coherent light fields. The pump beams pass through a vapor cell containing atom gas and buffer gas. This vapor cell is surrounded by a magnetic shield and placed inside a solenoid which applies a longitudinal magnetic field to lift the Zeeman energy levels' degeneracy and to separate the resonance signal, which has no first-order magnetic field dependence, from the field-dependent resonances. The electrical control system comprises two control loops. The first one locks the laser wavelength to the minimum of the absorption spectrum; the second one locks the modulation frequency and output standard frequency. Furthermore, we designed the micro physical package and realized the locking of a coherent population trapping atomic frequency standard portable prototype successfully. The short-term frequency stability of the whole system is measured to be 6×10-11 for averaging times of 1s, and reaches 5×10-12 at an averaging time of 1000s.