WorldWideScience

Sample records for magnetic structure analysis

  1. Structural analysis of suerconducting bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuser, R.B.

    1980-05-01

    Mechanical stresses, displacements, and the effects of displacements upon aberrations of the magnetic field in the aperture have been calculated for a class of superconducting bending-magnet configurations. The analytical model employed for the coil is one in which elements are free to slide without restraint upon each other, and upon the surrounding structure. Coil configurations considered range from an idealized one in which the current density varies as cosine theta to more realistic ones consisting of regions of uniform current density. With few exceptions, the results for the more realistic coils closely match those of the cos theta coil

  2. Ulysses Data Analysis: Magnetic Topology of Heliospheric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    In this final technical report on research funded by a NASA grant, a project overview is given by way of summaries on nine published papers. Research has included: 1) Using suprathermal electron data to study heliospheric magnetic structures; 2) Analysis of magnetic clouds, coronal mass ejections (CME), and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS); 3) Analysis of the corotating interaction region (CIR) which develop from interactions between solar wind streams of different velocities; 4) Use of Ulysses data in the interpretation of heliospheric events and phenomena.

  3. Summary of the workshop on structural analysis needs for magnetic fusion energy superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Lehner, J.; Powell, J.

    1976-09-01

    The technical portions of the meeting were divided into three major sessions as follows: (1) Review of methods being presently used by the MFE community for structural evaluation of current designs. (2) Future structural analysis needs. (3) Open discussions dealing with adequacy of present methods, the improvements needed for MFE magnet structural analysis, and the establishment of an MFE magnet structural advisory group. Summaries of the individual talks presented on Wednesday and Thursday (i.e., items 1 and 2 above) are included following the workshop schedule given later in this synopsis

  4. Mossbauer analysis of the atomic and magnetic structure of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, VV

    2007-01-01

    The monograph indicates the key problems that have to be solved for the further development of the Mössbauer methods for analysis of the nuclear and magnetic structure of alloys, and offer solution variants for some of these problems based on the generalised results of a wide range of theoretical and experimental investigations,including original work by the author of the book and his colleagues. Contents 1. Description of the nature of the Mössbauer effect 2. Interpretation of the ossbauer spectra of alloys 3.Electrical and magnetics hyperfine interactions of resonant nuclei in metals and

  5. Structural analysis of Wendelstein 7-X magnet weight supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Konstantin; Bykov, Victor; Schauer, Felix; van Eeten, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) optimized stellarator is presently under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Greifswald. The goal of W7-X is to verify that the advanced stellarator magnetic confinement concept is a viable option for a fusion reactor. The W7-X coil system consisting of 70 superconducting coils of seven different types is supported by a massive central support structure (CSS), and thermally protected by the cryostat. The magnet system's weight is borne by supports (cryo-legs) which are bolted to the cold CSS. They reach down through the cryostat wall to the warm machine base which means that a small thermal conductivity is important to keep thermal losses at an acceptable level. Therefore, the design of the cryo-legs incorporates glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) tubes which are shrink-fitted into stainless steel flanges at the ends. In order to ensure free thermal shrinkage of the magnet system and to reduce stresses in the cryo-legs, sliding and rotating bearings are used as interfaces to the machine base. Tie rods between the machine base and the warm ends of the cryo-legs prevent toroidal movements of the magnet system with respect to the torus axis. Nevertheless, significant deformation of the CSS during operation results in tilting of the cryo-legs in such a way that toroidal movements of the whole magnet system take place. The number of cryo-legs and their stiffness are chosen such that the toroidal movement is kept within an acceptable range. All these restrictions, as well as requirements concerning simplicity and ease of assembly, make the cryo-leg design and structural analysis quite a complex and challenging task. The paper presents an overview of structural analyses of the W7-X magnet system with cryo-legs, local analyses of a cryo-leg under design loads, and FE simulation of the cryo-leg mechanical test.

  6. Symmetry analysis in neutron diffraction studies of magnetic structures. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izyumov, Yu.A.; Naish, V.E.; Petrov, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    By analyzing the exchange Hamiltonian, the authors develop the technique of determining the magnetic structures liable to occur in a crystal. The technique rests on Bertaut's idea that the exchange eigenfunction corresponds to some magnetic structure. A technically simple and efficient method of diagonalizing the exchange matrix is worked out using the devices of space group representation theory. A method is presented to find the magnetic structures with equal exchange energy (exchange multiplets). The occcurrence of exchange multiplets results from the additional invariance of the exchange Hamiltonian under rotation of all the spins. The degeneracy within the exchange multiplet may be the reason why some magnetic structures arise not according to one irreducible representation of the space group. The theory is illustrated with reference to an example of the magnetic structure of spinels. (Auth.)

  7. TWO DIMENTIONAL STATIC MAGNETIC ANALYSIS OF RADIAL MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf ÖNER

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The friction loss of electrical machines is an important problem as like in other rotary machines. In addition, the bearings, where the friction losses occur, also require lubrication at periodic intervals and need to be maintained. In this study, to minimize the friction loss of electrical motor, two dimentional static magnetic analysis of radial magnetic bearing systems with different structures are performed and compared with each other; also, magnetic bearing system with four-pole is realized and applied to an induction motor. In simulation, the forces applied to the rotor of induction motor from designed magnetic bearing system are calculated in a computer by using FEMM software package. In application, when comparing designed magnetic bearing system with mechanical bearings up to the revolution of 350 rpm, it was observed that the loss of no-load operating condition of induction motor is decreased about 15 % with magnetic bearing system. In addition to this, mechanical noisy of the motor is also decreased considerably.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on structural analysis needs for magnetic fusion energy superconducting magnets: a technical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Lehner, J.; Powell, J.; Bezler, P.

    1976-01-01

    The technical portions of the meeting were divided into three major sessions as follows: (1) Review of methods being presently used by the MFE community for structural evaluation of current designs. (2) Future structural analysis needs. (3) Open discussions dealing with adequacy of present methods, the improvements needed for MFE magnet structural analysis, and the establishment of an MFE magnet structural advisory group. Summaries of the individual talks are presented

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on structural analysis needs for magnetic fusion energy superconducting magnets: a technical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, M.; Lehner, J.; Powell, J.; Bezler, P.

    1976-01-01

    The technical portions of the meeting were divided into three major sessions as follows: (1) Review of methods being presently used by the MFE community for structural evaluation of current designs. (2) Future structural analysis needs. (3) Open discussions dealing with adequacy of present methods, the improvements needed for MFE magnet structural analysis, and the establishment of an MFE magnet structural advisory group. Summaries of the individual talks are presented.

  10. Developments of the neutron scattering analysis method for the determination of magnetic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Je-Geun; Chung, Jae Gwan; Park, Jung Hwan; Kong, Ung Girl [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea); So, Ji Yong [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Neutron diffraction is up to now almost the only and very important experimental method of determining the magnetic structure of materials. Unlike the studies of crystallographic structure, however to use neutron diffraction for magnetic structure determination is not easily accessible to non-experts because of the complexity of magnetic group theory: which is very important in the magnetic structure analysis. With the recent development of computer code for magnetic group, it is now time to rethink of these difficulties. In this work, we have used the computer code of the magnetic group (Mody-2) and Fullprof refinement program in order to study the magnetic structure of YMnO{sub 3} and other interesting materials. YMnO{sub 3} forms in the hexagonal structure and show both ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic phase transitions. Since it was recently found that YMnO{sub 3} can be used as a nonvolatile memory device, there has been many numbers of applied research on this material. We used neutron diffraction to determine the magnetic structure, and, in particular, to investigate the correlation between the order parameters of the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic phase transitions. From this study, we have demonstrated that with a proper use of the computer code of the magnetic group one can overcome most of difficulties arising from the magnetic group theory. 4 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  11. Thermal and structural analysis of a cryogenic conduction cooling system for a HTS NMR magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Se Hwan; Hong, Yong Jun; Yeom, Han Kil; Ko, Hyo Bong; Park, Seong Je [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The superconducting NMR magnets have used cryogen such as liquid helium for their cooling. The conduction cooling method using cryocoolers, however, makes the cryogenic cooling system for NMR magnets more compact and user-friendly than the cryogen cooling method. This paper describes the thermal and structural analysis of a cryogenic conduction cooling system for a 400 MHz HTS NMR magnet, focusing on the magnet assembly. The highly thermo-conductive cooling plates between HTS double pancake coils are used to transfer the heat generated in coils, namely Joule heating at lap splice joints, to thermal link blocks and finally the cryocooler. The conduction cooling structure of the HTS magnet assembly preliminarily designed is verified by thermal and structural analysis. The orthotropic thermal properties of the HTS coil, thermal contact resistance and radiation heat load are considered in the thermal analysis. The thermal analysis confirms the uniform temperature distribution for the present thermal design of the NMR magnet within 0.2 K. The mechanical stress and the displacement by the electromagnetic force and the thermal contraction are checked to verify structural stability. The structural analysis indicates that the mechanical stress on each component of the magnet is less than its material yield strength and the displacement is acceptable in comparison with the magnet dimension.

  12. Experimental analysis of clustering structures in magnetic and MR fluids using ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramantya, M A; Takuma, H; Faiz, M; Sawada, T; Motozawa, M

    2009-01-01

    The formation of clustering structures in magnetic and MR fluids has an influence on ultrasonic propagation. We propose a qualitative analysis of these structures by measuring properties of ultrasonic propagation. Since magnetic and MR fluids are opaque, the non-contact inspection using this ultrasonic technique can be very useful for analyzing the inner structures of magnetic and MR fluids. We measured ultrasonic propagation velocity in a hydrocarbon-based magnetic fluid and MR fluid precisely. Based on these results, the clustering structures of these fluids were analyzed experimentally in terms of elapsed time dependence, effect of external magnetic field strength and angle, and hysteresis phenomena. A comparison of ultrasonic velocity propagation between magnetic and MR fluid was discussed.

  13. Finite element analysis of structural response of superconducting magnet for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.; Prachuktam, S.

    1975-01-01

    In the proposal Tokamak fusion reactor, the superconducting unit consists of an assembly of D-shaped magnets standing vertically and arranged in a toroidal configuration. Each magnet is a composite structure comprised of Nb-22%Ti and Nb-48%Ti, and stabilizing metals such as copper and aluminum or stainless steel held together by reinforced epoxies which also serve as insulators and spacers. The magnets are quite large, typically 15-20 meters in diameter with rectangular cross sections around 0.93x2m. Under static loading condition, the magnet is subjected to dead weight and large magnetic field forces, which may induce high stresses in the structure. Furthermore, additional stresses due to earthquake must also be considered for the design of the component. Both static and dynamic analyses of a typical field magnet have been performed by use of the finite element method. The magnet was assumed to be linearly elastic with equivalent homogeneous material properties. Various finite element models have been considered in order to better represent the structure for a particular loading case. For earthquake analysis, the magnet was assumed to be subjected to 50% of the El Centro 1940 earthquake and the dynamic response was obtained by the displacement spectrum analysis procedure. In the paper, numerical results are presented and the structure behavior of the magnet under static and dynamic loading conditions is discussed

  14. Magnetic multilayer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2016-07-05

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  15. Design and heat load analysis of support structure of CR superconducting dipole magnet for FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yinfeng; Wu Songtao; Wu Weiyue; Xu Houchang; Liu Changle

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of the Collector ring (CR) dipole superconducting magnet of FAIR in the process of operation, meanwhile, and to ensure the heat loads coming from the support structures to be lower than the design demands, the 3D models of support structures have been constructed with CATIA, then the calculation of low-temperature heat-load and the structure analysis have been done with ANSYS, the support structure material, 316LN+G10, is decided according to the heat-load calculation and the structure optimization, these results are necessary for manufacturing the formal magnet. (authors)

  16. Structural, morphological and magnetic analysis of Cd–Co–S dilute magnetic semiconductor nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Suresh [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173234 (India); Negi, N.S. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh 171005 (India); Katyal, S.C. [Department of Physics, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Sec-128, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201301 (India); Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj.sharma@juit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173234 (India); Sharma, Vineet [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173234 (India)

    2014-10-01

    Cd{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}S dilute magnetic semiconductor nanofilms (0≤x≤0.08 at%) deposited by chemical bath deposition have been investigated using grazing angle x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The introduction of Co{sup 2+} ions in CdS structure induces structural disorders and hence, results in degradation of crystallinity. The crystallite size, interplanar spacing and lattice parameter ratio decrease with increasing Co{sup 2+} concentration in CdS. The diamagnetic state of CdS disappears with increase in Co concentration and films with x>0.02 exhibit ferromagnetism. This may be explained in terms of the spin–orbit interactions and Co{sup 2+} ion induced the lattice defects and phase separation. - Highlights: • Cd{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}S dilute magnetic semiconductor nanofilms (0≤x≤0.08 at%) deposited by CBD. • The diamagnetic state of CdS vanishes for x=0.02. • For x>0.02, dilute magnetic semiconductor nanofilms shows a ferromagnetic state.

  17. Structural analysis by electro-magnetic loads for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Using the results of EM analysis on the magnetization and the major disruption such as MD-1, MD-2, and MD-IV events, structural analyses are performed with the conventional FEM code (ANSYS). • The obtained stresses and deformations are confirmed to meet the design criteria. • We found that the magnetization effect is dominant compared to the major disruptions. - Abstract: Using a conceptual design of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a structural analysis with electro-magnetic (EM) loads is performed. From a previous analysis of the material magnetization due to the use of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel as the TBM structure material and EM analysis considering the major disruption of MD-I, MD-II, and MD-IV, the forces are obtained and used for the current structural analysis. The results indicate that the maximum stress occurs at the He purge line at the upper and lower region of the breeding zone (BZ) box including the graphite reflector region, which meets the design requirement. In addition, displacements are lower than the designed gaps from the TBM port plug (PP) frame. The results are provided to the load combination analysis.

  18. Structural analysis by electro-magnetic loads for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Park, Seong Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung; Shin, Kyu In; Park, Jai Hak; Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Cho, Seungyon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Using the results of EM analysis on the magnetization and the major disruption such as MD-1, MD-2, and MD-IV events, structural analyses are performed with the conventional FEM code (ANSYS). • The obtained stresses and deformations are confirmed to meet the design criteria. • We found that the magnetization effect is dominant compared to the major disruptions. - Abstract: Using a conceptual design of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a structural analysis with electro-magnetic (EM) loads is performed. From a previous analysis of the material magnetization due to the use of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel as the TBM structure material and EM analysis considering the major disruption of MD-I, MD-II, and MD-IV, the forces are obtained and used for the current structural analysis. The results indicate that the maximum stress occurs at the He purge line at the upper and lower region of the breeding zone (BZ) box including the graphite reflector region, which meets the design requirement. In addition, displacements are lower than the designed gaps from the TBM port plug (PP) frame. The results are provided to the load combination analysis.

  19. Virial theorem analysis of the structure and stability of magnetized clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    The tensor virial theorem is used to analyze the structure and stability of self-gravitating, magnetized spheroids surrounded by a low-density medium with pressure and magnetic field. Analytical expressions are developed for the effect of a weak field and calculate critical states when the effect of the field is arbitrarily strong, comparing the results with full magnetohydrostatic calculations. This analysis suggests that a magnetic field may prevent gravitational collapse but may also be destabilizing, depending on its degree of concentration within the cloud. 34 refs

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of the magnetic structure in Hokkaido, Japan; Hokkaido no sanjigen jiki kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The magnetic structure in Hokkaido was quantitatively analyzed by the magnetic anomaly distribution. This paper describes its characteristics. Detection of structural boundaries and 3-D analysis of double-layer structure were conducted for the regional magnetic data in a region with about 500 km square. There was not so large difference in patterns of magnetic anomaly distribution between the case that the direction of magnetization was set at 45{degree} to the west during the geomagnetic conversion according to Segawa and Oshima and the case that it was set as same as the current geomagnetic direction. The method of Blakely and Simpson was useful to detect the boundaries of magnetic structures. The structural boundaries obtained were more linear than the iso-magnetic contour lines. A new method has been conceived in which the approximation of 3-D magnetic structure analysis can be deduced, and the irregularity of magnetic basement can be determined by the repeated calculation. In practice, this method was applied to the magnetic data in the whole Hokkaido. The calculation was stably converged. It was found that the magnetic structure obtained in the Kamuikotan/Ishikari-Kitakami magnetic belt exhibited a fault structure having steep slopes accompanied by the basin structure in the western boundaries. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Low-frequency nondestructive analysis of cracks in multilayer structures using a scanning magnetic microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, M; Nappi, C; Sarnelli, E, E-mail: m.adamo@cib.na.cnr.i [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E Caianiello' , Via Campi Flegrei 34, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The use of a scanning magnetic microscope (SMM) with a high temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) for quantitative measurements in eddy current nondestructive analysis (NDA) is presented. The SQUID has been used to detect the weak magnetic field variations around a small defect, close to a structural part generating an intensive magnetic field. The experimental data for a deep crack close to a rivet in a multilayer conducting plate have been taken in a RF-shielded environment and discussed in the light of the theoretical predictions. The results show that eddy current NDA can distinguish subsurface crack signals from wider structural signals, with defects located 10 mm below the surface. Moreover, in order to visualize the structure of the probing current when a circular induction coil is used, the simulation of eddy currents in a thick unflawed conducting plate has been carried out.

  2. Low-frequency nondestructive analysis of cracks in multilayer structures using a scanning magnetic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M; Nappi, C; Sarnelli, E

    2010-01-01

    The use of a scanning magnetic microscope (SMM) with a high temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) for quantitative measurements in eddy current nondestructive analysis (NDA) is presented. The SQUID has been used to detect the weak magnetic field variations around a small defect, close to a structural part generating an intensive magnetic field. The experimental data for a deep crack close to a rivet in a multilayer conducting plate have been taken in a RF-shielded environment and discussed in the light of the theoretical predictions. The results show that eddy current NDA can distinguish subsurface crack signals from wider structural signals, with defects located 10 mm below the surface. Moreover, in order to visualize the structure of the probing current when a circular induction coil is used, the simulation of eddy currents in a thick unflawed conducting plate has been carried out.

  3. The use of magnetic Barkhausen noise analysis for nondestructive determination of stresses in structural elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Silverio Ferreira da; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Cruz, Julio Ricardo Barreto

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge about the stress state acting in structural elements has significant importance in the structural integrity evaluation of a specific component. The magnetic Barkhausen noise analysis can be used for this purpose. As a nondestructive testing method, it presents the advantage of not promote any changes in the tested component. In this paper, a study about the use of this new nondestructive test method for stress measurements is presented. The test system configuration and the reference standards used for this purpose, as well as the optimum test parameters determination are discussed. The experiments were carried out in ASTM A-36 steel, used for structural components manufacturing. A structure of this material was loaded and the resulting stresses were determined from strain gage measurements and Barkhausen noise analysis. The results obtained have showed a good sensitivity of the magnetic Barkhausen noise to stress changes occurred in the material. The main advantages and limitations of this test method for stress measurements are presented. (author)

  4. Detailed Structural Analysis of Critical Wendelstein 7-X Magnet System Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator experiment is presently under construction and assembly in Greifswald, Germany. The goal of the experiment is to verify that the stellarator magnetic confinement concept is a viable option for a fusion reactor. The complex W7-X magnet system requires a multi-level approach to structural analysis for which two types of finite element models are used: Firstly, global models having reasonably coarse meshes with a number of simplifications and assumptions, and secondly, local models with detailed meshes of critical regions and elements. Widely known sub-modelling technique with boundary conditions extracted from the global models is one of the approaches for local analysis with high assessment efficiency. In particular, the winding pack (WP) of the magnet coils is simulated in the global model as a homogeneous orthotropic material with effective mechanical characteristic representing its real composite structure. This assumption allows assessing the whole magnet system in terms of general structural factors like forces and moments on the support elements, displacements of the main components, deformation and stress in the coil casings, etc. In a second step local models with a detailed description of more critical WP zones are considered in order to analyze their internal components like conductor jackets, turn insulation, etc. This paper provides an overview of local analyses of several critical W7-X magnet system components with particular attention on the coil winding packs. (author)

  5. Methodology for repeated load analysis of composite structures with embedded magnetic microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Semrád

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article processes issue of strength of cyclically loaded composite structures with the possibility of contactless stress measuring inside a material. For this purpose a contactless tensile stress sensor using improved induction principle based on the magnetic microwires embedded in the composite structure has been developed. The methodology based on the E-N approach was applied for the analysis of the repeated load of the wing hinge connection, including finite element method (FEM fatigue strength analysis. The results proved that composites in comparison with the metal structures offer significant weight reduction of the small aircraft construction, whereas the required strength, stability and lifetime of the components are remained.

  6. Field and structural analysis of 56 mm aperture dipole model magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Naihao; Yamamoto, Akira; Shintomi, Takakazu; Hirabayashi, Hiromi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Terashima, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new dipole model magnet design has been made with an aperture of 56 mm according to re-optimization of the accelerator design for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be built at CERN. A feature of symmetric/separate collar configuration in the new design proposed by KEK has been evaluated in terms of field quality and mechanical stability according to the process of the magnet fabrication, cool-down and excitations. The analysis has been carried out by using the finite element analysis code ANSYS, in linkage of field analysis with structural analysis. Effect of the deformation, due to electromagnetic force, on the field quality has been also investigated. Results of the analysis will be presented

  7. Magnetic structures: neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouree-Vigneron, F.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is often an unequivocal method for determining magnetic structures. Here we present some typical examples, stressing the sequence through experiments, data analysis, interpretation and modelisation. Two series of compounds are chosen: Tb Ni 2 Ge 2 and RBe 13 (R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er). Depending on the nature of the elements, the magnetic structures produced can be commensurate, incommensurate or even show a transition between two such phases as a function of temperature. A model, taking magnetic exchange and anisotropy into account, will be presented in the case of commensurate-incommensurate magnetic transitions in RBe 13

  8. Analysis and Comparison of Magnetic Structures in a Tapped Boost Converter for LED Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an an alysis and comparison of magnetics structures in a tapped boost converter for LED applications. The magnetic structure is a coupled inductor which is analyzed in a conventional wire-wound core as well as in a planar structure for different interleaving winding arrangements...

  9. Structural analysis interpretation task for the magnet system for Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop recommendations to improve and substantiate the structural integrity of the highly stresses small radius region of the MFTF magnet. The specific approach is outlined: (1) Extract detail stress/strain data from General Dynamics Convair Finite-Element Refinement Analysis. (2) Diagram local plate stress distribution and its relationship to the adjacent weldment. (3) Update the parametric fracture mechanics analysis using most recent MFTF related data developed by National Bureau of Standards. (4) Review sequence and assembly as modified by Chicago Bridge and Iron for adaptability to refinements. (5) Investigate the need for fillet radii weldments to reduce stress concentrations at critical corners. (6) Review quality assurance plan for adequacy to insure structural quality in the small radius region. (7) Review instrumentation plan for adequacy of structural diagnostics in small radius region. (8) Participate in planning a small-scale fatigue test program of a typical MFTF weldment

  10. Structural characterization of a magnetic granular system under a time-dependent magnetic field: Voronoi tessellation and multifractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, R. E.; Arauz-Lara, J. L.; Donado, F.

    2018-04-01

    The structure of a two-dimensional magnetic granular system was determined by multifractal and Voronoi polygon analysis for a wide range of particle concentrations. Randomizing of the particle motions are produced by applying to the system a time-dependent sinusoidal magnetic field directed along the vertical direction. Both repulsive and attractive short-range interactions between the particles are induced. A direct observation of such system shows qualitatively that, as particle concentration increases, the structure evolves from being liquid-like at low particle concentrations to solid-like at high concentrations. We observe the formation of clusters which are small and weakly bonded and short-lived at low concentrations. Above a threshold particle concentration, clusters grow larger and are more strongly attached. In the system, one can distinguish the mobile particles from the immobile particles belonging to clusters, they can be considered separately as two different phases, a fluid and a solid. We determined the information entropy of the system as a whole and separately from each phase as particle concentration increases. The distribution of the Voronoi polygon areas are well fitted by a two-parameter gamma distribution and we have found that the regularity factor shows a notable change when pieces of the solid phase start to form. The methods we use here show that they can use even when the system is heterogeneous and they provide information when changes start.

  11. Magnetic domains the analysis of magnetic microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Hubert, Alex

    1998-01-01

    The book gives a systematic and comprehensive survey of the complete area of magnetic microstructures. It reaches from micromagnetism of nanoparticles to complex structures of extended magnetic materials. The book starts with a comprehensive evaluation of traditional and modern experimental methods for the observation of magnetic domains and continues with the treatment of important methods for the theoretical analysis of magnetic microcstructures. A survey of the necessary techniques in materials characterization is given. The book offers an observation and analysis of magnetic domains in all

  12. Structural analysis of the magnet system for Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF). Addendum I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, K.R.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1979-09-01

    The stress analysis refinement of the MFTF magnet system using GDSAP (General Dynamics Structural Analysis Program) and NASTRAN finite element computer models has been completed. The objective of this analysis was to calculate a more refined case and jacket stress distribution. The GDSAP model was refined in the minor radius area to yield a more detailed prediction of the stress distributions in critical areas identified by the previous analysis. Modifications in the case plate thickness (from 3.0 inches to 3.2 inches) and in the conductor pack load distribution and stiffness were included. The GDSAP model was converted to an identical NASTRAN model to determine the influence on stress results using higher order elements

  13. Magnetic Structure of Erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob; Axe, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    We present a synchrotron x-ray scattering study of the magnetic phases of erbium. In addition to the magnetic scattering located at the fundamental wave vector τm we also observe scattering from magnetoelastically induced charge modulations at the fundamental wave vector, at twice the fundamental......, and at positions split symmetrically about the fundamental. As the temperature is lowered below 52 K the charge and magnetic scattering display a sequence of lock-in transitions to rational wave vectors. A spin-slip description of the magnetic structure is presented which explains the wave vectors...

  14. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  15. Structural, transport, magnetic, magnetocaloric properties and critical analysis of Ni-Co-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Devarajan, U.; Esakki Muthu, S.; Singh, Sanjay; Thiyagarajan, R.; Raja, M. Manivel; Rama Rao, N. V.; Banerjee, Alok

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we have investigated structural, transport, magnetic, magnetocaloric (MC) properties and critical exponents analysis of the (Ni2.1-xCox)Mn0.9 Ga (x = 0, 0.04, 0.12 and 0.2) Heusler alloys. For all compositions, cubic austenite (A) phase with metallic character is observed at room temperature (RT). With increasing of Co content, magnitude of resistivity decreases, whereas residual resistivity (ρ0) and electron scattering factor (A) increases linearly. Magnetic measurements exhibit that ferromagnetic (FM) Curie temperature (TCA) increases towards RT by increasing Co concentration. All samples show conventional MC and maximum magnetic entropy change (ΔSMpeak) of -2.8 Jkg-1 K-1 is observed for x = 0.12 at 147 K under 5 T. Further, hysteresis is observed between cooling and warming cycles around FM-PM (TCA) transition in x = 0, 0.04 samples, which suggests that first order nature of transition. However, there is no hysteresis across TCA for x = 0.12 and 0.2 samples suggesting second-order nature of the transition. The critical exponents are calculated for x = 0.12 sample around TCA using Arrott plot and Kouvel-Fisher method, the estimated critical exponents are found closer to the mean-field model reveals the long range ferromagnetic ordering in this composition.

  16. Structural analysis of magnetic fusion energy systems in a combined interactive/batch computer environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.E.; Singhal, M.K.; Walls, J.C.; Gray, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A system of computer programs has been developed to aid in the preparation of input data for and the evaluation of output data from finite element structural analyses of magnetic fusion energy devices. The system utilizes the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program and a special set of interactive pre- and post-processor computer programs, and has been designed for use in an environment wherein a time-share computer system is linked to a batch computer system. In such an environment, the analyst must only enter, review and/or manipulate data through interactive terminals linked to the time-share computer system. The primary pre-processor programs include NASDAT, NASERR and TORMAC. NASDAT and TORMAC are used to generate NASTRAN input data. NASERR performs routine error checks on this data. The NASTRAN program is run on a batch computer system using data generated by NASDAT and TORMAC. The primary post-processing programs include NASCMP and NASPOP. NASCMP is used to compress the data initially stored on magnetic tape by NASTRAN so as to facilitate interactive use of the data. NASPOP reads the data stored by NASCMP and reproduces NASTRAN output for selected grid points, elements and/or data types

  17. Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W.

    1991-08-01

    Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM

  18. Analysis of the structure of Saturn's magnetic field using charged particle absorption signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenette, D.L.; Davis, L. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique is derived for determining the structure of Saturn's magnetic field. This technique uses the observed positions of charged particle absorption signatures due to the satellites and rings of Saturn to determine the parameters of an axially symmetric, spherical harmonic model of the magnetic field using the method of least squares. Absorption signatures observed along the Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 spacecraft trajectories are used to derive values for the orientation of the magnetic symmetry axis relative to Saturn's axis of rotation, the axial displacement of the center of the magnetic dipole from the center of Saturn, and the magnitude of the external field component. Comparing these results with the magnetic field model parameters deduced from analyses of magnetometer data leads us to prefer models that incorporate a northward offset of the dipole center by about 0.05 R/sub s/

  19. Magnetic nanocomposites based on phosphorus-containing polymers—structural characterization and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosmanov, R. M.; Szuwarzyński, M.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Matuschek, G.; Magerramov, A. M.; Azizov, A. A.; Zimmermann, R.; Zapotoczny, S.

    2018-04-01

    Fabrication of magnetic nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles formed in situ within a phosphorus-containing polymer matrix as well as its structural characterization and its thermal degradation is reported here. Comparative structural studies of the parent polymer and nanocomposites were performed using FTIR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. The results confirmed the presence of dispersed iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The formed composite combines the properties of porous polymer carriers and magnetic particles enabling easy separation and reapplication of such polymeric carriers used in, for example, catalysis or environmental remediation. Studies on thermal degradation of the composites revealed that the process proceeds in three stages while a significant influence of the embedded magnetic particles on that process was observed in the first two stages. Magnetic force microscopy studies revealed that nanocomposites and its calcinated form have strong magnetic properties. The obtained results provide a comprehensive characterization of magnetic nanocomposites and the products of their calcination that are important for their possible applications as sorbents (regeneration conditions, processing temperature, disposal, etc).

  20. Magnetically suspended experimental vehicle-strength of structure and dynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahiro, T; Terada, K; Kasai, Y; Motonaga, M

    1973-06-01

    To cope with rapid increase in demand for railroad transportation, studies in magnetically suspended high speed trains are being pushed forward at the Japanese National Railways. Recently a special experimental vehiclc was completed which will be used by JNR in experiments concerning magnetic propulsion and suspension of magnetically suspended high speed trains. This test vehicle is provided with reaction plates of linear induction motor under the floor at about the center of the vehicle, with superconducting magnets for suspension on both sides. The vehicle body is made mainly of high tensile strengthened aluminium (duralumin) for weight reduction, but its strength was checked by the vibration analysis and load tests carried out in the suspended condition. Remote-operated from the control tower, this unmanned test vehicle will provide a key to the completion of a super-high speed magnetically suspended train.

  1. Structural analysis of the Passive Magnetic Shield for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.cabrera@ciemat.es [CIEMAT Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rincón, Esther; Ahedo, Begoña; Alonso, Javier; Barrera, Germán; Ramos, Francisco; Ríos, Luis [CIEMAT Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); El-Ouazzani, Anass; García, Pablo [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Agarici, Gilbert [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – 07/08, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Passive Magnetic Shield (PMS) main function is to protect the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) from the external magnetic field coming from the tokamak, and to shield the NB cell from the radiation coming from all activated components. The shielding from the external magnetic field is performed in association with the Active Compensation Cooled Correction Coils (ACCC). The Bushing and Transmission Line (TL) PMS also provides structural support for HV bushing, allowing its maintenance and providing air sealing function between NBI cell and High Voltage deck room. The paper summarizes the structural analyses performed in order to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of the HNB PMS under operation combined with seismic event. The RCC-MR Code is used to validate the design, assuming creep is negligible, since the structure is expected to be at room temperature. P-type damage is assessed.

  2. Structural design of DEALS magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Hsieh, S.Y.; Balderes, T.; Brown, T.; Bundy, J.

    1979-01-01

    A design for the extraneous magnet structure to support all the magnet loads was developed. The structure consists of two demountable structural systems designed to support the in-plane and out-of-plane loads, respectively. The in-plane loads are resisted by a cold central bucking cylinder and pin connected, plate-beam structural members following the outer periphery of each coil. The out-of-plane, torsional loads are resisted by the concerted action of the central bucking column and a continuous plate structure interconnecting all the coils. The adequacy of the structures were assessed by application of finite element analysis methods. The design study proved the feasibility of resisting the magnetic loadings with a demountable support structure extraneous to the superconducting coil. The resulting magnet system, although estimated to be higher in cost than a continuous coil, incorporates a means for complete coil replacement in a time scale commensurate with conventional nuclear power plant repairs and without the dismantling of the toroidal blanket and plasma shell systems

  3. Group theory for magnetic structure determination: Recent developments and quadrupolar ordering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: sikora@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Pytlik, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Bialas, F. [Nowy Sacz School of Busines-National Louis University, 33-300 Nowy Sacz (Poland); Malinowski, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2007-09-13

    In this paper, the recent developments in practical applications of symmetry analysis are described. The theoretical basis shortly described in Section 1 has been implemented in several computer applications, one of which is the program 'MODY-win', developed by the authors of the paper. The program calculates the so-called basis vectors of irreducible representations of a given symmetry group, which can be used for calculation of possible ordering modes. Its practical application is demonstrated on some examples, presenting the recent aspects of using the symmetry analysis to description of various types of ordering encountered in solids. The scalar-type ordering (occupation probability) is discussed shortly for occupation of interstitial sites by hydrogen atoms in inter-metallic compounds. The description of vector ordering is demonstrated on the magnetic ordering modes, with special attention focused on the freedom that is left in the structure after imposing all the symmetry constraints. In practice, the final ordering mode usually contains some free parameters that cannot be determined from the symmetry itself. The last application presented in the paper is the description of quadrupolar ordering, recently found in some compounds of 4f (5f) elements. For the latter case, an additional advantage is demonstrated by calculation of possible displacements of neighboring atoms after the establishment of non-zero quadrupolar order parameter on the central atom.

  4. On the role of magnetic field intensity for better micro-structural characterization during Barkhausen Noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufzai, Mohd Zaheer Khan; Vashista, M.

    2018-04-01

    Barkhausen Noise analysis is a popular and preferred technique for micro-structural characterization. The root mean square value and peak value of Barkhausen Noise burst are important parameters to assess the micro-hardness and residual stress. Barkhausen Noise burst can be enveloped using a curve known as Barkhausen Noise profile. Peak position of profile changes with change in micro-structure. In the present work, raw signal of Barkhausen Noise burst was obtained from Ni based sample at various magnetic field intensity to observe the effect of variation in field intensity on Barkhausen Noise burst. Raw signal was opened using MATLAB to further process for microstructure analysis. Barkhausen Noise analysis parameters such as magnetizing frequency, number of burst, high pass and low pass filter frequency were kept constant and magnetizing field was varied in wide range between 200 Oe to 1200 Oe. The processed profiles of Barkhausen Noise burst obtained at various magnetizing field intensity clearly reveals requirement of optimum magnetic field strength for better characterization of micro-structure.

  5. 2D-PES/XAS method for atomic-layer-resolved magnetic structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, F.; Daimon, H.; Matsushita, T.; Guo, F.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Photoelectron and Auger electron angular distributions from a localized core level provide information on atomic configurations. Forward-focusing peaks indicate the directions of atoms surrounding the excited atom. X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements by Auger electron yield detection on the other hand are excellent methods for studying of the electronic and magnetic structures of surfaces, adsorbates, and thin films. However, all the information from atoms within the electron mean-free-path region is averaged into the obtained spectra. Here, we introduce a new method of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) combined with measurements of Auger electron angular distribution using a display-type analyzer. Taking advantage of the forward-focusing peak as an excellent element- and site-selective probe, 2D-XAS enables direct access to the individual electronic and magnetic structures of each atomic layer. This method was applied to studying the electronic and magnetic structures of Ni thin film at atomic level. (author)

  6. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation and calibration measurements were performed on commercial nickel-chromium metal-foil strain gages in a high-magnetic-field (12 T), liquid-helium (4.2 K) environment. The purpose was to fully characterize strain gages for use at cryogenic temperatures in high magnetic fields. In this study, the magnetoresistance of a number of strain gages was measured in three orthogonal directions at mechanical strain levels to 8900 μm/m. As a result, a unique calibration curve was defined for magnetoresistance strain errors that is independent of strain level and field direction to 12 T at 4.2 K. A current strain-gage application is the measurement of superconductor mechanical properties. These gages will soon be used in the stress analysis of superconducting fusion magnets during cooldown from ambient temperatures and during operation at 4.2 K with magnetic fields to 12 T

  7. A Comparative Analysis of the Magnetic Field Signals over Impact Structures on the Earth, Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isac, Anca; Mandea, Mioara; Purucker, Michael; Langlais, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    An improved description of magnetic fields of terrestrial bodies has been obtained from recent space missions, leading to a better characterization of the internal fields including those of crustal origin. One of the striking differences in their crustal magnetic field is the signature of large impact craters. A comparative analysis of the magnetic characteristics of these structures can shed light on the history of their respective planetary-scale magnetic dynamos. This has motivated us to identify impact craters and basins, first by their quasi-circular features from the most recent and detailed topographic maps and then from available global magnetic field maps. We have examined the magnetic field observed above 27 complex craters on the Earth, 34 impact basins on Mars and 37 impact basins on the Moon. For the first time, systematic trends in the amplitude and frequency of the magnetic patterns, inside and outside of these structures are observed for all three bodies. The demagnetization effects due to the impact shock wave and excavation processes have been evaluated applying the Equivalent Source Dipole forward modeling approach. The main characteristics of the selected impact craters are shown. The trends in their magnetic signatures are indicated, which are related to the presence or absence of a planetary-scale dynamo at the time of their formation and to impact processes. The low magnetic field intensity at center can be accepted as the prime characteristic of a hypervelocity impact and strongly associated with the mechanics of impact crater formation. In the presence of an active internal field, the process of demagnetization due to the shock impact is associated with post-impact remagnetization processes, generating a more complex magnetic signature.

  8. Structural analysis and magnetic properties of solid solutions of Co–Cr system obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A.; Sánchez-De Jesús, F.; Bolarín-Miró, A.M.; Betancourt, I.; Torres-Villaseñor, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic study on the structural and magnetic properties of Co 100−x Cr x alloys (0 1−x Cr x (0 2 /kg) for the Co 90 Cr 10 , which decreases with the increasing of the Cr content up to x=80, as a consequence of the dilution effect of the magnetic moment which is caused by the Cr content and by the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The coercivity increases up to 34 kA/m (435 Oe) for Co 40 Cr 60 . For Cr rich compositions, it is observed an important decrease reaching 21 kA/m (272 Oe) for Co 10 Cr 90, it is related to the grain size and the structural change. Besides, the magnetic anisotropy constant was determined for each composition. Magnetic thermogravimetric analysis allowed to obtain Curie temperatures corresponding to the formation of hcp-Co(Cr) and fcc-Co(Cr) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Mechanical alloying (MA) induces the formation of solid solutions of Co–Cr system in non-equilibrium. • We report the crystal structure and the magnetic behavior of Co–Cr alloys produced by MA. • MA improves the magnetic properties of Co–Cr system

  9. Micromagnetic analysis of spin-reorientation transitions. The role of magnetic domain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skokov, Konstantin P., E-mail: skokov_k_p@mail.ru [Tver State University, Tver 170100 (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); Pastushenkov, Yury G., E-mail: yupast@mail.ru [Tver State University, Tver 170100 (Russian Federation); Taskaev, Sergey V., E-mail: tsv@csu.ru [Physics Department, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Rodionova, Valeria V., E-mail: valeriarodionova@gmail.com [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-01

    A method for calculating micromagnetic state of ferro- or ferrimagnetic single-crystals based on the Néel's method of phases is proposed. The standard Néel technique requires different approaches to calculation of micromagnetic state of samples with different anisotropy types. Furthermore, this technique cannot be used to calculate magnetization curves of materials with a complex anisotropy type, in which the first-order magnetization process (FOMP) occurs. On the contrary, the technique proposed in the present work makes it possible to calculate micromagnetic state of a sample within one unified approach. This technique has no limitations in terms of the anisotropy type as well. In case of the FOMP, the simulation methods that we used show results different from conventional calculation methods. The reason is that the conventional methods imply coherent rotation of magnetization in single domain particle (so-called Stoner–Wohlfarth model). We explain this discrepancy by the fact that a magnetic domain structure appears in the region of the FOMP. In the present work we show that magnetization processes do not occur in a jump under the FOMP but gradually pass though nucleation and new high-field phase growing, which substitutes for the low-field phase.

  10. Micromagnetic analysis of spin-reorientation transitions. The role of magnetic domain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokov, Konstantin P.; Pastushenkov, Yury G.; Taskaev, Sergey V.; Rodionova, Valeria V.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculating micromagnetic state of ferro- or ferrimagnetic single-crystals based on the Néel's method of phases is proposed. The standard Néel technique requires different approaches to calculation of micromagnetic state of samples with different anisotropy types. Furthermore, this technique cannot be used to calculate magnetization curves of materials with a complex anisotropy type, in which the first-order magnetization process (FOMP) occurs. On the contrary, the technique proposed in the present work makes it possible to calculate micromagnetic state of a sample within one unified approach. This technique has no limitations in terms of the anisotropy type as well. In case of the FOMP, the simulation methods that we used show results different from conventional calculation methods. The reason is that the conventional methods imply coherent rotation of magnetization in single domain particle (so-called Stoner–Wohlfarth model). We explain this discrepancy by the fact that a magnetic domain structure appears in the region of the FOMP. In the present work we show that magnetization processes do not occur in a jump under the FOMP but gradually pass though nucleation and new high-field phase growing, which substitutes for the low-field phase.

  11. Validity of active fault identification through magnetic anomalous using earthquake mechanism, microgravity and topography structure analysis in Cisolok area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyonegoro, Wiko; Kurniawan, Telly; Ahadi, Suaidi; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Hardy, Thomas; Prayogo, Angga S.

    2017-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the value of the magnetic anomalies to identify anomalous value standard fault, down or up with the type of Meratus trending northeast-southwest Cisolok, Sukabumi. Data collection was performed by setting the measurement grid at intervals of 5 meters distance measurement using a Precision Proton Magnetometer (PPM) -GSM-19T. To identification the active fault using magnetic is needed another parameter. The purpose of this study is to identification active fault using magnetic Anomaly in related with subsurface structure through the validation analysis of earthquake mechanism, microgravity and with Topography Structure in Java Island. Qualitative interpretation is done by analyzing the residual anomaly that has been reduced to the pole while the quantitative interpretation is done by analyzing the pattern of residual anomalies through computation. The results of quantitative interpretation, an anomalous value reduction to the pole magnetic field is at -700 nT to 700 nT while the results of the qualitative interpretation of the modeling of the path AA', BB' and CC' shows the magnetic anomaly at coordinates liquefaction resources with a value of 1028.04, 1416.21, - 1565, -1686.91. The measurement results obtained in Cisolok magnetic anomalies that indicate a high content of alumina (Al) and iron (Fe) which be identified appears through the fault gap towards the northeast through Rajamandala Lembang Fault related to the mechanism in the form of a normal fault with slip rate of 2 mm / year.

  12. SMARTer for magnetic structure studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small angle neutron scattering; magnetic structure; Cu(NiFe); CuCo; ... micromagnetism, magnetic clusters embedded in a solid nonmagnetic matrix, mag- .... project. E G R Putra acknowledges the support from IAEA through the ISNS2008.

  13. Powder Neutron Diffraction and Magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, F.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of the magnetic structures of materials (ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, helimagnetic, .) can be achieved only by neutron diffraction. A general survey of the powder technique is given: 2-axis spectrometer and analysis of the magnetic data. For the REBe/sb13/ intermetallic compounds (RE = Rare Earth), commensurate and/or incommensurate magnetic structures are observed and discussed as a function of RE (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er)

  14. Structural Design and Thermal Analysis for Thermal Shields of the MICE Coupling Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Pan, Heng; Liu, X.K.; Wang, Li; Wu, Hong; Chen, A.B.; Guo, X.L.

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting coupling magnet made from copper matrix NbTi conductors operating at 4 K will be used in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) to produce up to 2.6 T on the magnet centerline to keep the muon beam within the thin RF cavity indows. The coupling magnet is to be cooled by two cryocoolers with a total cooling capacity of 3 W at 4.2 K. In order to keep a certain operating temperature margin, the most important is to reduce the heat leakage imposed on cold surfaces of coil cold mass assembly. An ntermediate temperature shield system placed between the coupling coil and warm vacuum chamber is adopted. The shield system consists of upper neck shield, main shields, flexible connections and eight supports, which is to be cooled by the first stage cold heads of two ryocoolers with cooling capacity of 55 W at 60 K each. The maximum temperature difference on the shields should be less than 20 K, so the thermal analyses for the shields with different thicknesses, materials, flexible connections for shields' cooling and structure design for heir supports were carried out. 1100 Al is finally adopted and the maximum temperature difference is around 15 K with 4 mm shield thickness. The paper is to present detailed analyses on the shield system design.

  15. Hyperfine structure analysis in magnetic resonance spectroscopy: from astrophysical measurements towards endogenous biosensors in human tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA

    2007-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction of two spins is a well studied effect in atomic systems. Magnetic resonance experiments demonstrate that the detectable dipole transitions are determined by the magnetic moments of the constituents and the external magnetic field. Transferring the corresponding quantum mechanics to molecular bound nuclear spins allows for precise prediction of NMR spectra obtained from metabolites in human tissue. This molecular hyperfine structure has been neglected so far in in vivo NMR spectroscopy but contains useful information, especially when studying molecular dynamics. This contribution represents a review of the concept of applying the Breit-Rabi formalism to coupled nuclear spins and discusses the immobilization of different metabolites in anisotropic tissue revealed by 1H NMR spectra of carnosine, phosphocreatine and taurine. Comparison of atomic and molecular spin systems allows for statements on the biological constraints for direct spin-spin interactions. Moreover, the relevance of hyperfine effects on the line shapes of multiplets of indirectly-coupled spin systems with more than two constituents can be predicted by analyzing quantum mechanical parameters. As an example, the superposition of eigenstates of the AMX system of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and its application for better quantification of 31P-NMR spectra will be discussed. (orig.)

  16. [Hyperfine structure analysis in magnetic resonance spectroscopy: from astrophysical measurements towards endogenous biosensors in human tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Leif

    2007-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction of two spins is a well studied effect in atomic systems. Magnetic resonance experiments demonstrate that the detectable dipole transitions are determined by the magnetic moments of the constituents and the external magnetic field. Transferring the corresponding quantum mechanics to molecular bound nuclear spins allows for precise prediction of NMR spectra obtained from metabolites in human tissue. This molecular hyperfine structure has been neglected so far in in vivo NMR spectroscopy but contains useful information, especially when studying molecular dynamics. This contribution represents a review of the concept of applying the Breit-Rabi formalism to coupled nuclear spins and discusses the immobilization of different metabolites in anisotropic tissue revealed by 1H NMR spectra of carnosine, phosphocreatine and taurine. Comparison of atomic and molecular spin systems allows for statements on the biological constraints for direct spin-spin interactions. Moreover, the relevance of hyperfine effects on the line shapes of multiplets of indirectly-coupled spin systems with more than two constituents can be predicted by analyzing quantum mechanical parameters. As an example, the superposition of eigenstates of the A MX system of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and its application for better quantification of 31P-NMR spectra will be discussed.

  17. Experimental and numerical analysis for magnetically induced vibrations of conducting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Miura, H.; Isono, A.

    1993-01-01

    The coupling effect between the electromagnetic field and mechanical response of a conducting structure is of importance in magnetic fusion devices as tokamak machine. The electromagnetically induced motion of the structure due to the Lorentz force induces additional eddy currents and further modifies the dynamic characteristics of the system. This paper is concerned with numerical modeling of the dynamic field-structure interaction and its verification by experimental tests. Here, a finite element numerical model for mechanical deformation and a wiregrid numerical model for eddy currents are employed for non-ferrous and elastic conductors. A computer code has been developed for 3-D thin shell structure. Experimental tests for the code verification were carried out by using a rectangular thin copper plate. Three kinds of the plate supporting systems, i.e., a cantilever system, a fixed both ends system and a simply supported ends system were investigated. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental results was obtained. Therefore, the computer code developed here is available for analyzing the electromagnetomechanical behavior of the plasma facing components of the tokamak device. (author)

  18. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices.......We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  19. Spin Structures in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Spin structures in nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic materials may deviate locally in a nontrivial way from ideal collinear spin structures. For instance, magnetic frustration due to the reduced numbers of magnetic neighbors at the particle surface or around defects in the interior can lead to spin...... canting and hence a reduced magnetization. Moreover, relaxation between almost degenerate canted spin states can lead to anomalous temperature dependences of the magnetization at low temperatures. In ensembles of nanoparticles, interparticle exchange interactions can also result in spin reorientation....... Here, we give a short review of anomalous spin structures in nanoparticles....

  20. Structural analysis and magnetic properties of solid solutions of Co–Cr system obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A. [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Sánchez-De Jesús, F., E-mail: fsanchez@uaeh.edu.mx [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Bolarín-Miró, A.M. [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Betancourt, I.; Torres-Villaseñor, G. [Departamento de Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, a systematic study on the structural and magnetic properties of Co{sub 100−x}Cr{sub x} alloys (0structures were obtained. The saturation polarization indicated a maximum value of 1.17 T (144 Am{sup 2}/kg) for the Co{sub 90}Cr{sub 10}, which decreases with the increasing of the Cr content up to x=80, as a consequence of the dilution effect of the magnetic moment which is caused by the Cr content and by the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The coercivity increases up to 34 kA/m (435 Oe) for Co{sub 40}Cr{sub 60}. For Cr rich compositions, it is observed an important decrease reaching 21 kA/m (272 Oe) for Co{sub 10}Cr{sub 90,} it is related to the grain size and the structural change. Besides, the magnetic anisotropy constant was determined for each composition. Magnetic thermogravimetric analysis allowed to obtain Curie temperatures corresponding to the formation of hcp-Co(Cr) and fcc-Co(Cr) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Mechanical alloying (MA) induces the formation of solid solutions of Co–Cr system in non-equilibrium. • We report the crystal structure and the magnetic behavior of Co–Cr alloys produced by MA. • MA improves the magnetic properties of Co–Cr system.

  1. Internal structure of magnetic endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, C.; Wilhelm, C.; Cousin, F.; Dupuis, V.; Gazeau, F.; Perzynski, R.

    2007-01-01

    The internal structure of biological vesicles filled with magnetic nanoparticles is investigated using the following complementary analyses: electronic transmission microscopy, dynamic probing by magneto-optical birefringence and structural probing by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). These magnetic vesicles are magnetic endosomes obtained via a non-specific interaction between cells and anionic magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Thanks to a magnetic purification process, they are probed at two different stages of their formation within HeLa cells: (i) adsorption of nanoparticles onto the cellular membrane and (ii) their subsequent internalisation within endosomes. Differences in the microenvironment of the magnetic nanoparticles at those two different stages are highlighted here. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles adsorbed onto cellular membranes and confined within endosomes is respectively 3 and 5 orders of magnitude slower than for isolated magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous media. Interestingly, SANS experiments show that magnetic endosomes have an internal structure close to decorated vesicles, with magnetic nanoparticles locally decorating the endosome membrane, inside their inner-sphere. These results, important for future biomedical applications, suggest that multiple fusions of decorated vesicles are the biological processes underlying the endocytosis of that kind of nanometric materials.

  2. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  3. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetoresistance measurements of strain gages were made. The magnitude and variation of the magnetoresistance of a large number of strain gages were measured for the following conditions: (1) dc magnetic fields up to 12 T, (2) three orthogonal field directions, (3) increasing and decreasing fields, (4) a wide range of strain levels, and (5) liquid helium temperature

  4. Analysis of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer during structured electrodeposition of copper in high magnetic gradient fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jörg; Tschulik, Kristina; Büttner, Lars; Uhlemann, Margitta; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-03-19

    To experimentally reveal the correlation between electrodeposited structure and electrolyte convection induced inside the concentration boundary layer, a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field, generated by a magnetized Fe-wire, has been applied to an electrochemical system. The influence of Lorentz and magnetic field gradient force to the local transport phenomena of copper ions has been studied using a novel two-component laser Doppler velocity profile sensor. With this sensor, the electrolyte convection within 500 μm of a horizontally aligned cathode is presented. The electrode-normal two-component velocity profiles below the electrodeposited structure show that electrolyte convection is induced and directed toward the rim of the Fe-wire. The measured deposited structure directly correlates to the observed boundary layer flow. As the local concentration of Cu(2+) ions is enhanced due to the induced convection, maximum deposit thicknesses can be found at the rim of the Fe-wire. Furthermore, a complex boundary layer flow structure was determined, indicating that electrolyte convection of second order is induced. Moreover, the Lorentz force-driven convection rapidly vanishes, while the electrolyte convection induced by the magnetic field gradient force is preserved much longer. The progress for research is the first direct experimental proof of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer that correlates to the deposited structure and reveals that the magnetic field gradient force is responsible for the observed structuring effect.

  5. Stress analysis, structure and magnetic properties of sputter deposited Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annadurai, A. [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Manivel Raja, M., E-mail: mraja@dmrl.drdo.in [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabahar, K.; Kumar, Atul [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Kannan, M.D.; Jayakumar, S. [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India)

    2011-11-15

    The residual stress instituted in Ni-Mn-Ga thin films during deposition is a key parameter influencing their shape memory applications by affecting its structural and magnetic properties. A series of Ni-Mn-Ga thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on Si(1 0 0) and glass substrates at four different sputtering powers of 25, 45, 75 and 100 W for systematic investigation of the residual stress and its effect on structure and magnetic properties. The residual stresses in thin films were characterized by a laser scanning technique. The as-deposited films were annealed at 600 deg. C for 1 h in vacuum for structural and magnetic ordering. The compressive stresses observed in as-deposited films transformed into tensile stresses upon annealing. The annealed films were found to be crystalline and possess mixed phases of both austenite and martensite, exhibiting good soft magnetic properties. It was found that the increase of sputtering power induced coarsening in thin films. Typical saturation magnetization and coercivity values were found to be 330 emu/cm{sup 3} and 215 Oe, respectively. The films deposited at 75 and 100 W display both structural and magnetic transitions above room temperature. - Highlights: > Compressive stresses observed in as-deposited films transformed into tensile stresses upon annealing. > Annealed films were found to be crystalline and possess mixed phases of both austenite and martensite, exhibiting good soft magnetic properties. > The highest Curie transition in the films was observed at 365 K. > The films deposited at 75 and 100 W display both structural and magnetic transitions above room temperature.

  6. Magnetic structure of holmium-yttrium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; Cowley, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the chemical and magnetic structures of a series of holmium-yttrium superlattices and a 5000 angstrom film of holmium, all grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. By combining the results of high-resolution x-ray diffraction with detailed modeling, we show...... that the superlattices have high crystallographic integrity: the structural coherence length parallel to the growth direction is typically almost-equal-to 2000 angstrom, while the interfaces between the two elements are well defined and extend over approximately four lattice planes. The magnetic structures were...... determined using neutron-scattering techniques. The moments on the Ho3+ ions in the superlattices form a basal-plane helix. From an analysis of the superlattice structure factors of the primary magnetic satellites, we are able to determine separately the contributions made by the holmium and yttrium...

  7. Stress analysis of superconducting magnets for magnetic fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, J.E.; Gray, W.H.; Baudry, T.V.

    1980-01-01

    Superconducting devices involve several factors that normally are not encountered in the structural analysis of more common systems. Several of these factors ae noted and methods for including them in an analysis are cited. To illustrate the state of the analysis art for superconducting magnets, in magnetic fusion reactors, two specific projects are illustrated. They are the Large Coil Program (LCP) and the Engineering Test Facility (ETF).

  8. Stress analysis of superconducting magnets for magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, J.E.; Gray, W.H.; Baudry, T.V.

    1980-01-01

    Superconducting devices involve several factors that normally are not encountered in the structural analysis of more common systems. Several of these factors ae noted and methods for including them in an analysis are cited. To illustrate the state of the analysis art for superconducting magnets, in magnetic fusion reactors, two specific projects are illustrated. They are the Large Coil Program (LCP) and the Engineering Test Facility

  9. Spin-resolved magnetic studies of focused ion beam etched nano-sized magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Rau, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Scanning ion microscopy with polarization analysis (SIMPA) is used to study the spin-resolved surface magnetic structure of nano-sized magnetic systems. SIMPA is utilized for in situ topographic and spin-resolved magnetic domain imaging as well as for focused ion beam (FIB) etching of desired structures in magnetic or non-magnetic systems. Ultra-thin Co films are deposited on surfaces of Si(1 0 0) substrates, and ultra-thin, tri-layered, bct Fe(1 0 0)/Mn/bct Fe(1 0 0) wedged magnetic structures are deposited on fcc Pd(1 0 0) substrates. SIMPA experiments clearly show that ion-induced electrons emitted from magnetic surfaces exhibit non-zero electron spin polarization (ESP), whereas electrons emitted from non-magnetic surfaces such as Si and Pd exhibit zero ESP, which can be used to calibrate sputtering rates in situ. We report on new, spin-resolved magnetic microstructures, such as magnetic 'C' states and magnetic vortices, found at surfaces of FIB patterned magnetic elements. It is found that FIB milling has a negligible effect on surface magnetic domain and domain wall structures. It is demonstrated that SIMPA can evolve into an important and efficient tool to study magnetic domain, domain wall and other structures as well as to perform magnetic depth profiling of magnetic nano-systems to be used in ultra-high density magnetic recording and in magnetic sensors

  10. Diabetic neuropathy: structural analysis of nerve hydration by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffey, R.H.; Eaton, P.; Sibbitt, R.R.; Sibbitt, W.L. Jr.; Bicknell, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The water content of the sural nerve of diabetic patients was quantitatively defined by magnetic resonance proton imaging as a putative reflection of activity of the aldose-reductase pathway. Thirty-nine patients were evaluated, comparing group A, symptomatic diabetic men with sensory neuropathy; group B, similarly symptomatic diabetic men treated aldose-reductase inhibition; group C, neurologically asymptomatic diabetic men; and group D, control nondiabetic men. Marked increase in hydration of the sural nerve was seen in more than half of the symptomatic diabetic patients. Two of 11 neurologically asymptomatic diabetics had increased nerve hydration, suggesting a presymptomatic alteration of the nerve. Symptomatic diabetics treated with aldose-reductase inhibitors had normal nerve water levels. Increased level of peripheral nerve water represents a new finding in diabetes mellitus. It seems to be related to aldose-reductase activity, involved in the development of neuropathy, and similar to events that occur in other target tissue in human diabetes

  11. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates of Aggression in Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Effect Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Widmayer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression in psychoses is of high clinical importance, and volumetric MRI techniques have been used to explore its structural brain correlates.Methods: We conducted a systematic review searching EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO through September 2017 using thesauri representing aggression, psychosis, and brain imaging. We calculated effect sizes for each study and mean Hedge's g for whole brain (WB volume. Methodological quality was established using the PRISMA checklist (PROSPERO: CRD42014014461.Results: Our sample consisted of 12 studies with 470 patients and 155 healthy controls (HC. After subtracting subjects due to cohort overlaps, 314 patients and 96 HC remained. Qualitative analyses showed lower volumes of WB, prefrontal regions, temporal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum, and higher volumes of lateral ventricles, amygdala, and putamen in violent vs. non-violent people with schizophrenia. In quantitative analyses, violent persons with schizophrenia exhibited a significantly lower WB volume than HC (p = 0.004, and also lower than non-violent persons with schizophrenia (p = 0.007.Conclusions: We reviewed evidence for differences in brain volume correlates of aggression in persons with schizophrenia. Our results point toward a reduced whole brain volume in violent as opposed to non-violent persons with schizophrenia. However, considerable sample overlap in the literature, lack of reporting of potential confounding variables, and missing research on affective psychoses limit our explanatory power. To permit stronger conclusions, further studies evaluating structural correlates of aggression in psychotic disorders are needed.

  12. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates of Aggression in Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Effect Size Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Sonja; Sowislo, Julia F; Jungfer, Hermann A; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Stieglitz, Rolf D; Huber, Christian G

    2018-01-01

    Background: Aggression in psychoses is of high clinical importance, and volumetric MRI techniques have been used to explore its structural brain correlates. Methods: We conducted a systematic review searching EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO through September 2017 using thesauri representing aggression, psychosis, and brain imaging. We calculated effect sizes for each study and mean Hedge's g for whole brain (WB) volume. Methodological quality was established using the PRISMA checklist (PROSPERO: CRD42014014461). Results: Our sample consisted of 12 studies with 470 patients and 155 healthy controls (HC). After subtracting subjects due to cohort overlaps, 314 patients and 96 HC remained. Qualitative analyses showed lower volumes of WB, prefrontal regions, temporal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum, and higher volumes of lateral ventricles, amygdala, and putamen in violent vs. non-violent people with schizophrenia. In quantitative analyses, violent persons with schizophrenia exhibited a significantly lower WB volume than HC ( p = 0.004), and also lower than non-violent persons with schizophrenia ( p = 0.007). Conclusions: We reviewed evidence for differences in brain volume correlates of aggression in persons with schizophrenia. Our results point toward a reduced whole brain volume in violent as opposed to non-violent persons with schizophrenia. However, considerable sample overlap in the literature, lack of reporting of potential confounding variables, and missing research on affective psychoses limit our explanatory power. To permit stronger conclusions, further studies evaluating structural correlates of aggression in psychotic disorders are needed.

  13. Surface magnetic structures in amorphous ferromagnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, N.A., E-mail: usov@obninsk.ru [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Serebryakova, O.N.; Gudoshnikov, S.A. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tarasov, V.P. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    The spatial period of magnetization perturbations that occur near the surface of magnetic nanotube or nanowire under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy is determined by means of numerical simulation as a function of the sample geometry and material parameters. The surface magnetization distribution obtained is then used to estimate the period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter by means of appropriate variational procedure. The period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure may arise near the magnetic nanotube surface under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy. • The period of the surface magnetization pattern is calculated as a function of the sample geometry. • Similar magnetic structure may exist in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter. • The period of the surface magnetic structure in amorphous wire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter.

  14. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. MULTISCALE DYNAMICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries. We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.

  16. Magnetic Signature Analysis & Validation System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vliet, Scott

    2001-01-01

    The Magnetic Signature Analysis and Validation (MAGSAV) System is a mobile platform that is used to measure, record, and analyze the perturbations to the earth's ambient magnetic field caused by object such as armored vehicles...

  17. Magnetic structure of molecular magnet Fe[Fe(CN) 6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied the magnetic structure of Fe[Fe(CN)6]·4H2O, prepared by precipitation method, using neutron diffraction technique. Temperature dependent DC magnetization study down to 4.2 K shows that the compound undergoes from a high temperature disordered (paramagnetic) to an ordered magnetic phase ...

  18. Thermal structure of Sikhote Alin and adjacent areas based on spectral analysis of the anomalous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, A. N.; Nosyrev, M. Yu.; Shevchenko, B. F.; Gilmanova, G. Z.

    2017-11-01

    The depth of the base of the magnetoactive layer and the geothermal gradient in the Sikhote Alin crust are estimated based on a method determining the Curie depth point of magnetoactive masses by using spectral analysis of the anomalous magnetic field. A detailed map of the geothermal gradient is constructed for the first time for the Sikhote Alin and adjacent areas of the Central Asian belt. Analysis of this map shows that the zones with a higher geothermal gradient geographically fit the areas with a higher level of seismicity.

  19. Structure and magnetic field of periodic permanent magnetic focusing system with open magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Long; Li Lezhong; Yang Dingyu; Zhu Xinghua; Li Yuanxun

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field along the central axis for an axially magnetized permanent magnetic ring was investigated by analytical and finite element methods. For open magnetic rings, both calculated and measured results show that the existence of the radial magnetic field creates a remarkable cosine distribution field along the central axis. A new structure of periodic permanent magnet focusing system with open magnetic rings is proposed. The structure provides a satisfactory magnetic field with a stable peak value of 120 mT for a traveling wave tube system. - Research highlights: → For open magnetic rings, both calculated and measured results show that the existence of the radial magnetic field creates a remarkable cosine distribution field along the central axis. → A new structure of periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing system with open magnetic rings is proposed. → The new PPM focusing system with open magnetic rings meets the requirements for TWT system.

  20. Open magnetic structures on the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.H.; Altschuler, M.D.; Harvey, J.W.; Jackson, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    High-resolution harmonic analysis of the solar magnetic field has been used successfully to calculate the geometry of open magnetic field lines in the solar corona. Comparison of the loci of open field line footpoints with solar X-ray photographs shows that all of the coronal holes during two solar rotations are successfully represented, including details of their evolution. Some open magnetic configurations derived in the calculations precede by up to one solar rotation the manifestation of coincident dark areas on the X-ray photographs. The only other areas that contribute open field lines to the corona are separations between active-region loop systems. By varying the radius at which field lines are forced to be open in the calculation, it is possible to more closely reproduce the surface configuration of particular coronal holes. Comparison of the size of X-ray holes with the fraction of the solar surface covered by open field lines leads to the conclusion that a significant part of the area of coronal holes must contain closed magnetic fields. Comparison of open field lines which lie in the equatorial plane of the Sun with solar wind data indicates that eventual high-speed solar wind streams are associated with those parts of open magnetic structures that diverge the least. Several important questions raised by this study are under investigation using data for the entire Skylab period

  1. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  2. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  3. Structural safety features for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Bezler, P.; Gardner, D.; Yu, W.; Chang, T.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A survey has been carried out for various potential structural safety problems of superconducting fusion magnets. These areas include: (1) Stresses due to inhomogeneous temperature distributions in magnets where normal regions have been initiated. (2) Stress distributions and yield forces due to cracks and failed regions. (3) Superconducting magnet response due to seismic excitation. These analyses have been carried out using a variety of large capacity finite element computer codes that allow for the evaluation of stresses in elastic or elastic-plastic zones and around singularities in the magnet structure. Thus far, these analyses have been carried out on UWMAK-I type magnet systems

  4. Structural peculiarities in magnetic small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneda, K.; Morrish, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Nanostructured magnetic materials, consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites, are currently a developing subject. Evidence has been accumulating that they possess properties that can differ substantially from those of bulk materials. This paper illustrates how Moessbauer spectroscopy can yield useful information on the structural peculiarities associated with these small particles. As illustrations, metallic iron and iron-oxide systems are considered in detail. The subjects discussed include: (1) Phase stabilities in small particles, (2) deformed or nonsymmetric atomic arrangements in small particles, and (3) peculiar magnetic structures or non-collinear spin arrangements in small magnetic oxide particles that are correlated with lower specific magnetizations as compared to the bulk values. (orig.)

  5. SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE MODULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH COHERENT MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenchi, L.; Bruno, R.; D'amicis, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Telloni, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    In situ observations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) often show rapid variations of their intensity profile, affecting all energies simultaneously, without time dispersion. A previously proposed interpretation suggests that these modulations are directly related to the presence of magnetic structures with a different magnetic topology. However, no compelling evidence of local changes in magnetic field or in plasma parameters during SEP modulations has been reported. In this paper, we performed a detailed analysis of SEP events and we found several signatures in the local magnetic field and/or plasma parameters associated with SEP modulations. The study of magnetic helicity allowed us to identify magnetic boundaries, associated with variations of plasma parameters, which are thought to represent the borders between adjacent magnetic flux tubes. It is found that SEP dispersionless modulations are generally associated with such magnetic boundaries. Consequently, we support the idea that SEP modulations are observed when the spacecraft passes through magnetic flux tubes, filled or devoid of SEPs, which are alternatively connected and not connected with the flare site. In other cases, we found SEP dropouts associated with large-scale magnetic holes. A possible generation mechanism suggests that these holes are formed in the high solar corona as a consequence of magnetic reconnection. This reconnection process modifies the magnetic field topology, and therefore, these holes can be magnetically isolated from the surrounding plasma and could also explain their association with SEP dropouts.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and image analysis for assessment of HPMC matrix tablets structural evolution in USP Apparatus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Dorożyński, Przemysław; Młynarczyk, Anna; Węglarz, Władysław P

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to present a methodology for the processing of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data for the quantification of the dosage form matrix evolution during drug dissolution. The results of the study were verified by comparison with other approaches presented in literature. A commercially available, HPMC-based quetiapine fumarate tablet was studied with a 4.7T MR system. Imaging was performed inside an MRI probe-head coupled with a flow-through cell for 12 h in circulating water. The images were segmented into three regions using threshold-based segmentation algorithms due to trimodal structure of the image intensity histograms. Temporal evolution of dry glassy, swollen glassy and gel regions was monitored. The characteristic features were observed: initial high expansion rate of the swollen glassy and gel layers due to initial water uptake, dry glassy core disappearance and maximum area of swollen glassy region at 4 h, and subsequent gel layer thickness increase at the expense of swollen glassy layer. The temporal evolution of an HPMC-based tablet by means of noninvasive MRI integrated with USP Apparatus 4 was found to be consistent with both the theoretical model based on polymer disentanglement concentration and experimental VIS/FTIR studies.

  7. High-field permanent-magnet structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupoid, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a permanent magnet structure. It comprises an azimuthally circumscribed section of a hollow hemispherical magnetic flux source, the magnetic orientation in the section with respect to the polar axis being substantially equal to twice the polar angle, a superconducting planar sheet abutting one flat face of the section along a longitudinal meridian, and at least one other planar sheet of selected material abutting another flat face of the section and perpendicular to the first-mentioned sheet

  8. Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Planes, Antoni; Saxena, Avadh

    2005-01-01

    Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials addresses three distinct but related topics: (i) magnetoelastic materials such as magnetic martensites and magnetic shape memory alloys, (ii) the magnetocaloric effect related to magnetostructural transitions, and (iii) colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and related magnanites. The goal is to identify common underlying principles in these classes of materials that are relevant for optimizing various functionalities. The emergence of apparently different magnetic/structural phenomena in disparate classes of materials clearly points to a need for common concepts in order to achieve a broader understanding of the interplay between magnetism and structure in this general class of new functional materials exhibiting ever more complex microstructure and function. The topic is interdisciplinary in nature and the contributors correspondingly include physicists, materials scientists and engineers. Likewise the book will appeal to scientists from all these areas.

  9. Generic structural mechanics aspects of fusion magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Structural mechanic requirements for future large superconducting fusion magnets are assessed. Current structural analysis methods and standards do not yet appear sufficient for a complete evaluation of such systems, under all potential operating and accident conditions. Recommendations are made for development of needed structural methods and specialized standards for fusion magnets. These include, among others, better composite structural methods with various failure criteria for metallic, as well as non-metallic materials, coupled thermal-electrical-structural codes, incorporating winding and fabrication effects, and use of probabilistic methods for life prediction. In order to help meet program goals for fusion commericialization, it is recommended that such work be initiated relatively soon. (orig.)

  10. Structure and dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, K.N.; Bødker, F.; Hansen, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present X-ray and neutron diffraction data illustrating aspects of crystal and magnetic structures of ferromagnetic alpha-Fe and antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles, as well as inelastic neutron scattering studies of the magnetic fluctuations in NiO and in canted antiferromagnetic...

  11. Magnetic structures of erbium under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawano, S.; Lebech, B.; Achiwa, N.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of the magnetic structures of erbium metal at 4.5 K and 11.5 kbar hydrostatic pressure have revealed that the transition to a conical structure at low temperatures is suppressed and that the cycloidal structure, with modulation vector Q congruent-to (2/7 2pi/c)c persists...

  12. Electrical Characterization of Gold-DNA-Gold Structures in Presence of an External Magnetic Field by Means of I-V Curve Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Haliza Abd Majid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM structure. Its electric behavior when subjected to a magnetic field was studied through its current-voltage (I-V curve. Acquisition of the I-V curve demonstrated that DNA as a semiconductor exhibits diode behavior in the MDM structure. The current versus magnetic field strength followed a decreasing trend because of a diminished mobility in the presence of a low magnetic field. This made clear that an externally imposed magnetic field would boost resistance of the MDM structure up to 1,000.00 mT and for higher magnetic field strengths we can observe an increase in potential barrier in MDM junction. The magnetic sensitivity indicates the promise of using MDM structures as potential magnetic sensors.

  13. The spin structure of magnetic nanoparticles and in magnetic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disch, Sabrina

    2011-09-26

    The present thesis provides an extensive and original contribution to the investigation of magnetic nanoparticles regarding synthesis and structural characterization using advanced scattering methods in all length scales between the atomic and mesoscopic size range. Particular emphasis is on determination of the magnetic structure of single nanoparticles as well as preparation and characterization of higher dimensional assemblies thereof. The unique physical properties arising from the finite size of magnetic nanoparticles are pronounced for very small particle sizes. With the aim of preparing magnetic nanoparticles suitable for investigation of such properties, a micellar synthesis route for very small cobalt nanoparticles is explored. Cobalt nanoparticles with diameters of less than 3 nm are prepared and characterized, and routes for variation of the particle size are developed. The needs and limitations of primary characterization and handling of such small and oxidation-sensitive nanoparticles are highlighted and discussed in detail. Comprehensive structural and magnetic characterization is performed on iron oxide nanoparticles of {proportional_to} 10 nm in diameter. Particle size and narrow size distribution are determined with high precision. Investigation of the long range and local atomic structure reveals a particle size dependent magnetite - maghemite structure type with lattice distortions induced at the particle surface. The spatial magnetization distribution within these nanoparticles is determined to be constant in the particle core with a decrease towards the particle surface, thus indicating a magnetic dead layer or spin canting close to the surface. Magnetically induced arrangements of such nanoparticles into higher dimensional assemblies are investigated in solution and by deposition of long range ordered mesocrystals. Both cases reveal a strong dependence of the found structures on the nanoparticle shape (spheres, cubes, and heavily truncated

  14. Ultrathin magnetic structures IV applications of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. Volume III describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. The present volume (IV) deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is de...

  15. Ultrathin magnetic structures III fundamentals of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bland, JAC

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. This volume describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. Volume IV deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is designed to be ...

  16. Effects of the magnetic field on the structure of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo

    1984-02-01

    This is a report of the ''Meeting on the effects of a magnetic field on the structure of materials'' held at KEK, Japan. The purpose of the Meeting was to study the diffraction of SR X-ray in a magnetic field. It was found that the effects of a magnetic field have been seen in various substnaces. The effects are due to the Zeeman effect, the Lamor diamagnetism, the Landau diamagnetism, the Meissner effect and the polarization effect. The topics discussed at the Meeting were the structure study of biological specimens by field orientation, the study of cell structure by field orientation, the phase transition under a strong pulse field, the behavior of high molecular liquid crystal in a magnetic field, the change of the f-electron density of the Tb 3+ ions in Tb IG in a magnetic field at low temperature, an electromagnet loaded on a goniometer and an in-situ observation system for the structure of magnetic domain, the control of structural phase transition by a magnetic field, the use of synchrotron orbit radiation for the structural analysis of random systems, and the field effect on chemical reactions. (Kato, T.)

  17. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4 0 K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs

  18. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  19. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; del Real, R. P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vá zquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  20. Anatomical analysis of an aye-aye brain (Daubentonia madagascariensis, primates: Prosimii) combining histology, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jason A; Ahrens, Eric T; Laidlaw, David H; Zhang, Song; Allman, John M

    2005-11-01

    This report presents initial results of a multimodal analysis of tissue volume and microstructure in the brain of an aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis). The left hemisphere of an aye-aye brain was scanned using T2-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) prior to histological processing and staining for Nissl substance and myelinated fibers. The objectives of the experiment were to estimate the volume of gross brain regions for comparison with published data on other prosimians and to validate DTI data on fiber anisotropy with histological measurements of fiber spread. Measurements of brain structure volumes in the specimen are consistent with those reported in the literature: the aye-aye has a very large brain for its body size, a reduced volume of visual structures (V1 and LGN), and an increased volume of the olfactory lobe. This trade-off between visual and olfactory reliance is likely a reflection of the nocturnal extractive foraging behavior practiced by Daubentonia. Additionally, frontal cortex volume is large in the aye-aye, a feature that may also be related to its complex foraging behavior and sensorimotor demands. Analysis of DTI data in the anterior cingulum bundle demonstrates a strong correlation between fiber spread as measured from histological sections and fiber spread as measured from DTI. These results represent the first quantitative comparison of DTI data and fiber-stained histology in the brain. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Defect-induced magnetic structure of CuMnSb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máca, František; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Turek, I.; Stelmakhovych, O.; Beran, Přemysl; Llobet, A.; Martí, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 9 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 094407. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : CuMnSb * electronic structure * defects * magnetic order * ab initio calculations * neutron diffraction analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  2. Magnetic structure and lattice deformation in UO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksenov, V L; Frauenheim, T; Sikora, V [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1981-12-21

    The magnetic phase transition in UO/sub 2/ is studied by means of a group theoretical analysis and the admitted symmetry groups in the low temperature phase are determined. With the help of the neutron diffraction data of Faber and Lander a three-arm magnetic and crystallographic structure with two types of translational domains is found and a new interpretation of the experiment of Faber and Lander is given.

  3. GEOSTAR deep sea floor missions: magnetic data analysis and 1D geo electric structure underneath the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale, S.; De Santis, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Cafarella, L.; Palangio, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Favali, P.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 to 2005 two geophysical exploration missions were undertaken in the Tyrrenian deep sea floor at depth between -2000 and -3000 m in the framework of the European-funded GEOSTAR Projects. The considered missions in this work are GEOSTAR-2 and ORION-GEOSTAR-3 with the main scientific objective of investigating the deep-sea floor by means of an automatic multiparameter benthic observatory station working continuously from around 5 to 12 months each time. During the two GEOSTAR deep sea floor missions, scalar and vector magnetometers acquired useful magnetic data both to improve global and regional geomagnetic reference models and to infer specific geo electric information about the two sites of magnetic measurements by means of a forward modelling.

  4. Structural analysis of d(GCAATTGC)2 and its complex with berenil by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Mitsuru; Banville, D.L.; Shafer, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The structures of d(GCAATTGC) 2 and its complex with berenil in solution were analyzed by two-dimensional 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Intra- and internucleotide nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) connectivities demonstrate that the octanucleotide duplex is primarily in the B conformation. Binding with berenil stabilizes the duplex with respect to thermal denaturation by about 10 degree C, based on the appearance of the imino proton signals. The berenil-d(GCAATTGC) 2 system is in fast exchange on the NMR time scale. The two-dimensional NMR data reveal that berenil binds in the minor groove of d(GCAATTGC) 2 . The aromatic drug protons are placed within 5 angstrom of the H2 proton of both adenines, the H1', H5', and H5 double-prime of both thymidines, and the H4', H5', and H5 double-prime of the internal guanosine. The amidine protons on berenil are also close to the H2 proton of both adenines. The duplex retains an overall B conformation in the complex with berenil. At 18 degree C, NOE contacts at longer mixing times indicate the presence of end-to-end association both in the duplex alone and also in its complex with berenil. These intermolecular contacts either vanished or diminished substantially at 45 degree C. Two molecular models are proposed for the berenil-(GCAATTGC) 2 complex; one has hydrogen bonds between the berenil amidine protons and the carbonyl oxygen, O2, of the external thymines, and the other has hydrogen bonds between the drug amidine protons and the purine nitrogen, N3, of the internal adenines. Quantitative analysis of the NOE data favors the second model

  5. The internal structure of magnetic nanoparticles determines the magnetic response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacáková, Barbara; Kubíčková, Simona; Salas, G.; Mantlíková, Alice; Marciello, M.; Morales, M.P.; Nižňanský, D.; Vejpravová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 16 (2017), s. 5129-5140 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanoparticles * single-domain * internal structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 7.367, year: 2016

  6. Structural and magnetic domains characterization of magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo-Salazar, J.; Castellanos-Roman, M.A.; Beatriz Gomez, L.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, important advances have been achieved in application, reproducibility and response ability of magnetic materials due to the relationships among processing, structure and nanometric size particle. Features like homogeneity of compounds and nanoparticle-sizing have improved some magnetic properties of materials and their field application. Of particular interest is the study of magnetic materials at the atomic and microstuctural level because the orientation and magnetic domains (large numbers of atoms moments coupled together in a preferential direction) can be observed. In this work, magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) powders which were obtained by precipitation route in alkaline medium are analyzed to identify the structure and mechanism formation of domains over the core and border of nanoparticles. Results obtained by XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) showed a structural phase corresponding to Fe 3 O 4 and nanoparticles in a range of 20-40 nm. Samples scanned by MFM in nanometric resolution and profile images showed orientation of magnetic domains in the border and cores of the material. Finally, an analysis of repulsion and attraction in magnetic field and direction changes of domains formed by magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) powders were done

  7. The dynamics of coronal magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis is made of the evolution of coronal magnetic fields due to the interaction with the solar wind. An analysis of the formation of coronal streamers, arising as a result of the stretching of bipolar fields, is given. Numerical simulations of the formation of coronal streamers are presented. Fast-mode shocks as triggers of microturbulence in the solar corona are discussed

  8. SYNTHESIS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Much of the current effort on such extended hybrid metal organic complexes is ... In this paper, we report the synthesis, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and ..... with g = 2.0 (0.37 cm3 mol−1 K), and smoothly increases to a value of 0.45 ...

  9. Structure and Evolution of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.

    2007-06-01

    Theoretical models and observational results are reviewed. The general picture of the structure and evolution of cataclysmic variables (CV) is presented, together with a brief discussion of additional mechanisms of intrinsic variability of the components and magnetic activity of secondaries. Special attention is paid to the accretion structures - flow, disk, column - which are affected by the magnetic field of the white dwarf. The mass and angular momentum transfer in asynchronous MCVs leads to a "propeller" stage of rapid synchronization, after which the "idlings" of the white dwarf are altered to "swingings" with a characteristic time of century(ies). The disk- magnetic field interaction leads to precession of the white dwarf, which causes quasi-periodic changes of the equilibrium rotational period. "Shot noise" in cataclysmic variables is discussed based on one-bandpass and multi-color observations.

  10. Dipolar vortex structures in magnetized rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jixing

    1990-01-01

    Dipolar solitary vortices of both electrostatic and electromagnetic character in low-β, in homogeneous rotating plasma confined in a constant external magnetic field were systematically presented. The main stimulus to this investigation is the expectation to apply this coherent structure as a candidate constituent of plasma turbulance to understand the anomalous transport phenomena in confined plasma. The electrostatic vortices have similar structure and properties as the Rossby vortices in rotating fluids, the electromagnetic vortices obtained here have no analogy in hydrodynamics and hence are intrinsic to magnetized plasma. It is valuably remarked that the intrinsic electromagnetic vortices presented here have no discontinuity of perturbed magnetic field δB and parallel current j(parallel) on the border of vortex core. The existence region of the new type of vortex is found much narrower than the Rossby type one. (M.T.)

  11. Structure requirements for magnetic energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyssa, Y.M.; Huang, X.

    1993-01-01

    Large variety of large and small magnetic energy storage systems have been designed and analyzed in the last 20 years. Cryoresistive and superconductive energy storage (SMES) magnets have been considered for applications such as load leveling for electric utilities, pulsed storage for electromagnetic launchers and accelerator devices, and space borne superconductive energy storage systems. Large SMES are supported by a combination of cold and warm structure while small SMES are supported only by cold structure. In this article we provide analytical and numerical tools to estimate the structure requirements as function of the stored energy and configuration. Large and small solenoidal and toroidal geometries are used. Considerations for both warm and cold structure are discussed. Latest design concepts for both large and small units are included. (orig.)

  12. Highly ordered FEPT and FePd magnetic nano-structures: Correlated structural and magnetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukaszew, Rosa Alejandra; Cebollada, Alfonso; Clavero, Cesar; Garcia-Martin, Jose Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The micro-structure of epitaxial FePt and FePd films grown on MgO (0 0 1) substrates is correlated to their magnetic behavior. The FePd films exhibit high chemical ordering and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. On the other hand FePt films exhibit low chemical ordering, with nano-grains oriented in two orthogonal directions, forcing the magnetization to remain in the plane of the films

  13. Neutron scattering studies of modulated magnetic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Soerensen, Steen

    1999-08-01

    This report describes investigations of the magnetic systems DyFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} and MnSi by neutron scattering and in the former case also by X-ray magnetic resonant scattering. The report is divided into three parts: An introduction to the technique of neutron scattering with special emphasis on the relation between the scattering cross section and the correlations between the scattering entities of the sample. The theoretical framework of neutron scattering experiments using polarized beam technique is outlined. The second part describes neutron and X-ray scattering investigation of the magnetic structures of DyFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. The Fe sublattice of the compound order at 180 K in a cycloidal structure in the basal plane of the bct crystal structure. At 25 K the ordering of the Dy sublattice shows up. By the element specific technique of X-ray resonant magnetic scattering, the basal plane cycloidal structure was also found for the Dy sublattice. The work also includes neutron scattering studies of DyFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} in magnetic fields up to 5 T applied along a <110> direction. The modulated structure at the Dy sublattice is quenched by a field lower than 1 T, whereas modulation is present at the Fe sublattice even when the 5 T field is applied. In the third part of the report, results from three small angle neutron experiments on MnSi are presented. At ambient pressure, a MnSi is known to form a helical spin density wave at temperature below 29 K. The application of 4.5 kbar pressure intended as hydrostatic decreased the Neel temperature to 25 K and changed the orientation of the modulation vector. To understand this reorientation within the current theoretical framework, anisotropic deformation of the sample crystal must be present. The development of magnetic critical scattering with an isotropic distribution of intensity has been studied at a level of detail higher than that of work found in the literature. Finally the potential of a novel polarization

  14. Method and apparatus for control of a magnetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challenger, Michael P.; Valla, Arthur S.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus for independently adjusting the spacing between opposing magnet arrays in charged particle based light sources. Adjustment mechanisms between each of the magnet arrays and the supporting structure allow the gap between the two magnet arrays to be independently adjusted. In addition, spherical bearings in the linkages to the magnet arrays permit the transverse angular orientation of the magnet arrays to also be adjusted. The opposing magnet arrays can be supported above the ground by the structural support.

  15. Basic study of magnetic microwires for sensor applications: Variety of magnetic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhik, Alexander, E-mail: oleksandr.chyzhyk@ehu.es [Universidad del Pais Vasco, UPV/EHU, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Zhukov, Arcady [Universidad del Pais Vasco, UPV/EHU, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez, Julian [Universidad del Pais Vasco, UPV/EHU, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Stupakiewicz, Andrzej [Laboratory of Magnetism, University of Bialystok, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland)

    2017-01-15

    We examine magnetic glass-coated microwires used for magnetic sensors. Images of domain structures and magnetization reversal were obtained with magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. Of particular importance were temperature-induced transformations of surface magnetic structures. Different surface magnetic domains coexist, characterized by various domain periods, magnetization directions, and nobilities of domain walls. - Highlights: • Temperature induced transformation of the domain structure in the microwires. • Co-existence of two magnetic structures differing in period and mobility of domain walls. • Short review of the basic domain structures in microwire.

  16. Structural design of superconducting magnets for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.; Long, C.J.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1979-09-01

    The Large Coil Program (LCP) is a research, development, and demonstration effort specifically for the advancement of the technologies involved in the production of large superconducting magnets. This paper presents a review of the status of the structural designs, analysis methods, and verification tests being performed by the participating LCP design teams in the USA, Switzerland, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The significant structural mechanics concerns that are being investigated with the LCP are presented

  17. Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermak Helen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs, the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world’s largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.

  18. The vector structure of active magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    Observations are needed to show the form of the strains introduced into the fields above the surface of the Sun. The longitudinal component alone does not provide the basic information, so that it has been necessary in the past to use the filamentary structure observed in H sub alpha to supplement the longitudinal information. Vector measurements provide the additional essential information to determine the strains, with the filamentary structure available as a check for consistency. It is to be expected, then, that vector measurements will permit a direct mapping of the strains imposed on the magnetic fields of active regions. It will be interesting to study the relation of those strains to the emergence of magnetic flux, flares, eruptive prominences, etc. In particular we may hope to study the relaxation of the strains via the dynamical nonequilibrium.

  19. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Elkin, Christopher J [San Ramon, CA

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  20. A Study on Magnetic Decoupling of Compound-Structure Permanent-Magnet Motor for HEVs Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The compound-structure permanent-magnet (CSPM motor is used for an electrical continuously-variable transmission (E-CVT in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. It can make the internal combustion engine (ICE independent of the road loads and run in the high efficiency area to improve the fuel economy and reduce the emissions. This paper studies the magnetic coupling of a new type of CSPM motor used in HEVs. Firstly, through the analysis of the parameter matching with CSPM in the HEV, we receive the same dynamic properties’ design parameters between the CSPM motor and the THS (Toyota Hybrid System of the Toyota Prius. Next, we establish the equivalent magnetic circuit model of the overall and the secondary model considering the tangential and radial flux distribution in the outer rotor of the CSPM motor. Based on these two models, we explore the internal magnetic coupling rule of the CSPM motor. Finally, finite element method analysis in 2D-ansoft is used to analyze the magnetic field distribution of the CSPM motor in different operation modes. By the result of the finite element method analysis, the internal magnetic decoupling scheme is put forward, laying the theoretical foundation for the further application of the CSPM motor in HEVs.

  1. Biclustered Independent Component Analysis for Complex Biomarker and Subtype Identification from Structural Magnetic Resonance Images in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cota Navin Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and cognitive symptoms domain-based subtyping in schizophrenia (Sz has been critiqued due to the lack of neurobiological correlates and heterogeneity in symptom scores. We, therefore, present a novel data-driven framework using biclustered independent component analysis to detect subtypes from the reliable and stable gray matter concentration (GMC of patients with Sz. The developed methodology consists of the following steps: source-based morphometry (SBM decomposition, selection and sorting of two component loadings, subtype component reconstruction using group information-guided ICA (GIG-ICA. This framework was applied to the top two group discriminative components namely the insula/superior temporal gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus (I-STG-IFG component and the superior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus/medial frontal gyrus (SFG-MiFG-MFG component from our previous SBM study, which showed diagnostic group difference and had the highest effect sizes. The aggregated multisite dataset consisted of 382 patients with Sz regressed of age, gender, and site voxelwise. We observed two subtypes (i.e., two different subsets of subjects each heavily weighted on these two components, respectively. These subsets of subjects were characterized by significant differences in positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS positive clinical symptoms (p = 0.005. We also observed an overlapping subtype weighing heavily on both of these components. The PANSS general clinical symptom of this subtype was trend level correlated with the loading coefficients of the SFG-MiFG-MFG component (r = 0.25; p = 0.07. The reconstructed subtype-specific component using GIG-ICA showed variations in voxel regions, when compared to the group component. We observed deviations from mean GMC along with conjunction of features from two components characterizing each deciphered subtype. These inherent variations in GMC among patients with Sz could possibly indicate the

  2. Analysis of voltage spikes in superconducting Nb3Sn magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Donnelly, C.

    2008-01-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has been developing a new generation of superconducting accelerator magnets based on Niobium Tin (Nb 3 Sn). The performance of these magnets is influenced by thermo-magnetic instabilities, known as flux jumps, which can lead to premature trips of the quench detection system due to large voltage transients or quenches at low current. In an effort to better characterize and understand these instabilities, a system for capturing fast voltage transients was developed and used in recent tests of R and D model magnets. A new automated voltage spike analysis program was developed for the analysis of large amount of voltage-spike data. We report results from the analysis of large statistics data samples for short model magnets that were constructed using MJR and RRP strands having different sub-element size and structure. We then assess the implications for quench protection of Nb 3 Sn magnets

  3. Structural characterization of copolymer embedded magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelcu, G.G., E-mail: ggnedelcu@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, University “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Carol I Bulevard, Nr.11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Nastro, A.; Filippelli, L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Cazacu, M.; Iacob, M. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry “Petru Poni”, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, nr. 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Rossi, C. Oliviero [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Popa, A.; Toloman, D. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca 5 (Romania); Dobromir, M.; Iacomi, F. [Faculty of Physics, University “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Carol I Bulevard, Nr.11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The emulsion polymerization method was used to synthesize three samples of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) coated magnetite obtained before through co-precipitation technique. • Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) coated magnetite nanoparticles were prepared having spherical shape and dimensions between 13 and 16 nm without agglomerations. • Fourier transform infrared spectra have found that the magnetite was pure and spectral characteristics of PMMA-co-AAc were present. • The electron spin resonance spectra revealed that interactions between nanoparticles are very weak due to the fact that the nanoparticles have been individually embedded in polymer. • The resonance field values as function of temperature demonstrate that the presence of polymer has not modified essentially its magnetic properties, except that at temperatures below 140 K there was a change due to decreasing of the magnetic anisotropy. - Abstract: Small magnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were synthesized by co-precipitation and coated by emulsion polymerization with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-co-AAc) to create surface functional groups that can attach drug molecules and other biomolecules. The coated and uncoated magnetite nanoparticles were stored for two years in normal closed ships and than characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solid phase transformation of magnetite to maghemite, as well as an increase in particle size were evidenced for the uncoated nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles preserved their magnetite structure and magnetic properties. The influences of monomers and surfactant layers on interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles evidenced that the thickness of the polymer has a significant effect on magnetic properties.

  4. The Magnetic Structure of Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jongchul; Moon, Yong-Jae; Park, Young-Deuk

    2005-06-01

    There is a controversy about how features protruding laterally from filaments, called barbs, are magnetically structured. On 2004 August 3, we observed a filament that had well-developed barbs. The observations were performed using the 10 inch refractor of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. A fast camera was employed to capture images at five different wavelengths of the Hα line and successively record them on the basis of frame selection. The terminating points of the barbs were clearly discernable in the Hα images without any ambiguity. The comparison of the Hα images with the magnetograms taken by SOHO MDI revealed that the termination occurred above the minor polarity inversion line dividing the magnetic elements of the major polarity and those of the minor polarity. There is also evidence that the flux cancellation proceeded on the polarity inversion line. Our results together with similar other recent observations support the idea that filament barbs are cool matter suspended in local dips of magnetic field lines, formed by magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere.

  5. Iron nanoparticle assemblies: structures and magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, D; Cheng, Y; Kan, S; Sachan, M; Ding, Y; Majetich, S A; Yang, L

    2005-01-01

    Self-assembly of spherical, surfactant-coated nanoparticles is discussed, an examples are presented to demonstrate the variety of structures that can be formed, and the conditions that lead to them. The effect of the concentration on the magnetic properties is then examined for 8.5 nm Fe nanoparticles. Dilute dispersions, arrays formed by evaporation of the dispersions, and nanoparticle crystals grown by slow diffusion of a poorly coordinating solvent were characterized by zero field-cooled magnetization, remanent hysteresis loop, and magnetic relaxation measurements. The average spacing between the particles was determined from a combination of transmission electron microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. In the arrays the spacing was 2.5 nm between the edges of the particle cores, while in the nanoparticle crystals the particles were more tightly packed, with a separation of 1.1 nm. The reduced separation increased the magnetostatic interaction strength in the nanoparticle crystals, which showed distinctly different behavior in the rate of approach to saturation in the remanent hysteresis loops, and in the faster rate of time-dependent magnetic relaxation

  6. Temperature- and field-induced structural transitions in magnetic colloidal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rojas, J.; Calvo, F.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic colloidal clusters can form chain, ring, and more compact structures depending on their size. In the present investigation we examine the combined effects of temperature and external magnetic field on these configurations by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and a dedicated analysis based on inherent structures. Various thermodynamical, geometric, and magnetic properties are calculated and altogether provide evidence for possibly multiple structural transitions at low external magnetic field. Temperature effects are found to overcome the ordering effect of the external field, the melted stated being associated with low magnetization and a greater compactness. Tentative phase diagrams are proposed for selected sizes.

  7. Time domain structures in a colliding magnetic flux rope experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shawn Wenjie; Gekelman, Walter; Dehaas, Timothy; Vincena, Steve; Pribyl, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Electron phase-space holes, regions of positive potential on the scale of the Debye length, have been observed in auroras as well as in laboratory experiments. These potential structures, also known as Time Domain Structures (TDS), are packets of intense electric field spikes that have significant components parallel to the local magnetic field. In an ongoing investigation at UCLA, TDS were observed on the surface of two magnetized flux ropes produced within the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). A barium oxide (BaO) cathode was used to produce an 18 m long magnetized plasma column and a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) source was used to create 11 m long kink unstable flux ropes. Using two probes capable of measuring the local electric and magnetic fields, correlation analysis was performed on tens of thousands of these structures and their propagation velocities, probability distribution function and spatial distribution were determined. The TDS became abundant as the flux ropes collided and appear to emanate from the reconnection region in between them. In addition, a preliminary analysis of the permutation entropy and statistical complexity of the data suggests that the TDS signals may be chaotic in nature. Work done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BaPSF) at UCLA which is supported by DOE and NSF.

  8. Global use structures of the magnetic materials neodymium and dysprosium. A scenario-based analysis of the effect of the diffusion of electromobility on the demand for rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeser-Chahoud, Simon; Kuehn, Andre; Tercero Espinoza, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Neodymium-iron-boron magnets (NdFeB) have experienced a significant demand as the most powerful permanent magnet in recent years, especially for the manufacture of compact electric servomotors with high efficiency and high power density, especially for mobile applications in hybrid traction motors and electric vehicles or for electric bikes. However, NdFeB magnets are also increasingly being used in general mechanical engineering (conveying and pumping systems, tools, air conditioning systems, lift motors, etc.), in the small electric motors of conventional passenger cars or in the generators of large wind power plants with permanent magnetic direct drive. Nevertheless, there is still high uncertainty in the use structures of NdFeB magnets and the contained rare earth elements neodymium and dysprosium. An effective instrument for increasing the market transparency and the understanding of complex anthropogenic material cycles is the dynamic material flow modeling. In the present work paper, this instrument is used for an in-depth analysis of the use structures of NdFeB magnets and the contained rare earths on a global scale. The dynamic modeling of product usage cycles reveals today's usage structures and quantifies future magnetic quantities in obsolete product flows. It could be shown that the magnets in today's scrap volume are mainly contained in obsolete electronics applications such as hard disks (HDD), CD and DVD drives, which makes the recycling hardly seem to be economical due to the small magnets and the high material spread, but in the foreseeable future with larger magnetic quantities from synchronous servomotors and generators can be expected, which significantly increases the recycling potential. In a further step, the effect of the diffusion of alternative drives in the automotive market on the dysprosium requirement is analyzed using a system dynamics model and possible adaptation mechanisms in the form of different substitution effects in the

  9. MAGNETIC FIELD IN ATYPICAL PROMINENCE STRUCTURES: BUBBLE, TORNADO, AND ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); López Ariste, A. [IRAP—CNRS UMR 5277, 14, Av. E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dalmasse, K. [CISL/HAO, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Gelly, B., E-mail: p.levens.1@research.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: brigitte.schmieder@obspm.fr [CNRS UMR 3718 THEMIS, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in “atypical” prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in “typical” prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of “atypical” prominences (tornadoes, bubbles, and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He i D{sub 3} line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the inversion method of principal component analysis on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more or less horizontal, whereas for the eruptive prominence it is mostly vertical. We estimate a tendency toward higher values of magnetic field strength inside the bubbles than outside in the surrounding prominence. In all of the models in our database, only one magnetic field orientation is considered for each pixel. While sufficient for most of the main prominence body, this assumption appears to be oversimplified in atypical prominence structures. We should consider these observations as the result of superposition of multiple magnetic fields, possibly even with a turbulent field component.

  10. Correlation between physical structure and magnetic anisotropy of a magnetic nanoparticle colloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, C. L.; Jackson, A. J.; Borchers, J. A.; Gruettner, C.; Ivkov, R.

    2018-05-01

    We show the effects of a time-invariant magnetic field on the physical structure and magnetic properties of a colloid comprising 44 nm diameter magnetite magnetic nanoparticles, with a 24 nm dextran shell, in water. Structural ordering in this colloid parallel to the magnetic field occurs simultaneously with the onset of a colloidal uniaxial anisotropy. Further increases in the applied magnetic field cause the nanoparticles to order perpendicular to the field, producing unexpected colloidal unidirectional and trigonal anisotropies. This magnetic behavior is distinct from the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the magnetite and has its origins in the magnetic interactions among the mobile nanoparticles within the colloid. Specifically, these field-induced anisotropies and colloidal rearrangements result from the delicate balance between the magnetostatic and steric forces between magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic and structural rearrangements are anticipated to influence applications that rely upon time-dependent relaxation of the magnetic colloids and fluid viscosity, such as magnetic hyperthermia and shock absorption.

  11. Method of using triaxial magnetic fields for making particle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E.; Anderson, Robert A.; Williamson, Rodney L.

    2005-01-18

    A method of producing three-dimensional particle structures with enhanced magnetic susceptibility in three dimensions by applying a triaxial energetic field to a magnetic particle suspension and subsequently stabilizing said particle structure. Combinations of direct current and alternating current fields in three dimensions produce particle gel structures, honeycomb structures, and foam-like structures.

  12. The structure of magnetic materials; La structure des substances magnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villain, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N. Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The paper deals with the prediction of the structure of magnetic materials below the critical point. The molecular field approximation is used: exchange interactions with unlimited range are assumed; the magnetic ions are supposed to form a Bravais lattice. The critical temperature T{sub c} is first calculated (section 1) without assuming any decomposition of the crystal into sublattices, and the magnetic structure at T{sub c} is given. It is next shown (section 2) that the essential features of this structure persist below T{sub c}, and the various possible cases are considered. It is possible that no decomposition into sublattices takes place, i.e. the magnetic structure and the nuclear structure have incommensurable periods. A detailed treatment is then given for the body-centered quadratic lattice (section 3) with interaction between first, second and third neighbours. Reprint of a paper published in Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 3/4, p. 303-309, 1959 [French] Ce travail a pour objet la prevision systematique de la structure des substances magnetiques au-dessous du point de transition et l'etude des differents cas qui peuvent se presenter lorsque les ions magnetiques forment un reseau de Bravais. On se place dans une approximation de champ moleculaire, mais on ne fait aucune restriction concernant la portee des interactions d'echange. Apres avoir determine (Section 1) la temperature critique et la structure magnetique a cette temperature sans supposer a priori l'existence d'une decomposition en sous-reseaux, on montre (Section 2) que cette structure reste stable en dessous de la temperature critique, et on etudie les divers cas possibles. Il peut arriver en particulier que la structure magnetique ait une periode incommensurable avec celle du reseau cristallin. L'example du reseau quadratique centre avec couplage entre premiers, seconds et troisiemes voisins (Section 3) fournit une bonne illustration de cette etude. Reproduction d'un article publie

  13. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deblaere, Karel; Achten, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  14. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblaere, Karel [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University Hospital, MR Department - 1K12, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  15. Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakka, Noriyuki Hirota, Shigeru Horii and Tsutomu Ando

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in the applications of feeble (diamagnetic and paramagnetic magnetic materials has grown, whereas the popularity of ferromagnetic materials remains steady and high. This trend is due to the progress of superconducting magnet technology, particularly liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets that can generate magnetic fields of 10 T and higher. As the magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field, the magnetic energy of such 10 T magnets is in excess of 10 000 times that of conventional 0.1 T permanent magnets. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed over the last decade, such as the Moses effect, magnetic levitation and the alignment of feeble magnetic materials. Researchers in this area are widely spread around the world, but their number in Japan is relatively high, which might explain the success of magnetic field science and technology in Japan.Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3, which was held on 14–16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan, focused on various topics including magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, biological, electrochemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena; magnetic field effects on the crystal growth and processing of materials; diamagnetic levitation, the magneto-Archimedes effect, spin chemistry, magnetic orientation, control of structure by magnetic fields, magnetic separation and purification, magnetic-field-induced phase transitions, properties of materials in high magnetic fields, the development of NMR and MRI, medical applications of magnetic fields, novel magnetic phenomena, physical property measurement by magnetic fields, and the generation of high magnetic fields.This focus issue compiles 13 key papers selected from the proceedings

  16. Structural analysis of syndiotactic polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, Masahiro

    1988-09-01

    Since the stereostructure of a high-molecular compound includes three types of isotactic, atactic and sydiotactic structures, a high-molecular compound with excellent properties can be produced by controlling the stereogularity of the compound with the identical composition. The stereoregularity of a stereogular polystyrene, or syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), which had been successfully synthesized recently was quantitatively determined and the open chain structure by polymerization was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two SPSs were synthesized from cis-beta-d/sub/1-styrene and trans-beta-d/sub/1-styrene with alpha, beta, beta-d/sub/3-styrene. The results of spectral analysis of these two SPSs indicate that the former is of trans-conformation and the latter is of gauche conformation and that accordingly the open chain structure by polymerization of SPS is of cis-open chain and SPS has a planar zigzag structure even in the solution. (5 figs, 9 refs)

  17. Magnetic field structures in active compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.W.; Rudnick, L.; Fiedler, R.L.; Aller, H.D.; Aller, M.F.; Hodge, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of simultaneous multifrequency linear polarimetry data between 1.4 GHz and 90 GHz for about 20 active, compact radio sources at six epochs from 1977 December 10 1980 July is presented. In addition, monthly 8 Ghz polarization data on the same sources were examined. The general polarization characteristics of these sources can be well described in terms of magnetic fields which are largely turbulent and slightly anisotropic. The magnetic field symmetry axes are generally aligned with the source structural axes on the milli-arcsecond scale (OJ 287 is a notable exception.) Monte Carlo calculations indicate that observed polarization variations and in particular rotator polarization events can be produced in this model as a consequence of random walks generated through evolution of the turbulent magnetic field. 43 references

  18. 3D Biomimetic Magnetic Structures for Static Magnetic Field Stimulation of Osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Alexandra Paun; Roxana Cristina Popescu; Bogdan Stefanita Calin; Cosmin Catalin Mustaciosu; Maria Dinescu; Catalin Romeo Luculescu

    2018-01-01

    We designed, fabricated and optimized 3D biomimetic magnetic structures that stimulate the osteogenesis in static magnetic fields. The structures were fabricated by direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization of IP-L780 photopolymer and were based on ellipsoidal, hexagonal units organized in a multilayered architecture. The magnetic activity of the structures was assured by coating with a thin layer of collagen-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-magnetic nanoparticles composite. In vitro experime...

  19. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of soft magnetic nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toparli, Cigdem [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany); Ebin, Burçak [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Nuclear Chemistry and Industrial Material Recycling, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Gürmen, Sebahattin, E-mail: gurmen@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    The present study focuses on the synthesis, microstructural and magnetic properties of ternary FeNiCo nanoparticles. Nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles were synthesized via hydrogen reduction assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in single step. The effect of precursor concentration on the morphology and the size of particles was investigated. The syntheses were performed at 800 °C. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the as-prepared products were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies. Scherer calculation revealed that crystallite size of the ternary particles ranged between 36 and 60 nm. SEM and TEM investigations showed that the particle size was strongly influenced by the precursor concentration and Fe, Ni, Co elemental composition of individual particles was homogeneous. Finally, the soft magnetic properties of the particles were observed to be a function of their size. - Highlights: • Ternary FeNiCo alloy nanocrystalline particles were synthesized in a single step. • Cubic crystalline structure and spherical morphology was observed by XRD, SEM and TEM investigations. • The analysis of magnetic properties indicates the soft magnetic features of particles.

  20. Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvie, T.P.

    1989-10-01

    Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed

  1. FOREWORD: Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-03-01

    Recently, interest in the applications of feeble (diamagnetic and paramagnetic) magnetic materials has grown, whereas the popularity of ferromagnetic materials remains steady and high. This trend is due to the progress of superconducting magnet technology, particularly liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets that can generate magnetic fields of 10 T and higher. As the magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field, the magnetic energy of such 10 T magnets is in excess of 10 000 times that of conventional 0.1 T permanent magnets. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed over the last decade, such as the Moses effect, magnetic levitation and the alignment of feeble magnetic materials. Researchers in this area are widely spread around the world, but their number in Japan is relatively high, which might explain the success of magnetic field science and technology in Japan. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3), which was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan, focused on various topics including magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, biological, electrochemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena; magnetic field effects on the crystal growth and processing of materials; diamagnetic levitation, the magneto-Archimedes effect, spin chemistry, magnetic orientation, control of structure by magnetic fields, magnetic separation and purification, magnetic-field-induced phase transitions, properties of materials in high magnetic fields, the development of NMR and MRI, medical applications of magnetic fields, novel magnetic phenomena, physical property measurement by magnetic fields, and the generation of high magnetic fields. This focus issue compiles 13 key papers selected from the proceedings of MAP3. Other

  2. Cryogenic magnet case and distributed structural materials for high-field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.; Kerns, J.A.; Myall, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II) will generate high magnetic fields over large bores. The resulting electromagnetic forces require the use of large volumes of distributed steel and thick magnet case for structural support. Here we review the design allowables, calculated loads and forces, and structural materials selection for TIBER II. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Design of magnetic analysis system for magnetic proton recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianmin; Jiang Shilun; Zhou Lin; Peng Taiping

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer is a novel diagnostic instrument with high performance for measurements of the neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and high power fusion devices. The design of the magnetic analysis system, which is a key part of the compact MPR-type spectrometer, has been completed through two-dimensional beam transport simulations and three-dimensional particle transport simulation. The analysis of the system's parameters and performances was performed, as well as system designs based on preferential principles of energy resolution, detection efficiency, and count rate, respectively. The results indicate that the magnetic analysis system can achieve a detection efficiency of 10 -5 ∼ 10 -4 level at the resolution range of 1.5% to 3.0% and fulfill the design goals of the compact MPR spectrometer. (authors)

  4. Fabrication and properties of submicrometer structures of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.I.; Velez, M.; Nogues, J.; Schuller, I.K.

    1998-01-01

    The method of electron beam lithography is described. This technique allows to fabricate well defined submicrometer structures of magnetic materials, that are suitable to show and study interesting physical properties by transport measurements either in Superconductivity or in Magnetism. In particular, using these structures, we have analyzed pinning effects of the vortex lattice in superconductors and magnetization reversal processes in magnetic materials. (Author) 15 refs

  5. Structural and magnetic stability of Fe2NiSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Dinesh C.; Bhat, Idris Hamid; Chauhan, Mamta

    2014-01-01

    Full-potential ab-initio calculations in the stable F-43m phase have been performed to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Fe 2 NiSi inverse Heusler alloys. The spin magnetic moment distributions show that present material is ferromagnetic in stable F-43m phase. Further, spin resolved electronic structure calculations show that the discrepancy in magnetic moments of Fe-I and Fe-II depend upon the hybridization of Fe with the main group element. It is found that the main group electron concentration is predominantly responsible in establishing the magnetic properties, formation of magnetic moments and the magnetic order for present alloy

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of Mn-implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Zhang Gufei; Muecklich, A.; Eichhorn, F.; Schell, N.; Groetzschel, R.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Geiger, D.

    2007-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties in Mn-implanted, p-type Si were investigated. High resolution structural analysis techniques such as synchrotron x-ray diffraction revealed the formation of MnSi 1.7 nanoparticles already in the as-implanted samples. Depending on the Mn fluence, the size increases from 5 nm to 20 nm upon rapid thermal annealing. No significant evidence is found for Mn substituting Si sites either in the as-implanted or annealed samples. The observed ferromagnetism yields a saturation moment of 0.21μ B per implanted Mn at 10 K, which could be assigned to MnSi 1.7 nanoparticles as revealed by a temperature-dependent magnetization measurement

  7. Transport properties of electrons in fractal magnetic-barrier structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifeng; Fang, Chao; Guo, Yong

    2010-09-01

    Quantum transport properties in fractal magnetically modulated structures are studied by the transfer-matrix method. It is found that the transmission spectra depend sensitively not only on the incident energy and the direction of the wave vector but also on the stage of the fractal structures. Resonance splitting, enhancement, and position shift of the resonance peaks under different magnetic modulation are observed at four different fractal stages, and the relationship between the conductance in the fractal structure and magnetic modulation is also revealed. The results indicate the spectra of the transmission can be considered as fingerprints for the fractal structures, which show the subtle correspondence between magnetic structures and transport behaviors.

  8. Effect of structural transition on magnetic susceptibility of tantalum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Gusev, A.I.; Rempel', A.A.; Shvejkin, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Ordering of carbon atoms and vacancies in nonmetal sublattice of TaC y is investigated for the first time by methods of magnetic susceptibility and structural neutron diffraction analysis. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility were conducted on high-sensitive magnetic scales in temperature interval of 300 - 1300 K with holding at each temperature up to the establishment of constant, nonchanging in the course of time value of susceptibility x. When investigating x-hardened tantalum carbide within the interval of TaC 0.82 - TaC 0.85 compositions under the conditions of slow heating, it was observed nonrecorded earlier irreversible decrease of susceptibility at temperature of 960 - 1000 K. With further temperature increase T>T tr it was observed at first even and than uneven increase of x value at a temperature of T tr equal to 1090, 1130 and 1150 K for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 respectively. The measuring of magnetic susceptibility of the same samples at temperature decrease reveals the presence of susceptibility temperature hysteresis in the interval of 1070 - 1090, 1100 - 1130 and 1120 - 1150 for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 . Reversible susceptibility jump corresponding to the temperature hysteresis range at dependences of x(T), is connected with equilibrium structural phase transition of order-disorder

  9. Analysis and Optimization for Uniformity of Magnetic Field Driving the Giant Magnetostriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Ye, H; Liu, Y T; Yao, S M

    2006-01-01

    Giant magnetostriction actuator based on material Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe2 and electromagnetic transform has characteristics of high frequency response, large output power and etc, but it has a high demand for the uniformity of magnetic field driver and magnetic intensity. Object to the problem, a multi-scale external concavity structure is proposed, by means of inducting the hollow column coil structure, building the model of coil magnetic distribution and analyzing by finite element analysis method. The analysis results show that uniformity of the model magnetic field is dependent upon magnetic intensity and scales, and the boundary condition of material. As the scale increases, magnetic uniformity is enhanced, but the magnetic intensity is decreased. Taking consideration both of magnetic field distribution and magnetic intensity, threescale structure is determined as optimum structure

  10. Magnetic structure analyses of multiferroics RMnO3 and RMn2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Taka-hisa; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic structure of typical multiferroic materials RMnO 3 and RMn 2 O 5 (R:rare earth) has been investigated by neutron diffraction. Magnetic structure analysis using single crystal revealed that both the materials have a cycloidal magnetic structure, where ferroelectricity arises. Polarized neutron diffraction under electric field found the one-to-one correspondence between the direction of cycloidal rotation (spin chirality) and the direction of the electric polarization, evincing that the electric polarization is directly induced by the cycloidal magnetic order. (author)

  11. Magnetic structures synthesized by controlled oxidative etching: Structural characterization and magnetic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Jesús Ruíz-Baltazar

    Full Text Available A facile strategy for the fabrication Fe3O4 nanostructures at room temperature and with well-defined morphology is proposed. In this methodology, the iron precursors were reduced by sodium borohydride. Subsequently an oxidative etching process promotes the formation of Fe2O3 nanostructures. Magnetic measurements revealed a well-defined superparamagnetic behavior for the material. The Zero-Field-Cooled (ZFC and Field-Cooled (FC magnetization curves reveals that critical and blocking temperature were 24 and 350 °C respectively. The Fe3O4 nanostructures were characterized using aberration-corrected (Cs scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Additionally, Raman spectra support the Fe3O4 presence and corroborate the efficiency of the synthesis process to obtain magnetite. Keywords: Chemical synthesis, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, Structural characterization, Magnetic properties

  12. Ultrathin magnetic structures II measurement techniques and novel magnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2006-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism, with profound impact in technology and serving as the basis for a revolution in electronics. Our understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures has also advanced significantly. This rapid development has generated a need for a comprehensive treatment that can serve as an introduction to the field for those entering it from diverse fields, but which will also serve as a timely overview for those already working in this area. The four-volume work Ultra-Thin Magnetic

  13. Feasibility analysis of reciprocating magnetic heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, A. V.; Hartley, J. G.; Shelton, Sam V.; Smith, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    A reciprocating gadolinium core in a regeneration fluid column in the warm bore of a superconducting solenoidal magnet is considered for magnetic refrigeration in 3.517 MW (1000 ton) applications. A procedure is presented to minimize the amount of superconducting cable needed in the magnet design. Estimated system capital costs for an ideal magnetic refrigerator of this type become comparable to conventional chillers as the frequency of reciprocation approaches 10 Hertz. A 1-D finite difference analysis of a regenerator cycling at 0.027 Hertz is presented which exhibits some of the features seen in the experiments of G. V. Brown.

  14. SOLAR MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS FROM A CONFINED MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    How eruption can recur from a confined magnetic structure is discussed based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the NOAA active region 11444, which produced three eruptions within 1.5 hr on 2012 March 27. The active region (AR) had the positive-polarity magnetic fields in the center surrounded by the negative-polarity fields around. Since such a distribution of magnetic polarity tends to form a dome-like magnetic fan structure confined over the AR, the multiple eruptions were puzzling. Our investigation reveals that this event exhibits several properties distinct from other eruptions associated with magnetic fan structures: (i) a long filament encircling the AR was present before the eruptions; (ii) expansion of the open–closed boundary (OCB) of the field lines after each eruption was suggestive of the growing fan-dome structure, and (iii) the ribbons inside the closed magnetic polarity inversion line evolved in response to the expanding OCB. It thus appears that in spite of multiple eruptions the fan-dome structure remained undamaged, and the closing back field lines after each eruption rather reinforced the fan-dome structure. We argue that the multiple eruptions could occur in this AR in spite of its confined magnetic structure because the filament encircling the AR was adequate for slipping through the magnetic separatrix to minimize the damage to its overlying fan-dome structure. The result of this study provides a new insight into the productivity of eruptions from a confined magnetic structure.

  15. SOLAR MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS FROM A CONFINED MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju

    2016-01-01

    How eruption can recur from a confined magnetic structure is discussed based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the NOAA active region 11444, which produced three eruptions within 1.5 hr on 2012 March 27. The active region (AR) had the positive-polarity magnetic fields in the center surrounded by the negative-polarity fields around. Since such a distribution of magnetic polarity tends to form a dome-like magnetic fan structure confined over the AR, the multiple eruptions were puzzling. Our investigation reveals that this event exhibits several properties distinct from other eruptions associated with magnetic fan structures: (i) a long filament encircling the AR was present before the eruptions; (ii) expansion of the open–closed boundary (OCB) of the field lines after each eruption was suggestive of the growing fan-dome structure, and (iii) the ribbons inside the closed magnetic polarity inversion line evolved in response to the expanding OCB. It thus appears that in spite of multiple eruptions the fan-dome structure remained undamaged, and the closing back field lines after each eruption rather reinforced the fan-dome structure. We argue that the multiple eruptions could occur in this AR in spite of its confined magnetic structure because the filament encircling the AR was adequate for slipping through the magnetic separatrix to minimize the damage to its overlying fan-dome structure. The result of this study provides a new insight into the productivity of eruptions from a confined magnetic structure.

  16. Growth and structure of Co/Au magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsot, N.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the growth and the crystallographic structure of magnetic ultra thin cobalt/gold films (Co/Au), in order to investigate the correlations between their magnetic and structural properties. Room temperature (R.T.) Co growth on Au (111) proceeds in three stages. Up to 2 Co monolayers (ML), a bilayer island growth mode is observed. Between 2 and 5 ML, coalescence of the islands occurs, covering the substrate surface and a Co/Au mixing is observed resulting from the de-construction of the Herringbone reconstruction. Finally, beyond 5 ML, the CoAu mixing is buried and the Co growth continues in a 3-D growth. Annealing studies at 600 K on this system show a smoothing effect of the Co film, and at the same time, segregation of Au atoms. The quality of the Co/Au interface (sharpness) is not enhanced by the annealing. The local order was studied by SEXAFS and the long range order by GIXRD showing that the Co film has a hexagonal close packed structure, with an easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the surface. From a local order point of view, the Co grows with an incoherent epitaxy and keeps its own bulk parameters. The GIXRD analysis shows a residual strain in the Co film of 4%. The difference observed between the local order analysis and the long range order results is explained in terms of the low dimensions of the diffracting domains. The evolution of film strains, as a function of the Co coverage, shows a marked deviation from the elastic strain theory. Modification of the strain field in the Co film as a function of the Au coverage is studied by GIXRD analysis. The Au growth study, at R.T., shows no evidence of a Au/Co mixing in the case of the Au/Co interface. The Au overlayer adopts a twinned face centred cubic structure on the rough Co film surface. (author)

  17. Structural aspects of superconducting fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Lehner, J.; Powell, J.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for studying various static, dynamic, elastic-plastic, and fracture mechanics problems of superconducting magnets are described. Sample solutions are given for the UWMAK-I magnet. Finite element calculations were used

  18. Magnetic structure of URhSi single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokeš, K.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Honda, F.; Sechovský, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 261, - (2003), s. 131-138 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : URhSi single crystal * magnetization * neutron diffraction * magnetic structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.910, year: 2003

  19. Computer modeling of magnetic structure for IC-35 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive series of calculations has been carried out in order to design the magnetic structure of the IC-35 cyclotron for radioisotope production. The calculations were carried out by 2-D POISCR code. The average magnetic field and its variation were produced with the help of two different calculation models. The parameters of the cyclotron magnetic system are presented

  20. The analysis of the permanent magnet motor using the new magnetic field analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoji, Hiroyasu; Enokizono, Masato; Todaka, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper iron loss analysis of the permanent magnet motor considering anisotropy of magnetic material is carried out. Recently the magnetic material can be measured using of vector quantity technique. Non-oriented silicon steel sheets for the iron core material have the anisotropy. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the analysis considering the anisotropy of the magnetic material. We used the magnetic field analysis, which consider the anisotropy by combining finite element method with the E and S (Enokizono and Soda) modeling. (Author)

  1. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jinji; Fang Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  2. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jinji, E-mail: sunjinji@aspe.buaa.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China); Fang Jiancheng [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  3. Structure of magnetic field in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.V.A.P.; Caldas, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic surfaces, necessary to plasma confinement, can be extinguished by resonant helical perturbations with small intensities due to plasma oscillations or external helical currents. The mapping of magnetic field is obtained intergrating numerically the differential equation of its lines. Criteria which evaluate the chaotic distribution of lines between resonant magnetic islands are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Laser direct writing (LDW of magnetic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Alasadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct writing (LDW has been used to pattern 90nm thick permalloy (Ni81Fe19 into 1-D and 2-D microstructures with strong shape anisotropy. Sub-nanosecond laser pulses were focused with a 0.75 NA lens to a 1.85μm diameter spot, to achieve a fluence of approximately 350 mJ.cm-2 and ablate the permalloy film. Computer-controlled sample scanning then allowed structures to be defined. Scan speeds were controlled to give 30% overlap between successive laser pulses and reduce the extent of width modulation in the final structures. Continuous magnetic wires that adjoined the rest of the film were fabricated with widths from 650 nm - 6.75μm and magneto-optical measurements showed coercivity reducing across this width range from 47 Oe to 11 Oe. Attempts to fabricate wires narrower than 650nm resulted in discontinuities in the wires and a marked decrease in coercivity. This approach is extremely rapid and was carried out in air, at room temperature and with no chemical processing. The 6-kHz laser pulse repetition rate allowed wire arrays across an area of 4 mm x 0.18 mm to be patterned in 85 s.

  5. Laser direct writing (LDW) of magnetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasadi, Alaa; Claeyssens, F.; Allwood, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Laser direct writing (LDW) has been used to pattern 90nm thick permalloy (Ni81Fe19) into 1-D and 2-D microstructures with strong shape anisotropy. Sub-nanosecond laser pulses were focused with a 0.75 NA lens to a 1.85μm diameter spot, to achieve a fluence of approximately 350 mJ.cm-2 and ablate the permalloy film. Computer-controlled sample scanning then allowed structures to be defined. Scan speeds were controlled to give 30% overlap between successive laser pulses and reduce the extent of width modulation in the final structures. Continuous magnetic wires that adjoined the rest of the film were fabricated with widths from 650 nm - 6.75μm and magneto-optical measurements showed coercivity reducing across this width range from 47 Oe to 11 Oe. Attempts to fabricate wires narrower than 650nm resulted in discontinuities in the wires and a marked decrease in coercivity. This approach is extremely rapid and was carried out in air, at room temperature and with no chemical processing. The 6-kHz laser pulse repetition rate allowed wire arrays across an area of 4 mm x 0.18 mm to be patterned in 85 s.

  6. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Stefko, George L.; Riha, David S.; Thacker, Ben H.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is a general-purpose, probabilistic analysis program that computes probability of failure and probabilistic sensitivity measures of engineered systems. Because NASA/NESSUS uses highly computationally efficient and accurate analysis techniques, probabilistic solutions can be obtained even for extremely large and complex models. Once the probabilistic response is quantified, the results can be used to support risk-informed decisions regarding reliability for safety-critical and one-of-a-kind systems, as well as for maintaining a level of quality while reducing manufacturing costs for larger-quantity products. NASA/NESSUS has been successfully applied to a diverse range of problems in aerospace, gas turbine engines, biomechanics, pipelines, defense, weaponry, and infrastructure. This program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general-purpose structural analysis and lifting methods to compute the probabilistic response and reliability of engineered structures. Uncertainties in load, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include non-linear finite-element methods, heat-transfer analysis, polymer/ceramic matrix composite analysis, monolithic (conventional metallic) materials life-prediction methodologies, boundary element methods, and user-written subroutines. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is structured in a modular format with 15 elements.

  7. Structure and magnetic properties of Alnico ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ce; Li, Ying; Han, Xu-Hao; Du, Shuai-long; Sun, Ji-bing; Zhang, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Al-Ni-Co alloy has been widely applied in various industrial fields due to its excellent thermal and magnetic stability. In this paper, new Al-Ni-Co ribbons are prepared by simple processes combining melt-spinning with annealing, and their phase transition, microstructure and magnetic properties are studied. The results show that after as-spun ribbons are annealed, the grain size of ribbons increases from 1.1 ± 0.3 μm to 4.8 ± 0.8 μm, but still much smaller than that of the bulk Al-Ni-Co alloy manufactured by traditional technologies. In addition, some rod-like Al70Co20Ni10-type, Al9Co2-type and Fe2Nb-type phases are precipitated at grain boundaries; simultaneously, the distinct spinodal decomposition microstructure with periodic ingredient variation is thoroughly formed in all grains by the reaction of α → α1 + α2. Furthermore, the α1 and α2 distribute alternately like a maze, the Fe-Co-rich α1 phase holds 35.9-47.3 vol%, while the Al-Ni-rich α2 phase occupies the rest. Finally, the coercivity of annealed ribbons can reach to 485.3 ± 76.6 Oe. If the annealed ribbons are further aged at 560 °C, their Hc even increases to 738.1 ± 81.0 Oe. The coercivity mechanism is discussed by the combination of microstructure and domain structure.

  8. Control of Spin Wave Dynamics in Spatially Twisted Magnetic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    control the spin wave dynamics of magnetic structures twisted spatially, we prepared the exchange-coupled films with the hard magnetic L10-FePt and...information writing of magnetic storage and spintronic applications. Introduction and Objective: Recent rapid progress in the research field of nano...scaled bilayer elements is also an important aim of this project. Approach/Method: The exchange-coupled films with the hard magnetic L10-FePt and

  9. Magnetic structure of Akita-Yakeyama volcano; Akita Yakeyama chiiki no jikiteki kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Akita-Yakeyama is a Quaternary volcano located in the north-western part of the Sengan geothermal area. Geothermal resource surveys have been performed from the middle of the 1970s in the Sengan geothermal area, and the Sumikawa geothermal power plant started its operation in 1995. By the analysis, the magnetic basement depth became lower in the north of Yakeyama body. However, the distribution including low magnetic anomaly in the south of Yakeyama body could not be explained only by a simple magnetic structure model. In this study, the magnetic anomaly in this area was analyzed in detail, and a construction of the magnetic structure model was intended by taking borehole data into account. The low magnetic intensity zone with low amplitude agreed well with the geothermal alteration zone. The high magnetic intensity zone and the low magnetic intensity zone corresponded with the distributions of volcanic rocks magnetized normally and reversely, respectively. Kakkonda and Matsukawa geothermal power plants were located in the distinct low magnetic intensity zones. There was a low magnetic intensity zone with long wave length over the whole Sengan geothermal area. A high magnetic intensity zone was observed in the northern foot of this area. From the magnetic measurements of borehole sample rocks, this was found to correspond with the newly formed granite body. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Magnetic and thermodynamic properties of Ising model with borophene structure in a longitudinal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kaile; Jiang, Wei; Guo, Anbang; Wang, Kai; Wu, Chuang

    2018-06-01

    The magnetic and thermodynamic properties of borophene structure have been studied for the first time by Monte Carlo simulation. Two-dimensional borophene structure consisting of seven hexagonal B36 units is described by Ising model. Each B36 basic unit includes three benzene-like with spin-3/2. The general formula for the borophene structure is given. The numerical results of the magnetization, the magnetic susceptibility, the internal energy and the specific heat are studied with various parameters. The possibility to test the predicted magnetism in experiment are illustrated, for instance, the maximum on the magnetization curve. The multiple hysteresis loops and the magnetization plateaus are sensitive to the ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic exchange coupling in borophene structure. The results show the borophene structure could have applications in spintronics, which deserves further studies in experiments.

  11. Open H-shaped permanent magnet structure for NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, V.; Delamare, J.; Yonnet, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Since NMR imaging at low field is now technically possible, permanent magnets can replace resistive coils or superconducting magnets. This paper reviews most of NMR structures that provide an uniform field using only permanent magnets. We propose a new open H-shaped structure that is simple to manufacture. This structure has been calculated thanks to an optimization program and a calculation method we presente here. It enables to determine with a good accuracy the field created by passive systems composed by permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials. (author)

  12. Magnetic structure of two- and three-dimensional supramolecular compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decurtins, S.; Schmalle, H.W.; Pellaux, R. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland); Fischer, P.; Fauth, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Supramolecular chiral networks of oxalato-bridged transition metals show either two- or three-dimensional structural features. The magnetic structures of such compounds have been investigated by means of elastic neutron powder diffraction. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  13. On boundaries among magnetic structures at the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.; Linke, J.

    1990-10-01

    Results of an analysis of published observational data on large complex active regions (CARs) on the sun are briefly discussed. Boundaries detected in the lower region of the solar atmosphere are shown to reveal the separation of independently developing magnetic structures, which may interact to produce eruption effects such as flares, reconnection, and flux-tube cancelling, as proposed by Linke and Bachmann (1989). The characteristics of these boundaries are illustrated with diagrams based on CAR data for June-July 1982, July-August 1983, and October 1979.

  14. Structural looseness investigation in slow rotating permanent magnet generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Mijatovic, Nenad; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

    2016-01-01

    Structural looseness in electric machines is a condition influencing the alignment of the machine and thus the overall bearing health. In this work, assessment of the above mentioned failure mode is tested on a slow rotating (running speed equal to 0.7Hz) permanent magnet generator (PMG), while...... collecting vibration and current data in order to cross-reference the indications from the two monitoring techniques. It is found that electric signature analysis shows no response even when two hold down bolts are untightened, whereas the analysis results from the vibration data exhibit superior performance....... The vibration-based condition indicators with the best response are the stator slot pass frequency, which can be directly related to the cogging torque in PMGs, and the 4th electric frequency harmonic, whose amplitudes increase due to the overall lower structure damping coefficient under looseness...

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, V. V., E-mail: kiselev@imp.uran.ru; Raskovalov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of “precursors” and “tails” in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.

  16. Rietveld refinement of magnetic structures from pulsed-neutron-source powder-diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Lawson, A.C.; Larson, A.C.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Goldstone, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The General Structure Analysis System, GSAS, has recently been modified to include magnetic neutron- scattering cross-sections. Low-temperature diffraction data have been taken on the hexagonal noncollinear antiferromagnet UPdSn on both the HIPD and the NPD powder diffractometers ail LANSCE. The low-resolution data reveal that the magnetic structure has orthorhombic symmetry (magnetic space group P c m'c2 1 ) between 25K and 40K, and monoclinic symmetry (magnetic space group PC 1121 ) below 25K. The high-resolution data reveal that there are structural distortions with corresponding symmetry changes in each of these phases, to give chemical space groups Cmc2 1 and P2 1 , respectively, while the paramagnetic phase above 40K has space group P6 3 mc. Using GSAS, we have refined data sets from both diffractometers simultaneously, including both magnetic and structural cross-sections. Magnetoelastic coefficients for the distortions have been extracted and we have determined the sign of the coupling between the structural monoclinicity and the magnetic monoclinicity. The magnetic results from Rietveld refinement are in good agreement with model fitting to the integrated intensities of seven independent magnetic reflections and these, in turn, agree with measurements made on the same sample using the constant-wavelength reactor technique. Our results therefore validate, to some level, both the technique of using spallation sources for complicated magnetic structures and the specifics of the GSAS Rietveld code

  17. Magnetism in structures with ferromagnetic and superconducting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaketov, V. D.; Nikitenko, Yu. V., E-mail: nikiten@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Radu, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialen un Energie (Germany); Petrenko, A. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Csik, A. [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research (Hungary); Borisov, M. M.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Aksenov, V. L. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Konstantinov St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The influence of superconductivity on ferromagnetism in the layered Ta/V/Fe{sub 1–x}V{sub x}/V/Fe{sub 1–x}V{sub x}/Nb/Si structures consisting of ferromagnetic and superconducting layers is studied using polarized neutron reflection and scattering. It is experimentally shown that magnetic structures with linear sizes from 5 nm to 30 μm are formed in these layered structures at low temperatures. The magnetization of the magnetic structures is suppressed by superconductivity at temperatures below the superconducting transition temperatures in the V and Nb layers. The magnetic states of the structures are shown to undergo relaxation over a wide magnetic-field range, which is caused by changes in the states of clusters, domains, and Abrikosov vortices.

  18. Magnetic structure of volcanic neck; Kazangankei no jiki kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, M; Okuma, S; Morijiri, R; Nakatsuka, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the summary and result of magnetic exploration on the Kabutoyama volcano in the city of Nishinomiya, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. It also states the interpretation and discussion on magnetic anomaly in the volcanic conduit of the mountain by using a three-dimensional magnetic structure model. Terrain surface magnetic exploration for the Kabutoyama volcano was performed by using six traverse lines each in different azimuths with the triangulation point at the summit as the basic point and by using a proton magnetometer. The exploration results of the six traverse lines around the Kabutoyama volcano may be generalized as follows: magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the summit is moderate with little change, but it increases to 500 nT to 2,500 nT in the vicinity of the distances of 150 m to 200 m; a peak is formed with a width of a few tens of meters; and the magnetic anomaly showed a trend of rapidly decreasing at outer sides of the peak. The results of the magnetic exploration and the magnetization intensity measurement leads to a belief that such a magnetic anomalous band of an annular form would exist corresponding to the boundary or its vicinity of andesite and granite, and the Rokko granite having magnetization intensity as small as can be neglected would be distributed at outer sides of the boundary. The result of the three-dimensional magnetic structure model calculation, which assumes the internal structure of the magnetic structure to be non-uniformly magnetized, reproduced the magnetic anomaly patterns well as compared with the observation results. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  19. Temperature dependence of the magnetization of canted spin structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Henrik; Lefmann, Kim; Brok, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies of the low-temperature saturation magnetization of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles and diamagnetically substituted ferrites have shown an anomalous temperature dependence. It has been suggested that this is related to freezing of canted magnetic structures. We present models for the ......Numerous studies of the low-temperature saturation magnetization of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles and diamagnetically substituted ferrites have shown an anomalous temperature dependence. It has been suggested that this is related to freezing of canted magnetic structures. We present models...... for the temperature dependence of the magnetization of a simple canted spin structure in which relaxation can take place at finite temperatures between spin configurations with different canting angles. We show that the saturation magnetization may either decrease or increase with decreasing temperature, depending...

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline stannic substituted cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Y.M., E-mail: ymabbas@live.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Mansour, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King AbdulAziz University, Rabegh (Saudi Arabia); Ibrahim, M.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King AbdulAziz University (Saudi Arabia); Ali, Shehab. E., E-mail: shehab_ali@science.suez.edu.eg [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-09-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of the spinel ferrite system Co{sub 1+x}Fe{sub 2-2x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x=0.0-1.0) have been studied. Samples in the series were prepared by the ceramic technique. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. Far infrared absorption spectra show two significant absorption bands, around 600 cm{sup -1} and 425 cm{sup -1}, which are respectively attributed to tetrahedral (A) and octahedral [B] vibrations of the spinel. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study surface morphology. SEM images reveal particles in the nanosize range. The transmission electronic microscope (TEM) reveals that the grains are spherical in shape. TEM analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the prepared samples were characterized by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spinel ferrite system has been formed at 1000 Degree-Sign C by using ceramic techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and microstructural evolutions have been studied using XRD and the Rietveld method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The refinement result showed cationic distribution in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline stannic substituted cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Y.M.; Mansour, S.A.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Ali, Shehab. E.

    2012-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the spinel ferrite system Co 1+x Fe 2−2x Sn x O 4 (x=0.0–1.0) have been studied. Samples in the series were prepared by the ceramic technique. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. Far infrared absorption spectra show two significant absorption bands, around 600 cm −1 and 425 cm −1 , which are respectively attributed to tetrahedral (A) and octahedral [B] vibrations of the spinel. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study surface morphology. SEM images reveal particles in the nanosize range. The transmission electronic microscope (TEM) reveals that the grains are spherical in shape. TEM analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the prepared samples were characterized by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: ► The spinel ferrite system has been formed at 1000 °C by using ceramic techniques. ► Structural and microstructural evolutions have been studied using XRD and the Rietveld method. ► The refinement result showed cationic distribution in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. ► The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. ► Magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  2. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Pd sub(3)Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnen, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we study the electronic and magnetic properties of the Pd sub(3)Fe alloy. For the ordered phase of Pd sub(3)Fe we employed the Linear Muffin-Tin Orbitals Method, with the atomic sphere approximation, which is a first principles method and includes spin polarization. The theoretical results for the thermal and magnetic properties show good agreement with experience. Here we explain the formation of the localized magnetic moments from completely itinerant electrons. We investigate the influence of the hydrogen in the physical properties of the compound Pd sub(3)Fe, where we obtain a drastic reduction in the magnetic moments at the Pd and Fe sites. This reduction is confirmed by experience. The self consistent potentials of the Pd sub(3)Fe compound were used for an analysis of the influence of the disorder in the electronic structure of Pd sub(3)Fe alloy. To this end, we employ a spin polarized version of the Green's Function Method with the Coherent Potential Approximation (or KKR-CPA). The results obtained show that in random ferromagnetic alloys different degrees of disorder occurs for the different spin directions. The formation of the magnetic moments in these alloys were explained from the existence of 'virtual crystal' states for spin up electrons and 'split band' states for spin down electrons. Finally we employ the muffin-tin orbitals to calculate the X-ray photoemission spectra of the Pd sub(3)Fe and Pd sub(3)FeH compounds, which allows us a direct comparison between theory and experiment. (author)

  3. Origin and structures of solar eruptions II: Magnetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Cheng, Xin; Ding, MingDe

    2017-07-01

    The topology and dynamics of the three-dimensional magnetic field in the solar atmosphere govern various solar eruptive phenomena and activities, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and filaments/prominences. We have to observe and model the vector magnetic field to understand the structures and physical mechanisms of these solar activities. Vector magnetic fields on the photosphere are routinely observed via the polarized light, and inferred with the inversion of Stokes profiles. To analyze these vector magnetic fields, we need first to remove the 180° ambiguity of the transverse components and correct the projection effect. Then, the vector magnetic field can be served as the boundary conditions for a force-free field modeling after a proper preprocessing. The photospheric velocity field can also be derived from a time sequence of vector magnetic fields. Three-dimensional magnetic field could be derived and studied with theoretical force-free field models, numerical nonlinear force-free field models, magnetohydrostatic models, and magnetohydrodynamic models. Magnetic energy can be computed with three-dimensional magnetic field models or a time series of vector magnetic field. The magnetic topology is analyzed by pinpointing the positions of magnetic null points, bald patches, and quasi-separatrix layers. As a well conserved physical quantity, magnetic helicity can be computed with various methods, such as the finite volume method, discrete flux tube method, and helicity flux integration method. This quantity serves as a promising parameter characterizing the activity level of solar active regions.

  4. Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matvejeff, M., E-mail: mikko.matvejeff@picosun.com [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Ahvenniemi, E. [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Takahashi, R.; Lippmaa, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.

  5. Analysis of a spherical permanent magnet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a new form of actuator with a spherical permanent magnet rotor and a simple winding arrangement, which is capable of a high specific torque by utilizing a rare-earth permanent magnet. The magnetic-field distribution is established using an analytical technique formulated in spherical coordinates, and the results are validated by finite element analysis. The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the actuator torque and back emf in closed forms. In turn, these facilitate the characterization of the actuator and provide a firm basis for design optimization, system dynamic modeling, and closed-loop control law development. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Plane and hemispherical potential structures in magnetically expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Igarashi, Yuichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional potential structures are measured for different gas pressure in expanding argon plasma using permanent magnets, where the magnetic field is about 100 G in the source and several gauss in the diffusion chamber. The plane potential drop is observed near the source exit for 0.35 mTorr, while the potential structure becomes hemispherical when increasing up to 1 mTorr; the hemispherical structure results in the radial divergence of the ion beam. It is found that the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the electrons overcoming the potential drop are dominated by the potential structure and magnetic-field lines, respectively.

  7. Parametric analysis of a magnetized cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahedo, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The relevant macroscopic model, the spatial structure, and the parametric regimes of a low-pressure plasma confined by a cylinder and an axial magnetic field is discussed for the small-Debye length limit, making use of asymptotic techniques. The plasma response is fully characterized by three-dimensionless parameters, related to the electron gyroradius, and the electron and ion collision mean-free-paths. There are the unmagnetized regime, the main magnetized regime, and, for a low electron-collisionality plasma, an intermediate-magnetization regime. In the magnetized regimes, electron azimuthal inertia is shown to be a dominant phenomenon in part of the quasineutral plasma region and to set up before ion radial inertia. In the main magnetized regime, the plasma structure consists of a bulk diffusive region, a thin layer governed by electron inertia, a thinner sublayer controlled by ion inertia, and the non-neutral Debye sheath. The solution of the main inertial layer yields that the electron azimuthal energy near the wall is larger than the electron thermal energy, making electron resistivity effects non-negligible. The electron Boltzmann relation is satisfied only in the very vicinity of the Debye sheath edge. Ion collisionality effects are irrelevant in the magnetized regime. Simple scaling laws for plasma production and particle and energy fluxes to the wall are derived.

  8. Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G. A.; Wilson, L. B.; Sibeck, D. G.; Shane, N.; Zhang, T. L.; Moore, T. E.; Coates, A. J.; Barabash, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first observation of magnetic fluctuations consistent with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) in the foreshock of the planet Venus. Three monolithic magnetic field spikes were observed by the Venus Express on the 11th of April 2009. The structures were approx.1.5->11s in duration, had magnetic compression ratios between approx.3->6, and exhibited elliptical polarization. These characteristics are consistent with the SLAMS observed at Earth, Jupiter, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner, and thus we hypothesize that it is possible SLAMS may be found at any celestial body with a foreshock.

  9. Neutron scattering on magnetic nano-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, F.

    2009-03-01

    variation of the core temperatures, SOL T e changes only little and seems to be decoupled from the core plasma. The first continuous T i /T e profile from the edge of the confined plasma into the SOL is constructed using data from different tokamaks. It is shown that T i /T e ≥ 1 in the SOL but also in the confined plasma, and increases with radius. Measurements of edge T i /T e in JET L-mode are analyzed. The first evidence of poloidal asymmetry of the radial ion and electron energy transport in the SOL is reported. Implications for ITER start-up phase are discussed. Correlation of the asymmetries of SOL T i and T e measured from both directions along the magnetic field lines with changes of the parallel Mach number is studied. SOL T i was measured for the first time in Tore Supra by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and compared to RFA data. A factor of 4 higher T i measured by CXRS is a subject of further analysis. The segmented tunnel probe (STP) for fast measurements of SOL T i and T e has been designed, built, calibrated by particle simulations, and used for the first time in a large tokamak. Preliminary results from the STP measurements in Tore Supra are presented. The disagreement between the currents to the probe electrodes predicted by simulations and the measurements is addressed. Large floating potentials measured by the side of the probe connected to the ICRH antenna are reported. (author)

  10. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  11. The structure of the big magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlivich, J. Spomenko; Chop, Rudi; Palangio, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The records of geomagnetic activity during Solar Cycles 22 and 23 (which occurred from 1986 to 2006) indicate several extremely intensive A-class geomagnetic storms. These were storms classified in the category of the Big Magnetic Storms. In a year of maximum solar activity during Solar Cycle 23, or more precisely, during a phase designated as a post-maximum phase in solar activity (PPM - Phase Post maximum), near the autumn equinox, on 29, October 2003, an extremely strong and intensive magnetic storm was recorded. In the first half of November 2004 (7, November 2004) an intensive magnetic storm was recorded (the Class Big Magnetic Storm). The level of geomagnetic field variations which were recorded for the selected Big Magnetic Storms, was ΔD st=350 nT. For the Big Magnetic Storms the indicated three-hour interval indices geomagnetic activity was Kp = 9. This study presents the spectral composition of the Di - variations which were recorded during magnetic storms in October 2003 and November 2004. (Author)

  12. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal over-determined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps...

  13. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal overdetermined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps....

  14. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    , by the implementation of the Simpy tool box. This is an object oriented system implemented in the Python language. It can be used for analysis of DAEs, ODEs and non-linear equation and uses e.g. symbolic representations of expressions and equations. The presentations of theory and algorithms for structural index......Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE...... analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since it e.g. proves...

  15. Structure and magnetization of Co4N thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nidhi; Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Rachana; Rajput, Parasmani; Stahn, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we studied the local structure and the magnetization of Co4N thin films deposited by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering process. The interstitial incorporation of N atoms in a fcc Co lattice is expected to expand the structure. This expansion yields interesting magnetic properties e.g. a larger magnetic moment (than Co) and a very high value of spin polarization ratio in Co4N . By optimizing the growth conditions, we prepared Co4N film having lattice parameter close to its theoretically predicted value. The N concentration was measured using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Detailed magnetization measurements using bulk magnetization method and polarized neutron reflectivity confirm that the magnetic moment of Co in Co4N is higher than that of Co.

  16. Structural and conformational study of polysaccharides by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossennec, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    As some natural polysaccharides are involved in important biological processes, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance appears to be an adapted mean to determine their structure-activity relationship and is therefore the object of this research thesis. By using bi-dimensional proton-based NMR techniques, it is possible to identify minority saccharide units, to determine their conformation, and to identify units which they are bound to. The author reports the application of these methods to swine mucosa heparin, and to heparins displaying a high and low anticoagulant activity. The dermatan sulphate has also been studied, and the NMR analysis allowed some polymer structure irregularities to be identified. A molecular modelling of dermatan sulphate has been performed [fr

  17. Magnetic Properties of Three Impact Structures in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. G.; Pilkington, M.; Tanczyk, E. I.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1995-09-01

    Magnetic anomaly lows associated with the West Hawk Lake (Manitoba), Deep Bay (Saskatchewan) and Clearwater Lakes (Quebec) impact structures, are variable in lateral extent and intensity, a characteristic shared with most impact structures [1]. Drill core from the centres of these structures provides a unique opportunity to ground truth the causes of the reduction in magnetic field intensity in impact structures. Magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetization levels have been found to be well below regional levels in melt rocks, impact breccias, fractured/shocked basement rocks in the central uplifts, and post-impact sediments. Deep Bay, formed in Pre-Cambrian paragneisses, is a complex crater with a submerged central uplift. It has been extensively infilled with non-magnetic black shales of Cretaceous age [2]. An airborne magnetic low of about 100 nT is associated with the Deep Bay structure. Below the shales and along the rim of the structure are highly brecciated country rocks with variable amounts of very fine rock flour. Susceptibility and remanent magnetization are both weak due to extensive alteration in the brecciated rocks. Alteration of the brecciated rocks, and the effect of several hundred meters of non-magnetic sedimentary infill, both contribute to the magnetic low. West Hawk Lake, a simple crater, was excavated in metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Superior Province [3], and has a ground magnetic low of about 250 nT. As with Deep Bay, West Hawk Lake has been infilled with dominantly non-magnetic sediments. Brecciation and alteration are extensive, with breccia derived from greenschist-facies meta-andesite displaying slightly higher susceptibilities and remanent magnetizations than breccia derived from the more felsic metasediments. Brecciation has effectively randomized magnetization vectors, and subsequent alteration resulted in the destruction of magnetic phases. These two factors contribute to the magnetic low over this structure

  18. Fabrication, morphological, structural and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Fe{sub 3}Pt nanowires and nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, U. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Adeela, N. [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Li, Wenjing; Irfan, M.; Javed, K.; Riaz, S. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Han, X.F., E-mail: xfhan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highly ordered Fe{sub 3}Pt nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template have been fabricated by dc electrodeposition method. Response of heat treatment on structural and magnetic properties of the samples has been studied with and without the presence of magnetic field (1 T). X-Ray Diffraction analysis shows chemically ordered L1{sub 2} face centered cubic (FCC) as the dominant phase for Fe{sub 3}Pt NWs and heat treatment improves crystallinity with retained its phase. Whereas, Fe{sub 3}Pt NTs show amorphous behavior with and without magnetic field annealing. Furthermore, magnetic properties of the samples have been investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic parameters of Fe{sub 3}Pt including magnetic coercivity, saturation magnetization, squareness and shape of MH-loops have been investigated as a result of simple and MF annealing. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}Pt NWs and NTs embedded into anodic alumina templates have been synthesized by dc electrodeposition method. • Structural analysis (XRD) confirmed the formation of fcc structure. • Magnetic properties have been measured as a function of simple and magnetic field annealing.

  19. Graphite structure and magnetic parameters of flake graphite cast iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Uchimoto, T.; Takagi, T.; Tomáš, Ivan; Kage, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 442, Nov (2017), s. 397-402 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic NDE * magnetic adaptive testing * cast iron * graphite structure * pearlite content Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  20. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  1. Influence of magnetic fields on structural martensitic transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashley, J C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, J C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, J L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisher, R A [NON LANL; Modic, K A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, X- D [TEMPLE UNIV; Riseborough, P S [TEMPLE UNIV.; Opeil, C P [BOSTON COLLEGE; Finlayson, T R [UNIV OF MELBOURNE; Goddard, P A [UNIV OF OXFORD; Silhanek, A V [INPAC

    2009-01-01

    We show evidence that a structural martensitic transition is related to significant changes in the electronic structure, as revealed in thermodynamic measurements made in high-magnetic fields. The magnetic field dependence is considered unusual as many influential investigations of martensitic transitions have emphasized that the structural transitions are primarily lattice dynamical and are driven by the entropy due to the phonons. We provide a theoretical framework which can be used to describe the effect of magnetic field on the lattice dynamics in which the field dependence originates from the dielectric constant.

  2. Force characteristic analysis of a magnetic gravity compensator with annular magnet array for magnetic levitation positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiheng; Kou, Baoquan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, He; Xing, Feng; Yang, Xiaobao

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic levitation positioning system (MLPS) is considered to be the state of the art in inspection and manufacturing systems in vacuum. In this paper, a magnetic gravity compensator with annular magnet array (AMA-MGC) for MLPS is proposed. Benefiting from the double-layer annular Halbach magnet array on the stator, the proposed AMA-MGC possesses the advantages of symmetrical force, high force density and small force fluctuation. Firstly, the basic structure and operation principle of the AMA-MGC are introduced. Secondly, the basic characteristics of the AMA-MGC such as magnetic field distribution, levitation force, parasitic force and parasitic torque are analyzed by the three-dimensional finite element analysis (3-D FEA). Thirdly, the influence of structural parameters on force density and force fluctuation is investigated, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the AMA-MGC. Finally, a prototype of the AMA-MGC is constructed, and the experiment shows good agreement with the 3-D FEA results.

  3. New insight in magnetic saturation behavior of nickel hierarchical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Zhang, Jianxing; Liu, Chunting; Chen, Kezheng

    2017-09-01

    It is unanimously accepted that non-ferromagnetic inclusions in a ferromagnetic system will lower down total saturation magnetization in unit of emu/g. In this study, ;lattice strain; was found to be another key factor to have critical impact on magnetic saturation behavior of the system. The lattice strain determined assembling patterns of primary nanoparticles in hierarchical structures and was intimately related with the formation process of these architectures. Therefore, flower-necklace-like and cauliflower-like nickel hierarchical structures were used as prototype systems to evidence the relationship between assembling patterns of primary nanoparticles and magnetic saturation behaviors of these architectures. It was found that the influence of lattice strain on saturation magnetization outperformed that of non-ferromagnetic inclusions in these hierarchical structures. This will enable new insights into fundamental understanding of related magnetic effects.

  4. Local magnetic structure determination using polarized neutron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szakál, Alex; Markó, Márton; Cser, László

    2015-01-01

    A unique and important property of the neutron is that it possesses magnetic moment. This property is widely used for determination of magnetic structure of crystalline samples observing the magnetic components of the diffraction peaks. Investigations of diffraction patterns give information only about the averaged structure of a crystal but for discovering of local spin arrangement around a specific (e.g., impurity) nucleus remains still a challenging problem. Neutron holography is a useful tool to investigate the local structure around a specific nucleus embedded in a crystal lattice. The method has been successfully applied experimentally in several cases using non-magnetic short range interaction of the neutron and the nucleus. A mathematical model of the hologram using interaction between magnetic moment of the atom and the neutron spin for polarized neutron holography is provided. Validity of a polarized neutron holographic experiment is demonstrated by applying the proposed method on model systems

  5. Mechanosynthesis, crystal structure and magnetic characterization of neodymium orthoferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna, Pedro Vera; Campos, Cecilio Garcia [Division de Ingenierias, Universidad Politecnica de Tecamac (UPTECAMAC), Tecamac de Felipe Villanueva, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); De Jesus, Felix Sanchez; Miro, Ana Maria Bolarin [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (UAEH), Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo (Mexico); Loran, Jose Antonio Juanico [Division de Ingenieria Industrial Nanotecnologia, Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Mexico (UPVM), Tultitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Longwell, Jeffrey, E-mail: pedrovera.upt@gmail.com [Department of Languages and Linguistics, New Mexico State University (NMSU), Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Neodymium orthoferrite NdFeO{sub 3} was obtained at room temperature by mechanosynthesis with a stoichiometric ratio of Nd2O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, whereas the traditional synthesis requires a temperature of approximately 1000 °C. The crystal structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu radiation and a LynxEye XE detector, whose strong fluorescence filtering enabled a high signal intensity. The analysis indicated that the obtained crystallites were nano-sized. The particle morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the magnetic saturation was tested by vibrating sample magnetometry. The synthesis of NdFeO{sub 3} was detected after a few hours of milling, indicating that the milling imparted mechanical energy to the system. (author)

  6. 3D Biomimetic Magnetic Structures for Static Magnetic Field Stimulation of Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Alexandra Paun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We designed, fabricated and optimized 3D biomimetic magnetic structures that stimulate the osteogenesis in static magnetic fields. The structures were fabricated by direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization of IP-L780 photopolymer and were based on ellipsoidal, hexagonal units organized in a multilayered architecture. The magnetic activity of the structures was assured by coating with a thin layer of collagen-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-magnetic nanoparticles composite. In vitro experiments using MG-63 osteoblast-like cells for 3D structures with gradients of pore size helped us to find an optimum pore size between 20–40 µm. Starting from optimized 3D structures, we evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively the effects of static magnetic fields of up to 250 mT on cell proliferation and differentiation, by ALP (alkaline phosphatase production, Alizarin Red and osteocalcin secretion measurements. We demonstrated that the synergic effect of 3D structure optimization and static magnetic stimulation enhances the bone regeneration by a factor greater than 2 as compared with the same structure in the absence of a magnetic field.

  7. 3D Biomimetic Magnetic Structures for Static Magnetic Field Stimulation of Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Popescu, Roxana Cristina; Calin, Bogdan Stefanita; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Dinescu, Maria; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo

    2018-02-07

    We designed, fabricated and optimized 3D biomimetic magnetic structures that stimulate the osteogenesis in static magnetic fields. The structures were fabricated by direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization of IP-L780 photopolymer and were based on ellipsoidal, hexagonal units organized in a multilayered architecture. The magnetic activity of the structures was assured by coating with a thin layer of collagen-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-magnetic nanoparticles composite. In vitro experiments using MG-63 osteoblast-like cells for 3D structures with gradients of pore size helped us to find an optimum pore size between 20-40 µm. Starting from optimized 3D structures, we evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively the effects of static magnetic fields of up to 250 mT on cell proliferation and differentiation, by ALP (alkaline phosphatase) production, Alizarin Red and osteocalcin secretion measurements. We demonstrated that the synergic effect of 3D structure optimization and static magnetic stimulation enhances the bone regeneration by a factor greater than 2 as compared with the same structure in the absence of a magnetic field.

  8. Magnetic domain structure and magnetically-induced reorientation in Ni–Mn–Ga magnetic shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, Oleg; Bradshaw, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 4 (2017), s. 1063-1065 ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00262S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic shape memory effect * magnetic domain structure * 3D visualization * domain mirroring Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2016

  9. Giant Magnetic Field Enhancement in Hybridized MIM Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    We propose numerically an approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the magnetic near field intensity at a magnetic hot spot in a hybridized metal-insulatormetal (MIM) structure. First we insert in part of the dielectric layer of the MIM

  10. Coherent magnetic structures in terbium/holmium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    to 230 K, two samples retain this magnetic structure while the third undergoes a transition first to a mixed phase of helically and ferromagnetically ordered Tb moments, then to a phase with only helically ordered To moments. Ln all cases, the magnetic ordering is found to be long ranged, with coherence...

  11. Spontaneous phase transitions in magnetic films with a modulated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzamastseva, G. V.; Evtikhov, M. G.; Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of monoperiodic and biperiodic bias fields on the nucleation of domain structures in quasi-uniaxial magnetic films near the Curie point has been studied experimentally. The main types of observed nonuniform magnetic moment distributions have been established and chains of a devil’s staircase phase transitions are shown to be realized when the films are slowly cooled.

  12. The method of inversion of magnetic island two-dimensional structure by magnetic probes and its application on HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tengfei; Liu Yi; Ji Xiaoquan; Xu Yuan; Feng Beibin

    2011-01-01

    The new method that reconstructs the polar two-dimensional structure of the magnetic island using magnetic pickup coils data is introduced on HL-2A tokamak and dynamic analysis method that set up based on it for tearing mode is also introduced. In this experiment, the perturbation current which is the source of the perturbation magnetic field can be determined using the data measured by magnetic probes. Superimposing the perturbation flux and equilibrium flux reconnected by EFIT, the structure and the width of the magnetic islands can be obtained. Then two-dimensional structure maps are set up chronologically and recorded in turn. After that these maps are revealed in turn and magnetic island can be analyzed dynamically. This method is applied to analyzing tearing mode. The conclusion that magnetic island rotating direction is in accordance with electronic diamagnetic drift direction is reached. The relationship between the magnetic island width and the magnetic perturbation field is proved and the suppression of magnetic island by ECRH is also verified.It shows the immediacy of the method of inversion of magnetic island structure by magnetic probes and it is very useful for watching and controlling MHD instability. (authors)

  13. Mechanical design and analysis of an eight-pole superconducting vector magnet for soft x-ray magnetic dichroism measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbelaez, D.; Black, A.; Prestemon, S.O.; Wang, S.; Chen, J.; Arenholz, E.

    2010-01-13

    An eight-pole superconducting magnet is being developed for soft x-ray magnetic dichroism (XMD) experiments at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL). Eight conical Nb{sub 3}Sn coils with Holmium poles are arranged in octahedral symmetry to form four dipole pairs that provide magnetic fields of up to 5 T in any direction relative to the incoming x-ray beam. The dimensions of the magnet yoke as well as pole taper, diameter, and length were optimized for maximum peak field in the magnet center using the software package TOSCA. The structural analysis of the magnet is performed using ANSYS with the coil properties derived using a numerical homogenization scheme. It is found that the use of orthotropic material properties for the coil has an important influence in the design of the magnet.

  14. Core/Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, drug delivery and cell signaling. The surface modification of the nanomaterials is required for biomedical use to give physiogical stability, surface reactivity and targeting properties. Among many approaches for the surface modification with materials, such as polymers, organic ligands and metals, one of the most attractive ways is using metals. The fabrication of metal-based, monolayer-coated magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively studied. However, the synthesis of metal-capped magnetic nanoparticles with monodispersities and controllable sizes is still challenged. Recently, gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles have been reported to increase stability and to provide biocompatibility. Magnetic nanoparticle with gold coating is an attractive system, which can be stabilized in biological conditions and readily functionalized in biological conditions and readily functionalized through well-established surface modification (Au-S) chemistry. The Au coating offers plasmonic properties to magnetic nanoparticles. This makes the magnetic/Au core/shell combinations interesting for magnetic and optical applications. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of gold capped-magnetic core structured nanomaterials with different gold sources, such as gold acetate and chloroauric acid have been reported. The core/shell nanoparticles were transferred from organic to aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. Magnetic core/shell structured nanoparticles have been prepared and transferred from organic phase to aqueous solutions. The resulting Au-coated magnetic core nanoparticles might be an attractive system for biomedical applications, which are needed both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging

  15. Stacked nickelocenes: synthesis, structural characterization, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtica, Sabrina; Prosenc, Marc Heinrich; Schmidt, Michael; Heck, Jürgen; Albrecht, Ole; Görlitz, Detlef; Reuter, Frank; Rentschler, Eva

    2010-02-15

    The disubstitution of 1,8-diiodonaphthalene (1) with cyclopentadienyl nucleophiles reveals 1,8-(dicyclopentadienyl)-naphthalene, which rapidly undergoes Diels-Alder reaction forming 1,8-(3a',4',7',7a'-tetrahydro-4',7'-methanoindene-7a',8'-diyl)-naphthalene (2). A subsequent retro-Diels-Alder reaction in the presence of sodium hydride yields the disodium salt of 1,8-(dicyclopentadiendiyl)-naphthalene 3. The disodium salt 3 was the starting material to obtain the paramagnetic bisnickelocene derivative 4, which structure was obtained by X-ray structure analysis, revealing two nickelocenes kept together in a stacked fashion by a 1,8-naphthalene clamp. An electronic interaction between the two nickel atoms is found as a result of cyclic voltammetry, indicating five different oxidation states +4, +3, +2, +1, and 0. The magnetic properties of 4 in solution were studied by variable temperature paramagnetic (1)H NMR spectroscopy and Evans method and revealed Curie behavior between 213 and 293 K. The magnetic susceptibility of a powdered sample of 4 was measured, and an antiferromagnetic interaction with an exchange coupling of J(12) = -31.49 cm(-1) is found. In accord with experimental data, broken symmetry density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed four antiferromagnetically coupled electrons resulting in an open shell singlet ground state.

  16. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Lanthanide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, James Henry [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We have had considerable success on this project, particularly in the understanding of the relationship between nanostructure and magnetic properties in lanthanide nanocrystals. We also have successfully facilitated the doctoral degrees of Dr. Suseela Somarajan, in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Dr. Melissa Harrison, in the Materials Science Program. The following passages summarize the various accomplishments that were featured in 9 publications that were generated based on support from this grant. We thank the Department of Energy for their generous support of our research efforts in this area of materials science, magnetism, and electron microscopy.

  17. New analysis of magnetic tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    The recent work[1] showed how the equations of ideal, compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) may be elegantly formulated in terms of Lie derivatives, building on the work of Helmholtz, Walen and Arnold. The ``linear" fields approach reduces ideal MHD to a low order set of non-linear ordinary differential equations capable of further simplification, so has the potential to enrich understanding of this difficult subject, which has application both to laboratory and geophysical/astrophysical plasmas. The just published work [2] extends the linear fields' solution of compressible nonlinear MHD to the case where the magnetic field depends on superlinear powers of position vector, usually but not always, expressed in Cartesian components. Implications of the resulting Lie-Taylor series expansion for physical applicability of the Dolzhansky-Kirchhoff (D-K) ``linear field" equations are found to be positive. It is demonstrated how resistivity may be included in the D-K model. Arguments are put forward that the D-K equations may be regarded as illustrating properties of nonlinear MHD in the same sense that the Lorenz equations inform about the onset of convective turbulence. It is thereby suggested that the Lie-Taylor series approach may lead to valuable insights into MHD turbulence, especially fast timescale transients and the role of plasmoids. This work has been part-funded by the RCUK Energy Programme. 1. Arter, W. 2013 ``Potential vorticity formulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 015004." (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.015004) 2. Arter, W. 2017 ``Beyond linear fields: the Lie-Taylor expansion", Proc. R. Soc. A473, 20160525; http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2016.0525

  18. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURES TRIGGERING SOLAR FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, K.; Bamba, Y.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Iida, Y.; Toriumi, S.; Asai, A.

    2012-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections, the most catastrophic eruptions in our solar system, have been known to affect terrestrial environments and infrastructure. However, because their triggering mechanism is still not sufficiently understood, our capacity to predict the occurrence of solar eruptions and to forecast space weather is substantially hindered. Even though various models have been proposed to determine the onset of solar eruptions, the types of magnetic structures capable of triggering these eruptions are still unclear. In this study, we solved this problem by systematically surveying the nonlinear dynamics caused by a wide variety of magnetic structures in terms of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. As a result, we determined that two different types of small magnetic structures favor the onset of solar eruptions. These structures, which should appear near the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), include magnetic fluxes reversed to the potential component or the nonpotential component of major field on the PIL. In addition, we analyzed two large flares, the X-class flare on 2006 December 13 and the M-class flare on 2011 February 13, using imaging data provided by the Hinode satellite, and we demonstrated that they conform to the simulation predictions. These results suggest that forecasting of solar eruptions is possible with sophisticated observation of a solar magnetic field, although the lead time must be limited by the timescale of changes in the small magnetic structures.

  19. Structured Analysis - IDEF0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    This note introduces the IDEF0 modelling language (semantics and syntax), and associated rules and techniques, for developing structured graphical representations of a system or enterprise. Use of this standard for IDEF0 permits the construction of models comprising system functions (activities...... that require a modelling technique for the analysis, development, re-engineering, integration, or acquisition of information systems; and incorporate a systems or enterprise modelling technique into a business process analysis or software engineering methodology.This note is a summary of the Standard...... for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0). I.e. the Draft Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 183, 1993, December 21, Announcing the Standard for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0)....

  20. 2D magnetic texture analysis of Co-Cu films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan; Alper, Mursel

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co"2"+ in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, M_p(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co"2"+ in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A_0 and A_2_n) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A_0 and an obvious decrease in A_2_n (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.

  1. Structural and magnetic studies on copper succinate dihydrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P BINITHA

    2017-08-21

    Aug 21, 2017 ... rials chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, gas storage, polymer magnets, etc. ... super exchange interactions among copper atoms through bridging .... Thus, these two water molecules in the structure of copper succinate are.

  2. Electronic band structure of magnetic bilayer graphene superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, C. Huy; Nguyen, T. Thuong; Nguyen, V. Lien

    2014-01-01

    Electronic band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with δ-function magnetic barriers and zero average magnetic flux is studied within the four-band continuum model, using the transfer matrix method. The periodic magnetic potential effects on the zero-energy touching point between the lowest conduction and the highest valence minibands of pristine bilayer graphene are exactly analyzed. Magnetic potential is shown also to generate the finite-energy touching points between higher minibands at the edges of Brillouin zone. The positions of these points and the related dispersions are determined in the case of symmetric potentials.

  3. Influence of different rotor magnetic circuit structure on the performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Hongbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the performance difference of the permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with different rotor structure, two kinds of rotor magnetic circuit structure with surface-mounted radial excitation and tangential excitation are designed respectively. By comparing and analyzing the results, the difference of the motor performance was determined. Firstly, based on the finite element method (FEM, the motor electromagnetic field performance was studied, and the magnetic field distribution of the different magnetic circuit structure was obtained. The influence mechanism of the different magnetic circuit structure on the air gap flux density was obtained by using the Fourier theory. Secondly, the cogging torque, output torque and overload capacity of the PMSM with different rotor structure were studied. The effect mechanism of the different rotor structure on the motor output property difference was obtained. The motor prototype with two kinds of rotor structure was manufactured, and the experimental study was carried out. By comparing the experimental data and simulation data, the correctness of the research is verified. This paper lays a foundation for the research on the performance of the PMSM with different magnetic circuit structure.

  4. Magnetic structure in the entrance region of spheromaks sustained by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun under long pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Takaichi, Kazuaki; Katsurai, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic structure in coaxial-gun-sustained spheromaks has been investigated. The plasma gun has been operated with a small axial/radial bias magnetic flux as compared to the azimuthal magnetic flux produced by the discharge current. Stronger magnetic field is observed in the entrance region (ER) than in the flux conserver (FC). In both ER and FC, the magnetic structure is nearly axisymmetric. The axial magnetic field in ER is amplified up to about sixteen times as large as the bias magnetic field. This amplification is limited by the drastic change in the magnetic structure, which occurs when the discharge current becomes very large. The magnetic structure before the drastic change is interpreted with the Bessel function model. The μ estimation shows that the magnetic structure is mainly determined by the boundary geometry, not by the external magnetic flux and current. (author)

  5. Numerical analysis of thermally actuated magnets for magnetization of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quan; Yan Yu; Rawlings, Colin; Coombs, Tim, E-mail: ql229@cam.ac.u [EPEC Superconductivity Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street. Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    Superconductors, such as YBCO bulks, have extremely high potential magnetic flux densities, comparing to rare earth magnets. Therefore, the magnetization of superconductors has attracted broad attention and contribution from both academic research and industry. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to magnetize superconductors. Unusually, instead of using high magnetic fields and pulses, repeatedly magnetic waves with strength of as low as rare earth magnets are applied. These magnetic waves, generated by thermally controlling a Gadolinium (Gd) bulk with a rare earth magnet underneath, travel over the flat surface of a YBCO bulk and get trapped little by little. Thus, a very small magnetic field can be used to build up a very large magnetic field. In this paper, the modelling results of thermally actuated magnetic waves are presented showing how to transfer sequentially applied thermal pulses into magnetic waves. The experiment results of the magnetization of YBCO bulk are also presented to demonstrate how superconductors are progressively magnetized by small magnetic field

  6. Numerical analysis of thermally actuated magnets for magnetization of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan; Yan Yu; Rawlings, Colin; Coombs, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Superconductors, such as YBCO bulks, have extremely high potential magnetic flux densities, comparing to rare earth magnets. Therefore, the magnetization of superconductors has attracted broad attention and contribution from both academic research and industry. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to magnetize superconductors. Unusually, instead of using high magnetic fields and pulses, repeatedly magnetic waves with strength of as low as rare earth magnets are applied. These magnetic waves, generated by thermally controlling a Gadolinium (Gd) bulk with a rare earth magnet underneath, travel over the flat surface of a YBCO bulk and get trapped little by little. Thus, a very small magnetic field can be used to build up a very large magnetic field. In this paper, the modelling results of thermally actuated magnetic waves are presented showing how to transfer sequentially applied thermal pulses into magnetic waves. The experiment results of the magnetization of YBCO bulk are also presented to demonstrate how superconductors are progressively magnetized by small magnetic field

  7. The symmetries of magnetic structures in rare earth tetraborides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, W.; Will, G.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The collinear antiferromagnetic spin configurations, which are possible in the rare earth tetraboride structure (space group P 4/mbm) and their distinction by neutron diffraction are discussed. The symmetries of the different antiferromagnetic structures are described by the corrosponding magnetic space groups. Neutron diffraction data collected from ErB 4 are integrated in the structure discussion. (orig.) [de

  8. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  9. Structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, C.J.

    1976-12-01

    The selection of structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamak-type fusion reactors is considered. The important criteria are working stress, radiation resistance, electromagnetic interaction, and general feasibility. The most advantageous materials appear to be face-centered-cubic alloys in the Fe-Ni-Cr system, but high-modulus composites may be necessary where severe pulsed magnetic fields are present. Special-purpose structural materials are considered briefly

  10. Self-Organized Structures in Magnetic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Bohr, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    , but the bigger ones grow on the expense of the smaller. From the center of mass of the columns a 2D-Veronoi pattern is constructed in the plane of the cell, and the edge statistics are found as a function of the fraction of magnetic liquid in the Hele-Shaw cell. The average number of edges in the Veronoi cells...

  11. New helical-shape magnetic pole design for Magnetic Lead Screw enabling structure simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Xia, Yongming; Wu, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic lead screw (MLS) is a new type of high performance linear actuator that is attractive for many potential applications. The main difficulty of the MLS technology lies in the manufacturing of its complicated helical-shape magnetic poles. Structure simplification is, therefore, quite...

  12. Structural investigation of chemically synthesized ferrite magnetic nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanga, E.; Sangaa, D.; Hirazawa, H.; Tsogbadrakh, N.; Jargalan, N.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    In recent times, interest in ferrite magnetic nanomaterials has considerably grown, mainly due to their highly promising medical and biological applications. Spinel ferrite powder samples, with high heat generation abilities in AC magnetic fields, were studied for their application to the hyperthermia treatment of cancer tumors. These properties of ferrites strongly depend on their chemical composition, ion distribution between crystallographic positions, magnetic structure and method of preparation. In this study, crystal and magnetic structures of several magnetic spinels were investigated by neutron diffraction. The explanation of the mechanism triggering the heat generation ability in the magnetic materials, and the electronic and magnetic states of ferrite-spinel type structures, were theoretically defined by a first-principles method. Ferrites with the composition of CuxMg1-xFe2O4 have been investigated as a heat generating magnetic nanomaterial. Atomic fraction of copper in ferrite was varied between 0 and 100% (that is, x between 0 and 1.0 with 0.2 steps), with the copper dope limit corresponding to appear a tetragonal phase.

  13. Vibrating wire apparatus for periodic magnetic structure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temnykh, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Devices with periodic magnetic structures such as wigglers and undulators are often key elements in synchrotron radiation sources. In applications where the coherence of the emitted radiation is important, magnetic field errors distorting the periodicity of the field can significantly reduce the performance of the devices. Thus, the measurement, localization, and correction of the field errors can be a critical issue. This article presents a new method for magnetic field measurements in periodic magnetic structures. The method uses a vibrating taut wire passing through the magnetic structure, and it involves measurements of the amplitudes and phases of the standing waves excited on the wire by the Lorentz force between an AC current in the wire and the surrounding magnetic field. For certain arrangements of the wire, vibrations in the wire will be excited by only non-periodic magnetic field component, i.e., by the error field. By measuring the phase and amplitude of these waves, one can reconstruct the error field distribution and then correct it. The method was tested on a permanent magnet wiggler with 19.8 cm period and a peak field of ∼7000G. It demonstrated ∼0.6G RMS sensitivity, δB rms /B rms ∼1.2x10 -4 and spatial resolution sufficient to identify poles generating the field error. Good agreement was found between field error measurements obtained with the vibrating wire method and with traditional Hall probe field mapping

  14. Magnetic structures in ultra-thin Holmium films: Influence of external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.J. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59600-900, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró 59625-620, RN (Brazil); Mello, V.D. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró 59625-620, RN (Brazil); Anselmo, D.H.A.L. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59600-900, RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: mvasconcelos@ect.ufrn.br [Escola de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    We address the magnetic phases in very thin Ho films at the temperature interval between 20 K and 132 K. We show that slab size, surface effects and magnetic field due to spin ordering impact significantly the magnetic phase diagram. Also we report that there is a relevant reduction of the external field strength required to saturate the magnetization and for ultra-thin films the helical state does not form. We explore the specific heat and the susceptibility as auxiliary tools to discuss the nature of the phase transitions, when in the presence of an external magnetic field and temperature effects. The presence of an external field gives rise to the magnetic phase Fan and the spin-slip structures. - Highlights: • We analyze the magnetic phases of very thin Ho films in the temperature interval 20–132 K. • We show that slab size, etc. due to spin ordering may impact the magnetic phase diagram. • All magnetic phase transitions, for strong magnetic fields, are marked by the specific heat. • The presence of an external field gives rise to the magnetic phase Fan and the spin-slip one.

  15. Synergistic structures from magnetic freeze casting with surface magnetized alumina particles and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael B; Hei Siu, Sze; Karandikar, Keyur; Liu, Chin-Hung; Naleway, Steven E; Porter, Michael M; Graeve, Olivia A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic freeze casting utilizes the freezing of water, a low magnetic field and surface magnetized materials to make multi-axis strengthened porous scaffolds. A much greater magnetic moment was measured for larger magnetized alumina platelets compared with smaller particles, which indicated that more platelet aggregation occurred within slurries. This led to more lamellar wall alignment along the magnetic field direction during magnetic freeze casting at 75 mT. Slurries with varying ratios of magnetized particles to platelets (0:1, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1, 7:1, 1:0) produced porous scaffolds with different structural features and degrees of lamellar wall alignment. The greatest mechanical enhancement in the magnetic field direction was identified in the synergistic condition with the highest particle to platelet ratio (7:1). Magnetic freeze casting with varying ratios of magnetized anisotropic and isotropic alumina provided insights about how heterogeneous morphologies aggregate within lamellar walls that impact mechanical properties. Fabrication of strengthened scaffolds with multi-axis aligned porosity was achieved without introducing different solid materials, freezing agents or additives. Resemblance of 7:1 particle to platelet scaffold microstructure to wood light-frame house construction is framed in the context of assembly inspiration being derived from both natural and synthetic sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  17. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, P., E-mail: paolo.perna@imdea.org; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, J. L. [ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Miranda, R.; Camarero, J. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  18. Structural, magnetic, and electronic transport properties of pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Chaurasia, Rachna; Kumari, Pratibha; Paramanik, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    We have studied the structural, magnetic, and electronic transport properties of pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7. Structural investigation has been done using x-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld analysis. Pr2Ir2O7 crystallize in cubic crystallographic phase with Fd-3m space group. Temperature dependent magnetization data does not show magnetic bifurcation down to 2 K. Electrical resistivity data of Pr2Ir2O7 exhibits metallic behavior throughout temperature range. Below 50 K, a small rise in resistivity data of Pr2Ir2O7 is observed down to 12 K.

  19. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of two-dimensional periodical structures in a magnetized plasma are studied using kinetic simulations. Ridges (i.e. spikes in electron and ion density) are formed and became more pronounced with an increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma volume in the cylindrical chamber. These ridges are shifted relative to each other, which results in the formation of a two-dimensional double-layer structure. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to 19 potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered into the channels is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  20. Structural and magnetic studies of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Kalpana; Heda, N. L.; Tiwari, Shailja; Bapna, Komal; Ahuja, B. L.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structural and magnetic properties of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) using pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited under vacuum and substrate temperature was kept at 700°C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that films on both substrates have single phase cubic spinel structure. However, the film grown on Si (111) shows better crystalline behavior. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests that films on both substrates have mixed spinel structure. These films show magnetic hysteresis behavior and magnetization value of film on Si (100) is larger than that on Si (111). It turns out that structural and magnetic properties of these two films are correlated.

  1. Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones

  2. Thermal, magnetic, and structural properties of soft magnetic FeCrNbCuSiB alloy ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Rivera, A.; Valencia, V.H.; Quintero, D.L.; Pineda-Gomez, P.; Gomez, M.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal, magnetic and structural properties of amorphous magnetic Fe 73.5-x Cr x Nb 3 Cu 1 Si 13.5 B 9 alloy ribbons, with x=0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), magneto-impedance measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ribbons exhibit ultrasoft magnetic behavior, especially giant magneto-impedance effect, GMI. A three-peak behavior was observed in GMI curves. Particular attention has been given to observation of crystallization kinetics via DSC and TGA. The primary crystallization T pcr , and Curie T c , temperatures were determined from DSC and TGA data, respectively. The effect of partial substitution of iron by Cr on the thermal and magnetic properties is discussed

  3. Subsurface Structure Determination of Geotermal Area in Siogung-ogung Samosir District by Using Magnetic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Togi; Hutahaean, Juniar; Siregar, Suryani N. J.

    2018-03-01

    Underwater research often uses geomagnets. It is one of the geophysical methods for measuring magnetic field variations. This research was done to identify how the subsurface rock structure is and determine kinds of rock based on its susceptibility value in Siogung-ogung geothermal area, Pangururan, Samosir District. The tool measurement of total magnetic field called Proton Precission Magnetometer, positioning using Global Position System, and north axis determination using geological compass. Data collection was done randomly with total 51 measuring points obtained. Data analysis started with International geomagnetics Reference Field correction to obtain the total magnetic field anomaly. Then, the data analysis of total magnetic anomaly was done by using surfer program 12. To get a magnetic anomaly cross section used Magdc For Windows program. Magnetic measurement results indicated that the variation of magnetic field strength in each point with the lowest magnetic intensity value of 41785.67 nano tesla. The highest magnetic intensity value is 43140, 33. From the results of qualitative interpretation, the magnetic anomaly value is at -200.92 to 1154.45 whereas the quantitative interpretive results of model show the existence of degradation and andesitic rocks, with the value of susceptibility

  4. Design and analysis of a field modulated magnetic screw for artificial heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhijian; Ji, Jinghua; Wang, Fangqun; Bian, Fangfang

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new electromechanical energy conversion system, called Field Modulated Magnetic Screw (FMMS) as a high force density linear actuator for artificial heart. This device is based on the concept of magnetic screw and linear magnetic gear. The proposed FMMS consists of three parts with the outer and inner carrying the radially magnetized helically permanent-magnet (PM), and the intermediate having a set of helically ferromagnetic pole pieces, which modulate the magnetic fields produced by the PMs. The configuration of the newly designed FMMS is presented and its electromagnetic performances are analyzed by using the finite-element analysis, verifying the advantages of the proposed structure.

  5. Structural and Magnetic Behavioral Improvisation of Nanocalcium Hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sable, Sharad N., E-mail: sharadtz@hotmail.co [Department of Applied Physics, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur (India); Rewatkar, Kishor G. [Department of Physics, Dr. Ambedkar College, Dikshabhumi, Nagpur (India); Nanoti, Vivek M. [Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur (India)

    2010-04-15

    In modern technoscientific era, the industrial application of nanomaterials has grabbed a paramount importance owing to their improved characteristics. Hexagonal ferrites especially M-type ferrites have been proved to be the promising candidates for nanomaterials by virtue of their ease of applicability in high density recording media, microwave absorption devices, magneto-optic recording media, etc. Keeping a bird's view over, the samples of varied combinations of M-type substituted hexaferrites are synthesized using sol-gel combustion route by blending nitrates and chlorides as oxidants accompanied with fuels like urea, glycine, citric acid, etc. as reducing agents. The substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions lie essentially in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. As the Fe{sup 3+} ions are being replaced by Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions, the probability of having oxygen vacancies in the structure was found to be greatly reduced. The magnetic particles produced by conventional solid state reactions are often larger than those produced by sol-gel combustion route. Larger particles of magnetic oxides generally exhibit multidomain magnetic structure whereas nanosized particles generally exhibit single domain magnetic structure. The simultaneous or coupled divalent and tetravalent substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} for Fe{sup 3+} ions greatly helps to improvise the magnetic parameters such as Curie temperature, coercivity, remanent magnetization, saturation magnetization, etc. The structural comparison is being analyzed through the XRD, TEM. The samples so synthesized are found to be reseasonably homogeneous and the average particle size of the sample synthesized is found to be in the nanorange. The structural and magnetic properties are observed be improved upon those of the samples reported earlier. This confirms the more viability of such samples in the various applications of digital data devices. Further attempts could possibly lead to

  6. The micro-magnetic structures of Mn sup + ion-implanted GaSb

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Fu Qiang; Liu Zhi Kai

    2003-01-01

    The micro-magnetic structures of Mn sup + ion-implanted GaSb are studied using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). MFM images reveal that there are many magnetic domains with different magnetization directions in our samples. The magnetic domain structures and the magnetization direction of typical MFM patterns are analyzed by numeric simulation. (author)

  7. Structure and magnetism in novel group IV element-based magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Frank [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2013-08-14

    The project is to investigate structure, magnetism and spin dependent states of novel group IV element-based magnetic thin films and heterostructures as a function of composition and epitaxial constraints. The materials systems of interest are Si-compatible epitaxial films and heterostructures of Si/Ge-based magnetic ternary alloys grown by non-equilibrium molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques, specifically doped magnetic semiconductors (DMS) and half-metallic Heusler alloys. Systematic structural, chemical, magnetic, and electrical measurements are carried out, using x-ray microbeam techniques, magnetotunneling spectroscopy and microscopy, and magnetotransport. The work is aimed at elucidating the nature and interplay between structure, chemical order, magnetism, and spin-dependent states in these novel materials, at developing materials and techniques to realize and control fully spin polarized states, and at exploring fundamental processes that stabilize the epitaxial magnetic nanostructures and control the electronic and magnetic states in these complex materials. Combinatorial approach provides the means for the systematic studies, and the complex nature of the work necessitates this approach.

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of barium-gadolinium hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    A series of Gd-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites has been prepared by the ceramic route, according to the formula (Ba 1-xGd x)O·5.25Fe 2O 3 ( x=0-0.30). XRD analysis revealed that all the samples present primarily an M-type structure. Samples x=0 and x=0.05 are single-phase. Hematite (Fe 2O 3) and GdFeO 3 were detected in the remaining samples. Coercivity ( Hc) shows remarkably high values, ˜293 kA/m for x=0.20 and 0.30 with a maximum of 322 kA/m for x=0.25. Specific saturation magnetization ( σsat) of the samples presents a small increase up to x=0.10. The microstructure examination indicates that Gd may act as a grain growth inhibitor.

  9. Transition metal implanted ZnO. A correlation between structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengqiang

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays ferromagnetism is often found in potential diluted magnetic semiconductor systems. However, many authors question the origin of this ferromagnetism, i.e. if the observed ferromagnetism stems from ferromagnetic precipitates rather than from carriermediated magnetic coupling of ionic impurities, as required for a diluted magnetic semiconductor. In this thesis, this question will be answered for transition-metal implanted ZnO single crystals. Magnetic secondary phases, namely metallic Fe, Co and Ni nanocrystals, are formed inside ZnO. They are - although difficult to detect by common approaches of structural analysis - responsible for the observed ferromagnetism. Particularly Co and Ni nanocrystals are crystallographically oriented with respect to the ZnO matrix. Their structure phase transformation and corresponding evolution of magnetic properties upon annealing have been established. Finally, an approach, pre-annealing ZnO crystals at high temperature before implantation, has been demonstrated to sufficiently suppress the formation of metallic secondary phases. (orig.)

  10. Symmetry, structure, and dynamics of monoaxial chiral magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Yoshihiko; Kousaka, Yusuke; Inoue, Katsuya; Kishine, Jun-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Nontrivial spin orders with magnetic chirality emerge in a particular class of magnetic materials with structural chirality, which are frequently referred to as chiral magnets. Various interesting physical properties are expected to be induced in chiral magnets through the coupling of chiral magnetic orders with conduction electrons and electromagnetic fields. One promising candidate for achieving these couplings is a chiral spin soliton lattice. Here, we review recent experimental observations mainly carried out on the monoaxial chiral magnetic crystal CrNb_3S_6 via magnetic imaging using electron, neutron, and X-ray beams and magnetoresistance measurements, together with the strategy for synthesizing chiral magnetic materials and underlying theoretical backgrounds. The chiral soliton lattice appears under a magnetic field perpendicular to the chiral helical axis and is very robust and stable with phase coherence on a macroscopic length scale. The tunable and topological nature of the chiral soliton lattice gives rise to nontrivial physical properties. Indeed, it is demonstrated that the interlayer magnetoresistance scales to the soliton density, which plays an essential role as an order parameter in chiral soliton lattice formation, and becomes quantized with the reduction of the system size. These interesting features arising from macroscopic phase coherence unique to the chiral soliton lattice will lead to the exploration of routes to a new paradigm for applications in spin electronics using spin phase coherence. (author)

  11. Excitation of magnetic inhomogeneities in three-layer ferromagnetic structure with different parameters of the magnetic anisotropy and exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekomasov, E.G., E-mail: EkomasovEG@gmail.com [Bashkir State University, 32, Validy Str., Ufa, 450076 (Russian Federation); Murtazin, R.R. [Bashkir State University, 32, Validy Str., Ufa, 450076 (Russian Federation); Nazarov, V.N. [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics Ufa Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, Ufa, 450075 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    The generation and evolution of magnetic inhomogeneities, emerging in a thin flat layer with the parameters of the magnetic anisotropy and exchange interaction, with the parameters different from other two thick layers of the three-layer ferromagnetic structure, were investigated. The parameters ranges that determine the possibility of their existence were found. The possibility of the external magnetic field influence on the structure and dynamic properties of localized magnetic inhomogeneities was shown. - Highlights: • The generation of magnetic inhomogeneities in the three-layer ferromagnetic. • The influence of an external field on the parameters of magnetic inhomogeneities. • Numerical study of the structure and dynamics of magnetic inhomogeneities.

  12. Tunable dynamic response of magnetic gels: Impact of structural properties and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarama, Mitsusuke; Cremer, Peet; Borin, Dmitry Y.; Odenbach, Stefan; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2014-10-01

    Ferrogels and magnetic elastomers feature mechanical properties that can be reversibly tuned from outside through magnetic fields. Here we concentrate on the question of how their dynamic response can be adjusted. The influence of three factors on the dynamic behavior is demonstrated using appropriate minimal models: first, the orientational memory imprinted into one class of the materials during their synthesis; second, the structural arrangement of the magnetic particles in the materials; and third, the strength of an external magnetic field. To illustrate the latter point, structural data are extracted from a real experimental sample and analyzed. Understanding how internal structural properties and external influences impact the dominant dynamical properties helps to design materials that optimize the requested behavior.

  13. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and magnetic structure of CuNi2(PO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobal, Jaione; Pizarro, Jose L.; Mesa, Jose L.; Larranaga, Aitor; Fernandez, Jesus Rodriguez; Arriortua, Maria I.; Rojo, Teofilo

    2006-01-01

    The CuNi 2 (PO 4 ) 2 phosphate has been synthesized by the ceramic method at 800 deg. C in air. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional skeleton constructed from MO 4 (M II =Cu and Ni) planar squares and M 2 O 8 dimers with square pyramidal geometry, which are interconnected by (PO 4 ) 3- oxoanions with tetrahedral geometry. The magnetic behavior has been studied on powdered sample by using susceptibility, specific heat and neutron diffraction data. The bimetallic copper(II)-nickel(II) orthophosphate exhibits a three-dimensional magnetic ordering at, approximately, 29.8 K. However, its complex crystal structure hampers any parametrization of the J-exchange parameter. The specific heat measurements exhibit a three-dimensional magnetic ordering (λ-type) peak at 29.5 K. The magnetic structure of this phosphate shows ferromagnetic interactions inside the Ni 2 O 8 dimers, whereas the sublattice of Cu(II) ions presents antiferromagnetic couplings along the y-axis. The change of the sign in the magnetic unit-cell, due to the [1/2, 0, 1/2] propagation vector determines a purely antiferromagnetic structure. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic structure of CuNi2(PO4)2

  14. Magnetic mapping for structural geology and geothermal exploration in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, jeanne; munschy, marc; geraud, yves; diraison, marc; navelot, vivien; verati, christelle; corsini, michel; lardeaux, jean marc; favier, alexiane

    2017-04-01

    This work is implemented through the GEOTREF program which benefits from the support of both the ADEME and the French public funds "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration for geothermal resources in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, where a geothermal power plant is in production since 1986 (Bouillante, Basse Terre). In Les Saintes archipelago, in the south of Guadeloupe, the outcrop analysis of Terre-de-Haut Island allows to point out an exhumed geothermal paleo-system that is thought to be an analogue of the Bouillante active geothermal system. We show that a detailed marine magnetic survey with a quantitative interpretation can bring information about the offshore structures around Les Saintes archipelago in order to extend the geological limits and structural elements. A similar survey and workflow is also conducted offshore Basse-Terre where more geophysical data is already available. In order to correctly link the offshore and onshore structures, the magnetic survey must be close enough to the shoreline and sufficiently detailed to correctly outline the tectonic structures. An appropriate solution for such a survey is to use a three component magnetometer aboard a speedboat. Such a boat allows more navigation flexibility than a classic oceanic vessel towing a magnetometer; it can sail at higher speed on calm seas and closer to the shoreline. This kind of magnetic acquisition is only viable because the magnetic effect of the ship can be compensated using the same algorithms than those used for airborne magnetometry. The use of potential field transforms allows a large variety of structures to be highlighted, providing insights to build a general understanding of the nature and distribution of the magnetic sources. In particular, we use the tilt angle operator to better identify the magnetic lineaments offshore in order to compare them to the faults identified onshore during the outcrop analysis. All the major faults and fractures

  15. Magnetic Testing, and Modeling, Simulation and Analysis for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, Mary; Narvaez, Pablo; Herman, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS) participated with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the implementation of a magnetic cleanliness program of the NASA/JPL JUNO mission. The magnetic cleanliness program was applied from early flight system development up through system level environmental testing. The JUNO magnetic cleanliness program required setting-up a specialized magnetic test facility at Lockheed Martin Space Systems for testing the flight system and a testing program with facility for testing system parts and subsystems at JPL. The magnetic modeling, simulation and analysis capability was set up and performed by Aerospace to provide qualitative and quantitative magnetic assessments of the magnetic parts, components, and subsystems prior to or in lieu of magnetic tests. Because of the sensitive nature of the fields and particles scientific measurements being conducted by the JUNO space mission to Jupiter, the imposition of stringent magnetic control specifications required a magnetic control program to ensure that the spacecraft's science magnetometers and plasma wave search coil were not magnetically contaminated by flight system magnetic interferences. With Aerospace's magnetic modeling, simulation and analysis and JPL's system modeling and testing approach, and LMSS's test support, the project achieved a cost effective approach to achieving a magnetically clean spacecraft. This paper presents lessons learned from the JUNO magnetic testing approach and Aerospace's modeling, simulation and analysis activities used to solve problems such as remnant magnetization, performance of hard and soft magnetic materials within the targeted space system in applied external magnetic fields.

  16. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Sm Implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Juan, Jiang; Xiao-Liang, Wang; Hong-Ling, Xiao; Zhan-Guo, Wang; Chun, Feng; Ming-Lan, Zhang; Jian, Tang

    2009-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Sm ion-implanted GaN with different Sm concentrations are investigated. XRD results do not show any peaks associated with second phase formation. Magnetic investigations performed by superconducting quantum interference device reveal ferromagnetic behavior with an ordering temperature above room temperature in all the implanted samples, while the effective magnetic moment per Sm obtained from saturation magnetization gives a much higher value than the atomic moment of Sm. These results could be explained by the phenomenological model proposed by Dhar et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(2005)037205, Phys. Rev. B 72(2005)245203] in terms of a long-range spin polarization of the GaN matrix by the Sm atoms. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and opticalproperties)

  17. Giant Magnetic Field Enhancement in Hybridized MIM Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-10-23

    We propose numerically an approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the magnetic near field intensity at a magnetic hot spot in a hybridized metal-insulatormetal (MIM) structure. First we insert in part of the dielectric layer of the MIM, at its center, another dielectric material of a high refractive index (HRI). This results in an increase in the magnetic near field enhancement of the magnetic plasmon (MP) resonance by 82% compared with the MIM without the HRI material. We then couple this enhanced MP resonance to a propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) to achieve a further enhancement of 438%. The strong coupling between the MP and the SPP is demonstrated by the large anti-crossing in the reflection spectra. The resulting maximum magnetic field enhancement at the gap is ~ |H / Hi|² = 3555.

  18. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huijun, E-mail: huijun024@gmail.com [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Zhang, Mingju [Shanghai Aerospace Control Technology Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • One novel permanent magnet generator structure has been proposed to reduce voltage regulation ratio. • Finite element method and equivalent circuit methods are both employed to realize rapid generator design. • Design of experiment (DOE) method is used to optimize permanent magnet shape for reduce voltage waveform distortion. • The obtained analysis and experiment results verify the proposed design methods. - Abstract: In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  19. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One novel permanent magnet generator structure has been proposed to reduce voltage regulation ratio. • Finite element method and equivalent circuit methods are both employed to realize rapid generator design. • Design of experiment (DOE) method is used to optimize permanent magnet shape for reduce voltage waveform distortion. • The obtained analysis and experiment results verify the proposed design methods. - Abstract: In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  20. Collapsing cycloidal structures in the magnetic phase diagram of erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; Simpson, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic structure of Er with a magnetic field applied in the hexagonal basal plane has been studied using a combination of experimental techniques and mean-field modeling. From neutron-scattering and magnetization measurements, phase diagrams are constructed. At temperatures above...... approximately 20 K, the application of a field is found to favor cycloidal structures with modulation wave vectors of q(c) = (6/23)c*, (4/15)c*, and (2/7)c*. For fields above almost-equal-to 40 kOe, the (2/7) structure dominates the phase diagram. From a detailed study of this most stable cycloid, we determine...... how it distorts as the field is increased. In low fields, there is a spin reorientation, so that the plane of the cycloid becomes perpendicular to the applied field, while in larger fields, the cycloid collapses through a series of fanlike structures. At lower temperatures, as the field is increased...

  1. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  2. Effect of annealing time on structural and magnetic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied the effects on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 thin films. The films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD studies showed pure single phase spinel cubic structure of Fe3O4 with a preferential [111] ...

  3. Structural aspects of magnetic fluid stabilization in aqueous agarose solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagornyi, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Petrenko, V.I., E-mail: vip@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Avdeev, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Yelenich, O.V.; Solopan, S.O.; Belous, A.G. [V.I.Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gruzinov, A.Yu. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivankov, O.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine); Bulavin, L.A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2017-06-01

    Structure characterization of magnetic fluids (MFs) synthesized by three different methods in aqueous solutions of agarose was done by means of small-angle neutron (SANS) and synchrotron X-ray scattering (SAXS). The differences in the complex aggregation observed in the studied magnetic fluids were related to different stabilizing procedures of the three kinds of MFs. The results of the analysis of the scattering (mean size of single polydisperse magnetic particles, fractal dimensions of the aggregates) are consistent with the data of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). - Highlights: • MFs synthesized by three different methods in agarose solution were studied. • all MFs are agglomerated colloidal systems whose structures are nevertheless stable in time. • differences in the complex aggregation were observed in the studied magnetic fluids. • results of the SAXS and SANS analysis are consistent with TEM data.

  4. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-11-01

    The plasma of Hall thruster type in external magnetic field is studied in 2D3V kinetic simulations using PIC MCC method. The periodical structure with maxima of electron and ion densities is formed and becomes more pronounced with increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma. These ridges of electron and ion densities are aligned with the magnetic field vector and shifted relative each other. This leads to formation of two-dimensional double-layers structure in cylindrical plasma chamber. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to nineteen potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered on the wall is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  5. Transient Analysis of a Magnetic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental heat pump that uses a rare earth element as the refrigerant is modeled using NASTRAN. The refrigerant is a ferromagnetic metal whose temperature rises when a magnetic field is applied and falls when the magnetic field is removed. The heat pump is used as a refrigerator to remove heat from a reservoir and discharge it through a heat exchanger. In the NASTRAN model the components modeled are represented by one-dimensional ROD elements. Heat flow in the solids and fluid are analyzed. The problem is mildly nonlinear since the heat capacity of the refrigerant is temperature-dependent. One simulation run consists of a series of transient analyses, each representing one stroke of the heat pump. An auxiliary program was written that uses the results of one NASTRAN analysis to generate data for the next NASTRAN analysis.

  6. Repetitive formation and decay of current sheets in magnetic loops: An origin of diverse magnetic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur 313001 (India); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, evolution of an incompressible, thermally homogeneous, infinitely conducting, viscous magnetofluid is numerically explored as the fluid undergoes repeated events of magnetic reconnection. The initial magnetic field is constructed by a superposition of two linear force-free fields and has similar morphology as the magnetic loops observed in the solar corona. The results are presented for computations with three distinct sets of footpoint geometries. To onset reconnection, we rely on numerical model magnetic diffusivity, in the spirit of implicit large eddy simulation. It is generally expected that in a high Lundquist number fluid, repeated magnetic reconnections are ubiquitous and hence can lead to a host of magnetic structures with considerable observational importance. In particular, the simulations presented here illustrate formations of magnetic islands, rotating magnetic helices and rising flux ropes—depending on the initial footpoint geometry but through the common process of repeated magnetic reconnections. Further, we observe the development of extended current sheets in two case studies, where the footpoint reconnections generate favorable dynamics.

  7. Repetitive formation and decay of current sheets in magnetic loops: An origin of diverse magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, evolution of an incompressible, thermally homogeneous, infinitely conducting, viscous magnetofluid is numerically explored as the fluid undergoes repeated events of magnetic reconnection. The initial magnetic field is constructed by a superposition of two linear force-free fields and has similar morphology as the magnetic loops observed in the solar corona. The results are presented for computations with three distinct sets of footpoint geometries. To onset reconnection, we rely on numerical model magnetic diffusivity, in the spirit of implicit large eddy simulation. It is generally expected that in a high Lundquist number fluid, repeated magnetic reconnections are ubiquitous and hence can lead to a host of magnetic structures with considerable observational importance. In particular, the simulations presented here illustrate formations of magnetic islands, rotating magnetic helices and rising flux ropes—depending on the initial footpoint geometry but through the common process of repeated magnetic reconnections. Further, we observe the development of extended current sheets in two case studies, where the footpoint reconnections generate favorable dynamics

  8. Filamentary structure and magnetic field orientation in Musca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Arzoumanian, D.; André, Ph.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Prusti, T.; Men'shchikov, A.; Royer, P.; Kóspál, Á.; Palmeirim, P.; Ribas, A.; Könyves, V.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Merin, B.; Vavrek, R.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Didelon, P.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-05-01

    Herschel has shown that filamentary structures are ubiquitous in star-forming regions, in particular in nearby molecular clouds associated with Gould's Belt. High dynamic range far-infrared imaging of the Musca cloud with SPIRE and PACS reveals at least two types of filamentary structures: (1) the main ~10-pc scale high column-density linear filament; and (2) low column-density striations in close proximity to the main filament. In addition, we find features with intermediate column densities (hair-like strands) that appear physically connected to the main filament. We present an analysis of this filamentary network traced by Herschel and explore its connection with the local magnetic field. We find that both the faint dust emission striations and the plane-of-the-sky (POS) magnetic field are locally oriented close to perpendicular to the high-density main filament (position angle ~25-35°). The low-density striations and strands are oriented parallel to the POS magnetic field lines, which are derived previously from optical polarization measurements of background stars and more recently from Planck observations of dust polarized emission. The position angles are 97 ± 25°, 105 ± 7°, and 105 ± 5°. From these observations, we propose a scenario in which local interstellar material in this cloud has condensed into a gravitationally-unstable filament (with "supercritical" mass per unit length) that is accreting background matter along field lines through the striations. We also compare the filamentary structure in Musca with what is seen in similar Herschel observations of the Taurus B211/3 filament system and find that there is significantly less substructure in the Musca main filament than in the B211/3 filament. We suggest that the Musca cloud may represent an earlier evolutionary stage in which the main filament has not yet accreted sufficient mass and energy to develop a multiple system of intertwined filamentary components. Herschel is an ESA space

  9. The new magnetic structure of LaMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontchar, L.E.; Nikiforov, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The LaMnO 3 is known to be a parent compound for materials having colossal magnetoresistance. The magnetic and structural properties of LaMnO 3 are of the great interest now. In the present work, the new four-sublattices magnetic structure - (A x , F y , G z ) + (G x , C y , A z ) - is proposed. The Spin-Hamiltonian used in this model is based on calculated crystal structure and includes isotropic exchange interaction, the single-ion anisotropy and the antisymmetric exchange and Zeeman interactions. All of these components depend upon JT distortion. The spin-wave approximation is used and the dispersion dependencies of the spin waves are calculated. Our previous consideration of KCuF 3 shows that spin-wave method is not sensitive to small antisymmetric exchange interaction and inequivalency of the g tensors, but these small effects could not be neglected in calculations of magnetic structure. The dependence of antiferromagnetic resonance field upon angle is predicted. It could clarify the real magnetic structure. In spite of the sufficient energy gap in the Γ-point of magnetic Brillouin zone (ΔE = 2.7 meV) the measurements of this dependence could be carried out. (author)

  10. Magnetic assembly of nonmagnetic particles into photonic crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Le; Hu, Yongxing; Kim, Hyoki; Ge, Jianping; Kwon, Sunghoon; Yin, Yadong

    2010-11-10

    We report the rapid formation of photonic crystal structures by assembly of uniform nonmagnetic colloidal particles in ferrofluids using external magnetic fields. Magnetic manipulation of nonmagnetic particles with size down to a few hundred nanometers, suitable building blocks for producing photonic crystals with band gaps located in the visible regime, has been difficult due to their weak magnetic dipole moment. Increasing the dipole moment of magnetic holes has been limited by the instability of ferrofluids toward aggregation at high concentration or under strong magnetic field. By taking advantage of the superior stability of highly surface-charged magnetite nanocrystal-based ferrofluids, in this paper we have been able to successfully assemble 185 nm nonmagnetic polymer beads into photonic crystal structures, from 1D chains to 3D assemblies as determined by the interplay of magnetic dipole force and packing force. In a strong magnetic field with large field gradient, 3D photonic crystals with high reflectance (83%) in the visible range can be rapidly produced within several minutes, making this general strategy promising for fast creation of large-area photonic crystals using nonmagnetic particles as building blocks.

  11. Activation of structural alloys in fusion reactor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.; Doran, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Using the REAC2 code system, both short-term and long-term activation were calculated for possible structural and magnet materials at the shield-magnet interface. The flux was taken from the STARFIRE conceptual design and a 30-year lifetime was assumed. Short-term activation does not seem to be a problem. Only materials with large amounts of niobium appear to be a potential problem for long-term activation. 2 tabs

  12. Dual-function magnetic structure for toroidal plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a support system wherein the iron core and yoke of the plasma current system of a tokamak plasma containment device is redesigned to support the forces of the magnet coils. The containment rings, which occupy very valuable space around the magnet coils, are utilized to serve as yokes for the core such that the conventional yoke is eliminated. The overall result is an improved aspect ratio, reduction in structure, smaller overall size, and improved access to the plasma ring

  13. The effect of internal magnetic structure on the fishbone instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.W.; Powell, E.; Kaita, R.; Bell, R.; Chance, M.; Hatcher, R.; Holland, A.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Pomphrey, N.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; White, R.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.; Gammel, G.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas exhibiting the ''fishbone'' instability studied on the PBX-M tokamak show a distinct relationship between the plasma shape, the internal magnetic structure, and the presence or absence of fast ion losses associated with the fishbone mode. We have, for the first time, carried out measurements of the magnetic safety factor profile in fishbone-unstable plasmas, and used the knowledge of the associated experimental equilibria to compare the stability and fast ion loss properties of these plasmas with experimental observations

  14. Oscillations in magnetoresistance and interlayer coupling in magnetic sandwich structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnas, J.; Bulka, B.

    1997-01-01

    Kubo formalism is used to calculate the magnetoresistance due to magnetization rotation in a structure consisting two magnetic films separated by nonmagnetic layer. In the approximation of an uniform relaxation time of each layer, the oscillatory term in magnetoresistance corresponds to the oscillation period which depends on the potential barriers at the interfaces. This period is longer than the oscillation period observed in the coupling parameter. (author)

  15. Comprehensive cluster-theory analysis of the magnetic structures and excitations in CoCl2·2H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens; Larsen, Jacob; Hansen, Ursula B.

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic properties of CoCl2·2H2O are analyzed in the mean-field/random-phase approximation using a basis of clusters with four spins along the c-axis chains of Co ions. The model gives a unifying account of the bulk properties, the spin waves, and the higher-order cluster-spin excitations...... at a transverse field of 160 kOe and is found to agree closely with their observations....

  16. Liquid metal MHD studies with non-magnetic and ferro-magnetic structural material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, A., E-mail: anipatel2009@gmail.com [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Bhattacharyay, R. [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Swain, P.K.; Satyamurthy, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Sahu, S.; Rajendrakumar, E. [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Ivanov, S.; Shishko, A.; Platacis, E.; Ziks, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Latvia, Salaspils 2169 (Latvia)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Effect of structural material on liquid metal MHD phenomena is studied. • Two identical test sections, one made of SS316L (non-magnetic) and other made of SS430 (ferromagnetic) structural material, are considered. • Wall electric potential and liquid metal pressure drop are compared under various experimental conditions. • Experimental results suggest screening of external magnetic field for SS430 material below the saturation magnetic field. - Abstract: In most of the liquid metal MHD experiments reported in the literature to study liquid breeder blanket performance, SS316/SS304 grade steels are used as the structural material which is non-magnetic. On the other hand, the structural material for fusion blanket systems has been proposed to be ferritic martensitic grade steel (FMS) which is ferromagnetic in nature. In the recent experimental campaign, liquid metal MHD experiments have been carried out with two identical test sections: one made of SS316L (non-magnetic) and another with SS430 (ferromagnetic), to compare the effect of structural materials on MHD phenomena for various magnetic fields (up to 4 T). The maximum Hartmann number and interaction number are 1047 and 300, respectively. Each test section consists of square channel (25 mm × 25 mm) cross-section with two U bends, with inlet and outlet at the middle portion of two horizontal legs, respectively. Pb–Li enters into the test section through a square duct and distributed into two parallel paths through a partition plate. In each parallel path, it travels ∼0.28 m length in plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and faces two 90° bends before coming out of the test section through a single square duct. The wall electrical potential and MHD pressure drop across the test sections are compared under identical experimental conditions. Similar MHD behavior is observed with both the test section at higher value of the magnetic field (>2 T)

  17. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Structures Panel of the Aeronautics Research and Development Board of India ... A great variety of topics was covered, including themes such as nonlinear finite ... or shell structures, and three are on the composite form of construction, ...

  18. Structure and evolution of magnetic fields associated with solar eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies of solar photospheric magnetic field evolution in active regions and its relationship to solar flares. It is divided into two topics, the magnetic structure and evolution leading to solar eruptions and rapid changes in the photospheric magnetic field associated with eruptions. For the first topic, we describe the magnetic complexity, new flux emergence, flux cancelation, shear motions, sunspot rotation and magnetic helicity injection, which may all contribute to the storage and buildup of energy that trigger solar eruptions. For the second topic, we concentrate on the observations of rapid and irreversible changes of the photospheric magnetic field associated with flares, and the implication on the restructuring of the three-dimensional magnetic field. In particular, we emphasize the recent advances in observations of the photospheric magnetic field, as state-of-the-art observing facilities (such as Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory) have become available. The linkages between observations, theories and future prospectives in this research area are also discussed. (invited reviews)

  19. The structure of magnetic field in the TEXTOR-DED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, K.H.; Abdullaev, S.S.; Jakubowski, M.; Lehnen, M.; Nicolai, A.; Spatschek, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The main component of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) consists of a set of coils installed in the TEXTOR tokamak which creates resonant magnetic perturbations, preferentially at the plasma edge. The main purpose of the DED is to study the effect of the magnetic perturbations on the tokamak plasma. In particular, on the transport of the heat and particles to wall, the plasma confinement and rotation. This report is devoted to the systematic theoretical study of magnetic field and its structure in the TEXTOR-DED. It contains the description of the DED coil system in different operational regimes, the magnetic field created by this coil system, the study of formation of chaotic magnetic field lines and the structure of stochastic (ergodic) zone of field lines at the plasma edge and on the divertor plates, determination of field line diffusion coefficients and the Kolmogorov lengths. The modern mapping method for integration of Hamiltonian field line equations is employed for these studies. A description of the numerical Gourdon code to study the ergodic zone of the DED is also given. The experimental observations of the structure magnetic field lines performed recently in the TEXTOR-DED and their comparison with the modelling are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  20. Generation of magnetic structures on the solar photosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangadhara, R. T.; Krishan, V. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore-560034 (India); Bhowmick, A. K.; Chitre, S. M., E-mail: ganga@iiap.res.in [Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Mumbai-400098 (India)

    2014-06-20

    The lower solar atmosphere is a partially ionized plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms. In this, which is essentially a three-fluid system, the Hall effect arises from the treatment of the electrons and ions as two separate fluids and the ambipolar diffusion arises from the inclusion of neutrals as the third fluid. The Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion have been shown to be operational in a region beginning from near the photosphere up to the chromosphere. In a partially ionized plasma, the magnetic induction is subjected to ambipolar diffusion and the Hall drift in addition to the usual resistive dissipation. These nonlinear effects create sharp magnetic structures which then submit themselves to various relaxation mechanisms. A first-principles derivation of these effects in a three-fluid system and an analytic solution to the magnetic induction equation in a stationary state are presented, which in the general case includes the Hall effect, ambipolar diffusion, and ohmic dissipation. The temporal evolution of the magnetic field is then investigated under the combined as well as the individual effects of the Hall drift and ambipolar diffusion to demonstrate the formation of steep magnetic structures and the resultant current sheet formation. These structures have just the right features for the release of magnetic energy into the solar atmosphere.

  1. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Doped Transparent Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Krista; Neupane, Mahesh; Chantawansri, Tanya

    Recent experimental studies of rare earth (RE) doped alumina suggest that the RE induced novel phase-dependent structural and magnetic properties. Motivated by these efforts, the effects of RE doping of alpha and theta alumina on the local structure, magnetic properties, and phase stability have been examined in this first principles study. Although a direct correlation between the magnetic field dependent materials properties observed experimentally and calculated from first principles is not feasible because of the applied field and the scale, the internal magnetic properties and other properties of the doped materials are evaluated. The RE dopants are shown to increase the substitutional site volume as well as increasingly distort the site structure as a function of ionic radii. Doping both the alpha (stable) and theta (metastable) phases enhanced the relative stability of the theta phase. The energetic doping cost and internal magnetic moment were shown to be a function of the electronic configuration of the RE-dopant, with magnetic moment directly proportional to the number of unpaired electrons and doping cost being inversely related.

  2. A new support structure for high field magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, P.S.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Hannaford, R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Liggins, N.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; O'Neill, J.; Swanson, J.H

    2001-01-01

    Pre-stress of superconducting magnets can be applied directly through the magnet yoke structure. We have replaced the collar functionality in our 14 Tesla R and D Nb 3 Sn dipole magnets with an assembly procedure based on an aluminum shell and bladders. Bladders, placed between the coil pack and surrounding yoke inside the shell, are pressurized up to 10 ksi [70 MPa] to create an interference gap. Keys placed into the interference gap replace the bladder functionality. Following the assembly, the bladders are deflated and removed. Strain gauges mounted directly on the shell are used to monitor the stress of the entire magnet structure, thereby providing a high degree of pre-stress control without the need for high tolerances. During assembly, a force of 8.2 x 10 5 lbs/ft [12 MN/m] is generated by the bladders and the stress in the 1.57 inch [40mm] aluminum shell reaches 20.3 ksi [140 MPa]. During cool-down the thermal expansion difference between shell and yoke generates an additional compressive force of 6.85 x 10 5 lbs/ft [10 MN/m], corresponding to a final stress in the shell of 39.2 ksi [270 MPa]. Pre-stress conditions are sufficient for 16 T before the coils separate at the bore. Bladders have now been used in the assembly and disassembly of two 14 T magnets. This paper describes the magnet structure, assembly procedure and test results

  3. Magnetic tunnel structures: Transport properties controlled by bias, magnetic field, and microwave and optical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.V.; Eremin, E.V.; Tarasov, A.S.; Rautskii, M.V.; Varnakov, S.N.; Ovchinnikov, S.G.; Patrin, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Different phenomena that give rise to a spin-polarized current in some systems with magnetic tunnel junctions are considered. In a manganite-based magnetic tunnel structure in CIP geometry, the effect of current-channel switching was observed, which causes bias-driven magnetoresistance, rf rectification, and the photoelectric effect. The second system under study, ferromagnetic/insulator/semiconductor, exhibits the features of the transport properties in CIP geometry that are also related to the current-channel switching effect. The described properties can be controlled by a bias, a magnetic field, and optical radiation. At last, the third system under consideration is a cooperative assembly of magnetic tunnel junctions. This system exhibits tunnel magnetoresistance and the magnetic-field-driven microwave detection effect.

  4. Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamaru, Y.; Amemiya, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method

  5. Electron vortex magnetic holes: A nonlinear coherent plasma structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Christopher T., E-mail: c.t.haynes@qmul.ac.uk; Burgess, David; Sundberg, Torbjorn [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Camporeale, Enrico [Multiscale Dynamics, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    We report the properties of a novel type of sub-proton scale magnetic hole found in two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying turbulence with a guide field. The simulations were performed with a realistic value for ion to electron mass ratio. These structures, electron vortex magnetic holes (EVMHs), have circular cross-section. The magnetic field depression is associated with a diamagnetic azimuthal current provided by a population of trapped electrons in petal-like orbits. The trapped electron population provides a mean azimuthal velocity and since trapping preferentially selects high pitch angles, a perpendicular temperature anisotropy. The structures arise out of initial perturbations in the course of the turbulent evolution of the plasma, and are stable over at least 100 electron gyroperiods. We have verified the model for the EVMH by carrying out test particle and PIC simulations of isolated structures in a uniform plasma. It is found that (quasi-)stable structures can be formed provided that there is some initial perpendicular temperature anisotropy at the structure location. The properties of these structures (scale size, trapped population, etc.) are able to explain the observed properties of magnetic holes in the terrestrial plasma sheet. EVMHs may also contribute to turbulence properties, such as intermittency, at short scale lengths in other astrophysical plasmas.

  6. Structure organization and magnetic properties of microscale ferrogels: The effect of particle magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, Aleksandr V.; Melenev, Petr V.; Balasoiu, Maria; Raikher, Yuriy L.

    2016-08-01

    The equilibrium structure and magnetic properties of a ferrogel object of small size (microferrogel(MFG)) are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a generic model of a microferrogel (MFG), a sample with a lattice-like mesh is taken. The solid phase of the MFG consists of magnetic (e.g., ferrite) nanoparticles which are mechanically linked to the mesh making some part of its nodes. Unlike previous models, the finite uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the particles, as it is the case for real ferrogels, is taken into account. For comparison, two types of MFGs are considered: MFG-1, which dwells in virtually non-aggregated state independently of the presence of an external magnetic field, and MFG-2, which displays aggregation yet under zero field. The structure states of the samples are analyzed with the aid of angle-resolved radial distribution functions and cluster counts. The results reveal the crucial role of the matrix elasticity on the structure organization as well as on magnetization of both MFGs. The particle anisotropy, which plays insignificant role in MFG-1 (moderate interparticle magnetodipole interaction), becomes an important factor in MFG-2 (strong interaction). There, the restrictions imposed on the particle angular freedom by the elastic matrix result in notable diminution of the particle chain lengths as well as the magnetization of the sample. The approach proposed enables one to investigate a large variety of MFGs, including those of capsule type and to purposefully choose the combination of their magnetoelastic parameters.

  7. Atomic and magnetic structure of MnF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, B.A.; Kennedy, B.J.; Vogt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The magnetic and atomic structure of MnF 3 has been determined from 4K to 300K using neutron powder diffraction. The MnF 3 compound is the archetypical Mn-based colossal magnetoresistive compound. A Neel temperature of approximately 40K was observed from the temperature variation of the magnetic moment. Below the Neel temperature a large negative thermal expansion was observed, in striking similarity to other Mn-based colossal magnetoresistive compounds. The variation in structure is discussed in relation to other Mn-based compounds, particularly as this compound cannot support charge ordering

  8. Wave propagation in a magnetically structured atmosphere. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic fields may introduce structure (inhomogeneity) into an otherwise uniform medium and thus change the nature of wave propagation in that medium. As an example of such structuring, wave propagation in an isolated magnetic slab is considered. It is supposed that disturbances outside the slab are laterally non-propagating. The effect of gravity is ignored. The field can support the propagation of both body and surface waves. The existence and nature of these waves depends upon the relative magnitudes of the sound speed c 0 and Alfven speed upsilonsub(A) inside the slab, and the sound speed csub(e) in the field-free environment. (orig./WL)

  9. Crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility of UOSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczorowski, D.; Muenster Univ.; Poettgen, R.; Jeitschko, W.; Gajek, Z.; Zygmunt, A.

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility behaviour of UOSe single crystals have been studied. UOSe crystalizes in the tetragonal PbFC1-type structure (space group P4/nmm) with the lattice parameters: a = 390.38(5) pm and c = 698.05(9) pm. It orders antiferromagnetically at T N =100±2 K and exhibits a very strong anisotropy in the susceptibility vs temperature variation. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties of UOSe are successfully interpreted in the framework of a perturbative ab initio crystal field approach. (Author)

  10. Crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility of UOSe single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczorowski, D. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. for Low Temperature and Structure Research Muenster Univ. (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Poettgen, R.; Jeitschko, W. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Gajek, Z.; Zygmunt, A. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. for Low Temperature and Structure Research)

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility behaviour of UOSe single crystals have been studied. UOSe crystalizes in the tetragonal PbFC1-type structure (space group P4/nmm) with the lattice parameters: a = 390.38(5) pm and c = 698.05(9) pm. It orders antiferromagnetically at T[sub N]=100[+-]2 K and exhibits a very strong anisotropy in the susceptibility vs temperature variation. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties of UOSe are successfully interpreted in the framework of a perturbative ab initio crystal field approach. (Author).

  11. Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.

  12. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  13. FINEMET type alloy without Si: Structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraca, D.; Cremaschi, V.; Moya, J.; Sirkin, H.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic and structural properties of a Finemet type alloy (Fe 73.5 Ge 15.5 Nb 3 B 7 Cu 1 ) without Si and high Ge content were studied. Amorphous material was obtained by the melt spinning technique and was heat treated at different temperatures for 1 h under high vacuum to induce the nanocrystallization of the sample. The softest magnetic properties were obtained between 673 and 873 K. The role of Ge on the ferromagnetic paramagnetic transition of the as-quenched alloys and its influence on the crystallization process were studied using a calorimetric technique. Moessbauer spectroscopy was employed in the nanocrystallized alloy annealed at 823 K to obtain the composition of the nanocrystals and the amorphous phase fraction. Using this data and magnetic measurements of the as-quenched alloy, the magnetic contribution of nanocrystals to the alloy annealed at 823 K was estimated via a linear model

  14. Microstructure characterization and magnetic properties of nano structured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.C.

    2000-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the unique microstructural properties and their novel magnetic properties of core-shell Ni-Ce nano composite particles, carbon encapsulated Fe, Co, and Ni nanoparticles and the nano crystallization behavior of typical ferromagnetic Fe 78 Si 9 B 13 ribbons. These properties have intensively been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (Eds.); selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), Ft-IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition, magnetic moments measurements at different temperatures and applied fields have been performed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The present studies may provide the insights for the better understanding of the correlation between the unique microstructure and novel magnetic properties for several magnetic nano structured materials. (Author)

  15. Structural support system for a superconducting magnet coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuser, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the ESCAR (Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring) project, now under way at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is to gather data and experience in the design and operation of a relatively small synchrotron employing superconducting magnets. Such data are essential to ensure that the design of future large accelerators may proceed in a knowledgeable and responsible manner. One of the many engineering problems associated with a superconducting magnet is the design of the coil suspension system. The coil, maintained at the temperature of liquid helium, must be held rigidly by a structure that does not conduct too much heat into the liquid helium system. The suspension system used on the ESCAR magnets is described. Topics covered include the coil support system requirements, ESCAR magnet support system, and operating experience

  16. Microstructure characterization and magnetic properties of nano structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.C

    2000-07-01

    The present thesis deals with the unique microstructural properties and their novel magnetic properties of core-shell Ni-Ce nano composite particles, carbon encapsulated Fe, Co, and Ni nanoparticles and the nano crystallization behavior of typical ferromagnetic Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} ribbons. These properties have intensively been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy [eds.]; selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), Ft-IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition, magnetic moments measurements at different temperatures and applied fields have been performed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The present studies may provide the insights for the better understanding of the correlation between the unique microstructure and novel magnetic properties for several magnetic nano structured materials. (Author)

  17. High temperature structural and magnetic properties of cobalt nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Atmane, Kahina [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baief, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Zighem, Fatih [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA CNRS UMR 12, IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Soumare, Yaghoub [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baief, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Ibrahim, Mona; Boubekri, Rym [Universite de Toulouse, LPCNO, INSA CNRS UMR 5215, 135 av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Maurer, Thomas [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA CNRS UMR 12, IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Margueritat, Jeremie [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baief, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Piquemal, Jean-Yves, E-mail: jean-yves.piquemal@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baief, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Ott, Frederic; Chaboussant, Gregory [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA CNRS UMR 12, IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Schoenstein, Frederic; Jouini, Noureddine [LSPM, CNRS UPR 9001, Universite Paris XIII, Institut Galilee, 99 av. J.-B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Viau, Guillaume, E-mail: gviau@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, LPCNO, INSA CNRS UMR 5215, 135 av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-01-15

    We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanoparticles ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X ray diffraction (XRD) and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. The coercivity can be modelled by {mu}{sub 0}H{sub C}=2(K{sub MC}+K{sub shape})/M{sub S} with K{sub MC} the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, K{sub shape} the shape anisotropy constant and M{sub S} the saturation magnetization. H{sub C} decreases linearly when the temperature is increased due to the loss of the Co magnetocrystalline anisotropy contribution. At 500 K, 50% of the room temperature coercivity is preserved corresponding to the shape anisotropy contribution only. We show that the coercivity drop is reversible in the range 300-500 K in good agreement with the absence of particle alteration. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. - Graphical abstract: We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanorods ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X-ray diffraction and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferromagnetic Co nanorods are prepared using the polyol process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural and texture properties of the Co nanorods are preserved up to 500 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic properties of the Co nanorods are irreversibly altered above 525 K.

  18. Magnetic and Crystal Structure of α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jennifer

    The layered honeycomb material α-RuCl3 has been proposed as a candidate material to show significant bond-dependent Kitaev type interactions. This has prompted several recent studies of magnetism in this material that have found evidence for multiple magnetic transitions in the temperature range of 8-14 K. We will present elastic neutron scattering measurements collected using a co-aligned array of α-RuCl3 crystals, identifying zigzag magnetic order within the honeycomb planes with an ordering temperature of ~8 K. It has been reported that the ordering temperature depends on the c axis periodicity of the layered structure, with ordering temperatures of 8 and 14 K for three and two-layer periodicity respectively. While the in-plane magnetic order has been identified, it is clear that a complete understanding of magnetic ordering and interactions will depend on the three dimensional structure of the crystal. Evidence of a structural transition at ~150 K has been reported and questions remain about the structural details, in particular the stacking of the honeycomb layers. We will present x-ray diffraction measurements investigating the low and high temperature structures and stacking disorder in α-RuCl3. Finally, we will present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations in this material. Work done in collaboration with K. W. Plumb (Johns Hopkins University), J. P. Clancy, Young-June Kim (University of Toronto), J. Britten (McMaster University), Yu-Sheng Chen (Argonne National Laboratory), Y. Qiu, Y. Zhao, D. Parshall, and J. W. Lynn (NCNR).

  19. Structural and magnetic studies on spark plasma sintered SmCo{sub 5}/Fe bulk nanocomposite magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rama Rao, N.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Gopalan, R. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 058 (India)]. E-mail: rg_gopy@yahoo.com; Manivel Raja, M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Chandrasekaran, V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Chakravarty, D. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Hyderabad 500 005 (India); Sundaresan, R. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Hyderabad 500 005 (India); Ranganathan, R. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Hono, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305 0047 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    SmCo{sub 5}+xwt% Fe (x=0, 5 and 10) nanocomposite powders were synthesized by mechanical milling and were consolidated into bulk shape by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The evolution of structure and magnetic properties were systematically investigated in milled powders as well as in SPS samples. A maximum coercivity of 8.9kOe was achieved in spark plasma sintered SmCo{sub 5}+5wt% Fe sample. The exchange spring interaction between the hard and soft magnetic phases was evaluated using {delta}M-H measurements and the analysis revealed that the SPS sample containing 5wt% Fe had a stronger exchange coupling between the magnetic phases than that of the sample with10wt% Fe.

  20. Quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainai, T; Mashimo, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Science and Engineering

    1976-04-01

    Recent papers on the practical quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are reviewed. Specifically, the determination of moisture in liquid N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as an oxidizing agent for rocket propulsion, the analysis of hydroperoxides, the quantitative analysis using a shift reagent, the analysis of aromatic sulfonates, and the determination of acids and bases are reviewed. Attention is paid to the accuracy. The sweeping velocity and RF level in addition to the other factors must be on the optimal condition to eliminate the errors, particularly when computation is made with a machine. Higher sweeping velocity is preferable in view of S/N ratio, but it may be limited to 30 Hz/s. The relative error in the measurement of area is generally 1%, but when those of dilute concentration and integrated, the error will become smaller by one digit. If impurities are treated carefully, the water content on N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ can be determined with accuracy of about 0.002%. The comparison method between peak heights is as accurate as that between areas, when the uniformity of magnetic field and T/sub 2/ are not questionable. In the case of chemical shift movable due to content, the substance can be determined by the position of the chemical shift. Oil and water contents in rape-seed, peanuts, and sunflower-seed are determined by measuring T/sub 1/ with 90 deg pulses.

  1. Structural characterization and magnetic properties of steels subjected to fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.H.; Tang, F.; Biner, S.B.; Jiles, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Studies have been made on the effects of residual stress and microstructure on the variations of magnetic properties of steels during fatigue. Strain-controlled fatigue tests have been conducted on 0.2wt% C steel samples which were (1) cold-worked (2) cold-worked and annealed at 500 deg. C to relieve residual stress, and (3) annealed at 905 deg. C to produce a ferrite/pearlite structure. The changes of surface microstructure were studied by SEM replica technique. The dislocation structures of samples fatigued for different numbers of cycle were studied by TEM. In the initial stage of fatigue coercivity was found to behave differently for samples which have different residual stress levels. In the intermediate stage the magnetic hysteresis parameters became stable as the dislocation cell structure developed in the samples. In the final stage the magnetic parameters decreased dramatically. The decrease rate is related to the propagation rate of fatigue cracks observed in the SEM study, which was found to be dependent on the sample microstructure. The present results indicate that the magnetic inspection technique is able to differentiate the residual stress effects from the fatigue damage induced by cyclic loading, and therefore it is possible to detect the onset of fatigue failure in steel components via measurements of the changes in magnetic properties.--This work was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, under grant number CMS-9532056

  2. Structure and Magnetism of Mn5Ge3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Tosun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the magnetic and structural properties of isolated Mn5Ge3 nanoparticles prepared by the cluster-beam deposition technique. Particles with sizes between 7.2 and 12.6 nm were produced by varying the argon pressure and power in the cluster gun. X-ray diffraction (XRDand selected area diffraction (SAD measurements show that the nanoparticles crystallize in the hexagonal Mn5Si3-type crystal structure, which is also the structure of bulk Mn5Ge3. The temperature dependence of the magnetization shows that the as-made particles are ferromagnetic at room temperature and have slightly different Curie temperatures. Hysteresis-loop measurements show that the saturation magnetization of the nanoparticles increases significantly with particle size, varying from 31 kA/m to 172 kA/m when the particle size increases from 7.2 to 12.6 nm. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K at 50 K, determined by fitting the high-field magnetization data to the law of approach to saturation, also increases with particle size, from 0.4 × 105 J/m3 to 2.9 × 105 J/m3 for the respective sizes. This trend is mirrored by the coercivity at 50 K, which increases from 0.04 T to 0.13 T. A possible explanation for the magnetization trend is a radial Ge concentration gradient.

  3. 2D magnetic texture analysis of Co-Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Alper, Mursel [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2017-08-01

    The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, M{sub p}(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A{sub 0} and A{sub 2n}) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A{sub 0} and an obvious decrease in A{sub 2n} (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.

  4. Magnetic structure of the spin valve interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.M.C.; Butler, W.H.; Zhang, X.; MacLaren, J.M.; Gurney, B.A.; Speriosu, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Nonferromagnetic atoms present at Ni/Cu and Permalloy/Cu interfaces in sputtered spin valve magnetoresistive layered structures have been shown to cause reduced magnetoresistance. Here we show that a model in which the moments on the Ni atoms in the interfacial region of Ni/Cu are reduced substantially by interdiffusion with Cu is consistent with the experimental results. In contrast, we believe that moments persist at the permalloy/Cu interface, which first principle total energy calculations suggest will be disordered at finite temperatures. These reduced or disordered moments are expected to significantly reduce the GMR

  5. Magnetic structure of Tb-Fe films with an artificially layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, K.; Habu, K.; Sato, N.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic structure of Tb-Fe films with an artificially layered structure has been investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of the magnetization of the films. Ferrimagnetic coupling between Tb and Fe through the interface was explicitly observed up to about 9-A Tb and 10-A Fe layers. Films with thinner Tb and Fe layers than these thicknesses are composed of only ferrimagnetically coupled Tb-Fe regions. Films with thicker layers of Tb and Fe are composed of ferrimagnetically coupled Tb-Fe, ferromagnetic Fe, ferromagnetic Tb, and/or magnetically compensated Tb regions. The Tb-Fe films exhibit various temperature dependencies of the magnetization corresponding to these magnetic structures

  6. Structures and their analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Maurice Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...

  7. Global enhancement and structure formation of the magnetic field in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, Sergey A.; Khrapov, Sergey S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study numerically large-scale magnetic field evolution and its enhancement in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. We consider a set of models with the various spiral pattern parameters and the initial magnetic field strength with taking into account gas self-gravity and cooling and heating processes. In agreement with previous studies we find out that galactic magnetic field is mostly aligned with gaseous structures, however small-scale gaseous structures (spurs and clumps) are more chaotic than the magnetic field structure. In spiral arms magnetic field often coexists with the gas distribution, in the inter-arm region we see filamentary magnetic field structure. These filaments connect several isolated gaseous clumps. Simulations reveal the presence of the small-scale irregularities of the magnetic field as well as the reversal of magnetic field at the outer edge of the large-scale spurs. We provide evidences that the magnetic field in the spiral arms has a stronger mean-field component, and there is a clear inverse correlation between gas density and plasma-beta parameter, compared to the rest of the disk with a more turbulent component of the field and an absence of correlation between gas density and plasma-beta. We show the mean field growth up to >3-10 μG in the cold gas during several rotation periods (>500-800 Myr), whereas ratio between azimuthal and radial field is equal to >4/1. We find an enhancement of random and ordered components of the magnetic field. Mean field strength increases by a factor of >1.5-2.5 for models with various spiral pattern parameters. Random magnetic field component can reach up to 25% from the total strength. By making an analysis of the time-dependent evolution of the radial Poynting flux, we point out that the magnetic field strength is enhanced more strongly at the galactic outskirts which is due to the radial transfer of magnetic energy by the spiral arms pushing the magnetic field outward. Our results also

  8. Pulsating jet-like structures in magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V. P. [A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pavlov, V. I. [UFR des Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, Univ. Lille, CNRS FRE 3723 - LML, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2016-08-15

    The formation of pulsating jet-like structures has been studied in the scope of the nonhydrostatic model of a magnetized plasma with horizontally nonuniform density. We discuss two mechanisms which are capable of stopping the gravitational spreading appearing to grace the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and to lead to the formation of stationary or oscillating localized structures. One of them is caused by the Coriolis effect in the rotating frames, and another is connected with the Lorentz effect for magnetized fluids. Magnetized jets/drops with a positive buoyancy must oscillate in transversal size and can manifest themselves as “radio pulsars.” The estimates of their frequencies are made for conditions typical for the neutron star's ocean.

  9. Superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus structural support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Gregory J.; Meier, Stephen W.; Walter, Robert J.; Child, Michael D.; DeGraaf, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus comprising a cylindrical superconducting coil; a cylindrical coil containment vessel enclosing the coil and adapted to hold a liquid, such as liquefied helium; and a cylindrical vacuum vessel enclosing the coil containment vessel and located in a restraining structure having inner and outer circumferential walls and a floor; the apparatus being provided with horizontal compression members between (1) the coil and the coil containment vessel and (2) between the coil containment vessel and the vacuum vessel, compression bearing members between the vacuum vessel and the restraining structure inner and outer walls, vertical support members (1) between the coil bottom and the coil containment vessel bottom and (2) between the coil containment vessel bottom and the vacuum vessel bottom, and external supports between the vacuum vessel bottom and the restraining structure floor, whereby the loads developed by thermal and magnetic energy changes in the apparatus can be accommodated and the structural integrity of the apparatus be maintained.

  10. Temperature dependency of silicon structures for magnetic field gradient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabsch, Alexander; Rosenberg, Christoph; Stifter, Michael; Keplinger, Franz

    2018-02-01

    This work describes the temperature dependence of two sensors for magnetic field gradient sensors and demonstrates a structure to compensate for the drift of resonance frequency over a wide temperature range. The temperature effect of the sensing element is based on internal stresses induced by the thermal expansion of material, therefore FEM is used to determine the change of the eigenvalues of the sensing structure. The experimental setup utilizes a Helmholtz coil system to generate the magnetic field and to excite the MEMS structure with Lorentz forces. The MEMS structure is placed on a plate heated with resistors and cooled by a Peltier element to control the plate temperature. In the second part, we describe how one can exploit temperature sensitivity for temperature measurements and we show the opportunity to include the temperature effect to increase the sensitivity of single-crystal silicon made flux density gradient sensors.

  11. Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D copper(II) polymer incorporating a Schiff base with carboxylate side arm. SHYAMAPADA SHIT MADHUSUDAN NANDY CORRADO RIZZOLI CÉDRIC DESPLANCHES SAMIRAN MITRA. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 913-920 ...

  12. Structural and magnetic characterization of YIG particles prepared using microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teijeiro, A.G.; Baldomir, D.; Rivas, J.; Paz, S.; Vaqueiro, P.; Lopez Quintela, A.

    1995-01-01

    Yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) particles have been synthesized using the microemulsion technique. A comparison of ferrite powders obtained by this method and those prepared by sol-gel and solid state reactions is reported. We have studied both the magnetic and structural properties and have found a dependence on annealing temperatures. ((orig.))

  13. Influence of preparation method on structural and magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Influence of preparation method on structural and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanoparticles. BINU P JACOB, ASHOK KUMAR†, R P PANT†, SUKHVIR SINGH† and. E M MOHAMMED*. Department of Physics, Maharaja's College, Ernakulam 681 011, India. †National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110 012, India.

  14. Low temperature magnetic structure of MnSe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we report low temperature neutron diffraction studies on MnSe in order to understand the anomalous behaviour of their magnetic and transport prop- erties. Our study indicates that at low temperatures MnSe has two coexisting crystal structures, high temperature NaCl and hexagonal NiAs. NiAs phase ...

  15. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 7. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1−NaMnO3 ( ≤ ) nanoparticles produced by the solution combustion method. C O Ehi-Eromosele B I Ita K O Ajanaku A Edobor-Osoh O Aladesuyi S A Adalikwu F E Ehi- ...

  16. Size Induced Structural and Magnetic Properties of Nanostructured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their structural and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. The average crystallite size of CoFe2O4was observed to increase from 23 to 65 nm as the annealing temperature was increased from ...

  17. Synthesis, structure, thermal, transport and magnetic properties of VN ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huber, Š.; Jankovský, O.; Sedmidubský, D.; Luxa, J.; Klimová, K.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Sofer, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 16 (2016), s. 18779-18784 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20507S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vanadium mononitride * phase transition * electronic structure * heat capacity * transport properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016

  18. Patterned Electroplating of Micrometer Scale Magnetic Structures on Glass Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, Johannes S.; Krenn, Bea E.; van Driel, Roel

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  19. Patterned electroplating of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, S.J.; Krenn, G.E.; van Driel, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  20. The Catalog: A Flexible Data Structure for Magnetic Tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Martin; Ziehe, Theodore

    This report outlines a generalized storage scheme for large files of highly structured data, or catalogs, and describes their realization on magnetic tape. Each datum, large or small, is assigned to one of a number of data classes of which a user may define any number. The over-all organization of a catalog is given by a map that imposes a tree…

  1. Effect of heat treatment on structure and magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fe46Co35Ni19/CNTs nanocomposites have been prepared by an easy two-step route including adsorption and heat treatment processes. We investigated the effect of heat treatment conditions on structure, morphology, nanoparticle sizes and magnetic properties of the Fe46Co35Ni19 alloy nanoparticles attached on the ...

  2. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 7. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1−NaMnO3 ( ≤ ) nanoparticles produced by the solution combustion method. C O Ehi-Eromosele B I Ita K O Ajanaku A Edobor-Osoh O Aladesuyi S A Adalikwu F E Ehi-Eromosele. Volume 38 ...

  3. Magnetic properties of 2D nickel nanostrips: structure dependent magnetism and Stoner criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashid, Vikas; Shah, Vaishali; Salunke, H G; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Blügel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated different geometries of two-dimensional (2D) infinite length Ni nanowires of increasing width using spin density functional theory calculations. Our simulations demonstrate that the parallelogram motif is the most stable and structures that incorporate the parallelogram motif are more stable as compared to rectangular structures. The wires are conducting and the conductance channels increase with increasing width. The wires have a non-linear behavior in the ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance ratios (BAMR) with respect to the magnetization directions. All 2D nanowires as well as Ni (1 1 1) and Ni (1 0 0) monolayer investigated are ferromagnetic under the Stoner criterion and exhibit enhanced magnetic moments as compared to bulk Ni and the respective Ni monolayers. The easy axis for all nickel nanowires under investigation is observed to be along the wire axis. The double rectangular nanowire exhibits a magnetic anomaly with a smaller magnetic moment when compared to Ni (1 0 0) monolayer and is the only structure with an easy axis perpendicular to the wire axis. The Stoner parameter which has been known to be structure independent in bulk and surfaces is found to vary with the structure and the width of the nanowires. The less stable rectangular and rhombus shaped nanowires have a higher ferromagnetic strength than parallelogram shaped nanowires. (paper)

  4. Design and analysis of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    The design of the suspension system for Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnets has been driven by rigorous thermal and structural requirements. The current system, designed to meet those requirements, represents a significant departure from previous superconducting magnet suspension system designs. This paper will present a summary of the design and analysis of the vertical and lateral suspension as well as the axial anchor system employed in SSC dipole magnets. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  5. COMPASS magnetic field coils and structure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, R.T.; Booth, J.A.; Hayward, R.J.; Keogh, P.; Pratt, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    COMPASS is a new experimental toroidal assembly of compact design and with a wide range of physics objectives. It is required to operate either as a Tokamak or as a Reversed Field Pinch with interchangeable circular and dee-section vacuum vessels. The Toroidal field is produced by 16 rectangular coils of 4 turns with tapered conductors on the inside which nest together to form a vault to resist the centering forces. The coils are designed to produce a maximum field on axis of 2.1T which requires a current of 91 kA per turn. Two central solenoids and five pairs of coils symmetrically positioned above and below the machine equator provide the poloidal field. Both coil systems are supported form a mechanical support structure which surrounds the machine. This is primarily designed to resist out-of-plane forces on the TF coils but also acts as the base support for the PF coils and vacuum vessels. An illustration of the COMPASS Load Assembly is given and shows the D-shaped vacuum vessel, the major components and the various field windings

  6. Preparation and magnetic properties of the Sr-hexaferrite with foam structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A.L., E-mail: azdlobo@gmail.com [Instituto de Física-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Facultad de Ingeniería-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Espericueta, D.L. [Facultad de Ingeniería-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Palomares-Sánchez, S.A. [Facultad de Ciencias-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Elizalde-Galindo, J.T. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología-UACJ, Av. Plutarco Elías Calles 1210, Fovissste Chamizal, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Watts, B.E [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Mirabal-García, M. [Instituto de Física-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2016-12-01

    This work reports an optimal way to fabricate strontium hexaferrite with porous-reticulated structure using a variation of the replication technique and taking two different precursors, one obtained from the coprecipitation and the other from the ceramic method. Changes made to the original replication technique include the addition of Arabic gum as binder, and the addition of ethylene glycol to form the ceramic sludge. In addition, some parameters such as the relation between solid material and liquid phase, the quantity of binder and the heat treatment were varied to obtain high quality magnetic foams. Two polymeric sponges were used as patterns, one with average pore size of 300 μm diameter and the other with 1100 μm. The characterization of the samples included the analysis of the structure and phase purity, the magnetic properties, the remanence properties, magnetic interactions and the microstructural characteristics. Results indicate that both, the powder precursors and the polymeric pattern play an important role in the configuration of the foam structure and this configuration has an important influence on the dipolar interactions which tend to demagnetize the samples. In addition, it was analyzed the behavior between the minimum value of the δM curves and the hysteresis properties. - Highlights: • New way to obtain Sr-hexaferrite with foam structure and high magnetic performance. • Relation between pore structure and the magnetic properties in ceramic foams. • Analysis of magnetostatic interactions with the magnetism of Sr-hexaferrite foams. • Relation between microstructural characteristics and the magnetization of the foams.

  7. Preparation and magnetic properties of the Sr-hexaferrite with foam structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, A.L.; Espericueta, D.L.; Palomares-Sánchez, S.A.; Elizalde-Galindo, J.T.; Watts, B.E; Mirabal-García, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports an optimal way to fabricate strontium hexaferrite with porous-reticulated structure using a variation of the replication technique and taking two different precursors, one obtained from the coprecipitation and the other from the ceramic method. Changes made to the original replication technique include the addition of Arabic gum as binder, and the addition of ethylene glycol to form the ceramic sludge. In addition, some parameters such as the relation between solid material and liquid phase, the quantity of binder and the heat treatment were varied to obtain high quality magnetic foams. Two polymeric sponges were used as patterns, one with average pore size of 300 μm diameter and the other with 1100 μm. The characterization of the samples included the analysis of the structure and phase purity, the magnetic properties, the remanence properties, magnetic interactions and the microstructural characteristics. Results indicate that both, the powder precursors and the polymeric pattern play an important role in the configuration of the foam structure and this configuration has an important influence on the dipolar interactions which tend to demagnetize the samples. In addition, it was analyzed the behavior between the minimum value of the δM curves and the hysteresis properties. - Highlights: • New way to obtain Sr-hexaferrite with foam structure and high magnetic performance. • Relation between pore structure and the magnetic properties in ceramic foams. • Analysis of magnetostatic interactions with the magnetism of Sr-hexaferrite foams. • Relation between microstructural characteristics and the magnetization of the foams.

  8. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...

  9. Hybrid Spintronic Structures With Magnetic Oxides and Heusler Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Y. B.; Hassan, S. S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid spintronic structures, integrating half-metallic magnetic oxides and Heusler alloys with their predicted high spin polarization, are important for the development of second-generation spintronics with high-efficient spin injection. We have synthesized epitaxial magnetic oxide Fe3O4 on Ga......As(100) and the unit cell of the Fe3O4 was found to be rotated by 45 degrees to match the gallium arsenide GaAs. The films were found to have a bulk-like moment down to 3-4 nm and a low coercivity indicating a high-quality magnetic interface. The magnetization hysteresis loops of the ultrathin films...... are controlled by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The dynamic response of the sample shows a heavily damped precessional response to the applied field pulses. In the Heusler alloy system of Co-2 MnGa on GaAs, we found that the magnetic moment was reduced for thicknesses down to 10 nm, which may account...

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of ball milled copper ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1998-01-01

    The structural and magnetic evolution in copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) caused by high-energy ball milling are investigated by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Initially, the milling process reduces the average grain size of CuFe2O4 to about 6 nm and induces....... The canted spin configuration is also suggested by the observed reduction in magnetization of particles in the blocked state. Upon increasing the milling time, nanometer-sized CuFe2O4 particles decompose, forming alpha-Fe2O3 and other phases, causing a further decrease of magnetization. After a milling time...... of 98 h, alpha-Fe2O3 is reduced to Fe3O4, and magnetization increases accordingly to the higher saturation magnetization value of magnetite. Three sequential processes during high-energy ball milling are established: (a) the synthesis of partially inverted CuFe2O4 particles with a noncollinear spin...

  11. Magnetic field effects on the crust structure of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, B.; Negreiros, R.; Schramm, S.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of high magnetic fields on the structure and on the geometry of the crust in neutron stars. We find that the crust geometry is substantially modified by the magnetic field inside the star. We build stationary and axis-symmetric magnetized stellar models by using well-known equations of state to describe the neutron star crust, namely, the Skyrme model for the inner crust and the Baym-Pethick-Sutherland equation of state for the outer crust. We show that the magnetic field has a dual role, contributing to the crust deformation via the electromagnetic interaction (manifested in this case as the Lorentz force) and by contributing to curvature due to the energy stored in it. We also study a direct consequence of the crust deformation due to the magnetic field: the thermal relaxation time. This quantity, which is of great importance to the thermal evolution of neutron stars, is sensitive to the crust properties, and, as such, we show that it may be strongly affected by the magnetic field.

  12. Magnetic and Structural Investigations of Nanocrystalline Cobalt-Ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sharifi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt ferrite is an important magnetic material due to their large magneto-crystalline anisotropy, high cohercivity, moderate saturation magnetization and chemical stability.In this study, cobalt ferrites Nanoparticles have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and a new microemulsion route. We examined the cation occupancy in the spinel structure based on the “Rietveld with energies” method. The Xray measurements revealed the production of a broad single ferrite cubic phase with the average particle sizes of about 12 nm and 7nm, for co-precipitation and micro-emulsion methods, respectively. The FTIR measurements between 400 and 4000 cm-1 confirmed the intrinsic cation vibrations of the spinelstructure for the two methods. Furthermore, the Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM was carried out at room temperature to study the structural and magnetic properties. The results revealed that by changing the method from co-precipitation to the reverse micelle the material exhibits a softer magnetic behavior in such a way that both saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease from 58 to 29 emu/g and from 286 to 25 Oe, respectively.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of hcp and fcc Ni nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, J.; Wang, L.L.; Liu, Y.; Yang, J.H.; Zong, Z.G.

    2008-01-01

    The face-centered-cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Ni nanoparticles were synthesized with citrate by sol-gel method and heat-treating technique. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Our XRD and TEM results suggested that hcp Ni nanoparticles were successfully synthesized when the heating temperature reaches 300 deg. C. With a further increase in temperature to 400 deg. C, a temperature-induced phase transformation of hcp to fcc was observed. Moreover, the VSM results demonstrated the existence of ferromagnetic behavior in the synthesized fcc and hcp Ni nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the magnetic measurement suggested that the magnetic properties in hcp nanoparticles is probably the sum of two contributions: superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic one. The unsaturated magnetization is much smaller than 47.6 emu/g for the fcc nanoparticles obtained at 400 deg. C and 55 emu/g for the bulk material. It was also found that changes of the stress, grain size and crystal structure during heat-treating have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the Ni nanoparticles

  14. Growth-related magnetic and physical structures in CMR films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.; Hundley, M.F. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) have proven to be powerful tools for revealing property-sensitive structures in magnetic materials. With the renewed interest in perovskite films as materials for read-heads in high density magnetic data storage, the same challenges faced by high temperature superconductor (HTS) film fabrication are repeated for these materials. To begin addressing these challenges, we used vapor phase epitaxy to fabricate La (Sr, Ca,) based manganate films on single crystal perovskite substrates under different conditions and characterized them with scanning probe microscopies, x-ray diffraction, and temperature-dependent magnetization and resistivity measurements (M(T) and {rho}(T)). The as-grown films were polygranular with grain sizes increasing with increasing temperature (T). The post-deposition annealed films consisted of coalesced layers with improved transport properties. The room temperature magnetic structure of the Sr-based films appeared to be related to defects and/or strain.

  15. Analysis of magnetic nanoparticles using quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpino, Francesca; Moore, Lee R.; Zborowski, Maciej; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Williams, P. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The new technique of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation is described. It is a separation and characterization technique for particulate magnetic materials. Components of a sample are eluted from the separation channel at times dependent on the strength of their interaction with the magnetic field. A quadrupole electromagnet allows a programmed reduction of field strength during analysis of polydisperse samples

  16. Countermeasure for the magnetic drag force in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation Vehicle system (MAGLEV); Chodendo jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kozobutsu ni okeru denjiki taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, A [JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-15

    As for the levitation vehicle system, the vehicle is equipped with superconducting magnets and is levitated about 10cm by the electromagnetic force that works between the push coil and levitation guide coil laid on the ground and it runs 500km an hour. But, the running resistance and energy loss called as magnetic resistance caused by the electromagnet phenomenon that generates between the superconducting magnets and structures (steel products) generate. In this paper, the magnet resistance generated in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle system and its countermeasures therefor are introduced. The main countermeasures against the magnetic resistance are as follows. The steel products have to be as arranged as separated from the superconducting magnets as far as possible in the permissible design limit. Based on the analysis results the low magnetic steel would be used in an area within 1.5m from the strand of the superconducting magnet. The contact resistance of the joints part of loop-shaped components would be bigger so as to do not cause the loop current. And the big component would be divided into small parts when it is used near to the superconducting magnets. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Magnetism of Ba4Ru3O10 revealed by density functional calculations: Structural trimers behaving as coupled magnetic dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Andres; Radtke, Guillaume; Klein, Yannick; Rousse, Gwenaelle

    2013-03-01

    From a simple ionic picture, the only magnetically active ions in this compound are the three Ru4+ atoms which form trimers of faced shared RuO6 octahedral. The Ru atom in the middle of the trimer (named Ru(1)) is cristallographically inequivalent to the ones at the corners (named Ru(2)). A naïve analysis of the magnetic properties of this compound compatible with the expected low spin magnetic configuration of the Ru ions would predict a complicate magnetic order at low temperature involving the Ru(1) and Ru(2) ions and a high temperature susceptibility corresponding to three S=1 ions per unit cell. In spite of that, we demonstrate in this work, from density functional calculations, that under the influence of Ru-Ru covalent bonding, the structural trimers behave in an extended range of temperature from 0 to 600K, as strong (S = 1) antiferromagnetic dimers. Our calculations of the effective exchange interactions show a strong intra-dimer interaction and a weaker inter-dimer one which explains the antiferromagnetic order observed below TN = 105 K and the magnetic susceptibility in the intermediate and high temperature range (from TN=105K up to 612 K).

  18. Magnetic Doppler imaging considering atmospheric structure modifications due to local abundances: a luxury or a necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.; Shulyak, D.

    2012-04-01

    extrapolations, as well as methodological flaws and inconsistencies of their analysis. Our discussion proves that published magnetic inversions based on a mean stellar atmosphere are highly robust and reliable, and that the presence of small-scale magnetic field structures on the surfaces of Ap stars is indeed real. Incorporating horizontal variations of atmospheric structure in Doppler imaging can marginally improve reconstruction of abundance distributions for stars showing very large iron overabundances. But this costly technique is unnecessary for magnetic mapping with high-resolution polarization spectra.

  19. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Strange magnetism and the anapole structure of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasty, R.; Beck, D.H.; Danagoulian, A.; Blake, A.; Carr, R.; Covrig, S.; Filipoone, B.W.; Ito, T.M.; Gao, J.; Jones, C.E.; Lee, P.; McKeown, R.D.; Savu, V.; Beise, E.J.; Breuer, H.; Spayde, D.T.; Tieulent, R.; Herda, M.C.; Barkhuff, D.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Kowalski, S.; Tsentalovich, E.; Yang, B.; Zwart, T.; Hawthorne-Allen, A.M.; Pitt, M.; Ritter, J.; Korsch, W.; Mueller, B.; Wells, S.P.; Averett, T.; Roche, J.; Kramer, K.

    2000-01-01

    The violation of mirror symmetry in the weak force provides a powerful tool to study the internal structure of the proton. Experimental results have been obtained that address the role of strange quarks in generating nuclear magnetism. The measurement reported here provides an unambiguous constraint on strange quark contributions to the proton's magnetic moment through the electron-proton weak interaction. We also report evidence for the existence of a parity-violating electromagnetic effect known as the anapole moment of the proton. The proton's anapole moment is not yet well understood theoretically, but it could have important implications for precision weak interaction studies in atomic systems such as cesium.

  1. Crystal structure and magnetism of UOsAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A.V., E-mail: andreev@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Daniš, S. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Šebek, J.; Henriques, M.S.; Vejpravová, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Gorbunov, D.I. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD-EMFL), Helmholtz-Zentrum, Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Havela, L. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-15

    Crystal structure, magnetization, and specific heat were studied on single crystal of uranium intermetallic compound UOsAl. It is a hexagonal Laves phase of MgZn{sub 2} type, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, with lattice parameters a=536.4 pm, c=845.3 pm. Shortest inter-uranium distance 313 pm (along the c-axis) is considerably smaller than the Hill limit (340 pm). The compound is a weakly temperature-dependent paramagnet with magnetic susceptibility of ≈1.5*10{sup −8} m{sup 3} mol{sup −1} (at T=2 K), which is slightly higher with magnetic field along the a-axis compared to the c-axis. The Sommerfeld coefficient of electronic specific heat has moderate value of γ=36 mJ mol{sup −1} K{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Crystal structure and magnetic properties were studied on single crystal of UOsAl with hexagonal structure of MgZn{sub 2} type. • Shortest inter-uranium distance 313 pm (along the c-axis) is considerably smaller than the Hill limit (340 pm). • UOsAl has paramagnetic ground state as the compounds with T=Fe and Ru, i.e. 3d and 4d analogues of Os.

  2. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of zigzag blue phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Tao; Hong, Jisang, E-mail: hongj@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the electronic structure and magnetism of zigzag blue phosphorene nanoribbons (ZBPNRs) using first principles density functional theory calculations by changing the widths of ZBPNRs from 1.5 to 5 nm. In addition, the effect of H and O passivation was explored as well. The ZBPNRs displayed intra-edge antiferromagnetic ground state with a semiconducting band gap of ∼0.35 eV; and this was insensitive to the edge structure relaxation effect. However, the edge magnetism of ZBPNRs disappeared with H-passivation. Moreover, the band gap of H-passivated ZBPNRs was greatly enhanced because the calculated band gap was ∼1.77 eV, and this was almost the same as that of two-dimensional blue phosphorene layer. For O-passivated ZBPNRs, we also found an intra-edge antiferromagnetic state. Besides, both unpassivated and O-passivated ZBPNRs preserved almost the same band gap. We predict that the electronic band structure and magnetic properties can be controlled by means of passivation. Moreover, the edge magnetism can be also modulated by the strain. Nonetheless, the intrinsic physical properties are size independent. This feature can be an advantage for device applications because it may not be necessary to precisely control the width of the nanoribbon.

  3. An experimental magnetic moment determination method based on spatial harmonic analysis of magnetic flux density signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Getman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of an experimental determination method for residual and inductive magnetic moments of a technical object are considered. As input data, the technical object magnetic induction signatures obtained under its linear movement near a pair of three-component sensors are used. A magnetic signature integration technique based on spatial harmonic analysis of the magnetic field represented by twenty-four multipole coefficients is introduced.

  4. A new nonlinear magnetic circuit model for dynamic analysis of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Saito, Kenichi; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) have high efficiency and torque, since the motors can utilize reluctance torque in addition to magnet torque. The IPMSMs are widely used for electric household appliances and electric bicycles and vehicles. A quantitative analysis method of dynamic characteristics of the IPMSMs, however, has not been clarified fully. For optimum design, investigation of dynamic characteristics considering magnetic nonlinearity is needed. This paper presents a new nonlinear magnetic circuit model of an IPMSM, and suggests a dynamic analysis method using the proposed magnetic circuit model

  5. Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Analysis of a Novel Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lu, Kaiyuan; Ye, Yunyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new motor integrated permanent magnet gear (MIPMG) is discussed. The focus is on eddy current loss analysis associated to permanent magnets (PMs). A convenient model of MIPMG is provided based on 2-D field-motion coupled time-stepping finite element method for transient eddy...... current analysis. The model takes the eddy current effect of PMs into account in determination of the magnetic field in the air-gap and in the magnet regions. The eddy current losses generated in the magnets are properly interpreted. Design improvements for reducing the eddy current losses are suggested...

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of barium-gadolinium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litsardakis, G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: Lits@eng.auth.gr; Manolakis, I. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Serletis, C. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Efthimiadis, K.G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2007-03-15

    A series of Gd-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites has been prepared by the ceramic route, according to the formula (Ba{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x})O.5.25Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0-0.30). XRD analysis revealed that all the samples present primarily an M-type structure. Samples x=0 and x=0.05 are single-phase. Hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and GdFeO{sub 3} were detected in the remaining samples. Coercivity (H{sub c}) shows remarkably high values, {approx}293kA/m for x=0.20 and 0.30 with a maximum of 322kA/m for x=0.25. Specific saturation magnetization ({sigma}{sub sat}) of the samples presents a small increase up to x=0.10. The microstructure examination indicates that Gd may act as a grain growth inhibitor.

  7. Structure and magnetic exchange coupling of iron based trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendus, T.

    1998-12-01

    A study of the structural and magnetic properties of Fe based magnetic trilayers is presented. Sample preparation conditions were altered to achieve the best growth conditions and their effect on the magnetic properties determined. Structural information was obtained from RHEED, AES, STM and MEIS; this is believed to be the first time that MEIS has been used to look at this sort of sample. Magnetic characterisation was determined by MOKE with particular interest paid to the biquadratic coupling. The determination of magnetic coupling as a function of sample morphology was studied oil a series of Fe/Cr/Fe samples. Fe/Au/Fe samples oil MgO substrates were also prepared to facilitate MEIS studies. Results indicate that tile fluctuation model best describes tile observed biquadratic coupling in Fe/Cr/Fe trilayers and that the presence of clean, sharp interfaces is required. Annealing and growth at elevated temperature cause interdiffusion at the interfaces, weakening the biquadratic coupling. MEIS structural data from MgO/Fe/Au/Fe samples shows that tile layer structure is dependent oil thickness. There is an apparent reorganisation of tile Au interlayer between a 'bcc'-Iike phase towards tile bulk fcc phase as the layer thickness increases. MEIS is shown to be a very sensitive probe of the crystalline quality and is a powerful probe for the determination of postdeposition sample morphology. Results from an EC collaboration investigating Co/Cr/Co trilayers are also presented. They showed that interlayer coupling and anisotropy of the samples were very sensitive to the preparation conditions. A decrease in the coupling strength is found for sample growth under non-ideal conditions (growth in an applied field, growth at an angle and delays between layer growth). (author)

  8. Spectral Analysis of Vector Magnetic Field Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert L.; OBrien, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the power spectra and cross spectra derived from the three components of the vector magnetic field measured on a straight horizontal path above a statistically stationary source. All of these spectra, which can be estimated from the recorded time series, are related to a single two-dimensional power spectral density via integrals that run in the across-track direction in the wavenumber domain. Thus the measured spectra must obey a number of strong constraints: for example, the sum of the two power spectral densities of the two horizontal field components equals the power spectral density of the vertical component at every wavenumber and the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-track components is always pi/2. These constraints provide powerful checks on the quality of the measured data; if they are violated, measurement or environmental noise should be suspected. The noise due to errors of orientation has a clear characteristic; both the power and phase spectra of the components differ from those of crustal signals, which makes orientation noise easy to detect and to quantify. The spectra of the crustal signals can be inverted to obtain information about the cross-track structure of the field. We illustrate these ideas using a high-altitude Project Magnet profile flown in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Phase domain structures in cylindrical magnets under conditions of a first-order magnetic phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhezherya, Yu.I.; Klymuk, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic and resonance properties of cylindrical magnets at first-order phase transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic state were theoretically studied. It has been shown that in the external magnetic field directed perpendicularly to the rotation axis, formation of a specific domain structure of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic layers can be energetically favorable. The parameters of cylindrical phase domains as well as their dependences on temperature, magnetic field and material characteristics have been calculated. Peculiarities of the magnetic resonance spectra appearing as a result of the phase domain formation have been considered. Dependence of the resonance field of the system of ferromagnetic domains on magnetization and temperature has been obtained. - Highlights: → Parameters of the equilibrium system of cylindrical phase domains are calculated. → The range of fields for PM and FM phases coexistence is found. → FMR field of the disk domains is found to be lower than that of the PMR field.→ The resonance field increases with the decrease of temperature lower than T || .

  10. Theoretical study of ferromagnetic resonance in exchange - coupled magnetic / nonmagnetic / magnetic multilayer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdogan, K.; Oezdemir, M.; Yalcin, O.; Aktas, B.

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion relation on ferromagnetic films was calculation by using torque equation of motion with a damping term. The total energy including zeeman, demagnetizing and anisotropy energy terms was used to get ferromagnetic resonance frequency for both uniform and higher order spin wave modes. In antiferromagnetic films, the torque equation of motion for each sub-lattice were written to derive an expression for the dispersion relation. The magnetic trilayer system under investigation consist of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a nonmagnetic layer. The dispersion relation of magnetic/nonmagnetic/magnetic three layers is calculated by using Landau-Lifshitz dynamic equation of motion for the magnetization with interlayer exchange energy. As for the exchange-coupled resonance of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), the theoretical study has been calculated for both symmetrical and asymmetrical structures. In this systems, the exchange-coupling parameter A 12 between neighboring layers was used to get resonance fields as a function of the angle between the magnetization vectors of each magnetic layers

  11. Coupling between crystal structure and magnetism in transition-metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Phillip Thomas

    -temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction reveal a magnetostructural transition and capacitance measurements show evidence for magnetodielectric behavior. The above work uncovered a Co10Ge3O16 phase that had a known structure but whose physical properties were largely uncharacterized. This project examined its metamagnetic properties using detailed magnetometry experiments. Upon the application of a magnetic field, this material goes through a first-order phase transition from a noncollinear antiferromagnet to an unknown ferrimagnetic state. Lastly, this thesis explored the chemical dilution of magnetism in some perovskite and delafossite solid solutions. In the perovskite structure, compositions intermediate to the endmembers SrRuO3, a ferromagnetic metal, and LaRhO3, a diamagnetic semiconductor, were investigated. While the magnetism of this system is poised between localized and itinerant behavior, a compositionally-driven metal to insulator transition, revealed by electrical resistivity measurements, did not strongly impact the magnetic properties. Instead, both octahedral tilting and magnetic dilution had strong effects, and comparison of this characterization to Sr1-- x CaxRuO3 reinforces the important role of structural distortions in determining magnetic ground state. The final materials studied were of composition CuAl1-- xCrxO2 (0 < x < 1) in the delafossite structure. The primary interest was the geometric frustration of antiferromagnetism in CuCrO 2 and significant short-range correlations were observed above TN. The analysis found that reducing the number of degenerate states through Al substitution did not enhance magnetic ordering because of the weakening of magnetic exchange.

  12. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications. (paper)

  13. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E.; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  14. New trend for synthesizing of magnetic nanorods with titanomaghemite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Osama, E-mail: osmohamed@kfu.edu.sa [Faculty of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Hassa 31982 (Saudi Arabia); Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, P.O. Box 11727, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-07-15

    This research aims at developing magnetic and optical materials through fabrication of uniform nanorods by facile and novel technique. In this trend, titanium and iron were successfully combined together forming nanorods without template or high temperature by urea hydrolysis. TEM images showed uniform and homogeneous nanorods with dimensions; 10 nm in width and 50 nm in length. In the same time, fine nanoparticles were observed around the nanorods. With further treatment for the nanorods at high temperature and pressure, FESEM images revealed that the dimensions of the rods slightly increased to be 70 nm in length and 12 nm in width with a complete disappearance of the nanoparticles. Using X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses and infrared spectra in addition to the results of the electron microscopy, the oriented attachment mechanism was suggested for the formation of titanium iron oxides nanorods. The magnetic measurements revealed that the prepared nanorods possess ferromagnetic behavior and exhibit high saturation magnetization. Also, the optical properties showed that the nanorods have high absorption in the visible region and possess low band gap energy. Finally, we concluded that it is probably the first time to prepare nanorods by urea hydrolysis. The advanced optical and magnetic properties give the prepared nanorods relevance to use as building blocks in functional nanoscale devices. - Graphical abstract: The present study has a dual aim for developing new and facile method for fabrication of nanorods containing titanomaghemite structure and improving their optical and magnetic properties - Highlights: • Synthesis of titanium iron oxides nanorods with titanomaghemite structure. • Using urea hydrolysis for preparation of nanorods. • Studying of the effect of pressure and temperature on the nanorods. • Enhancement of the magnetic properties of the nanorods in comparison with the nanoparticles. • Improvement of the optical properties of the nanorods

  15. A New Analysis of Stark and Zeeman Effects on Hydrogen Lines in Magnetized DA White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ny Kieu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White dwarfs with magnetic field strengths larger than 10 T are understood to represent more than 10% of the total population of white dwarfs. The presence of such strong magnetic fields is clearly indicated by the Zeeman triplet structure visible on absorption lines. In this work, we discuss the line broadening mechanisms and focus on the sensitivity of hydrogen lines on the magnetic field. We perform new calculations in conditions relevant to magnetized DA stellar atmospheres using models inspired from magnetic fusion plasma spectroscopy. A white dwarf spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS database is analyzed. An effective temperature is provided by an adjustment of the background radiation with a Planck function, and the magnetic field is inferred from absorption lines presenting a Zeeman triplet structure. An order-of-magnitude estimate for the electron density is also performed from Stark broadening analysis.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, S. A.; Tellgren, R.; Porcher, F.; Andre, G.; Ericsson, T.; Nordblad, P; Sadovskaya, N.; Kaleva, G.; Politova, E.; Baldini, M.; Sun, C.; Arvanitis, D.; Kumar, P. Anil; Mathieu, R.

    2015-05-05

    Spinel-type compounds of Fe–Ni–Sb–O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The crystal and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd – 3 m. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites was refined from the diffraction data sets using constraints imposed by the magnetic, Mössbauer and EDS results and the ionic radii. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter (a) and the oxygen positional parameter (u) were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe0.8Ni1.8Sb0.4O4 was determined, with Sb5+ cations occupying octahedral sites, and Fe3+ and Ni2+ occupying both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Fe3+ mainly (85/15 ratio) occupy tetrahedral sites, and conversely Ni2+ mainly reside on octahedral ones. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point.

  17. Magnetic field structure of experimental high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic field structure of several low and high β tokamaks in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) was determined by high-impedance internal magnetic probes. From the measurement of the magnetic field, the poloidal flux, toroidal flux, toroidal current, and safety factor are calculated. In addition, the plasma position and cross-sectional shape are determined. The extent of the perturbation of the plasma by the probe was investigated and was found to be acceptably small. The tokamaks have major radii of approx.0.24 m, minor radii of approx.0.05 m, toroidal plasma current densities of approx.10 6 A/m 2 , and line-integrated electron densities of approx.10 20 m -2 . The major difference between the low and high β tokamaks is that the high β tokamak was observed to have an outward shift in major radius of both the magnetic center and peak of the toroidal current density. The magnetic center moves inward in major radius after 20 to 30 μsec, presumably because the plasma maintains major radial equilibrium as its pressure decreases from radiation due to impurity atoms. Both the equilibrium and the production of these tokamaks from a toroidal field stabilized z-pinch are modeled computationally. One tokamak evolves from a state with low β features, through a possibly unstable state, to a state with high β features

  18. Magnetic monopole interactions: shell structure of meson and baryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that a low-mass magnetic monopole of Dirac charge g = (137/2)e may be interacting with a c-quark's magnetic dipole moment to produce Zeeman splitting of meson states. The mass M 0 = 2397 MeV of the monopole is in contrast to the 10 16 -GeV monopoles of grand unification theories (GUT). It is shown that shell structure of energy E/sub n/ = M 0 + 1/4nM 0 ... exists for meson states. The presence of symmetric meson states leads to the identification of the shell structure. The possible existence of the 2397-MeV magnetic monopole is shown to quantize quark masses in agreement with calculations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From the shell structure of meson states, the existence of two new mesons is predicted: eta(1814 +/- 50 MeV) with I/sup G/(J/sup PC/) = 0 + (0 -+ ) and eta/sub c/ (3907 +/- 100 MeV) with J/sup PC/ = 0 -+ . The presence of shell structure for baryon states is shown

  19. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  20. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection. In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg. Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  1. A new support structure for high field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Hafalia, R R; Caspi, S; Dietderich, D R; Gourlay, S A; Hannaford, R; Lietzke, A F; Liggins, N; McInturff, A D; Sabbi, G L; Scanlan, R M; O'Neill, J; Swanson, J H

    2002-01-01

    Pre-stress of superconducting magnets can be applied directly through the magnet yoke structure. We have replaced the collar functionality in our 14 Tesla R&D Nb//3Sn dipole magnets with an assembly procedure based on an aluminum shell and bladders. Bladders, placed between the coil pack and surrounding yoke inside the shell, are pressurized up to 10 ksi left bracket 70 MPa right bracket to create an interference gap. Keys placed into the interference gap replace the bladder functionality. Following the assembly, the bladders are deflated and removed. Strain gauges mounted directly on the shell are used to monitor the stress of the entire magnet structure, thereby providing a high degree of pre-stress control without the need for high tolerances. During assembly, a force of 8.2 multiplied by 10**5 lbs /ft left bracket 12 MN/m right bracket is generated by the bladders and the stress in the 1.57 double prime left bracket 40 mm right bracket aluminum shell reaches 20.3 ksi left bracket 140 MPa right bracket...

  2. Enhancement of structural and magnetic properties of M-type hexaferrite permanent magnet based on synthesis temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Safia; Sehar, Fatima; Mustafa, Zeeshan; Awan, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this research work is to develop the single domain magnetic particles of M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) using oxide precursors employing conventional powder metallurgy technique. The phase formation and magnetic performance of the powders and magnets will be optimized by adjusting calcination and sintering temperatures. The synthesis of M-type barium hexaferrite was carried out in two sections. A series of four samples have been prepared by initial wet mixed powders calcined at different temperatures, i.e., 750, 850, 950 and 1050 °C. On the basis of structural analysis, the sample calcined at 950 °C has been selected and further divided into four parts to sintered them at 1100, 1150, 1200 and 1250 °C. The structural measurements depict the confirmation of M-type barium hexaferrite structure. SEM micrographs show the hexagonal-shaped grains. The abrupt decrease in coercivity for the sample sintered at 1250 °C has been seen which may be due to high sintering temperature, at which the particles have multi-domain properties.

  3. Effect of substrate rotation on domain structure and magnetic relaxation in magnetic antidot lattice arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Sougata; Mallik, Srijani; Bedanta, Subhankar

    2015-01-01

    Microdimensional triangular magnetic antidot lattice arrays were prepared by varying the speed of substrate rotation. The pre-deposition patterning has been performed using photolithography technique followed by a post-deposition lift-off. Surface morphology taken by atomic force microscopy depicted that the growth mechanism of the grains changes from chain like formation to island structures due to the substrate rotation. Study of magnetization reversal via magneto optic Kerr effect based microscopy revealed reduction of uniaxial anisotropy and increase in domain size with substrate rotation. The relaxation measured under constant magnetic field becomes faster with rotation of the substrate during deposition. The nature of relaxation for the non-rotating sample can be described by a double exponential decay. However, the relaxation for the sample with substrate rotation is well described either by a double exponential or a Fatuzzo-Labrune like single exponential decay, which increases in applied field

  4. Rapid analysis of some rare earth magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoot, K.N.; Raoot, Sarala; Rukmani Desikan, N.

    1978-01-01

    A simple complexometric method for the quick analysis of the constituent elements in some quaternary rare earth magnets of the type RE-Co-Cu-Fe and RE-Ni-Cu-Fe is described. The technique is based on a total titration, subsequent release of EDTA from rare earth with ammonium fluoride and that from copper (II) with ascorbic acid and thiourea followed by determination of the excess and liberated EDTA by lead nitrate in a weak acid medium using xylenol orange indicator. In another, aliquot iron (III) and rare earth are first masked with sodium fluoride, and copper (II) with ascorbic acid and thiourea before cobalt (II) or nickel (II) is estimated by back titration. Iron is calculated by difference. The new method yields accurate and reproducible results with error not exceeding 1%. A set of three samples can conveniently be analysed in two hours. (author)

  5. Rapid analysis of some rare earth magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoot, K N; Raoot, S; Rukmani Desikan, N [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)

    1978-12-01

    A simple complexometric method for the quick analysis of the constituent elements in some quaternary rare earth magnets of the type RE-Co-Cu-Fe and RE-Ni-Cu-Fe is described. The technique is based on a total titration, subsequent release of EDTA from rare earth with ammonium fluoride and that from copper (II) with ascorbic acid and thiourea followed by determination of the excess and liberated EDTA by lead nitrate in a weak acid medium using xylenol orange indicator. In another, aliquot iron (III) and rare earth are first masked with sodium fluoride, and copper (II) with ascorbic acid and thiourea before cobalt (II) or nickel (II) is estimated by back titration. Iron is calculated by difference. The new method yields accurate and reproducible results with error not exceeding 1%. A set of three samples can conveniently be analysed in two hours.

  6. Local Structure and Magnetism of (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Temst, Kristiaan

    Throughout the years, dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have emerged as promising materials for semiconductor-based spintronics. In particular, (Ga,Mn)As has become the model system in which to explore the physics of carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in semiconductors and the associated spintronic phenomena, with a number of interesting functionalities and demonstrated proof-of-concept devices. It constitutes the perfect example of how the magnetic behavior of DMS materials is strongly influenced by local structure. In this thesis, we address key aspects of the interplay between local structure and ferromagnetism of (Ga,Mn)As. We unambiguously identify the lattice site occupied by interstitial Mn as the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors T(As). We show, furthermore, that the T(As) is the most energetically favorable site regardless of the interstitial atom forming or not complexes with substitutional Mn. We also evaluate the thermal stability of both interstitial and substitutional Mn si...

  7. Mechanical Analysis of the Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet HD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, Aurelio R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has recently fabricated and tested HD1, a Nb3Sn dipole magnet. The magnet reached a 16 T field, and exhibited training quenches in the end regions and in the straight section. After the test, HD1 was disassembled and inspected, and a detailed 3D finite element mechanical analysis was done to investigate for possible quench triggers. The study led to minor modifications to mechanical structure and assembly procedure, which were verified in a second test (HD1b). This paper presents the results of the mechanical analysis, including strain gauge measurements and coil visual inspection. The adjustments implemented in the magnet structure are reported and their effect on magnet training discussed

  8. Mechanical analysis of the Nb3Sn dipole magnet HD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hannaford, Carles R.; Hafalia, Aurelio R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has recently fabricated and tested HD1, a Nb 3 Sn dipole magnet. The magnet reached a 16 T field, and exhibited training quenches in the end regions and in the straight section. After the test, HD1 was disassembled and inspected, and a detailed 3D finite element mechanical analysis was done to investigate for possible quench triggers. The study led to minor modifications to mechanical structure and assembly procedure, which were verified in a second test (HD1b). This paper presents the results of the mechanical analysis, including strain gauge measurements and coil visual inspection. The adjustments implemented in the magnet structure are reported and their effect on magnet training discussed

  9. The analysis of cracked structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, I.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review of the general problem of stable crack systems in many classes of structures, notably reinforced concrete structures, is made. Very simple methods of analysis are derived and some elaboration is described, as well as methods of optimising the calculations. Analytical methods are compared with experiments

  10. Double-flat-spiral magnetic structures: Theory and application to the RMn6X6 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, E.V.; Mushnikov, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    We studied magnetic structure of a layered magnetic material, the lattice of which consists of magnetic layers separated by alternating non-magnetic layers (slabs) of two different types. For such structure, the exchange integrals between the nearest magnetic layers separated by different slabs may have different values, while the next-nearest neighbor exchange integral is the same for all magnetic layers. We developed a model based on three different interlayer exchange integrals. In the framework of this model we analyzed conditions of the appearance of a magnetic structure of the double-flat-spiral type and its distortion in external magnetic field. The results are most obtained in the analytical form. The model was applied to analyze the magnetic structure and magnetization process of the RMn 6 X 6 (R=Y, Sc, Lu; X=Sn, Ge) compounds with the layered crystal structure

  11. Probing defect and magnetic structures on the nanoscale

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on experimental research on structural defects and magnetic species on the nanoscale. The latter project involved considerable development work on the production of a spin-polarised mono-energetic positron beam. The construction of the system is described through various trial steps with emphasis on the methods of maximum practical polarization of the positron beam and of electrons in the sample with the smallest possible loss of beam intensity. A new sodium-22 source caps...

  12. Investigation of Structural, Morphological, Magnetic Properties and Biomedical applications of Cu2+ Substituted Uncoated Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margabandhu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work, Cu2+ substituted cobalt ferrite (Co1-xCuxFe2O4, x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 magnetic nanopowders were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared powders were investigated by various characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer analysis (VSM and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR. The XRD analysis reveals that the synthesized nanopowders possess single phase centred cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite size of the particles ranging from 27-49 nm was calculated by using Debye-scherrer formula. Magnetic properties of the synthesized magnetic nanoparticles are studied by using VSM. The VSM results shows the magnetic properties such as coercivity, magnetic retentivity decreases with increase in copper substitution whereas the saturation magnetization shows increment and decrement in accordance with Cu2+ substitution in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. SEM analysis reveals the morphology of synthesized magnetic nanoparticles. FTIR spectra of Cu2+ substituted cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were recorded in the frequency range 4000-400cm-1. The spectrum shows the presence of water adsorption and metal oxygen bonds. The adhesion nature of Cu2+ substituted cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles with bacteria in reviewed results indicates that the synthesized nanoparticles could be used in biotechnology and biomedical applications.

  13. Evolution of open magnetic structures on the sun: the Skylab period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    High-resolution harmonic analysis of the measured photospheric magnetic field of the Sun is used to construct models of open magnetic structures over a period of 11 solar rotations. The models successfully reproduce the surface location and topology of all coronal holes during the Skylab period. In addition, there is persistent evidence in the models that open field lines are associated with active regions in a systematic way. These associations are listed for the period studied; they suggest that open field lines are a basic feature of solar magnetism. Specific examples of the evolution of coronal holes and of calculated open structures are presented. Quantitative study of the measured field strength within and neighboring a hole confirms the fact that coronal hole regions are indistinguishable by local magnetic properties. However, the calculated field strengths at the footpoints of open field lines within coronal holes show distinct evolutionary patterns and may indicate that, at least in young coronal holes, a significant amount of magnetic flux is closed. Problems of studying magnetic field divergence by using these models are discussed

  14. Modification of electronic structure, magnetic structure, and topological phase of bismuthene by point defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Yelda; Kilic, Sevket Berkay; Demirci, Salih; Aktürk, O. Üzengi; Aktürk, Ethem; Ciraci, Salim

    2017-12-01

    This paper reveals how the electronic structure, magnetic structure, and topological phase of two-dimensional (2D), single-layer structures of bismuth are modified by point defects. We first showed that a free-standing, single-layer, hexagonal structure of bismuth, named h-bismuthene, exhibits nontrivial band topology. We then investigated interactions between single foreign adatoms and bismuthene structures, which comprise stability, bonding, electronic structure, and magnetic structures. Localized states in diverse locations of the band gap and resonant states in band continua of bismuthene are induced upon the adsorption of different adatoms, which modify electronic and magnetic properties. Specific adatoms result in reconstruction around the adsorption site. Single vacancies and divacancies can form readily in bismuthene structures and remain stable at high temperatures. Through rebondings, Stone-Whales-type defects are constructed by divacancies, which transform into a large hole at high temperature. Like adsorbed adatoms, vacancies induce also localized gap states, which can be eliminated through rebondings in divacancies. We also showed that not only the optical and magnetic properties, but also the topological features of pristine h-bismuthene can be modified by point defects. The modification of the topological features depends on the energies of localized states and also on the strength of coupling between point defects.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of turmeric functionalized CoFe2O4 nanocomposite powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehran, E; Farjami Shayesteh, S; Sheykhan, M

    2016-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the synthesized pure and functionalized CoFe 2 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are studied by analyzing the results from the x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT–IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). To extract the structure and lattice parameters from the XRD analysis results, we first apply the pseudo-Voigt model function to the experimental data obtained from XRD analysis and then the Rietveld algorithm is used in order to optimize the model function to estimate the true intensity values. Our simulated intensities are in good agreement with the experimental peaks, therefore, all structural parameters such as crystallite size and lattice constant are achieved through this simulation. Magnetic analysis reveals that the synthesized functionalized NPs have a saturation magnetization almost equal to that of pure nanoparticles (PNPs). It is also found that the presence of the turmeric causes a small reduction in coercivity of the functionalized NPs in comparison with PNP. Our TGA and FTIR results show that the turmeric is bonded very well to the surface of the NPs. So it can be inferred that a nancomposite (NC) powder of turmeric and nanoparticles is produced. As an application, the anti-arsenic characteristic of turmeric makes the synthesized functionalized NPs or NC powder a good candidate for arsenic removal from polluted industrial waste water. (paper)

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of turmeric functionalized CoFe2O4 nanocomposite powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, E.; Farjami Shayesteh, S.; Sheykhan, M.

    2016-10-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the synthesized pure and functionalized CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are studied by analyzing the results from the x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). To extract the structure and lattice parameters from the XRD analysis results, we first apply the pseudo-Voigt model function to the experimental data obtained from XRD analysis and then the Rietveld algorithm is used in order to optimize the model function to estimate the true intensity values. Our simulated intensities are in good agreement with the experimental peaks, therefore, all structural parameters such as crystallite size and lattice constant are achieved through this simulation. Magnetic analysis reveals that the synthesized functionalized NPs have a saturation magnetization almost equal to that of pure nanoparticles (PNPs). It is also found that the presence of the turmeric causes a small reduction in coercivity of the functionalized NPs in comparison with PNP. Our TGA and FTIR results show that the turmeric is bonded very well to the surface of the NPs. So it can be inferred that a nancomposite (NC) powder of turmeric and nanoparticles is produced. As an application, the anti-arsenic characteristic of turmeric makes the synthesized functionalized NPs or NC powder a good candidate for arsenic removal from polluted industrial waste water. Project supported by the University of Guilan and the Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council.

  17. Higher order magnetic modulation structures in rare earth metal, alloys and compounds under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic materials consisting of rare earth ions form modulation structures such as a helical or sinusoidal structure caused by the oscillating magnetic interaction between rare earth ions due to RKKY magnetic interaction. These modulation structures, in some cases, develop further to higher order modulation structures by additional modulations caused by higher order crystalline electric field, magnetic interactions such as spin-lattice interaction, external magnetic field and pressure. The higher order modulation structures are observed in a spin-slip structure or a helifan structure in Ho, and a tilt helix structure in a TbEr alloy. Paramagnetic ions originated from frustration generate many magnetic phases under applied external magnetic field. KUR neutron diffraction groups have performed the development and adjustment of high-pressure instruments and external magnetic fields for neutron diffraction spectrometers. The studies of 'neutron diffraction under extreme conditions' by the seven groups are described in this report. (Y. Kazumata)

  18. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S H; Kurt, M S; Roy, M; Lees, M R; Binns, C

    2016-02-03

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core.

  19. Structural analysis in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellepiane, S.; Serpico, S.B.; Venzano, L.; Vernazza, G.

    1987-01-01

    The conventional techniques in Pattern Recognition (PR) have been greatly improved by the introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches, in particular for knowledge representation, inference mechanism and control structure. The purpose of this paper is to describe an image understanding system, based on the integrated approach (AI - PR), developed in the author's Department to interpret Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) images. The system is characterized by a heterarchical control structure and a blackboard model for the global data-base. The major aspects of the system are pointed out, with particular reference to segmentation, knowledge representation and error recovery (backtracking). The eye slices obtained in the case of two patients have been analyzed and the related results are discussed

  20. Structural analysis of NPP components and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.; Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.

    1998-01-01

    Capabilities for effective structural integrity assessment have been created and extended in several important cases. In the paper presented applications deal with pressurised thermal shock loading, PTS, and severe dynamic loading cases of containment, reinforced concrete structures and piping components. Hydrogen combustion within the containment is considered in some severe accident scenarios. Can a steel containment withstand the postulated hydrogen detonation loads and still maintain its integrity? This is the topic of Chapter 2. The following Chapter 3 deals with a reinforced concrete floor subjected to jet impingement caused by a postulated rupture of a near-by high-energy pipe and Chapter 4 deals with dynamic loading resistance of the pipe lines under postulated pressure transients due to water hammer. The reliability of the structural integrity analysing methods and capabilities which have been developed for application in NPP component assessment, shall be evaluated and verified. The resources available within the RATU2 programme alone cannot allow performing of the large scale experiments needed for that purpose. Thus, the verification of the PTS analysis capabilities has been conducted by participation in international co-operative programmes. Participation to the European Network for Evaluating Steel Components (NESC) is the topic of a parallel paper in this symposium. The results obtained in two other international programmes are summarised in Chapters 5 and 6 of this paper, where PTS tests with a model vessel and benchmark assessment of a RPV nozzle integrity are described. (author)

  1. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Theory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project is to develop analysis techniques and computer programs for predicting the probabilistic response of critical structural components for current and future space propulsion systems. This technology will play a central role in establishing system performance and durability. The first year's technical activity is concentrating on probabilistic finite element formulation strategy and code development. Work is also in progress to survey critical materials and space shuttle mian engine components. The probabilistic finite element computer program NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) is being developed. The final probabilistic code will have, in the general case, the capability of performing nonlinear dynamic of stochastic structures. It is the goal of the approximate methods effort to increase problem solving efficiency relative to finite element methods by using energy methods to generate trial solutions which satisfy the structural boundary conditions. These approximate methods will be less computer intensive relative to the finite element approach.

  2. Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, S.; Pendry, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the effective permeability and permittivity of a nanostructured metallic photonic crystal by analysing the complex reflection and transmission coefficients for slabs of various thicknesses. These quantities were calculated using the transfer matrix method. Our results indicate that these structures could be used to realize a negative effective permeability, at least up to infrared frequencies. The origin of the negative permeability is a resonance due to the internal inductance and capacitance of the structure. We also present an analytic model for the effective permeability of the crystal. The model reveals the importance of the inertial inductance due to the finite mass of the electrons in the metal. We find that this contribution to the inductance has implications for the design of metallic magnetic structures in the optical region of the spectrum. We show that the magnetic activity in the structure is accompanied by the concentration of the incident field energy into very small volumes within the structure. This property will allow us to considerably enhance non-linear effects with minute quantities of material. (author)

  3. Magnet Cycles and Stability Periods of the CMS Structures from 2008 to 2013 as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document Magnet Cycles and Stability Periods of the CMS Experiment are studied with the recorded Alignment Link System data along the 2008 to 2013 years of operation. The motions of the mechanical structures due to the magnetic field forces are studied including an in-depth analysis of the relative distance between the endcap structures and the central Tracker body during the Stability Periods to verify the mechanical stability of the detector during the physics data taking.

  4. Magneto-structural properties and magnetic anisotropy of small transition-metal clusters: a first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonski, Piotr; Hafner, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio density-functional calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) have been performed for Ni and Pd clusters with three to six atoms and for 13-atom clusters of Ni, Pd, and Pt, extending earlier calculations for Pt clusters with up to six atoms (2011 J. Chem. Phys. 134 034107). The geometric and magnetic structures have been optimized for different orientations of the magnetization with respect to the crystallographic axes of the cluster. The magnetic anisotropy energies (MAE) and the anisotropies of spin and orbital moments have been determined. Particular attention has been paid to the correlation between the geometric and magnetic structures. The magnetic point group symmetry of the clusters varies with the direction of the magnetization. Even for a 3d metal such as Ni, the change in the magnetic symmetry leads to small geometric distortions of the cluster structure, which are even more pronounced for the 4d metal Pd. For a 5d metal the SOC is strong enough to change the energetic ordering of the structural isomers. SOC leads to a mixing of the spin states corresponding to the low-energy spin isomers identified in the scalar-relativistic calculations. Spin moments are isotropic only for Ni clusters, but anisotropic for Pd and Pt clusters, orbital moments are anisotropic for the clusters of all three elements. The magnetic anisotropy energies have been calculated. The comparison between MAE and orbital anisotropy invalidates a perturbation analysis of magnetic anisotropy for these small clusters.

  5. Safety analysis of the UTSI-CFFF superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Wang, S.T.; Smith, R.P.; VanderArend, P.C.; Hsu, Y.H.

    1979-01-01

    In designing a large superconducting magnet such as the UTSI-CFFF dipole, great attention must be devoted to the safety of the magnet and personnel. The conductor for the UTSI-CFFF magnet incorporates much copper stabilizer, which both insures its cryostability, and contributes to the magnet safety. The quench analysis and the cryostat fault condition analysis are presented. Two analyses of exposed turns follow; the first shows that gas cooling protects uncovered turns; the second, that the cryostat pressure relief system protects them. Finally the failure mode and safety analysis is presented

  6. Magnetic analysis of tokamak plasma with approximate MHD equilibrium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Hiraki, Naoji

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic analysis method for determining equilibrium configuration parameters (plasma shape, poloidal beta and internal inductance) on a non-circular tokamak is described. The feature is to utilize an approximate MHD equilibrium solution which explicitly relates the configuration parameters with the magnetic fields picked up by magnetic sensors. So this method is suitable for the real-time analysis performed during a tokamak discharge. A least-squares fitting procedure is added to the analytical algorithm in order to reduce the errors in the magnetic analysis. The validity is investigated through the numerical calculation for a tokamak equilibrium model. (author)

  7. Influence of the preparation route on the magnetic and structural properties of cobalt ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revoredo Junior, Frederico Alves; Silva Junior, Jose Holanda da; Hernandez, Eduardo Padron

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were produced using two methods of preparation, co-precipitation and reaction in the solid state. In synthesis made by solid state reaction was performed by heat treatment at 1200 ° C for four hours alternating with triturations to increase the efficiency of the process. The synthesis by coprecipitation was made with different flows of addition of alkali (NaOH). All samples were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction and the average size of the crystals was obtained by Scherrer's formula and the Williamson-Hall method. The magnetic measurements were made as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature. Qualitative analyzes of energy dispersive spectroscopy defined the elements of sampling and analysis. Finally, Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis defined the magnetic character of the samples. (author)

  8. Progressive Transformation between Two Magnetic Ground States for One Crystal Structure of a Chiral Molecular Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Nishihara, Sadafumi; Inoue, Katsuya; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2016-03-21

    We report the exceptional observation of two different magnetic ground states (MGS), spin glass (SG, T(B) = 7 K) and ferrimagnet (FI, T(C) = 18 K), for one crystal structure of [{Mn(II)(D/L-NH2ala)}3{Mn(III)(CN)6}]·3H2O obtained from [Mn(CN)6](3-) and D/L-aminoalanine, in contrast to one MGS for [{Mn(II)(L-NH2ala)}3{Cr(III)(CN)6}]·3H2O. They consist of three Mn(NH2ala) helical chains bridged by M(III)(CN)6 to give the framework with disordered water molecules in channels and between the M(III)(CN)6. Both MGS are characterized by a negative Weiss constant, bifurcation in ZFC-FC magnetizations, blocking of the moments, both components of the ac susceptibilities, and hysteresis. They differ in the critical temperatures, absolute magnetization for 5 Oe FC (lack of spontaneous magnetization for the SG), and the shapes of the hysteresis and coercive fields. While isotropic pressure increases both T(crit) and the magnetizations linearly and reversibly in each case, dehydration progressively transforms the FI into the SG as followed by concerted in situ magnetic measurements and single-crystal diffraction. The relative strengths of the two moderate Mn(III)-CN-Mn(II) antiferromagnetic (J1 and J2), the weak Mn(II)-OCO-Mn(II) (J3), and Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya antisymmetric (DM) interactions generate the two sets of characters. Examination of the bond lengths and angles for several crystals and their corresponding magnetic properties reveals a correlation between the distortion of Mn(III)(CN)6 and the MGS. SG is favored by higher magnetic anisotropy by less distorted Mn(III)(CN)6 in good accordance with the Mn-Cr system. This conclusion is also born out of the magnetization measurements on orientated single crystals with fields parallel and perpendicular to the unique c axis of the hexagonal space group.

  9. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, F-92195 (France); Ariste, A. López, E-mail: p.levens.1@research.gla.ac.uk [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-10

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  10. Interplay between structural symmetry and magnetism in Ag–Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Tsung-Wen; Lai, S.K., E-mail: sklai@coll.phy.ncu.edu.tw

    2016-01-01

    We present first-principles theoretical calculations of the magnetic properties of bimetallic clusters Ag–Cu. The calculations proceeded by combining a previously developed state-of-the-art optimization algorithm (P.J. Hsu, S.K. Lai, J. Chem. Phys. 124 (2006) 0447110) with an empirical potential and applied this numerical scheme to determine first the lowest energy structures of pure clusters Ag{sub 38} and Cu{sub 38}, and also their different atomic compositions Ag{sub n}Cu{sub 38−n} for n=1,2,…,37. Then, we carried out the Kohn–Sham spin unrestricted density functional theory calculations on the optimized atomic structures obtained in the preceding step. Given the minimized structures from the first step as input configurations, the results of these re-optimized structures by full density functional theory calculations yield more refined electronic and atomic structures. A thorough comparison of the structural differences between these two sets of atomic geometries, one from using an empirical potential in which the electronic degrees of freedom were included approximately and another from subsequent minimization using the spin unrestricted density functional theory, sheds light on how the electronic charges disperse near atoms in clusters Ag{sub n}Cu{sub 38−n}, and hence the distributions of electronic spin and charge densities at re-optimized sites of the cluster. These data of the electronic dispersion and the ionic configuration give clue to the mystery of the unexpected net magnetic moments which were found in some of the clusters Ag{sub n}Cu{sub 38−n} at n=1–4, 24 as well as the two pure clusters. Possible origins for this unanticipated magnetism were explained in the context of the point group theory in much the same idea as the Clemenger–Nilsson model applied to simple metal clusters except that we draw particular attention to the atomic topologies and stress the bearing that they have on valence electrons in inducing them to disperse and

  11. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design

  12. Structure design of the Westinghouse superconducting magnet for the Large Coil Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domeisen, F.N.; Hackworth, D.T.; Stuebinger, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    In the on-going development of superconducting toroidal field coils for tokamak reactors, the Large Coil Program (LCP) managed by Union Carbide Corporation will include the design, fabrication, and testing of large superconducting coils to determine their feasibility for use in the magnetic fusion energy effort. Structural analysis of the large coil is essential to ensure adequate safety in the test coil design and confidence in the scalability of the design. This paper will discuss the action of tensile and shear loads on the various materials used in the coil. These loads are of magnetic and thermal origin

  13. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established. - Highlights: • The dendrimer structure is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. • The transition temperatures are obtained for different coordination numbers and generations. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle has been established. • The dendrimer structure exhibit the superparamagnetic behavior.

  14. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com; Jabar, A.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established. - Highlights: • The dendrimer structure is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. • The transition temperatures are obtained for different coordination numbers and generations. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle has been established. • The dendrimer structure exhibit the superparamagnetic behavior.

  15. Ultrahigh energy nuclei propagation in a structured, magnetized universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armengaud, Eric; Sigl, Guenter; Miniati, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    We compare the propagation of iron and proton nuclei above 10 19 eV in a structured Universe with source and magnetic field distributions obtained from a large-scale structure simulation and source densities ∼10 -5 Mpc -3 . All relevant cosmic ray interactions are taken into account, including photo-disintegration and propagation of secondary products. Iron injection predicts spectral shapes different from proton injection which disagree with existing data below ≅30 EeV. Injection of light nuclei or protons must therefore contribute at these energies. However, at higher energies, existing data are consistent with injection of pure iron with spectral indices between ∼2 and ∼2.4. This allows a significant recovery of the spectrum above ≅100 EeV, especially in the case of large deflections. Significant autocorrelation and anisotropy, and considerable cosmic variance are also predicted in this energy range. The mean atomic mass fluctuates considerably between different scenarios. At energies below 60 EeV, if the observed A > or approx. 35, magnetic fields must have a negligible effect on propagation. At the highest energies the observed flux will be dominated by only a few sources whose location may be determined by next generation experiments to within 10-20 deg. even if extra-galactic magnetic fields are important

  16. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established.

  17. Magnetic structure of RPdSn (R=Tb, Ho) single crystal compounds under strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Y.; Kurisu, M.; Nakamoto, G.; Tsutaoka, T.; Kawano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth compounds RTX, where R stands for rare earth elements, T for Ni, Pd or Rh, and X for Sn or Ge, crystallize to a rhombic ε-TiNiSi structure. Only rare earth elements R contribute to magnetic properties since T and X atoms are nonmagnetic. The competition between RKKY indirect interaction and large magnetic anisotropy generates many complicated magnetic phases. At a low temperature phase, complicated magnetisms such as meta-magnetism were observed in magnetization curves with many steps. In previous experiments dealing with RPdSn where R means Tb or Ho, some characteristics of magnetic properties of these compounds were deduced from magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction without external magnetic field. In this report, the change of magnetic scattering of neutron diffraction was studied under external magnetic fields in order to reveal the mechanism of the phase transformations of the compounds. The difference between TbPdSn and HoPdSn compounds was observed in magnetic field dependence of the wave vectors of the magnetic scattering. Two independent wave vectors in magnetic scattering existed in HoPdSn compound. (Y. Kazumata)

  18. Magnetic properties of rare earth oxides with perovskite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    A perovskite composite oxide is represented by the general formula of ABO 3 . Cations at the B site characterize magnetic properties of the oxide. Many studies have been accumulated for transition metal elements at the B sites. In this report the studies of rare earth elements at the B sites are reviewed. In rare elements, tetravalent ions such as Ce 4+ , Pr 4+ and Tb 4+ can occupy the B sites with Ba and Sr ions at the A sites. Both the SrTbO 3 and BaTbO 3 have an orthorhombic structure and show the antiferromagnetic transition at about 33 K, which is originated from terbium ions coupled antiferromagnetically with the six neighboring terbium ions. A tetravalent praseodymium perovskite SrPrO 3 shows no existence of the magnetic ordering down to 2.0 K. This is in contrast to the result of isomorphous BaPrO 3 , which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 11.5 K. A double perovskite structure is represented by the formula A 2 LnMO 6 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Ru, Ir). In a double perovskite compound Ba 2 PrRuO 6 , the Pr 3+ and Ru 5+ ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites. This compound transforms to an antiferromagnetic state below 117 K. Antiferromagnetic transition temperatures T N for isomorphous Sr and Ca show a clear tendency, T N (A=Ba)>T N (Sr)>T N (Ca), in the compounds with the same rare earth elements (Ln). The 6H-perovskite structure Ba 3 LnRu 2 O 9 consists of linkages between LnO 6 octahedra and Ru 2 O 9 dimers made from face-shared RuO 6 octahedra. The 6H-perovskite structure Ba 3 MRu 2 O 9 (M=Sc, Y, La, Nd-Gd, Dy-Lu) have the valence state of Ba 3 M 3+ Ru 2 4.5+ O 9 . The magnetic susceptibilities show a broad maximum at 135-370 K. This magnetic behavior is ascribed to the antiferromagnetic coupling between two Ru ions in a Ru 2 O 9 dimer and to the magnetic interaction between the Ru 2 O 9 dimers. (author)

  19. Structural and magnetic investigation of dilute magnetic semiconductors based on GaN and ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammermeier, Tom

    2010-01-19

    The two wide band gap dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) Gd:GaN and Co:ZnO are among the most favored materials for spintronic applications. Despite intense research efforts during the last years, the origin of the magnetic order is still under debate. This work reports structural and magnetic investigations on these DMS materials employing several complementary techniques. The X-ray linear dichroism (XLD) has been used to gain element-specific insight into the local structure of dopants and cations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to probe the global structural properties. Magnetic characterization by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been complemented by electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Gd:GaN samples were fabricated by focused-ion-beam (FIB) implantation and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Room temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior as found for some of our samples by SQUID could not be reliably reproduced. Instead XMCD measurements at the Gd L{sub 3}-edge reveal paramagnetic behavior of the dopant. Additionally a possible magnetic polarization of Ga atoms of the host crystal is shown to be too small to explain the total magnetization of these samples. In some samples the formation of Gd and GdN clusters was evidenced by ESR measurements but it can only account for low temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior. Intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism of this material as seen by SQUID cannot be confirmed by any other technique - neither ESR nor XMCD. Co:ZnO samples used for this work were predominantly grown by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS). As shown by XLD analysis, 95% of the Co atoms are incorporated on substitutional Zn-sites in samples of best structural quality. These samples consistently show paramagnetic behavior as found by SQUID, XMCD and ESR. RMS growth of Co:ZnO with reduced oxygen partial pressure yields a magnetic behavior known from ferromagnetic nanoclusters. The X

  20. Integrated piping structural analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoi, Toshio; Yamadera, Masao; Horino, Satoshi; Idehata, Takamasa

    1979-01-01

    Structural analysis of the piping system for nuclear power plants has become larger in scale and in quantity. In addition, higher quality analysis is regarded as of major importance nowadays from the point of view of nuclear plant safety. In order to fulfill to the above requirements, an integrated piping structural analysis system (ISAP-II) has been developed. Basic philosophy of this system is as follows: 1. To apply the date base system. All information is concentrated. 2. To minimize the manual process in analysis, evaluation and documentation. Especially to apply the graphic system as much as possible. On the basis of the above philosophy four subsystems were made. 1. Data control subsystem. 2. Analysis subsystem. 3. Plotting subsystem. 4. Report subsystem. Function of the data control subsystem is to control all information of the data base. Piping structural analysis can be performed by using the analysis subsystem. Isometric piping drawing and mode shape, etc. can be plotted by using the plotting subsystem. Total analysis report can be made without the manual process through the reporting subsystem. (author)

  1. Thermal and microstructural analysis of an aluminium A356 alloy solidified by magnetic agitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, O; Ordonez, S; Jarami, Dario; Colas, R

    2008-01-01

    A magnetic agitation device was designed using a permanently rotating magnetic field, in order to study the effect of applying a variable magnetic field to agitate cast metals during the solidification process. The procedure used to verify the machine's functioning involved smelting and casting a predefined amount of A356 alloy in the device with and without the application of the magnetic field and then characterizing the material obtained with standard procedures of metallographic analysis. The results obtained show that the application of a permanently rotating magnetic field produces a destruction of the cast dendritic structure. This is explained by the fact that a magnetic field that varies over time induces a f.e.m. in a fluid conductor that becomes an increased convective transport through the Lorentz force. This work also studied the kinetics of solidification. The alloy was heated to 680 o C and was cast in molds preheated to 200 o C. Tests were carried out with and without the application of magnetic agitation. The cooling curves were recorded to evaluate the effect of the magnetic agitation on the alloy's form of solidification. The thermal analysis of the cooling curves shows a decrease in the temperatures under which the formation of dendrites from the primary phase as well as from the eutectic Al-Si phase begins when a magnetic field is imposed. A series of intermetallic AlFeSi type compounds appear in these alloys, which display noticeable refining and redistribution from the magnetic agitation (au)

  2. Micro-scale grain-size analysis and magnetic properties of coal-fired power plant fly ash and its relevance for environmental magnetic pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, U.; Sapkota, B.; Appel, E.; Stanjek, H.; Rosler, W. [University of Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany). Inst. of Geoscience

    2008-11-15

    Two fly ash samples from a black coal-fired power plant (Bexbach, Germany) were investigated for their magnetic properties, particle structure, grain-size distribution and chemical composition. Grain-size distribution was determined on bulk samples and on magnetic extracts. Magnetic susceptibility of different grain-size fractions was analyzed with respect to the according amount of fractions, high- and low-temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility and thermal demagnetization of IRM identified magnetite and hematite as magnetic phases. Magnetic spherules were quantitatively extracted from bulk fly ash samples and examined using SEM/EDX analysis. Particle morphology and grain-size analysis on the magnetically extracted material were studied. Individual spherule types were identified and internal structures of selected polished particles were investigated by SEM and EDX analyses. Main element contents of the internal structures which consist of 'magnetite' crystals and 'glassy' matrix were systematically determined and statistically assessed. The chemical data of the micro-scale structures in the magnetic spherules were compared with XRF data from bulk material, revealing the relative element distribution in composed magnetic spherules. Comparison of the bulk sample grain-size (0.5-300 {mu}m) and grain-size spectra from magnetic extracts (1-186.5 {mu}m) shows that strongly magnetic particles mainly occur in the fine fractions of < 63 {mu}m. This study comprises a comprehensive characterization of coal-fired power plant fly ash, using magnetic, chemical, and microscopic methods. The results can serve as reference data for a variety of environmental magnetic studies.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, S.A. [Center of Materials Science, Karpov’ Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow, 105064 (Russian Federation); Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Tellgren, R. [Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Porcher, F.; André, G. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Saclay (France); Ericsson, T. [Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Nordblad, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sadovskaya, N.; Kaleva, G.; Politova, E. [Center of Materials Science, Karpov’ Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow, 105064 (Russian Federation); Baldini, M. [HPSynC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sun, C. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Arvanitis, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Anil Kumar, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Mathieu, R., E-mail: roland.mathieu@angstrom.uu.se [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-05

    Spinel-type compounds of Fe–Ni–Sb–O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The crystal and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd – 3 m. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites was refined from the diffraction data sets using constraints imposed by the magnetic, Mössbauer and EDS results and the ionic radii. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter (a) and the oxygen positional parameter (u) were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 1.8}Sb{sub 0.4}O{sub 4} was determined, with Sb{sup 5+} cations occupying octahedral sites, and Fe{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+} occupying both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Fe{sup 3+} mainly (85/15 ratio) occupy tetrahedral sites, and conversely Ni{sup 2+} mainly reside on octahedral ones. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline spinel-type compounds of (Fe,Ni)[Fe,Ni,Sb]2O4 were synthesized. • Fe (3+) and Ni (2+) cations occupy mainly tetrahedral (resp. octahedral) sites. • The ferrimagnetic behavior observed below 650 K is investigated in detail. • Squid magnetometry and neutron powder diffraction data are compared.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.A.; Tellgren, R.; Porcher, F.; André, G.; Ericsson, T.; Nordblad, P.; Sadovskaya, N.; Kaleva, G.; Politova, E.; Baldini, M.; Sun, C.; Arvanitis, D.; Anil Kumar, P.; Mathieu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type compounds of Fe–Ni–Sb–O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The crystal and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd – 3 m. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites was refined from the diffraction data sets using constraints imposed by the magnetic, Mössbauer and EDS results and the ionic radii. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter (a) and the oxygen positional parameter (u) were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe 0.8 Ni 1.8 Sb 0.4 O 4 was determined, with Sb 5+ cations occupying octahedral sites, and Fe 3+ and Ni 2+ occupying both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Fe 3+ mainly (85/15 ratio) occupy tetrahedral sites, and conversely Ni 2+ mainly reside on octahedral ones. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline spinel-type compounds of (Fe,Ni)[Fe,Ni,Sb]2O4 were synthesized. • Fe (3+) and Ni (2+) cations occupy mainly tetrahedral (resp. octahedral) sites. • The ferrimagnetic behavior observed below 650 K is investigated in detail. • Squid magnetometry and neutron powder diffraction data are compared

  5. Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.

  6. Analysis and design of permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing based on hybrid factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, hybrid factor is proposed for hybrid magnetic bearing. The hybrid factor is defined as the ratio of the force produced by the permanent magnet and the forces produced by the permanent magnet and current in hybrid magnetic bearing. It is deduced from a certain radial hybrid magnetic bearing using its important parameters such as the current stiffness and displacement stiffness at first and then the dynamic model of magnetically suspended rotor system is established. The relationship between structural parameters and control system parameters is analyzed based on the hybrid factor. Some influencing factors of hybrid factor in hybrid magnetic bearing, such as the size of the permanent magnet, length of air gap, and area of the stator poles, are analyzed in this article. It can be concluded that larger hybrid factor can be caused by the smaller power loss according to the definition of hybrid factor mentioned above. Meanwhile, the hybrid factor has a maximum value, which is related to control system parameters such as proportional factor expect for structural parameters. Finally, the design steps of parameters of hybrid magnetic bearing can be concluded.

  7. Effect of annealing on magnetic properties and structure of Fe-Ni based magnetic microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, V.; Korchuganova, O. A.; Aleev, A. A.; Tcherdyntsev, V. V.; Churyukanova, M.; Medvedeva, E. V.; Seils, S.; Wagner, J.; Ipatov, M.; Blanco, J. M.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Aronin, A.; Abrosimova, G.; Orlova, N.; Zhukov, A.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the magnetic properties and domain wall (DW) dynamics of Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 and Fe77.5Si7.5B15 microwires. Both samples present rectangular hysteresis loop and fast magnetization switching. Considerable enhancement of DW velocity is observed in Fe77.5Si7.5B15, while DW velocity of samples Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 is less affected by annealing. The other difference is the magnetic field range of the linear region on dependence of domain wall velocity upon magnetic field: in Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 sample is considerably shorter and drastically decreases after annealing. We discussed the influence of annealing on DW dynamics considering different magnetoelastic anisotropy of studied microwires and defects within the amorphous state in Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2. Consequently we studied the structure of Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 sample using X-ray diffraction and the atom probe tomography. The results obtained using the atom probe tomography supports the formation of the B-depleted and Si-enriched precipitates in the metallic nucleus of Fe-Ni based microwires.

  8. Varieties of Dioptase: Their Magnetic Structure and Collective Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, T.; Hoffmann, C.; Kolesnikov, A.; Anovitz, L. M.; Matsuda, M.; Podlesnyak, A.; Yan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Diopase [Cu6Si6O18 * 6 H2O] is a copper cyclosilicate mineral that exists within three different polymorphic forms. In the naturally occurring green phase, micropore channels are formed by corrugated rings of Si6O18 connected by Cu2+ ions. These channels contain rings of water molecules H2O which are co-ordinated to the Cu2+ ions, forming Jahn-Teller distorted octahedra. This results in the polymorph's green color. When the mineral is annealed at 400 C, it transforms into a blue polymorph where the positions of the the water molecules H2O become disordered within the channels. If annealed at 600 C, the water molecules are expelled from crystal structure altogether, leaving intact a framework where where the copper atom has quasi-planar co-ordination with neighboring oxygen atoms. The Cu2+ ions are responsible for the appearance of long-range antiferromagnetic order in green dioptase at 14 K. Comparative magnetic susceptibility measurements of these polymorphs demonstrate that altering the hydration state of the mineral leads to profound changes in its magnetic properties. This is presumably due to the fact that the local environment of the Cu2+ ions is modified by changes in the Cu atom's co-ordination with the water oxygen. Green, blue, and black dioptase together provide a case study in the coupling of a mineral's hydration state to its magnetic properties. In this presentation, we report upon a comparative study of dioptase polymorphs. We have applied heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, single-crystal diffraction, and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. Magnetic diffraction patterns were obtained using the Polarized Triple Axis Spectrometer at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, while measurements of the spin wave dispersion were performed using the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source. We find that, in green dioptase, the Cu2+ ions form spiral antiferromagnetic chains parallel to the micropore channels. However, in blue

  9. Magnetic interactions and electronic structure of Ni–Mn–In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, Sunil Wilfred [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Chakrabarti, Aparna [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Barman, Sudipta Roy, E-mail: barmansr@gmail.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The ground state of Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6} is ferromagnetic. • The magnetic moments of Ni–Mn–In are in good agreement with the magnetization measurements. • Exchange coupling parameters exhibit a strong competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations. • Jahn–Teller splitting of the Ni 3d e{sub g} states drives the martensite transformation. - Abstract: The electronic structure and magnetic properties of a magnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn–In have been studied using spin polarized fully relativistic Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (SPRKKR) method. The total energy calculations with different starting magnetic spin configurations show that the ground state of Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6} is ferromagnetic. The spin and orbital magnetic moments of Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6} and Ni{sub 2}MnIn are in good agreement with the magnetization measurements. The exchange coupling parameters of the different sublattice interactions exhibit a strong competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations, due to the substitution of excess Mn atoms at the In site in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6}. The Curie temperature of Ni{sub 2}MnIn, calculated under a mean field approximation, is found to be in relatively good agreement with the experimental values. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn does not undergo martensite transition, it is shown that a Jahn–Teller splitting of the Ni 3d e{sub g} states plays an important role in driving the martensite transformation in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6}. We find that both the calculated ultra-violet photoemission spectra and the inverse photoemission spectra are in good agreement with the existing experimental data.

  10. Structure of transformer oil-based magnetic fluids studied using acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Drga, Jozef; Kopčanský, Peter; Závišová, Vlasta; Timko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The structural changes in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the effect of an external magnetic field and temperature were studied by acoustic spectroscopy. The attenuation of acoustic wave was measured as a function of the magnetic field in the range of 0–300 mT and in the temperature range of 15–35 °C for various magnetic nanoparticles concentrations. The effect of anisotropy of the acoustic attenuation was determined, too. The both strong influence of the magnetic field on the acoustic attenuation and its hysteresis were observed. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles occurs, leading to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids also has very important influence on the structural changes because of the mechanism of thermal motion that acts against the cluster creation. The observed influences of both magnetic field and temperature on the investigated magnetic fluid structure are discussed. - Highlights: ► Structural changes in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids were investigated. ► The acoustic spectroscopy as the method of investigation was used. ► The influence of magnetic field on the structural was studied. ► The influence of temperatures on the structures was investigated, too. ► The influence of external conditions on the structure of MF is interpreted.

  11. Structure of transformer oil-based magnetic fluids studied using acoustic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudelcik, Jozef, E-mail: kudelcik@fyzika.uniza.sk [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 01 Zilina (Slovakia); Bury, Peter; Drga, Jozef [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 01 Zilina (Slovakia); Kopcansky, Peter; Zavisova, Vlasta; Timko, Milan [Department of Magnetism, IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2013-01-15

    The structural changes in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the effect of an external magnetic field and temperature were studied by acoustic spectroscopy. The attenuation of acoustic wave was measured as a function of the magnetic field in the range of 0-300 mT and in the temperature range of 15-35 Degree-Sign C for various magnetic nanoparticles concentrations. The effect of anisotropy of the acoustic attenuation was determined, too. The both strong influence of the magnetic field on the acoustic attenuation and its hysteresis were observed. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles occurs, leading to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids also has very important influence on the structural changes because of the mechanism of thermal motion that acts against the cluster creation. The observed influences of both magnetic field and temperature on the investigated magnetic fluid structure are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural changes in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acoustic spectroscopy as the method of investigation was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of magnetic field on the structural was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of temperatures on the structures was investigated, too. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of external conditions on the structure of MF is interpreted.

  12. Cryogenic expansion joint for large superconducting magnet structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    An expansion joint is provided that accommodates dimensional changes occurring during the cooldown and warm-up of large cryogenic devices such as superconducting magnet coils. Flattened tubes containing a refrigerant such as gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) are inserted into expansion spaces in the structure. The gaseous N.sub.2 is circulated under pressure and aids in the cooldown process while providing its primary function of accommodating differential thermal contraction and expansion in the structure. After lower temperatures are reached and the greater part of the contraction has occured, the N.sub.2 liquefies then solidifies to provide a completely rigid structure at the cryogenic operating temperatures of the device.

  13. Analysis of Voltage Signals from Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizarazo, J.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A. F.; Sabbi, G. L.; Wang, X.

    2009-10-30

    We present two techniques used in the analysis of voltage tap data collected during recent tests of superconducting magnets developed by the Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The first technique was used on a quadrupole to provide information about quench origins that could not be obtained using the time-of-flight method. The second technique illustrates the use of data from transient flux imbalances occurring during magnet ramping to diagnose changes in the current-temperature margin of a superconducting cable. In both cases, the results of this analysis contributed to make improvements on subsequent magnets.

  14. Bayesian analysis of magnetic island dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, R.; Maraschek, M.; Zohm, H.; Dose, V.

    2003-01-01

    We examine a first order differential equation with respect to time used to describe magnetic islands in magnetically confined plasmas. The free parameters of this equation are obtained by employing Bayesian probability theory. Additionally, a typical Bayesian change point is solved in the process of obtaining the data

  15. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Ramu, S.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu_1_−_xCo_xS nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. • Structural, band gap, magnetization and photocatalysis studies were carried out. • All the doped samples exhibited intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism. • Effect of magnetic properties on photocatalytic activity was analyzed. • CuS:Co nanoparticles may find applications in photocatalytic and spintronic devices. - Abstract: Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV–vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  16. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Physics, Raghu Engineering College, Visakhapatnam, Andrapradesh 531162 (India); Amaranatha Reddy, D. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609735 (Korea, Republic of); Murali, G. [Department of BIN Fusion Technology & Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Ramu, S. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Rahul Varma, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Vijayalakshmi, R.P., E-mail: vijayaraguru@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}S nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. • Structural, band gap, magnetization and photocatalysis studies were carried out. • All the doped samples exhibited intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism. • Effect of magnetic properties on photocatalytic activity was analyzed. • CuS:Co nanoparticles may find applications in photocatalytic and spintronic devices. - Abstract: Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV–vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Sail Spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Usui, Hideyuki; Funaki, Ikkoh; Kojima, Hirotsugu

    2008-01-01

    To capture the kinetic energy of the solar wind by creating a large magnetosphere around the spacecraft, magneto-plasma sail injects a plasma jet into a strong magnetic field produced by an electromagnet onboard the spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) on the magnetosphere of magneto-plasma sail. First, using an axi-symmetric two-dimensional MHD code, we numerically confirm the magnetic field inflation, and the formation of a magnetosphere by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field. The expansion of an artificial magnetosphere by the plasma injection is then simulated, and we show that the magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field expanded by the plasma jet from the spacecraft. This simulation indicates the size of the artificial magnetosphere becomes smaller when applying the IMF.

  18. Improving torque per kilogram magnet of permanent magnet couplings using finite element analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Stig; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and subsequent findings of a performance-improvement routine that employs automated finite element (FE) analysis to increase the torque-per-kilogram-magnet (TPKM) of a permanent magnet coupling (PMC). The routine is applied to a commercially available cylindrical...

  19. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Firstly, we discuss the use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed prototype Test Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is the same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to he checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, we make use of ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47, for high temperature design. The problem faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's breakdown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields. In other fields, namely, inelastic analysis, piping analysis in the creep regime etc. we are only at a start

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of the magnetic and structural properties of novel nanophase magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milford, G.H.

    2000-08-01

    identify the position of the Fe 3+ component within the particle. As Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy is a surface sensitive technique with over 90% of the signal produced in the first 100nm of the particles different spectra should result for different structures. Unfortunately as the particles were orientated at an angle to the gamma-ray direction this investigation was inconclusive. Ferrofluid samples have provided a model system to investigate the superparamagnetic relaxation phenomena of different sized spherical particles of iron oxide with diameters of 5-7 nm. Moessbauer Spectroscopy in conjunction with Thermal Decay of Remanence has identified τ 0 to be approximately 1 x 10 -10 s for all the different particle sizes. This work provides evidence for the hypothesis that τ 0 is related to the material and it is not a function of the particle size. In addition to this the ferrofluid samples have been studied using high field Moessbauer Spectroscopy in order to characterise the structure of the spherical particles. This has resulted in a model for the physical and chemical structure of the particles. The particles consist of an internal ferrimagnetic core of γ-Fe 2 O 3 surrounded by a γ-Fe 2 O 3 canted ferrimagnetic surface layer. The depth of the surface layer remains constant with varying particle size. Ferritin extracted from Listeria innocua bacterium has been studied to provide information about the physical and magnetic structure of the iron containing core. Variable temperature Moessbauer Spectroscopy has shown that Listeria innocua ferritin behaves in a different manner to all ferritins studied previously. The iron core undergoes a magnetic collapse with no evidence of superparamagnetism at 20K resulting in a magnetically split sextet with narrow linewidths at 4.2K corresponding to an Fe 3+ compound. Listeria innocua ferritin has therefore been identified as having a new form of iron containing core. (author)

  1. A Novel Integrated Structure with a Radial Displacement Sensor and a Permanent Magnet Biased Radial Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel integrated structure is proposed in order to reduce the axial length of the high speed of a magnetically suspended motor (HSMSM to ensure the maximum speed, which combines radial displacement sensor probes and the permanent magnet biased radial magnetic bearing in HSMSM. The sensor probes are integrated in the magnetic bearing, and the sensor preamplifiers are placed in the control system of the HSMSM, separate from the sensor probes. The proposed integrated structure can save space in HSMSMs, improve the working frequency, reduce the influence of temperature on the sensor circuit, and improve the stability of HSMSMs.

  2. Reactor structure and superconducting magnet system of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Eisuke; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Shimamoto, Susumu

    1993-01-01

    Fusion Experimental Reactors are one of the major steps toward realization of the fusion energy and the key objective are to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility prior to the Demo Fusion Reactor. ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is one of experimental reactors and the conceptual design has been completed by the united efforts of USA, USSR, EC and Japan. In parallel with the conceptual design, key technology development in various areas has being conducted. This paper describes the overall design concepts and the latest technological achievements of the ITER reactor structure and superconducting magnet system. (author)

  3. Nondestructive evaluation using dipole model analysis with a scan type magnetic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyi; Hwang, Jiseong

    2005-12-01

    Large structures such as nuclear power, thermal power, chemical and petroleum refining plants are drawing interest with regard to the economic aspect of extending component life in respect to the poor environment created by high pressure, high temperature, and fatigue, securing safety from corrosion and exceeding their designated life span. Therefore, technology that accurately calculates and predicts degradation and defects of aging materials is extremely important. Among different methods available, nondestructive testing using magnetic methods is effective in predicting and evaluating defects on the surface of or surrounding ferromagnetic structures. It is important to estimate the distribution of magnetic field intensity for applicable magnetic methods relating to industrial nondestructive evaluation. A magnetic camera provides distribution of a quantitative magnetic field with a homogeneous lift-off and spatial resolution. It is possible to interpret the distribution of magnetic field when the dipole model was introduced. This study proposed an algorithm for nondestructive evaluation using dipole model analysis with a scan type magnetic camera. The numerical and experimental considerations of the quantitative evaluation of several sizes and shapes of cracks using magnetic field images of the magnetic camera were examined.

  4. Filament shape versus coronal potential magnetic field structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filament shape in projection on disc depends on the structure of the coronal magnetic field. We calculate the position of polarity inversion lines (PILs) of coronal potential magnetic field at different heights above the photosphere, which compose the magnetic neutral surface, and compare with them the distribution of the filament material in Hα chromospheric images. We found that the most of the filament material is enclosed between two PILs, one at a lower height close to the chromosphere and one at a higher level, which can be considered as a height of the filament spine. Observations of the same filament on the limb by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft confirm that the height of the spine is really very close to the value obtained from the PIL and filament border matching. Such matching can be used for filament height estimations in on-disc observations. Filament barbs are housed within protruding sections of the low-level PIL. On the base of simple model, we show that the similarity of the neutral surfaces in potential and non-potential fields with the same sub-photospheric sources is the reason for the found tendency for the filament material to gather near the potential-field neutral surface.

  5. Restoration the domain structure from magnetic force microscopy image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongping; Lou, Yuanfu; Wei, Fulin; Wei, Dan

    2012-04-01

    This contribution gives an approximation method to calculate the stray field of the scanning plane from the magnetic force microscopy (MFM) force gradient image. Before calculation, a Butterworth low-pass filter has been used to remove a part of the noise of the image. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) method has been used to calculate the magnetic potential of the film surface. It shows that the potential is not correct because the low-frequency noise has been enlarged. The approximation method gives a better result of the potential and proves that the MFM force gradient of the perpendicular component image also gives the perpendicular component of the stray field. Supposing that the distance between the tip and the sample is as small as near zero, the force gradient image also gives the magnetic charge distribution of the film surface. So if the orientation of the film from hysteresis loop is known, then the domain structure of the film can be determined. For perpendicular orientation, the absolution value of the perpendicular component of stray field gives the domain and domain wall position. For in-plane orientation, the absolution value of in-plane component of stray field gives the domain and domain wall position.

  6. Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor and Mechanical Structure Design for the Electric Impact Wrench System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyuan He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical method to design an interior permanent magnet brushless DC electric motor (IPMBLDC motor for a kind of electric impact wrench used for loading and unloading car bolts. It takes into account magnet assembly gap, rotor saturation webs, and bridges. Assumed flux leakage coefficient and selected working point of a permanent magnet were used in the initial design. An advanced equivalent magnetic circuit was developed to verify the total flux leakage and the quiescent operating point based on initial design parameters. Key design method points are considered and analyzed. Thermal analysis is given to simulate the temperature rise of all parts of the motor. The new impact wrench mechanical structure is designed, and its working principle analyzed. An electromagnetic field analysis based on MATLAB and the MAXWELL 2D finite element method (FEM were used in the design to verify the equivalent magnetic circuit and optimize the IPMBLDC motor parameters. Experimental results are obtained to verify the design. The electrical and mechanical designs are combined and an analytical IPMBLDC motor design method is provided. We also show an innovative and reasonable mechanical dynamical calculation method for the impact wrench system, which can be used in whole system design of other functional electric tools.

  7. Shakedown analysis of elastoplastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Classical shakedown analysis rests on the assumptions of perfectly plastic, associative temperature-independent constitutive laws, negligible inertia and damping forces and negligible geometric effects. This paper provides a survey of the recent literature on the structural behaviour under variable repeated loads, with emphasis on the developments which relaxed some of the above assumptions, but preserved the character of generalization of limit analysis typical of the 'classical' shakedown theory and methods of analysis and design (in contrast to evolutive, step-by-step approaches of incremental plasticity). (orig.)

  8. Structures of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and comparison with their solar sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science/CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Qiu, Jiong [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Dasgupta, B.; Khare, A.; Webb, G. M., E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu, E-mail: qiu@physics.montana.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Whether a magnetic flux rope is pre-existing or formed in situ in the Sun's atmosphere, there is little doubt that magnetic reconnection is essential to release the flux rope during its ejection. During this process, the question remains: how does magnetic reconnection change the flux-rope structure? In this work, we continue with the original study of Qiu et al. by using a larger sample of flare-coronal mass ejection (CME)-interplanetary CME (ICME) events to compare properties of ICME/magnetic cloud (MC) flux ropes measured at 1 AU and properties of associated solar progenitors including flares, filaments, and CMEs. In particular, the magnetic field-line twist distribution within interplanetary magnetic flux ropes is systematically derived and examined. Our analysis shows that, similar to what was found before, for most of these events, the amount of twisted flux per AU in MCs is comparable with the total reconnection flux on the Sun, and the sign of the MC helicity is consistent with the sign of the helicity of the solar source region judged from the geometry of post-flare loops. Remarkably, we find that about half of the 18 magnetic flux ropes, most of them associated with erupting filaments, have a nearly uniform and relatively low twist distribution from the axis to the edge, and the majority of the other flux ropes exhibit very high twist near the axis, up to ≳ 5 turns per AU, which decreases toward the edge. The flux ropes are therefore not linearly force-free. We also conduct detailed case studies showing the contrast of two events with distinct twist distribution in MCs as well as different flare and dimming characteristics in solar source regions, and discuss how reconnection geometry reflected in flare morphology may be related to the structure of the flux rope formed on the Sun.

  9. System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Campbell

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

  10. Advanced welding for closed structure. Pt. 1 The magnetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacripanti, A.; Paoloni, M.; Sagratella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    This report describes the activities developed for the European Contract BRITE AWCS III to study the use of magnetic sensing techniques to obtain an accurate detection of the internal reinforcement of the closed steel structures employed in the shipbuilding industry. After a description of the methods, techniques and problems for the magnetic testing of materials in the conventional approach, a new method was tried to obtain the wanted results. The obtained conclusion shows that the magnetic non destructive testing approach produce very small effects to measure, are too much sensible to the anisotropy of the magnetic properties of the steel plates and to the quality of the contact with the reinforcement. This system is not flexible enough to assemble a sensing for the goal of the BRITE AWCS III. [Italian] Questo rapporto descrive le attivita' sperimentali sviluppate nell'ambito del contratto europeo BRITE AWCS III, in cui si sono utilizzate tecniche magnetiche per ottenere un preciso rilevamento dei rinforzi interni di strutture metalliche chiuse utilizzate nell'industria delle costruzioni navali. Dopo la descrizione dei metodi, delle tecniche e dei problemi riguardanti il testing magnetico dei materiali, e' stato introdotto un approccio innovativo basato su elettromagneti costruiti ad hoc. Le conclusioni ottenute mostrano che nel nuovo approccio, il testing magnetico non distruttivo produce perturbazioni troppo piccole per essere correttamente apprezzate, risulta inoltre troppo legato alle anisotropie ed alla qualita' del contatto tra piatto e web ed infine esso appare poco flessibile per soddisfare le richieste tecniche del BRITE AWCS III.

  11. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Kalavathy [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Department of Physics, Women’s Christian College, Chennai 600006 (India); Kumarsan, Dhanapal [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Vengidusamy, Naryanan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Arumainathan, Stephen, E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  12. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhi, Kalavathy; Kumarsan, Dhanapal; Vengidusamy, Naryanan; Arumainathan, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  13. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of transition-metal embedded zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guodong; Lü Xiaoling; Jiang Liwei; Gao Wenzhu; Zheng Yisong

    2013-01-01

    By means of ab initio calculations within density-functional theory, the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of a zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with 3d transition-metal atoms (TMAs) (Sc–Zn) embedded in the periodically distributed single vacancies are systematically studied. Different from the pristine ZGNR, all of these composite structures show the subband structures with nontrivial spin polarizations, regardless of the type and the embedding position of the TMA. Embedding one kind of these atoms (V, Cr, Ni, Cu or Zn) near one ribbon edge can cause a notable edge distortion. Except for the cases of Sc, Fe and Co doping, other kinds of TMAs embedded near an edge of the ribbon can suppress the inherent magnetism of the zigzag edge. By further analysis, we find that two effects are responsible for the suppression of edge magnetism. One is the variation of the occupied spin-polarized subbands due to the hybridization of the edge state of the ZGNR and 3d atomic states of the dopant. The other is the delocalization of the edge state caused by the exotic TMA. The unilateral magnetism of these TMA-embedded ZGNRs can be utilized to realize the spin-polarized electronic transport, which is the key electronic property in the context of spintronics applications of carbon-based materials. (paper)

  14. The local structure, magnetic, and transport properties of Cr-doped In2O3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiqi; An Yukai; Feng Deqiang; Liu Jiwen; Wu Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Cr-doped In 2 O 3 films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering technique. The local structure, magnetic, and transport properties of films are investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure, Hall effect, R-T, and magnetic measurements. Structural analysis clearly indicates that Cr ions substitute for In 3+ sites of the In 2 O 3 lattice in the valence of +2 states and Cr-related secondary phases or clusters as the source of ferromagnetism is safely ruled out. The films with low Cr concentration show a crossover from semiconducting to metallic transport behavior, whereas only semiconducting behavior is observed in high Cr concentration films. The transport property of all films is governed by Mott variable range hopping behavior, suggesting that the carriers are strongly localized. Magnetic characterizations show that the saturated magnetization of films increases first, and then decreases with Cr doping, while carrier concentration n c decreases monotonically, implying that the ferromagnetism is not directly induced by the mediated carriers. It can be concluded the ferromagnetism of films is intrinsic and originates from electrons bound in defect states associated with oxygen vacancies.

  15. Collision-Free Structure Using Thin-Film Magnet For Electrostatic Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, S; Yamaguchi, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes collision-free structure using NdFeB thin-film magnet for vibration energy harvesters. By using stripe shaped NdFeB magnet array on the Si MEMS structure, we finally obtained 3 mN of magnetic repulsive force on 8 × 8 mm 2 specimen with 40 μm air-gap. (paper)

  16. Collision-Free Structure Using Thin-Film Magnet For Electrostatic Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, S.; Yamaguchi, K.; Fujita, T.; Kanda, K.; Maenaka, K.

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes collision-free structure using NdFeB thin-film magnet for vibration energy harvesters. By using stripe shaped NdFeB magnet array on the Si MEMS structure, we finally obtained 3 mN of magnetic repulsive force on 8 × 8 mm2 specimen with 40 μm air-gap.

  17. Asymmetric bistable reflection and polarization switching in a magnetic nonlinear multilayer structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Novitsky, Denis V.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures consisting of Kerr-type nonlinear and magnetic layers under the action of an external static magnetic field in the Faraday geometry are investigated. The structure is a periodic arrangement of alternating nonlinear and magnetic layers (a o...

  18. Transition analysis of magnetic recording heads using FDTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    Transition waveforms of a magnetic recording head have been analyzed using finite difference time domain (FDTD). The distributed inductance and capacitance of the head effect the rising time of the magnetic fields in the recording process. FDTD electromagnetic analysis is easy to combine with SPICE circuit analysis. Using this combined program, a transition analysis of the recording process including a write amplifier has become possible

  19. Transition analysis of magnetic recording heads using FDTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Shinji E-mail: tanabe@ele.crl.melco.co.jp

    2001-10-01

    Transition waveforms of a magnetic recording head have been analyzed using finite difference time domain (FDTD). The distributed inductance and capacitance of the head effect the rising time of the magnetic fields in the recording process. FDTD electromagnetic analysis is easy to combine with SPICE circuit analysis. Using this combined program, a transition analysis of the recording process including a write amplifier has become possible.

  20. Automated analysis of craniofacial morphology using magnetic resonance images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mallar Chakravarty

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of craniofacial morphology is of interest to scholars working in a wide variety of disciplines, such as anthropology, developmental biology, and medicine. T1-weighted (anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI provide excellent contrast between soft tissues. Given its three-dimensional nature, MRI represents an ideal imaging modality for the analysis of craniofacial structure in living individuals. Here we describe how T1-weighted MR images, acquired to examine brain anatomy, can also be used to analyze facial features. Using a sample of typically developing adolescents from the Saguenay Youth Study (N = 597; 292 male, 305 female, ages: 12 to 18 years, we quantified inter-individual variations in craniofacial structure in two ways. First, we adapted existing nonlinear registration-based morphological techniques to generate iteratively a group-wise population average of craniofacial features. The nonlinear transformations were used to map the craniofacial structure of each individual to the population average. Using voxel-wise measures of expansion and contraction, we then examined the effects of sex and age on inter-individual variations in facial features. Second, we employed a landmark-based approach to quantify variations in face surfaces. This approach involves: (a placing 56 landmarks (forehead, nose, lips, jaw-line, cheekbones, and eyes on a surface representation of the MRI-based group average; (b warping the landmarks to the individual faces using the inverse nonlinear transformation estimated for each person; and (3 using a principal components analysis (PCA of the warped landmarks to identify facial features (i.e. clusters of landmarks that vary in our sample in a correlated fashion. As with the voxel-wise analysis of the deformation fields, we examined the effects of sex and age on the PCA-derived spatial relationships between facial features. Both methods demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism in

  1. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of dilute U impurities in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, S. K.; Cottenier, S.; Mishra, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic moment of dilute U impurity in metallic hosts have been calculated from first principles. The calculations have been performed within local density approximation of the density functional theory using Augmented plane wave+local orbital (APW+lo) technique, taking account of spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb correlation through LDA+U approach. We present here our results for the local density of states, magnetic moment and hyperfine field calculated for an isolated U impurity embedded in hosts with sp-, d- and f-type conduction electrons. The results of our systematic study provide a comprehensive insight on the pressure dependence of 5f local magnetism in metallic systems. The unpolarized local density of states (LDOS), analyzed within the frame work of Stoner model suggest the occurrence of local moment for U in sp-elements, noble metals and f-block hosts like La, Ce, Lu and Th. In contrast, U is predicted to be nonmagnetic in most transition metal hosts except in Sc, Ti, Y, Zr, and Hf consistent with the results obtained from spin polarized calculation. The spin and orbital magnetic moments of U computed within the frame of LDA+U formalism show a scaling behavior with lattice compression. We have also computed the spin and orbital hyperfine fields and a detail analysis has been carried out. The host dependent trends for the magnetic moment, hyperfine field and 5f occupation reflect pressure induced change of electronic structure with U valency changing from 3+ to 4+ under lattice compression. In addition, we have made a detailed analysis of the impurity induced host spin polarization suggesting qualitatively different roles of f-band electrons on moment stability. The results presented in this work would be helpful towards understanding magnetism and spin fluctuation in U based alloys.

  2. Octupolar out-of-plane magnetic field structure generation during collisionless magnetic reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The out-of-plane magnetic field, generated by fast magnetic reconnection, during collisionless, stressed X-point collapse, was studied with a kinetic, 2.5D, fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell numerical code, using both closed (flux conserving) and open boundary conditions on a square grid. It was discovered that the well known quadrupolar structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field gains four additional regions of opposite magnetic polarity, emerging near the corners of the simulation box, moving towards the X-point. The emerging, outer, magnetic field structure has opposite polarity to the inner quadrupolar structure, leading to an overall octupolar structure. Using Ampere's law and integrating electron and ion currents, defined at grid cells, over the simulation domain, contributions to the out-of-plane magnetic field from electron and ion currents were determined. The emerging regions of opposite magnetic polarity were shown to be the result of ion currents. Magnetic octupolar structure is found to be a signature of X-point collapse, rather than tearing mode, and factors relating to potential discoveries in experimental scenarios or space-craft observations are discussed.

  3. Magnetic domain structure of MnAs thin films as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Masaki; Manago, Takashi; Akinaga, Hiroyuki; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Okabayashi, Jun

    2003-01-01

    We have investigate magnetic domain structures of MnAs thin films grown on GaAs substrates by a magnetic force microscope. We observed, by an atomic force microscope, rectangular defects along GaAs [110] direction which disperse randomly on the surface of MnAs/GaAs(001). The Curie temperature of MnAs is 45degC, and it is successfully confirmed directly by the variable temperature magnetic force microscope observation. We also investigated magnetic domain structures of MnAs/GaAs(111)B, and no apparent relation was observed between the topographic structure and the magnetic domain structure. (author)

  4. Structural modeling of the Vichada impact structure from interpreted ground gravity and magnetic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Orlando; Khurama, Sait; Alexander, Gretta C

    2011-01-01

    A prominent positive free-air gravity anomaly mapped over a roughly 50-km diameter basin is consistent with a mascon centered on (4 degrades 30 minutes N, 69 degrades 15 minutes W) in the Vichada Department, Colombia, South America. Ground follow up gravity and magnetic anomalies were modeled confirming the regional free air gravity anomalies. These potential field anomalies infer a hidden complex impact basin structure filled with tertiary sedimentary rocks and recent quaternary deposits. Negative Bouguer anomalies of 8 mgals to 15 mgals amplitude are associated with a concentric sedimentary basin with a varying thickness from 100 m to 500 m in the outer rings to 700 m to 1000 m at the center of the impact crater basin. Strong positive magnetic anomalies of 100 nt to 300 nt amplitude infer the presence of a local Precambrian crystalline basement that was affected by intensive faulting producing tectonic blocks dipping to the center of the structure, showing a typical domino structure of impact craters such as that of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Basic to intermediate mineralized veins and dikes with contrasting density and magnetic susceptibility properties could be emplaced along these faulting zones, as inferred from local gravity and magnetic highs. The geologic mapping of the area is limited by the flat topography and absence of outcrops/ geomorphologic units. Nevertheless, local normal faults along the inner ring together with radially sparse irregular blocks over flat terrains can be associated with terraced rims or collapse of the inner crater structure and eject blanket, respectively. A detailed airborne electromagnetic survey is recommended to confirm the gravity and magnetic anomalies together with a seismic program to evaluate the economic implications for energy and mineral exploration of the Vichada impact structure.

  5. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    CERN Document Server

    Papuga, J.; Kreim, K; Barbieri, C; Blaum, K; De Rydt, M; Duguet, T; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Rajabali, M M; Sanchez, R; Smirnova, N; Soma, V; Yordanov, D T

    2014-09-29

    $\\textbf{Background:}$ Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Purpose:}$ Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Method:}$ High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Results:}$ From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and $\\textit{ab initio}$ framework is al...

  6. Analysis of spatial thermal field in a magnetic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnert, Dawid; Tomczuk, Bronisław

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents two mathematical models for temperature field analysis in a new hybrid magnetic bearing. Temperature distributions have been calculated using a three dimensional simulation and a two dimensional one. A physical model for temperature testing in the magnetic bearing has been developed. Some results obtained from computer simulations were compared with measurements.

  7. Size and thickness effect on magnetic structures of maghemite hollow magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, Fatima; Labaye, Yvan; Sayed Hassan, Rodaina; El Haj Hassan, Fouad; Yaacoub, Nader; Greneche, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface anisotropy on the magnetic ground state of hollow maghemite nanoparticles is investigated using atomistic Monte Carlo simulation. The computer modeling is carried on hollow nanostructures as a function of size and shell thickness. It is found that the large contribution of the surface anisotropy imposes a “throttled” spin structure where the moments located at the outer surface tend to orient normal to the surface while those located at the inner surface appear to be more aligned. For increasing values of surface anisotropy in the frame of a radial model, the magnetic moments become radially oriented either inward or outward giving rise to a “hedgehog” configuration with nearly zero net magnetization. We also show the effect of the size of hollow nanoparticle on the spin behavior where the spin non-collinearity increases (for fixed value of surface anisotropy) as the diameter of the hollow nanoparticle increases due to the significant increase in surface-to-volume ratio, the thickness being constant. Moreover, the thickness of the hollow nanoparticle shell influences the spin configuration and thus the relation between surface anisotropy and the size or the thickness of the hollow nanoparticle is established.

  8. Size and thickness effect on magnetic structures of maghemite hollow magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Fatima; Labaye, Yvan, E-mail: yvan.labaye@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans CNRS UMR-6283 (France); Sayed Hassan, Rodaina; El Haj Hassan, Fouad [Université Libanaise, Faculté des Sciences Section I, MPLAB (Lebanon); Yaacoub, Nader, E-mail: nader.yaacoub@univ-lemans.fr; Greneche, Jean-Marc [Université du Maine, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans CNRS UMR-6283 (France)

    2016-09-15

    The effect of surface anisotropy on the magnetic ground state of hollow maghemite nanoparticles is investigated using atomistic Monte Carlo simulation. The computer modeling is carried on hollow nanostructures as a function of size and shell thickness. It is found that the large contribution of the surface anisotropy imposes a “throttled” spin structure where the moments located at the outer surface tend to orient normal to the surface while those located at the inner surface appear to be more aligned. For increasing values of surface anisotropy in the frame of a radial model, the magnetic moments become radially oriented either inward or outward giving rise to a “hedgehog” configuration with nearly zero net magnetization. We also show the effect of the size of hollow nanoparticle on the spin behavior where the spin non-collinearity increases (for fixed value of surface anisotropy) as the diameter of the hollow nanoparticle increases due to the significant increase in surface-to-volume ratio, the thickness being constant. Moreover, the thickness of the hollow nanoparticle shell influences the spin configuration and thus the relation between surface anisotropy and the size or the thickness of the hollow nanoparticle is established.

  9. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaze, M.K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components is discussed. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to be checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47 are used for high temperature design. The problems faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's shakedown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields

  10. Structural Analysis of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Filling a gap in literature, this self-contained book presents theoretical and application-oriented results that allow for a structural exploration of complex networks. The work focuses not only on classical graph-theoretic methods, but also demonstrates the usefulness of structural graph theory as a tool for solving interdisciplinary problems. Applications to biology, chemistry, linguistics, and data analysis are emphasized. The book is suitable for a broad, interdisciplinary readership of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in discrete mathematics, statistics, computer science,

  11. Cluster analysis of track structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, V.

    1991-01-01

    One of the possibilities of classifying track structures is application of conventional partition techniques of analysis of multidimensional data to the track structure. Using these cluster algorithms this paper attempts to find characteristics of radiation reflecting the spatial distribution of ionizations in the primary particle track. An absolute frequency distribution of clusters of ionizations giving the mean number of clusters produced by radiation per unit of deposited energy can serve as this characteristic. General computation techniques used as well as methods of calculations of distributions of clusters for different radiations are discussed. 8 refs.; 5 figs

  12. On the analysis of magnetization and Moessbauer data for ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, D E; Moerup, S; Hansen, M F; Bendix, J

    2008-01-01

    Experimental data for antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are often analyzed as if the particles were ferromagnetic. However, due to the volume dependence of the magnetization resulting from uncompensated spins, such analysis will yield erroneous results. This is demonstrated as we analyze ac and dc magnetization data as well as Moessbauer spectra obtained for ferritin. The values of the median energy barrier obtained from the different data are in very close agreement when a distribution of volumes and a volume dependence of the magnetization are taken into account. However, when the volume dependence of the magnetization is neglected, erroneous values of the anisotropy energy barrier and the attempt time τ 0 are obtained

  13. Magnetic Circuit & Torque Analysis Of Brushless DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif J. Abbas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       This work is concerned with magnetic and torque analysis of BLDCM and with development of a method of designing BLDCM that have symmetric winding on the rotor .make significant contribution to the rotor inductance position difficult. It is also show that the prediction detent torque can be extremely sensitive to the permanent magnet by altering magnet arc width. Finally, simple lumped models that allow one to predict motor performance and characteristics as a function of main dimension, magnet residual flux density and phase current are developed. These models are used as a basis for an approach to designing BLDCM

  14. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  15. System Theoretic Dependability Analysis of the LHC Superconducting Magnet Circuit Protection

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2254970

    Subject of the present work is the application of the methods STPA (System Theoretic Process Analysis) and CAST (Causal Analysis based on STAMP) to analyze the protection systems of the superconducting magnet circuit of the LHC at CERN, Geneva. The named methods are derived from the at MIT developed STAMP (System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) accident model. The CAST method was applied to the analysis of the 2008 Incident during the Hardware Commissioning. An incorrect interconnection between two magnets damaged the accelerator severely. The analysis defines the control structure of the Commissioning and investigates every subsystem and the interaction between the components. The results were social and technical requirements. Among others, it shows the necessity for safety culture at CERN and a revision of the magnet interconnection process. The present analysis found the same root causes for the incident than a task force did in 2009. Further, the CAST analysis found more, socio-technica...

  16. Growth and structure of Co/Au magnetic thin films; Croissance et structure des couches minces magnetiques Co/Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot, N

    1999-01-14

    We have studied the growth and the crystallographic structure of magnetic ultra thin cobalt/gold films (Co/Au), in order to investigate the correlations between their magnetic and structural properties. Room temperature (R.T.) Co growth on Au (111) proceeds in three stages. Up to 2 Co monolayers (ML), a bilayer island growth mode is observed. Between 2 and 5 ML, coalescence of the islands occurs, covering the substrate surface and a Co/Au mixing is observed resulting from the de-construction of the Herringbone reconstruction. Finally, beyond 5 ML, the CoAu mixing is buried and the Co growth continues in a 3-D growth. Annealing studies at 600 K on this system show a smoothing effect of the Co film, and at the same time, segregation of Au atoms. The quality of the Co/Au interface (sharpness) is not enhanced by the annealing. The local order was studied by SEXAFS and the long range order by GIXRD showing that the Co film has a hexagonal close packed structure, with an easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the surface. From a local order point of view, the Co grows with an incoherent epitaxy and keeps its own bulk parameters. The GIXRD analysis shows a residual strain in the Co film of 4%. The difference observed between the local order analysis and the long range order results is explained in terms of the low dimensions of the diffracting domains. The evolution of film strains, as a function of the Co coverage, shows a marked deviation from the elastic strain theory. Modification of the strain field in the Co film as a function of the Au coverage is studied by GIXRD analysis. The Au growth study, at R.T., shows no evidence of a Au/Co mixing in the case of the Au/Co interface. The Au overlayer adopts a twinned face centred cubic structure on the rough Co film surface. (author)

  17. Interplay between structure and magnetism in HoxPr1-x alloys. 2. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigliante, A.; Christensen, M.J.; Hill, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray-scattering techniques have been used to study the crystal and magnetic structures of HoxPr1-x alloys in the form of thin films. Three distinct crystal structures are found as a function of concentration x, each of which has a characteristic magnetic structure. For x greater than or equal to 0.......6 a hexagonal-close-packed phase is found with the magnetic moments ordered in a basal-plane helix, whereas for 0.4 less than or equal to x... hexagonal-close-packed and remain nonmagnetic down to the lowest temperatures studied. Using x-ray magnetic resonance scattering techniques, we demonstrate that a small, static spin-density wave is induced within the alloy 5d band at both the Pr and Ho sites in both of the magnetically ordered phases...

  18. Modeling analysis of pulsed magnetization process of magnetic core based on inverse Jiles-Atherton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, He; Liu, Siwei; Lin, Fuchang

    2018-05-01

    The J-A (Jiles-Atherton) model is widely used to describe the magnetization characteristics of magnetic cores in a low-frequency alternating field. However, this model is deficient in the quantitative analysis of the eddy current loss and residual loss in a high-frequency magnetic field. Based on the decomposition of magnetization intensity, an inverse J-A model is established which uses magnetic flux density B as an input variable. Static and dynamic core losses under high frequency excitation are separated based on the inverse J-A model. Optimized parameters of the inverse J-A model are obtained based on particle swarm optimization. The platform for the pulsed magnetization characteristic test is designed and constructed. The hysteresis curves of ferrite and Fe-based nanocrystalline cores at high magnetization rates are measured. The simulated and measured hysteresis curves are presented and compared. It is found that the inverse J-A model can be used to describe the magnetization characteristics at high magnetization rates and to separate the static loss and dynamic loss accurately.

  19. Effect of annealing on magnetic properties and structure of Fe-Ni based magnetic microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, V.; Korchuganova, O.A.; Aleev, A.A.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Churyukanova, M.; Medvedeva, E.V.; Seils, S.; Wagner, J.; Ipatov, M.; Blanco, J.M.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Aronin, A.; Abrosimova, G.; Orlova, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High domain wall mobility of Fe-Ni-based microwires. • Enhancement of domain wall velocity and mobility in Fe-rich microwires after annealing. • Observation of areas enriched by Si and depleted by B after annealing. • Phase separation in annealed Fe-Ni based microwires in metallic nucleus and near the interface layer. - Abstract: We studied the magnetic properties and domain wall (DW) dynamics of Fe 47.4 Ni 26.6 Si 11 B 13 C 2 and Fe 77.5 Si 7.5 B 15 microwires. Both samples present rectangular hysteresis loop and fast magnetization switching. Considerable enhancement of DW velocity is observed in Fe 77.5 Si 7.5 B 15 , while DW velocity of samples Fe 47.4 Ni 26.6 Si 11 B 13 C 2 is less affected by annealing. The other difference is the magnetic field range of the linear region on dependence of domain wall velocity upon magnetic field: in Fe 47.4 Ni 26.6 Si 11 B 13 C 2 sample is considerably shorter and drastically decreases after annealing. We discussed the influence of annealing on DW dynamics considering different magnetoelastic anisotropy of studied microwires and defects within the amorphous state in Fe 47.4 Ni 26.6 Si 11 B 13 C 2 . Consequently we studied the structure of Fe 47.4 Ni 26.6 Si 11 B 13 C 2 sample using X-ray diffraction and the atom probe tomography. The results obtained using the atom probe tomography supports the formation of the B-depleted and Si-enriched precipitates in the metallic nucleus of Fe-Ni based microwires.

  20. Geometrically frustrated magnetic structures of the heavy-fermion compound CePdAl studied by powder neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doenni, A.; Fischer, P.; Zolliker, M. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ehlers, G.; Maletta, H. [Hahn Meitner Institute Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14092 Berlin (Germany); Kitazawa, H. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

    1996-12-09

    The heavy-fermion compound CePdAl with ZrNiAl-type crystal structure (hexagonal space group P6-bar2m) was investigated by powder neutron diffraction. The triangular coordination symmetry of magnetic Ce atoms on site 3f gives rise to geometrical frustration. CePdAl orders below T{sub N} = 2.7 K with an incommensurate antiferromagnetic propagation vector k=[1/2, 0, {tau}], {tau} approx. 0.35, and a longitudinal sine-wave (LSW) modulated spin arrangement. Magnetically ordered moments at Ce(1) and Ce(3) coexist with frustrated disordered moments at Ce(2). The experimentally determined magnetic structure is in agreement with group theoretical symmetry analysis considerations, calculated by the program MODY, which confirm that for Ce(2) an ordered magnetic moment parallel to the magnetically easy c-axis is forbidden by symmetry. Further low-temperature experiments give evidence for a second magnetic phase transition in CePdAl between 0.6 and 1.3 K. Magnetic structures of CePdAl are compared with those of the isostructural compound TbNiAl, where a non-zero ordered magnetic moment for the geometrically frustrated Tb(2) atoms is allowed by symmetry. (author)

  1. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shalendra; Vats, Prashant; Gautam, S.; Gupta, V.P.; Verma, K.D.; Chae, K.H.; Hashim, Mohd; Choi, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L 3,2 edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L 3,2 -edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L 3,2 -edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior

  2. Structural, mechanical and magnetic study on galvanostatic electroplated nanocrystalline NiFeP thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A.; Senguttuvan, G.; Kannan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel based alloys has a huge applications in microelectronics and micro electromechanical systems owing to its superior soft magnetic properties. With the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness and controllable patterning, electroplating processes has been chosen to fabricate thin films in our work. The soft magnetic NiFeP thin film was successfully deposited over the surface of copper plate through galvanostatic electroplating method by applying constant current density of 10 mA cm-2 for a deposition rate for half an hour. The properties of the deposited NiFeP thin films were analyzed by subjecting it into different physio-chemical characterization such as XRD, SEM, EDAX, AFM and VSM. XRD pattern confirms the formation of NiFeP particles and the structural analysis reveals that the NiFeP particles were uniformly deposited over the surface of copper substrate. The surface roughness analysis of the NiFeP films was done using AFM analysis. The magnetic studies and the hardness of the thin film were evaluated from the VSM and hardness test. The NiFeP thin films possess lower coercivity with higher magnetization value of 69. 36 × 10-3 and 431.92 Gauss.

  3. Magnetic Braids in Eruptions of a Spiral Structure in the Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Nelson, Chris J.; Liu, Jiajia; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Tian, Hui; Klimchuk, James A.; Chen, Yao; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    We report on high-resolution imaging and spectral observations of eruptions of a spiral structure in the transition region, which were taken with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The eruption coincided with the appearance of two series of jets, with velocities comparable to the Alfvén speeds in their footpoints. Several pieces of evidence of magnetic braiding in the eruption are revealed, including localized bright knots, multiple well-separated jet threads, transition region explosive events, and the fact that all three of these are falling into the same locations within the eruptive structures. Through analysis of the extrapolated 3D magnetic field in the region, we found that the eruptive spiral structure corresponded well to locations of twisted magnetic flux tubes with varying curl values along their lengths. The eruption occurred where strong parallel currents, high squashing factors, and large twist numbers were obtained. The electron number density of the eruptive structure is found to be ∼3 × 1012 cm‑3, indicating that a significant amount of mass could be pumped into the corona by the jets. Following the eruption, the extrapolations revealed a set of seemingly relaxed loops, which were visible in the AIA 94 Å channel, indicating temperatures of around 6.3 MK. With these observations, we suggest that magnetic braiding could be part of the mechanisms explaining the formation of solar eruption and the mass and energy supplement to the corona.

  4. Structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of Pr-modified BiFeO3 multiferroic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Sharma, Poorva; Satapathy, S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • BFO and Bi 0.95 Pr 0.05 FeO 3 prepared successfully via solid state reaction route. • XRD confirms rhombohedral structure with space group R3c. • Relaxation process is attributed to thermal motion and hopping of V O 2+ . • Magnetization is enhanced in Bi 0.95 Pr 0.05 FeO 3 sample. • Enhanced magnetization stem from suppression of the spiral spin modulation. -- Abstract: The structural, vibrational, magnetic and dielectric properties of polycrystalline BiFeO 3 and Bi 0.95 Pr 0.05 FeO 3 are investigated by combining X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectra, magnetometry and dielectric measurements. Structural symmetry with rhombohedral R3c phase is revealed for both parent and 5% Pr substitution at Bi site, serving no chemical pressure and causes no structural transition from R3c to any other phase is identified from X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman scattering spectra. The shifting of phonon modes towards higher frequency side is attributed to lower atomic mass of Pr ion as compared to Bi ion. The magnetic measurements at room temperature indicate that Pr substitution induces ferromagnetism and discerns large and non-zero remnant magnetization as compare to pristine BiFeO 3 . Both dielectric permittivity and loss factor of Bi 0.95 Pr 0.05 FeO 3 strongly decreases with increased frequency. Significant role of hopping of oxygen ion vacancies in Bi 0.95 Pr 0.05 FeO 3 is inferred from modulus spectra and ac conductivity analysis

  5. Analysis of magnetic gradients to study gravitropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H; John, Susan; Scherp, Peter; Povinelli, Daniel; Mopper, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Gravitropism typically is generated by dense particles that respond to gravity. Experimental stimulation by high-gradient magnetic fields provides a new approach to selectively manipulate the gravisensing system. The movement of corn, wheat, and potato starch grains in suspension was examined with videomicroscopy during parabolic flights that generated 20 to 25 s of weightlessness. During weightlessness, a magnetic gradient was generated by inserting a wedge into a uniform, external magnetic field that caused repulsion of starch grains. The resultant velocity of movement was compared with the velocity of sedimentation under 1 g conditions. The high-gradient magnetic fields repelled the starch grains and generated a force of at least 0.6 g. Different wedge shapes significantly affected starch velocity and directionality of movement. Magnetic gradients are able to move diamagnetic compounds under weightless or microgravity conditions and serve as directional stimulus during seed germination in low-gravity environments. Further work can determine whether gravity sensing is based on force or contact between amyloplasts and statocyte membrane system.

  6. Hyperfine structure analysis in magnetic resonance spectroscopy: from astrophysical measurements towards endogenous biosensors in human tissue; Hyperfeinstruktur-Analyse in der Magnetresonanzspektroskopie: von astrophysikalischen Messungen zu endogenen Biosensoren in menschlichem Gewebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, L. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The hyperfine interaction of two spins is a well studied effect in atomic systems. Magnetic resonance experiments demonstrate that the detectable dipole transitions are determined by the magnetic moments of the constituents and the external magnetic field. Transferring the corresponding quantum mechanics to molecular bound nuclear spins allows for precise prediction of NMR spectra obtained from metabolites in human tissue. This molecular hyperfine structure has been neglected so far in in vivo NMR spectroscopy but contains useful information, especially when studying molecular dynamics. This contribution represents a review of the concept of applying the Breit-Rabi formalism to coupled nuclear spins and discusses the immobilization of different metabolites in anisotropic tissue revealed by 1H NMR spectra of carnosine, phosphocreatine and taurine. Comparison of atomic and molecular spin systems allows for statements on the biological constraints for direct spin-spin interactions. Moreover, the relevance of hyperfine effects on the line shapes of multiplets of indirectly-coupled spin systems with more than two constituents can be predicted by analyzing quantum mechanical parameters. As an example, the superposition of eigenstates of the AMX system of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and its application for better quantification of 31P-NMR spectra will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. Uranium hetero-bimetallic complexes: synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Borgne, Th.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to synthesize molecular complexes with uranium and transition metal ions in close proximity, to determine the nature of the magnetic interaction between them. We decided to use Schiff bases as assembling ligands, which are unusual for uranium (IV). Although the simplest Schiff bases, such as H 2 Salen, lead to ligand exchange reactions, the bi-compartmental Schiff base H 4 L 6 (bis(3-hydroxy-salicylidene) - 2,2-dimethyl-propylene) allows the crystal structure determination of the complex [L 6 Cu(pyr)]U[L 6 Cu].2pyr, obtained by reaction of the metallo-ligand H 2 L 6 Cu with U(acac) 4 . In this manner, the complexes [L 6 Co(pyr)] 2 U and [L 6 Ni(pyr)] 2 U.pyr were also isolated, as well as the compounds in which the paramagnetic ions have been exchanged by the diamagnetic ions Zn II , Zr IV and Th IV ': [L 6 Zn(pyr)] 2 U, [L 6 Cu] 2 Zr and [L 6 Cu(pyr)]Th[L 6 Cu].2pyr. These complexes are the first which involve three metallic centres assembling by the means of a hexa-dentate Schiff base. The crystalline structures show, for all these complexes, the outstanding orthogonal arrangement of the two fragments L 6 M around the central atom which is in a dodecahedral environment of eight oxygen atoms of two Schiff bases. The syntheses of the isostructural complexes Cu2 II and Zn 2 U in which the uranium (IV) ion is close, in the first one, to the paramagnetic ion Cu II and, in the second one, to the diamagnetic ion Zn II , has allowed the use of the empiric method to determine the nature of the magnetic interaction between an f element and a transition metal. The comparison of the magnetic behaviour of two complexes Cu 2 U and Zn 2 U, expressed by the variation of χT vs T, reveals the ferromagnetic interaction in the heart of the triad Cu-U-Cu. The magnetic behaviour of the complexes Cu 2 Th et Cu 2 Zr which does not show any coupling between the two copper (II) ions and the weak antiferromagnetic interaction in the Ni 2 U compound, favour the

  8. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star......-shaped three-dimensional objects using the radial function. It appears that the model is highly fleksiblel in the sense that it can be used to describe an object with arbitrary irregular surface. Results on the distribution of well-known local stereological volume estimators are provided....

  9. Local structure and magnetization of ferromagnetic Cu-doped ZnO films: no magnetism at the dopant?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vachhani, P.S.; Šipr, Ondřej; Bhatnagar, A.K.; Ramamoorthy, R.K.; Choudhary, R.J.; Phase, D.M.; Dalba, G.; Kuzmin, A.; Rocca, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 678, Sep (2016), s. 304-311 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : EXAFS * NEXAFS * magnetization * crystal structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.133, year: 2016

  10. Structural, magnetic and electronic structure properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shalendra; Song, T.K.; Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Jang, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • XRD and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • XMCD and dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Co L 3,2 NEXAFS spectra infer that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Co doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We reported structural, magnetic and electronic structure studies of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping of Co ions in ZnO host matrix has been studied and confirmed using various methods; such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersed X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the XRD and HR-TEM results, it is observed that Co doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite structure and exclude the possibility of secondary phase formation. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs show that pure and Co doped nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. O K edge NEXAFS spectra indicate that O vacancies increase with Co doping. The Co L 3,2 edge NEXAFS spectra revealed that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. DC magnetization hysteresis loops and XMCD results clearly showed the intrinsic origin of temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

  11. Structural and magnetic stability of Fe{sub 2}NiSi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: idu.idris@gmail.com; Bhat, Idris Hamid, E-mail: idu.idris@gmail.com; Chauhan, Mamta, E-mail: idu.idris@gmail.com [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474011 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Full-potential ab-initio calculations in the stable F-43m phase have been performed to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}NiSi inverse Heusler alloys. The spin magnetic moment distributions show that present material is ferromagnetic in stable F-43m phase. Further, spin resolved electronic structure calculations show that the discrepancy in magnetic moments of Fe-I and Fe-II depend upon the hybridization of Fe with the main group element. It is found that the main group electron concentration is predominantly responsible in establishing the magnetic properties, formation of magnetic moments and the magnetic order for present alloy.

  12. Test-electron analysis of the magnetic reconnection topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, D.; Perona, A.; Grasso, D.

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) investigations of the magnetic reconnection field topology in space and laboratory plasmas have identified the abidance of magnetic coherent structures in the stochastic region, which develop during the nonlinear stage of the reconnection process. Further analytical and numerical analyses highlighted the efficacy of some of these structures in limiting the magnetic transport. The question then arises as to what is the possible role played by these patterns in the dynamics of the plasma particles populating the chaotic region. In order to explore this aspect, we provide a detailed description of the nonlinear 3D magnetic field topology in a collisionless magnetic reconnection event with a strong guide field. In parallel, we study the evolution of a population of test electrons in the guiding-center approximation all along the reconnection process. In particular, we focus on the nonlinear spatial redistribution of the initially thermal electrons and show how the electron dynamics in the stochastic region depends on the sign and on the value of their velocities. While the particles with the highest positive speed populate the coherent current structures that survive in the chaotic sea, the presence of the manifolds calculated in the stochastic region defines the confinement area for the electrons with the largest negative velocity. These results stress the link between the magnetic topology and the electron motion and contribute to the overall picture of a non-stationary fluid magnetic reconnection description in a geometry proper to physical systems where the effects of the curvature can be neglected.

  13. A comparative study of magnetoresistance and magnetic structure in recycled vs. virgin NdFeB-type sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shida; Tsoi, Maxim; Prosperi, Davide; Tudor, Catalina O.; Dove, Stephen K.; Bevan, Alex I.; Furlan, Gojmir; Zakotnik, Miha

    2017-11-01

    Recycled NdFeB magnets are emerging as a viable alternative to virgin NdFeB, because of lower production costs and environmental impacts. Recycled NdFeB magnets produced via the recently reported magnet-to-magnet (m2 m™) recycling process display unanticipated enhancements of magnetic and physical properties that may arise because of their unique microstructure. In the present study, we compare electrical transport and magnetic properties of these recycled magnets (Grade: N42SH, Br = 1289 mT, Hcj = 1876 kA/m, BHmax = 323.4 kJ/m3, Dy content = 4.0 wt%) with an equivalent grade of commercial NdFeB magnet produced from virgin material by conventional techniques (Grade: N42SH, Br = 1215 mT, Hcj = 1943 kA/m, BHmax = 285.0 kJ/m3, with Dy content = 4.6 wt%). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) analyses revealed very similar surface morphology and magnetic structure for the virgin and recycled samples. However, bulk electrical transport measurements demonstrated a 27% enhancement in the resistivity of the recycled magnets. This suggests that the electrical properties of NdFeB alloys are enhanced during Grain Boundary Engineering™ (GBE™). Moreover, point-contact measurements, used to probe the electrical transport properties on the microscopic scale, found similar results to those of the bulk measurements.

  14. Effect of Cr doping on structural and magnetic properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virpal,; Singh, Jasvir; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2016-01-01

    The structural, optical and magnetic properties of pure and Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles were studied at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the absence of any mixed phase and the cubic structure of ZnS in pure and Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles. Fourier transfer infrared spectra confirmed the Zn-S stretching bond at 664 cm"−"1 of ZnS in all prepared nanoparticles. The UV-Visible absorption spectra showed blue shift which became even more pronounced in Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles. However, at relatively higher Cr concentrations a slower red shift was shown by the doped nanoparticles. This phenomenon is attributed to sp-d exchange interaction that becomes prevalent at higher doping concentrations. Further, magnetic hysteresis measurements showed that Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  15. Effect of Cu-Dopant on the Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, D.; Kurniawan, C.; Subhan, A.; Sudiro, T.; Sebayang, P.; Ginting, M.; Siregar, S. M. K.; Nasruddin, M. N.

    2017-05-01

    Zn1- x Cu x O (x = 0, 2, 3, and 4 at.%) was synthesized by using solid-state reaction technique. The ZnO and CuO powders were mixed and then milled by using high-speed shaker mill. The influence of Cu dopants on the structure, magnetic, and electrical properties was investigated by using XRD, VSM, and I-V and C-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the Zn1- x Cu x O had hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline. The diffraction intensity decreased and the peak position shifted directly to a higher 2θ angle with increasing the dopant concentration. Furthermore, the lattice parameters decreased when the ZnO was doped with x = 0.04, which indicated that the crystal structure changed. The increase of Cu dopants was believed to affect the magnetic and electrical properties of ZnO.

  16. Magnetically addressable fluorescent Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites: Structural, optical and magnetization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, A.; Pati, S. P.; Mishra, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Das, D.

    2013-06-01

    Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites (NCs) are prepared by a wet chemical route. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies confirm the coexistence of Fe3O4 and ZnO phases in the NCs. The UV-vis absorption spectra show a red shift of the absorption peak with increase in Fe3O4 content indicating a modification of the band structure of ZnO in the NCs. Photoluminescence emission spectra of the NCs display strong excitonic emission in the UV region along with weak emission bands in the visible range caused by electronic transitions involving defect-related energy levels in the band gap of ZnO. Positron annihilation lifetimes indicate that cation vacancies in the ZnO structure are the strong traps for positrons and the overall defect concentration in the NCs decreases with increase in Fe3O4 content. Dc magnetization measurements reveal an anomalous temperature dependence of the coercivity of the NCs that is argued to be due to the anomalous variation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy at lower temperature. The irreversibility observed in the temperature dependent ZFC-FC magnetization points to the presence of a spin-glass phase in the NCs.

  17. Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. Phase transformations, structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubina, J.V.

    2006-12-21

    This work has been devoted to the study of phase transformations involving chemical ordering and magnetic properties evolution in bulk Fe-Pt alloys composed of nanometersized grains. Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} (x=40-60) alloys have been prepared by mechanical ball milling of elemental Fe and Pt powders at liquid nitrogen temperature. The as-milled Fe-Pt alloys consist of {proportional_to} 100 {mu}m sized particles constituted by randomly oriented grains having an average size in the range of 10-40 nm. Depending on the milling time, three major microstructure types have been obtained: samples with a multilayer-type structure of Fe and Pt with a thickness of 20-300 nm and a very thin (several nanometers) A1 layer at their interfaces (2 h milled), an intermediate structure, consisting of finer lamellae of Fe and Pt (below approximately 100 nm) with the A1 layer thickness reaching several tens of nanometers (4 h milled) and alloys containing a homogeneous A1 phase (7 h milled). Subsequent heat treatment at elevated temperatures is required for the formation of the L1{sub 0} FePt phase. The ordering develops via so-called combined solid state reactions. It is accompanied by grain growth and thermally assisted removal of defects introduced by milling and proceeds rapidly at moderate temperatures by nucleation and growth of the ordered phases with a high degree of the long-range order. In a two-particle interaction model elaborated in the present work, the existence of hysteresis in recoil loops has been shown to arise from insufficient coupling between the low- and the high-anisotropy particles. The model reveals the main features of magnetisation reversal processes observed experimentally in exchange-coupled systems. Neutron diffraction has been used for the investigation of the magnetic structure of ordered and partially ordered nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. (orig.)

  18. Efficient Analysis of Simulations of the Sun's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, C. W.; Martínez-Sykora, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamics in the solar atmosphere, including solar flares, coronal mass ejections, micro-flares and different types of jets, are powered by the evolution of the sun's intense magnetic field. 3D Radiative Magnetohydrodnamics (MHD) computer simulations have furthered our understanding of the processes involved: When non aligned magnetic field lines reconnect, the alteration of the magnetic topology causes stored magnetic energy to be converted into thermal and kinetic energy. Detailed analysis of this evolution entails tracing magnetic field lines, an operation which is not time-efficient on a single processor. By utilizing a graphics card (GPU) to trace lines in parallel, conducting such analysis is made feasible. We applied our GPU implementation to the most advanced 3D Radiative-MHD simulations (Bifrost, Gudicksen et al. 2011) of the solar atmosphere in order to better understand the evolution of the modeled field lines.

  19. Multipole Analysis of Circular Cylindircal Magnetic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaggi, Jerry P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a ''Fourier series-like'' expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six

  20. New performance in harmonic analysis device generation used for magnetic fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evesque, C.; Tkatchenko, M.

    1996-01-01

    In particle accelerator, correcting high multipole components of magnets are of high importance for quality magnet: to get a pure quadrupole to within 10 -4 , we have to know the field quality to 10 -5 through the 30. order. Our laboratory needed such a very sharp device to find small harmonic components of magnetic field. For harmonic analysis of magnetic field, we adopted the standard method, i.e. a rotating coil connected to a flux integrator. Nowadays, coils measuring azimuthal component of magnetic field are used. In order to obtain correct and accurate measurements, we were guided by two imperatives: first, optimisation of construction constraints and second, comparison of azimuthal and radial component measurements. With this background, this article describes both new technological solutions adopted and new performance obtained. We also discuss the most suitable geometric structure for the coils. We obtained a noiseless signal, a repeatability of 10 -5 and a sensitivity up to 10 -8 Weber for both types of coils. Our device is able to find and measure main component, normal and skew multipole components up to the 32. order, when simulating local defects. The magnetic axis is located within 5 μm. The central gradient is also measured and magnetic length deduced. Complementary functions of two types of coils were noticed in detecting local defects of magnetic structure. (authors)

  1. New performance in harmonic analysis device generation used for magnetic fields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evesque, C.; Tkatchenko, M.

    1996-12-31

    In particle accelerator, correcting high multipole components of magnets are of high importance for quality magnet: to get a pure quadrupole to within 10{sup -4}, we have to know the field quality to 10{sup -5} through the 30. order. Our laboratory needed such a very sharp device to find small harmonic components of magnetic field. For harmonic analysis of magnetic field, we adopted the standard method, i.e. a rotating coil connected to a flux integrator. Nowadays, coils measuring azimuthal component of magnetic field are used. In order to obtain correct and accurate measurements, we were guided by two imperatives: first, optimisation of construction constraints and second, comparison of azimuthal and radial component measurements. With this background, this article describes both new technological solutions adopted and new performance obtained. We also discuss the most suitable geometric structure for the coils. We obtained a noiseless signal, a repeatability of 10{sup -5} and a sensitivity up to 10{sup -8} Weber for both types of coils. Our device is able to find and measure main component, normal and skew multipole components up to the 32. order, when simulating local defects. The magnetic axis is located within 5 {mu}m. The central gradient is also measured and magnetic length deduced. Complementary functions of two types of coils were noticed in detecting local defects of magnetic structure. (authors).

  2. Effect of natural and magnetic convections on the structure of electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, A., E-mail: alexandra.levesque@univ-reims.fr [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France); Chouchane, S. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria); Douglade, J. [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France); Rehamnia, R. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria); Chopart, J.-P. [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France)

    2009-06-30

    The effects of a magnetic field applied in a direction parallel or perpendicular to the cathode substrate plane, during electrodeposition process of Zn-Ni alloy have been investigated by means of chronoamperometric measurements, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis. The modification of crystal orientation of the alloy by the superimposition of a high magnetic field is discussed for alloys with a content of nickel range 6-13 at%. Whatever the phase composition obtained without magnetic field, either {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} or a mixture of the {gamma} and zinc phases, which depends on the concentration of Ni{sup 2+} in the electrolyte bath, the preferential orientation (1 0 1) of the zinc phase is always favoured with perpendicular and parallel magnetic field. There is no saturation of this effect with amplitude of B up to 8 T. A study of different geometric configurations of the cathode, which induce more or less natural convection, consolidates these results. The structural modifications of Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposits are thus probably due to a magnetohydrodynamic effect. An additional phenomenon is observed in presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field since the (3 3 0) preferential orientation of the {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} disappears with high values of B.

  3. Effect of natural and magnetic convections on the structure of electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, A.; Chouchane, S.; Douglade, J.; Rehamnia, R.; Chopart, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a magnetic field applied in a direction parallel or perpendicular to the cathode substrate plane, during electrodeposition process of Zn-Ni alloy have been investigated by means of chronoamperometric measurements, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis. The modification of crystal orientation of the alloy by the superimposition of a high magnetic field is discussed for alloys with a content of nickel range 6-13 at%. Whatever the phase composition obtained without magnetic field, either γ-Ni 5 Zn 21 or a mixture of the γ and zinc phases, which depends on the concentration of Ni 2+ in the electrolyte bath, the preferential orientation (1 0 1) of the zinc phase is always favoured with perpendicular and parallel magnetic field. There is no saturation of this effect with amplitude of B up to 8 T. A study of different geometric configurations of the cathode, which induce more or less natural convection, consolidates these results. The structural modifications of Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposits are thus probably due to a magnetohydrodynamic effect. An additional phenomenon is observed in presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field since the (3 3 0) preferential orientation of the γ-Ni 5 Zn 21 disappears with high values of B.

  4. Magnetic and magnetoresistance studies of nanometric electrodeposited Co films and Co/Cu layered structures: Influence of magnetic layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsurzsa, S., E-mail: zsurzsa.sandor@wigner.mta.hu; Péter, L.; Kiss, L.F.; Bakonyi, I.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic properties and the magnetoresistance behavior were investigated for electrodeposited nanoscale Co films, Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers with individual Co layer thicknesses ranging from 1 nm to 20 nm. The measured saturation magnetization values confirmed that the nominal and actual layer thicknesses are in fairly good agreement. All three types of layered structure exhibited anisotropic magnetoresistance for thick magnetic layers whereas the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers with thinner magnetic layers exhibited giant magnetoresistance (GMR), the GMR magnitude being the largest for the thinnest Co layers. The decreasing values of the relative remanence and the coercive field when reducing the Co layer thickness down to below about 3 nm indicated the presence of superparamagnetic (SPM) regions in the magnetic layers which could be more firmly evidenced for these samples by a decomposition of the magnetoresistance vs. field curves into a ferromagnetic and an SPM contribution. For thicker magnetic layers, the dependence of the coercivity (H{sub c}) on magnetic layer thickness (d) could be described for each of the layered structure types by the usual equation H{sub c}=H{sub co}+a/d{sup n} with an exponent around n=1. The common value of n suggests a similar mechanism for the magnetization reversal by domain wall motion in all three structure types and hints also at the absence of coupling between magnetic layers in the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers. - Highlights: • Electrodeposited nanoscale Co films and Co/Cu layered structures. • Co layer thickness (d) dependence of coercivity (H{sub c}) and magnetoresistance. • H{sub c} depends on Co layer thickness according to H{sub c}=H{sub co}+a/d{sup n} with n around 1. • The common n value suggests a similar mechanism of magnetization reversal. • The common n value suggests the absence of coupling between magnetic layers.

  5. Design and analysis of tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  6. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  7. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG. PMID:25050388

  8. Modulated (Ga,TM)N structures: optics and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grois, A.

    2015-01-01

    Gallium nitride and related compounds are not only the building blocks of many state of the art devices (e.g. blue and white LEDs, high electron mobility transistors), but once combined with magnetic dopants (i.e. transition metals and rare earths), further functionalities (e.g. spintronics - the simultaneous utilisation of the electrons electric charge and magnetic moment) are enabled. The incorporation of the magnetic dopants depends on the growth conditions and the type of dopant. As a function of these parameters various phases with quite different properties can be produced. In this work the optical and magnetic properties of three of these phases which are interesting from a technological and fundamental point of view and can be produced by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy are studied by advanced structural, chemical, spectroscopic and magnetometric techniques as a function of the transition metal concentration, growth temperature and codopant concentration. These phases are dilute (Ga,Mn)N and (Ga,Fe)N, iron nitride and galfenol nanocrystals embedded in (Ga,Fe)N, and Mn-Mgx [Mg tief x] complexes in (Ga,Mn)N:Mg. Dilute (Ga,Mn)N is found to be a superexchange ferromagnet with Mn3+ [Mn hoch 3+] concentration dependent Curie temperature, which is of the order of 1 K for the highest studied Mn concentration of approximately 3 %. The lack of carrier mediated ferromagnetism is explained by confirming the presence of strong coupling between the Mn 3d electrons and valence band holes via giant Zeeman effect measurements. Upon Si donor codoping the charge state of Mn is reduced to 2+, and hints towards superexchange antiferromagnetism between the Mn2+ [Mn hoch 2+] ions are observed. The magnetic properties of a single planar array of [gamma]'-Gax [Ga tief x]Fe4-x [Fe tief 4-x]N nanocrystals embedded in GaN are analysed and a clear uniaxial shape anisotropy is revealed. The puzzling finding of a six-fold in-plane anisotropy is discussed and various possible

  9. Magnetic and structural properties of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariona, N.; Camacho-Aguilar, K.I.; Ramos-González, R.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Herrera-Trejo, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites (NCs) with specific size, composition and properties were obtained in transformation reactions of 2-line ferrihydrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the NCs consist of clusters of strongly aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) similarly to a “plum pudding”, where hematite NPs “raisins” are surrounded by ferrihydrite “pudding”. Magnetic measurements of the NCs correlate very well with TEM results; i.e., higher coercive fields correspond to greater hematite crystallite size. First order reversal curve (FORC) measurements were used for the characterization of the magnetic components of the NCs. FORC diagrams revealed that the NCs prepared at short times are composed by single domains with low coercivity, and NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min exhibited elongated distribution along the Hc axis. It suggested that these samples consist of mixtures of different kinds of hematite particles, ones with low coercivity and others with coercivity greater than 600 Oe. For NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min, Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of two sextets, which one was assigned to fine hematite particles and other to hematite particles with hyperfine parameters near to bulk hematite. The correlation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite/hematite NCs revealed important characteristics of these materials which have not been reported elsewhere. - Highlights: • Ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites were prepared. • The “plum pudding” morphology of the ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites was found. • The FORC diagrams of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites have been measured.

  10. Magnetic and structural properties of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pariona, N.; Camacho-Aguilar, K.I.; Ramos-González, R. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Martinez, Arturo I., E-mail: mtz.art@gmail.com [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Herrera-Trejo, M. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Río de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    A rich variety of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites (NCs) with specific size, composition and properties were obtained in transformation reactions of 2-line ferrihydrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the NCs consist of clusters of strongly aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) similarly to a “plum pudding”, where hematite NPs “raisins” are surrounded by ferrihydrite “pudding”. Magnetic measurements of the NCs correlate very well with TEM results; i.e., higher coercive fields correspond to greater hematite crystallite size. First order reversal curve (FORC) measurements were used for the characterization of the magnetic components of the NCs. FORC diagrams revealed that the NCs prepared at short times are composed by single domains with low coercivity, and NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min exhibited elongated distribution along the Hc axis. It suggested that these samples consist of mixtures of different kinds of hematite particles, ones with low coercivity and others with coercivity greater than 600 Oe. For NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min, Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of two sextets, which one was assigned to fine hematite particles and other to hematite particles with hyperfine parameters near to bulk hematite. The correlation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite/hematite NCs revealed important characteristics of these materials which have not been reported elsewhere. - Highlights: • Ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites were prepared. • The “plum pudding” morphology of the ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites was found. • The FORC diagrams of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites have been measured.

  11. New manganese (II) structures derived from 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, D.; Tedesco, J.C.D.; Pedro, S.S.; Cruz, C.; Reis, M.S.; Brandão, P.

    2014-01-01

    One novel coordination polymer [Mn 2 (μ-2,6-DCBA) 3 (μ 2 -CH 3 CO 2 ) 2 (2H 2 O)]·2H 2 O (2,6-DCBA = 2,6-dichlorobenzoato) (compound 1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of bridging ligand 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid and manganese acetate tetrahydrate. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that this compound crystallizes in space group P2 1 /c with a = 10.1547(7), b = 24.5829(2), c = 12.6606(2) Å, β = 93.707(3), V = 3153.9(3) Å 3 and Z = 4. The Mn(II) ions are connected by 2,6-DCBA and acetate group in μ-bridging mode to form 1D chains. Two water molecules are in the inter-layer space forming strong hydrogen bonds originating 2D layer structure. The preparation of this compound is very sensitive to the synthesis conditions, mainly to the solution pH and solvent yielding other two compounds 2 and 3. In compound 1 Mn(II) atoms in octahedral coordination are arranged in a zig–zag chain, with a trimeric structure repeated periodically along the chain, giving two exchange parameters: J 1 related to a syn–syn bond; and J 2 related to a bond of type anti–anti. A theoretical model was developed and then fitted to the magnetic susceptibility data, revealing an antiferromagnetic arrangement along the chain

  12. Investigation of turbulent structures in the edge of magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nold, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy cost and progressing climate change will exacerbate existing and give birth to new conflicts. Energy savings and the development of new technologies can counteract the reasons for these conflicts. Beside renewable energy sources, nuclear fusion can help to meet this challenge. To build future fusion power plants smaller and more efficient, the magnetic confinement must be improved and the load on plasma facing components reduced. To this end, better understanding is required of turbulent transport processes in magnetized plasmas. Within the frame of the present work, the properties and dynamics of turbulent density structures (''blobs'') have been investigated, as well as their interaction with shear flows. Langmuir-probe measurements have been conducted in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade and in the stellarator TJ-K, and compared with GEMR plasma turbulence simulations. It has been shown, that blobs are generated at the last closed flux surface (LCFS) of ASDEX Upgrade. They propagate perpendicular to the magnetic field lines in the radial and poloidal directions. The poloidal E x B-drift depends on the radial variation of the plasma potential. The latter is given by the electron temperature profile in front of the electrically conducting wall. Experimental results show, that this can lead to a shear layer inside the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a divertor tokamak due to inhomogeneous connection lengths to the wall. Blobs can hardly cross such a shear layer unchanged. This investigation shows how blobs can exchange particles and energy across a shear layer without changing their shapes and velocities substantially. However, the dynamics of the structures are different between both sides of the shear layer. Parallel drift-wave dynamics are dominant on the plasma core side, i.e. density and potential of the blobs are in phase. Outside of the shear layer, the interchange mechanism dominates due to shorter parallel connection lengths to the wall. The poloidal

  13. Study of magnetic and structural properties of ferrofluids based on cobalt-zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J., E-mail: javierlo21@gmail.com [Thin Film Group, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Gonzalez-Bahamon, L.F. [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Prado, J.; Caicedo, J.C.; Zambrano, G.; Gomez, M.E. [Thin Film Group, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Esteve, J. [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Prieto, P. [Center of Excellence for Novel Materials, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    2012-02-15

    Ferrofluids are colloidal systems composed of a single domain of magnetic nanoparticles with a mean diameter around 30 nm, dispersed in a liquid carrier. Magnetic Co{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75) ferrite nanoparticles were prepared via co-precipitation method from aqueous salt solutions in an alkaline medium. The composition and structure of the samples were characterized through Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies permitted determining nanoparticle size; grain size of nanoparticle conglomerates was established via Atomic Force Microscopy. The magnetic behavior of ferrofluids was characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM); and finally, a magnetic force microscope was used to visualize the magnetic domains of Co{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction patterns of Co{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} show the presence of the most intense peak corresponding to the (311) crystallographic orientation of the spinel phase of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the bonds associated to the spinel structures; particularly for ferrites. The mean size of the crystallite of nanoparticles determined from the full-width at half maximum of the strongest reflection of the (311) peak by using the Scherrer approximation diminished from (9.5{+-}0.3) nm to (5.4{+-}0.2) nm when the Zn concentration increases from 0.21 to 0.75. The size of the Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles obtained by TEM is in good agreement with the crystallite size calculated from X-ray diffraction patterns, using Scherer's formula. The magnetic properties investigated with the aid of a VSM at room temperature presented super-paramagnetic behavior, determined by the shape of the hysteresis loop. In this study, we established that the coercive field of Co{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic

  14. Study of magnetic and structural properties of ferrofluids based on cobalt-zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.; Gonzalez-Bahamon, L.F.; Prado, J.; Caicedo, J.C.; Zambrano, G.; Gomez, M.E.; Esteve, J.; Prieto, P.

    2012-01-01

    Ferrofluids are colloidal systems composed of a single domain of magnetic nanoparticles with a mean diameter around 30 nm, dispersed in a liquid carrier. Magnetic Co (1-x) Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75) ferrite nanoparticles were prepared via co-precipitation method from aqueous salt solutions in an alkaline medium. The composition and structure of the samples were characterized through Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies permitted determining nanoparticle size; grain size of nanoparticle conglomerates was established via Atomic Force Microscopy. The magnetic behavior of ferrofluids was characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM); and finally, a magnetic force microscope was used to visualize the magnetic domains of Co (1-x) Zn x Fe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction patterns of Co (1-x) Zn x Fe 2 O 4 show the presence of the most intense peak corresponding to the (311) crystallographic orientation of the spinel phase of CoFe 2 O 4 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the bonds associated to the spinel structures; particularly for ferrites. The mean size of the crystallite of nanoparticles determined from the full-width at half maximum of the strongest reflection of the (311) peak by using the Scherrer approximation diminished from (9.5±0.3) nm to (5.4±0.2) nm when the Zn concentration increases from 0.21 to 0.75. The size of the Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles obtained by TEM is in good agreement with the crystallite size calculated from X-ray diffraction patterns, using Scherer's formula. The magnetic properties investigated with the aid of a VSM at room temperature presented super-paramagnetic behavior, determined by the shape of the hysteresis loop. In this study, we established that the coercive field of Co (1-x) Zn x Fe 2 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles, the crystal and nanoparticle sizes determined by X-ray Diffraction and TEM

  15. Analysis and Modeling of Integrated Magnetics for LLC resonant Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingxiao; Ouyang, Ziwei; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Shunt-inserted transformers are widely used toobtain high leakage inductance. This paper investigates thismethod in depth to make it applicable to integrate resonantinductor for the LLC resonant converters. The analysis andmodel of magnetizing inductance and leakage inductance forshunt...... transformers can provide a significantdifference. The way to obtain the desirable magnetizing andleakage inductance value for LLC resonant converters issimplified by the creation of air gaps together with a magneticshunt. The calculation and relation are validated by finiteelement analysis (FEA) simulations...

  16. 3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, Maxim [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Airapetian, Vladimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States); NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Lin, Haosheng, E-mail: vladimir.airapetian@nasa.gov [College of Natural Sciences, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Pukalani, HI (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from 1.5 to 4 R{sub ⊙} using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 Å band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below ~2.5 R{sub ⊙}. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.

  17. Magnetic properties of amorphous Tb-Fe thin films with an artificially layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.

    1986-01-01

    An alternating terbium-iron (Tb-Fe) multilayer structure artificially made in amorphous Tb-Fe thin films gives rise to excellent magnetic properties of large perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy, large saturation magnetization, and large coercivity over a wide range of Tb composition in the films. The films are superior to amorphous Tb-Fe alloy thin films, especially when they are piled up with a monatomic layer of Tb and several atomic layers of Fe in an alternating fashion. Small-angle x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the layering of monatomic layers of Tb and Fe, where the periodicity of the layers was found to be about 5.9 A. Direct evidence for an artificially layered structure was obtained by transmission electron microscopic and Auger electron spectroscopic observations. Together with magnetic measurements of hysteresis loops and torque curves, it has been concluded that the most important origin of the large magnetic uniaxial anisotropy can be attributed to the Tb-Fe pairs aligned perpendicular to the films

  18. Preparation and investigation of structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of cerium doped barium hexaferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kameli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the structure, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of cerium (Ce doped barium hexaferrite with general formulae BaCexFe12-xO19 (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 have been investigated. These samples have been prepared by sol- gel method. Influence of replacing Fe+3 ion by rare- earth Ce+3 ion on the structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties have been investigated by X- ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and vector network analyzer (VNA. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the samples are of single phase with space group p63/mmc. The magnetic properties of samples indicated that with the Ce doping the saturation magnetization show no regular behavior. Moreover, coercivity (Hc first decreased and reached to the minimum value for x=0.1 sample and then increased with Ce content increasing. Also, measurement of electromagnetic wave absorption in X and Ku frequency bands indicated that the maximum of reflection loss obtained for x=0.15 sample. Moreover, result indicated that absorption peak shifted toward a lower frequency when thickness was increased.

  19. 3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Kramar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131 to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D coronal electron density in the range of heights from $1.5$ to $4 R_odot$ using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 AA band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below $sim 2.5 R_odot$. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.

  20. Cluster magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath: four-point measurements of mirror structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster spacecraft have returned the first simultaneous four-point measurements of the magnetosheath. We present an analysis of data recorded on 10 November 2000, when the four spacecrafts observed an interval of strong mirrorlike activity. Correlation analysis between spacecraft pairs is used to examine the scale size of the mirror structures in three dimensions. Two examples are presented which suggest that the scale size of mirror structures is ~ 1500–3000 km along the flow direction, and shortest along the magnetopause normal (< 600 km, which, in this case, is approximately perpendicular to both the mean magnetic field and the magnetosheath flow vector. Variations on scales of ~ 750–1000 km are found along the maximum variance direction. The level of correlation in this direction, however, and the time lag observed, are found to be variable. These first results suggest that variations occur on scales of the order of the spacecraft separation ( ~ 1000 km in at least two directions, but analysis of further examples and a statistical survey of structures observed with different magnetic field orientations and tetrahedral configurations will enable us to describe more fully the size and orientation of mirror structures.Key words. Magnetosphenic physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities