Understanding strongly coupling magnetism from holographic duality
Cai, Rong-Gen
2016-01-01
The unusual magnetic materials are significant in both science and technology. However, because of the strongly correlated effects, it is difficult to understand their novel properties from theoretical aspects. Holographic duality offers a new approach to understanding such systems from gravity side. This paper will give a brief review of our recent works on the applications of holographic duality in understanding unusual magnetic materials. Some quantitative compare between holographic results and experimental data will be shown and some predictions from holographic duality models will be discussed.
Electromagnetic modes in cold magnetized strongly coupled plasmas
Tkachenko, I. M.; Ortner, J.; Rylyuk, V. M.
1999-01-01
The spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating in a strongly coupled magnetized fully ionized hydrogen plasma is found. The ion motion and damping being neglected, the influence of the Coulomb coupling on the electromagnetic spectrum is analyzed.
Momentum transport in strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields
Finazzo, Stefano Ivo; Rougemont, Romulo; Noronha, Jorge
2016-01-01
We present a holographic perspective on momentum transport in strongly coupled, anisotropic non-Abelian plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We compute the anisotropic heavy quark drag forces and Langevin diffusion coefficients and also the anisotropic shear viscosities for two different holographic models, namely, a top-down deformation of strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N} = 4$ Super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory triggered by an external Abelian magnetic field, and a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMD) model which is able to provide a quantitative description of lattice QCD thermodynamics with $(2+1)$-flavors at both zero and nonzero magnetic fields. We find that, in general, energy loss and momentum diffusion through strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas are enhanced by a magnetic field being larger in transverse directions than in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Moreover, the anisotropic shear viscosity coefficient is smaller in the direction of the magnetic field than in the plane pe...
Strongly coupled non-Abelian plasmas in a magnetic field
Critelli, Renato
2016-01-01
In this dissertation we use the gauge/gravity duality approach to study the dynamics of strongly coupled non-Abelian plasmas. Ultimately, we want to understand the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), whose scientifc interest by the scientific community escalated exponentially after its discovery in the 2000's through the collision of ultrarelativistic heavy ions. One can enrich the dynamics of the QGP by adding an external field, such as the baryon chemical potential (needed to study the QCD phase diagram), or a magnetic field. In this dissertation, we choose to investigate the magnetic effects. Indeed, there are compelling evidences that strong magnetic fields of the order $eB\\sim 10 m_\\pi^2$ are created in the early stages of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The chosen observable to scan possible effects of the magnetic field on the QGP was the viscosity, due to the famous result $\\eta/s=1/4\\pi$ obtained via holography. In a first approach we use a caricature of the QGP, the $\\mathcal{N}=4$ s...
Out-of-Equilibrium Chiral Magnetic Effect at Strong Coupling
Lin, Shu
2013-01-01
We study the charge transports originating from triangle anomaly in out-of-equilibrium conditions in the framework of AdS/CFT correspondence at strong coupling, to gain useful insights on possible charge separation effects that may happen in the very early stages of heavy-ion collisions. We first construct a gravity background of a homogeneous mass shell with a finite (axial) charge density gravitationally collapsing to a charged blackhole, which serves as a dual model for out-of-equilibrium charged plasma undergoing thermalization. We find that a finite charge density in the plasma slows down the thermalization. We then study the out-of-equilibrium properties of Chiral Magnetic Effect and Chiral Magnetic Wave in this background. As the medium thermalizes, the magnitude of chiral magnetic conductivity and the response time delay grow. We find a dynamical peak in the spectral function of retarded current correlator, which we identify as an out-of-equilibrium chiral magnetic wave. The group velocity of the out-...
Mechanism for strong magnetoelectric coupling in dilute magnetic ferroelectrics
Weston, L.; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Stampfl, C.
2016-11-01
The manipulation of atomic-scale magnetization is important from both a fundamental and a practical perspective. Using first-principles density-functional-theory calculations within the hybrid functional approach, we systematically study spin-lattice coupling effects for isolated 3 d4-3 d7 transition-metal dopants in a nonmagnetic, ferroelectric PbTiO3 host material. When present at the B-site, a low-spin (or intermediate-spin) to high-spin crossover induces marked ferroelectric-like distortions in the local geometry, characterized by a shift of the dopant ion with respect to the surrounding O6 octahedral cage. The origins of this microscopic multiferroic effect are discussed in terms of the pseudo-Jahn-Teller theory for ferroelectricity. The possibility to exploit this phenomenon to achieve strong magnetoelectric coupling, including controlled spin switching, is also investigated. These results provide a further understanding of ferroelectricity and multiferroicity in perovskite oxides, and they suggest a possible pathway to manipulate single atomic spins in semiconductor solid solutions.
Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances.
Kurs, André; Karalis, Aristeidis; Moffatt, Robert; Joannopoulos, J D; Fisher, Peter; Soljacic, Marin
2007-07-06
Using self-resonant coils in a strongly coupled regime, we experimentally demonstrated efficient nonradiative power transfer over distances up to 8 times the radius of the coils. We were able to transfer 60 watts with approximately 40% efficiency over distances in excess of 2 meters. We present a quantitative model describing the power transfer, which matches the experimental results to within 5%. We discuss the practical applicability of this system and suggest directions for further study.
Magnetized strongly coupled plasmas and how to realize them in a dusty plasma setup
Bonitz, M; Ott, T; Löwen, H
2013-01-01
Strongly coupled plasmas in which the interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy play an important role in many astrophysical and laboratory systems including compact stars, laser plasmas and dusty plasmas. They exhibit many unusual collective properties, such as liquid or crystalline behaviour, peculiar oscillation spectra and transport properties. Recently, strongly coupled plasmas were studied in the presence of a strong magnetic field by computer simulations, and strong modifications of their transport properties and oscillation spectra were observed. While strong magnetization is common in stellar systems it is practically impossible to achieve in complex plasmas due to the large mass of the dust particles. Here we discuss a recently demonstrated approach to achieve very strong "magnetization" by a rotation of the neutral gas, and we present new results for macroscopic two-dimensional systems.
Tyagi, Pawan; Baker, Collin; D'Angelo, Christopher
2015-07-31
This paper reports our Monte Carlo (MC) studies aiming to explain the experimentally observed paramagnetic molecule induced antiferromagnetic coupling between ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes. Recently developed magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics devices (MTJMSDs) were prepared by chemically bonding the paramagnetic molecules between the FM electrodes along the tunnel junction's perimeter. These MTJMSDs exhibited molecule-induced strong antiferromagnetic coupling. We simulated the 3D atomic model analogous to the MTJMSD and studied the effect of molecule's magnetic couplings with the two FM electrodes. Simulations show that when a molecule established ferromagnetic coupling with one electrode and antiferromagnetic coupling with the other electrode, then theoretical results effectively explained the experimental findings. Our studies suggest that in order to align MTJMSDs' electrodes antiparallel to each other, the exchange coupling strength between a molecule and FM electrodes should be ∼50% of the interatomic exchange coupling for the FM electrodes.
Thermal conductivity of magnetic insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling
Stamokostas, Georgios; Lapas, Panteleimon; Fiete, Gregory A.
We study the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the thermal conductivity of various types of magnetic insulators. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling and orbital-degeneracy, the strong-coupling limit of Hubbard interactions at half filling can often be adequately described in terms of a pure spin Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form. However, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling the resulting exchange interaction can become highly anisotropic. The effect of the atomic spin-orbit coupling, taken into account through the effect of magnon-phonon interactions and the magnetic order and excitations, on the lattice thermal conductivity of various insulating magnetic systems is studied. We focus on the regime of low temperatures where the dominant source of scattering is two-magnon scattering to one-phonon processes. The thermal current is calculated within the Boltzmann transport theory. We are grateful for financial support from NSF Grant DMR-0955778.
Maksymov, Ivan S., E-mail: ivan.maksymov@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Hutomo, Jessica; Nam, Donghee; Kostylev, Mikhail [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)
2015-05-21
We demonstrate theoretically a ∼350-fold local enhancement of the intensity of the in-plane microwave magnetic field in multilayered structures made from a magneto-insulating yttrium iron garnet (YIG) layer sandwiched between two non-magnetic layers with a high dielectric constant matching that of YIG. The enhancement is predicted for the excitation regime when the microwave magnetic field is induced inside the multilayer by the transducer of a stripline Broadband Ferromagnetic Resonance (BFMR) setup. By means of a rigorous numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation consistently with the Maxwell's equations, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics in the multilayer. We reveal a strong photon-magnon coupling, which manifests itself as anti-crossing of the ferromagnetic resonance magnon mode supported by the YIG layer and the electromagnetic resonance mode supported by the whole multilayered structure. The frequency of the magnon mode depends on the external static magnetic field, which in our case is applied tangentially to the multilayer in the direction perpendicular to the microwave magnetic field induced by the stripline of the BFMR setup. The frequency of the electromagnetic mode is independent of the static magnetic field. Consequently, the predicted photon-magnon coupling is sensitive to the applied magnetic field and thus can be used in magnetically tuneable metamaterials based on simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability achievable thanks to the YIG layer. We also suggest that the predicted photon-magnon coupling may find applications in microwave quantum information systems.
Thermo-magnetic properties of the strong coupling in the local Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model
Ayala, Alejandro; Hernandez, L A; Loewe, M; Raya, Alfredo; Rojas, J C; Villavicencio, C
2016-01-01
We study the thermo-magnetic behavior of the strong coupling constant and quark mass entering the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The behavior of the quark condensate as function of magnetic field strength and temperature is also obtained and confronted with lattice QCD results. We find that for temperatures above the chiral/deconfinement phase transitions, where the condensate decreases monotonically with increasing field, the coupling also decreases monotonically. For temperatures below the transition temperature we find that the coupling initially grows and then decreases with increasing field strength. We consider this turnover behavior as a key element in the behavior of the quark condensate above the transition temperature. Hence, it allows for an understanding of the inverse magnetic catalysis phenomenon.
Anisotropic shear viscosity of a strongly coupled non-Abelian plasma from magnetic branes
Critelli, R; Zaniboni, M; Noronha, J
2014-01-01
Recent estimates for the electromagnetic fields produced in the early stages of non-central ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions indicate the presence of magnetic fields $B\\sim \\mathcal{O}(0.1-15\\,m_\\pi^2)$, where $m_\\pi$ is the pion mass. It is then of special interest to study the effects of strong (Abelian) magnetic fields on the transport coefficients of strongly coupled non-Abelian plasmas, such as the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy ion collisions. In this work we study the anisotropy in the shear viscosity induced by an external magnetic field in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N} = 4$ SYM plasma. Due to the spatial anisotropy created by the magnetic field, the most general viscosity tensor has 5 shear viscosity coefficients and 2 bulk viscosities. We use the holographic correspondence to evaluate two of the shear viscosities, $\\eta_{\\perp} \\equiv \\eta_{xyxy}$ (perpendicular to the magnetic field) and $\\eta_{\\parallel} \\equiv \\eta_{xzxz}=\\eta_{yzyz}$ (parallel to the field). When $B\
Photon mass new limits from strong photon-torsion coupling generation of primordial magnetic fields
de Andrade, Garcia
2011-01-01
Recently Adelberger et al [Phys Rev Lett 98: 010402, (2007)] have placed a limit to photon mass by investigating the primordial magnetic fields. Earlier Bertolami et al [Phys Lett \\textbf{B} 455, 96(1999)] showed that massive photons in a spontaneous Lorentz breaking may generate primordial magnetic fields consistent with galactic dynamo seeds. Torsion coupling constant of order $10^{-5}$, much higher than the previously obtained by de Sabbata and Sivaram of $10^{-24}$, leads to strong amplification of magnetic field able to seed galactic dynamo at recombination era contrary to what happens in general relativistic dynamos. This results in $B\\sim{10^{-5}{\\beta}G}$ where ${\\beta}$ is the massive photon-torsion coupling. Thus in order to obtain the observed galaxy field of $B_{G}\\sim{{\\mu}G}$ one should have a coupling $\\beta\\sim{10^{-1}}$, never observed in the universe. Thus we may conclude that the weaker couplings for torsion to e.m fields shall only produce magnetic fields without dynamos starting from extr...
Magnetic Field Induced Shear Flow in a Strongly Coupled Complex Plasma
Bandyopadhyay, P; Jiang, K; Morfill, G
2016-01-01
We address an experimental observation of shear flow of micron sized dust particles in a strongly coupled complex plasma in presence of a homogeneous magnetic field. Two concentric Aluminum rings of different size are placed on the lower electrode of a radio frequency (rf) parallel plate discharge. The modified local sheath electric field is pointing outward/inward close to the inner/outher ring, respectively. The microparticles, confined by the rings and subject to an ion wind that driven by the local sheath electric field and deflected by an externally applied magnetic field, start flowing in azimuthal direction. Depending upon the rf amplitudes on the electrodes, the dust layers show rotation in opposite direction at the edges of the ring-shaped cloud resulting a strong shear in its center. MD simulations shows a good agreement with the experimental results.
Transport through a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in perpendicular magnetic field
Güttinger Johannes
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We present transport measurements on a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in a perpendicular magnetic field. The device consists of an etched single-layer graphene flake with two narrow constrictions separating a 140 nm diameter island from source and drain graphene contacts. Lateral graphene gates are used to electrostatically tune the device. Measurements of Coulomb resonances, including constriction resonances and Coulomb diamonds prove the functionality of the graphene quantum dot with a charging energy of approximately 4.5 meV. We show the evolution of Coulomb resonances as a function of perpendicular magnetic field, which provides indications of the formation of the graphene specific 0th Landau level. Finally, we demonstrate that the complex pattern superimposing the quantum dot energy spectra is due to the formation of additional localized states with increasing magnetic field.
Wetterskog, E; Castro, A; Zeng, L; Petronis, S; Heinke, D; Olsson, E; Nilsson, L; Gehrke, N; Svedlindh, P
2017-03-23
The widespread use of magnetic nanoparticles in the biotechnical sector puts new demands on fast and quantitative characterization techniques for nanoparticle dispersions. In this work, we report the use of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to study the properties of a commercial magnetic nanoparticle dispersion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of both techniques when subjected to a dispersion with a bimodal size/magnetic property distribution: i.e., a small superparamagnetic fraction, and a larger blocked fraction of strongly coupled colloidal nanoclusters. We show that the oriented attachment of primary nanocrystals into colloidal nanoclusters drastically alters their static, dynamic, and magnetic resonance properties. Finally, we show how the FMR spectra are influenced by dynamical effects; agglomeration of the superparamagnetic fraction leads to reversible line-broadening; rotational alignment of the suspended nanoclusters results in shape-dependent resonance shifts. The AF4 and FMR measurements described herein are fast and simple, and therefore suitable for quality control procedures in commercial production of magnetic nanoparticles.
Properties of strong-coupling magneto-bipolaron qubit in quantum dot under magnetic field
Xu-Fang, Bai; Ying, Zhang; Wuyunqimuge; Eerdunchaolu
2016-07-01
Based on the variational method of Pekar type, we study the energies and the wave-functions of the ground and the first-excited states of magneto-bipolaron, which is strongly coupled to the LO phonon in a parabolic potential quantum dot under an applied magnetic field, thus built up a quantum dot magneto-bipolaron qubit. The results show that the oscillation period of the probability density of the two electrons in the qubit decreases with increasing electron-phonon coupling strength α, resonant frequency of the magnetic field ω c, confinement strength of the quantum dot ω 0, and dielectric constant ratio of the medium η the probability density of the two electrons in the qubit oscillates periodically with increasing time t, angular coordinate φ 2, and dielectric constant ratio of the medium η the probability of electron appearing near the center of the quantum dot is larger, and the probability of electron appearing away from the center of the quantum dot is much smaller. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2013407119) and the Items of Institution of Higher Education Scientific Research of Hebei Province and Inner Mongolia, China (Grant Nos. ZD20131008, Z2015149, Z2015219, and NJZY14189).
Heavy Quark Diffusion in Strong Magnetic Fields at Weak Coupling and Implication to Elliptic Flow
Fukushima, Kenji; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi
2015-01-01
We compute the momentum diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks, $\\kappa_\\parallel$ and $\\kappa_\\perp$, in a strong magnetic field $B$ along the directions parallel and perpendicular to $B$, respectively, at the leading order in QCD coupling constant $\\alpha_s$. We consider a regime relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collisions, $\\alpha_s eB\\ll T^2\\ll eB$, so that thermal excitations of light quarks are restricted to the lowest Landau level (LLL) states. In the vanishing light-quark mass limit, we find $\\kappa_\\perp^{\\rm LO}\\propto \\alpha_s^2 T eB$ in the leading order that arises from screened Coulomb scatterings with (1+1)-dimensional LLL quarks, while $\\kappa_\\parallel$ gets no contribution from the scatterings with LLL quarks due to kinematic restrictions. We show that the first non-zero leading order contributions to $\\kappa_\\parallel^{\\rm LO}$ come from the two separate effects: 1) the screened Coulomb scatterings with thermal gluons, and 2) a finite light-quark mass $m_q$. The former leads to $\\kap...
Spontaneous generation of a temperature anisotropy in a strongly coupled magnetized plasma
Ott, T; Hartmann, P; Donkó, Z
2016-01-01
A magnetic field was recently shown to enhance field-parallel heat conduction in a strongly correlated plasma whereas cross-field conduction is reduced. Here we show that in such plasmas, the magnetic field has the additional effect of inhibiting the isotropization process between field-parallel and cross-field temperature components thus leading to the emergence of strong and long-lived temperature anisotropies when the plasma is locally perturbed. An extended heat equation is shown to describe this process accurately.
Kinetic mixing at strong coupling
Del Zotto, Michele; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Kumar, Piyush; Malekian, Arada; Wecht, Brian
2017-01-01
A common feature of many string-motivated particle physics models is additional strongly coupled U (1 )'s. In such sectors, electric and magnetic states have comparable mass, and integrating out modes also charged under U (1 ) hypercharge generically yields C P preserving electric kinetic mixing and C P violating magnetic kinetic mixing terms. Even though these extra sectors are strongly coupled, we show that in the limit where the extra sector has approximate N =2 supersymmetry, we can use formal methods from Seiberg-Witten theory to compute these couplings. We also calculate various quantities of phenomenological interest such as the cross section for scattering between visible sector states and heavy extra sector states as well as the effects of supersymmetry breaking induced from coupling to the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model.
Su, Ying; Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.
2016-09-01
The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical.
Yakushiji, Kay; Sugihara, Atsushi; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji
2017-02-01
We systematically studied the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) in a perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetically coupled structure having an Ir spacer layer for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). We found a broader peak in IEC energy density (Jex) versus spacer thickness (tIr) compared with the case of using a Ru spacer. The highest IEC energy density was 2.6 erg/cm2 at a tIr of about 5 nm. The p-MTJ nanopillars had a high magnetoresistance ratio (131%) as well as a high spin-transfer torque (STT) switching efficiency (about 2). An Ir spacer can be used to make a stable reference layer for STT magnetoresistive random access memory.
Molecular quantum magnetism with strong spin-orbit coupling in inorganic solid Ba3Yb2Zn5O11
Park, Sang-Youn; Ji, Sungdae; Park, Jae-Hoon; Do, Seunghwan; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Jang, Dongjin; Schmidt, Burkhard; Brando, Manuel; Butch, Nicholas
The molecular magnet, assembly of finite number of spins which are isolated from environment, is a model system to study the quantum information process such as the qubit or spintronic devices. In past decades, the molecular magnet has been mostly realized in organic material, however, it has difficulty synthesizing materials or controlling their properties, meanwhile tremendous endeavors to search inorganic molecular magnet are continuing. Here, we propose Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 as a candidate of inorganic molecular magnet. This material consists of an alternating 3D-array of small and large tetrahedron containing antiferromagnetically coupled four pseudospin-1/2 Yb ions, and magnetic properties are described by an isolated tetrahedron without long-range magnetic ordering. Inelastic neutron scattering measurement with external magnetic field reveals that extraordinarily huge Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction originating from strong spin-orbit coupling in Yb isospin is the key to explain energy level of tetrahedron in addition to Heisenberg exchange interaction and Zeeman effect. Magnetization measurement shows the Landau-Zener transition between avoided crossing levels caused by DM interaction.
Strong Coupling and Classicalization
Dvali, Gia
2016-01-01
Classicalization is a phenomenon in which a theory prevents itself from entering into a strong-coupling regime, by redistributing the energy among many weakly-interacting soft quanta. In this way, the scattering process of some initial hard quanta splits into a large number of soft elementary processes. In short, the theory trades the strong coupling for a high-multiplicity of quanta. At very high energies, the outcome of such a scattering experiment is a production of soft states of high occupation number that are approximately classical. It is evident that black hole creation in particle collision at super-Planckian energies is a result of classicalization, but there is no a priory reason why this phenomenon must be limited to gravity. If the hierarchy problem is solved by classicalization, the LHC has a chance of detecting a tower of new resonances. The lowest-lying resonances must appear right at the strong coupling scale in form of short-lived elementary particles. The heavier members of the tower must b...
Strong coupling operation of a free-electron-laser amplifier with an axial magnetic field
Rullier, J.L.; Devin, A.; Gardelle, J.; Labrouche, J.; Le Taillandier, P. [Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique, Boite Postale 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Donohue, J.T. [Centre dEtudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Boite Postale 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)
1996-03-01
We present the results of a free-electron-laser (FEL) experiment at 35 GHz, using a strongly relativistic electron beam ({ital T}=1.75 MeV). The electron pulse length is 30 ns full width at half maximum with a peak current of 400 A. The FEL is designed to operate in the high-gain Compton regime, with a negative coupling parameter ({Phi}{lt}0) leading to a strong growth rate. More than 50 MW of rf power in the TE{sub 1}{sub 1} mode (43 dB gain) has been obtained with good reproducibility. The experimental results are in good agreement with predictions made using the three-dimensional stationary simulation code solitude. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Prajapati, Ramprasad
2016-07-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is recently investigated is strongly coupled plasma looking to its importance in dense stellar systems and Inertial Confinement Fusion [1-3]. In the present work, the effect of quantum corrections are studied on Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and internal wave propagation in a strongly coupled, magnetized, viscoelastic fluid. The modified generalized hydrodynamic model is used to derive the analytical dispersion relation. The internal wave mode and dispersion relation are modified due to the presence of quantum corrections and viscoelastic effects. We observe that strong coupling effects and quantum corrections significantly modifies the dispersion characteristics. The dispersion relation is also discussed in weakly coupled (hydrodynamic) and strongly coupled (kinetic) limits. The explicit expression of R-T instability criterion is derived which is influenced by shear velocity and quantum corrections. Numerical calculations are performed in astrophysical and experimental relevance and it is examined that both the shear and quantum effects suppresses the growth rate of R-T instability. The possible application of the work is discussed in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) to discuss the suppression of R-T instability under considered situation. References: [1] R. P. Prajapati, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022106 (2016). [2] K. Avinash and A. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 22, 083707 (2015). [3] A. Das and P. Kaw, Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 062102.
Bonometto, S A; Musco, I; Mainini, R; Maccio', A V
2014-01-01
Models including an energy transfer from CDM to DE are widely considered in the literature, namely to allow DE a significant high-z density. Strongly Coupled cosmologies assume a much larger coupling between DE and CDM, together with the presence of an uncoupled warm DM component, as the role of CDM is mostly restricted to radiative eras. This allows us to preserve small scale fluctuations even if the warm particle, possibly a sterile neutrino, is quite light, O(100 eV). Linear theory and numerical simulations show that these cosmologies agree with LCDM on supergalactic scales; e.g., CMB spectra are substantially identical. Simultaneously, simulations show that they significantly ease problems related to the properties of MW satellites and cores in dwarfs. SC cosmologies also open new perspectives on early black hole formation, and possibly lead towards unificating DE and inflationary scalar fields.
Mamo, Kiminad A
2016-01-01
We show that a massless quark moving at the speed of light $v=1$, in arbitrary direction, in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills (SYM) vacuum in the presence of strong magnetic field $\\mathcal{B}$, losses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on $\\mathcal{B}$, i.e., $\\frac{dE}{dt}=-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}$. In addition, we show that a heavy quark of mass $M$ moving at near the speed of light $v^2=v_{*}^2=1-\\frac{4\\pi^2 T^2}{\\mathcal{B}}\\simeq1$, in arbitrary direction, in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature $T$, in the presence of strong magnetic field $\\mathcal{B}\\gg T^2$, losses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on $\\mathcal{B}$, i.e., $\\frac{dE}{dt}=-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}v_{*}^2\\simeq-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}$.
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
Chung, Y. D.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. W.; Kim, J. S. [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. Y. [Korea Railroad Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-15
The technology of supplying the electric power by wireless power transfer (WPT) is expected for the next generation power feeding system since it can supply the power to portable devices without any connectors through large air gap. As such a technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is possible to deliver the large power and recharge them seamlessly; it has been considered as a noble option to wireless power charging system in the various power applications. Recently, various HTS wires have now been manufactured for demonstrations of transmission cables, motors, MAGLEV, and other electrical power components. However, since the HTS magnets have a lower index n value intrinsically, they are required to be charged from external power system through leads or internal power system. The portable area is limited as well as the cryogen system is bulkier. Thus, we proposed a novel design of wireless power charging system for superconducting HTS magnet (WPC4SM) based on resonance coupling method. As the novel system makes possible a wireless power charging using copper resonance coupled coils, it enables to portable charging conveniently in the superconducting applications. This paper presented the conceptual design and operating characteristics of WPC4SM using different shapes' copper resonance coil. The proposed system consists of four components; RF generator of 370 kHz, copper resonance coupling coils, impedance matching (IM) subsystem and HTS magnet including rectifier system.
Moloney, Michael J.
2007-01-01
Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.
Jeffries, J R; Butch, N P; Cynn, H; Saha, S R; Kirshenbaum, K; Weir, S T; Vohra, Y K; Paglione, J
2010-11-10
Unlike the ferropnictide superconductors, which crystallize in a tetragonal crystal structure, binary FeAs forms in an orthorhombic crystal structure, where the local atomic environment resembles a highly distorted variant of the FeAs{sub 4} tetrahedral building block of the ferropnictide superconductors. However, like the parent compounds of the ferropnictide superconductors, FeAs undergoes magnetic ordering at low temperatures, with no evidence favoring a superconducting ground state at ambient pressure. We employ pressure-dependent electrical transport and x-ray diffraction measurements using diamond anvil cells to characterize the magnetic state and the structure as a function of pressure. While the structure persists up to 25 GPa, compressing continuously with pressure, magnetotransport measurements suggests that the magnetic state is destroyed near 11 GPa. The magnetic transition temperature is found to be remarkably robust under pressure, and transport measurements suggest that a dynamical structural instability coupled to the Fermi surface via a strong electron-phonon interaction may play an important role in enabling magnetism in FeAs.
Jeffries, J R; Butch, N P; Cynn, H; Saha, S R; Kirshenbaum, K; Weir, S T; Vohra, Y K; Paglione, J
2010-11-10
Unlike the ferropnictide superconductors, which crystallize in a tetragonal crystal structure, binary FeAs forms in an orthorhombic crystal structure, where the local atomic environment resembles a highly distorted variant of the FeAs{sub 4} tetrahedral building block of the ferropnictide superconductors. However, like the parent compounds of the ferropnictide superconductors, FeAs undergoes magnetic ordering at low temperatures, with no evidence favoring a superconducting ground state at ambient pressure. We employ pressure-dependent electrical transport and x-ray diffraction measurements using diamond anvil cells to characterize the magnetic state and the structure as a function of pressure. While the structure persists up to 25 GPa, compressing continuously with pressure, magnetotransport measurements suggests that the magnetic state is destroyed near 11 GPa. The magnetic transition temperature is found to be remarkably robust under pressure, and transport measurements suggest that a dynamical structural instability coupled to the Fermi surface via a strong electron-phonon interaction may play an important role in enabling magnetism in FeAs.
Forest, M. Gregory; Sircar, Sarthok; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Ruhai
2006-10-01
We establish reciprocity relations of the Doi-Hess kinetic theory for rigid rod macromolecular suspensions governed by the strong coupling among an excluded volume potential, linear flow, and a magnetic field. The relation provides a reduction of the flow and field driven Smoluchowski equation: from five parameters for coplanar linear flows and magnetic field, to two field parameters. The reduced model distinguishes flows with a rotational component, which map to simple shear (with rate parameter) subject to a transverse magnetic field (with strength parameter), and irrotational flows, for which the reduced model consists of a triaxial extensional flow (with two extensional rate parameters). We solve the Smoluchowski equation of the reduced model to explore: (i) the effect of introducing a coplanar magnetic field on each sheared monodomain attractor of the Doi-Hess kinetic theory and (ii) the coupling of coplanar extensional flow and magnetic fields. For (i), we show each sheared attractor (steady and unsteady, with peak axis in and out of the shearing plane, periodic and chaotic orbits) undergoes its own transition sequence versus magnetic field strength. Nonetheless, robust predictions emerge: out-of-plane degrees of freedom are arrested with increasing field strength, and a unique flow-aligning or tumbling/wagging limit cycle emerges above a threshold magnetic field strength or modified geometry parameter value. For (ii), irrotational flows coupled with a coplanar magnetic field yield only steady states. We characterize all (generically biaxial) equilibria in terms of an explicit Boltzmann distribution, providing a natural generalization of analytical results on pure nematic equilibria [P. Constantin, I. Kevrekidis, and E. S. Titi, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. 174, 365 (2004); P. Constantin, I. Kevrekidis, and E. S. Titi, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems 11, 101 (2004); P. Constantin and J. Vukadinovic, Nonlinearity 18, 441 (2005); H. Liu, H. Zhang, and P
Nonlinear magnetoplasmons in strongly coupled Yukawa plasmas
Bonitz, M; Ott, T; Kaehlert, H; Hartmann, P
2010-01-01
The existence of plasma oscillations at multiples of the magnetoplasmon frequency in a strongly coupled two-dimensional magnetized Yukawa plasma is reported, based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations. These modes are the analogues of Bernstein modes which are renormalized by strong interparticle correlations. Their properties are theoretically explained by a dielectric function incorporating the combined effect of a magnetic field, strong correlations and finite temperature.
Ghosh, Samiran
2014-09-01
The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal in presence of external magnetic field and dust-neutral collision is investigated. The standard perturbative approach leads to a 2D Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton for the well-known dust-lattice mode. However, the Coriolis force due to crystal rotation and Lorentz force due to magnetic field on dust particles introduce a linear forcing term, whereas dust-neutral drag introduce the usual damping term in the 2D KdV equation. This new nonlinear equation is solved both analytically and numerically to show the competition between the linear forcing and damping in the formation of quasilongitudinal soliton in a 2D strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma. Numerical simulation on the basis of the typical experimental plasma parameters and the analytical solution reveal that the neutral drag force is responsible for the usual exponential decay of the soliton, whereas Coriolis and/or Lorentz force is responsible for the algebraic decay as well as the oscillating tail formation of the soliton. The results are discussed in the context of the plasma crystal experiment.
Inflationary Magnetogenesis without the Strong Coupling Problem
Ferreira, Ricardo J Z; Sloth, Martin S
2013-01-01
The simplest gauge invariant models of inflationary magnetogenesis are known to suffer from the problems of either large back reaction or strong coupling, which make it difficult to self-consistently achieve cosmic magnetic fields from inflation with a field strength larger than $10^{-32}$ Gauss today on the $\\Mpc$ scale. Such a strength is insufficient to act as seeds for the galactic dynamo effect, which requires a magnetic field larger than $10^{-20}$ Gauss. In this paper we propose a new simple model, which avoids both the strong coupling and the back reaction problems, and can lead to cosmic magnetic fields from inflation as large as about $10^{-16}$ Gauss today on the $\\Mpc$ scale, thus improving the previous result by 16 orders of magnitude. In the scenario presented here, the coupling function which breaks the conformal invariance of electromagnetism is non-monotonic with sharp features avoiding previous back reaction and strong coupling constraints.
Magnetic order in α -RuCl3 : A honeycomb-lattice quantum magnet with strong spin-orbit coupling
Sears, J. A.; Songvilay, M.; Plumb, K. W.; Clancy, J. P.; Qiu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Parshall, D.; Kim, Young-June
2015-04-01
We report magnetic and thermodynamic properties of single crystal α -RuCl3 , in which the Ru3+(4 d5) ion is in its low spin state and forms a honeycomb lattice. Two features are observed in both magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data; a sharp peak at 7 K and a broad hump near 10-15 K. In addition, we observe a metamagnetic transition between 5 and 10 T. Our neutron diffraction study of single crystal samples confirms that the low temperature peak in the specific heat is associated with a magnetic order with unit cell doubling along the honeycomb (100) direction, which is consistent with zigzag order, one of the types of magnetic order predicted within the framework of the Kitaev-Heisenberg model.
Goto, H. [Dept. of Mathematics and Physical Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba Univ. (Japan); Natsume, Y. [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
1995-04-01
The estimation of Tc for the superconducting phase under the ultra-high magnetic feild is discussed on the basis of numerical calculation by the use of the expression of Eliashberg equations for strong coupling theory. The essenthial effect of the retardation of the interaction by phonons on making the gap is pointed out in comparison between 2 and 3 dimensinal systems. (orig.)
Inflationary magnetogenesis without the strong coupling problem
Ferreira, Ricardo J.Z.; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: ferreira@cp3.dias.sdu.dk, E-mail: jain@cp3.dias.sdu.dk, E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk [CP3-Origins, Centre for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)
2013-10-01
The simplest gauge invariant models of inflationary magnetogenesis are known to suffer from the problems of either large backreaction or strong coupling, which make it difficult to self-consistently achieve cosmic magnetic fields from inflation with a field strength larger than 10{sup −32}G today on the Mpc scale. Such a strength is insufficient to act as seed for the galactic dynamo effect, which requires a magnetic field larger than 10{sup −20}G. In this paper we analyze simple extensions of the minimal model, which avoid both the strong coupling and back reaction problems, in order to generate sufficiently large magnetic fields on the Mpc scale today. First we study the possibility that the coupling function which breaks the conformal invariance of electromagnetism is non-monotonic with sharp features. Subsequently, we consider the effect of lowering the energy scale of inflation jointly with a scenario of prolonged reheating where the universe is dominated by a stiff fluid for a short period after inflation. In the latter case, a systematic study shows upper bounds for the magnetic field strength today on the Mpc scale of 10{sup −13}G for low scale inflation and 10{sup −25}G for high scale inflation, thus improving on the previous result by 7-19 orders of magnitude. These results are consistent with the strong coupling and backreaction constraints.
PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems
Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano
2009-05-01
This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas
Zhu Linli; Zhang Jianping; Zheng Xiaojing
2006-01-01
In order to study the multi-field coupling mechanical behavior of the simply-supported conductive rectangular thin plate under the condition of an externally lateral strong impulsive magnetic field, that is the dynamic buckling phenomenon of the thin plates in the effect of the magnetic volume forces produced by the interaction between the eddy current and the magnetic fields, a FEM analysis program is developed to characterize the phenomena of magnetoelastic buckling and instability of the plates. The critical values of magnetic field for the three different initial vibrating modes are obtained, with a detailed discussion made on the effects of the lengththickness ratio a/h of the plate and the length-width ratio a/b as well as the impulse parameter τ on the critical value Bocr of the applied magnetic field.
Seok Jin Yun
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Strong interlayer exchange coupling (IEC and high post-annealing stability are demonstrated for perpendicular synthetic ferrimagnets (p-SyFs with [Pt/Co]6/Ru/[Co/Pt]3 structures. The observed IEC strength was 2.55 ergs/cm2 for a Ru thickness of 0.35 nm, representing the highest value achieved up to date for similar structures. The IEC remained strong even after annealing at 450oC, for the practically important Ru layer thickness of 0.85 nm. The biquadratic IEC, a parameter quantifying the pinhole effects in SyFs, was confirmed by analyzing the experimental results by using the total energy functional, and its strength increased with decreasing the temperature and Ru layer thickness.
Fuini, John F
2015-01-01
Using holography, we study the evolution of a spatially homogeneous, far from equilibrium, strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with a non-zero charge density or a background magnetic field. This gauge theory problem corresponds, in the dual gravity description, to an initial value problem in Einstein-Maxwell theory with homogeneous but anisotropic initial conditions. We explore the dependence of the equilibration process on different aspects of the initial departure from equilibrium and, while controlling for these dependencies, examine how the equilibration dynamics are affected by the presence of a non-vanishing charge density or an external magnetic field. The equilibration dynamics are remarkably insensitive to the addition of even large chemical potentials or magnetic fields; the equilibration time is set primarily by the form of the initial departure from equilibrium. For initial deviations from equilibrium which are well localized in scale, we formulate a simple model for equilibratio...
Fuini, John F.; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2015-07-01
Using holography, we study the evolution of a spatially homogeneous, far from equilibrium, strongly coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with a non-zero charge density or a background magnetic field. This gauge theory problem corresponds, in the dual gravity description, to an initial value problem in Einstein-Maxwell theory with homogeneous but anisotropic initial conditions. We explore the dependence of the equilibration process on different aspects of the initial departure from equilibrium and, while controlling for these dependencies, examine how the equilibration dynamics are affected by the presence of a non-vanishing charge density or an external magnetic field. The equilibration dynamics are remarkably insensitive to the addition of even large chemical potentials or magnetic fields; the equilibration time is set primarily by the form of the initial departure from equilibrium. For initial deviations from equilibrium which are well localized in scale, we formulate a simple model for equilibration times which agrees quite well with our results.
Hyperon Stars in Strong Magnetic Fields
Gomes, R O; Vasconcellos, C A Z
2013-01-01
We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of hyperon stars. The matter is described by a hadronic model with parametric coupling. The matter is considered to be at zero temperature, charge neutral, beta-equilibrated, containing the baryonic octet, electrons and muons. The charged particles have their orbital motions Landau-quantized in the presence of strong magnetic fields (SMF). Two parametrisations of a chemical potential dependent static magnetic field are considered, reaching $1-2 \\times 10^{18}\\,G$ in the center of the star. Finally, the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations are solved to obtain the mass-radius relation and population of the stars.
Salazar-Alvarez, German; Geshev, Julian; Agramunt-Puig, Sebastià; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro; Sort, Jordi; Nogués, Josep
2016-08-31
The exchange bias properties of Co/CoO coaxial core/shell nanowires were investigated with cooling and applied fields perpendicular to the wire axis. This configuration leads to unexpected exchange-bias effects. First, the magnetization value at high fields is found to depend on the field-cooling conditions. This effect arises from the competition between the magnetic anisotropy and the Zeeman energies for cooling fields perpendicular to the wire axis. This allows imprinting predefined magnetization states to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) shell, as corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Second, the system exhibits a high-field magnetic irreversibility, leading to open hysteresis loops attributed to the AFM easy axis reorientation during the reversal (effect similar to athermal training). A distinct way to manipulate the high-field magnetization in exchange-biased systems, beyond the archetypical effects, was thus experimentally and theoretically demonstrated.
Verkholyak, Taras; Strečka, Jozef
2016-10-01
The spin-1/2 Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain is considered within the perturbative strong-coupling approach, which is developed from the exactly solved spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain with the Heisenberg intradimer and the Ising interdimer couplings. Although the spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain exhibits just intermediate plateaus at zero, one-quarter, and one-half of the saturation magnetization, the perturbative treatment up to second order stemming from this exactly solvable model additionally corroborates the fractional one-third plateau as well as the gapless Luttinger spin-liquid phase. It is evidenced that the approximate results obtained from the strong-coupling approach are in an excellent agreement with the state-of-the-art numerical data obtained for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain within the exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group method. The nature of individual quantum ground states is comprehensively studied within the developed perturbation theory.
The magnetic properties of $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and $^{\\rm 180}$Hf in the strong coupling deformed model
Muto, S.; Stone, N. J.; Bingham, C. R.; STONE, J.R; Walker, P. M.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.(Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France); Nikolov, J.; Nishimura,K; Ohtsubo, T.; Podolyak, Z.; Risegari, L.; Simpson, G.S.; Veskovic, M.
2014-01-01
This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2$^-$, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and the 8$^-$, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in $^{\\rm 180}$Hf by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of gamma transitions in the decay of the $^{\\rm 177}$Hf isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2$^+$, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV ...
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.
The magnetic properties of $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and $^{\\rm 180}$Hf in the strong coupling deformed model
Muto, S; Bingham, C R; Stone, J R; Walker, P M; Audi, G; Gaulard, C; Köster, U; Nikolov, J; Nishimura, K; Ohtsubo, T; Podolyak, Z; Risegari, L; Simpson, G S; Veskovic, M; Walters, W B
2014-01-01
This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2$^-$, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and the 8$^-$, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in $^{\\rm 180}$Hf by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of gamma transitions in the decay of the $^{\\rm 177}$Hf isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2$^+$, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV and on the 9/2$^+$, 0.663 ns, isomer at 321 keV. The new results are discussed in the light of the recently reported finding of systematic dependence of the behavior of the g$_{\\rm R}$ parameter upon the quasi-proton and quasi-neutron make up of high-K isomeric states in this region.
Instability of strong magnetic field and neutrino magnetic dipole moment
Lee, Hyun Kyu
2016-01-01
Vacuum instability of the strong electromagnetic field has been discussed since long time ago. The instability of the strong electric field due to creation of electron pairs is one of the examples, which is known as Schwinger process. What matters are the coupling of particles to the electromagnetic field and the mass of the particle to be produced. The critical electric field for electrons in the minimal coupling is ~ m^2/e . Spin 1/2 neutral particles but with magnetic dipole moments can interact with the electromagnetic field through Pauli coupling. The instability of the particular vacuum under the strong magnetic field can be formulated as the emergence of imaginary parts of the effective potential. In this talk, the development of the imaginary part in the effective potential as a function of the magnetic field strength is discussed for the configurations of the uniform magnetic field and the inhomogeneous magnetic field. Neutrinos are the lightest particle(if not photon or gluon) in the "standard model...
From individual to strongly coupled metallic nanocavities
Salomon, Adi; Kolkowski, Radoslaw; Zyss, Joseph
2013-01-01
Localized plasmonic modes of metallic nanoparticles may hybridize like those of atoms forming a molecule. However, the rapid decay of the plasmonic fields outside the metal severely limits the range of these interactions to tens of nanometers. Herein, we demonstrate very strong coupling of nanocavities in metal films, sparked by propagating surface plasmons and evident even at much larger distances of hundreds of nanometers for the properly selected metal/wavelength combination. Such strong coupling drastically changes the symmetry of the charge distribution around the nanocavities making it amenable to probing by the nonlinear optical response of the medium. We show that when strongly coupled, equilateral triangular nanocavities lose their individual three-fold symmetry to adopt the lower symmetry of the coupled system and then respond like a single dipolar entity. A quantitative model is suggested for the transition from individual to strongly coupled nanocavities.
Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors
Joel Bellessa
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.
Neutrino-pair emission in a strong magnetic field
van Dalen, ENE; Dieperink, AEL; Sedrakian, A; Timmermans, RGE
2000-01-01
We study the neutrino emissivity of strongly magnetized neutron stars due to the charged and neutral current couplings of neutrinos to baryons in strong magnetic fields. The leading order neutral current process is the one-body neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung, which does not have an analogue in the zer
Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling
Xue, Zheng-Yuan, E-mail: zyxue@scnu.edu.cn; Yang, Li-Na [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou8627@163.com [Department of Electronic Communication Engineering, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2015-07-13
In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.
Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling
Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2007-06-15
We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.
The Determination of the Strong Coupling Constant
Dissertori, Günther
2016-10-01
The strong coupling constant is one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics. In this review I will briefly summarise the theoretical framework, within which the strong coupling constant is defined and how it is connected to measurable observables. Then I will give an historical overview of its experimental determinations and discuss the current status and world average value. Among the many different techniques used to determine this coupling constant in the context of quantum chromodynamics, I will focus in particular on a number of measurements carried out at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.
Cosmological Particle Production at Strong Coupling
Rangamani, Mukund; Van Raamsdonk, Mark
2015-01-01
We study the dynamics of a strongly-coupled quantum field theory in a cosmological spacetime using the holographic AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically we consider a confining gauge theory in an expanding FRW universe and track the evolution of the stress-energy tensor during a period of expansion, varying the initial temperature as well as the rate and amplitude of the expansion. At strong coupling, particle production is inseparable from entropy production. As a result, we find significant qualitative differences from the weak coupling results: at strong coupling the system rapidly loses memory of its initial state as the amplitude is increased. Furthermore, in the regime where the Hubble parameter is parametrically smaller than the initial temperature, the dynamics is well modelled as a plasma evolving hydrodynamically towards equilibrium.
Diffusive Mixing in Strongly Coupled Plasmas
Diaw, Abdourahmane; Murillo, Michael
2016-10-01
A multispecies hydrodynamic model based on moments of the Born-Bogolyubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy is developed for physical conditions relevant to astrophysical plasmas. The modified transport equations incorporate strong correlations through a density functional theory closure, while fluctuations enters through a mixture BGK operator. This model extends the usual Burgers equations for a dilute gas to strongly coupled and isothermal plasmas mixtures. The diffusive currents for these strongly coupled plasmas is self-consistently derived. The settling of impurities and its impact on cooling of white dwarfs and neutron stars can be greatly affected by strong Coulomb coupling, which we show can be quantified using the direct-correlation function. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA9550-12-1-0344).
Li, Weixin; Yuan, Zhensheng; Chen, Zhenmao
2014-12-01
Analysis of the electromagneto-mechanical coupling effect contributes greatly to the high accuracy estimation of the EM load of many EM devices, such as a tokamak structure during plasma disruption. This paper presents a method for the numerical analysis of the electromagneto-mechanical coupling effect on the basis of Maxwell's equations in the Lagrangian description and staggered load transfer scheme, which can treat the coupled behaviors of magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness effects at the same time. Codes were developed based on the ANSYS development platform and were applied to solve two typical numerical examples: the TEAM Problem 16 and dynamic behavior analysis of a shallow arch under electromagnetic force. The good consistency of numerical results and experimental data demonstrates the validity and accuracy of the proposed method and the related numerical codes.
Magnetically Coupled Microcalorimeters
Bandler, S. R.; Irwin, K. D.; Kelly, D.; Nagler, P. N.; Porst, J. P.; Rotzinger, H.; Sadleir, J. E.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.
2012-01-01
Magnetic calorimeters have been under development for over 20 years targeting a wide variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. They have a number of properties that distinguish them from other 10w temperature detectors. In this paper we review these properties and emphasize the types of application to which they are most suited. We will describe what has been learned about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. While most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide the temperature sensitivity, recently magnetically coupled microcalorimeters have been in development that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. We will contrast some of the properties of the two different magnetic sensor types.
Mironov, Vladimir S; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Ceulemans, Arnout
2003-08-13
Unusual spin coupling between Mo(III) and Mn(II) cyano-bridged ions in bimetallic molecular magnets based on the [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-) heptacyanometalate is analyzed in terms of the superexchange theory. Due to the orbital degeneracy and strong spin-orbit coupling on Mo(III), the ground state of the pentagonal-bipyramidal [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-) complex corresponds to an anisotropic Kramers doublet. Using a specially adapted kinetic exchange model we have shown that the Mo(III)-CN-Mn(II) superexchange interaction is extremely anisotropic: it is described by an Ising-like spin Hamiltonian JS(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn) for the apical pairs and by the J(z)S(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn) + J(xy)(Sx(Mo) Sx(Mn) + Sy(Mo) Sy(Mn)) spin Hamiltonian for the equatorial pairs (in the latter case J(z) and J(xy) can have opposite signs). This anisotropy resulted from an interplay of several Ising-like (Sz(Mo) Sz(Mn)) and isotropic (S(Mo)S(Mn)) ferro- and antiferromagnetic contributions originating from metal-to-metal electron transfers through the pi and sigma orbitals of the cyano bridges. The Mo(III)-CN-Mn(II) exchange anisotropy is distinct from the anisotropy of the g-tensor of [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-); moreover, there is no correlation between the exchange anisotropy and g-tensor anisotropy. We indicate that highly anisotropic spin-spin couplings (such as the Ising-like JS(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn)) combined with large exchange parameters represent a very important source of the global magnetic anisotropy of polyatomic molecular magnetic clusters. Since the total spin of such clusters is no longer a good quantum number, the spin spectrum pattern can differ considerably from the conventional scheme described by the zero-field splitting of the isotropic spin of the ground state. As a result, the spin reorientation barrier of the magnetic cluster may be considerably larger. This finding opens a new way in the strategy of designing single-molecule magnets (SMM) with unusually high blocking temperatures. The use of
Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters
Bandler, Simon
2011-01-01
Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.
Combinatorics of Lattice QCD at Strong Coupling
Unger, Wolfgang
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics in the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD has features which may be similar to those of continuum QCD, such as a chiral critical end point and a nuclear liquid gas transition. Here I compare the combinatorics of staggered and Wilson fermions in the strong coupling limit for arbitrary number of colors and flavors. The partition functions can be considered as an expansions in hadronic spatial hoppings from the static limit, where both discretizations can be expressed via formulae with coefficients of distinct combinatorial interpretation. The corresponding multiplicites of hadronic states are evaluated using generalizations of Catalan numbers and Lucas polynomials. I outline how quantum Monte Carlo simulations can be carried out in general, and summarize recent results on the gauge corrections to the strong coupling limit.
Strong coupling, discrete symmetry and flavour
Abel, Steven
2010-01-01
We show how two principles - strong coupling and discrete symmetry - can work together to generate the flavour structure of the Standard Model. We propose that in the UV the full theory has a discrete flavour symmetry, typically only associated with tribimaximal mixing in the neutrino sector. Hierarchies in the particle masses and mixing matrices then emerge from multiple strongly coupled sectors that break this symmetry. This allows for a realistic flavour structure, even in models built around an underlying grand unified theory. We use two different techniques to understand the strongly coupled physics: confinement in N=1 supersymmetry and the AdS/CFT correspondence. Both approaches yield equivalent results and can be represented in a clear, graphical way where the flavour symmetry is realised geometrically.
Analytic Solution of Strongly Coupling Schroedinger Equation
Liao, J Y; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhuang, Pengfei
2002-01-01
The recently developed expansion method for ground states of strongly coupling Schr\\"odinger equations by Friedberg, Lee and Zhao is extended to excited states. The coupling constant dependence of bound states for power-law central forces $V(r) \\propto g^k r^n$ is particularly studied. With the extended method all the excited states of the Hydrogen atom problem are resolved and the low-lying states for Yukawa potential are approximately obtained.
Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems
Georg Wolschin
2003-05-01
Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefﬁcient is proposed. A schematic model for rapidity distributions of participant baryons is set up and solved analytically. The evolution from SIS via AGS and SPS to RHIC energies is discussed. Strong-coupling diffusion produces double-peaked spectra in central collisions at the higher SPS momentum of 158 A$\\cdot$GeV/c and beyond.
Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches
Liu, Da; Pomarol, Alex; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco
2016-11-01
Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or W W scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.
Strongly Coupled Quark Gluon Plasma (SCQGP)
Bannur, V M
2006-01-01
We propose that the reason for the non-ideal behavior seen in lattice simulation of quark gluon plasma (QGP) and relativistic heavy ion collisions (URHICs) experiments is that the QGP near T_c and above is strongly coupled plasma (SCP), i.e., strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (SCQGP). It is remarkable that the widely used equation of state (EoS) of SCP in QED (quantum electrodynamics) very nicely fits lattice results on all QGP systems, with proper modifications to include color degrees of freedom and running coupling constant. Results on pressure in pure gauge, 2-flavors and 3-flavors QGP, are all can be explained by treating QGP as SCQGP as demonstated here.Energy density and speed of sound are also presented for all three systems.
Nonperturbative enhancement of superloop at strong coupling
Belitsky, A. V.
2016-10-01
We address the near-collinear expansion of NMHV six-particle scattering amplitudes at strong value of the 't Hooft coupling in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We complement recent studies of this observable within the context of the Pentagon Operator Product Expansion, via the dual superWilson loop description, by studying effects of multiple scalar exchanges that accompany (or not) massive flux-tube excitations. Due to the fact that holes have a very small, nonperturbatively generated mass mh which is exponentially suppressed in the 't Hooft coupling, their exchanges must be resummed in the ultraviolet limit, τ ≪ 1 /mh. This procedure yields a contribution to the expectation value of the superloop which enters on equal footing with the classical area - a phenomenon which was earlier observed for MHV amplitudes. In all components, the near-massless scalar exchanges factorize from the ones of massive particles, at leading order in strong coupling.
Nonperturbative enhancement of superloop at strong coupling
Belitsky, A V
2015-01-01
We address the near-collinear expansion of NMHV six-particle scattering amplitudes at strong value of 't Hooft coupling in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We complement recent studies of this observable within the context of the pentagon operator product expansion, via the dual super Wilson loop description, by studying effects of multiple scalar exchanges that accompany (or not) massive flux-tube excitations. Due to the fact that holes have a very small, nonperturbatively generated mass which is exponentially suppressed in 't Hooft coupling, their exchanges must be resummed in the ultraviolet limit. This procedure yields a contribution to the expectation value of the superloop which enters on equal footing with the classical area, --- a phenomenon which was earlier observed for MHV amplitudes. In all components, the near-massless scalar exchanges factorize from the ones of massive particles, at leading order in strong coupling.
Patterns of Strong Coupling for LHC Searches
Liu, Da; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco
2016-11-23
Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. Our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several searches in Higgs physics, d...
On the strongly coupled heterotic string
Dudas, E A; Dudas, Emilian; Mourad, Jihad
1997-01-01
We analyze in detail the anomaly cancellation conditions for the strongly coupled $E_8 \\times E_8$ heterotic string introduced by Horava and Witten and find new features compared to the ten-dimensional Green-Schwarz mechanism. We project onto ten dimensions the corresponding Lagrangian of the zero-mode fields. We find that it has a simple interpretation provided by the conjectured heterotic string/fivebrane duality. The part which originates from eleven-dimensions is naturally described in fivebrane language. We discuss physical couplings and scales in four dimensions.
A scenario for inflationary magnetogenesis without strong coupling problem
Tasinato, Gianmassimo [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth,Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2015-03-23
Cosmological magnetic fields pervade the entire universe, from small to large scales. Since they apparently extend into the intergalactic medium, it is tantalizing to believe that they have a primordial origin, possibly being produced during inflation. However, finding consistent scenarios for inflationary magnetogenesis is a challenging theoretical problem. The requirements to avoid an excessive production of electromagnetic energy, and to avoid entering a strong coupling regime characterized by large values for the electromagnetic coupling constant, typically allow one to generate only a tiny amplitude of magnetic field during inflation. We propose a scenario for building gauge-invariant models of inflationary magnetogenesis potentially free from these issues. The idea is to derivatively couple a dynamical scalar, not necessarily the inflaton, to fermionic and electromagnetic fields during the inflationary era. Such couplings give additional freedom to control the time-dependence of the electromagnetic coupling constant during inflation. This fact allows us to find conditions to avoid the strong coupling problems that affect many of the existing models of magnetogenesis. We do not need to rely on a particular inflationary set-up for developing our scenario, that might be applied to different realizations of inflation. On the other hand, specific requirements have to be imposed on the dynamics of the scalar derivatively coupled to fermions and electromagnetism, that we are able to satisfy in an explicit realization of our proposal.
Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA
Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.
2011-01-01
Higgs, or techni-dilaton - composite Higgs near conformality / Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase diagram of strongly interacting theories / Francesco Sannino -- Resizing conformal windows / O. Antipin and K. Tuominen -- Nearly conformal gauge theories on the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Going beyond QCD in lattice gauge theory / G. T. Fleming -- Phases of QCD from small to large N[symbol]: (some) lattice results / A. Deuzeman, E. Pallante and M. P. Lombardo -- Lattice gauge theory and (quasi)-conformal technicolor / D. K. Sinclair and J. B. Kogut -- Study of the running coupling constant in 10-flavor QCD with the Schrodinger functional method / N. Yamada ... [et al.] -- Study of the running coupling in twisted Polyakov scheme / T. Aoyama ... [et al.].Running coupling in strong gauge theories via the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Higgsinoless supersymmetry and hidden gravity / Michael L. Graesser, Ryuichiro Kitano and Masafumi Kurachi -- The latest status of LHC and the EWSB physics / S. Asai -- Continuum superpartners from supersymmetric unparticles / Hsin-Chia Cheng -- Review of minimal flavor constraints for technicolor / Hidenori S. Fukano and Francesco Sannino -- Standard model and high energy Lorentz violation / Damiano Anselmi -- Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and fourth family / Michio Hashimoto -- Holmorphic supersymmetric Nambu-Jona-Lasino model and dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking / Dong-Won Jung, Otto C. W. Kong and Jae Sik Lee -- Ratchet model of Baryogenesis / Tatsu Takeuchi, Azusa Minamizaki and Akio Sugamoto -- Classical solutions of field equations in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity / P. Suranyi, C. Vaz and L. C. R. Wijewardhana -- Black holes constitute all dark matter / Paul H. Frampton -- Electroweak precision test and Z [symbol] in the three site Higgsless model / Tomohiro Abe -- Chiral symmetry and BRST symmetry breaking, quaternion reality and the lattice simulation / Sadataka Furui -- Holographic techni-dilaton, or
Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation
Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I
2014-01-01
Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.
Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux
Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2016-08-01
Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.
Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux
Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B; Begelman, Mitchell C
2016-01-01
Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.
Simple supersymmetric strongly coupled preon model
Fajfer, S.; Tadić, D.
1988-08-01
This supersymmetric-SU(5) composite model is a natural generalization of the usual strong-coupling models. Preon superfields are in representations 5* and 10. The product representations 5*×10, 5×10, 5×5, and 5*×5 contain only those strongly hypercolor bound states which are needed in the standard electroweak theory. There are no superfluous quarklike states. The neutrino is massless. Only one strongly hypercolor bound singlet (10×10*) can exist as a free particle. At higher energies one should expect to see a plethora of new particles. Grand unification happens at the scale M~1014 GeV. Cabibbo mixing can be incorporated by using a transposed Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix.
Strongly Coupled Graphene on the Lattice
Lähde, Timo A
2011-01-01
The two-dimensional carbon allotrope graphene has recently attracted a lot of attention from researchers in the disciplines of Lattice Field Theory, Lattice QCD and Monte Carlo calculations. This interest has been prompted by several remarkable properties of the conduction electrons in graphene. For instance, the conical band structure of graphene at low energies is strongly reminiscent of relativistic Dirac fermions. Also, due the low Fermi velocity of v_F = c/300, where c is the speed of light in vacuum, the physics of the conduction electrons in graphene is qualitatively similar to Quantum Electrodynamics in a strongly coupled regime. In turn, this opens up the prospect of the experimental realization of gapped, strongly correlated states in the electronic phase diagram of graphene. Here, we review the experimental and theoretical motivations for Lattice Field Theory studies of graphene, and describe the directions that such research is likely to progress in during the next few years. We also give a brief ...
Strong polarization mode coupling in microresonators
Ramelow, Sven; Clemmen, Stéphane; Levy, Jacob S; Johnson, Adrea R; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lamont, Michael R E; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L
2014-01-01
We observe strong modal coupling between the TE00 and TM00 modes in Si3N4 ring resonators revealed by avoided crossings of the corresponding resonances. Such couplings result in significant shifts of the resonance frequencies over a wide range around the crossing points. This leads to an effective dispersion that is one order of magnitude larger than the intrinsic dispersion and creates broad windows of anomalous dispersion. We also observe the changes to frequency comb spectra generated in Si3N4 microresonators due polarization mode and higher-order mode crossings and suggest approaches to avoid these effects. Alternatively, such polarization mode-crossings can be used as a novel tool for dispersion engineering in microresonators.
Strong coupling effective theory with heavy fermions
Fromm, Michael; Lottini, Stefano; Philipsen, Owe
2011-01-01
We extend the recently developed strong coupling, dimensionally reduced Polyakov-loop effective theory from finite-temperature pure Yang-Mills to include heavy fermions and nonzero chemical potential by means of a hopping parameter expansion. Numerical simulation is employed to investigate the weakening of the deconfinement transition as a function of the quark mass. The tractability of the sign problem in this model is exploited to locate the critical surface in the (M/T, mu/T, T) space over the whole range of chemical potentials from zero up to infinity.
Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators
Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.
2010-01-01
A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…
Exchange couplings in magnetic films
Liu Wei; Liu Xiong-Hua; Cui Wei-Bin; Gong Wen-Jie; Zhang Zhi-Dong
2013-01-01
Recent advances in the study of exchange couplings in magnetic films are introduced.To provide a comprehensive understanding of exchange coupling,we have designed different bilayers,trilayers and multilayers,such as anisotropic hard/soft-magnetic multilayer films,ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayers,[Pt/Co]/NiFe/NiO heterostructures,Co/NiO and Co/NiO/Fe trilayers on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template.The exchange-coupling interaction between soft-and hard-magnetic phases,interlayer and interfacial exchange couplings and magnetic and magnetotransport properties in these magnetic films have been investigated in detail by adjusting the magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic layers and by changing the thickness of the spacer layer,ferromagnetic layer,and antiferromagnetic layer.Some particular physical phenomena have been observed and explained.
'True' bosonic coupling strength in strongly correlated superconductors.
Iwasawa, Hideaki; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Hase, Izumi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Aiura, Yoshihiro
2013-01-01
Clarifying the coupling between electrons and bosonic excitations (phonons or magnetic fluctuations) that mediate the formation of Cooper pairs is pivotal to understand superconductivity. Such coupling effects are contained in the electron self-energy, which is experimentally accessible via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). However, in unconventional superconductors, identifying the nature of the electron-boson coupling remains elusive partly because of the significant band renormalization due to electron correlation. Until now, to quantify the electron-boson coupling, the self-energy is most often determined by assuming a phenomenological 'bare' band. Here, we demonstrate that the conventional procedure underestimates the electron-boson coupling depending on the electron-electron coupling, even if the self-energy appears to be self-consistent via the Kramers-Kronig relation. Our refined method explains well the electron-boson and electron-electron coupling strength in ruthenate superconductor Sr2RuO4, calling for a critical revision of the bosonic coupling strength from ARPES self-energy in strongly correlated electron systems.
‘True’ bosonic coupling strength in strongly correlated superconductors
Iwasawa, Hideaki; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Hase, Izumi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Aiura, Yoshihiro
2013-01-01
Clarifying the coupling between electrons and bosonic excitations (phonons or magnetic fluctuations) that mediate the formation of Cooper pairs is pivotal to understand superconductivity. Such coupling effects are contained in the electron self-energy, which is experimentally accessible via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). However, in unconventional superconductors, identifying the nature of the electron-boson coupling remains elusive partly because of the significant band renormalization due to electron correlation. Until now, to quantify the electron-boson coupling, the self-energy is most often determined by assuming a phenomenological ‘bare’ band. Here, we demonstrate that the conventional procedure underestimates the electron-boson coupling depending on the electron-electron coupling, even if the self-energy appears to be self-consistent via the Kramers-Kronig relation. Our refined method explains well the electron-boson and electron-electron coupling strength in ruthenate superconductor Sr2RuO4, calling for a critical revision of the bosonic coupling strength from ARPES self-energy in strongly correlated electron systems. PMID:23722675
Strong Coulomb Coupling in the Todorov Equation
Bawin, M.; Cugnon, J.; Sazdjian, H.
A positronium-like system with strong Coulomb coupling, considered in its pseudoscalar sector, is studied in the framework of relativistic quantum constraint dynamics with the Todorov choice for the potential. Case’s method of self-adjoint extension of singular potentials, which avoids explicit introduction of regularization cut-offs, is adopted. It is found that, as the coupling constant α increases, the bound state spectrum undergoes an abrupt change at the critical value α=αc=1/2. For α>αc, the mass spectrum displays, in addition to the existing states for α<αc, a new set of an infinite number of bound states concentrated in a narrow band starting at mass W=0; all the states have indefinitely oscillating wave functions near the origin. In the limit α→αc from above, the oscillations disappear and the narrow band of low-lying states shrinks to a single massless state with a mass gap with the rest of the spectrum. This state has the required properties to represent a Goldstone boson and to signal spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry.
Phase diagram of strong interactions in an external magnetic field
Mizher, Ana Julia; Chernodub, M N
2011-01-01
We obtain the phase diagram of strong interactions in the presence of a magnetic field within the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop, and show that the chiral and deconfinement lines can split. We also study the behavior of the chiral condensate in this magnetic environment and find an approximately linear dependence on the external field, in accordance with lattice data.
Vila-Fungueiriño, José Manuel; Rivas-Murias, Beatriz, E-mail: beatriz.rivas@usc.es; Rivadulla, Francisco
2014-02-28
We report the synthesis of high quality epitaxial bilayers of LaMnO{sub 3}/LaCoO{sub 3} (LCO/LMO) on (001) LaAlO{sub 3}, by spin-coating of a polymeric aqueous solutions. The bilayer shows a very large increase of the magnetization coercive field (≈ 3000%) with respect to the isolated LMO or LCO films. We suggest that the origin of this effect is a strong Mn{sup 4+}–O–Co{sup 2+} exchange interaction at the interface. Our results demonstrate that a simple chemical method is able to produce high quality epitaxial heterostructures in which interfacial effects can modify substantially the properties of the individual layers. - Highlights: • Synthesis of high quality epitaxial bilayers of LaMnO{sub 3}/LaCoO{sub 3} on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} • Polymer assisted deposition method • Interfacial effects can modify substantially the properties of the individual layers.
Dense stellar matter with trapped neutrinos under strong magnetic fields
Rabhi, A
2009-01-01
We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the equation of state of dense stellar neutrino-free and neutrino-trapped matter. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings (NLW) and with density dependent parameters (DDRH) and including hyperons are considered . It is shown that at low densities neutrinos are suppressed in the presence of the magnetic field. The magnetic field reduces the strangeness fraction of neutrino-free matter and increases the strangeness fraction of neutrino-trapped matter. The mass-radius relation of stars described by these equations of state are determined. The magnetic field makes the overall equation of state stiffer and the stronger the field the larger the mass of maximum mass star and the smaller the baryon density at the center of the star. As a consequence in the presence of strong magnetic fields the possibility that a protoneutron star evolves to a blackhole is smaller.
Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas
Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1980-01-01
dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed.......Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...
Simulating strongly coupled plasmas at low temperatures
Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Habs, D.
2006-10-01
Realistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the particle dynamics in strongly coupled plasmas require the computation of the mutual Coulomb-force for each pair of charged particles if a correct treatment of long range correlations is required. For plasmas with N > 104 particles this requires a tremendous number of computational steps which can only be addressed using efficient parallel algorithms adopted to modern super-computers. We present a new versatile MD simulation code which can simulate the non-relativistic mutual Coulomb-interaction of a large number of charged particles in arbitrary external field configurations. A demanding application is the simulation of the complete dynamics of in-trap stopping of highly charged ions in a laser cooled plasma of N = 105 24Mg+ ions. We demonstrate that the simulation is capable of delivering results on stopping times and plasma dynamics under realistic conditions. The results suggest that this stopping scheme can compete with in-trap electron cooling and might be an alternative approach for delivering ultra cold highly charged ions for future trap-based experiments aiming for precision mass measurements of stable and radioactive nuclei.
Magnetic moments induce strong phonon renormalization in FeSi.
Krannich, S; Sidis, Y; Lamago, D; Heid, R; Mignot, J-M; Löhneysen, H v; Ivanov, A; Steffens, P; Keller, T; Wang, L; Goering, E; Weber, F
2015-11-27
The interactions of electronic, spin and lattice degrees of freedom in solids result in complex phase diagrams, new emergent phenomena and technical applications. While electron-phonon coupling is well understood, and interactions between spin and electronic excitations are intensely investigated, only little is known about the dynamic interactions between spin and lattice excitations. Noncentrosymmetric FeSi is known to undergo with increasing temperature a crossover from insulating to metallic behaviour with concomitant magnetic fluctuations, and exhibits strongly temperature-dependent phonon energies. Here we show by detailed inelastic neutron-scattering measurements and ab initio calculations that the phonon renormalization in FeSi is linked to its unconventional magnetic properties. Electronic states mediating conventional electron-phonon coupling are only activated in the presence of strong magnetic fluctuations. Furthermore, phonons entailing strongly varying Fe-Fe distances are damped via dynamic coupling to the temperature-induced magnetic moments, highlighting FeSi as a material with direct spin-phonon coupling and multiple interaction paths.
Mechanics of magnetic fluid column in strong magnetic fields
Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Platonov, V. B.
2017-06-01
Elastic-and magnetic properties of magnetic fluid confined by ponderomotive force in a tube fixed in horizontal position are considered. The system is placed in a strong magnetic field under the influence of external static and dynamic perturbations. An experimental setup has been developed. A theoretical basis of the processes of magnetic colloid elastic deformation has been proposed. The values of the static ponderomotive elasticity coefficient and the elasticity coefficient under dynamic action are experimentally determined. The calculations of the saturation magnetization for two magnetic fluid samples, carried out according to the equation containing the dynamic elasticity coefficient, are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest when studying magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic colloids.
Quark matter under strong magnetic fields
Peres Menezes, Debora [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Laercio Lopes, Luiz [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Campus VIII, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais, Varginha, MG (Brazil)
2016-02-15
We revisit three of the mathematical formalisms used to describe magnetized quark matter in compact objects within the MIT and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models and then compare their results. The tree formalisms are based on 1) isotropic equations of state, 2) anisotropic equations of state with different parallel and perpendicular pressures and 3) the assumption of a chaotic field approximation that results in a truly isotropic equation of state. We have seen that the magnetization obtained with both models is very different: while the MIT model produces well-behaved curves that are always positive for large magnetic fields, the NJL model yields a magnetization with lots of spikes and negative values. This fact has strong consequences on the results based on the existence of anisotropic equations of state. We have also seen that, while the isotropic formalism results in maximum stellar masses that increase considerably when the magnetic fields increase, maximum masses obtained with the chaotic field approximation never vary more than 5.5%. The effect of the magnetic field on the radii is opposed in the MIT and NJL models: with both formalisms, isotropic and chaotic field approximation, for a fixed mass, the radii increase with the increase of the magnetic field in the MIT bag model and decrease in the NJL, the radii of quark stars described by the NJL model being smaller than the ones described by the MIT model. (orig.)
Anomaly induced transport coefficients, from weak to strong coupling
Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2013-01-01
The existence of new transport phenomena associated to the presence of quantum anomalies has atracted very recently the attention of theorist. These transport coefficient have very interesting properties, for example, they do not renormalize. The most famous case of anomaly induced transport phenomena is the Chiral Magnetic Effect, in which an electric current is produced by a magnetic field if the system has a different number of right handed fermions respect the left handed one. In this thesis we have studied those transport coefficients from Kubo formulas at weak and strong coupling. To finish a fluid/gravity approach is used to compute all the second order anomalous coefficients in an anomalous conformal fluid.
Correlated Fluctuations in Strongly Coupled Binary Networks Beyond Equilibrium
David Dahmen
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Randomly coupled Ising spins constitute the classical model of collective phenomena in disordered systems, with applications covering glassy magnetism and frustration, combinatorial optimization, protein folding, stock market dynamics, and social dynamics. The phase diagram of these systems is obtained in the thermodynamic limit by averaging over the quenched randomness of the couplings. However, many applications require the statistics of activity for a single realization of the possibly asymmetric couplings in finite-sized networks. Examples include reconstruction of couplings from the observed dynamics, representation of probability distributions for sampling-based inference, and learning in the central nervous system based on the dynamic and correlation-dependent modification of synaptic connections. The systematic cumulant expansion for kinetic binary (Ising threshold units with strong, random, and asymmetric couplings presented here goes beyond mean-field theory and is applicable outside thermodynamic equilibrium; a system of approximate nonlinear equations predicts average activities and pairwise covariances in quantitative agreement with full simulations down to hundreds of units. The linearized theory yields an expansion of the correlation and response functions in collective eigenmodes, leads to an efficient algorithm solving the inverse problem, and shows that correlations are invariant under scaling of the interaction strengths.
Correlated Fluctuations in Strongly Coupled Binary Networks Beyond Equilibrium
Dahmen, David; Bos, Hannah; Helias, Moritz
2016-07-01
Randomly coupled Ising spins constitute the classical model of collective phenomena in disordered systems, with applications covering glassy magnetism and frustration, combinatorial optimization, protein folding, stock market dynamics, and social dynamics. The phase diagram of these systems is obtained in the thermodynamic limit by averaging over the quenched randomness of the couplings. However, many applications require the statistics of activity for a single realization of the possibly asymmetric couplings in finite-sized networks. Examples include reconstruction of couplings from the observed dynamics, representation of probability distributions for sampling-based inference, and learning in the central nervous system based on the dynamic and correlation-dependent modification of synaptic connections. The systematic cumulant expansion for kinetic binary (Ising) threshold units with strong, random, and asymmetric couplings presented here goes beyond mean-field theory and is applicable outside thermodynamic equilibrium; a system of approximate nonlinear equations predicts average activities and pairwise covariances in quantitative agreement with full simulations down to hundreds of units. The linearized theory yields an expansion of the correlation and response functions in collective eigenmodes, leads to an efficient algorithm solving the inverse problem, and shows that correlations are invariant under scaling of the interaction strengths.
Assembly of magnetic spheres in strong homogeneous magnetic field
Messina, René; Stanković, Igor
2017-01-01
The assembly in two dimensions of spherical magnets in strong magnetic field is addressed theoretically. It is shown that the attraction and assembly of parallel magnetic chains is the result of a delicate interplay of dipole-dipole interactions and short ranged excluded volume correlations. Minimal energy structures are obtained by numerical optimization procedure as well as analytical considerations. For a small number of constitutive magnets Ntot ≤ 26, a straight chain is found to be the ground state. In the regime of larger Ntot ≥ 27, the magnets form two touching chains with equally long tails at both ends. We succeed to identify the transition from two to three touching chains at Ntot = 129. Overall, this study sheds light on the mechanisms of the recently experimentally observed ribbon formation of superparamagnetic colloids via lateral aggregation of magnetic chains in magnetic field (Darras et al., 2016).
Hyperon bulk viscosity in strong magnetic fields
Sinha, Monika
2008-01-01
We study bulk viscosity in neutron star matter including $\\Lambda$ hyperons in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields. Relaxation time and bulk viscosity due to both the non-leptonic weak process involving $\\Lambda$ hyperons and the direct Urca (dUrca) process are calculated here. In the presence of a strong magnetic field, bulk viscosity coefficients are enhanced when protons, electrons and muons are populated in their respective zeroth Landau levels compared with the field free cases. The enhancement of bulk viscosity coefficient is larger for the dUrca case.
Instabilities in strong magnetic fields in string theory
Kiritsis, Elias B; Kiritsis, Elias; Kounnas, Costas
1995-01-01
We construct groundstates of the string with non-zero mass gap and non-trivial chromo-magnetic fields as well as curvature. The exact spectrum as function of the chromo-magnetic fields and curvature is derived. We examine the behavior of the spectrum, and find that there is a maximal value for the magnetic field H_{\\rm max}\\sim M_{\\rm Plank}^2. At this value all states that couple to the magnetic field become infinitely massive and decouple. We also find tachyonic instabilities for strong background fields of the order {\\cal O}(\\mu M_{\\rm Planck}) where \\mu is the mass gap of the theory. Unlike the field theory case, we find that such ground states become stable again for magnetic fields of the order {\\cal O}(M^2_{\\rm Plank}). The implications of these results are discussed.
Strongly typed rewriting for coupled software transformation
Cunha, Alcino; Visser, J
2006-01-01
Coupled transformations occur in software evolution when multiple artifacts must be modified in such a way that they remain consistent with each other. An important example involves the coupled transformation of a data type, its instances, and the programs that consume or produce it. Previously, we have provided a formal treatment of transformation of the first two: data types and instances. The treatment involved the construction of type-safe, type-changing strategic rewrite systems. In this...
Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields
Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang;
1997-01-01
A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21......) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well...
Supersymmetric QCD: Exact Results and Strong Coupling
Dine, Michael; Pack, Lawrence; Park, Chang-Soon; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Wu, Weitao
2011-01-01
We revisit two longstanding puzzles in supersymmetric gauge theories. The first concerns the question of the holomorphy of the coupling, and related to this the possible definition of an exact (NSVZ) beta function. The second concerns instantons in pure gluodynamics, which appear to give sensible, exact results for certain correlation functions, which nonetheless differ from those obtained using systematic weak coupling expansions. For the first question, we extend an earlier proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Murayama, showing that if their regulated action is written suitably, the holomorphy of the couplings is manifest, and it is easy to determine the renormalization scheme for which the NSVZ formula holds. This scheme, however, is seen to be one of an infinite class of schemes, each leading to an exact beta function; the NSVZ scheme, while simple, is not selected by any compelling physical consideration. For the second question, we explain why the instanton computation in the pure supersymmetric gauge theory is...
Compensating strong coupling with large charge
Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne
2016-01-01
We study (conformal) field theories with global symmetries in the sector where the value of the global charge $Q$ is large. We find (as expected) that the low energy excitations of this sector are described by the general form of Goldstone's theorem in the non-relativistic regime. We also derive the unexpected result, first presented in [Hellerman:2015], that the effective field theory describing such sector of fixed $Q$ contains effective couplings $\\lambda_{\\text{eff}}\\sim \\lambda^b /Q^{a}$, where $\\lambda$ is the original coupling. Hence, large charge leads to weak coupling. In the last section of the paper we present an outline of how to compute anomalous dimensions in this limit.
Process-independent strong running coupling
Binosi, Daniele; Mezrag, Cédric; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose
2017-09-01
We unify two widely different approaches to understanding the infrared behavior of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), one essentially phenomenological, based on data, and the other computational, realized via quantum field equations in the continuum theory. Using the latter, we explain and calculate a process-independent running coupling for QCD, a new type of effective charge that is an analogue of the Gell-Mann-Low effective coupling in quantum electrodynamics. The result is almost identical to the process-dependent effective charge defined via the Bjorken sum rule, which provides one of the most basic constraints on our knowledge of nucleon spin structure. This reveals the Bjorken sum to be a near direct means by which to gain empirical insight into QCD's Gell-Mann-Low effective charge.
Cooling Curve of Strange Star in Strong Magnetic Field
WANG Xiao-Qin; LUO Zhi-Quan
2008-01-01
In this paper, firstly, we investigate the neutrino emissivity from quark Urca process in strong magnetic field. Then, we discuss the heat capacity of strange stars in strong magnetic field. Finally, we give the cooling curve in strong magnetic field. In order to make a comparison, we also give the corresponding cooling curve in the case of null magnetic field. It turns out that strange stars cool faster in strong magnetic field than that without magnetic field.
Magnetically coupled system for mixing
Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul
2015-09-22
The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.
Chiral transition in a strong magnetic background
Fraga, Eduardo S
2008-01-01
The presence of a strong magnetic background can modify the nature and the dynamics of the chiral phase transition at finite temperature. We compute the modified effective potential in the linear sigma model with quarks to one loop in the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme for $N_{f}=2$. For fields $eB\\sim 5 m_{\\pi}^{2}$ and larger a crossover is turned into a weak first-order transition. We discuss possible implications for non-central heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC, and for the primordial QCD transition.
Strongly Coupled Rotational Band in {sup 33}Mg
Richard, A. L.; Crawford, H. L.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Bader, V. M.; Bazin, D.; Bowry, M.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Clark, R. M.
2017-07-28
The “Island of Inversion” at N ∼ 20 for the neon, sodium, and magnesium isotopes has long been an area of interest both experimentally and theoretically due to the subtle competition between 0p-0h and np-nh configurations leading to deformed shapes. However, the presence of rotational band structures, which are fingerprints of deformed shapes, have only recently been observed in this region. In this work, we report on a measurement of the low-lying level structure of 33Mg populated by a two-stage projectile fragmentation reaction and studied with GRETINA. The experimental level energies, ground state magnetic moment, intrinsic quadrupole moment, and γ-ray intensities show good agreement with the strong-coupling limit of a rotational model.
Strong Couplings of Three Mesons with Charm(ing) Involvement
Lucha, Wolfgang; Sazdjian, Hagop; Simula, Silvano
2016-01-01
We determine the strong couplings of three mesons that involve, at least, one $\\eta_c$ or $J/\\psi$ meson, within the framework of a constituent-quark model by means of relativistic dispersion formulations. For strong couplings of $J/\\psi$ mesons to two charmed mesons, our approach leads to predictions roughly twice as large as those arising from QCD sum rules.
Excited hexagon Wilson loops for strongly coupled N=4 SYM
Bartels, J.; Kotanski, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2010-10-15
This work is devoted to the six-gluon scattering amplitude in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. At weak coupling, an appropriate high energy limit of the so-called remainder function, i.e. of the deviation from the BDS formula, may be understood in terms of the lowest eigenvalue of the BFKL hamiltonian. According to Alday et al., amplitudes in the strongly coupled theory can be constructed through an auxiliary 1-dimensional quantum system. We argue that certain excitations of this quantum system determine the Regge limit of the remainder function at strong coupling and we compute its precise value. (orig.)
Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas
Di-Lun Yang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.
Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas
Yang, Di-Lun; Müller, Berndt
2016-09-01
We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP) at weak coupling and N = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma (SYMP) at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon-parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.
Strongly magnetized rotating dipole in general relativity
Petri, J
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic waves arise in many area of physics. Solutions are difficult to find in the general case. In this paper, we numerically integrate Maxwell equations in a 3D spherical polar coordinate system. Straightforward finite difference methods would lead to a coordinate singularity along the polar axis. Spectral methods are better suited to deal with such artificial singularities related to the choice of a coordinate system. When the radiating object is rotating like for instance a star, special classes of solutions to Maxwell equations are worthwhile to study such as quasi-stationary regimes. Moreover, in high-energy astrophysics, strong gravitational and magnetic fields are present especially around rotating neutron stars. In order to study such systems, we designed an algorithm to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations in spherical polar coordinates including general relativity as well as quantum electrodynamical corrections to leading order. As a diagnostic, we compute the spindown luminosity exp...
Strongly magnetized rotating dipole in general relativity
Pétri, J.
2016-10-01
Context. Electromagnetic waves arise in many areas of physics. Solutions are difficult to find in the general case. Aims: We numerically integrate Maxwell equations in a 3D spherical polar coordinate system. Methods: Straightforward finite difference methods would lead to a coordinate singularity along the polar axis. Spectral methods are better suited for such artificial singularities that are related to the choice of a coordinate system. When the radiating object rotates like a star, for example, special classes of solutions to Maxwell equations are worthwhile to study, such as quasi-stationary regimes. Moreover, in high-energy astrophysics, strong gravitational and magnetic fields are present especially around rotating neutron stars. Results: To study such systems, we designed an algorithm to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations in spherical polar coordinates including general relativity and quantum electrodynamical corrections to leading order. As a diagnostic, we computed the spin-down luminosity expected for these stars and compared it to the classical or non-relativistic and non-quantum mechanical results. Conclusions: Quantum electrodynamics leads to an irrelevant change in the spin-down luminosity even for a magnetic field of about the critical value of 4.4 × 109 T. Therefore the braking index remains close to its value for a point dipole in vacuum, namely n = 3. The same conclusion holds for a general-relativistic quantum electrodynamically corrected force-free magnetosphere.
Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories
Athanasiou, Christiana; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna
2010-01-01
Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle $\\alpha \\sim 1/\\gamma$. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.
On the strong coupling scale in Higgs G-inflation
Kohei Kamada
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Higgs G-inflation is an inflation model that takes advantage of a Galileon-like derivative coupling. It is a non-renormalizable operator and is strongly coupled at high energy scales. Perturbative analysis does not have a predictive power any longer there. In general, when the Lagrangian is expanded around the vacuum, the strong coupling scale is identified as the mass scale that appears in non-renormalizable operators. In inflationary models, however, the identification of the strong coupling scale is subtle, since the structures of the kinetic term as well as the interaction itself can be modified by the background inflationary dynamics. Therefore, the strong coupling scale depends on the background. In this letter, we evaluate the strong coupling scale of the fluctuations around the background in the Higgs G-inflation including the Nambu–Goldstone modes associated with the symmetry breaking. We find that the system is sufficiently weakly coupled when the scales which we now observe exit the horizon during inflation and the observational predictions with the semiclassical treatment are valid. However, we also find that the inflaton field value at which the strong coupling scale and the Hubble scale meet is less than the Planck scale. Therefore, we cannot describe the model from the Planck scale, or the chaotic initial condition.
On the strong coupling scale in Higgs G-inflation
Kamada, Kohei, E-mail: kohei.kamada@epfl.ch
2015-05-11
Higgs G-inflation is an inflation model that takes advantage of a Galileon-like derivative coupling. It is a non-renormalizable operator and is strongly coupled at high energy scales. Perturbative analysis does not have a predictive power any longer there. In general, when the Lagrangian is expanded around the vacuum, the strong coupling scale is identified as the mass scale that appears in non-renormalizable operators. In inflationary models, however, the identification of the strong coupling scale is subtle, since the structures of the kinetic term as well as the interaction itself can be modified by the background inflationary dynamics. Therefore, the strong coupling scale depends on the background. In this letter, we evaluate the strong coupling scale of the fluctuations around the background in the Higgs G-inflation including the Nambu–Goldstone modes associated with the symmetry breaking. We find that the system is sufficiently weakly coupled when the scales which we now observe exit the horizon during inflation and the observational predictions with the semiclassical treatment are valid. However, we also find that the inflaton field value at which the strong coupling scale and the Hubble scale meet is less than the Planck scale. Therefore, we cannot describe the model from the Planck scale, or the chaotic initial condition.
Solovyev, I. V.; Mazurenko, V. V.; Katanin, A. A.
2015-12-01
Layered perovskites Sr2IrO4 and Ba2IrO4 are regarded as the key materials for understanding the properties of magnetic relativistic insulators, mediated by the strong spin-orbit (SO) coupling. One of the most fundamental issues is to which extent these properties can be described by the superexchange (SE) model, formulated in the limit of the large Coulomb repulsion for some appropriately selected pseudospin states, and whether these materials themselves can be classified as Mott insulators. In this work, we address these issues by deriving the relevant models and extracting parameters of these models from the electronic-structure calculations with the SO coupling, based on the density functional theory. First, we construct the effective Hubbard-type model for the magnetically active t2 g bands, by recasting the problem in the language of localized Wannier orbitals. Then, we map the obtained electron model onto the pseudospin model by applying the theory of SE interactions, which is based on the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the transfer integrals. We discuss the microscopic origin of anisotropic SE interactions, inherent to the compass Heisenberg model, and the appearance of the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya term, associated with the additional rotation of the IrO6 octahedra in Sr2IrO4 . In order to solve the pseudospin Hamiltonian problem and evaluate the Néel temperature (TN), we employ the nonlinear sigma model. We have found that, while for Sr2IrO4 our value of TN agrees with the experimental data, for Ba2IrO4 it is overestimated by a factor of 2. We argue that this discrepancy is related to limitations of the SE model: while for more localized t2 g states in Sr2IrO4 it works reasonably well, the higher-order terms in the perturbation theory expansion play a more important role in the more "itinerant" Ba2IrO4 , giving rise to the new type of isotropic and anisotropic exchange interactions, which are not captured by the SE model. This
Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces
Matvejeff, M., E-mail: mikko.matvejeff@picosun.com [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Ahvenniemi, E. [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Takahashi, R.; Lippmaa, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan)
2015-10-05
We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.
Strong plasmon coupling in self-assembled superparamagnetic nanoshell chains
Xiong, Min; Jin, Xiulong; Ye, Jian
2016-02-01
Construction of ordered patterns of plasmonic nanoparticles is greatly important for nanophotonics relevant applications. We have reported a facile and low-cost magnetic field induced self-assembly approach to construct plasmonic superparamagnetic nanoshell (SN) chains up to several hundred micrometers in a few seconds in a large area without templates or other assistance processes. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the near- and far-field optical properties indicate that the super- and sub-radiant modes of the SN chains continuously redshift with the increase of SN number and the Fano resonance emerges in the infinite double- and triple-line SN chains. Strong plasmon coupling effects in the SN chains result in great electric field enhancements at visible and infrared wavelengths, which indicates that these chain structures potentially can be used as a common substrate for both surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) application. This fabrication method also offers a general strategy alternative to top-down processing that enables the construction of nanostructures for metamaterials, electromagnetic energy transport, and optical waveguide.Construction of ordered patterns of plasmonic nanoparticles is greatly important for nanophotonics relevant applications. We have reported a facile and low-cost magnetic field induced self-assembly approach to construct plasmonic superparamagnetic nanoshell (SN) chains up to several hundred micrometers in a few seconds in a large area without templates or other assistance processes. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the near- and far-field optical properties indicate that the super- and sub-radiant modes of the SN chains continuously redshift with the increase of SN number and the Fano resonance emerges in the infinite double- and triple-line SN chains. Strong plasmon coupling effects in the SN chains result in great electric field enhancements at visible
Parametric strong mode-coupling in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators
Li, Shu-Xiao; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping
2016-08-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fit of the quality factor and similar results in more devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02853e
The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice
Boito, Diogo; Jamin, Matthias; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago
2012-01-01
We review our recent determination of the strong coupling \\alpha_s from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that \\alpha_s(m^2_\\tau) =0.325+-0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and \\alpha_s(m^2_\\tau)=0.347+-0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.
Central Charge of the Parallelogram Lattice Strong Coupling Schwinger Model
Yee, K
1993-01-01
We put forth a Fierzed hopping expansion for strong coupling Wilson fermions. As an application, we show that the strong coupling Schwinger model on parallelogram lattices with nonbacktracking Wilson fermions span, as a function of the lattice skewness angle, the $\\Delta = -1$ critical line of $6$-vertex models. This Fierzed formulation also applies to backtracking Wilson fermions, which as we describe apparently correspond to richer systems. However, we have not been able to identify them with exactly solved models.
Ultra-strong coupling of molecular materials: spectroscopy and dynamics
George, Jino; Wang, Shaojun; Chervy, Thibault; Canaquier-Durand, Antoine; Schaeffer, Gaël; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Hutchison, James A.; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W
2015-01-01
We report here a study of light–matter strong coupling involving three molecules with very different photo-physical properties. In particular we analyze their emission properties and show that the excitation spectra are very different from the static absorption of the coupled systems. Furthermore we
Novel phases in strongly coupled four-fermion theories
Catterall, Simon
2016-01-01
We study a lattice model comprising four flavors of reduced staggered fermion in four dimensions interacting via a specific four-fermion interaction. We present both theoretical arguments and numerical evidence that support the idea that the system develops a mass gap for sufficiently strong four-fermi coupling via the formation of a symmetric four-fermion condensate. In contrast to other lattice four-fermion models studied previously our results do {\\it not} favor the formation of a symmetry-breaking bilinear condensate for any value of the four-fermi coupling and we find evidence for one or more {\\it continuous} phase transitions separating the weak and strong coupling regimes.
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories : challenges and perspectives
Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J. L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H. W.; Llanes-Estrada, F. J.; Meyer, H. B.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M. I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W. M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Fodor, Z.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Höllwieser, R.; Janik, M. A.; Kalweit, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, J. W.; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C. A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N. G.; Von Hippel, G. M.; Zakharov, V. I.
2014-01-01
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex sys
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories : challenges and perspectives
Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J. L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H. W.; Llanes-Estrada, F. J.; Meyer, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M. I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W. M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Nezza, P. Di; Fodor, Z.; Tormo, X. Garcia i; Höllwieser, R.; Kalwait, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C. A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N. G.; Hippel, G. M. von; Zakharov, V. I .
2014-01-01
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly-coupled, complex sys
Approximations for strongly-coupled supersymmetric quantum mechanics
Kabat, D; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad
2000-01-01
We advocate a set of approximations for studying the finite temperature behavior of strongly-coupled theories in 0+1 dimensions. The approximation consists of expanding about a Gaussian action, with the width of the Gaussian determined by a set of gap equations. The approximation can be applied to supersymmetric systems, provided that the gap equations are formulated in superspace. It can be applied to large-N theories, by keeping just the planar contribution to the gap equations. We analyze several models of scalar supersymmetric quantum mechanics, and show that the Gaussian approximation correctly distinguishes between a moduli space, mass gap, and supersymmetry breaking at strong coupling. Then we apply the approximation to a bosonic large-N gauge theory, and argue that a Gross-Witten transition separates the weak-coupling and strong-coupling regimes. A similar transition should occur in a generic large-N gauge theory, in particular in 0-brane quantum mechanics.
Integrating out resonances in strongly-coupled electroweak scenarios
Rosell, Ignasi; Santos, Joaquin; Sanz-Cillero, Juan Jose
2016-01-01
Accepting that there is a mass gap above the electroweak scale, the Electroweak Effective Theory (EWET) is an appropriate tool to describe this situation. Since the EWET couplings contain information on the unknown high-energy dynamics, we consider a generic strongly-coupled scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking, where the known particle fields are coupled to heavier states. Then, and by integrating out these heavy fields, we study the tracks of the lightest resonances into the couplings. The determination of the low-energy couplings (LECs) in terms of resonance parameters can be made more precise by considering a proper short-distance behaviour on the Lagrangian with heavy states, since the number of resonance couplings is then reduced. Notice that we adopt a generic non-linear realization of the electroweak symmetry breaking with a singlet Higgs.
Thermal conductivity of local moment models with strong spin-orbit coupling
Stamokostas, Georgios L.; Lapas, Panteleimon E.; Fiete, Gregory A.
2017-02-01
We study the magnetic and lattice contributions to the thermal conductivity of electrically insulating strongly spin-orbit coupled magnetically ordered phases on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice using the Kitaev-Heisenberg model. Depending on model parameters, such as the relative strength of the spin-orbit induced anisotropic coupling, a number of magnetically ordered phases are possible. In this work, we study two distinct regimes of thermal transport depending on whether the characteristic energy of the phonons or the magnons dominates, and focus on two different relaxation mechanisms, boundary scattering and magnon-phonon scattering. For spatially anisotropic magnetic phases, the thermal conductivity tensor can be highly anisotropic when the magnetic energy scale dominates, since the magnetic degrees of freedom dominate the thermal transport for temperatures well below the magnetic transition temperature. In the opposite limit in which the phonon energy scale dominates, the thermal conductivity will be nearly isotropic, reflecting the isotropic (at low temperatures) phonon dispersion assumed for the honeycomb lattice. We further discuss the extent to which thermal transport properties are influenced by strong spin-orbit induced anisotropic coupling in the local moment regime of insulating magnetic phases. The developed methodology can be applied to any 2D magnon-phonon system, and more importantly to systems where an analytical Bogoliubov transformation cannot be found and magnon bands are not necessarily isotropic.
Coupled Coils, Magnets and Lenz's Law
Thompson, Frank
2010-01-01
Great scientists in the past have experimented with coils and magnets. Here we have a variation where coupling occurs between two coils and the oscillatory motion of two magnets to give somewhat surprising results. (Contains 6 figures and 1 footnote.)
Strong coupling of an Er3+-doped YAlO3 crystal to a superconducting resonator
Tkalčec, A.; Probst, S.; Rieger, D.; Rotzinger, H.; Wünsch, S.; Kukharchyk, N.; Wieck, A. D.; Siegel, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Bushev, P.
2014-08-01
Quantum memories are integral parts of both quantum computers and quantum communication networks. Naturally, such a memory is embedded into a hybrid quantum architecture, which has to meet the requirements of fast gates, long coherence times, and long distance communication. Erbium-doped crystals are well suited as a microwave quantum memory for superconducting circuits with additional access to the optical telecom C band around 1.55 μm. Here, we report on circuit QED experiments with an Er3+:YAlO3 crystal and demonstrate strong coupling to a superconducting lumped element resonator. The low magnetic anisotropy of the host crystal allows for attaining the strong coupling regime at relatively low magnetic fields, which are compatible with superconducting circuits. In addition, Ce3+ impurities were detected in the crystal, which showed strong coupling as well.
Broadband room temperature strong coupling between quantum dots and metamaterials.
Indukuri, Chaitanya; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Basu, J K
2017-08-17
Herein, we report the first demonstration of room temperature enhanced light-matter coupling in the visible regime for metamaterials using cooperative coupled quasi two dimensional quantum dot assemblies located at precise distances from the hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) templates. The non-monotonic variation of the magnitude of strong coupling, manifested in terms of strong splitting of the photoluminescence of quantum dots, can be explained in terms of enhanced LDOS near the surface of such metamaterials as well as the plasmon mediated super-radiance of closely spaced quantum dots (QDs). Our methodology of enhancing broadband, room temperature, light-matter coupling in the visible regime for metamaterials opens up new possibilities of utilising these materials for a wide range of applications including QD based thresholdless nanolasers and novel metamaterial based integrated photonic devices.
Cosmological constraints on strongly coupled moduli from cosmic strings
Sabancilar, Eray
2010-06-01
Cosmic (super)string loops emit moduli as they oscillate under the effect of their tension. Abundance of such moduli is constrained by diffuse gamma ray background, dark matter, and primordial element abundances if their lifetime is of the order of the relevant cosmic time. It is shown that the constraints on string tension Gμ and modulus mass m are significantly relaxed for moduli coupling to matter stronger than gravitational strength which appears to be quite generic in large volume and warped compactification scenarios in string theory. It is also shown that thermal production of strongly coupled moduli is not efficient, hence free from constraints. In particular, the strongly coupled moduli in warped and large volume compactification scenarios and the radial modulus in the Randall-Sundrum model are found to be free from the constraints when their coupling constant is sufficiently large.
Strong coupling theory of heavy fermion criticality II
Wölfle, Peter; Schmalian, Jörg; Abrahams, Elihu
2017-04-01
We present a theory of the scaling behavior of the thermodynamic, transport and dynamical properties of a three-dimensional metal governed by d-dimensional fluctuations at a quantum critical point, where the electron quasiparticle effective mass diverges. We determine how the critical bosonic order parameter fluctuations are affected by the effective mass divergence. The coupled system of fermions and bosons is found to be governed by two stable fixed points: the conventional weak-coupling fixed point and a new strong-coupling fixed point, provided the boson–boson interaction is irrelevant. The latter fixed point supports hyperscaling, characterized by fractional exponents. The theory is applied to the antiferromagnetic critical point in certain heavy fermion compounds, in which the strong-coupling regime is reached.
A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna
2014-01-01
We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...
Dust acoustic waves in strongly coupled dissipative plasmas
Xie, B. S.; Yu, M. Y.
2000-12-01
The theory of dust acoustic waves is revisited in the frame of the generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic theory for highly correlated dusts. Physical processes relevant to many experiments on dusts in plasmas, such as ionization and recombination, dust-charge variation, elastic electron and ion collisions with neutral and charged dust particles, as well as relaxation due to strong dust coupling, are taken into account. These processes can be on similar time scales and are thus important for the conservation of particles and momenta in a self-consistent description of the system. It is shown that the dispersion properties of the dust acoustic waves are determined by a sensitive balance of the effects of strong dust coupling and collisional relaxation. The predictions of the present theory applicable to typical parameters in laboratory strongly coupled dusty plasmas are given and compared with the experiment results. Some possible implications and discrepanies between theory and experiment are also discussed.
Hydrodynamic transport in strongly coupled disordered quantum field theories
Lucas, Andrew
2015-01-01
We compute direct current (dc) thermoelectric transport coefficients in strongly coupled quantum field theories without long lived quasiparticles, at finite temperature and charge density, and disordered on long wavelengths compared to the length scale of local thermalization. Many previous transport computations in strongly coupled systems are interpretable hydrodynamically, despite formally going beyond the hydrodynamic regime. This includes momentum relaxation times previously derived by the memory matrix formalism, and non-perturbative holographic results; in the latter case, this is subject to some important subtleties. Our formalism may extend some memory matrix computations to higher orders in the perturbative disorder strength, as well as give valuable insight into non-perturbative regimes. Strongly coupled metals with quantum critical contributions to transport generically transition between coherent and incoherent metals as disorder strength is increased at fixed temperature, analogous to mean field...
Theoretical Properties of the Entanglement in a Strong Coupling Region
Ma, Chen-Te
2016-01-01
Entanglement entropy is expected to do a suitable order parameter to classify phase structures at zero temperature. Thus, it is interesting to understand theoretical properties of the entanglement entropy in a strong coupling region. We compute entropy in a non-relativistic model with four fermion interactions and spin imbalance in four dimensional lattice with an infinite fermion mass limit from an exact effective potential to obtain the behavior of the entropy in infinite strong coupling limit. The result is zero in infinite strong coupling and finite lattice spacing. The result supports non-trivial topology needs to be considered in the entanglement entropy. We consider two dimensions to know the lattice artifact, and quantum gravity problems. The entanglement entropy in two dimensional gravity theory is the sum of the classical Shannon entropy and usual expectation values of area term. We also use area law to do the necessary condition in quantum gravity theory to argue translational invariance should be ...
Towards achieving strong coupling in three-dimensional-cavity with solid state spin resonance
Le Floch, J.-M.; Delhote, N.; Aubourg, M.; Madrangeas, V.; Cros, D.; Castelletto, S.; Tobar, M. E.
2016-04-01
We investigate the microwave magnetic field confinement in several microwave three-dimensional (3D)-cavities, using a 3D finite-element analysis to determine the best design and achieve a strong coupling between microwave resonant cavity photons and solid state spins. Specifically, we design cavities for achieving strong coupling of electromagnetic modes with an ensemble of nitrogen vacancy (NV) defects in diamond. We report here a novel and practical cavity design with a magnetic filling factor of up to 4 times (2 times higher collective coupling) than previously achieved using one-dimensional superconducting cavities with a small mode volume. In addition, we show that by using a double-split resonator cavity, it is possible to achieve up to 200 times better cooperative factor than the currently demonstrated with NV in diamond. These designs open up further opportunities for studying strong and ultra-strong coupling effects on spins in solids using alternative systems with a wider range of design parameters. The strong coupling of paramagnetic spin defects with a photonic cavity is used in quantum computer architecture, to interface electrons spins with photons, facilitating their read-out and processing of quantum information. To achieve this, the combination of collective coupling of spins and cavity mode is more feasible and offers a promising method. This is a relevant milestone to develop advanced quantum technology and to test fundamental physics principles.
Ideal gas behavior of a strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma.
Oxtoby, Neil P; Griffith, Elias J; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F; Samsonov, Dmitry
2013-07-05
In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.
Strong-coupling and the Stripe phase of $^3$He
Wiman, Joshua J.; Sauls, J. A.
2016-01-01
Thin films of superfluid $^3$He were predicted, based on weak-coupling BCS theory, to have a stable phase which spontaneously breaks translational symmetry in the plane of the film. This crystalline superfluid, or "stripe" phase, develops as a one dimensional periodic array of domain walls separating degenerate B phase domains. We report calculations of the phases and phase diagram for superfluid $^3$He in thin films using a strong-coupling Ginzburg-Landau theory that accurately reproduces th...
Raman scattering with strongly coupled vibron-polaritons
Strashko, Artem
2016-01-01
Strong coupling between cavity photons and molecular vibrations can lead to the formation of vibron-polaritons. In a recent experiment with PVAc molecules in a metal-metal microcavity [A.Shalabney et al., Ang.Chem.Int.Ed. 54 7971 (2015)], such a coupling was observed to enhance the Raman scattering probability by several orders of magnitude. Inspired by this, we theoretically analyze the effect of strong photon-vibron coupling on the Raman scattering amplitude of organic molecules. This problem has recently been addressed in [J.del Pino, J.Feist and F.J.Garcia-Vidal; J.Phys.Chem.C 119 29132 (2015)] using exact numerics for a small number of molecules. In this paper we derive compact analytic results for any number of molecules, also including the ultra-strong coupling regime. Our calculations predict a division of the Raman signal into upper and lower polariton modes,with some enhancement to the lower polariton Raman amplitude due to the mode softening under strong coupling.
Terahertz-frequency magnon-phonon-polaritons in the strong coupling regime
Sivarajah, Prasahnt; Xiang, Maolin; Ren, Wei; Kamba, Stanislav; Cao, Shixun; Nelson, Keith A
2016-01-01
Strong coupling between light and matter occurs when the two interact strongly enough to form new hybrid modes called polaritons. Here we report on the strong coupling of both the electric and magnetic degrees of freedom to an ultrafast terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic wave. In our system, optical phonons in a slab of ferroelectric lithium niobate (LiNbO$_3$) are strongly coupled to a THz electric field to form phonon-polaritons, which are simultaneously strongly coupled to magnons in an adjacent slab of canted antiferromagnetic erbium orthoferrite (ErFeO$_3$) via the THz magnetic field. The strong coupling leads to the formation of new magnon-phonon-polariton modes, which we experimentally observe in the wavevector-frequency dispersion curve as an avoided crossing and in the time-domain as a normal-mode beating. Our simple yet versatile on-chip waveguide platform provides a promising avenue by which to explore both ultrafast THz spintronics applications and the quantum nature of the interaction.
The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice
Boito, Diogo; Golterman, Maarten; Jamin, Matthias; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago
2014-08-01
We review our recent determination of the strong coupling αs from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that αs (mτ2)= 0.325 ± 0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and αs (mτ2)= 0.347 ± 0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.
The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice
Boito, Diogo [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Golterman, Maarten [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Jamin, Matthias [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), IFAE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Maltman, Kim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON Canada M3J 1P3 (Canada); CSSM, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia (Australia); Osborne, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Peris, Santiago [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)
2014-08-15
We review our recent determination of the strong coupling α{sub s} from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that α{sub s}(m{sub τ}{sup 2})=0.325±0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and α{sub s}(m{sub τ}{sup 2})=0.347±0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.
Strong environmental coupling in a Josephson parametric amplifier
Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O' Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M., E-mail: martinis@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States); Megrant, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States); Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sundqvist, K. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)
2014-06-30
We present a lumped-element Josephson parametric amplifier designed to operate with strong coupling to the environment. In this regime, we observe broadband frequency dependent amplification with multi-peaked gain profiles. We account for this behavior using the “pumpistor” model which allows for frequency dependent variation of the external impedance. Using this understanding, we demonstrate control over the complexity of gain profiles through added variation in the environment impedance at a given frequency. With strong coupling to a suitable external impedance, we observe a significant increase in dynamic range, and large amplification bandwidth up to 700 MHz giving near quantum-limited performance.
The strong coupling constant in grand unified theories
Pierce, D.M.
1997-01-01
The prediction of the strong coupling constant in grand unified theories is reviewed, first in the standard model, then in the supersymmetric version. Various corrections are considered. The predictions in both supergravity-induced and gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking models are discussed. In the region of parameter space without large fine tuning the strong coupling is predicted to be {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub Z}) {approx}> 0.13. Imposing {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub Z}) = 0.118, the authors require a unification scale threshold correction of typically -2%, which is accommodated by some GUT models but in conflict with others.
Nonadiabatic dynamics of two strongly coupled nanomechanical resonator modes.
Faust, Thomas; Rieger, Johannes; Seitner, Maximilian J; Krenn, Peter; Kotthaus, Jörg P; Weig, Eva M
2012-07-20
The Landau-Zener transition is a fundamental concept for dynamical quantum systems and has been studied in numerous fields of physics. Here, we present a classical mechanical model system exhibiting analogous behavior using two inversely tunable, strongly coupled modes of the same nanomechanical beam resonator. In the adiabatic limit, the anticrossing between the two modes is observed and the coupling strength extracted. Sweeping an initialized mode across the coupling region allows mapping of the progression from diabatic to adiabatic transitions as a function of the sweep rate.
Experimental determination of the effective strong coupling constant
Alexandre Deur; Volker Burkert; Jian-Ping Chen; Wolfgang Korsch
2007-07-01
We extract an effective strong coupling constant from low Q{sup 2} data on the Bjorken sum. Using sum rules, we establish its Q{sup 2}-behavior over the complete Q{sup 2}-range. The result is compared to effective coupling constants extracted from different processes and to calculations based on Schwinger-Dyson equations, hadron spectroscopy or lattice QCD. Although the connection between the experimentally extracted effective coupling constant and the calculations is not clear, the results agree surprisingly well.
MRI surface-coil pair with strong inductive coupling.
Mett, Richard R; Sidabras, Jason W; Hyde, James S
2016-12-01
A novel inductively coupled coil pair was used to obtain magnetic resonance phantom images. Rationale for using such a structure is described in R. R. Mett et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 084703 (2016)]. The original rationale was to increase the Q-value of a small diameter surface coil in order to achieve dominant loading by the sample. A significant improvement in the vector reception field (VRF) is also seen. The coil assembly consists of a 3-turn 10 mm tall meta-metallic self-resonant spiral (SRS) of inner diameter 10.4 mm and outer diameter 15.1 mm and a single-loop equalization coil of 25 mm diameter and 2 mm tall. The low-frequency parallel mode was used in which the rf currents on each coil produce magnetic fields that add constructively. The SRS coil assembly was fabricated and data were collected using a tissue-equivalent 30% polyacrylamide phantom. The large inductive coupling of the coils produces phase-coherency of the rf currents and magnetic fields. Finite-element simulations indicate that the VRF of the coil pair is about 4.4 times larger than for a single-loop coil of 15 mm diameter. The mutual coupling between coils influences the current ratio between the coils, which in turn influences the VRF and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Data on a tissue-equivalent phantom at 9.4 T show a total SNR increase of 8.8 over the 15 mm loop averaged over a 25 mm depth and diameter. The experimental results are shown to be consistent with the magnetic resonance theory of the emf induced by spins in a coil, the theory of inductively coupled resonant circuits, and the superposition principle. The methods are general for magnetic resonance and other types of signal detection and can be used over a wide range of operating frequencies.
From strong to weak coupling in holographic models of thermalization
Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University,Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Starinets, Andrei O. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2016-07-29
We investigate the analytic structure of thermal energy-momentum tensor correlators at large but finite coupling in quantum field theories with gravity duals. We compute corrections to the quasinormal spectra of black branes due to the presence of higher derivative R{sup 2} and R{sup 4} terms in the action, focusing on the dual to N=4 SYM theory and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We observe the appearance of new poles in the complex frequency plane at finite coupling. The new poles interfere with hydrodynamic poles of the correlators leading to the breakdown of hydrodynamic description at a coupling-dependent critical value of the wave-vector. The dependence of the critical wave vector on the coupling implies that the range of validity of the hydrodynamic description increases monotonically with the coupling. The behavior of the quasinormal spectrum at large but finite coupling may be contrasted with the known properties of the hierarchy of relaxation times determined by the spectrum of a linearized kinetic operator at weak coupling. We find that the ratio of a transport coefficient such as viscosity to the relaxation time determined by the fundamental non-hydrodynamic quasinormal frequency changes rapidly in the vicinity of infinite coupling but flattens out for weaker coupling, suggesting an extrapolation from strong coupling to the kinetic theory result. We note that the behavior of the quasinormal spectrum is qualitatively different depending on whether the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density is greater or less than the universal, infinite coupling value of ℏ/4πk{sub B}. In the former case, the density of poles increases, indicating a formation of branch cuts in the weak coupling limit, and the spectral function shows the appearance of narrow peaks. We also discuss the relation of the viscosity-entropy ratio to conjectured bounds on relaxation time in quantum systems.
Heavy meson spectroscopy under strong magnetic field
Yoshida, Tetsuya
2016-01-01
Spectra of the neutral heavy mesons, $\\eta_c(1S,2S)$, $J/psi$, $\\psi(2S)$, $\\eta_b(1S,2S,3S)$, $\\Upsilon(1S,2S,3S)$, $D$, $D^\\ast$, $B$, $B^\\ast$, $B_s$ and $B_s^\\ast$, in a homogeneous magnetic field are analyzed in a potential model of constituent quarks. To obtain anisotropic wave functions and the corresponding eigenvalues, the cylindrical Gaussian expansion method is applied, where the wave functions for transverse and longitudinal directions in the cylindrical coordinate are expanded by the Gaussian bases separately. Energy level structures in the wide range of magnetic field are obtained and the deformation of the wave functions is shown, which reflects effects of the spin mixing, the Zeeman splitting and quark Landau levels. The contribution from the magnetic catalysis in heavy-light mesons is discussed as a change of the light constituent quark mass.
Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields
Pérez, A; Masood, S S; Gaitan, R; Rodríguez, S
2002-01-01
In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)
Raman scattering with strongly coupled vibron-polaritons
Strashko, Artem; Keeling, Jonathan
2016-08-01
Strong coupling between cavity photons and molecular vibrations can lead to the formation of vibron-polaritons. In a recent experiment with PVAc molecules in a metal-metal microcavity [Shalabney et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 54, 7971 (2015), 10.1002/anie.201502979], such a coupling was observed to enhance the Raman scattering probability by several orders of magnitude. Inspired by this, we theoretically analyze the effect of strong photon-vibron coupling on the Raman scattering amplitude of organic molecules. This problem has recently been addressed by del Pino, Feist, and Garcia-Vidal [J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 29132 (2015), 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b11654] using exact numerics for a small number of molecules. In this paper we derive compact analytic results for any number of molecules, also including the ultrastrong-coupling regime. Our calculations predict a division of the Raman signal into upper and lower polariton modes, with some enhancement to the lower polariton Raman amplitude due to the mode softening under strong coupling.
Practical thermodynamics of Yukawa systems at strong coupling
Khrapak, Sergey A. [Forschungsgruppe Komplexe Plasmen, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Aix-Marseille-Université, CNRS, Laboratoire PIIM, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya St. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Thomas, Hubertus M. [Forschungsgruppe Komplexe Plasmen, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)
2015-05-21
Simple practical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases, is presented. The accuracy of the approach is tested by extensive comparison with direct computer simulation results (for fluids and solids) and the recently proposed shortest-graph method (for solids). Possible applications to other systems of softly repulsive particles are briefly discussed.
Short-Pulse Amplification by Strongly-Coupled Brillouin Scattering
Edwards, Matthew R; Mikhailova, Julia M; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2016-01-01
We examine the feasibility of strongly-coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering as a mechanism for the plasma-based amplification of sub-picosecond pulses. In particular, we use fluid theory and particle-in-cell simulations to compare the relative advantages of Raman and Brillouin amplification over a broad range of achievable parameters.
Strongly coupled partitioned FSI using proper orthogonal decomposition
Bogaers, Alfred EJ
2012-12-01
Full Text Available -squares) coupling scheme. The performance of the original IBQN-LS method is strongly governed by the number of previous time step histories that are retained, where there exists a problem specific optimal choice. In this paper we will demonstrate...
Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-04-15
One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.
Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories
Keegan, Liam; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan
2016-01-01
We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.
A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump
Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin
2011-01-01
Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into
Density Matrix Embedding: A Strong-Coupling Quantum Embedding Theory.
Knizia, Gerald; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2013-03-12
We extend our density matrix embedding theory (DMET) [Phys. Rev. Lett.2012, 109, 186404] from lattice models to the full chemical Hamiltonian. DMET allows the many-body embedding of arbitrary fragments of a quantum system, even when such fragments are open systems and strongly coupled to their environment (e.g., by covalent bonds). In DMET, empirical approaches to strong coupling, such as link atoms or boundary regions, are replaced by a small, rigorous quantum bath designed to reproduce the entanglement between a fragment and its environment. We describe the theory and demonstrate its feasibility in strongly correlated hydrogen ring and grid models; these are not only beyond the scope of traditional embeddings but even challenge conventional quantum chemistry methods themselves. We find that DMET correctly describes the notoriously difficult symmetric dissociation of a 4 × 3 hydrogen atom grid, even when the treated fragments are as small as single hydrogen atoms. We expect that DMET will open up new ways of treating complex strongly coupled, strongly correlated systems in terms of their individual fragments.
The strong coupling Kondo lattice model as a Fermi gas
Östlund, S
2007-01-01
The strong coupling half-filled Kondo lattice model is an important example of a strongly interacting dense Fermi system for which conventional Fermi gas analysis has thus far failed. We remedy this by deriving an exact transformation that maps the model to a dilute gas of weakly interacting electron and hole quasiparticles that can then be analyzed by conventional dilute Fermi gas methods. The quasiparticle vacuum is a singlet Mott insulator for which the quasiparticle dynamics are simple. Since the transformation is exact, the electron spectral weight sum rules are obeyed exactly. Subtleties in understanding the behavior of electrons in the singlet Mott insulator can be reduced to a fairly complicated but precise relation between quasiparticles and bare electrons. The theory of free quasiparticles can be interpreted as an exactly solvable model for a singlet Mott insulator, providing an exact model in which to explore the strong coupling regime of a singlet Kondo insulator.
A scanning transmon qubit for strong coupling circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Shanks, W E; Underwood, D L; Houck, A A
2013-01-01
Like a quantum computer designed for a particular class of problems, a quantum simulator enables quantitative modelling of quantum systems that is computationally intractable with a classical computer. Superconducting circuits have recently been investigated as an alternative system in which microwave photons confined to a lattice of coupled resonators act as the particles under study, with qubits coupled to the resonators producing effective photon-photon interactions. Such a system promises insight into the non-equilibrium physics of interacting bosons, but new tools are needed to understand this complex behaviour. Here we demonstrate the operation of a scanning transmon qubit and propose its use as a local probe of photon number within a superconducting resonator lattice. We map the coupling strength of the qubit to a resonator on a separate chip and show that the system reaches the strong coupling regime over a wide scanning area.
Neutron Limit on the Strongly-Coupled Chameleon Field
Li, K; Cory, D G; Haun, R; Heacock, B; Huber, M G; Nsofini, J; Pushin, D A; Saggu, P; Sarenac, D; Shahi, C B; Skavysh, V; Snow, W M; Young, A R
2016-01-01
The physical origin of the dark energy that causes the accelerated expansion rate of the universe is one of the major open questions of cosmology. One set of theories postulates the existence of a self-interacting scalar field for dark energy coupling to matter. In the chameleon dark energy theory, this coupling induces a screening mechanism such that the field amplitude is nonzero in empty space but is greatly suppressed in regions of terrestrial matter density. However measurements performed under appropriate vacuum conditions can enable the chameleon field to appear in the apparatus, where it can be subjected to laboratory experiments. Here we report the most stringent upper bound on the free neutron-chameleon coupling in the strongly-coupled limit of the chameleon theory using neutron interferometric techniques. Our experiment sought the chameleon field through the relative phase shift it would induce along one of the neutron paths inside a perfect crystal neutron interferometer. The amplitude of the cham...
Relaxation of a Classical Spin Coupled to a Strongly Correlated Electron System
Sayad, Mohammad; Rausch, Roman; Potthoff, Michael
2016-09-01
A classical spin which is antiferromagnetically coupled to a system of strongly correlated conduction electrons is shown to exhibit unconventional real-time dynamics which cannot be described by Gilbert damping. Depending on the strength of the local Coulomb interaction U , the two main electronic dissipation channels, namely transport of excitations via correlated hopping and via excitations of correlation-induced magnetic moments, become active on largely different time scales. We demonstrate that correlations can lead to a strongly suppressed relaxation which so far has been observed in purely electronic systems only and which is governed here by proximity to the divergent magnetic time scale in the infinite-U limit.
Nanosized graphene crystallite induced strong magnetism in pure carbon films.
Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xi; Diao, Dongfeng
2015-03-14
We report strong magnetism in pure carbon films grown by electron irradiation assisted physical vapor deposition in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The development of graphene nanocrystallites in the amorphous film matrix, and the dependence of the magnetic behavior on amorphous, nanocrystallite and graphite-like structures were investigated. Results were that the amorphous structure shows weak paramagnetism, graphene nanocrystallites lead to strong magnetization, and graphite-like structures corresponded with a lower magnetization. At a room temperature of 300 K, the highest saturation magnetization of 0.37 emu g(-1) was found in the nanosized graphene nanocrystallite structure. The origin of strong magnetism in nanocrystallites was ascribed to the spin magnetic moment at the graphene layer edges.
Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1977-01-01
A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments a...
Anisotropic tunneling between spin-polarized tips and substrate with strong spin-orbit coupling
Xie, Yonglong; Jeon, Sangjun; Drozdov, Ilya; Li, Jian; Bernevig, Andrei; Yazdani, Ali
2015-03-01
The ability to measure spin structure on the nanometer scale has attracted substantial interest for a long time. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) is an excellent tool for studying fundamental aspect of magnetism at atomic scale. We combine a low temperature STM equipped with a vector magnet and a spin-polarizable tip, to probe superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling such as Pb, which is emerging as a platform for engineering topological superconductivity. We observe anisotropic tunneling conductance between tip and substrate as a function of the angle of applied in-plane magnetic field. This finding suggests that SP-STM may provide a tool to locally measure spin-orbit coupling, even in non-magnetic substrates.
Strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator
Halbach, Klaus
1988-01-01
This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles.
Angerer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.angerer@tuwien.ac.at; Astner, Thomas; Wirtitsch, Daniel; Majer, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.majer@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Sumiya, Hitoshi [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Itami 664-001 (Japan); Onoda, Shinobu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Isoya, Junichi [Research Centre for Knowledge Communities, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550 (Japan); Putz, Stefan [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2016-07-18
We design and implement 3D-lumped element microwave cavities that spatially focus magnetic fields to a small mode volume. They allow coherent and uniform coupling to electron spins hosted by nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond. We achieve large homogeneous single spin coupling rates, with an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude compared to standard 3D cavities with a fundamental resonance at 3 GHz. Finite element simulations confirm that the magnetic field distribution is homogeneous throughout the entire sample volume, with a root mean square deviation of 1.54%. With a sample containing 10{sup 17} nitrogen vacancy electron spins, we achieve a collective coupling strength of Ω = 12 MHz, a cooperativity factor C = 27, and clearly enter the strong coupling regime. This allows to interface a macroscopic spin ensemble with microwave circuits, and the homogeneous Rabi frequency paves the way to manipulate the full ensemble population in a coherent way.
Strong Coupling between On Chip Notched Ring Resonator and Nanoparticle
Wang, S; Smith, H; Yi, Y
2010-01-01
We have demonstrated a new photonic structure to achieve strong optical coupling between nanoparticle and photonic molecule by utilizing a notched micro ring resonators. By creating a notch in the ring resonator and putting a nanoparticle inside the notch, large spectral shifts and splittings at nm scale can be achieved, compared to only pm scale observed by fiber tip evanescently coupled to the surface of microsphere, thereby significantly lowered the quality factor requirement for single nanoparticle detection. The ability for sorting the type of nanoparticles due to very different mode shift and splitting behavior of dielectric and metallic nanoparticles is also emphasized.
Hydrodynamics of strongly coupled gauge theories from gravity
Benincasa, P. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)
2007-09-15
In this talk we review some recent developments in the analysis of gauge theories from a holographic perspective. We focus on the transport properties of strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we discuss the results for two specific non-conformal models: the N=2* supersymmetric SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory and the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Finally, we discuss the hydrodynamic picture for the N=4SU(N{sub c}) SYM theory when the leading correction in the inverse 't Hooft coupling is taken into account.
Hydrodynamics of strongly coupled gauge theories from gravity
Benincasa, P.
2007-09-01
In this talk we review some recent developments in the analysis of gauge theories from a holographic perspective. We focus on the transport properties of strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we discuss the results for two specific non-conformal models: the N=2 supersymmetric SU( Nc) Yang-Mills theory and the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Finally, we discuss the hydrodynamic picture for the N=4SU( Nc) SYM theory when the leading correction in the inverse 't Hooft coupling is taken into account.
From strong to ultrastrong coupling in circuit QED architectures
Niemczyk, Thomas
2011-08-10
The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level: a single atom interacts with a single photon. If the atom-photon coupling is larger than any dissipative effects, the system enters the strong-coupling limit. A peculiarity of this regime is the possibility to form coherent superpositions of light and matter excitations - a kind of 'molecule' consisting of an atomic and a photonic contribution. The novel research field of circuit QED extends cavity QED concepts to solid-state based system. Here, a superconducting quantum bit is coupled to an on-chip superconducting one-dimensional waveguide resonator. Owing to the small mode-volume of the resonant cavity, the large dipole moment of the 'artificial atom' and the enormous engineering potential inherent to superconducting quantum circuits, remarkable atom-photon coupling strengths can be realized. This thesis describes the theoretical framework, the development of fabrication techniques and the implementation of experimental characterization techniques for superconducting quantum circuits for circuit QED applications. In particular, we study the interaction between superconducting flux quantum bits and high-quality coplanar waveguide resonators in the strong-coupling limit. Furthermore, we report on the first experimental realization of a circuit QED system operating in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the atom-photon coupling rate reaches a considerable fraction of the relevant system frequencies. In these experiments we could observe phenomena that can not be explained within the renowned Jaynes-Cummings model. (orig.)
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives
Brambilla, N.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Alford, M.G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T.D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J.L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H.W.; Llanes-Estrada, F.J.; Meyer, H.B.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W.M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Fodor, Z.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Hollwieser, R.; Janik, M.A.; Kalweit, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, J.W.; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C.A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N.G.; von Hippel, G.M.; Zakharov, V.I.
2014-01-01
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives
Brambilla, N.; Vairo, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Eidelman, S. [SB RAS, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Foka, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gardner, S. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Kronfeld, A.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States); Alford, M.G.; Schwenzer, K. [Washington University, Department of Physics, St Louis, MO (United States); Alkofer, R. [University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Butenschoen, M. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Wien (Austria); Cohen, T.D. [University of Maryland, Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Erdmenger, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Fabbietti, L. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Faber, M.; Hoellwieser, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Goity, J.L. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Ketzer, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Lin, H.W. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Llanes-Estrada, F.J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Department Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain); Meyer, H.B.; Wittig, H.; Hippel, G.M. von [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Pakhlov, P.; Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Pallante, E.; Papadodimas, K. [University of Groningen, Centre for Theoretical Physics, Groningen (Netherlands); Sazdjian, H. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Schmitt, A. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Snow, W.M. [Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter and Department of Physics, Bloomington, IN (United States); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Physics Department, Davis, CA (United States); Vuorinen, A. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Arnold, P. [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Christakoglou, P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Nezza, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Frascati (Italy); Fodor, Z. [Wuppertal University, Wuppertal (Germany); Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Garcia i Tormo, X. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Janik, M.A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Kalweit, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Keane, D. [Kent State University, Department of Physics, Kent, OH (United States); Kiritsis, E. [University of Crete, Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Heraklion (Greece); Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, Sorbonne Paris-Cite (France); CERN, Theory Group, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mizuk, R. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Physical Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Odyniec, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pich, A. [Universitat de Valencia, CSIC, IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Pittau, R. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Qiu, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook University, C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ricciardi, G. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Salgado, C.A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas y IGFAE, Galicia (ES); Stefanis, N.G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (DE); Zakharov, V.I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (DE); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (RU); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, Vladivostok (RU)
2014-10-15
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments. (orig.)
Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Molecular Vibrations
Memmi, H.; Benson, O.; Sadofev, S.; Kalusniak, S.
2017-03-01
We report on the strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and molecular vibrations in an organic-inorganic plasmonic hybrid structure consisting of a ketone-based polymer deposited on top of a silver layer. Attenuated-total-reflection spectra of the hybrid reveal an anticrossing in the dispersion relation in the vicinity of the carbonyl stretch vibration of the polymer with an energy splitting of the upper and lower polariton branch up to 15 meV. The splitting is found to depend on the molecular layer thickness and saturates for micrometer-thick films. This new hybrid state holds a strong potential for application in chemistry and optoelectronics.
Dynamic Stark effect in strongly coupled microcavity exciton polaritons.
Hayat, Alex; Lange, Christoph; Rozema, Lee A; Darabi, Ardavan; van Driel, Henry M; Steinberg, Aephraim M; Nelsen, Bryan; Snoke, David W; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Kenneth W
2012-07-20
We present experimental observations of a nonresonant dynamic Stark shift in strongly coupled microcavity quantum well exciton polaritons--a system which provides a rich variety of solid-state collective phenomena. The Stark effect is demonstrated in a GaAs/AlGaAs system at 10 K by femtosecond pump-probe measurements, with the blueshift approaching the meV scale for a pump fluence of 2 mJ cm(-2) and 50 meV red detuning, in good agreement with theory. The energy level structure of the strongly coupled polariton Rabi doublet remains unaffected by the blueshift. The demonstrated effect should allow generation of ultrafast density-independent potentials and imprinting well-defined phase profiles on polariton condensates, providing a powerful tool for manipulation of these condensates, similar to dipole potentials in cold-atom systems.
Modified Enskog Kinetic Theory for Strongly Coupled Plasmas
Baalrud, Scott D
2015-01-01
Concepts underlying the Enskog kinetic theory of hard-spheres are applied to include short-range correlation effects in a model for transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas. The approach is based on an extension of the effective potential transport theory [S.~D.~Baalrud and J.~Daligault, Phys.~Rev.~Lett.~{\\bf 110}, 235001 (2013)] to include an exclusion radius surrounding individual charged particles that is associated with Coulomb repulsion. This is obtained by analogy with the finite size of hard spheres in Enskog's theory. Predictions for the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients of the one-component plasma are tested against molecular dynamics simulations. The theory is found to accurately capture the kinetic contributions to the transport coefficients, but not the potential contributions that arise at very strong coupling ($\\Gamma \\gtrsim 30$). Considerations related to a first-principles generalization of Enskog's kinetic equation to continuous potentials are also discussed.
Modified Enskog kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas.
Baalrud, Scott D; Daligault, Jérôme
2015-06-01
Concepts underlying the Enskog kinetic theory of hard-spheres are applied to include short-range correlation effects in a model for transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas. The approach is based on an extension of the effective potential transport theory [S. D. Baalrud and J. Daligault, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] to include an exclusion radius surrounding individual charged particles that is associated with Coulomb repulsion. This is obtained by analogy with the finite size of hard spheres in Enskog's theory. Predictions for the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients of the one-component plasma are tested against molecular dynamics simulations. The theory is found to accurately capture the kinetic contributions to the transport coefficients, but not the potential contributions that arise at very strong coupling (Γ≳30). Considerations related to a first-principles generalization of Enskog's kinetic equation to continuous potentials are also discussed.
Revisiting strong coupling QCD at finite baryon density and temperature
Fromm, M
2008-01-01
The strong coupling limit ($\\beta_{gauge}=0$) of lattice QCD with staggered fermions enjoys the same non-perturbative properties as continuum QCD, namely confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. In contrast to the situation at weak coupling, the sign problem which appears at finite density can be brought under control for a determination of the full (mu,T) phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations. Further difficulties with efficiency and ergodicity of the simulations, especially at the strongly first-order, low-T, finite-mu transition, are addressed respectively with a worm algorithm and multicanonical sampling. Our simulations reveal sizeable corrections to the old results of Karsch and Muetter. Comparison with analytic mean-field determinations of the phase diagram shows discrepancies of O(10) in the location of the QCD critical point.
Supergravity description of boost invariant conformal plasma at strong coupling
Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Heller, Michal P.; Janik, Romuald A.
2008-02-01
We study string theory duals of the expanding boost invariant conformal gauge theory plasmas at strong coupling. The dual supergravity background is constructed as an asymptotic late-time expansion, corresponding to equilibration of the gauge theory plasma. The absence of curvature singularities in the first few orders of the late-time expansion of the dual gravitational background unambiguously determines the equilibrium equation of state, and the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma. While the absence of the leading pole singularities in the gravitational curvature invariants at third order in late-time expansion determines the relaxation time of the plasma, the subleading logarithmic singularity cannot be canceled within a supergravity approximation. Thus, a supergravity approximation to a dual description of the strongly coupled boost invariant expanding plasma is inconsistent. Nevertheless we find that the relaxation time determined from the cancellation of pole singularities is quite robust.
Multimode Strong Coupling in Superconducting Cavity Piezo-electromechanics
Han, Xu; Tang, Hong X
2016-01-01
High frequency mechanical resonators subjected to low thermal phonon occupancy are easier to be prepared to the ground state by direct cryogenic cooling. Their extreme stiffness, however, poses a significant challenge for external interrogations. Here we demonstrate a superconducting cavity piezo-electromechanical system in which multiple modes of a bulk acoustic resonator oscillating at $10\\,\\textrm{GHz}$ are coupled to a planar microwave superconducting resonator with a cooperativity exceeding $2\\times10^{3}$, deep in the strong coupling regime. By implementation of the non-contact coupling scheme to reduce mechanical dissipation, the system exhibits excellent coherence characterized by a frequency-quality factor product of $7.5\\times10^{15}\\,\\textrm{Hz}$. Interesting dynamics of temporal oscillations of the microwave energy is observed, implying the coherent conversion between phonons and photons. The demonstrated high frequency cavity piezo-electromechanics is compatible with superconducting qubits, repre...
Probing strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas from higher curvature gravity
Jahnke, Viktor; Misobuchi, Anderson Seigo [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2016-06-15
We consider five-dimensional AdS-axion-dilaton gravity with a Gauss-Bonnet term and use a black brane solution displaying spatial anisotropy as the gravity dual of a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma. We compute several observables relevant to the study of the plasma, namely, the drag force, the jet quenching parameter, the quarkonium potential, and the thermal photon production. The effects of higher derivative corrections and of the anisotropy are discussed and compared with previous results. (orig.)
A variational sinc collocation method for strong-coupling problems
Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)
2006-06-02
We have devised a variational sinc collocation method (VSCM) which can be used to obtain accurate numerical solutions to many strong-coupling problems. Sinc functions with an optimal grid spacing are used to solve the linear and nonlinear Schroedinger equations and a lattice {phi}{sup 4} model in (1 + 1). Our results indicate that errors decrease exponentially with the number of grid points and that a limited numerical effort is needed to reach high precision. (letter to the editor)
Tuning the work-function via strong coupling.
Hutchison, James A; Liscio, Andrea; Schwartz, Tal; Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Palermo, Vincenzo; Samorì, Paolo; Ebbesen, Thomas W
2013-05-01
The tuning of the molecular material work-function via strong coupling with vacuum electromagnetic fields is demonstrated. Kelvin probe microscopy extracts the surface potential (SP) changes of a photochromic molecular film on plasmonic hole arrays and inside Fabry-Perot cavities. Modulating the optical cavity resonance or the photochromic film effectively tunes the work-function, suggesting a new tool for tailoring material properties.
Probing strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas from higher curvature gravity
Misobuchi, Anderson Seigo
2015-01-01
We consider five-dimensional AdS-axion-dilaton gravity with a Gauss-Bonnet term and use a black brane solution displaying spatial anisotropy as the gravity dual of a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma. We compute several observables relevant to the study of the plasma, namely, the drag force, the jet quenching parameter, the quarkonium potential and the thermal photon production. The effects of higher derivative corrections and of the anisotropy are discussed and compared with previous results.
Probing strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas from higher curvature gravity
Jahnke, Viktor; Misobuchi, Anderson Seigo
2016-06-01
We consider five-dimensional AdS-axion-dilaton gravity with a Gauss-Bonnet term and use a black brane solution displaying spatial anisotropy as the gravity dual of a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma. We compute several observables relevant to the study of the plasma, namely, the drag force, the jet quenching parameter, the quarkonium potential, and the thermal photon production. The effects of higher derivative corrections and of the anisotropy are discussed and compared with previous results.
Analytic Solution of Strongly Coupling Schr(o)dinger Equations
LIAO Jin-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei
2004-01-01
A recently developed expansion method for analytically solving the ground states of strongly coupling Schrodinger equations by Friedberg,Lee,and Zhao is extended to excited states and applied to power-law central forces for which scaling properties are proposed.As examples for application of the extended method,the Hydrogen atom problem is resolved and the low-lying states of Yukawa potential are approximately obtained.
Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator
Palyi, Andras [University of Konstanz (Germany); Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Struck, Philipp R.; Burkard, Guido [University of Konstanz (Germany); Rudner, Mark [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Flensberg, Karsten [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)
2012-07-01
We theoretically investigate the coupling of electron spin to vibrational motion due to curvature-induced spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve as a realization of the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum electrodynamics in the strong-coupling regime. A quantized flexural mode of the suspended tube plays the role of the optical mode and we identify two distinct two-level subspaces, at small and large magnetic field, which can be used as qubits in this setup. The strong intrinsic spin-mechanical coupling allows for detection, as well as manipulation of the spin qubit, and may yield enhanced performance of nanotubes in sensing applications.
Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons.
Detmold, William; Lin, C-J David; Meinel, Stefan
2012-04-27
We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV
Strongly Enhanced Superconductivity in Coupled t-J Segments.
Reja, Sahinur; van den Brink, Jeroen; Nishimoto, Satoshi
2016-02-12
The t-J Hamiltonian is one of the cornerstones in the theoretical study of strongly correlated copper-oxide based materials. Using the density-matrix renormalization group method we obtain the phase diagram of the one-dimensional t-J chain in the presence of a periodic hopping modulation, as a prototype of coupled-segment models. While in the uniform 1D t-J model the near half-filling superconducting state dominates only at unphysically large values of the exchange coupling constant J/t>3; we show that a small hopping and exchange modulation very strongly reduces the critical coupling to be as low as J/t∼1/3--well within the physical regime. The phase diagram as a function of the electron filling also exhibits metallic, insulating line phases and regions of phase separation. We suggest that a superconducting state is easily stabilized if t-J segments creating local spin-singlet pairing are coupled to each other--another example is the ladder system.
Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons
Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan
2011-01-01
We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light-quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV < m_\\pi < 352 MeV, two lattice spacings, a=0.085, 0.112 fm, and a volume of (2.7 fm)^3. Our results for the axial couplings are g_1=0.449(51), g_2=0.84(20), and g_3=0.71(13), where g_1 governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g_{2,3} are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g_3, and constraining 1/m_Q corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for \\Sigma_c^{(*)} decays, we obtain \\Gamma[\\Sigma_b^{(*)} \\to \\Lambda_b \\pi^\\pm] = 4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the \\Si...
From Inverse to Delayed Magnetic Catalysis in Strong Magnetic Field
Mao, Shijun
2016-01-01
We study magnetic field effect on chiral phase transition in a Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In comparison with mean field approximation containing quarks only, including mesons as quantum fluctuations in the model leads to a transition from inverse to delayed magnetic catalysis at finite temperature and delays the transition at finite baryon chemical potential. The location of the critical end point depends on the the magnetic field non-monotonously.
Free-Free Radiation in Strongly Coupled Plasmas
Weisheit, Jon; Daligault, Jerome; Murillo, Michael; Turner, Leaf
2004-11-01
In strongly coupled plasmas, the basic electron-ion collision events responsible for emission or absorption of free-free radiation are modified by interrelated collective effects: quasi-static ion correlations, dynamical electron correlations, and screened Coulombic interactions resulting from correlations between the positive and negative charged particle components of the plasma. We are investigating the relative importance of these different phenomena, within the context of the collision frequency formula of Boercker et al.[1] Our statistical model [2] describes the self-consistent fluctuations of a multi-component plasma, and includes quantal effects on the dynamics as well as strong coupling between species. We will present numerical results that identify plasma conditions for which strong coupling causes major changes to the electron-ion collision frequency. [1] D.B. Boercker, F.J. Rogers, H.E. DeWitt, Phys. Rev. A25, 1623 (1982). [2] J. Daligault and M.S. Murillo, Phys. Rev. E68, 015401 (2003).
Chiral symmetry restoration and strong CP violation in a strong magnetic background
Fraga, Eduardo S
2009-01-01
Motivated by the phenomenological scenario of the chiral magnetic effect that can be possibly found in high-energy heavy ion collisions, we study the role of very intense magnetic fields and strong CP violation in the phase structure of strong interactions and, more specifically, their influence on the nature of the chiral transition. Direct implications for the dynamics of phase conversion and its time scales are briefly discussed. Our results can also be relevant in the case of the early universe.
Chiral symmetry restoration and strong CP violation in a strong magnetic background
Fraga, Eduardo S.; Mizher, Ana Júlia
2009-01-01
Motivated by the phenomenological scenario of the chiral magnetic effect that can be possibly found in high-energy heavy ion collisions, we study the role of very intense magnetic fields and strong CP violation in the phase structure of strong interactions and, more specifically, their influence on the nature of the chiral transition. Direct implications for the dynamics of phase conversion and its time scales are briefly discussed. Our results can also be relevant in the case of the early un...
Strongly Coupled Models with a Higgs-like Boson*
Pich Antonio
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Considering the one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters, we have presented a study of the viability of strongly-coupled scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking with a light Higgs-like boson. The calculation has been done by using an effective Lagrangian, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the estimation. Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models with massive resonances are not in conflict with experimentalconstraints on these parameters and the recently observed Higgs-like resonance. So there is room for these models, but they are stringently constrained. The vector and axial-vector states should be heavy enough (with masses above the TeV scale, the mass splitting between them is highly preferred to be small and the Higgs-like scalar should have a WW coupling close to the Standard Model one. It is important to stress that these conclusions do not depend critically on the inclusion of the second Weinberg sum rule.
Strongly Coupled Models with a Higgs-like Boson
Pich, Antonio; Rosell, Ignasi; José Sanz-Cillero, Juan
2013-11-01
Considering the one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters, we have presented a study of the viability of strongly-coupled scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking with a light Higgs-like boson. The calculation has been done by using an effective Lagrangian, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the estimation. Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models with massive resonances are not in conflict with experimentalconstraints on these parameters and the recently observed Higgs-like resonance. So there is room for these models, but they are stringently constrained. The vector and axial-vector states should be heavy enough (with masses above the TeV scale), the mass splitting between them is highly preferred to be small and the Higgs-like scalar should have a WW coupling close to the Standard Model one. It is important to stress that these conclusions do not depend critically on the inclusion of the second Weinberg sum rule. We wish to thank the organizers of LHCP 2013 for the pleasant conference. This work has been supported in part by the Spanish Government and the European Commission [FPA2010-17747, FPA2011- 23778, AIC-D-2011-0818, SEV-2012-0249 (Severo Ochoa Program), CSD2007-00042 (Consolider Project CPAN)], the Generalitat Valenciana [PrometeoII/2013/007] and the Comunidad de Madrid [HEPHACOS S2009/ESP-1473].
On electron-proton energy exchange in strong magnetic field
Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.; Manykin, E. A.; Bronin, S. Y.; Bobrov, A. A.
2016-11-01
Heating of protons in cold electron gas in strong magnetic field is studied. Calculations of heating process are preformed using molecular dynamics method. Estimations of heating rate depending on initial proton energies and electron gas temperatures are made.
Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling
Grignani, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Harmark, Troels [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Marini, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Orselli, Marta [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy)
2014-03-25
We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T{sup 4} correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 factor well-known from the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane. We investigate the reason for this by taking the decoupling limit in both the open and the closed string descriptions thus showing that the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary constant electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane.
Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling
Grignani, Gianluca; Marini, Andrea; Orselli, Marta
2013-01-01
We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading $T^4$ correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the $3/4$ factor well-known from the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane. We investigate the reason for this by taking the decoupling limit in both the open and the closed string descriptions thus showing that the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to the case of arbitrary constant electric and magnetic fields on the D3-brane.
Warm and dense stellar matter under strong magnetic fields
Rabhi, A; Providência, C
2011-01-01
We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the equation of state of warm stellar matter as it may occur in a protoneutron star. Both neutrino free and neutrino trapped matter at a fixed entropy per baryon are analyzed. A relativistic mean field nuclear model, including the possibility of hyperon formation, is considered. A density dependent magnetic field with the magnitude $10^{15}$ G at the surface and not more than $3\\times 10^{18}$ G at the center is considered. The magnetic field gives rise to a neutrino suppression, mainly at low densities, in matter with trapped neutrinos. It is shown that an hybrid protoneutron star will not evolve to a low mass blackhole if the magnetic field is strong enough and the magnetic field does not decay. However, the decay of the magnetic field after cooling may give rise to the formation of a low mass blackhole.
Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling
Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silling, Stewart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seleson, Pablo D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Daniel Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunzburger, Max [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2015-09-01
Peridynamics, a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics, is unique in its ability to capture pervasive material failure. Its use in the majority of system-level analyses carried out at Sandia, however, is severely limited, due in large part to computational expense and the challenge posed by the imposition of nonlocal boundary conditions. Combined analyses in which peridynamics is em- ployed only in regions susceptible to material failure are therefore highly desirable, yet available coupling strategies have remained severely limited. This report is a summary of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project "Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Inte- grated Fracture Modeling," completed within the Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) In- vestment Area at Sandia National Laboratories. A number of challenges inherent to coupling local and nonlocal models are addressed. A primary result is the extension of peridynamics to facilitate a variable nonlocal length scale. This approach, termed the peridynamic partial stress, can greatly reduce the mathematical incompatibility between local and nonlocal equations through reduction of the peridynamic horizon in the vicinity of a model interface. A second result is the formulation of a blending-based coupling approach that may be applied either as the primary coupling strategy, or in combination with the peridynamic partial stress. This blending-based approach is distinct from general blending methods, such as the Arlequin approach, in that it is specific to the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics. Facilitating the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics has also required innovations aimed directly at peridynamic models. Specifically, the properties of peridynamic constitutive models near domain boundaries and shortcomings in available discretization strategies have been addressed. The results are a class of position-aware peridynamic constitutive laws for
Anisotropic spin model of strong spin-orbit-coupled triangular antiferromagnets
Li, Yao-Dong; Wang, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gang
2016-07-01
Motivated by the recent experimental progress on the strong spin-orbit-coupled rare-earth triangular antiferromagnet, we analyze the highly anisotropic spin model that describes the interaction between the spin-orbit-entangled Kramers' doublet local moments on the triangular lattice. We apply the Luttinger-Tisza method, the classical Monte Carlo simulation, and the self-consistent spin wave theory to analyze the anisotropic spin Hamiltonian. The classical phase diagram includes the 120∘ state and two distinct stripe-ordered phases. The frustration is very strong and significantly suppresses the ordering temperature in the regimes close to the phase boundary between two ordered phases. Going beyond the semiclassical analysis, we include the quantum fluctuations of the spin moments within a self-consistent Dyson-Maleev spin-wave treatment. We find that the strong quantum fluctuations melt the magnetic order in the frustrated regions. We explore the magnetic excitations in the three different ordered phases as well as in strong magnetic fields. Our results provide a guidance for the future theoretical study of the generic model and are broadly relevant for strong spin-orbit-coupled triangular antiferromagnets such as YbMgGaO4, RCd3P3 , RZn3P3 , RCd3As3 , RZn3As3 , and R2O2CO3 .
Spectral confinement and current for atoms in strong magnetic fields
Fournais, Søren
2007-01-01
e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B<3......e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B
Thermodynamic magnetization of a strongly interacting two-dimensional system
Teneh, N.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Pudalov, V. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Reznikov, M.
2009-01-01
We report thermodynamic magnetization measurements of a 2-dimensional electron gas for several high mobility Si-MOSFETs. The low-temperature magnetization is shown to be strongly sub-linear function of the magnetic field. The susceptibility determined from the zero-field slope diverges as 1/T^{\\alpha}, with \\alpha=2.2-2.6 even at high electron densities, in apparent contradiction with the Fermi-liquid picture.
Strong-Coupling and the Stripe Phase of ^3He
Wiman, Joshua J.; Sauls, J. A.
2016-09-01
Thin films of superfluid 3He were predicted, based on weak-coupling BCS theory, to have a stable phase which spontaneously breaks translational symmetry in the plane of the film. This crystalline superfluid, or "stripe" phase, develops as a one-dimensional periodic array of domain walls separating degenerate B phase domains. We report calculations of the phases and phase diagram for superfluid 3He in thin films using a strong-coupling Ginzburg-Landau theory that accurately reproduces the bulk 3He superfluid phase diagram. We find that the stability of the Stripe phase is diminished relative to the A phase, but the Stripe phase is stable in a large range of temperatures, pressures, confinement, and surface conditions.
Deconstructing six dimensional gauge theories with strongly coupled moose meshes
Gregoire, T; Gregoire, Thomas; Wacker, Jay G.
2002-01-01
It has recently been realized that five dimensional theories can be generated dynamically from asymptotically free, QCD-like four dimensional dynamics via ``deconstruction.'' In this paper we generalize this construction to six dimensional theories using a moose mesh with alternating weak and strong gauge groups. A new ingredient is the appearance of self couplings between the higher dimensional components of the gauge fields that appear as a potential for pseudo-Goldstone bosons in the deconstructed picture. We show that, in the limit where the weak gauge couplings are made large, such potentials are generated with appropriate size from finite one loop correction. Our construction has a number of applications, in particular to the constructions of ``little Higgs'' models of electroweak symmetry breaking.
Strong Exciton-photon Coupling in Semiconductor Microcavities
Jensen, Jacob Riis; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1999-01-01
directionality of the spontaneous emission in the diodes.At low temperatures, a strong coupling between the excitons in the quantum well and the electromagnetic field in the cavity may be achieved. This coupling leads to new quantum mechanical states, so-called polaritons, the properties of which are still......The basic building block of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and high efficiency diodes, is a quantum well embedded in a semiconductor microcavity. The high finesse that may be achieved in such a cavity is utilised to get a low threshold current in the VCSELs and a high...... place. Due to the steep dispersion, the amount of phase space available for polariton scattering is reduced, yielding longer dephasing times and hence narrower lines. The possibility of tailoring the polariton dispersion in order to reduce the line width is very interesting, for instance for all...
New algorithms and new results for strong coupling LQCD
Unger, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
We present and compare new types of algorithms for lattice QCD with staggered fermions in the limit of infinite gauge coupling. These algorithms are formulated on a discrete spatial lattice but with continuous Euclidean time. They make use of the exact Hamiltonian, with the inverse temperature beta as the only input parameter. This formulation turns out to be analogous to that of a quantum spin system. The sign problem is completely absent, at zero and non-zero baryon density. We compare the performance of a continuous-time worm algorithm and of a Stochastic Series Expansion algorithm (SSE), which operates on equivalence classes of time-ordered interactions. Finally, we apply the SSE algorithm to a first exploratory study of two-flavor strong coupling lattice QCD, which is manageable in the Hamiltonian formulation because the sign problem can be controlled.
Mobility in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with gas
Liu, Bin; Goree, J.
2014-04-01
The mobility of a charged projectile in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is simulated. A net force F, opposed by a combination of collisional scattering and gas friction, causes projectiles to drift at a mobility-limited velocity up. The mobility μp=up/F of the projectile's motion is obtained. Two regimes depending on F are identified. In the high-force regime, μp∝F0.23, and the scattering cross section σs diminishes as up-6/5. Results for σs are compared with those for a weakly coupled plasma and for two-body collisions in a Yukawa potential. The simulation parameters are based on microgravity plasma experiments.
Mobility in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with gas
Liu, Bin
2014-01-01
The mobility of a charged projectile in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is simulated. A net force $F$, opposed by a combination of collisional scattering and gas friction, causes projectiles to drift at a mobility-limited velocity $u_p$. The mobility $\\mu_p=u_p/F$ of the projectile's motion is obtained. Two regimes depending on $F$ are identified. In the high force regime, $\\mu_p \\propto F^{0.23}$, and the scattering cross section $\\sigma_s$ diminishes as $u_p^{-6/5}$. Results for $\\sigma_s$ are compared with those for a weakly coupled plasma and for two-body collisions in a Yukawa potential. The simulation parameters are based on microgravity plasma experiments.
Strongly Coupled Chameleons and the Neutronic Quantum Bouncer
Brax, Philippe; Pignol, Guillaume
2011-09-01
We consider the potential detection of chameleons using bouncing ultracold neutrons. We show that the presence of a chameleon field over a planar plate would alter the energy levels of ultracold neutrons in the terrestrial gravitational field. When chameleons are strongly coupled to nuclear matter, β≳108, we find that the shift in energy levels would be detectable with the forthcoming GRANIT experiment, where a sensitivity of the order of 1% of a peV is expected. We also find that an extremely large coupling β≳1011 would lead to new bound states at a distance of order 2μm, which is already ruled out by previous Grenoble experiments. The resulting bound, β≲1011, is already 3 orders of magnitude better than the upper bound, β≲1014, from precision tests of atomic spectra.
Strongly Coupled Chameleons and the Neutronic Quantum Bouncer
Brax, Philippe
2011-01-01
We consider the potential detection of chameleons using bouncing ultracold neutrons. We show that the presence of a chameleon field over a planar plate would alter the energy levels of ultra cold neutrons in the terrestrial gravitational field. When chameleons are strongly coupled to nuclear matter, $\\beta\\gtrsim 10^8$, we find that the shift in energy levels would be detectable with the forthcoming GRANIT experiment, where a sensitivity of order one percent of a peV is expected. We also find that an extremely large coupling $\\beta\\gtrsim 10^{11}$ would lead to new bound states at a distance of order 2 microns, which is already ruled out by previous Grenoble experiments. The resulting bound, $\\beta\\lesssim 10^{11}$, is already three orders of magnitude better than the upper bound, $\\beta\\lesssim 10^{14}$, from precision tests of atomic spectra.
Magnetization of Coupled Ultrathin Ferromagnetic Films
WANG Huai-Yu; ZHOU Yun-Song; WANG Chong-Yu
2002-01-01
The magnetization of coupled ferromagnetic films is calculated by Green's function method. The coupling can either be ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. For the latter case, a concept of pseudo-spin is suggested to make calculation possible. A pseudo-spin is actually an anti-spin with its properties being analogue to other known anti particles such as a hole. The decreasing of Curie point as the coupling strength decays is computed. It is noted that with the same strength, antiferromagnetic coupling has higher Curie point than ferromagnetic coupling.
Heat conduction in 2D strongly-coupled dusty plasmas
Hou, Lu-Jing
2008-01-01
We perform non-equilibrium simulations to study heat conduction in two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasmas. Temperature gradients are established by heating one part of the otherwise equilibrium system to a higher temperature. Heat conductivity is measured directly from the stationary temperature profile and heat flux. Particular attention is paid to the influence of damping effect on the heat conduction. It is found that the heat conductivity increases with the decrease of the damping rate, while its magnitude confirms previous experimental measurement.
Study of the Strong Coupling Constant Using W+ Jet Processes
Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Álvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Chevalier, L.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gao, S. G.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gu, W. X.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tao; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mandrichenko, I. V.; Mangeot, Ph.; Mani, S.; Mansoulié, B.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Milder, A.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mohammadi-Baarmand, M.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; NešiĆ, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pluquet, A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rusin, S.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shao, Y. Y.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Taketani, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Teiger, J.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Virador, P. R.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; Wen, F.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Wilcox, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zylberstejn, A.
1995-10-01
The ratio of the number of W+1 jet to W+0 jet events is measured with the D0 detector using data from the 1992-93 Tevatron Collider run. For the W-->eν channel with a minimum jet ET cutoff of 25 GeV, the experimental ratio is 0.065+/-0.003stat+/-0.007syst. Next-to-leading order QCD predictions for various parton distributions agree well with each other and are all over 1 standard deviation below the measurement. Varying the strong coupling constant αs in both the parton distributions and the partonic cross sections simultaneously does not remove this discrepancy.
Wilson loops at strong coupling for curved contours with cusps
Dorn, Harald
2015-01-01
We construct the minimal surface in AdS, relevant for the strong coupling behaviour of local supersymmetric Wilson loops in N=4 SYM for a closed contour formed out of segments of two intersecting circles. Its regularised area is calculated including all divergent parts and the finite renormalised term. Furthermore we prove, that for generic planar curved contours with cusps the cusp anomalous dimensions are functions of the respective cusp angles alone. They do not depend on other local data of the cusps.
First and Second Law of Thermodynamics at Strong Coupling.
Seifert, Udo
2016-01-15
For a small driven system coupled strongly to a heat bath, internal energy and exchanged heat are identified such that they obey the usual additive form of the first law. By identifying this exchanged heat with the entropy change of the bath, the total entropy production is shown to obey an integral fluctuation theorem on the trajectory level implying the second law in the form of a Clausius inequalilty on the ensemble level. In this Hamiltonian approach, the assumption of an initially uncorrelated state is not required. The conditions under which the proposed identification of heat is unique and experimentally accessible are clarified.
Shear Flow instability in a strongly coupled dusty plasma
Banerjee, D; Chakrabarti, N
2013-01-01
Linear stability analysis of strongly coupled incompressible dusty plasma in presence of shear flow has been carried out using Generalized Hydrodynamical(GH) model. With the proper Galilean invariant GH model, a nonlocal eigenvalue analysis has been done using different velocity profiles. It is shown that the effect of elasticity enhances the growth rate of shear flow driven Kelvin- Helmholtz (KH) instability. The interplay between viscosity and elasticity not only enhances the growth rate but the spatial domain of the instability is also widened. The growth rate in various parameter space and the corresponding eigen functions are presented.
Fano-like resonances in strongly coupled binary Coulomb systems
Silvestri, Luciano; Donko, Zoltan; Hartmann, Peter; Kaehlert, Hanno
2014-01-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a strongly coupled binary ionic mixture have shown the presence of a sharp minimum in the dynamical density fluctuation spectrum. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the well known Fano anti-resonance, occurring in various physical processes. We give a theoretical analysis using the Quasi Localized Charge Approximation, pointing out that the observed phenomenon in the equilibrium spectrum is the consequence, induced by the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem, of the Fano anti-resonance, whose existence in the system is verified by further MD simulation.
Black hole thermodynamics from calculations in strongly coupled gauge theory.
Kabat, D; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A
2001-02-19
We develop an approximation scheme for the quantum mechanics of N D0-branes at finite temperature in the 't Hooft large- N limit. The entropy of the quantum mechanics calculated using this approximation agrees well with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a ten-dimensional nonextremal black hole with 0-brane charge. This result is in accordance with the duality conjectured by Itzhaki, Maldacena, Sonnenschein, and Yankielowicz [Phys. Rev. D 58, 046004 (1998)]. Our approximation scheme provides a model for the density matrix which describes a black hole in the strongly coupled quantum mechanics.
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
Ishii, Takaaki; Rosen, Christopher
2016-01-01
Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which "real world" theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory's confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance ...
Neutron limit on the strongly-coupled chameleon field
Li, K.; Arif, M.; Cory, D. G.; Haun, R.; Heacock, B.; Huber, M. G.; Nsofini, J.; Pushin, D. A.; Saggu, P.; Sarenac, D.; Shahi, C. B.; Skavysh, V.; Snow, W. M.; Young, A. R.; Index Collaboration
2016-03-01
The physical origin of the dark energy that causes the accelerated expansion rate of the Universe is one of the major open questions of cosmology. One set of theories postulates the existence of a self-interacting scalar field for dark energy coupling to matter. In the chameleon dark energy theory, this coupling induces a screening mechanism such that the field amplitude is nonzero in empty space but is greatly suppressed in regions of terrestrial matter density. However measurements performed under appropriate vacuum conditions can enable the chameleon field to appear in the apparatus, where it can be subjected to laboratory experiments. Here we report the most stringent upper bound on the free neutron-chameleon coupling in the strongly coupled limit of the chameleon theory using neutron interferometric techniques. Our experiment sought the chameleon field through the relative phase shift it would induce along one of the neutron paths inside a perfect crystal neutron interferometer. The amplitude of the chameleon field was actively modulated by varying the millibar pressures inside a dual-chamber aluminum cell. We report a 95% confidence level upper bound on the neutron-chameleon coupling β ranging from β <4.7 ×106 for a Ratra-Peebles index of n =1 in the nonlinear scalar field potential to β <2.4 ×107 for n =6 , one order of magnitude more sensitive than the most recent free neutron limit for intermediate n . Similar experiments can explore the full parameter range for chameleon dark energy in the foreseeable future.
Higgs boson mass and muon g -2 with strongly coupled vectorlike generations
Nishida, Michinobu; Yoshioka, Koichi
2016-11-01
We study the Higgs boson mass and the muon anomalous magnetic moment (the muon g -2 ) in a supersymmetric standard model with vectorlike generations. The infrared physics of the model is governed by strong renormalization-group effects of the gauge couplings. That leads to sizable extra Yukawa couplings of Higgs doublets between the second and vectorlike generations in both quark and lepton sectors. It is found with this property that there exist wide parameter regions where the Higgs boson mass and the muon g -2 are simultaneously explained.
Tuning the Photon Statistics of a Strongly Coupled Nanophotonic System
Dory, Constantin; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L; Kelaita, Yousif; Sapra, Neil V; Vučković, Jelena
2016-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of single- and multi-photon emission from detuned strongly coupled systems based on the quantum-dot-photonic-crystal resonator platform. Transmitting light through such systems can generate a range of non-classical states of light with tunable photon counting statistics due to the nonlinear ladder of hybridized light-matter states. By controlling the detuning between emitter and resonator, the transmission can be tuned to strongly enhance either single- or two-photon emission processes. Despite the strongly-dissipative nature of these systems, we find that by utilizing a self-homodyne interference technique combined with frequency-filtering we are able to find a strong two-photon component of the emission in the multi-photon regime. In order to explain our correlation measurements, we propose rate equation models that capture the dominant processes of emission both in the single- and multi-photon regimes. These models are then supported by quantum-optical simulations that fully cap...
Thermoplasmonic Study of a Triple Band Optical Nanoantenna Strongly Coupled to Mid IR Molecular Mode
Hasan, Dihan; Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chunsheng; Lee, Chengkuo
2016-02-01
We report the first thermal study of a triple band plasmonic nanoantenna strongly coupled to a molecular mode at mid IR wavelength (MW IR). The hybrid plasmonic structure supports three spatially and spectrally variant resonances of which two are magnetic and one is dipolar in nature. A hybridized mode is excited by coupling the structure’s plasmonic mode with the vibrational mode of PMMA at 5.79 μm. Qualitative agreement between the spectral changes in simulation and experiment clearly indicates that resistive heating is the dominant mechanisms behind the intensity changes of the dipolar and magnetic peaks. The study also unveils the thermal insensitivity of the coupled mode intensity as the temperature is increased. We propose a mechanism to reduce the relative intensity change of the coupled mode at elevated temperature by mode detuning and surface current engineering and demonstrate less than 9% intensity variation. Later, we perform a temperature cycling test and investigate into the degradation of the Au-PMMA composite device. The failure condition is identified to be primarily associated with the surface chemistry of the material interface rather than the deformation of the nanopatterns. The study reveals the robustness of the strongly coupled hybridized mode even under multiple cycling.
Effects of Strong Magnetic Fields on Photoionised Clouds
Mackey, Jonathan
2012-01-01
Simulations are presented of the photoionisation of three dense gas clouds threaded by magnetic fields, showing the dynamical effects of different initial magnetic field orientations and strengths. For moderate magnetic field strengths the initial radiation-driven implosion phase is not strongly affected by the field geometry, and the photoevaporation flows are also similar. Over longer timescales, the simulation with an initial field parallel to the radiation propagation direction (parallel field) remains basically axisymmetric, whereas in the simulation with a perpendicular initial field the pillar of neutral gas fragments in a direction aligned with the magnetic field. For stronger initial magnetic fields, the dynamics in all gas phases are affected at all evolutionary times. In a simulation with a strong initially perpendicular field, photoevaporated gas forms filaments of dense ionised gas as it flows away from the ionisation front along field lines. These filaments are potentially a useful diagnostic of...
Strong magnetic response of submicron Silicon particles in the infrared
Garcia-Etxarri, A; Froufe-Perez, L S; Lopez, C; Chantada, L; Scheffold, F; Aizpurua, J; Nieto-Vesperinas, M; Saenz, J J
2010-01-01
High-permittivity dielectric particles with resonant magnetic properties are being explored as constitutive elements of new metamaterials and devices in the microwave regime. Magnetic properties of low-loss dielectric nanoparticles in the visible or infrared are not expected due to intrinsic low refractive index of optical materials in these regimes. Here we analyze the dipolar electric and magnetic response of loss-less dielectric spheres made of moderate permittivity materials. For low material refractive index there are no sharp resonances due to strong overlapping between different multipole contributions. However, we find that Silicon particles with refractive index 3.5 and radius approx. 200nm present a dipolar and strong magnetic resonant response in telecom and near-infrared frequencies, (i.e. at wavelengths approx. 1.2-2 micrometer). Moreover, the light scattered by these Si particles can be perfectly described by dipolar electric and magnetic fields, quadrupolar and higher order contributions being ...
LDA+DMFT Approach to Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Strong Magnets
Jian-Xin Zhu
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The new challenges posed by the need of finding strong rare-earth-free magnets demand methods that can predict magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE. We argue that correlated electron effects, which are normally underestimated in band-structure calculations, play a crucial role in the development of the orbital component of the magnetic moments. Because magnetic anisotropy arises from this orbital component, the ability to include correlation effects has profound consequences on our predictive power of the MAE of strong magnets. Here, we show that incorporating the local effects of electronic correlations with dynamical mean-field theory provides reliable estimates of the orbital moment, the mass enhancement, and the MAE of YCo_{5}.
Pair correlation functions of strongly coupled two-temperature plasma
Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.
2017-09-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we perform the first direct tests of three proposed models for the pair correlation functions of strongly coupled plasmas with species of unequal temperature. The models are all extensions of the Ornstein-Zernike/hypernetted-chain theory used to good success for equilibrium plasmas. Each theory is evaluated at several coupling strengths, temperature ratios, and mass ratios for a model plasma in which the electrons are positively charged. We show that the model proposed by Seuferling et al. [Phys. Rev. A 40, 323 (1989)] agrees well with molecular dynamics over a wide range of mass and temperature ratios, as well as over a range of coupling strength similar to that of the equilibrium hypernetted-chain (HNC) theory. The SVT model also correctly predicts the strength of interspecies correlations and exhibits physically reasonable long-wavelength limits of the static structure factors. Comparisons of the SVT model with the Yukawa one-component plasma (YOCP) model are used to show that ion-ion pair correlations are well described by the YOCP model up to Γe≈1 , beyond which it rapidly breaks down.
The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD
da Silva, Tiago Nunes
2012-01-01
We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoretical discussion. In particular, we study the nature of the bulk transition that separates a chirally broken phase at strong coupling from a chirally restored phase at weak coupling. When a non-improved action is used, a rapid crossover is observed at small bare quark masses. Our results confirm a first order nature for this transition, in agreement with previous results we obtained using an improved action. As shown in Ref.[1], when improvement of the action is used, the transition is preceded by a second rapid crossover at weaker coupling and an exotic phase emerges, where chiral symmetry is not yet broken. This can be explained [1] by the non hermiticity of the improved lattice Transfer matrix, arising from the c...
Quantized Brans Dicke Theory: Phase Transition and Strong Coupling Limit
Pal, Sridip
2016-01-01
We show that Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry with flat spatial section in quantized (Wheeler deWitt quantization) Brans Dicke (BD) theory reveals a rich phase structure owing to anomalous breaking of a classical symmetry, which maps the scale factor $a\\mapsto\\lambda a$ for some constant $\\lambda$. In the weak coupling ($\\omega$) limit, the theory goes from a symmetry preserving phase to a broken phase. The existence of phase boundary is an obstruction to another classical symmetry [arXiv:gr-qc/9902083] (which relates two BD theory with different coupling) admitted by BD theory with scale invariant matter content i.e $T^{\\mu}{}_{\\mu}=0$. Classically, this prohibits the BD theory to reduce to General Relativity (GR) for scale invariant matter content. We show that strong coupling limit of BD and GR both preserves the symmetry involving scale factor. We also show that with a scale invariant matter content (radiation i.e $P=\\frac{1}{3}\\rho$), the quantized BD theory does reduce to GR as $\\omega\\rightarr...
The strong coupling constant of QCD with four flavors
Tekin, Fatih
2010-11-01
In this thesis we study the theory of strong interaction Quantum Chromodynamics on a space-time lattice (lattice QCD) with four flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations. In the early days of lattice QCD, only pure gauge field simulations were accessible to the computational facilities and the effects of quark polarization were neglected. The so-called fermion determinant in the path integral was set to one (quenched approximation). The reason for this approximation was mainly the limitation of computational power because the inclusion of the fermion determinant required an enormous numerical effort. However, for full QCD simulations the virtual quark loops had to be taken into account and the development of new machines and new algorithmic techniques made the so-called dynamical simulations with at least two flavors possible. In recent years, different collaborations studied lattice QCD with dynamical fermions. In our project we study lattice QCD with four degenerated flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks in the Schroedinger functional scheme and calculate the energy dependence of the strong coupling constant. For this purpose, we determine the O(a) improvement coefficient c{sub sw} with four flavors and use this result to calculate the step scaling function of QCD with four flavors which describes the scale evolution of the running coupling. Using a recursive finite-size technique, the {lambda} parameter is determined in units of a technical scale L{sub max} which is an unambiguously defined length in the hadronic regime. The coupling {alpha}{sub SF} of QCD in the so-called Schroedinger functional scheme is calculated over a wide range of energies non-perturbatively and compared with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with the non-perturbative result for only two flavors. (orig.)
Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.
Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie
2013-02-13
Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.
Thermal Phase Transitions of Strongly Correlated Bosons with Spin-Orbit Coupling
Hickey, Ciarán; Paramekanti, Arun
2014-12-01
Experiments on ultracold atoms have started to explore lattice effects and thermal fluctuations for two-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Motivated by this, we derive and study a t J model for lattice bosons with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus SOC and strong Hubbard repulsion in a uniform Zeeman magnetic field. Using the Gutzwiller ansatz, we find strongly correlated ground states with stripe superfluid (SF) order. We formulate a finite temperature generalization of the Gutzwiller method, and show that thermal fluctuations in the doped Mott insulator drive a two-step melting of the stripe SF, revealing a wide regime of a stripe normal fluid.
Perspective: Coulomb fluids—Weak coupling, strong coupling, in between and beyond
Naji, Ali; Kanduč, Matej; Forsman, Jan; Podgornik, Rudolf
2013-10-01
We present a personal view on the current state of statistical mechanics of Coulomb fluids with special emphasis on the interactions between macromolecular surfaces, concentrating on the weak and the strong coupling limits. Both are introduced for a (primitive) counterion-only system in the presence of macroscopic, uniformly charged boundaries, where they can be derived systematically. Later we show how this formalism can be generalized to the cases with additional characteristic length scales that introduce new coupling parameters into the problem. These cases most notably include asymmetric ionic mixtures with mono- and multivalent ions that couple differently to charged surfaces, ions with internal charge (multipolar) structure and finite static polarizability, where weak and strong coupling limits can be constructed by analogy with the counterion-only case and lead to important new insights into their properties that cannot be derived by any other means.
From Weakly to Strongly Magnetized Isotropic MHD Turbulence
Alexakis, Alexandros
2012-01-01
High Reynolds number isotropic magneto-hydro-dynamic turbulence in the presence of large scale magnetic fields is investigated as a function of the magnetic field strength. For a variety of flow configurations the energy dissipation rate \\epsilon, follows the Kolmogorov scaling \\epsilon ~ U^3/L even when the large scale magnetic field energy is twenty times larger than the kinetic. Further increase of the magnetic energy showed a transition to the \\epsilon ~ U^2 B / L scaling implying that magnetic shear becomes more efficient at this point at cascading the energy than the velocity fluctuations. Strongly helical configurations form helicity condensates that deviate from these scalings. Weak turbulence scaling was absent from the investigation. Finally, the magnetic energy spectra showed support for the Kolmogorov spectrum k^{-5/3} while kinetic energy spectra are closer to the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan spectrum k^{-3/2}.
$\\pi_0$ pole mass calculation in a strong magnetic field and lattice constraints
Avancini, Sidney S; Pinto, Marcus Benghi; Tavares, William R; Timóteo, Varese S
2016-01-01
The $\\pi_0$ neutral meson pole mass is calculated in a strongly magnetized medium using the SU(2) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the random phase approximation (RPA) at zero temperature and zero baryonic density. We employ a magnetic field dependent coupling $G(eB)$ fitted to reproduce lattice QCD results for the quark condensates. Divergent quantities are handled with a magnetic field independent regularization scheme in order to avoid unphysical oscillations. A comparison between the running and the fixed couplings reveals that the former produces results much closer to the predictions from recent lattice calculations. In particular, we find that the $\\pi_0$ meson mass systematically decreases when the magnetic field increases while the scalar mass remains almost constant. We also investigate how the magnetic background influences other mesonic properties such as $f_{{\\pi}_0}$ and $g_{\\pi_0 q q}$.
Neutron star in the presence of strong magnetic field
K K Mohanta; R Mallick; N R Panda; L P Singh; P K Sahu
2014-05-01
Compact stars such as neutron stars (NS) can have either hadronic or exotic states like strange quark or colour superconducting matter. Stars can also have a quark core surrounded by hadronic matter, known as hybrid stars (HS). The HS is likely to have a mixed phase in between the hadron and the quark phases. Observational results suggest huge surface magnetic field in certain NS. Therefore, we study here the effect of strong magnetic field on the respective equation of states (EOS) of matter under extreme conditions. We further study the hadron–quark phase transition in the interiors of NS giving rise to HS in the presence of strong magnetic field. The hadronic matter EOS is described based on RMF theory and we include the effects of strong magnetic fields leading to Landau quantization of the charged particles. For quark phase, we use the simple Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model, assuming density-dependent bag pressure and magnetic field. The magnetic field strength increases from the surface to the centre of the star. We construct the intermediate mixed phase using Glendenning conjecture. The magnetic field softens the EOS of both the matter phases. We finally study, the mass–radius relationship for such types of mixed HS, calculating their maximum mass, and compare them with the recent observations of pulsar PSR J1614-2230, which is about 2 solar mass.
Magnetization of two coupled rings
Avishai, Y [Department of Physics and Ilse Katz Center for Nanotechnology, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Luck, J M [Institut de Physique Theorique, IPhT, CEA Saclay, and URA 2306, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)], E-mail: yshai@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: jean-marc.luck@cea.fr
2009-05-01
We investigate the persistent currents and magnetization of a mesoscopic system consisting of two clean metallic rings sharing a single contact point in a magnetic field. Many novel features with respect to the single-ring geometry are underlined, including the explicit dependence of wavefunctions on the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes, the complex pattern of two-fold and three-fold degeneracies, the key role of length and flux commensurability, and in the case of commensurate ring lengths the occurrence of idle levels which do not carry any current. Spin-orbit interactions, induced by the electric fields of charged wires threading the rings, give rise to a peculiar version of the Aharonov-Casher effect where, unlike for a single ring, spin is not conserved. Remarkably enough, this can only be realized when the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes in both rings are neither integer nor half-integer multiples of the flux quantum.
Electromagnetic superconductivity of vacuum induced by strong magnetic field
Chernodub, M N
2012-01-01
The quantum vacuum may become an electromagnetic superconductor in the presence of a strong external magnetic field of the order of 10^{16} Tesla. The magnetic field of the required strength (and even stronger) is expected to be generated for a short time in ultraperipheral collisions of heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider. The superconducting properties of the new phase appear as a result of a magnetic-field-assisted condensation of quark-antiquark pairs with quantum numbers of electrically charged rho mesons. We discuss similarities and differences between the suggested superconducting state of the quantum vacuum, a conventional superconductivity and the Schwinger pair creation. We argue qualitatively and quantitatively why the superconducting state should be a natural ground state of the vacuum at the sufficiently strong magnetic field. We demonstrate the existence of the superconducting phase using both the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and an effective bosonic model based on the vector meson dominance (th...
Molecules and chains in a strong magnetic field - Statistical treatment
Abrahams, Andrew M.; Shapiro, Stuart L.
1991-01-01
A Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Weizsaecker statistical model is developed and employed to investigate diatomic molecules and infinite molecular chains in strong magnetic fields. The standard magnetic Thomas-Fermi-Dirac kinetic, potential, and exchange energy functionals are supplemented by a gradient correction to the kinetic energy. The numerical method used for solving this system in two spatial dimensions is detailed. Numerical solutions for a wide range of magnetic strengths and elements are presented to demonstrate the robustness, as well as the limitations, of the statistical approach. These calculations qualitatively reproduce many of the results of detailed quantum mechanical treatments. For example, the fractional binding energy is greatest for low atomic numbers and for strong magnetic fields.
Heat Transport in Confined Strongly Coupled 2D Dust Clusters
Kudelis, Giedrius; Bonitz, Michael
2013-01-01
Dusty plasmas are a model system for studying strong correlation. The dust grains' size of a few micro-meters and their characteristic oscillation frequency of a few hertz allows for an investigation of many particle effects on an atomic level. In this article, we model the heat transport through an axially confined 2D dust cluster from the center to the outside. The system behaves particularly interesting since heat is not only conducted within the dust component but also transfered to the neutral gas. Fitting the analytical solution to the obtained radial temperature profiles allows to determine the heat conductivity $\\kheat$. The heat conductivity is found to be constant over a wide range of coupling strengths even including the phase transition from solid to liquid here, as it was also found in extended systems by V. Nosenko et al. in 2008 \\cite{PhysRevLett.100.025003}
Thermodynamics of the N=2^* strongly coupled plasma
Buchel, A; Kerner, P; Liu, J T; Buchel, Alex; Deakin, Stan; Kerner, Patrick; Liu, James T.
2007-01-01
Gauge/string duality is a potentially important framework for addressing the properties of the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma produced at RHIC. However, constructing an actual string theory dual to QCD has so far proven elusive. In this paper, we take a partial step towards exploring the QCD plasma by investigating the thermodynamics of a non-conformal system, namely the N=2^* theory, which is obtained as a mass deformation of the conformal N=4 gauge theory. We find that at temperatures of order the mass scale, the thermodynamics of the mass deformed plasma is surprisingly close to that of the conformal gauge theory plasma. This suggests that many properties of the quark gluon plasma at RHIC may in fact be well described by even relatively simple models such as that of the conformal N=4 plasma.
Parton energy loss at strong coupling and the universal bound
Kharzeev, D E
2008-01-01
The apparent universality of jet quenching observed in heavy ion collisions at RHIC for light and heavy quarks, as well as for quarks and gluons, is very puzzling and calls for a theoretical explanation. Recently it has been proposed that the synchrotron--like radiation at strong coupling gives rise to a universal bound on the energy of a parton escaping from the medium. Since this bound appears quite low, almost all of the observed particles at high transverse momentum have to originate from the surface of the hot fireball. Here I make a first attempt of checking this scenario against the RHIC data and formulate a "Universal Bound Model" of jet quenching that can be further tested at RHIC and LHC.
Orbifolds and Exact Solutions of Strongly-Coupled Matrix Models
Cordova, Clay; Popolitov, Alexandr; Shakirov, Shamil
2016-01-01
We find an exact solution to strongly-coupled matrix models with a single-trace monomial potential. Our solution yields closed form expressions for the partition function as well as averages of Schur functions. The results are fully factorized into a product of terms linear in the rank of the matrix and the parameters of the model. We extend our formulas to include both logarthmic and finite-difference deformations, thereby generalizing the celebrated Selberg and Kadell integrals. We conjecture a formula for correlators of two Schur functions in these models, and explain how our results follow from a general orbifold-like procedure that can be applied to any one-matrix model with a single-trace potential.
Strongly Coupled Semi-Direct Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Ibe, M.; /SLAC; Izawa, K.-I.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /Tokyo U., IPMU; Nakai, Y.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto
2011-09-13
Supersymmetry (SUSY) is expected to be a crucial ingredient of basic laws in Nature. It is an attractive possibility that SUSY is broken at low energy within the experimental reach in the near future. Among others, low-energy dynamics with gauge mediation between a hidden sector of SUSY breaking and the visible sector of SUSY standard model may be phenomenologically viable. In particular, the gauge interactions are flavor blind, so that the unwanted flavor-changing processes are naturally suppressed. Strongly coupled semi-direct gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard model symmetries.
$T$-Matrix Approach to Strongly Coupled QGP
Liu, Shuai Y F
2016-01-01
Based on a thermodynamic $T$-matrix approach we extract the potential $V$ between two static charges in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) from fits to the pertinent lattice-QCD free energy. With suitable relativistic corrections we utilize this new potential to compute heavy-quark transport coefficients and compare the results to previous calculations using either $F$ or $U$ as potential. We then discuss a generalization of the $T$-matrix re-summation to a "matrix $\\log$" re-summation of $t$-channel diagrams for the grand partition function of the QGP in the Luttinger-Ward skeleton diagram formalism. With $V$ as a non-perturbative driving kernel in the light-parton sector, we obtain the QGP equation of state from fits to lattice-QCD data. The resulting light-parton spectral functions are characterized by large thermal widths at small momenta, indicating the dissolution of quasi-particles in a strongly coupled QGP.
Five-brane configurations without a strong coupling regime
Kiritsis, E. E-mail: kiritsis@physics.uoc.gr; Kounnas, C.; Petropoulos, P.M.; Rizos, J
2003-03-03
Five-brane distributions with no strong-coupling problems and high symmetry are studied. The simplest configuration corresponds to a spherical shell of branes with S{sup 3} geometry and symmetry. The equations of motion with {delta}-function sources are carefully solved in such backgrounds. Various other brane distributions with sixteen unbroken supercharges are described. They are associated to exact world-sheet superconformal field theories with domain-walls in space-time. We study the equations of gravitational fluctuations, find normalizable modes of bulk six-dimensional gravitons and confirm the existence of a mass gap. We also study the moduli of the configurations and derive their (normalizable) wave functions. We use our results and holography to calculate, in a controllable fashion, the two-point function of the stress tensor of little string theory in these vacua.
Strong coupling between single-electron tunneling and nanomechanical motion.
Steele, G A; Hüttel, A K; Witkamp, B; Poot, M; Meerwaldt, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; van der Zant, H S J
2009-08-28
Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 10(5) allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.
Effective potential kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas
Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme
2016-11-01
The effective potential theory (EPT) is a recently proposed method for extending traditional plasma kinetic and transport theory into the strongly coupled regime. Validation from experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have shown it to be accurate up to the onset of liquid-like correlation parameters (corresponding to Γ ≃ 10-50 for the one-component plasma, depending on the process of interest). Here, this theory is briefly reviewed along with comparisons between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations for self-diffusivity and viscosity of the one-component plasma. A number of new results are also provided, including calculations of friction coefficients, energy exchange rates, stopping power, and mobility. The theory is also cast in the Landau and Fokker-Planck kinetic forms, which may prove useful for enabling efficient kinetic computations.
Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas
Huang, Jer-Shing; Geisler, Peter; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Hecht, Bert
2010-01-01
The number of eigenmodes in plasmonic nanostructures increases with complexity due to mode hybridization, raising the need for efficient mode characterization and selection. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct imaging and selective excitation of the bonding and antibonding plasmon mode in symmetric dipole nanoantennas using confocal two-photon photoluminescence mapping. Excitation of a high-quality-factor antibonding resonance manifests itself as a two-lobed pattern instead of the single spot observed for the broad bonding resonance, in accordance with numerical simulations. The two-lobed pattern is observed due to the fact that excitation of the antibonding mode is forbidden for symmetric excitation at the feedgap, while concomitantly the mode energy splitting is large enough to suppress excitation of the bonding mode. The controlled excitation of modes in strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures is mandatory for efficient sensors, in coherent control as well as for implementing well-defined functiona...
Mode Imaging and Selection in Strongly Coupled Nanoantennas
Huang, Jer-Shing; Kern, Johannes; Geisler, Peter; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Hecht, Bert
2010-06-01
The number of eigenmodes in plasmonic nanostructures increases with complexity due to mode hybridization, raising the need for efficient mode characterization and selection. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct imaging and selective excitation of the bonding and antibonding plasmon mode in symmetric dipole nanoantennas using confocal two-photon photoluminescence mapping. Excitation of a high-quality-factor antibonding resonance manifests itself as a two-lobed pattern instead of the single spot observed for the broad bonding resonance, in accordance with numerical simulations. The two-lobed pattern is observed due to the fact that excitation of the antibonding mode is forbidden for symmetric excitation at the feedgap, while concomitantly the mode energy splitting is large enough to suppress excitation of the bonding mode. The controlled excitation of modes in strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures is mandatory for efficient sensors, in coherent control as well as for implementing well-defined functionalities in complex plasmonic devices.
Coupling and Strong Feller for Jump Processes on Banach Spaces
Wang, Feng-Yu
2011-01-01
By using lower bound conditions of the L\\'evy measure w.r.t. a nice reference measure, the coupling and strong Feller properties are investigated for the Markov semigroup associated with a class of linear SDEs driven by (non-cylindrical) L\\'evy processes on a Banach space. Unlike in the finite-dimensional case where these properties have also been confirmed for L\\'evy processes without drift, in the infinite-dimensional setting the appearance of a drift term is essential to ensure the quasi-invariance of the process by shifting the initial data. Gradient estimates and exponential convergence are also investigated. The main results are illustrated by specific models on the Wiener space and separable Hilbert spaces.
Novel Ion Trap Design for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling
Alejandro Márquez Seco
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We present a novel ion trap design which facilitates the integration of an optical fiber cavity into the trap structure. The optical fibers are confined inside hollow electrodes in such a way that tight shielding and free movement of the fibers are simultaneously achievable. The latter enables in situ optimization of the overlap between the trapped ions and the cavity field. Through numerical simulations, we systematically analyze the effects of the electrode geometry on the trapping characteristics such as trap depths, secular frequencies and the optical access angle. Additionally, we simulate the effects of the presence of the fibers and confirm the robustness of the trapping potential. Based on these simulations and other technical considerations, we devise a practical trap configuration that isviable to achieve strong coupling of a single ion.
Strong Coupling Between Single-Electron Tunneling and Nanomechanical Motion
Steele, G. A.; Hüttel, A. K.; Witkamp, B.; Poot, M.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.
2009-08-01
Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 105 allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.
Strong-coupling effects in a plasma of confining gluons
Florkowski, Wojciech; Su, Nan; Tywoniuk, Konrad
2015-01-01
The plasma consisting of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory is studied using non-equilibrium fluid dynamical framework. Exploiting the Bjorken symmetry and using linear response theory a general analytic expressions for the bulk and shear viscosity coefficients are derived. It is found that the considered system exhibits a number of properties similar to the strongly-coupled theories, where the conformality is explicitly broken. In particular, it is shown that, in the large temperature limit, bulk to shear viscosity ratio, scales linearly with the difference $1/3 - c_s^2$, where $c_s$ is the speed of sound. Results obtained from the analysis are in line with the interpretation of the quark-gluon plasma as an almost perfect fluid.
On the flavor problem in strongly coupled theories
Bauer, Martin
2012-11-28
This thesis is on the flavor problem of Randall Sundrum models and their strongly coupled dual theories. These models are particularly well motivated extensions of the Standard Model, because they simultaneously address the gauge hierarchy problem and the hierarchies in the quark masses and mixings. In order to put this into context, special attention is given to concepts underlying the theories which can explain the hierarchy problem and the flavor structure of the Standard Model (SM). The AdS/CFT duality is introduced and its implications for the Randall Sundrum model with fermions in the bulk and general bulk gauge groups is investigated. It is shown that the different terms in the general 5D propagator of a bulk gauge field can be related to the corresponding diagrams of the strongly coupled dual, which allows for a deeper understanding of the origin of flavor changing neutral currents generated by the exchange of the Kaluza Klein excitations of these bulk fields. In the numerical analysis, different observables which are sensitive to corrections from the tree-level exchange of these resonances will be presented on the basis of updated experimental data from the Tevatron and LHC experiments. This includes electroweak precision observables, namely corrections to the S and T parameters followed by corrections to the Zb anti b vertex, flavor changing observables with flavor changes at one vertex, viz. B(B{sub d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) and B(B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}), and two vertices, viz. S{sub {psi}{phi}} and vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke, as well as bounds from direct detection experiments. The analysis will show that all of these bounds can be brought in agreement with a new physics scale {Lambda}{sub NP} in the TeV range, except for the CP violating quantity vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke, which requires {Lambda}{sub NP}=O(10) TeV in the absence of fine-tuning. The numerous modifications of the
Strongly coupled gauge theories: What can lattice calculations teach us?
Hasenfratz, A; Rebbi, C; Weinberg, E; Witzel, O
2015-01-01
The dynamical origin of electroweak symmetry breaking is an open question with many possible theoretical explanations. Strongly coupled systems predicting the Higgs boson as a bound state of a new gauge-fermion interaction form one class of candidate models. Due to increased statistics, LHC run II will further constrain the phenomenologically viable models in the near future. In the meanwhile it is important to understand the general properties and specific features of the different competing models. In this work we discuss many-flavor gauge-fermion systems that contain both massless (light) and massive fermions. The former provide Goldstone bosons and trigger electroweak symmetry breaking, while the latter indirectly influence the infrared dynamics. Numerical results reveal that such systems can exhibit a light $0^{++}$ isosinglet scalar, well separated from the rest of the spectrum. Further, when we set the scale via the $vev$ of electroweak symmetry breaking, we predict a 2 TeV vector resonance which could...
Thermodynamics of the BMN matrix model at strong coupling
Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.
2015-03-01
We construct the black hole geometry dual to the deconfined phase of the BMN matrix model at strong 't Hooft coupling. We approach this solution from the limit of large temperature where it is approximately that of the non-extremal D0-brane geometry with a spherical S 8 horizon. This geometry preserves the SO(9) symmetry of the matrix model trivial vacuum. As the temperature decreases the horizon becomes deformed and breaks the SO(9) to the SO(6) × SO(3) symmetry of the matrix model. When the black hole free energy crosses zero the system undergoes a phase transition to the confined phase described by a Lin-Maldacena geometry. We determine this critical temperature, whose computation is also within reach of Monte Carlo simulations of the matrix model.
Thermodynamics of the BMN matrix model at strong coupling
Costa, Miguel S; Penedones, Joao; Santos, Jorge
2014-01-01
We construct the black hole geometry dual to the deconfined phase of the BMN matrix model at strong 't Hooft coupling. We approach this solution from the limit of large temperature where it is approximately that of the non-extremal D0-brane geometry with a spherical $S^8$ horizon. This geometry preserves the $SO(9)$ symmetry of the matrix model trivial vacuum. As the temperature decreases the horizon becomes deformed and breaks the $SO(9)$ to the $SO(6)\\times SO(3)$ symmetry of the matrix model. When the black hole free energy crosses zero the system undergoes a phase transition to the confined phase described by a Lin-Maldacena geometry. We determine this critical temperature, whose computation is also within reach of Monte Carlo simulations of the matrix model.
Effect of strong magnetic fields on the pasta phase structure
de Lima, Rafael Camargo Rodrigues; Providência, Constança
2013-01-01
The effect of strong magnetic fields on the properties of the pasta structures is calculated within a Thomas Fermi approach using relativistic mean field models to modulate stellar matter. It is shown how quantities such as the size of the clusters and Wigner-Seitz cells, the surface tension and the transition between configurations are affected. It is expected that these effects may give rise to large stresses in the pasta phase if the local magnetic field suffers fluctuations.
Quantum Thermodynamics in Strong Coupling: Heat Transport and Refrigeration
Gil Katz
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The performance characteristics of a heat rectifier and a heat pump are studied in a non-Markovian framework. The device is constructed from a molecule connected to a hot and cold reservoir. The heat baths are modelled using the stochastic surrogate Hamiltonian method. The molecule is modelled by an asymmetric double-well potential. Each well is semi-locally connected to a heat bath composed of spins. The dynamics are driven by a combined system–bath Hamiltonian. The temperature of the baths is regulated by a secondary spin bath composed of identical spins in thermal equilibrium. A random swap operation exchange spins between the primary and secondary baths. The combined system is studied in various system–bath coupling strengths. In all cases, the average heat current always flows from the hot towards the cold bath in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The asymmetry of the double well generates a rectifying effect, meaning that when the left and right baths are exchanged the heat current follows the hot-to-cold direction. The heat current is larger when the high frequency is coupled to the hot bath. Adding an external driving field can reverse the transport direction. Such a refrigeration effect is modelled by a periodic driving field in resonance with the frequency difference of the two potential wells. A minimal driving amplitude is required to overcome the heat leak effect. In the strong driving regime the cooling power is non-monotonic with the system–bath coupling.
Strong Coupling Problem with Time-Varying Sound Speed
Joyce, Austin
2011-01-01
For a single scalar field with unit sound speed, there are exactly three distinct cosmological solutions which produce a scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations in a dynamical attractor background, assuming vacuum initial conditions: slow-roll inflation; a slowly contracting adiabatic ekpyrotic phase, described by a rapidly-varying equation of state; and an adiabatic ekpyrotic phase on a slowly expanding background. Of these three, only inflation remains weakly coupled over a wide range of modes, while the other scenarios can produce at most 12 e-folds of scale invariant and gaussian modes. In this paper, we investigate how allowing the speed of sound of fluctuations to evolve in time affects this classification. While in the presence of a variable sound speed there are many more scenarios which are scale invariant at the level of the two-point function, they generically suffer from strong coupling problems similar to those in the canonical case. There is, however, an exceptional case with superlu...
Strong Coulomb Coupling in Relativistic Quantum Constraint Dynamics
Bawin, M.; Cugnon, J.; Sazdjian, H.
We study, in the framework of relativistic quantum constraint dynamics, the bound state problem of two oppositely charged spin 1/2 particles, with masses m1 and m2, in mutual electromagnetic interaction. We search for the critical value of the coupling constant α for which the bound state energy reaches the lower continuum, thus indicating the instability of the heavier particle or of the strongly coupled QED vacuum in the equal mass case. Two different choices of the electromagnetic potential are considered, corresponding to different extensions of the substitution rule into the nonperturbative region of α: (i) the Todorov potential, already introduced in the quasipotential approach and used by Crater and Van Alstine in Constraint Dynamics; (ii) a second potential (potential II), characterized by a regular behavior at short distances. For the Todorov potential we find that for m2>m1 there is always a critical value αc of α, depending on m2/m1, for which instability occurs. In the equal mass case, instability is reached at αc=1/2 with a vanishing value of the cutoff radius, generally needed for this potential at short distances. For potential II, on the other hand, we find that instability occurs only for m2>2.16 m1.
Dynamic Elasticity of a Magnetic Fluid Column in a Strong Magnetic Field
Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Shel'deshova, E. V.; Kuz'ko, A. E.; Aref'ev, I. M.
2017-07-01
The elastomagnetic parameters of a magnetic fluid kept by magnetic levitation in a tube placed horizontally in a strong magnetic field are measured, including the oscillation frequency, the ponderomotive and dynamic elasticity coefficients, the magnetization curve, and the magnetic field strength and its gradient. Results of calculations for the model of ponderomotive elasticity for the examined sample of the magnetic fluid corrected for the resistance of the moving viscous fluid are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest for a study of magnetophoresis, nanoparticle aggregations, viscosity, and their time dependences in magnetic colloids.
Canonical Transform Method for Treating Strongly Anisotropy Magnets
Cooke, J. F.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1977-01-01
An infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of magnetism in magnets with strong single-ion anisotropy is given. This approach is based on a canonical transformation of the system into one with a diagonal crystal field, an effective two-ion anisotropy, and reduced ground-state corrections....... A matrix-element matching procedure is used to obtain an explicit expression for the spin-wave energy to second order. The consequences of this theory are illustrated by an application to a simple example with planar anisotropy and an external magnetic field. A detailed comparison between the results...
Spectrum of Neutral Helium in Strong Magnetic Fields
Jones, M D; Ceperley, D M; Jones, Matthew D.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Ceperley, David M.
1998-01-01
We present extensive and accurate calculations for the excited state spectrum of spin-polarized neutral helium in a range of magnetic field strengths up to $10^{12}$ G. Of considerable interest to models of magnetic white dwarf stellar atmospheres, we also present results for the dipole strengths of the low lying transitions among these states. Our methods rely on a systematically saturated basis set approach to solving the Hartree--Fock self-consistent field equations, combined with an ``exact'' stochastic method to estimate the residual basis set truncation error and electron correlation effects. We also discuss the applicability of the adiabatic approximation to strongly magnetized multi-electron atoms.
Design of Pulsed Strong Magnetic Fields Generator and Preliminary Application
WEN Jun; QU Xue-min; WANG Xi-gang; LONG Kai-ping
2015-01-01
Objective: This paper aims to designing a pulsed strong magnetic fields generator. Methods: A large value capacitor was used to store electric energy, coil was used for producing magnetic fields, main control, circuit control charge, sampling, discharge, etc. Results: The generator provided a pulsed magnetic field with the ampli-tude of intensity from 0.1-2 T and variable time interval of pulse from 4 s-1 min. It was not only to be operated easily but also performed reliably. Conclusion:The generator will be applied in special clinical diagnosis, therapy and other fields.
Laser propagation and soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas
Feng, W.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)
2016-03-15
The propagation characteristics of various laser modes with different polarization, as well as the soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas are studied numerically through one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytically by solving the laser wave equation. PIC simulations show that the laser heating efficiency substantially depends on the magnetic field strength, the propagation modes of the laser pulse and their intensities. Generally, large amplitude laser can efficiently heat the plasma with strong magnetic field. Theoretical analyses on the linear propagation of the laser pulse in both under-dense and over-dense magnetized plasmas are well confirmed by the numerical observations. Most interestingly, it is found that a standing or moving soliton with frequency lower than the laser frequency is generated in certain magnetic field strength and laser intensity range, which can greatly enhance the laser heating efficiency. The range of magnetic field strength for the right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) soliton formation with high and low frequencies is identified by solving the soliton equations including the contribution of ion's motion and the finite temperature effects under the quasi-neutral approximation. In the limit of immobile ions, the RCP soliton tends to be peaked and stronger as the magnetic field increases, while the enhanced soliton becomes broader as the temperature increases. These findings in 1D model are well validated by 2D simulations.
Strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
Shuryak, Edward
2017-07-01
A decade ago, a brief summary of the field of the relativistic heavy ion physics could be formulated as the discovery of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, sQGP for short, a near-perfect fluid with surprisingly large entropy-density-to-viscosity ratio. Since 2010, the LHC heavy ion program added excellent new data and discoveries. Significant theoretical efforts have been made to understand these phenomena. Now there is a need to consolidate what we have learned and formulate a list of issues to be studied next. Studies of angular correlations of two and more secondaries reveal higher harmonics of flow, identified as the sound waves induced by the initial state perturbations. As in cosmology, detailed measurements and calculations of these correlations helped to make our knowledge of the explosion much more quantitative. In particular, their damping had quantified the viscosity. Other kinetic coefficients—the heavy-quark diffusion constants and the jet quenching parameters—also show enhancements near the critical point T ≈Tc. Since densities of QGP quarks and gluons strongly decrease at this point, these facts indicate large role of nonperturbative mechanisms, e.g., scattering on monopoles. New studies of the p p and p A collisions at high multiplicities reveal collective explosions similar to those in heavy ion A A collisions. These "smallest drops of the sQGP" revived debates about the initial out-of-equilibrium stage of the collisions and mechanisms of subsequent equilibration.
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
Ishii, Takaaki; Kiritsis, Elias; Rosen, Christopher
2016-11-01
Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which "real world" theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory's confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the "abrupt quench" limit.
Nonlinear Debye screening in strongly-coupled plasmas
Sarmah, D; Tessarotto, M
2006-01-01
An ubiquitous property of plasmas is the so-called Debye shielding of the electrostatic potential. Important aspects of Debye screening concern, in particular, the investigation of non-linear charge screening effects taking place in strongly-coupled plasmas, that imply a reduction of the effective charge characterizing the Debye-H\\"{u}ckel potential. These effects are particularly relevant in dusty plasmas which are characterized by high-Z particles. The investigation of the effective interactions of these particles has attracted interest in recent years especially for numerical simulations. In this work we intend to analyze the consistency of the traditional mathematical model for the Debye screening. In particular, we intend to prove that the 3D Poisson equation involved in the DH model does not admit strong solutions. For this purpose a modified model is proposed which takes into account the effect of local plasma sheath (i.e., the local domain near test particles where the plasma must be considered discre...
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
Ishii Takaaki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.
Magnetic Coupling in the Quiet Solar Atmosphere
Steiner, O
2009-01-01
Three kinds of magnetic couplings in the quiet solar atmosphere are highlighted and discussed, all fundamentally connected to the Lorentz force. First the coupling of the convecting and overshooting fluid in the surface layers of the Sun with the magnetic field. Here, the plasma motion provides the dominant force, which shapes the magnetic field and drives the surface dynamo. Progress in the understanding of the horizontal magnetic field is summarized and discussed. Second, the coupling between acoustic waves and the magnetic field, in particular the phenomenon of wave conversion and wave refraction. It is described how measurements of wave travel times in the atmosphere can provide information about the topography of the wave conversion zone, i.e., the surface of equal Alfv\\'en and sound speed. In quiet regions, this surface separates a highly dynamic magnetic field with fast moving magnetosonic waves and shocks around and above it from the more slowly evolving field of high-beta plasma below it. Third, the ...
Inverse magnetic catalysis from the properties of the QCD coupling in a magnetic field
Alejandro Ayala
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We compute the vacuum one-loop quark–gluon vertex correction at zero temperature in the presence of a magnetic field. From the vertex function we extract the effective quark–gluon coupling and show that it grows with increasing magnetic field strength. The effect is due to a subtle competition between the color charge associated to gluons and the color charge associated to quarks, the former being larger than the latter. In contrast, at high temperature the effective thermo-magnetic coupling results exclusively from the contribution of the color charge associated to quarks. This produces a decrease of the coupling with increasing field strength. We interpret the results in terms of a geometrical effect whereby the magnetic field induces, on average, a closer distance between the (electrically charged quarks and antiquarks. At high temperature, since the effective coupling is proportional only to the color charge associated to quarks, such proximity with increasing field strength makes the effective coupling decrease due to asymptotic freedom. In turn, this leads to a decreasing quark condensate. In contrast, at zero temperature both the effective strong coupling and the quark condensate increase with increasing magnetic field. This is due to the color charge associated to gluons dominating over that associated to quarks, with both having the opposite sign. Thus, the gluons induce a kind of screening of the quark color charge, in spite of the quark–antiquark proximity. We discuss the implications for the inverse magnetic catalysis phenomenon.
Inverse magnetic catalysis from the properties of the QCD coupling in a magnetic field
Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, C. A.; Hernández, L. A.; Loewe, M.; Zamora, R.
2016-08-01
We compute the vacuum one-loop quark-gluon vertex correction at zero temperature in the presence of a magnetic field. From the vertex function we extract the effective quark-gluon coupling and show that it grows with increasing magnetic field strength. The effect is due to a subtle competition between the color charge associated to gluons and the color charge associated to quarks, the former being larger than the latter. In contrast, at high temperature the effective thermo-magnetic coupling results exclusively from the contribution of the color charge associated to quarks. This produces a decrease of the coupling with increasing field strength. We interpret the results in terms of a geometrical effect whereby the magnetic field induces, on average, a closer distance between the (electrically charged) quarks and antiquarks. At high temperature, since the effective coupling is proportional only to the color charge associated to quarks, such proximity with increasing field strength makes the effective coupling decrease due to asymptotic freedom. In turn, this leads to a decreasing quark condensate. In contrast, at zero temperature both the effective strong coupling and the quark condensate increase with increasing magnetic field. This is due to the color charge associated to gluons dominating over that associated to quarks, with both having the opposite sign. Thus, the gluons induce a kind of screening of the quark color charge, in spite of the quark-antiquark proximity. We discuss the implications for the inverse magnetic catalysis phenomenon.
Inverse magnetic catalysis from the properties of the QCD coupling in a magnetic field
Ayala, Alejandro [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico); Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Dominguez, C.A. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Hernández, L.A., E-mail: HRNLUI001@myuct.ac.za [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Loewe, M. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Zamora, R. [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aeroespaciales (CIDCA), Fuerza Aérea de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Diego Portales, Casilla 298-V, Santiago (Chile)
2016-08-10
We compute the vacuum one-loop quark–gluon vertex correction at zero temperature in the presence of a magnetic field. From the vertex function we extract the effective quark–gluon coupling and show that it grows with increasing magnetic field strength. The effect is due to a subtle competition between the color charge associated to gluons and the color charge associated to quarks, the former being larger than the latter. In contrast, at high temperature the effective thermo-magnetic coupling results exclusively from the contribution of the color charge associated to quarks. This produces a decrease of the coupling with increasing field strength. We interpret the results in terms of a geometrical effect whereby the magnetic field induces, on average, a closer distance between the (electrically charged) quarks and antiquarks. At high temperature, since the effective coupling is proportional only to the color charge associated to quarks, such proximity with increasing field strength makes the effective coupling decrease due to asymptotic freedom. In turn, this leads to a decreasing quark condensate. In contrast, at zero temperature both the effective strong coupling and the quark condensate increase with increasing magnetic field. This is due to the color charge associated to gluons dominating over that associated to quarks, with both having the opposite sign. Thus, the gluons induce a kind of screening of the quark color charge, in spite of the quark–antiquark proximity. We discuss the implications for the inverse magnetic catalysis phenomenon.
Critelli, Renato; Finazzo, Stefano I; Noronha, Jorge
2016-01-01
We investigate the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Polyakov loop and heavy quark entropy in a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMD) holographic model for the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that quantitatively matches lattice data for the $(2+1)$-flavor QCD equation of state at finite magnetic field and physical quark masses. We compare the holographic EMD model results for the Polyakov loop at zero and nonzero magnetic fields and the heavy quark entropy at vanishing magnetic field with the latest lattice data available for these observables and find good agreement for temperatures $T\\gtrsim 150$ MeV and magnetic fields $eB\\lesssim 1$ GeV$^2$. Predictions for the behavior of the heavy quark entropy at nonzero magnetic fields are made that could be readily tested on the lattice.
Effects of strong magnetic fields on the population of hyperon stars
Gomes, R O; Vasconcellos, C A Z
2014-01-01
In this contribution we study the effects of strong magnetic fields on the particle population of neutron stars with hyperon degrees of freedom in their composition. The star matter is described by a multi-component model with parameterized baryon-meson interaction couplings. We study the magnetic effects on the equation of state (EoS) due to the Landau quantization, assuming a density dependent static magnetic field that reaches about $10^{19}\\,G$ in the center of the star. The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are solved in order to understand the dependence of the mass-radius relation and hyperon population on the magnetic field intensity assuming different interaction coupling schemes.
Mass-Radius Relation of Strongly Magnetized White Dwarfs
Bera, P.; Bhattacharya, D.
2017-03-01
We study the strongly magnetized white dwarf configurations in a self-consistent manner as a progenitor of the over-luminous type-Ia supernovae. We compute static equilibria of white dwarf stars containing a strong magnetic field and present the modification of the white dwarf mass-radius relation caused by the magnetic field. From a static equilibrium study, we find that a maximum white dwarf mass of about 1.9 M⊙ may be supported if the interior poloidal field is as strong as approximately 1010 T. On the other hand if the field is purely toroidal the maximum mass can be more than 5 M⊙. All these modifications are mainly from the presence of the Lorenz force. The effects of i) modification of the equation of state due to Landau quantization, ii) electrostatic interaction due to ions, iii) general relativistic calculation on the stellar structure and, iv) field geometry are also considered. These strongly magnetised configurations are sensitive to magnetic instabilities where the perturbations grow at the corresponding Alfven time scales.
Mass-radius relation of strongly magnetized white dwarfs
Bera, Prasanta; Bhattacharya, Dipankar
2016-07-01
We study the strongly magnetized white dwarf configurations in a self-consistent manner as a progenitor of the over-luminous type-Ia supernovae. We compute static equilibria of white dwarf stars containing a strong magnetic field and present the modification of white dwarf mass-radius relation caused by the magnetic field. From a static equilibrium study, we find that a maximum white dwarf mass of about 1.9 M_{⊙} may be supported if the interior poloidal field is as strong as approximately 10^{10} T. On the other hand, if the field is purely toroidal the maximum mass can be more than 5 M_⊙. All these modifications are mainly from the presence of Lorenz force. The effects of i) modification of equation of state due to Landau quantization ii) electrostatic interaction due to ions, ii) general relativistic calculation on the stellar structure and, iii) field geometry are also considered. These strongly magnetised configurations are sensitive to magnetic instabilities where the perturbations grow at the corresponding Alfven time scales.
Strong horizontal photospheric magnetic field in a surface dynamo simulation
SchÜssler, M.; Vögler, A.
2008-01-01
Context. Observations with the Hinode spectro-polarimeter have revealed strong horizontal internetwork magnetic fields in the quiet solar photosphere. Aims. We aim to interpret the observations with results from numerical simulations. Methods. Radiative MHD simulations of dynamo action by near-surfa
Confinining properties of QCD in strong magnetic backgrounds
Bonati Claudio
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Strong magnetic backgrounds are known to modify QCD properties at a nonperturbative level. We discuss recent lattice results, obtained for Nf = 2 + 1 QCD with physical quark masses, concerning in particular the modifications and the anisotropies induced at the level of the static quark-antiquark potential, both at zero and finite temperature.
Resonances of the helium atom in a strong magnetic field
Lühr, Armin Christian; Al-Hujaj, Omar-Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter
2007-01-01
We present an investigation of the resonances of a doubly excited helium atom in a strong magnetic field covering the regime B=0–100 a.u. A full-interaction approach which is based on an anisotropic Gaussian basis set of one-particle functions being nonlinearly optimized for each field strength...
Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.
1976-01-01
A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...
Spin equilibrium in strongly-magnetized accreting stars
D'Angelo, Caroline
2016-01-01
The spin rate of a strongly-magnetized accreting star is regulated by the interaction between the star's magnetic field and the accreting gas. These systems are often hypothesized to be in `spin equilibrium' with their surrounding accretion flows such that the net spin change of the star as a result of accretion is very small. This condition requires that the accretion rate changes more slowly than it takes the star to reach spin equilibrium. However, this is not true for most magnetically accreting stars, which have strongly variable accretion outbursts (by one to many orders of magnitude) on timescales much shorter than the time it would take to reach spin equilibrium. This paper examines how accretion outbursts affect the time a star takes to reach spin equilibrium and its final equilibrium spin period. I consider several different models for angular momentum loss -- where angular momentum is carried away in an outflow (the standard `propeller', centrifugally-launched outflow), where most angular momentum ...
Strong spin-lattice coupling in CrSiTe3
L. D. Casto
2015-04-01
Full Text Available CrSiTe3 has attracted recent interest as a candidate single-layer ferromagnetic semiconductor, but relatively little is known about the bulk properties of this material. Here, we report single-crystal X-ray diffraction, magnetic properties, thermal conductivity, vibrational, and optical spectroscopies and compare our findings with complementary electronic structure and lattice dynamics principles calculations. The high temperature paramagnetic phase is characterized by strong spin-lattice interactions that give rise to glassy behavior, negative thermal expansion, and an optical response that reveals that CrSiTe3 is an indirect gap semiconductor with indirect and direct band gaps at 0.4 and 1.2 eV, respectively. Measurements of the phonons across the 33 K ferromagnetic transition provide additional evidence for strong coupling between the magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom. The Si-Te stretching and Te displacement modes are sensitive to the magnetic ordering transition, a finding that we discuss in terms of the superexchange mechanism. Spin-lattice coupling constants are also extracted.
Chahid, M
2000-01-01
The aim of this paper is the investigation of the critical properties of two strongly coupled paramagnetic sublattices exhibiting a paramagnetic-ferrimagnetic transition, at some critical temperature T sub c greater than the room temperature. In order to take into account the strong fluctuations of the magnetization near the critical point, use is made of the renormalization-group (RG) techniques applied to an elaborated field model describing such a transition, which is of Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson type. The associated free energy or action is a functional of two kinds of order parameters (local magnetizations), which are scalar fields phi (cursive,open) Greek and psi relative to these sublattices. It involves quadratic and quartic terms in both fields, and a lowest-order coupling C sub o phi (cursive,open) Greek psi, where C sub o >0 stands for the coupling constant measuring the interaction between the two sublattices. We first show that the associated field theory is renormalizable at any order of the pertur...
Strong magnetoelectric and spin phonon coupling in SmFeO3/PMN-PT composite
Ahlawat, Anju; Satapathy, S.; Sathe, V. G.; Choudhary, R. J.; Gupta, P. K.
2016-08-01
We have investigated spin phonon coupling in the strain coupled magnetoelectric SmFeO3/0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) composite in the temperature range of 300-650 K by Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The SmFeO3/PMN-PT composite shows sharp rise in magnetic moment across ferroelectric transition temperature (Tc) of PMN-PT. Around this transition temperature (Tc of PMN-PT), the temperature evolution of Raman spectra of the composite also shows anomalies in the phonon frequencies and line width corresponding to the SmFeO3 phase which indicate structural modifications in the SmFeO3 phase around Tc of PMN-PT. The observed structural, magnetic, and phonon anomalies of SmFeO3 around Tc of PMN-PT in SmFeO3/PMN-PT are attributed to spin-phonon coupling providing evidence of strong strain mediated magnetoelectric effects.
Reduction of magnetic interlayer coupling in barlowite through isoelectronic substitution
Guterding, Daniel; Valentí, Roser; Jeschke, Harald O.
2016-09-01
Materials with a perfect kagome lattice structure of magnetic ions are intensively sought after, because they may exhibit exotic ground states like a quantum spin liquid phase. Barlowite is a natural mineral that features perfect kagome layers of copper ions. However, in barlowite there are also copper ions between the kagome layers, which mediate strong interkagome couplings and lead to an ordered ground state. Using ab initio density functional theory calculations we investigate whether selective isoelectronic substitution of the interlayer copper ions is feasible. After identifying several promising candidates for substitution we calculate the magnetic exchange couplings based on crystal structures predicted from first-principles calculations. We find that isoelectronic substitution with nonmagnetic ions significantly reduces the interkagome exchange coupling. As a consequence, interlayer-substituted barlowite can be described by a simple two-parameter Heisenberg Hamiltonian, for which a quantum spin liquid ground state has been predicted.
Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics
Athenodorou, Andreas; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C -J David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio
2016-01-01
Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio $R$ between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in ...
Quark Gluon Plasma: Surprises from strongly coupled QCD matter
Jacak, Barbara
2017-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics has long predicted a transition from normal hadronic matter to a phase where the quarks and gluons are no longer bound together and can move freely. Quark gluon plasma is now produced regularly in collisions of heavy nuclei at very high energy at both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the U.S. and at the LHC in Europe. Quark gluon plasma exhibits remarkable properties. Its vanishingly small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio means that it flows essentially without internal friction, making it one of the most ``perfect'' liquids known. It is also very opaque to transiting particles including heavy charm quarks, though the exact mechanism for this is not yet understood. Recent data suggest that even very small colliding systems may produce a droplet of plasma. The similarities to strongly coupled or correlated systems in ultra-cold atoms and condensed matter are striking, and have inspired novel theoretical descriptions growing out of string theory. It remains a mystery how this plasma emerges from cold, dense gluonic matter deep inside nuclei. I will discuss how a future electron-ion collider can help address this question.
T-Matrix Approach to Strongly Coupled QGP
Liu, Shuai Y. F.; Rapp, Ralf
2017-01-01
Based on a thermodynamic T-matrix approach we extract the potential V between two static charges in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) from ts to the pertinent lattice-QCD free energy. With suitable relativistic corrections we utilize this new potential to compute heavy-quark transport coefficients and compare the results to previous calculations using either F or U as potential. We then discuss a generalization of the T-matrix re-summation to a “matrix log” re-summation of t-channel diagrams for the grand partition function of the QGP in the Luttinger-Ward skeleton diagram formalism. With V as a non-perturbative driving kernel in the light-parton sector, we obtain the QGP equation of state from ts to lattice-QCD data. The resulting light-parton spectral functions are characterized by large thermal widths at small momenta, indicating the dissolution of quasi-particles in a strongly coupled QGP.
Strong coupling constant from the photon structure function
Albino, Simon; Klasen, Michael; Soeldner-Rembold, Stefan
2003-06-01
We extract the value of the strong coupling constant a, from a single-parameter pointlike fit to the photon structure function F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}} at large {xi} and Q{sup 2} and from a first five-parameter full (pointlike and hadronic) fit to the complete F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}} data set taken at PETRA, TRISTAN, and LEP. In next-to-leading order and the MS renormalization and factorization schemes, we obtain {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub z}) = 0.1183 {+-} 0.0050(exp.){sub -0.0028}{sup +0.0029}(theor.) [pointlike] and {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub z}) = 0.1198 {+-} 0.0028(exp.){sub -0.0046}{sup +0.0034}(theor.) [pointlike and hadronic]. We demonstrate that the data taken at LEP have reduced the experimental error by about a factor of two, so that a competitive determination of {alpha}{sub s} from F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}} is now possible.
Strong coupling constant from the photon structure function
Albino, S.; Klasen, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Soeldner-Rembold, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)
2002-05-01
We extract the value of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} from a single-parameter pointlike fit to the photon structure function F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}} at large x and Q{sup 2} and from a first five-parameter full (pointlike and hadronic) fit to the complete F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}} data set taken at PETRA, TRISTAN, and LEP. In next-to-leading order and the MS renormalization and factorization schemes, we obtain {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z})=0.1183{+-}0.0050(exp.){sub -0.0028}{sup +0.0029}(theor.) [pointlike] and {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z})=0.1198{+-}0.0028(exp.){sub -0.0046}{sup +0.0034}(theor.) [pointlike and hadronic]. We demonstrate that the data taken at LEP have reduced the experimental error by about a factor of two, so that a competitive determination of {alpha}{sub s} from F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}} is now possible. (orig.)
Correlation Function of Circular Wilson Loops at Strong Coupling
Dekel, Amit
2013-01-01
We study the correlation function of two circular Wilson loops at strong coupling in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, the problem maps to finding the minimal surface between two circles defined on the boundary of AdS, and the fluctuations around the classical solution in AdS_5 x S^5. At the classical level, we derive the string solution in H_3 x S^1 explicitly, and focus on properties such as stability and phase transition. Furthermore, a computation of the associated algebraic curve is given. At the quantum level, the one-loop partition function is constructed by introducing quadratic bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around the classical solution, embedded in AdS_5 x S^5. We find an analytic, formal expression for the partition function in terms of an infinite product by employing the Gel'fand-Yaglom method and supersymmetric regularization. We regulate the expression and evaluate the partition function numerically.
The strong coupling from hadronic $\\tau$ decays: a critical appraisal
Boito, Diogo; Maltman, Kim; Peris, Santiago
2016-01-01
Several different analysis methods have been developed to determine the strong coupling via finite-energy sum-rule analyses of hadronic $\\tau$ decay data. While most methods agree on the existence of the well-known ambiguity in the choice of a resummation scheme due to the slow convergence of QCD perturbation theory at the $\\tau$ mass, there is an ongoing controversy over how to deal properly with non-perturbative effects. These are small, but not negligible, and include quark-hadron "duality violations" (i.e., resonance effects) which are not described by the operator product expansion (OPE). In one approach, an attempt is made to suppress duality violations enough that they might become negligible. The number of OPE parameters to be fit, however, then exceeds the number of available sum rules, necessitating an uncontrolled OPE truncation, in which a number of higher-dimension OPE contributions in general present in QCD are set to zero by hand. In the second approach, truncation of the OPE is avoided by cons...
Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems
Jarzynski, Christopher
2017-01-01
We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E . Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton's equations in the full phase space.
Dynamical Dark Matter from Strongly-Coupled Dark Sectors
Dienes, Keith R; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks
2016-01-01
Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. Previous studies of this framework have focused on a particular class of DDM ensembles --- motivated primarily by KK towers in theories with extra dimensions --- in which the density of states scales roughly as a polynomial of mass. In this paper, by contrast, we study the properties of a different class of DDM ensembles in which the density of states grows exponentially with mass. Ensembles with this Hagedorn-like property arise naturally as the "hadrons" associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector; they also arise naturally as the gauge-neutral bulk states of Type I string theories. We study the dynamical properties of such ensembles, and demonstrate that an appropriate DDM-like balancing between decay widths and abundances can emerge naturally --- even with an ex...
Dense baryonic matter in strong coupling lattice gauge theory
Bringoltz, B
2004-01-01
We investigate the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD in the Hamiltonian formulation for systems with non-zero baryon density. In leading order the Hamiltonian looks like an antiferromagnet that is invariant under global U(N_f)xU(N_f) and local SU(N_c). Physically it describes meson dynamics with a fixed background of baryon density. We study this Hamiltonian with several baryon number distributions, and concentrate on the global symmetries of the ground state and on the properties of low lying excitations. In particular, for uniform non-zero baryon density we write the partition function as a path integral that is tractable in the limit of large N_c. We find that the ground state spontaneously breaks chiral symmetry as well as discrete lattice rotations in a way that depends on N_f and the density. The low energy excitations include type I and type II Goldstone bosons. The energies of the latter are of order 1/N_c, and are quadratic in momentum. Bosons of either type can develop anisotropic dispersion rela...
The Weibel instability in a strongly coupled plasma
Mahdavi, M., E-mail: m.mahdavi@umz.ac.ir; Khanzadeh, H. [Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, P. O. Box 47415-416, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-06-15
In this paper, the growth rate of the Weibel instability is calculated for an energetic relativistic electron beam penetrated into a strongly coupled plasma, where the collision effects of background electron-ion scattering play an important role in equations. In order to calculate the growth rate of the Weibel instability, two different models of anisotropic distribution function are used. First, the distribution of the plasma and beam electrons considered as similar forms of bi-Maxwellian distribution. Second, the distribution functions of the plasma electrons and the beam electrons follows bi-Maxwellian and delta-like distributions, respectively. The obtained results show that the collision effect decreases the growth rate in two models. When the distribution function of electrons beam is in bi-Maxwellian form, the instability growth rate is greater than where the distribution function of beam electrons is in delta-like form, because, the anisotropic temperature for bi-Maxwellian distribution function in velocity space is greater than the delta-like distribution function.
From weak to strong coupling in ABJM theory
Drukker, Nadav; Putrov, Pavel
2011-01-01
The partition function of N=6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theory (known as ABJM theory) on S^3, as well as certain Wilson loop observables, are captured by a zero dimensional super-matrix model. This super-matrix model is closely related to a matrix model describing topological Chern-Simons theory on a lens space. We explore further these recent observations and extract more exact results in ABJM theory from the matrix model. In particular we calculate the planar free energy, which matches at strong coupling the classical IIA supergravity action on AdS_4 x CP^3 and gives the correct N^{3/2} scaling for the number of degrees of freedom of the M2 brane theory. Furthermore we find contributions coming from world-sheet instanton corrections in CP^3. We also calculate non-planar corrections, both to the free energy and to the Wilson loop expectation values. This matrix model appears also in the study of topological strings on a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and an intriguing connection arises between the space...
Vertically coupled double quantum rings at zero magnetic field
Malet i Giralt, Francesc; Barranco Gómez, Manuel; Lipparini, Enrico; Mayol Sánchez, Ricardo; Pi Pericay, Martí; Climente, J. I.; Planelles, Josep
2006-01-01
Within local-spin-density functional theory, we have investigated the `dissociation' of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum ring artificial molecules at zero magnetic field as a function of inter-ring distance. In a first step, the molecules are constituted by two identical quantum rings. When the rings are quantum mechanically strongly coupled, the electronic states are substantially delocalized, and the addition energy spectra of the artificial molecule resemble thos...
Holographic description of strongly correlated electrons in external magnetic fields
Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J
2013-01-01
We study the Fermi level structure of (2+1)-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. We compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators. As expecte...
Weng, Yakui; Lin, Lingfang; Dagotto, Elbio; Dong, Shuai
2016-07-01
Although several multiferroic materials or heterostructures have been extensively studied, finding strong magnetoelectric couplings for the electric field control of the magnetization remains challenging. Here, a novel interfacial magnetoelectric coupling based on three components (ferroelectric dipole, magnetic moment, and antiferromagnetic order) is analytically formulated. As an extension of carrier-mediated magnetoelectricity, the new coupling is shown to induce an electric-magnetic hysteresis loop. Realizations employing BiFeO3 bilayers grown along the [111] axis are proposed. Without involving magnetic phase transitions, the magnetization orientation can be switched by the carrier modulation driven by the field effect, as confirmed using first-principles calculations.
Radial Oscillations of Rotating Strange Stars in Strong Magnetic Fields
Singh, S; Gupta, V K; Sen-Gupta, A; Anand, J D; Gupta, Asha
2000-01-01
In this paper we study radial oscillations of rotating strange stars in strong magnetic fields in the Density Dependent Quark Mass (DDQM) model. We see that increase of frequency i.e. difference in frequency of rotating and non-rotating stars is more for higher magnetic fields. The change is small for low mass stars but it increases with the mass of the star. This change of frequency is significant for maximum mass whereas it is marginal for a 1.4 solar mass star.
The Statics Dielectric Function and Interaction Potential In Strong Coupling With AdS/CFT
Liu, Lian; Liu, Hui
2013-01-01
In this paper, we studied the static dielectric function and interaction potential in strong coupling limit with AdS/CFT correspondence. The dielectric function is depressed compared with that in weak coupling. The interaction potential then presents a weaker screening characteristics in strong coupling, which indicates a smaller Debye mass compared with weak coupling.
Strong Ferromagnetically-Coupled Spin Valve Sensor Devices for Droplet Magnetofluidics
Gungun Lin
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We report a magnetofluidic device with integrated strong ferromagnetically-coupled and hysteresis-free spin valve sensors for dynamic monitoring of ferrofluid droplets in microfluidics. The strong ferromagnetic coupling between the free layer and the pinned layer of spin valve sensors is achieved by reducing the spacer thickness, while the hysteresis of the free layer is eliminated by the interplay between shape anisotropy and the strength of coupling. The increased ferromagnetic coupling field up to the remarkable 70 Oe, which is five-times larger than conventional solutions, brings key advantages for dynamic sensing, e.g., a larger biasing field giving rise to larger detection signals, facilitating the operation of devices without saturation of the sensors. Studies on the fundamental effects of an external magnetic field on the evolution of the shape of droplets, as enabled by the non-visual monitoring capability of the device, provides crucial information for future development of a magnetofluidic device for multiplexed assays.
Effect of parameter mismatch on the dynamics of strongly coupled self sustained oscillators
Chakrabarty, Nilaj; Jain, Aditya; Lal, Nijil; Das Gupta, Kantimay; Parmananda, Punit
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present an experimental setup and an associated mathematical model to study the synchronization of two self-sustained, strongly coupled, mechanical oscillators (metronomes). The effects of a small detuning in the internal parameters, namely, damping and frequency, have been studied. Our experimental system is a pair of spring wound mechanical metronomes; coupled by placing them on a common base, free to move along a horizontal direction. We designed a photodiode array based non-contact, non-magnetic position detection system driven by a microcontroller to record the instantaneous angular displacement of each oscillator and the small linear displacement of the base, coupling the two. In our system, the mass of the oscillating pendula forms a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, leading to strong coupling of the oscillators. We modified the internal mechanism of the spring-wound "clockwork" slightly, such that the natural frequency and the internal damping could be independently tuned. Stable synchronized and anti-synchronized states were observed as the difference in the parameters was varied in the experiments. The simulation results showed a rapid increase in the phase difference between the two oscillators beyond a certain threshold of parameter mismatch. Our simple model of the escapement mechanism did not reproduce a complete 180° out of phase state. However, the numerical simulations show that increased mismatch in parameters leads to a synchronized state with a large phase difference.
Dynamical Dark Matter from strongly-coupled dark sectors
Dienes, Keith R.; Huang, Fei; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks
2017-02-01
Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose Standard-Model decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. Previous studies of this framework have focused on a particular class of DDM ensembles—motivated primarily by Kaluza-Klein towers in theories with extra dimensions—in which the density of dark states scales roughly as a polynomial of the mass. In this paper, by contrast, we study the properties of a different class of DDM ensembles in which the density of dark states grows exponentially with mass. Ensembles with this Hagedorn-like property arise naturally as the "hadronic" resonances associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector; they also arise naturally as the gauge-neutral bulk states of Type I string theories. We study the dynamical properties of such ensembles, and demonstrate that an appropriate DDM-like balancing between decay widths and abundances can emerge naturally—even with an exponentially rising density of states. We also study the effective equations of state for such ensembles, and investigate some of the model-independent observational constraints on such ensembles that follow directly from these equations of state. In general, we find that such constraints tend to introduce correlations between various properties of these DDM ensembles such as their associated mass scales, lifetimes, and abundance distributions. For example, we find that these constraints allow DDM ensembles with energy scales ranging from the GeV scale all the way to the Planck scale, but that the total present-day cosmological abundance of the dark sector must be spread across an increasing number of different states in the ensemble as these energy scales are dialed from the Planck scale down to the GeV scale. Numerous other correlations and constraints are also discussed.
Physical Processes in Strong Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars
Harding, A K
2003-01-01
Neutron stars have inferred surface magnetic fields of up to 10^{14} Gauss, in the case of radio pulsars, and up to possibly 10^{15} Gauss, in the case of Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars. In fields this high, QED effects will profoundly change the characteristics of continuum radiation processes such as synchrotron emission and Compton scattering and will also allow the possibility of additional physical processes such as one-photon pair production, vacuum polarization and photon splitting. Atomic line processes will also be significantly affected by the presence of strong fields. I will review some of the properties of radiation processes in strong magnetic fields that are most relevant to pulsars, SGRs and AXPs and the role they play in models for these sources.
Interface-induced magnetism and strong correlation in oxide heterostructures
Stemmer, Susanne
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at interfaces between two insulating oxides have attracted significant attention because they can exhibit unique properties, such as strong electron correlations, superconductivity and magnetism. In this presentation, we will discuss the emergent properties of 2DEGs in SrTiO3 quantum wells that are interfaced with Mott insulating rare earth titanates (RTiO3) . We show that the magnetic properties of the 2DEG can be tuned to be either (incipient) ferromagnetic or (incipient) antiferromagnetic, depending on the specific RTiO3 that interfaces it. The thickness of the quantum well is a critical tuning parameter and determines the onset of magnetism, the proximity to a quantum critical point, and the onset of non-Fermi liquid behavior for those quantum wells that are in proximity to an antiferromagnetic transition. We will also discuss the role of symmetry-lowering structural transitions in the quantum well.
Magnetic Doppler Imaging of He-strong star HD 184927
Yakunin, I; Bohlender, D; Kochukhov, O; Tsymbal, V
2013-01-01
We have employed an extensive new timeseries of Stokes I and V spectra obtained with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to investigate the physical parameters, chemical abundance distributions and magnetic field topology of the slowly-rotating He-strong star HD 184927. We infer a rotation period of 9.53071+-0.00120 from H-alpha, H-beta, LSD magnetic measurements and EWs of helium lines. We used an extensive NLTE TLUSTY grid along with the SYNSPEC code to model the observed spectra and find a new value of luminosity. In this poster we present the derived physical parameters of the star and the results of Magnetic Doppler Imaging analysis of the Stokes I and V profiles. Wide wings of helium lines can be described only under the assumption of the presence of a large, very helium-rich spot.
Photon splitting in a strongly magnetized, charge-asymmetric plasma
Chistyakov M.V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The process of the photon splitting, γ → γγ, is investigated in the presence of strongly magnetized charge-asymmetric cold plasma. The dispersion properties of photons and the new polarization selection rules are obtained in such plasma. The absorption rate of the leading photon splitting channel are calculated with taking account of the photon dispersion and wave function renormalization. In addition, a comparison of the photon splitting and the Compton scattering processes is performed.
RF breakdown of 805 MHz cavities in strong magnetic fields
Bowring, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kochemirovskiy, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Leonova, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moretti, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Palmer, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Peterson, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Freemire, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lane, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Torun, Y. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Haase, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-05-03
Ionization cooling of intense muon beams requires the operation of high-gradient, normal-conducting RF structures in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We have measured the breakdown rate in several RF cavities operating at several frequencies. Cavities operating within solenoidal magnetic fields B > 0.25 T show an increased RF breakdown rate at lower gradients compared with similar operation when B = 0 T. Ultimately, this breakdown behavior limits the maximum safe operating gradient of the cavity. Beyond ionization cooling, this issue affects the design of photoinjectors and klystrons, among other applications. We have built an 805 MHz pillbox-type RF cavity to serve as an experimental testbed for this phenomenon. This cavity is designed to study the problem of RF breakdown in strong magnetic fields using various cavity materials and surface treatments, and with precise control over sources of systematic error. We present results from tests in which the cavity was run with all copper surfaces in a variety of magnetic fields.
Magnetically Coupled Impedance-Source Inverters
Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
input-to-output gain and the presence of an impedance network. The former means a high dc-link voltage, which can stress the semiconductor switches unnecessarily. The latter leads to increases in cost and size, which similarly are undesirable. To lessen these concerns, an interesting approach is to use......Z-source inverters are a new class of inverters proposed with output voltage or current buck-boost ability. Despite their general attractiveness, there are some present limitations faced by existing Z-source inverters, most of which are linked to their requirement for low modulation ratio at high...... magnetically coupled transformers or inductors to raise the gain and modulation ratio simultaneously, while reducing the number of passive components needed. A study of the approach is now presented to show how various existing magnetically coupled inverters can be derived by applying a generic methodology...
Magnetically coupled impedance-source inverters
Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
input-to-output gain, and the presence of an impedance network. The former means a high dc-link voltage, which can stress the semiconductor switches unnecessarily. The latter leads to increases in cost and size, which similarly are undesirable. To lessen these concerns, an interesting approach is to use......Z-source inverters are a new class of inverters proposed with output voltage or current buck-boost ability. Despite their general attractiveness, there are some present limitations faced by existing Z-source inverters. Most of which are linked to their requirement for low modulation ratio at high...... magnetically coupled transformers or inductors to raise the gain and modulation ratio simultaneously, while reducing the number of passive components needed. A study of the approach is now presented to show how various existing magnetically coupled inverters can be derived by applying a generic methodology...
Strong and tunable mode coupling in carbon nanotube resonators
Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Meerwaldt, Harold B.; Venstra, Warner J.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steele, Gary A.
2012-07-01
The nonlinear interaction between two mechanical resonances of the same freely suspended carbon nanotube resonator is studied. We find that, in the Coulomb-blockade regime, the nonlinear modal interaction is dominated by single-electron-tunneling processes and that the mode-coupling parameter can be tuned with the gate voltage, allowing both mode-softening and mode-stiffening behaviors. This is in striking contrast to tension-induced mode coupling in strings where the coupling parameter is positive and gives rise to a stiffening of the mode. The strength of the mode coupling in carbon nanotubes in the Coulomb-blockade regime is observed to be 6 orders of magnitude larger than the mechanical-mode coupling in micromechanical resonators.
Anomalous-Magnetic-Moment Effects in a Strongly Magnetized and Dense Medium
Ferrer, E J; Paret, D Manreza; Martínez, A Pérez
2013-01-01
We investigate the quantum corrections of the anomalous magnetic moment (AMM) for fermions in the presence of a strong magnetic field using the Ritus's approach. At strong fields the particles get different AMM's depending on the LL's. This result is different from what is obtained with the Schwinger's approximation at weak field where the AMM is independent of the LL. We analyze the significance of the AMM contribution to the Equation of State (EoS) of the magnetized system, in the weak and strong field approximations.
Munson, C P; Taylor, A J; Trainor, R J; Wood, B P; Wysocki, F J
1999-01-01
Summary form only given. Atlas is a high current (~30 MA peak, with a current risetime ~4.5 mu sec), high energy (E/sub stored/=24 MJ, E /sub load/=3-6 MJ), pulsed power facility which is being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a scheduled completion date in the year 2000. When operational, this facility will provide a platform for experiments in high pressure shocks (>20 Mbar), adiabatic compression ( rho / rho /sub 0/>5, P>10 Mbar), high magnetic fields (~2000 T), high strain and strain rates ( epsilon >200, d epsilon /dt~10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/), hydrodynamic instabilities of materials in turbulent regimes, magnetized target fusion, equation of state, and strongly coupled plasmas. For the strongly coupled plasma experiments, an auxiliary capacitor bank will be used to generate a moderate density (<0.1 solid), relatively cold (~1 eV) plasma by ohmic heating of a conducting material of interest such as titanium. This target plasma will be compressed against a central column conta...
D-brane physics. From weak to strong coupling
Vieira Lopes, Daniel Ordine
2013-01-10
In this thesis we discuss two aspects of branes relevant to high-energy phenomenology. First, we consider a single D6-brane wrapping a special Lagrangian cycle and the background space compactified in a Calabi-Yau orientifold the conditions needed to obtain a four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric theory. We calculate the bosonic part of the effective action by performing a Kaluza-Klein reduction of the brane seven-dimensional action, and obtain the N=1 characteristic data. To discuss the moduli, we first fix the moduli from deformations of the background Calabi-Yau and study the D-brane deformation moduli space. We next allow for Calabi-Yau deformations, and show that the moduli space for complex structure deformations is corrected by the fields living on the D6-brane. We also calculate the scalar potential from D- and F-terms generated from brane and background configurations that would break the supersymmetry condition. We then, via Mirror Symmetry, relate the spectrum obtained in our work to the spectrum in Type IIB effective theory with D3- D5- and D7-branes, and we propose a Kaehler potential for the moduli space of brane deformations in Type IIB theories. In the second part of the thesis we discuss effects of brane intersections when the string coupling can become strong, and we work in the framework of F-theory. After reviewing the basics of F-theory constructions and a particular SU(5) model already discussed in the literature, we construct a model which contains a point of E{sub 8} singularity, and curves of E{sub 6} singularity. By explicitly resolving the space, we show that the resolution requires the introduction of higher dimensional fibers, and argue how we can circumvent this problem for the E{sub 6} curve, leading to the expected resolution that generate an E{sub 6} group, while at the E{sub 8} point we cannot make the resolution lead to an expected E{sub 8} structure.
Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in 3D THz meta-atoms (Conference Presentation)
Paulillo, Bruno; Manceau, Jean-Michel; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund; Colombelli, Raffaele
2016-04-01
We demonstrate strong light-matter coupling at room temperature in the terahertz (THz) spectral region using 3D meta-atoms with extremely sub-wavelength volumes. Using an air-bridge fabrication scheme, we have implemented sub-wavelength 3D THz micro-resonators that rely on suspended loop antennas connected to semiconductor-filled patch cavities. We have experimentally shown that they possess the functionalities of lumped LC resonators: their frequency response can be adjusted by independently tuning the inductance associated the antenna element or the capacitance provided by the metal-semiconductor-metal cavity. Moreover, the radiation coupling and efficiency can be engineered acting on the design of the loop antenna, similarly to conventional RF antennas. Here we take advantage of this rich playground in the context of cavity electrodynamics/intersubband polaritonics. In the strong light-matter coupling regime, a cavity and a two-level system exchange energy coherently at a characteristic rate called the vacuum Rabi frequency ΩR which is dominant with respect to all other loss mechanisms involved. The signature, in the frequency domain, is the appearance of a splitting between the bare cavity and material system resonances: the new states are called upper and a lower polariton branches. So far, most experimental demonstrations of strong light-matter interaction between an intersubband transition and a deeply sub-wavelength mode in the THz or mid-infrared ranges rely on wavelength-scale or larger resonators such as photonic crystals, diffractive gratings, dielectric micro-cavities or patch cavities. Lately, planar metamaterials have been used to enhance the light-matter interaction and strongly reduce the interaction volume by engineering the electric and magnetic resonances of the individual subwavelength constituents. In this contribution we provide evidence of strong coupling between a THz intersubband transition and an extremely sub-wavelength mode (≈λ/10
Physical processes in the strong magnetic fields of accreting neutron stars
Meszaros, P.
1984-01-01
Analytical formulae are fitted to observational data on physical processes occurring in strong magnetic fields surrounding accreting neutron stars. The propagation of normal modes in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field is discussed in terms of a wave equation in Fourier space, quantum electrodynamic effects, polarization and mode ellipticity. The results are applied to calculating the Thomson scattering, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering cross-sections, which are a function of the frequency, angle and polarization of the magnetic field. Numerical procedures are explored for solving the radiative transfer equations. When applied to modeling X ray pulsars, a problem arises in the necessity to couple the magnetic angle and frequency dependence of the cross-sections with the hydrodynamic equations. The use of time-dependent averaging and approximation techniques is indicated.
Polarization in cyclotron radiation in strong magnetic fields
Luidmila Semionova; Denis Leahy; Jorge Paez
2010-01-01
We revisit the problem of radiative transitions of electrons in the presence of a strong magnetic field.We derive fully relativistic cyclotron transition rates for an arbitrary magnetic field,for any orientation of electron spin and for any polarization of the emitted radiation.Also,we obtain the transition rates for any value of the initial electron's parallel momentum.For very strong magnetic fields,transitions to the ground state predominate.Transition rates summed over the electron's spin orientation and for unpolarized radiation are also obtained,which confirm previous results by Latal.Transition widths are calculated for different electron spin orientations and different polarizations of radiation.We obtain general expressions for transition rates that reduce to the results for the non-relativistic case and for unpolarized radiation.Additionally we get,for the non-relativistic approximation,the transition rates for any polarization of radiation.As an application,the first five emission lines are evaluated and compared to the X-ray emitting neutron star V0332+53,which has multiple observable cyclotron lines,taking into account gravitational redshift.The most probable polarization is ∈(2).
Using Strong Magnetic Fields to Control Solutal Convection
Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F. W.
2003-01-01
An important component in biotechnology, particularly in the area of protein engineering and rational drug design is the knowledge of the precise three-dimensional molecular structure of proteins. The quality of structural information obtained from X-ray diffraction methods is directly dependent on the degree of perfection of the protein crystals. As a consequence, the growth of high quality macromolecular crystals for diffraction analyses has been the central focus for biochemists, biologists, and bioengineers. Macromolecular crystals are obtained from solutions that contain the crystallizing species in equilibrium with higher aggregates, ions, precipitants, other possible phases of the protein, foreign particles, the walls of the container, and a likely host of other impurities. By changing transport modes in general, i.e., reduction of convection and sedimentation, as is achieved in microgravity , we have been able to dramatically affect the movement and distribution of macromolecules in the fluid, and thus their transport, formation of crystal nuclei, and adsorption to the crystal surface. While a limited number of high quality crystals from space flights have been obtained, as the recent National Research Council (NRC) review of the NASA microgravity crystallization program pointed out, the scientific approach and research in crystallization of proteins has been mainly empirical yielding inconclusive results. We postulate that we can reduce convection in ground-based experiments and we can understand the different aspects of convection control through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients. We postulate that limited convection in a magnetic field will provide the environment for the growth of high quality crystals. The approach exploits the variation of fluid magnetic susceptibility with concentration for this purpose and the convective damping is realized by appropriately positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility
Chahid, M.; Benhamou, M. E-mail: benhamou.mabrouk@caramail.com
2000-04-01
The aim of this paper is the investigation of the critical properties of two strongly coupled paramagnetic sublattices exhibiting a paramagnetic-ferrimagnetic transition, at some critical temperature T{sub c} greater than the room temperature. In order to take into account the strong fluctuations of the magnetization near the critical point, use is made of the renormalization-group (RG) techniques applied to an elaborated field model describing such a transition, which is of Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson type. The associated free energy or action is a functional of two kinds of order parameters (local magnetizations), which are scalar fields phi (cursive,open) Greek and {psi} relative to these sublattices. It involves quadratic and quartic terms in both fields, and a lowest-order coupling C{sub o}phi (cursive,open) Greek{psi}, where C{sub o}>0 stands for the coupling constant measuring the interaction between the two sublattices. We first show that the associated field theory is renormalizable at any order of the perturbation series in the coupling constants, up to a critical dimension d{sub c}=4, and that, the corresponding counterterms have the same form as those relative to the usual phi (cursive,open) Greek{sup 4}-theory (C{sub o}=0). The existence of the renormalization theory enables us to write the RG-equations satisfied by the correlation functions. We solve these using the standard characteristics method, to get all critical properties of the system under investigation. We first determine the exact shape of the critical line in the (T,C)-plane, along which the system undergoes a phase transition. Second, we determine the scaling laws of the correlation functions, with respect to relevant parameters of the problem, namely, the wave vector q, the (renormalized) coupling C and the temperature shift T-T{sub c}. We find that these scaling laws are characterized by critical exponents, which are the same as those relative to Ising-like magnetic systems.
Neutron matter instabilities induced by strong magnetic fields
Aguirre, R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and IFLP-CCT-La Plata, CONICET (Argentina); Bauer, E., E-mail: bauer@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and IFLP-CCT-La Plata, CONICET (Argentina)
2013-04-10
We study some properties of spin-polarized neutron matter in the presence of a strong magnetic field at finite temperature. Using the Skyrme model together with the Hartree–Fock approximation we obtain an energy density functional that is employed to extract the spin polarization, the effective mass and the magnetic free energy of the system. In order to find the equilibrium state, we have analyzed different global spin configurations over a wide range of matter density (0
Meng, Kangkang; Xiao, Jiaxing; Wu, Yong; Miao, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Jianhua; Jiang, Yong
2016-02-04
The hybrid magnetoresistance (MR) behaviors in Pt/Co90Fe10/Pt, Mn1.5Ga/Pt and Mn1.5Ga/Pt/Co90Fe10/Pt multilayers have been investigated. Both planer Hall effect (PHE) and angle-dependent MR in Pt/Co90Fe10/Pt revealed the combination of spin Hall MR (SMR) and normal anisotropic MR (AMR), indicating the large contribution of strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) at the interfaces. When Pt contacted with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) metal Mn1.5Ga, the strong interfacial SOC modified the effective anomalous Hall effect. The MR in Mn1.5Ga/Pt/Co90Fe10/Pt is not a simple combination of SMR and AMR, but ascribed to the complicated domain wall scattering and strong interfacial SOC when Pt is sandwiched by the in-plane magnetized Co90Fe10 and the PMA Mn1.5Ga.
Shi, L; Rekola, H T; Martikainen, J -P; Moerland, R J; Törmä, P
2014-01-01
We study spatial coherence properties of a system composed of periodic silver nanoparticle arrays covered with a fluorescent organic molecule (DiD) film. The evolution of spatial coherence of this composite structure from the weak to the strong coupling regime is investigated by systematically varying the coupling strength between the localized DiD excitons and the collective, delocalized modes of the nanoparticle array known as surface lattice resonances. A gradual evolution of coherence from the weak to the strong coupling regime is observed, with the strong coupling features clearly visible in interference fringes. A high degree of spatial coherence is demonstrated in the strong coupling regime, even when the mode is very excitonlike (80%), in contrast to the purely localized nature of molecular excitons. We show that coherence appears in proportion to the weight of the plasmonic component of the mode throughout the weak-to-strong coupling crossover, providing evidence for the hybrid nature of the normal m...
Backward Compton Scattering in Strong Uniform Magnetic Field
Huang, W; Yan, M L; Huang, Wei; Xu, Wang; Yan, Mu-Lin
2006-01-01
In strong uniform magnetic field, the vacuum Non-Commutative Plane (NCP) caused by the lowest Landau level(LLL) effect and the QED with NCP (QED-NCP) are studied. Being similar to the theory of Quantum Hall effect, an effective filling factor $f(B)$ is introduced to character the possibility that the electrons stays on LLL. The backward Compton scattering amplitudes of QED-NCP are derived, and the differential cross sections for the process with polarized initial electrons and photons are calculated. The existing Spring-8's data has been analyzed primitively and some hints for QED-NCP effects are shown. We propose to precisely measure the differential cross sections of the backward Compton scattering in perpendicular magnetic field experimentally, which may lead to reveal the effects of QED-NCP. PACS number: 12.20.Ds; 11.10.Nx; 71.70.Di; 73.43.Fj.
Cigar-shaped quarkonia under strong magnetic field
Suzuki, Kei
2016-01-01
Heavy quarkonia in a homogeneous magnetic field are analyzed by using a potential model with constituent quarks. To obtain anisotropic wave functions and corresponding eigenvalues, the cylindrical Gaussian expansion method (CGEM) is applied, where the anisotropic wave functions are expanded by a Gaussian basis in the cylindrical coordinates. Deformation of the wave functions and the mass shifts of the S-wave quarkonia are examined for the wide range of external magnetic field. Excited quarkonia ($\\eta_c(2S)$, $\\psi(2S)$, $\\eta_b(2S,3S)$ and $\\Upsilon(2S,3S)$) show strong mixing between spin partners for particular values of the field, so that the spatial structure of the wave functions changes drastically as they cross the "resonant" points. Possible observables in heavy-ion collision experiments and future lattice QCD simulations are also discussed.
Spin-orbit coupled molecular quantum magnetism realized in inorganic solid.
Park, Sang-Youn; Do, S-H; Choi, K-Y; Kang, J-H; Jang, Dongjin; Schmidt, B; Brando, Manuel; Kim, B-H; Kim, D-H; Butch, N P; Lee, Seongsu; Park, J-H; Ji, Sungdae
2016-09-21
Molecular quantum magnetism involving an isolated spin state is of particular interest due to the characteristic quantum phenomena underlying spin qubits or molecular spintronics for quantum information devices, as demonstrated in magnetic metal-organic molecular systems, the so-called molecular magnets. Here we report the molecular quantum magnetism realized in an inorganic solid Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 with spin-orbit coupled pseudospin-½ Yb(3+) ions. The magnetization represents the magnetic quantum values of an isolated Yb4 tetrahedron with a total (pseudo)spin 0, 1 and 2. Inelastic neutron scattering results reveal that a large Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction originating from strong spin-orbit coupling of Yb 4f is a key ingredient to explain magnetic excitations of the molecular magnet states. The Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction allows a non-adiabatic quantum transition between avoided crossing energy levels, and also results in unexpected magnetic behaviours in conventional molecular magnets.
Spin–orbit coupled molecular quantum magnetism realized in inorganic solid
Park, Sang-Youn; Do, S.-H.; Choi, K.-Y.; Kang, J.-H.; Jang, Dongjin; Schmidt, B.; Brando, Manuel; Kim, B.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Butch, N. P.; Lee, Seongsu; Park, J.-H.; Ji, Sungdae
2016-01-01
Molecular quantum magnetism involving an isolated spin state is of particular interest due to the characteristic quantum phenomena underlying spin qubits or molecular spintronics for quantum information devices, as demonstrated in magnetic metal–organic molecular systems, the so-called molecular magnets. Here we report the molecular quantum magnetism realized in an inorganic solid Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 with spin–orbit coupled pseudospin-½ Yb3+ ions. The magnetization represents the magnetic quantum values of an isolated Yb4 tetrahedron with a total (pseudo)spin 0, 1 and 2. Inelastic neutron scattering results reveal that a large Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya interaction originating from strong spin–orbit coupling of Yb 4f is a key ingredient to explain magnetic excitations of the molecular magnet states. The Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya interaction allows a non-adiabatic quantum transition between avoided crossing energy levels, and also results in unexpected magnetic behaviours in conventional molecular magnets. PMID:27650796
Global ionospheric TEC response to a strong magnetic storm
2008-01-01
The global characteristics of the ionospheric storm and irregularities as well as propagation of TEC (total electron content) disturbances during the strong mag-netic storm occurring in November 2004 were investigated by using the data of the IGS network. For the response of the global ionospheric TEC to this strong mag-netic storm, the following features are noticeable: 1) the maximum of the iono-spheric storm phase occurred around the main phase maximum of the magnetic storm; 2) the TEC response in equatorial and low latitudes was more remarkable than that in mid-high latitudes; 3) as a whole, the storm phase in the northern hemisphere was mainly positive, and it was negative in the southern hemisphere; 4) during the whole magnetic storm from November 7 to 11, the locations where the maxima of the positive and negative ionospheric storm phases occurred were nearly invariant to the Sun at low and equatorial latitudes, i.e. the 24-h recurrence. Analyzing results of TEC rate and its standard deviation showed that the iono-spheric irregularities and disturbances in the global mainly occurred around the main phase maximum of the storm, and they distributed in a large longitudinal re-gion for both day and night in mid-high latitudes and they generated and developed only after the sunset, and lasted out to the midnight in equatorial and low latitudes. The disturbance propagation parameters were also estimated by using the wavelet reconstruction and cross-correlation technologies for a set of spaced stations in the Northern America.
Gofryk, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jaime, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab)
2014-12-01
Our preliminary magnetostriction measurements have already shown a strong interplay of lattice dynamic and magnetism in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states, and give unambiguous evidence of strong spin- phonon coupling in uranium dioxide. Further studies are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO_{2} in magnetic and paramagnetic states and details of the spin-phonon coupling.
Magnetic remanent states in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayers
Kiselev, N.S., E-mail: m.kyselov@ifw-dresden.d [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Roessler, U.K.; Bogdanov, A.N. [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Hellwig, O. [San Jose Research Center, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, San Jose, CA 95135 (United States)
2010-05-15
In antiferromagnetically coupled multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy unusual multidomain textures can be stabilized due to a close competition between long-range demagnetization fields and short-range interlayer exchange coupling. In particular, the formation and evolution of specific topologically stable planar defects within the antiferromagnetic ground state, i.e. wall-like structures with a ferromagnetic configuration extended over a finite width, explain configurational hysteresis phenomena recently observed in [Co/Pt(Pd)]/Ru and [Co/Pt]/NiO multilayers. Within a phenomenological theory, we have analytically derived the equilibrium sizes of these 'ferroband' defects as functions of the antiferromagnetic exchange, a bias magnetic field, and geometrical parameters of the multilayers. In the magnetic phase diagram, the existence region of the ferrobands mediates between the regions of patterns with sharp antiferromagnetic domain walls and regular arrays of ferromagnetic stripes. The theoretical results are supported by magnetic force microscopy images of the remanent states observed in [Co/Pt]/Ru.
Inflationary Magnetogenesis without the Strong Coupling Problem II
J. Z. Ferreira, Ricardo; Kumar Jain, Rajeev; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2014-01-01
Recent observational claims of magnetic fields stronger than $10^{-16}$ G in the extragalactic medium motivate a new look for their origin in the inflationary magnetogenesis models. In this work we shall review the constraints on the simplest gauge invariant model $f^2(\\phi)F_{\\mu \
Energy spectrum for a strongly correlated network and local magnetism
Li-li LIU; Qiao BI
2009-01-01
In this work, we consider a quantum strongly correlated network described by an Anderson s-d mixing model. By introducing the Green function on the projected formalism of the Schrieffer and Wolf transformation, the energy spectrum of the system can be obtained. Using this result we calculate the survivability distribution of the network and discuss the local magnetism in the network, which shows that the survivability is an important statistical characteristic quantity not just to reflect the network topological property but also dynamics.
Pair annihilation into neutrinos in strong magnetic fields.
Canuto, V.; Fassio-Canuto, L.
1973-01-01
Among the processes that are of primary importance for the thermal history of a neutron star is electron-positron annihilation into neutrinos and photoneutrinos. These processes are computed in the presence of a strong magnetic field typical of neutron stars, and the results are compared with the zero-field case. It is shown that the neutrino luminosity Q(H) is greater than Q(O) for temperatures up to T about equal to 3 x 10 to the 8th power K and densities up to 1,000,000 g/cu cm.
Strong and tunable mode coupling in carbon nanotube resonators
Castellanos Gomez, A.; Meerwaldt, H.B.; Ventra, W.J.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.
2012-01-01
The nonlinear interaction between two mechanical resonances of the same freely suspended carbon nanotube resonator is studied. We find that, in the Coulomb-blockade regime, the nonlinear modal interaction is dominated by single-electron-tunneling processes and that the mode-coupling parameter can be
Energy levels of light atoms in strong magnetic fields
Thirumalai, Anand
2014-01-01
In this review article we provide an overview of the field of atomic structure of light atoms in strong magnetic fields. There is a very rich history of this field which dates back to the very birth of quantum mechanics. At various points in the past significant discoveries in science and technology have repeatedly served to rejuvenate interest in atomic structure in strong fields, broadly speaking, resulting in three eras in the development of this field; the historical, the classical and the modern eras. The motivations for studying atomic structure have also changed significantly as time progressed. The review presents a chronological summary of the major advances that occurred during these eras and discusses new insights and impetus gained. The review is concluded with a description of the latest findings and the future prospects for one of the most remarkably cutting-edge fields of research in science today.
Stimulated scattering in strongly coupled nanolasers induced by Rabi oscillations
Marconi, Mathias; Raineri, Fabrice; Levenson, Ariel; Yacomotti, Alejandro M
2016-01-01
Two coupled-cavity systems, or "photonic dimers", are efficient test-beds for both fundamental optics -the realization of quantum correlated states, Josephson physics, and so forth-, and applications such as optical flip-flop memories. In this work we report on the first observation of nonlinear mode interaction in a photonic dimer formed by two semiconductor photonic crystal coupled nanolasers. For this, we investigate energy transfer between hybrid modes, which manifests as a switching from the blue-detuned (bonding) to the red-detuned (anti-bonding) modes. An mean-field model allows us to explain this phenomenon as stimulated scattering due to carrier population oscillations in the cavities at the Rabi frequency. Such asymmetrical mode interaction is universal in semiconductor laser photonic molecules, and unveils the origin of cross-correlation dips in the statistics of mode fluctuations.
$\\eta/s$ in a strongly coupled QFT
Mahajan, Namit
2016-01-01
We consider $O(N)$ $g\\varphi^4$ theory with the coupling $g$ being large, and calculate shear viscosity to entropy density ratio ($\\eta/s$). The final result for $\\eta/s$ has a form remarkably similar to that obtained from string theory calculations via the AdS/CFT conjecture. The method adopted can be used to compute quantities of interest in other theories as well with some modifications and reveals some very interesting features within the considered theory.
A strongly coupled anisotropic fluid from dilaton driven holography
Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Nilay; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda; Trivedi, Sandip(Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400005, India)
2015-01-01
We consider a system consisting of $5$ dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a massless scalar, the dilaton. We construct a black brane solution which arises when the dilaton satisfies linearly varying boundary conditions in the asymptotically $AdS_5$ region. The geometry of this black brane breaks rotational symmetry while preserving translational invariance and corresponds to an anisotropic phase of the system. Close to extremality, where the anisotropy is big...
Strong static-magnetic field alters operant responding by rats
Nakagawa, M.; Matsuda, Y.
1988-01-01
Forty male rats of the Wistar ST strain were trained and observed for Sidman avoidance (SA) for 7 weeks or for discriminative avoidance (DA) for 14 weeks to determine the effects of exposure to a strong static-magnetic field. Before avoidance conditioning was completed, rats in the SA group were exposed to the static field at 0.6 T, 16 h/day for 4 days during the fifth week, and those in the DA group were exposed for 6 h/day for 4 days during the seventh week. In the SA conditioning, frequency of lever-pressing by exposed rats gradually decreased during 1 week of exposure and stayed low for at least 2 weeks after exposure. Frequencies of electric shocks received by the rats increased dramatically during the second day of exposure and consistently stayed higher than those of control rats. In the DA condition, exposed rats responded at lower rates than did control rats throughout the observation period. They received more shocks during the 2 weeks following exposure. The data indicate that performance of avoidance responses was inhibited by a comparatively long exposure to a strong magnetic field.
Localized Electron Heating by Strong Guide-Field Magnetic Reconnection
Guo, Xuehan; Sugawara, Takumichi; Inomoto, Michiaki; Yamasaki, Kotaro; Ono, Yasushi; UTST Team
2015-11-01
Localized electron heating of magnetic reconnection was studied under strong guide-field (typically Bt 15Bp) using two merging spherical tokamak plasmas in Univ. Tokyo Spherical Tokamak (UTST) experiment. Our new slide-type two-dimensional Thomson scattering system documented for the first time the electron heating localized around the X-point. The region of high electron temperature, which is perpendicular to the magnetic field, was found to have a round shape with radius of 2 [cm]. Also, it was localized around the X-point and does not agree with that of energy dissipation term Et .jt . When we include a guide-field effect term Bt / (Bp + αBt) for Et .jt where α =√{ (vin2 +vout2) /v∥2 } , the energy dissipation area becomes localized around the X-point, suggesting that the electrons are accelerated by the reconnection electric field parallel to the magnetic field and thermalized around the X-point. This work was supported by JSPS A3 Foresight Program ``Innovative Tokamak Plasma Startup and Current Drive in Spherical Torus,'' a Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows 15J03758.
Brinzanik, R.; Jensen, P. J.; Bennemann, K. H.
2003-11-01
For growing inhomogeneous thin films with an island nanostructure similar to that observed in experiment we determine the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium remanent magnetization. The single-island magnetic anisotropy, the dipole coupling, and the exchange interaction between magnetic islands are taken into account within a micromagnetic model. A cluster Monte Carlo method is developed which includes coherent magnetization changes of connected islands. This causes a fast relaxation towards equilibrium for irregularly connected systems. We analyze the transition from dipole coupled islands at low coverages to a strongly connected ferromagnetic film at high coverages during film growth. For coverages below the percolation threshold the dipole interaction induces a collective magnetic order with ordering temperatures of 1 10 K for the assumed model parameters. Anisotropy causes blocking temperatures of 10 100 K and thus pronounced nonequilibrium effects. The dipole coupling leads to a somewhat slower magnetic relaxation.
Magnetization reversal dynamics in antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic recording media
Schabes, Manfred
2002-03-01
Antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) media have been shown to provide an important extension of longitudinal magnetic data storage at high bit densities.[1,2] In this work we report the results of micromagnetic calculations to examine the magnetization reversal mechanism in two-layer AFC media as a function of bottom layer thickness and interfacial exchange coupling. It is shown that the magnetization reversal in the top and bottom layers can proceed at rather different time scales, if the interfacial energy density is small or the bottom layer thickness is large. In this case the reversal of the bottom layer may involve spin wave like oscillations that require time periods for damping that are large compared to the reversal time of the top layer. Detailed solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz-Langevin[2] equations are discussed to study these novel oscillatory excitations in AFC media at a temperature of 350 K. [1] E.E. Fullerton et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.77, (2000),3806. [2] M.E. Schabes et al., IEEE Trans. Mag. MAG-37, (2001), 1432.
Exponential Decay of Correlations for the Strongly Coupled Toom Model
de Maere, Augustin
2011-01-01
We prove that, for the two-dimensional probabilistic cellular automaton of Toom in the low-noise regime, there are two classes of initial measures, each of which converges exponentially fast toward one of the two natural invariant measures. We also show that these two invariant measures have exponential decay of correlations in space and in time and are strongly mixing.
Electrical switching of antiferromagnets via strongly spin-orbit coupled materials
Li, Xi-Lai; Duan, Xiaopeng; Semenov, Yuriy G.; Kim, Ki Wook
2017-01-01
Electrically controlled ultra-fast switching of an antiferromagnet (AFM) is shown to be realizable by interfacing it with a material of strong spin-orbit coupling. The proximity interaction between the sublattice magnetic moments of a layered AFM and the spin-polarized free electrons at the interface offers an efficient way to manipulate antiferromagnetic states. A quantitative analysis, using the combination with a topological insulator as an example, demonstrates highly reliable 90° and 180° rotations of AFM magnetic states under two different mechanisms of effective torque generation at the interface. The estimated switching speed and energy requirement are in the ps and aJ ranges, respectively, which are about two-three orders of magnitude better than the ferromagnetic counterparts. The observed differences in the magnetization dynamics may explain the disparate characteristic responses. Unlike the usual precessional/chiral motions in the ferromagnets, those of the AFMs can essentially be described as a damped oscillator with a more direct path. The impact of random thermal fluctuations is also examined.
Static and Dynamic Amplification Using Strong Mechanical Coupling
Ilyas, Saad
2016-07-28
Amplifying the signal-to-noise ratio of resonant sensors is vital toward the effort to miniaturize devices into the sub-micro and nano regimes. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally, amplification through mechanically coupled microbeams. The device is composed of two identical clamped-clamped beams, made of polyimide, connected at their middle through a third beam, which acts as a mechanical coupler. Each of the clamped-clamped microbeams and the coupler are designed to be actuated separately, hence providing various possibilities of actuation and sensing. The coupled resonator is driven into resonance near its first resonance mode and its dynamic behavior is explored via frequency sweeps. The results show significant amplification in the resonator amplitude when the signal is measured at the midpoint of the coupler compared with the response of the individual uncoupled beams. The static pull-in characteristics of the resonator are also studied. It is shown that the compliant mechanical coupler can serve as a low-power radio frequency switch actuated at low voltage loads. [2016-0100
Quasiclassical Theory and Simulations of Strongly Coupled Plasmas
Ebeling, W.; Ortner, J.
1999-01-01
A survey on the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of plasmas with strong Coulomb interactions in the quasi-classical density-temperature region is given. First the basic theoretical concepts describing nonideality are discussed. The chemical picture is introduced. It is shown that the nonideal plasma subsystem of the free charges has a rather large quasi-classical regime, where the quantum effects yield only corrections to the merely classical dynamics. The plasma of free charges may b...
Chahid, M
2000-01-01
The purpose of the present work is a quantitative study of the spin time relaxation within superweak ferrimagnetic materials exhibiting a paramagnetic-ferrimagnetic transition, when the temperature is changed from an initial value T sub i to a final one T sub f very close to the critical temperature T sub c. From a magnetic point of view, the material under investigation is considered to be made of two strongly coupled paramagnetic sublattices of respective moments phi (cursive,open) Greek and psi. Calculations are made within a Landau mean-field theory, whose free energy involves, in addition to quadratic and quartic terms in both moments phi (cursive,open) Greek and psi, a lowest-order coupling - Cphi (cursive,open) Greek psi, where C<0 stands for the coupling constant measuring the interaction between the two sublattices. We first determine the time dependence of the shifts of the order parameters delta phi (cursive,open) Greek and delta psi from the equilibrium state. We find that this time dependence ...
Clean HMBC: Suppression of strong-coupling induced artifacts in HMBC spectra
Würtz, Peter; Permi, Perttu; Nielsen, Niels Chr.;
2008-01-01
A new experiment, clean HMBC, is introduced for suppression of strong-coupling induced artifacts in HMBC spectra. The culprits of these artifacts are an inherent shortcoming of low-pass J filters in the presence of strong coupling and the 1H p pulse in the middle of the evolution period aimed...... at suppressing evolution under heteronuclear J couplings and 1H chemical shifts. A p pulse causes coherence transfer in strongly coupled spin systems and, as is well known in e.g., homonuclear J spectra, this leads to peaks that would not be there in the absence of strong coupling. Similar artifacts occur...... protons, such as carbohydrates, and the new technique is demonstrated on D-mannose. Finally, a fundamental difference between HMBC and H2BC explains why strong-coupling artifacts are much less of a problem in the latter type of spectra....
Cavity-induced modifications of molecular structure in the strong coupling regime
Galego, Javier; Feist, Johannes
2015-01-01
In most theoretical descriptions of collective strong coupling of organic molecules to a cavity mode, the molecules are modeled as simple two-level systems. This picture fails to describe the rich structure provided by their internal rovibrational (nuclear) degrees of freedom. We investigate a first-principles model that fully takes into account both electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom, allowing an exploration of the phenomenon of strong coupling from an entirely new perspective. First, we demonstrate the limitations of applicability of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in strongly coupled molecule-cavity structures. For the case of two molecules, we also show how dark states, which within the two-level picture are effectively decoupled from the cavity, are indeed affected by the formation of collective strong coupling. Finally, we discuss ground-state modifications in the ultra-strong coupling regime and show that some molecular observables are affected by the collective coupling strength, while other...
A Strongly Coupled Anisotropic Fluid From Dilaton Driven Holography
Jain, Sachin; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda; Trivedi, Sandip P
2014-01-01
We consider a system consisting of $5$ dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a massless scalar, the dilaton. We construct a black brane solution which arises when the dilaton satisfies linearly varying boundary conditions in the asymptotically $AdS_5$ region. The geometry of this black brane breaks rotational symmetry while preserving translational invariance and corresponds to an anisotropic phase of the system. Close to extremality, where the anisotropy is big compared to the temperature, some components of the viscosity tensor become parametrically small compared to the entropy density. We study the quasi normal modes in considerable detail and find no instability close to extremality. We also obtain the equations for fluid mechanics for an anisotropic driven system in general, working upto first order in the derivative expansion for the stress tensor, and identify additional transport coefficients which appear in the constitutive relation. For the fluid of interest we find t...
The effects of strong magnetic fields and rotation on soliton stars at finite temperature
无
2001-01-01
We study the effects of strong magnetic fields and uniform rotation on the properties of soliton stars in Lee-Wick model when a temperature dependence is introduced into this model. We first recall the properties of the Lee-Wick model and study the properties of soliton solutions, in particular, the stability condition, in terms of the parameters of the model and in terms of the number of fermions N inside the soliton (for very large N) in the presence of strong magnetic fields and uniform rotation. We also calculate the effects of gravity on the stability properties of the soliton stars in the simple approximation of coupling the Newtonian gravitational field to the energy density inside the soliton, treating this as constant throughout. Following Cottingham and Vinh Mau, we also make an analysis at finite temperature and show the possibility of a phase transition which leads to a model with parameters similar to those considered by Lee and his colleagues but in the presence of magnetic fields and rotation. More specifically, the effects of magnetic fields and rotation on the soliton mass and transition temperature are computed explicitly. We finally study the evolution on these magnetized and rotating soliton stars with the temperature from the early universe to the present time.
Strong enhancement of magnetic anisotropy energy in alloyed nanowires
Negulyaev, Nikolay; Niebergall, Larissa; Stepanyuk, Valeri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Juarez Reyes, Lucila; Pastor, Gustavo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Kassel, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Dorantes-Davila, Jesus [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
2011-07-01
One-dimensional atomic structures (monatomic wires and chains) are believed to be likely candidates for creation of nanostructures with large atomic orbital moments and hence with giant magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) per atom. We investigate the possibility of tuning the MAE of 3d transition metal monowires alloyed with 5d elements (Ir, Pt). Our ab initio studies give clear evidence that in mixed 3d-5d atomic wires MAE is one and even two orders of magnitude more than in pure wires constructed of the corresponding 5d and 3d elements, respectively. Mechanisms responsible for the formation of such a strong MAE are revealed. The interplay between the structure of a monowire and its MAE is demonstrated. The contribution of both types of species (3d and 5d) into the MAE is discussed.
Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields
Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg
2015-04-01
Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called "elevator modes," are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.
Unavoidable strong magnetic fields in the early Universe
Wagstaff, Jacques M; Schleicher, Dominik; Sigl, Guenter
2013-01-01
In this letter we show that the Universe is already strongly magnetised at very early epochs during cosmic evolution. Our calculations are based on the efficient amplification of weak magnetic seed fields, which are unavoidably present in the early Universe, by the turbulent small-scale dynamo (SSD). We identify at least one epoch during the radiation dominated regime where all the necessities for the SSD to work are fulfilled. Hence, at scales of $l_c\\sim0.3$ pc, the comoving field strength due to this mechanism will be $B_0\\sim0.35\\varepsilon^{1/2}$ nG at the present time, where $\\varepsilon$ is the saturation efficiency.
Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields
Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg, E-mail: zikanov@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 48128-1491 Michigan (United States)
2015-04-15
Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called “elevator modes,” are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.
Strong magnetic fields in normal galaxies at high redshifts
Bernet, Martin L; Lilly, Simon J; Kronberg, Philipp P; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava
2008-01-01
The origin and growth of magnetic fields in galaxies is still something of an enigma. It is generally assumed that seed fields are amplified over time through the dynamo effect, but there are few constraints on the timescale. It has recently been demonstrated that field strengths as traced by rotation measures of distant quasars are comparable to those seen today, but it was unclear whether the high fields were in the exotic environments of the quasars themselves or distributed along the line of sight. Here we demonstrate that the quasars with strong MgII absorption lines are unambiguously associated with larger rotation measures. Since MgII absorption occurs in the haloes of normal galaxies along the sightline to the quasars, this association requires that organized fields of surprisingly high strength are associated with normal galaxies when the Universe was only about one-third of its present age.
Effects of Leakage Inductances on Magnetically Coupled Y-Source Network
Siwakoti, Yam P.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
Coupled inductors have been used with impedance-source networks, extended from the earlier Z-source network, to keep their shoot-through times short, while providing high-voltage gains. A commonly stated requirement for these networks is that their magnetic couplings must be strong or their leaka...
Radio Quiet Pulsars with Ultra-Strong Magnetic Fields
Baring, M G; Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.
1998-01-01
The notable absence of radio pulsars having measured magnetic dipole surface field strengths above $B_0\\sim 3\\times 10^{13}$ Gauss naturally raises the question of whether this forms an upper limit to pulsar magnetization. Recently there has been increasing evidence that neutron stars possessing higher dipole spin-down fields do in fact exist, including a growing list of anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) with long periods and spinning down with high period derivatives, implying surface fields of $10^{14}$--$10^{15}$ Gauss. Furthermore, the recently reported X-ray period and period derivative for the Soft Gamma-ray Repeater (SGR) source SGR1806-20 suggest a surface field around $10^{15}$ Gauss. None of these high-field pulsars have yet been detected as radio pulsars. We propose that high-field pulsars should be radio-quiet because electron-positron pair production in their magnetospheres, thought to be essential for radio emission, is efficiently suppressed in ultra-strong fields ($B_0\\gtrsim 4\\times 10^{13}$ Gau...
Mesons in strong magnetic fields: (I) General analyses
Hattori, Koichi; Su, Nan
2015-01-01
We study properties of neutral and charged mesons in strong magnetic fields |eB|>> Lambda_QCD^2 with Lambda_QCD being the QCD renormalization scale. Assuming long-range interactions, we examine magnetic-field dependences of various quantities such as the constituent quark mass, chiral condensate, meson spectra, and meson wavefunctions by analyzing the Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations. Based on the density of states obtained from these analyses, we extend the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model to investigate thermodynamics at large B. As B increases the meson energy behaves as a slowly growing function of the meson's transverse momenta, and thus a large number of meson states is accommodated in the low energy domain; the density of states at low temperature is proportional to B^2. This extended transverse phase space in the infrared regime significantly enhances the HRG pressure at finite temperature, so that the system reaches the percolation or chiral restoration regime at lower temperature compare...
Magnetic Reconnection with Strong Synchrotron Cooling in Pulsar Magnetospheres
Uzdensky, Dmitri; Spitkovsky, Anatoly
2012-10-01
The magnetosphere of a rotating pulsar naturally develops a current sheet beyond the light cylinder (LC). Magnetic reconnection in this current sheet inevitably dissipates a nontrivial fraction of the pulsar spin-down power within a few LC radii. In this presentation, a basic physical picture of reconnection in this environment is developed. It is shown that reconnection proceeds in the plasmoid-dominated regime, via an hierarchical chain of multiple secondary islands/flux ropes. The inter-plasmoid reconnection layers are subject to strong synchrotron cooling, leading to significant plasma compression. The basic parameters of these current layers --- temperature, density, and layer thickness --- are estimated in terms of the upstream magnetic field. It is argued that, after accounting for the bulk Doppler boosting, the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission mechanisms can explain the observed pulsed high-energy (GeV) and VHE (˜ 100 GeV) radiation, respectively. The motions of the secondary plasmoids may contribute to the pulsar's radio emission.
Pair Production and Annihilation in Strong Magnetic Fields
Daugherty, J. K.; Harding, A. K.
1983-01-01
Electromagnetic phenomena occurring in the presence of strong magnetic fields are currently of great interest in high-energy astrophysics. In particular, the process of pair production by single photons in the presence of fields of order 10 to the 12th power Gauss is of importance in cascade models of pulsar gamma ray emission, and may also become significant in theories of other radiation phenomena whose sources may be neutron stars (e.g., gamma ray bursts). In addition to pair production, the inverse process of pair annihilation is greatly affected by the presence of superstrong magnetic fields. The most significant departures from annihilation processes in free space are a reduction in the total rate for annihilation into two photons, a broadening of the familiar 511-keV line for annihilation at rest, and the possibility for annihilation into a single photon (which dominates the two-photon annihilation for B ( 10 the 13th power Gauss). The physics of these pair conversion processes, which is reviewed briefly, can become quite complex in the teragauss regime, and can involve calculations which are technically difficult to incorporate into models of emission mechanisms in neutron star magnetospheres. However, theoretical work, especially the case of pair annihilation, also suggests potential techniques for more direct measurements of field strengths near the stellar surface.
Anomalous electrodynamics of neutral pion matter in strong magnetic fields
Brauner, Tomáš; Kadam, Saurabh V.
2017-03-01
The ground state of quantum chromodynamics in sufficiently strong external magnetic fields and at moderate baryon chemical potential is a chiral soliton lattice (CSL) of neutral pions [1]. We investigate the interplay between the CSL structure and dynamical electromagnetic fields. Our main result is that in presence of the CSL background, the two physical photon polarizations and the neutral pion mix, giving rise to two gapped excitations and one gapless mode with a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. The nature of this mode depends on the direction of its propagation, interpolating between a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave [2] and a neutral pion surface wave, which in turn arises from the spontaneously broken translation invariance. Quite remarkably, there is a neutral-pion-like mode that remains gapped even in the chiral limit, in seeming contradiction to the Goldstone theorem. Finally, we have a first look at the effect of thermal fluctuations of the CSL, showing that even the soft nonrelativistic excitation does not lead to the Landau-Peierls instability. However, it leads to an anomalous contribution to pressure that scales with temperature and magnetic field as T 5/2( B/f π )3/2.
Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Lijun; Zhang, Tianyi; Chen, Zhenglong; Zhang, Tao
2013-12-01
This paper mainly studies the driving system of centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation, with the core being disc magnetic coupling. Structure parameters of disc magnetic coupling are related to the ability of transferring magnetic torque. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out disc magnetic coupling permanent magnet pole number (n), air gap length (L(g)), permanent magnet thickness (L(m)), permanent magnet body inside diameter (R(i)) and outside diameter (R(o)), etc. thoroughly. This paper adopts the three-dimensional static magnetic field edge element method of Ansys for numerical calculation, and analyses the relations of magnetic coupling each parameter to transmission magnetic torque. It provides a good theory basis and calculation method for further optimization of the disc magnetic coupling.
Dyson-Schwinger approach to strongly coupled theories
Popovici, Carina
2013-01-01
Although nonperturbative functional methods are often associated with low energy Quantum Chromodynamics, contemporary studies indicate that they provide reliable tools to characterize a much wider spectrum of strongly interacting many-body systems. In this review, we aim to provide a modest overview on a few notable applications of Dyson-Schwinger equations to QCD and condensed matter physics. After a short introduction, we lay out some formal considerations and proceed by addressing the confinement problem. We discuss in some detail the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, in particular the simple connection between the nonperturbative Green's functions of Yang-Mills theory and the confinement potential. Landau gauge results on the infrared Yang-Mills propagators are also briefly reviewed. We then focus on less common applications, in graphene and high-temperature superconductivity. We discuss recent developments, and present theoretical predictions that are supported by experimental findings.
Resummed mean-field inference for strongly coupled data
Jacquin, Hugo; Rançon, A.
2016-10-01
We present a resummed mean-field approximation for inferring the parameters of an Ising or a Potts model from empirical, noisy, one- and two-point correlation functions. Based on a resummation of a class of diagrams of the small correlation expansion of the log-likelihood, the method outperforms standard mean-field inference methods, even when they are regularized. The inference is stable with respect to sampling noise, contrarily to previous works based either on the small correlation expansion, on the Bethe free energy, or on the mean-field and Gaussian models. Because it is mostly analytic, its complexity is still very low, requiring an iterative algorithm to solve for N auxiliary variables, that resorts only to matrix inversions and multiplications. We test our algorithm on the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model submitted to a random external field and large random couplings, and demonstrate that even without regularization, the inference is stable across the whole phase diagram. In addition, the calculation leads to a consistent estimation of the entropy of the data and allows us to sample form the inferred distribution to obtain artificial data that are consistent with the empirical distribution.
Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling
Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea
2014-01-01
We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T4 correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 ...
Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling
Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea
2014-01-01
We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T4 correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 ...
Holographic Floquet states: (I) A strongly coupled Weyl semimetal
Hashimoto, Koji; Murata, Keiju; Oka, Takashi
2016-01-01
Floquet states can be realized in quantum systems driven by continuous time-periodic perturbations. It is known that a state known as the Floquet Weyl semimetal can be realized when free Dirac fermions are placed in a rotating electric field. What will happen if strong interaction is introduced to this system? Will the interaction wash out the characteristic features of Weyl semimetals such as the Hall response? Is there a steady state and what is its thermodynamic behavior? We answer these questions using AdS/CFT correspondence in the $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric massless QCD in a rotating electric field in the large $N_c$ limit realizing the first example of a "holographic Floquet state". In this limit, gluons not only mediate interaction, but also act as an energy reservoir and stabilize the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS). We obtain the electric current induced by a rotating electric field: In the high frequency region, the Ohm's law is satisfied, while we recover the DC nonlinear conductivity at low...
Linear Sigma Models With Strongly Coupled Phases -- One Parameter Models
Hori, Kentaro
2013-01-01
We systematically construct a class of two-dimensional $(2,2)$ supersymmetric gauged linear sigma models with phases in which a continuous subgroup of the gauge group is totally unbroken. We study some of their properties by employing a recently developed technique. The focus of the present work is on models with one K\\"ahler parameter. The models include those corresponding to Calabi-Yau threefolds, extending three examples found earlier by a few more, as well as Calabi-Yau manifolds of other dimensions and non-Calabi-Yau manifolds. The construction leads to predictions of equivalences of D-brane categories, systematically extending earlier examples. There is another type of surprise. Two distinct superconformal field theories corresponding to Calabi-Yau threefolds with different Hodge numbers, $h^{2,1}=23$ versus $h^{2,1}=59$, have exactly the same quantum K\\"ahler moduli space. The strong-weak duality plays a crucial r\\^ole in confirming this, and also is useful in the actual computation of the metric on t...
Zanotto, Simone; Bianco, Federica; Biasiol, Giorgio; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Sorba, Lucia; Colombelli, Raffaele; Tredicucci, Alessandro
2016-01-01
The ability to feed energy into a system, or - equivalently - to drive that system with an external input is a fundamental aspect of light-matter interaction. The key concept in many photonic applications is the "critical coupling" condition: at criticality, all the energy fed to the system via an input channel is dissipated within the system itself. Although this idea was crucial to enhance the efficiency of many devices, it was never considered in the context of systems operating in a non-perturbative regime. In this so-called strong coupling regime, the matter and light degrees of freedom are in fact mixed into dressed states, leading to new eigenstates called polaritons. Here we demonstrate that the strong coupling regime and the critical coupling condition can indeed coexist; in this situation, which we term strong critical coupling, all the incoming energy is converted into polaritons. A semiclassical theory - equivalently applicable to acoustics or mechanics - reveals that the strong critical coupling ...
Strong coupling of in-plane plasmon modes and their control
Kasture, Sachin; Mandal, Prasanta; Gupta, S. Dutta; Achanta, Venu Gopal
2012-01-01
We show anti-crossings due to strong in-plane coupling of plasmon modes in dielectric-metal-dielectric structure with top 2D dielectric pattern. Experimentally measured anti-crossing widths are compared with those calculated by coupled mode theory. It is shown that the coupling strength of the plasmon modes can be controlled by the orientation of the sample.
Strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows; Ecoulements diphasiques disperses fortement couples
Zun, I.; Lance, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.; Petrosyan, A.; Lecoq, N.; Anthore, R.; Bostel, F.; Feuillebois, F.; Nott, P.; Zenit, R.; Hunt, M.L.; Brennen, C.E.; Campbell, C.S.; Tong, P.; Lei, X.; Ackerson, B.J.; Asmolov, E.S.; Abade, G.; da Cunha, F.R.; Lhuillier, D.; Cartellier, A.; Ruzicka, M.C.; Drahos, J.; Thomas, N.H.; Talini, L.; Leblond, J.; Leshansky, A.M.; Lavrenteva, O.M.; Nir, A.; Teshukov, V.; Risso, F.; Ellinsen, K.; Crispel, S.; Dahlkild, A.; Vynnycky, M.; Davila, J.; Matas, J.P.; Guazelli, L.; Morris, J.; Ooms, G.; Poelma, C.; van Wijngaarden, L.; de Vries, A.; Elghobashi, S.; Huilier, D.; Peirano, E.; Minier, J.P.; Gavrilyuk, S.; Saurel, R.; Kashinsky, O.; Randin, V.; Colin, C.; Larue de Tournemine, A.; Roig, V.; Suzanne, C.; Bounhoure, C.; Brunet, Y.; Tanaka, A.T.; Noma, K.; Tsuji, Y.; Pascal-Ribot, S.; Le Gall, F.; Aliseda, A.; Hainaux, F.; Lasheras, J.; Didwania, A.; Costa, A.; Vallerin, W.; Mudde, R.F.; Van Den Akker, H.E.A.; Jaumouillie, P.; Larrarte, F.; Burgisser, A.; Bergantz, G.; Necker, F.; Hartel, C.; Kleiser, L.; Meiburg, E.; Michallet, H.; Mory, M.; Hutter, M.; Markov, A.A.; Dumoulin, F.X.; Suard, S.; Borghi, R.; Hong, M.; Hopfinger, E.; Laforgia, A.; Lawrence, C.J.; Hewitt, G.F.; Osiptsov, A.N.; Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Volkov, A.N.
2003-07-01
This document gathers the abstracts of the Euromech 421 colloquium about strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows. Behaviors specifically due to the two-phase character of the flow have been categorized as: suspensions, particle-induced agitation, microstructure and screening mechanisms; hydrodynamic interactions, dispersion and phase distribution; turbulence modulation by particles, droplets or bubbles in dense systems; collective effects in dispersed two-phase flows, clustering and phase distribution; large-scale instabilities and gravity driven dispersed flows; strongly coupled two-phase flows involving reacting flows or phase change. Topic l: suspensions particle-induced agitation microstructure and screening mechanisms hydrodynamic interactions between two very close spheres; normal stresses in sheared suspensions; a critical look at the rheological experiments of R.A. Bagnold; non-equilibrium particle configuration in sedimentation; unsteady screening of the long-range hydrodynamic interactions of settling particles; computer simulations of hydrodynamic interactions among a large collection of sedimenting poly-disperse particles; velocity fluctuations in a dilute suspension of rigid spheres sedimenting between vertical plates: the role of boundaries; screening and induced-agitation in dilute uniform bubbly flows at small and moderate particle Reynolds numbers: some experimental results. Topic 2: hydrodynamic interactions, dispersion and phase distribution: hydrodynamic interactions in a bubble array; A 'NMR scattering technique' for the determination of the structure in a dispersion of non-brownian settling particles; segregation and clustering during thermo-capillary migration of bubbles; kinetic modelling of bubbly flows; velocity fluctuations in a homogeneous dilute dispersion of high-Reynolds-number rising bubbles; an attempt to simulate screening effects at moderate particle Reynolds numbers using an hybrid formulation; modelling the two
Strong Helioseismic Constraints on Weakly-Coupled Plasmas
Nayfonov, Alan
The extraordinary accuracy of helioseismic data allows detailed theoretical studies of solar plasmas. The necessity to produce solar models matching the experimental results in accuracy imposes strong constrains on the equations of state of solar plasmas. Several discrepancies between the experimental data and models have been successfully identified as the signatures of various non-ideal phenomena. Of a particular interest are questions of the position of the energy levels and the continuum edge and of the effect of the excited states in the solar plasma. Calculations of energy level and continuum shifts, based on the Green function formalism, appeared recently in the literature. These results have been used to examine effects of the shifts on the thermodynamic quantities. A comparison with helioseismic data has shown that the calculations based on lower-level approximations, such as the static screening in the effective two-particle wave equation, agree very well with the experimental data. However, the case of full dynamic screening produces thermodynamic quantities inconsistent with observations. The study of the effect of different internal partition functions on a complete set of thermodynamic quantities has revealed the signature of the excited states in the MHD (Mihalas, Hummer, Dappen) equation of state. The presence of exited states causes a characteristic 'wiggle' in the thermodynamic quantities due to the density-dependent occupation probabilities. This effect is absent if the ACTEX (ACTivity EXpansion) equation of state is used. The wiggle has been found to be most prominent in the quantities sensitive to density. The size of this excited states effect is well within the observational power of helioseismology, and very recent inversion analyses of helioseismic data seem to indicate the presence of the wiggle in the sun. This has a potential importance for the helioseismic determination of the helium abundance of the sun.
Kudo, Kazue; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kojima, Kazuki; Yasue, Tsuneo; Akutsu, Noriko; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki; Bauer, Ernst; Koshikawa, Takanori
2013-10-02
Magnetic domains in ultrathin films form domain patterns, which strongly depend on the magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers changes with the number of layers. We provide a model to simulate the experimentally observed domain patterns. The model assumes a layer-dependent magnetic anisotropy. With the anisotropy parameter estimated from experimental data, we reproduce the magnetic domain patterns.
Zero Sound in Neutron Stars with Dense Quark Matter under Strong Magnetic Fields
Kouvaris, Chris
2009-01-01
We study a neutron star with a quark matter core under extremely strong magnetic fields. We investigate the possibility of an Urca process as a mechanism for the cooling of such a star. We found that apart from very particular cases, the Urca process cannot occur. We also study the stability of zero sound modes under the same conditions. We derive limits for the coupling constant of an effective theory, in order the zero sound to be undamped. We show that zero sound modes can help kinematically to facilitate a cooling process.
Coexistence of lasing and strong coupling in quantum-dot microlasers
Gericke, Fabian; Gartner, Paul; Holzinger, Steffen; Hopfmann, Caspar; Heindel, Tobias; Wolters, Janik; Schneider, Christian; Florian, Matthias; Jahnke, Frank; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Reitzenstein, Stephan
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the coexistence of lasing and strong coupling in a quantum-dot micropillar laser. Comprehensive experimental studies including measurements of the input-output curve, second- order photon-correlation and coherence time are used to identify the transition of a strongly coupled quantum-dot microcavity system to lasing. The experimental results are evaluated on the basis of a microscopic theory that includes contributions from detuned background emitters. Furthermore, we show that both the emission spectrum and the strong coupling condition are strongly modified at the laser threshold due to the higher-order photonic states required to reach lasing. By accounting for these states that become realized under strong pumping, we provide a closed analytic expression that describes the transition from strong to weak coupling across the threshold in agreement with both experiment and a numerical approach.
Campbell, Victoria E.; Tonelli, Monica; Cimatti, Irene; Moussy, Jean-Baptiste; Tortech, Ludovic; Dappe, Yannick J.; Rivière, Eric; Guillot, Régis; Delprat, Sophie; Mattana, Richard; Seneor, Pierre; Ohresser, Philippe; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Koprowiak, Florian; Chilkuri, Vijay Gopal; Suaud, Nicolas; Guihéry, Nathalie; Galtayries, Anouk; Miserque, Frederic; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Mallah, Talal
2016-12-01
A challenge in molecular spintronics is to control the magnetic coupling between magnetic molecules and magnetic electrodes to build efficient devices. Here we show that the nature of the magnetic ion of anchored metal complexes highly impacts the exchange coupling of the molecules with magnetic substrates. Surface anchoring alters the magnetic anisotropy of the cobalt(II)-containing complex (Co(Pyipa)2), and results in blocking of its magnetization due to the presence of a magnetic hysteresis loop. In contrast, no hysteresis loop is observed in the isostructural nickel(II)-containing complex (Ni(Pyipa)2). Through XMCD experiments and theoretical calculations we find that Co(Pyipa)2 is strongly ferromagnetically coupled to the surface, while Ni(Pyipa)2 is either not coupled or weakly antiferromagnetically coupled to the substrate. These results highlight the importance of the synergistic effect that the electronic structure of a metal ion and the organic ligands has on the exchange interaction and anisotropy occurring at the molecule-electrode interface.
Ultrathin two-dimensional superconductivity with strong spin–orbit coupling
Nam, Hyoungdo; Chen, Hua; Liu, Tijiang; Kim, Jisun; Zhang, Chendong; Yong, Jie; Lemberger, Thomas R.; Kratz, Philip A.; Kirtley, John R.; Moler, Kathryn; Adams, Philip W.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Shih, Chih-Kang
2016-01-01
We report on a study of epitaxially grown ultrathin Pb films that are only a few atoms thick and have parallel critical magnetic fields much higher than the expected limit set by the interaction of electron spins with a magnetic field, that is, the Clogston–Chandrasekhar limit. The epitaxial thin films are classified as dirty-limit superconductors because their mean-free paths, which are limited by surface scattering, are smaller than their superconducting coherence lengths. The uniformity of superconductivity in these thin films is established by comparing scanning tunneling spectroscopy, scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, double-coil mutual inductance, and magneto-transport, data that provide average superfluid rigidity on length scales covering the range from microscopic to macroscopic. We argue that the survival of superconductivity at Zeeman energies much larger than the superconducting gap can be understood only as the consequence of strong spin–orbit coupling that, together with substrate-induced inversion-symmetry breaking, produces spin splitting in the normal-state energy bands that is much larger than the superconductor’s energy gap. PMID:27601678
Non-Fermi-liquid and topological states with strong spin-orbit coupling.
Moon, Eun-Gook; Xu, Cenke; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon
2013-11-15
We argue that a class of strongly spin-orbit-coupled materials, including some pyrochlore iridates and the inverted band gap semiconductor HgTe, may be described by a minimal model consisting of the Luttinger Hamiltonian supplemented by Coulomb interactions, a problem studied by Abrikosov and collaborators. It contains twofold degenerate conduction and valence bands touching quadratically at the zone center. Using modern renormalization group methods, we update and extend Abrikosov's classic work and show that interactions induce a quantum critical non-Fermi-liquid phase, stable provided time-reversal and cubic symmetries are maintained. We determine the universal power-law exponents describing various observables in this Luttinger-Abrikosov-Beneslavskii state, which include conductivity, specific heat, nonlinear susceptibility, and the magnetic Gruneisen number. Furthermore, we determine the phase diagram in the presence of cubic and/or time-reversal symmetry breaking perturbations, which includes a topological insulator and Weyl semimetal phases. Many of these phases possess an extraordinarily large anomalous Hall effect, with the Hall conductivity scaling sublinearly with magnetization σ(xy)∼M0.51.
Ultrathin two-dimensional superconductivity with strong spin-orbit coupling.
Nam, Hyoungdo; Chen, Hua; Liu, Tijiang; Kim, Jisun; Zhang, Chendong; Yong, Jie; Lemberger, Thomas R; Kratz, Philip A; Kirtley, John R; Moler, Kathryn; Adams, Philip W; MacDonald, Allan H; Shih, Chih-Kang
2016-09-20
We report on a study of epitaxially grown ultrathin Pb films that are only a few atoms thick and have parallel critical magnetic fields much higher than the expected limit set by the interaction of electron spins with a magnetic field, that is, the Clogston-Chandrasekhar limit. The epitaxial thin films are classified as dirty-limit superconductors because their mean-free paths, which are limited by surface scattering, are smaller than their superconducting coherence lengths. The uniformity of superconductivity in these thin films is established by comparing scanning tunneling spectroscopy, scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, double-coil mutual inductance, and magneto-transport, data that provide average superfluid rigidity on length scales covering the range from microscopic to macroscopic. We argue that the survival of superconductivity at Zeeman energies much larger than the superconducting gap can be understood only as the consequence of strong spin-orbit coupling that, together with substrate-induced inversion-symmetry breaking, produces spin splitting in the normal-state energy bands that is much larger than the superconductor's energy gap.
Self-induced steps in a small Josephson junction strongly coupled to a multimode resonator
Larsen, A.; Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Mygind, Jesper
1991-01-01
of the coupling parameter. The current steps are due to subharmonic parametric excitation of the fundamental mode of the resonator loaded by the junction admittance. Using an applied magnetic field to vary the coupling parameter, we traced out half-integer steps as well as the mode steps known from more weakly...
Mechanism of hybrid-magnetic-circuit multi-couple motor
无
2000-01-01
Discusses the interval between laminations in a permanent-magnet inductor motor which makes the air-gap magnetic field produced by the permanent magnet very uneven in the axial direction, and limits the performance of a motor. Proposes a hybrid-magnetic-circuit multi-couple motor to compensate for the uneven air-gap magnetic field, thereby improving the performance of a motor.
Deep-subwavelength magnetic-coupling-dominant stereometamaterials
Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile
2015-01-01
Here, we experimentally demonstrate that a stack of metallic spiral structures (MSSs) can have dominant magnetic coupling in both of its two configurations. This allows magnetic-coupling-dominant energy transport along a one-dimensional stack of MSSs at a deep-subwavlength scale, as demonstrated with near-field transmission measurement.
Quench Protection and Magnet Supply Requirements for the MICEFocusingand Coupling Magnets
Green, Michael A.; Witte, Holger
2005-06-08
This report discusses the quench protection and power supply requirements of the MICE superconducting magnets. A section of the report discusses the quench process and how to calculate the peak voltages and hotspot temperature that result from a magnet quench. A section of the report discusses conventional quench protection methods. Thermal quench back from the magnet mandrel is also discussed. Selected quench protection methods that result in safe quenching of the MICE focusing and coupling magnets are discussed. The coupling of the MICE magnets with the other magnets in the MICE is described. The consequences of this coupling on magnet charging and quenching are discussed. Calculations of the quenching of a magnet due quench back from circulating currents induced in the magnet mandrel due to quenching of an adjacent magnet are discussed. The conclusion of this report describes how the MICE magnet channel will react when one or magnets in that channel are quenched.
程鹏; 廖代正
2001-01-01
One of the main challenges in the field of molecular materials is the design of molecular ferromagnets. General design strategy includes two steps, that is molecular magnetic engineering and crystal magnetic engineering. The first step is the synthesis of ferromagnetically coupled polymetallic systems.Tne second step is the assembly of polymetallic systems with muti-dimensional structure and exhibiting a ferromagnetic transition.This paper summarized the strategies of molecular design and crystal engineering allowed to obtain such systems and our efforts in the fields of molecular magnetism and molecular-based magnets.
Cavity piezomechanical strong coupling and frequency conversion on an aluminum nitride chip
Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X
2016-01-01
Schemes to achieve strong coupling between mechanical modes of aluminum nitride microstructures and microwave cavity modes due to the piezoelectric effect are proposed. We show that the strong coupling regime is feasible for an on-chip aluminum nitride device that is either enclosed by a three-dimensional microwave cavity or integrated with a superconducting coplanar resonator. Combining with optomechanics, the piezomechanical strong coupling permits coherent conversion between microwave and optical modes with high efficiency. Hence, the piezomechanical system will be an efficient transducer for applications in hybrid quantum systems.
A Study of Neutron Star Structure in Strong Magnetic Fields that includes Anomalous Magnetic Moments
Guang-Jun Mao; Akira Iwamoto; Zhu-Xia Li
2003-01-01
We study the effect of strong magnetic fields on the structure of neutronstar. We find that if the interior field is on the same order as the surface fieldcurrently observed, then the influences of the field on the star's mass and radius arenegligible; if the field is as large as that estimated from the scalar virial theorem,then considerable effects will be induced. The maximum mass of the star will beincreased substantially while the central density is greatly reduced. The radius ofa magnetic star can be larger by about 10% ～ 20% than a nonmagnetic star of thesame mass.
Li, Shiyong; Yee, Ho-Ung
2016-01-01
We compute the jet quenching parameter $\\hat q$ of QCD plasma in the presence of strong magnetic field in both weakly and strongly coupled regimes. In weakly coupled regime, we compute $\\hat q$ in perturbative QCD at complete leading order (that is, leading log as well as the constant under the log) in QCD coupling constant $\\alpha_s$, assuming the hierarchy of scales $\\alpha_s eB\\ll T^2\\ll eB$. We consider two cases of jet orientations with respect to the magnetic field: 1) the case of jet moving parallel to the magnetic field, 2) the case jet moving perpendicular to the magnetic field. In the former case, we find $\\hat q\\sim \\alpha_s^2 (eB)T\\log(1/\\alpha_s)$, while in the latter we have $\\hat q\\sim \\alpha_s^2 (eB)T\\log(T^2/\\alpha_seB)$. In both cases, this leading order result arises from the scatterings with thermally populated lowest Landau level quarks. In strongly coupled regime described by AdS/CFT correspondence, we find $\\hat q\\sim \\sqrt{\\lambda}(eB)T$ or $\\hat q\\sim\\sqrt{\\lambda}\\sqrt{eB}T^2$ in the...
Lin, Po-Yu; Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Wu, Sheng Yun, E-mail: sywu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China)
2015-05-07
We report the influence of the nanosized effect on the superconducting properties of bimetallic In{sub 2}Bi nanoparticles. In this study, the temperature- and applied magnetic field-dependence of the magnetization were utilized to investigate the electron-phonon coupling effect while controlling particle sizes 〈d〉 from 21(2) to 42(5) nm. As the particle size decreases, the electron-phonon constant λ{sub EP} decreases rapidly, signaling the short-range electron-phonon coupling effect which acts to confine the electrons within a smaller volume, thereby giving rise to a higher superconducting transition temperature T{sub C}. An enhanced superconducting transition was observed from the temperature dependence of magnetization, revealing a main diamagnetic Meissner state below T{sub C} ∼ 5.72(5) K for 〈d〉 = 31(1) nm In{sub 2}Bi nanoparticles. The variation of the T{sub C} is very sensitive to the particle size, which might be due to crystallinity and size uniformity of the samples. The electron-phonon coupling to low lying phonons is found to be the leading mechanism for the observed strong-coupling superconductivity in the In{sub 2}Bi system.
Modulational Instability of Gould-Trivelpiece Mode in a Strongly Magnetized Plasma
Sharma, A. K.; Salimullah, M.
2000-07-01
A large amplitude Gould-Trivelpiece (GT) mode in a strongly magnetized plasma, e.g., a beam-plasma system, is unstable to modulational instability. For a parabolic radial density profile, the eigen function of the GT mode is an associated Laguerre polynomial. The GT mode imparts an oscillatory velocity vozz to electrons parallel to the guide magnetic field Bsz and couples a low frequency perturbation to two GT mode sidebands, when the phase velocity of the former equals the group velocity of the pump. The density perturbation associated with the low-frequency mode couples with vozz to produce a nonlinear density perturbation driving the sideband GT modes. The pump and the side bands exert a low frequency parallel ponderomotive force on the electrons, driving the original perturbation. The threshold GT mode amplitude for the onset of modulation instability turns out to be such that voz is a fraction of the electron thermal speed. The nonlocal effects reduce the growth rate of the modulational instability significantly. The presence of the dust has two opposing effects on the modulational instability. First, it causes an enhancement in the parallel wave number of the pump and thus enhances the nonlinear coupling. Second, it introduces damping on the decay waves on account of collisions and dust charge fluctuations, thus weakening the instability.
Quasistatic Metamaterials: Magnetic Coupling Enhancement by Effective Space Cancellation.
Prat-Camps, Jordi; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro
2016-06-01
A novel and broadly applicable way to increase magnetic coupling between distant circuits in the quasistatic regime is introduced. It is shown how the use of magnetic metamaterials enhances the magnetic coupling between emitting and receiving coils. Results are experimentally demonstrated by measuring a boost on the efficiency of the wireless transmission of power between distant circuits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Sedimentation equilibrium of magnetic nanoparticles with strong dipole-dipole interactions
Kuznetsov, Andrey A.; Pshenichnikov, Alexander F.
2017-03-01
Langevin dynamics simulation is used to study the suspension of interacting magnetic nanoparticles (dipolar spheres) in a zero applied magnetic field and in the presence of a gravitational (centrifugal) field. A particular emphasis is placed on the equilibrium vertical distribution of particles in the infinite horizontal slab. An increase in the dipolar coupling constant λ (the ratio of dipole-dipole interaction energy to thermal energy) from zero to seven units causes an increase in the particle segregation coefficient by several orders of magnitude. The effect of anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions on the concentration profile of particles is the same as that of the isotropic van der Waals attraction modeled by the Lennard-Jones potential. In both cases, the area with a high-density gradient separating the area with high and low particle concentration is formed on the profiles. Qualitative difference between two potentials manifests itself only in the fact that in the absence of a gravitational field the dipole-dipole interactions do not lead to the "gas-liquid" phase transition: no separation of the system into weakly and highly concentrated phases is observed. At high particle concentration and at large values of λ , the orientational ordering of magnetic dipoles takes place in the system. Magnetic structure of the system strongly depends on the imposed boundary conditions. Spontaneous magnetization occurs in the infinite horizontal slab (i.e., in the rectangular cell with two-dimensional periodic boundary conditions). Replacement of the infinite slab by the finite-size hard-wall vertical cylinder leads to the formation of azimuthal (vortex-like) order. The critical values of the coupling constant corresponding to the transition into an ordered state are very close for two geometries.
Optically induced strong intermodal coupling in mechanical resonators at room temperature
Ohta, R.; Okamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, H. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Hey, R.; Friedland, K. J. [Paul-Drude-Institut fur Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)
2015-08-31
Strong parametric mode coupling in mechanical resonators is demonstrated at room temperature by using the photothermal effect in thin membrane structures. Thanks to the large stress modulation by laser irradiation, the coupling rate of the mechanical modes, defined as half of the mode splitting, reaches 2.94 kHz, which is an order of magnitude larger than electrically induced mode coupling. This large coupling rate exceeds the damping rates of the mechanical resonators and results in the strong coupling regime, which is a signature of coherent mode interaction. Room-temperature coherent mode coupling will enable us to manipulate mechanical motion at practical operation temperatures and provides a wide variety of applications of integrated mechanical systems.
Lukens, Wayne W; Magnani, Nicola; Booth, Corwin H
2012-10-01
Exchange coupling is quantified in lanthanide (Ln) single-molecule magnets (SMMs) containing a bridging N(2)(3-) radical ligand and between [Cp*(2)Yb](+) and bipy(•-) in Cp*(2)Yb(bipy), where Cp* is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and bipy is 2,2'-bipyridyl. In the case of these lanthanide SMMs, the magnitude of exchange coupling between the Ln ion and the bridging N(2)(3-), 2J, is very similar to the barrier to magnetic relaxation, U(eff). A molecular version of the Hubbard model is applied to systems in which unpaired electrons on magnetic metal ions have direct overlap with unpaired electrons residing on ligands. The Hubbard model explicitly addresses electron correlation, which is essential for understanding the magnetic behavior of these complexes. This model is applied quantitatively to Cp*(2)Yb(bipy) to explain its very strong exchange coupling, 2J = -0.11 eV (-920 cm(-1)). The model is also used to explain the presence of strong exchange coupling in Ln SMMs in which the lanthanide spins are coupled via bridging N(2)(3-) radical ligands. The results suggest that increasing the magnetic coupling in lanthanide clusters could lead to an increase in the blocking temperatures of exchange-coupled lanthanide SMMs, suggesting routes to rational design of future lanthanide SMMs.
Towards a hybrid strong/weak coupling approach to jet quenching
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna
2014-01-01
We explore a novel hybrid model containing both strong and weak coupling physics for high energy jets traversing a deconfined medium. This model is based on supplementing a perturbative DGLAP shower with strongly coupled energy loss rate. We embed this system into a realistic hydrodynamic evolution of hot QCD plasma. We confront our results with LHC data, obtaining good agreement for jet RAARAA, dijet imbalance AJAJ and fragmentation functions.
Quantum Photonic in Hybrid Cavity Systems with Strong Matter-Light Couplings
2015-08-24
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0246 Quantum Photonic in Hybrid Cavity Systems with Strong Matter-Light Couplings Hui Deng UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum Photonic in Hybrid Cavity Systems with Strong Matter-Light Couplings 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0256... photons was demonstrated in the designable microcavity structure for the first time, establishing a robust light-matter hybrid states with designable
Telling, N.D. E-mail: n.d.telling@dl.ac.uk; Jones, G.A.; Georgieva, M.T.; Grundy, P.J
2004-05-01
Using a simple phenomenological model we have studied magnetization reversal in spin-valve systems in the presence of local variations in interlayer coupling. By considering a Gaussian distribution of the coupling energy it is shown that for a sufficiently broad distribution, strongly coupled regions exist where the local magnetization in each layer reverses at the same applied field. It is also shown that the switching field distribution of a given layer depends upon its thickness. Calculated hysteresis loops are compared to experimental data from a simple trilayer system.
Nonlinear quantum optics in the (ultra)strong light-matter coupling
Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo; García-Ripoll, Juan José; Martín-Moreno, Luis; Zueco, David
2014-01-01
The propagation of $N$ photons in one dimensional waveguides coupled to $M$ qubits is discussed, both in the strong and ultrastrong qubit-waveguide coupling. Special emphasis is placed on the characterisation of the nonlinear response and its linear limit for the scattered photons as a function of $N$, $M$, qubit inter distance and light-matter coupling. The quantum evolution is numerically solved via the Matrix Product States technique. Both the time evolution for the field and qubits is com...
Controlling Strong Chaos by Adaptive Coupling Method in the Perturbed Cat Map
许海波; 王光瑞; 陈式刚
2001-01-01
The method for controlling Hamiltonian chaos by adaptive integrable mode coupling is extended to controlling strong chaos by adaptive integrable and near-integrable mode coupling. We illustrate this method with a highly chaotic system, the perturbed cat map. All orbits can be effectively controlled to the periodic or quasiperiodic orbits. The method is robust against the presence of weak external noise.
Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren
2016-04-26
Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.
Negative tunneling magneto-resistance in quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling
Han, Seungju; Serra, Llorenç; Choi, Mahn-Soo
2015-06-01
We consider a two-dimensional magnetic tunnel junction of the FM/I/QW(FM+SO)/I/N structure, where FM, I and QW(FM+SO) stand for a ferromagnet, an insulator and a quantum wire with both magnetic ordering and Rashba spin-orbit (SOC), respectively. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) exhibits strong anisotropy and switches sign as the polarization direction varies relative to the quantum-wire axis, due to interplay among the one-dimensionality, the magnetic ordering, and the strong SOC of the quantum wire.
Electrical transport through a single-electron transistor strongly coupled to an oscillator
Doiron, C. B.; Belzig, W.; Bruder, C.
2006-11-01
We investigate electrical transport through a single-electron transistor coupled to a nanomechanical oscillator. Using a combination of a master-equation approach and a numerical Monte Carlo method, we calculate the average current and the current noise in the strong-coupling regime, studying deviations from previously derived analytic results valid in the limit of weak coupling. After generalizing the weak-coupling theory to enable the calculation of higher cumulants of the current, we use our numerical approach to study how the third cumulant is affected in the strong-coupling regime. In this case, we find an interesting crossover between a weak-coupling transport regime where the third cumulant heavily depends on the frequency of the oscillator to one where it becomes practically independent of this parameter. Finally, we study the spectrum of the transport noise and show that the two peaks found in the weak-coupling limit merge on increasing the coupling strength. Our calculation of the frequency dependence of the noise also allows one to describe how transport-induced damping of the mechanical oscillations is affected in the strong-coupling regime.
Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field
Abuki Hiroaki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a “continent” of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.
Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field
Abuki, H
2016-01-01
We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it totally washes the tricritical point out of the phase diagram, bringing the continent for the chiral spiral. This is the case no matter how small is the intensity of the magnetic field. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.
Chahid, M.; Benhamou, M. E-mail: benhamou.mabrouk@caramail.com
2000-08-01
The purpose of the present work is a quantitative study of the spin time relaxation within superweak ferrimagnetic materials exhibiting a paramagnetic-ferrimagnetic transition, when the temperature is changed from an initial value T{sub i} to a final one T{sub f} very close to the critical temperature T{sub c}. From a magnetic point of view, the material under investigation is considered to be made of two strongly coupled paramagnetic sublattices of respective moments phi (cursive,open) Greek and {psi}. Calculations are made within a Landau mean-field theory, whose free energy involves, in addition to quadratic and quartic terms in both moments phi (cursive,open) Greek and {psi}, a lowest-order coupling - Cphi (cursive,open) Greek{psi}, where C<0 stands for the coupling constant measuring the interaction between the two sublattices. We first determine the time dependence of the shifts of the order parameters {delta}phi (cursive,open) Greek and {delta}{psi} from the equilibrium state. We find that this time dependence is completely controlled by two kinds of relaxation times {tau}{sub 1} and {tau}{sub 2}. The former is a long time and the second a short one, and they are associated, respectively, with long and local wavelength fluctuations. We find that, only the first relaxation time is relevant for physics, since it drives the system to undergo a phase transition. Spatial fluctuations are also taken into account. In this case, we find an explicit expression of the relaxation times, which are functions of temperature T, coupling constant C and wave vector q. We find that the critical mode is that given by the zero scattering-angle limit, i.e. q=0. Finally, we emphasize that the appearance of these two relaxation times is in good agreement with results reported in recent experimental work dealt with the Curie-Weiss paramagnet compound Li{sub x}Ni{sub 2-x}O{sub 2}, where the composition x is very close to 1.
Strong three-meson couplings of $J/\\psi$ and $\\eta_c$
Lucha, Wolfgang; Sazdjian, Hagop; Simula, Silvano
2016-01-01
We discuss the strong couplings $g_{PPV}$ and $g_{VVP}$ for vector ($V$) and pseudoscalar ($P$) mesons, at least one of which is a charmonium state $J/\\psi$ or $\\eta_c$. The strong couplings are obtained as residues at the poles of suitable form factors, calculated in a broad range of momentum transfers by a relativistic dispersion approach relying on the constituent quark picture. The spectral representations for the couplings under discussion satisfy all constraints known for these quantities in the heavy-quark limit. Our results suggest sizeably higher values than those reported in the literature from QCD sum rules.
Strong coupling constant of negative parity nucleon with $\\pi$ meson in light cone QCD sum rules
Aliev, T M; Savcı, M
2016-01-01
We estimate strong coupling constant between the negative parity nucleons with $\\pi$ meson within the light cone QCD sum rules. A method for eliminating the unwanted contributions coming from the nucleon--nucleon and nucleon--negative parity nucleon transition is presented. It is observed that the value strong coupling constant of the negative parity nucleon $N^\\ast N^\\ast \\pi$ transition is considerably different from the one predicted by the 3--point QCD sum rules, but is quite close to the coupling constant of the positive parity $N N \\pi$ transition.
Spatial Transport of Magnetic Flux Surfaces in Strongly Anisotropic Turbulence
Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Oughton, S.
2013-12-01
Magnetic flux surfaces afford familiar descriptions of spatial structure, dynamics, and connectivity of magnetic fields, with particular relevance in contexts such as solar coronal flux tubes, magnetic field connectivity in the interplanetary and interstellar medium, as well as in laboratory plasmas and dynamo problems [1-4]. Typical models assume that field-lines are orderly, and flux tubes remain identifiable over macroscopic distances; however, a previous study has shown that flux tubes shred in the presence of fluctuations, typically losing identity after several correlation scales [5]. Here, the structure of magnetic flux surfaces is numerically investigated in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model of homogeneous turbulence. Short and long-wavelength behavior is studied statistically by propagating magnetic surfaces along the mean field. At small scales magnetic surfaces become complex, experiencing an exponential thinning. At large scales, instead, the magnetic flux undergoes a diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established by means of a multiple scale analysis. Both large and small scales limits are controlled by the Kubo number. These results have consequences for understanding and interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in plasmas [6]. [1] E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1979). [2] J. R. Jokipii and E. N. Parker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 44 (1968). [3] R. Bruno et al., Planet. Space Sci. 49, 1201 (2001). [4] M. N. Rosenbluth et al., Nuclear Fusion 6, 297 (1966). [5] W. H. Matthaeus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2136 (1995). [6] S. Servidio et al., submitted (2013).
Zanotto, Simone
2015-01-01
In this article we discuss a model describing key features concerning the lineshapes and the coherent absorption conditions in Fano-resonant dissipative coupled oscillators. The model treats on the same footing the weak and strong coupling regimes, and includes the critical coupling concept, which is of great relevance in numerous applications; in addition, the role of asymmetry is thoroughly analyzed. Due to the wide generality of the model, which can be adapted to various frameworks like nanophotonics, plasmonics, and optomechanics, we envisage that the analytical formulas presented here will be crucial to effectively design devices and to interpret experimental results.
Improving the calculation of magnetic coupling constants in MRPT methods.
Spivak, Mariano; Angeli, Celestino; Calzado, Carmen J; de Graaf, Coen
2014-09-05
The magnetic coupling in transition metal compounds with more than one unpaired electron per magnetic center has been studied with multiconfigurational perturbation theory. The usual shortcomings of these methodologies (severe underestimation of the magnetic coupling) have been overcome by describing the Slater determinants with a set of molecular orbitals that maximally resemble the natural orbitals of a high-level multiconfigurational reference configuration interaction calculation. These orbitals have significant delocalization tails onto the bridging ligands and largely increase the coupling strengths in the perturbative calculation.
Implementation of Liouville space search algorithm on strongly dipolar coupled nuclear spins
Gopinath, T
2009-01-01
Liouville space search algorithm [Bruschweiler, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 85}, 4815(2000).] utilizes mixed initial states of the ensemble, and has been successfully implemented earlier in weakly coupled spins, in which a spin can be identified as a qubit. It has recently been demonstrated that n-strongly coupled spins can be collectively treated as an n-qubit system. Application of algorithms in such systems, requires new approaches using transition selective pulses rather than qubit selective pulses. This work develops a modified version of Liouville space search algorithm, which is applicable for strongly as well as weakly coupled spins. All the steps of the algorithm, can be implemented by using transition selective pulses. Experimental implementation is carried out on a strongly dipolar coupled four qubit system.
Strong coupling of two interacting excitons confined in a nanocavity-quantum dot system
Cardenas, Paulo C; RodrIguez, Boris A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 MedellIn (Colombia); Quesada, Nicolas [McLennan Physical Laboratories, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Vinck-Posada, Herbert, E-mail: pcardenas@fisica.udea.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia)
2011-07-06
We present a study of the strong coupling between radiation and matter, considering a system of two quantum dots, which are in mutual interaction and interact with a single mode of light confined in a semiconductor nanocavity. We take into account dissipative mechanisms such as the escape of the cavity photons, decay of the quantum dot excitons by spontaneous emission, and independent exciton pumping. It is shown that the mutual interaction between the dots can be measured off-resonance only if the strong coupling condition is reached. Using the quantum regression theorem, a reasonable definition of the dynamical coupling regimes is introduced in terms of the complex Rabi frequency. Finally, the emission spectrum for relevant conditions is presented and compared with the above definition, demonstrating that the interaction between the excitons does not affect the strong coupling.
Titratable Macroions in Multivalent Electrolyte Solutions: Strong Coupling Dressed Ion Approach
Adzic, Natasa
2016-01-01
We present a theoretical description of the effect of polyvalent ions on the interaction between titratable macro-ions. The model system consists of two point-like macro-ions with dissociable sites, immersed in an asymmetric ionic mixture of monovalent and polyvalent salts. We formulate a {\\em dressed ion strong coupling theory}, based on the decomposition of the asymmetric ionic mixture into a weakly electrostatically coupled monovalent salt, and into polyvalent ions that are strongly electrostatically coupled to the titratable macro-ions. The charge of the macroions is not considered as fixed, but is allowed to respond to local bathing solution parameters (electrostatic potential, $pH$ of the solution, salt concentration) through a simple {\\em charge regulation} model. The approach presented, yielding an effective polyvalent-ion mediated interaction between charge-regulated macro-ions at various solution conditions, describes the strong coupling equivalent of the Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction.
Principal modes in multimode fibers: exploring the crossover from weak to strong mode coupling
Xiong, Wen; Bromberg, Yaron; Redding, Brandon; Rotter, Stefan; Cao, Hui
2016-01-01
We present experimental and numerical studies on principal modes in a multimode fiber with mode coupling. By applying external stress to the fiber and gradually adjusting the stress, we have realized a transition from weak to strong mode coupling, which corresponds to the transition from single scattering to multiple scattering in mode space. Our experiments show that principal modes have distinct spatial and spectral characteristic in the weak and strong mode coupling regimes. We also investigate the bandwidth of the principal modes, in particular, the dependence of the bandwidth on the delay time, and the effects of the mode-dependent loss. By analyzing the path-length distributions, we discover two distinct mechanisms that are responsible for the bandwidth of principal modes in weak and strong mode coupling regimes. Taking into account the mode-dependent loss in the fiber, our numerical results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. Our study paves the way for exploring potential applica...
Regge meets collinear in strongly-coupled $\\mathcal{N} = 4$ super Yang-Mills
Sprenger, Martin
2016-01-01
We revisit the calculation of the six-gluon remainder function in planar $\\mathcal{N} = 4$ super Yang-Mills theory from the strong coupling TBA in the multi-Regge limit and identify an infinite set of kinematically subleading terms. These new terms can be compared to the strong coupling limit of the finite-coupling expressions for the impact factor and the BFKL eigenvalue proposed by Basso et al. in arXiv:1407.3766, which were obtained from an analytic continuation of the Wilson loop OPE. After comparing the results order by order in those subleading terms, we show that it is possible to precisely map both formalisms onto each other. A similar calculation can be carried out for the seven-gluon amplitude, the result of which shows that the central emission vertex does not become trivial at strong coupling.
Strong-Coupling Lattice QCD on Anisotropic Lattices arXiv
de Forcrand, Philippe; Vairinhos, Helvio
Anisotropic lattice spacings are mandatory to reach the high temperatures where chiral symmetry is restored in the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD. Here, we propose a simple criterion for the nonperturbative renormalisation of the anisotropy coupling $\\gamma$ in strongly-coupled SU($N$) or U($N$) lattice QCD with massless staggered fermions. We then compute the renormalised anisotropy $\\xi(\\gamma)$, and the strong-coupling analogue of Karsch's coefficients (the running anisotropy), for $N=3$. We achieve high precision by combining diagrammatic Monte Carlo and multi-histogram reweighting techniques. We observe that the mean field prediction in the continuous time limit captures the nonperturbative scaling, but receives a large, previously neglected correction on the unit prefactor. Using our nonperturbative prescription in place of the mean field result, we observe large corrections of the same magnitude to the continuous time limit of the static baryon mass, and of the location of the phase boundary asso...
Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen
2000-01-01
The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance.......3(-0.8)(+1.0) x 10(-10) s for a rotation of the sublattice magnetization directions in the rhombohedral (111) plane. The corresponding median superparamagnetic blocking temperature is about 150 K. The dynamics of the second, dry sample, in which the particles are uncoated and thus allowed to aggregate, is slowed...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...
Phase equilibrium between ferromagnetic hydrides in strong magnetic fields
Yamamoto, I.; Yamaguchi, M. (Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Goto, T.; Sakakibara, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Solid State Physics)
1989-01-01
The equilibrium hydrogen pressures of the ferromagnetic SmCo{sub 5}H{sub x} and LaCo{sub 5}H{sub x} systems have been observed under the influence of magnetic fields up to 7T with a superconducting magnet and up to 14T with a Bitter-type electromagnet. Magnetic fields cause considerable rises in the equilibrium pressure. The logarithmic pressure change, In(P{sub 0}h/P{sub O}), is proportional to the magnitude of the field. The equilibrium constant of the LaCo{sub 5}H{sub x} system changes 21% by the applied field of 14T. The results can be explained by a thermodynamic theory with the aid of magnetic data. (orig.).
Magnetization damping in noncollinear spin valves with antiferromagnetic interlayer couplings
Chiba, Takahiro; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Takahashi, Saburo
2015-08-01
We study the magnetic damping in the simplest of synthetic antiferromagnets, i.e., antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled spin valves, in the presence of applied magnetic fields that enforce noncolliear magnetic configurations. We formulate the dynamic exchange of spin currents in a noncollinear texture based on the spin-diffusion theory with quantum mechanical boundary conditions at the ferrromagnet/normal-metal interfaces and derive the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations coupled by the interlayer static and dynamic exchange interactions. We predict noncollinearity-induced additional damping that is modulated by an applied magnetic field. We compare theoretical results with published experiments.
Electric and magnetic dipole couplings in split ring resonator metamaterials
Fan Jing; Sun Guang-Yong; and Zhu Wei-Ren
2011-01-01
In this paper,the electric and the magnetic dipole couplings between the outer and the inner rings of a single split ring resonator (SRR) are investigated.We numerically demonstrate that the magnetic resonance frequency can be substantially modified by changing the couplings of the electric and magnetic dipoles,and give a theoretical expression of the magnetic resonance frequency.The results in this work are expected to be conducive to a deeper understanding of the SRR and other similar metamaterials,and provide new guidance for complex metamaterials design with a tailored electromagnetic response.
Coupled perpendicular magnetization in Fe/Cu/Fe trilayers
Repetto, D. [Max Planck Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: D.Repetto@fkf.mpg.de; Enders, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, K. [Max Planck Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
2006-05-15
Ultrathin epitaxial Fe films on Cu(1 0 0) with perpendicular magnetization have been used as templates for the preparation of FCC Fe/Cu/Fe trilayers. The magnetic anisotropy and the coupling of these films have been studied by in-situ magneto optical Kerr effect measurements and Kerr microscopy. The magnetic coupling of both Fe layers is found to be dominated by magnetostatic interaction. Adsorbate-induced spin reorientation in the top layer also causes spin reorientation in the bottom layer. The governing role of the Fe-vacuum interface for the magnetism of the whole trilayer is demonstrated.
The Evolution of Meson Masses in a Strong Magnetic Field
Andreichikov, M A; Luschevskaya, E V; Simonov, Yu A; Solovjeva, O E
2016-01-01
Spectra of $q \\bar{q}$ hadrons are investigated in the framework of the Hamiltonian obtained from the relativistic path integral in external homogeneous magnetic field. The spectra of all 12 spin-isospin s-wave states, generated by $\\pi$ and $\\rho$ mesons with different spin projections, are studied both analytically and numerically on the lattice as functions of (magnetic field) $eB$. Results are in agreement and demonstrate three types of behavior, with characteristic splittings predicted by the theory.
The Physics and Technology of Strong Magnetic Fields (Chapter 10),
2014-09-26
capacitor bank was discharged. The solenoid was placed into a metal tube, which was equipped with a radial slot and an explosive surrounded by a ring...1) "Trap" of magnetic field; 2) Ring of explosive; 3) De- L_ l tonator; 4) Trigger; 5) Capacitor Iw bank . 3 ,. .,.’ . - *-’-- The strength of the...and the other, outside it. The initial magnetic field was monitored according to the magnitude of the discharge current of the capacitor bank ; a test
Sodium atom in strong magnetic fields：a pseudospectral approach
ZouYuan-Chuan; ZhangZhan-Jun; QiaoHao-Xue
2003-01-01
Energies and wavefunctions of low-lying states and Rydberg states for the sodium atom in uniform magnetic fields varying from 0 to 105T are calculated using a pseudospectral approach with a model potential in spherical coordinates. The energies are comparable with experimental results as well as those obtained by other calculations. The spectra of oscillator strength are worked out. The evolution of them with the magnetic field is shown.
Sodium atom in strong magnetic fields: a pseudospectral approach
邹远川; 张战军; 乔豪学
2003-01-01
Energies and wavefunctions of low-lying states and Rydberg states for the sodium atom in uniform magnetic fields varying from 0 to 105T are calculated using a pseudospectral approach with a model potential in spherical coordinates.The energies are comparable with experimental results as well as those obtained by other calculations. The spectra of oscillator strength are worked out. The evolution of them with the magnetic field is shown.
Strong dipole magnetic fields in fast rotating fully convective stars
Shulyak, D.; Reiners, A.; Engeln, A.; Malo, L.; Yadav, R.; Morin, J.; Kochukhov, O.
2017-08-01
M dwarfs are the most numerous stars in our Galaxy, with masses between approximately 0.5 and 0.1 solar masses. Many of them show surface activity qualitatively similar to our Sun and generate flares, high X-ray fluxes and large-scale magnetic fields1,2,3,4. Such activity is driven by a dynamo powered by the convective motions in their interiors2,5,6,7,8. Understanding properties of stellar magnetic fields in these stars finds a broad application in astrophysics, including theory of stellar dynamos and environment conditions around planets that may be orbiting these stars. Most stars with convective envelopes follow a rotation-activity relationship where various activity indicators saturate in stars with rotation periods shorter than a few days2,6,8. The activity gradually declines with rotation rate in stars rotating more slowly. It is thought that, due to a tight empirical correlation between X-ray radiance and magnetic flux9, the stellar magnetic fields will also saturate, to values around 4 kG (ref. 10). Here we report the detection of magnetic fields above the presumed saturation limit in four fully convective M dwarfs. By combining results from spectroscopic and polarimetric studies, we explain our findings in terms of bistable dynamo models11,12: stars with the strongest magnetic fields are those in a dipole dynamo state, whereas stars in a multipole state cannot generate fields stronger than about 4 kG. Our study provides observational evidence that the dynamo in fully convective M dwarfs generates magnetic fields that can differ not only in the geometry of their large-scale component, but also in the total magnetic energy.
Strong and Coherent Coupling of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle to a Subwavelength Fabry-Pérot Resonator.
Konrad, Alexander; Kern, Andreas M; Brecht, Marc; Meixner, Alfred J
2015-07-08
A major aim in experimental nano- and quantum optics is observing and controlling the interaction between light and matter on a microscopic scale. Coupling molecules or atoms to optical microresonators is a prominent method to alter their optical properties such as luminescence spectra or lifetimes. Until today strong coupling of optical resonators to such objects has only been observed with atom-like systems in high quality resonators. We demonstrate first experiments revealing strong coupling between individual plasmonic gold nanorods (GNR) and a tunable low quality resonator by observing cavity-length-dependent nonlinear dephasing and spectral shifts indicating spectral anticrossing of the luminescent coupled system. These phenomena and experimental results can be described by a model of two coupled oscillators representing the plasmon resonance of the GNR and the optical fields of the resonator. The presented reproducible and accurately tunable resonator allows us to precisely control the optical properties of individual particles.
Schneeweiss, Philipp; Hoinkes, Thomas; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Volz, Jürgen
2016-01-01
We experimentally realize an optical fiber ring resonator that includes a tapered section with subwavelength-diameter waist. In this section, the guided light exhibits a significant evanescent field which allows for efficient interfacing with optical emitters. A commercial tunable fiber beam splitter provides simple and robust coupling to the resonator. Key parameters of the resonator such as its out-coupling rate, free spectral range, and birefringence can be adjusted. Thanks to the low taper- and coupling-losses, the resonator exhibits an unloaded finesse of F=75+/-1, sufficient for reaching the regime of strong coupling for emitters placed in the evanescent field. The system is ideally suited for trapping ensembles of laser-cooled atoms along the nanofiber section. Based on measured parameters, we estimate that the system can serve as a platform for optical multimode strong coupling experiments. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of using the resonator for applications based on chiral quantum optics.
Photon echo in exciton-plasmon nanomaterials: a signature of strong coupling
Blake, Adam
2016-01-01
The results of rigorous numerical simulations of photon echoes in exciton-plasmon systems are presented. Using a self-consistent model based on coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations we investigate femtosecond time dynamics of ensembles of interacting molecules and molecular aggregates optically coupled to surface-plasmon supporting materials. It is shown that observed photon echoes under two pulse pump-probe sequence are highly dependent on various material parameters such as molecular concentration and periodicity. Simulations of photon echoes in exciton-plasmon materials reveal a unique signature of the strong exciton-plasmon coupling, namely a double-peak structure in spectra of recorded echo signals. This phenomenon is shown to be related to hybrid states (upper and lower polaritons) in exciton-plasmon systems under strong coupling conditions. It is also demonstrated that the double-peak echo is highly sensitive to mild deviations of the coupling from the resonance between molecules and plasmons making it a gre...
Smallest quantum thermal machine: The effect of strong coupling and distributed thermal tasks
Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie
2017-07-01
The functions of the smallest self-contained thermal machine consisting of a single qutrit are studied when the weak internal coupling assumption is relaxed. It is shown that in the presence of one target to be cooled the strong coupling is not beneficial to the refrigeration. The reason is explained by examining the effect of the strong coupling on the contributions of all eigenstates transitions to the heat current of the related thermal reservoir. When acting simultaneously on two targets, the machine can be manipulated to implement distributed tasks on them, such as cooling one target and meanwhile heating another one, by adjusting the coupling strengths between the machine with the two targets. In particular, we show that the machine can realize temperature reversal for the two qubits, namely, the qubit that is coupled to the high temperature reservoir is refrigerated to a temperature below that of the qubit contacting with the low temperature reservoir.
Strong and moldable cellulose magnets with high ferrite nanoparticle content.
Galland, Sylvain; Andersson, Richard L; Ström, Valter; Olsson, Richard T; Berglund, Lars A
2014-11-26
A major limitation in the development of highly functional hybrid nanocomposites is brittleness and low tensile strength at high inorganic nanoparticle content. Herein, cellulose nanofibers were extracted from wood and individually decorated with cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles and then for the first time molded at low temperature (ferrite and cellulose material. A nanocomposite with 70 wt % ferrite, 20 wt % cellulose nanofibers, and 10 wt % epoxy showed a modulus of 12.6 GPa, a tensile strength of 97 MPa, and a strain at failure of ca. 4%. Magnetic characterization was performed in a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed that the coercivity was unaffected and that the saturation magnetization was in proportion with the ferrite content. The used ferrite, CoFe2O4, is a magnetically hard material, demonstrated by that the composite material behaved as a traditional permanent magnet. The presented processing route is easily adaptable to prepare millimeter-thick and moldable magnetic objects. This suggests that the processing method has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial use for the preparation of a new subcategory of magnetic, low-cost, and moldable objects based on cellulose nanofibers.
The instability of strong magnetic fields in stellar interiors. [solar neutrino flux limits
Parker, E. N.
1974-01-01
There has been discussion of the possibility of resolving the solar neutrino dilemma with a sufficiently strong magnetic field (500 MG) in the solar interior to relieve the gas pressure by some 10% or more. The time in which magnetic buoyancy will bring a strong field to the surface is examined and is found to be less than 100 m.y. No possibility is seen for retaining a suitably strong magnetic field in the solar interior.
On the strong coupling N{sup (*)}N{sup (*)}π
Azizi, K. [Dogus University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Sarac, Y. [Atilim University, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Ankara (Turkey); Sundu, H. [Kocaeli University, Department of Physics, Izmit (Turkey)
2016-04-15
We study the strong vertices N*Nπ, N*N*π and NNπ in QCD, where N* denotes the negative-parity N(1535) state. We use the most general form of the interpolating currents to calculate the corresponding strong coupling constants. It is obtained that the coupling associated to N*Nπ vertex is strongly suppressed compared to those related to two other vertices. The strong coupling corresponding to N*N*π is obtained to be roughly half of that of NNπ vertex. We compare the obtained results on N*Nπ and NNπ vertices with the existing predictions of other theoretical studies as well as those extracted from the experimental data. (orig.)
Ion DOBROTA
2002-12-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the comparative analysis of the behavior of frontal couplings with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in difficult environments, specific to metallurgy – such as environments with magnetic powders and high temperature – in two constructive variants: symmetric couplings and asymmetric couplings (with divided poles. The results show the superior performance of asymmetric couplings under the given conditions
Properties of mesons in a strong magnetic field
Zhang, Rui [Peking University, Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Fu, Wei-jie [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Liu, Yu-xin [Peking University, Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2016-06-15
By extending the Φ-derivable approach in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to a finite magnetic field we calculate the properties of pion, σ, and ρ mesons in a magnetic field at finite temperature not only in the quark-antiquark bound state scheme but also in the pion-pion scattering resonant state scenario. Our calculation as a result makes manifest that the masses of π{sup 0} and σ meson can be nearly degenerate at the pseudo-critical temperature which increases with increasing magnetic field strength, and the π{sup ±} mass ascends suddenly at almost the same critical temperature. Meanwhile the ρ mesons' masses decrease with the temperature but increase with the magnetic field strength. We also check the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation and find that the relation can be violated clearly with increasing temperature, and the effect of the magnetic field becomes pronounced around the critical temperature. With different criteria, we analyze the effect of the magnetic field on the chiral phase transition and find that the pseudo-critical temperature of the chiral phase cross, T{sub c}{sup χ}, is always enhanced by the magnetic field. Moreover, our calculations indicate that the ρ mesons will get melted as the chiral symmetry has not yet been restored, but the σ meson does not disassociate even at very high temperature. Particularly, it is the first to show that there does not exist a vector meson condensate in the QCD vacuum in the pion-pion scattering scheme. (orig.)
Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Meyer, Patric; Reinhard, Iris; Gilles, Maria; Paslakis, Georgios; Rauschenberg, Jaane; Gröbner, Jens; Semmler, Wolfhard; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke
2014-10-01
Increasing field strengths in MRI necessitate the examination of potential side effects. Previously reported results have been contradictory, possibly caused by imbalanced samples. We aimed to examine whether special groups of people are more prone to develop side effects that might have led to contradictory results in previous studies. We examined the occurrence of sensory side effects in static magnetic fields of MRI scanners of 1.5, 3, and 7 T and a mock scanner in 41 healthy participants. The contribution of field strength, sex, age, and attention to bodily processes, and stress hormone levels to the sensation of dizziness was examined in separate univariate analyses and in a joint analysis that included all variables. Field strength and sex were significant factors in the joint analysis (P=0.001), with women being more strongly affected than men by dizziness in higher static magnetic fields. This effect was not mediated by the other variables such as attention to bodily symptoms or stress hormones. Further research needs to elucidate the underlying factors of increased dizziness in women in static magnetic fields in MRI. We hypothesize that imbalanced samples of earlier studies might be one reason for previous contradictory results on the side effects of static magnetic fields.
Strong army couples: a case study of rekindling marriage after combat deployment.
Melvin, Kristal C; Wenzel, Jennifer; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski
2015-02-01
Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), occurring in 15% of combat-exposed military personnel, are associated with a decrease in couples' relationship quality. The purpose of this analysis was to describe reintegration in Army couples with high couple functioning, despite PTSS in one or both partners. Reintegration refers to readjustment after deployment; returning to previous role(s). In a mixed-methods case study of Army couples with a history of combat deployment, we used existing quantitative data to define sampling boundaries, select cases, and guide interviews. Couples scoring high on couple functioning, resilience, and couple satisfaction were interviewed (N = 5 couples, 10 participants). "Rekindling marriage" required strategies to overcome challenges during couple reintegration. For participants as individuals, those strategies were allowing negative emotions, giving each other time and space to do the work of rediscovery and accepting a changed reality, and recognizing and addressing individual needs of the other. As couples, strategies were to go with the flow, open your heart, become best friends, maintain trust, and communicate effectively. As families, strategies were to normalize schedules and protect family time. Findings offer a preliminary basis for interventions to promote strong relationships for military couples with PTSS.
Axion Dark Matter Coupling to Resonant Photons via Magnetic Field.
McAllister, Ben T; Parker, Stephen R; Tobar, Michael E
2016-04-22
We show that the magnetic component of the photon field produced by dark matter axions via the two-photon coupling mechanism in a Sikivie haloscope is an important parameter passed over in previous analysis and experiments. The interaction of the produced photons will be resonantly enhanced as long as they couple to the electric or magnetic mode structure of the haloscope cavity. For typical haloscope experiments the electric and magnetic couplings are equal, and this has implicitly been assumed in past sensitivity calculations. However, for future planned searches such as those at high frequency, which synchronize multiple cavities, the sensitivity will be altered due to different magnetic and electric couplings. We define the complete electromagnetic form factor and discuss its implications for current and future dark matter axion searches over a wide range of masses.
Seiberg-Witten monopoles: Weyl semimetal coupled to chiral magnets
Yu, Yue
2016-01-01
We study a Weyl semimetal which couples to local magnets. In the continuum limit, the Hamiltonian of the system matches the Chern-Simons-Maxwell-Dirac functional and then the ground state is governed by generalized Seiberg-Witten (SW) or Freund equations in terms of the sign of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya coupling. The ground states determined by the Freund equations may either be monopolar Weyl semimetal accompanied by the ferromagnetic magnets or SW monopoles which consist of spheric Weyl fermions coupled to chiral magnets, depending on the strength of the Kondo coupling. The latter topological ground state is characterized by SW invariants. There are also the SW monopole solutions carrying an opposite SW invariant for the SW equations. They are metastable because the ground state of the system in this case is a monopolar Weyl semimetal accompanied by the ferromagnetic magnets.
Fano-resonance induced strong-coupling of a hyperbolic cavity to a quantum emitter
Hasan, Mehedi; Belov, Pavel
2015-01-01
Light-matter interaction is studied for an open quantum system in the strong-coupling regime. A quantum dot and a hyperbolic cavity of spherical geometry is shown to couple light with large Rabi frequency and the role of Fano resonance is shown in the coupling mechanism. High Purcell factor and large Lamb shift are outlined. In the near-field spectrum, two distinct anti-crossings are evident, namely -- the one near the epsilon near zero (ENZ) frequency (from the effective medium description) which is detectable in the far-field, and the second anti-crossing is a pseudomode that does not appear in the far-field spectrum. This delineates the phenomenon `farfield propagating large Purcell factor'. Finally, we remark the fidelity of the strong-coupling, i.e. how prone the strong-coupling with respect to the loss mechanisms. This study on strong-coupling will have applications for spectroscopy, control over chemical reaction rate, microcavity, and in quantum information technology.
Rotating proto-neutron stars under strong magnetic fields
Franzon, B; Schramm, S
2016-01-01
In this work, we study the effects of magnetic fields and rotation on the structure and composition of proto-neutron stars (PNSs). A hadronic chiral SU(3) model is applied to cold neutron stars (NS) and proto-neutron stars with trapped neutrinos and at fixed entropy per baryon. We obtain general relativistic solutions for neutron and proto-neutron stars endowed with a poloidal magnetic field by solving Einstein-Maxwell field equations in a self-consistent way. As the neutrino chemical potential decreases in value over time, this alters the chemical equilibrium and the composition inside the star, leading to a change in the structure and in the particle population of these objects. We find that the magnetic field deforms the star and significantly alters the number of trapped neutrinos in the stellar interior, together with strangeness content and temperature in each evolution stage.
Superconductivity in Strong Magnetic Field (Greater Than Upper Critical Field)
Tessema, G.X.; Gamble, B.K.; Skove, M.J.; Lacerda, A.H.; Mielke, C.H.
1998-08-22
The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, funded by the National Science Foundation and other US federal Agencies, has in recent years built a wide range of magnetic fields, DC 25 to 35 Tesla, short pulse 50 - 60 Tesla, and quasi-continuous 60 Tesla. Future plans are to push the frontiers to 45 Tesla DC and 70 to 100 Tesla pulse. This user facility, is open for national and international users, and creates an excellent tool for materials research (metals, semiconductors, superconductors, biological systems ..., etc). Here we present results of a systematic study of the upper critical field of a novel superconducting material which is considered a promising candidate for the search for superconductivity beyond H{sub c2} as proposed by several new theories. These theories predict that superconductors with low carrier density can reenter the superconducting phase beyond the conventional upper critical field H{sub c2}. This negates the conventional thinking that superconductivity and magnetic fields are antagonistic.
Relativistic theory of inverse beta-decay of polarized neutron in strong magnetic field
S Shinkevich; A Studenikin
2005-08-01
The relativistic theory of the inverse beta-decay of polarized neutron, + → + -, in strong magnetic field is developed. For the proton wave function we use the exact solution of the Dirac equation in the magnetic filed that enables us to account exactly for effects of the proton momentum quantization in the magnetic field and also for the proton recoil motion. The effect of nucleons anomalous magnetic moments in strong magnetic fields is also discussed. We examine the cross-section for different energies and directions of propagation of the initial neutrino accounting for neutron polarization. It is shown that in the super-strong magnetic field the totally polarized neutron matter is transparent for neutrinos propagating antiparallel to the direction of polarization. The developed relativistic approach can be used for calculations of cross-sections of the other URCA processes in strong magnetic fields.
Gamma-Ray Bursts as Sources of Strong Magnetic Fields
Granot, Jonathan; Bromberg, Omer; Racusin, Judith L; Daigne, Frédéric
2015-01-01
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the strongest explosions in the Universe, which due to their extreme character likely involve some of the strongest magnetic fields in nature. This review discusses the possible roles of magnetic fields in GRBs, from their central engines, through the launching, acceleration and collimation of their ultra-relativistic jets, to the dissipation and particle acceleration that power their $\\gamma$-ray emission, and the powerful blast wave they drive into the surrounding medium that generates their long-lived afterglow emission. An emphasis is put on particular areas in which there have been interesting developments in recent years.
Corrosion of coupled metals in a dental magnetic attachment system.
Iimuro, F T; Yoneyama, T; Okuno, O
1993-12-01
Implants and magnetic attachments are becoming widespread in dental treatment. Their associated use, implants and magnetic attachments, can be seen often too. In those cases, it is difficult to avoid coupling of different metals. The corrosion behavior of the metals is expected to be different depending on whether it is found in an isolated or a coupled condition. Potential corrosion couples in a dental magnetic attachment system among titanium, ferromagnetic stainless steel, gold alloy type IV, and gold-silver-palladium alloy were studied by an immersion test in 1% lactic acid for 7 days and potential/current density curves were measured. Corrosion of titanium and ferromagnetic stainless steel seemed to be accelerated by coupling with gold alloys or gold-silver-palladium alloys. On the other hand, the corrosion amount of gold alloy and gold-silver-palladium alloys were attenuated by coupling.
The Vertical Oscillations of Coupled Magnets
Kewei, Li; Jiahuang, Lin; Yang, Kang Zi; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Juan, Jeremias Wong Say
2011-01-01
The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while…
$H_{2}^{+}$ ion in strong magnetic field an accurate calculation
López, J C; Turbiner, A V
1997-01-01
Using a unique trial function we perform an accurate calculation of the ground state $1\\sigma_g$ of the hydrogenic molecular ion $H^+_2$ in a constant uniform magnetic field ranging $0-10^{13}$ G. We show that this trial function also makes it possible to study the negative parity ground state $1\\sigma_u$.
Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields
GUANXiao-xu; ZHANGYue-xia
2004-01-01
We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35 × 105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.
Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields
GUAN Xiao-xu; ZHANG Yue-xia
2004-01-01
We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35×105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.
Stability and evolution of wave packets in strongly coupled degenerate plasmas
Misra, A P
2011-01-01
We study the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic wave packets in a collisional plasma composed of strongly coupled ions and relativistically degenerate electrons. The equilibrium of ions is maintained by an effective temperature associated with their strong coupling, whereas that of electrons is provided by the relativistic degeneracy pressure. Using a multiple scale technique, a (3+1)-dimensional coupled set of nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger-like equations with nonlocal nonlinearity is derived from a generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model. These coupled equations, which govern the dynamics of wave packets, are used to study the oblique modulational instability of a Stoke's wave train to a small plane wave perturbation. We show that the wave packets, though stable to the parallel modulation, becomes unstable against oblique modulations. In contrast to the long-wavelength carrier modes, the wave packets with short-wavelengths are shown to be stable in the weakly relativistic case, whereas they can be stable...
Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials
Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar, E-mail: dibakar.roychowdhury@anu.edu.au [Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); College of Engineering, Mahindra Ecole Centrale, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad, 500043 (India); Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 87074 (United States); Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
2015-07-14
Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials.
Campanella, H; Jaafar, M; Llobet, J; Esteve, J; Vázquez, M; Asenjo, A; del Real, R P; Plaza, J A
2011-12-16
We report on a new approach for magnetic imaging, highly sensitive even in the presence of external, strong magnetic fields. Based on FIB-assisted fabricated high-aspect-ratio rare-earth nanomagnets, we produce groundbreaking magnetic force tips with hard magnetic character where we combine a high aspect ratio (shape anisotropy) together with strong crystalline anisotropy (rare-earth-based alloys). Rare-earth hard nanomagnets are then FIB-integrated to silicon microcantilevers as highly sharpened tips for high-field magnetic imaging applications. Force resolution and domain reversing and recovery capabilities are at least one order of magnitude better than for conventional magnetic tips. This work opens new, pioneering research fields on the surface magnetization process of nanostructures based either on relatively hard magnetic materials-used in magnetic storage media-or on materials like superparamagnetic particles, ferro/antiferromagnetic structures or paramagnetic materials.
From the QCD vacuum to (strongly coupled) quark-gluon plasma
Shuryak, Edward
2005-04-01
I start with brief discussion of the role of topological objects in the QCD vacuum, reminding why instantons play a special role in chiral symmetry breaking and hadronic physics. Then I move to high temperature T > T c domain, describing briefly some experimental discoveries made at RHIC such as robust collective flow phenomena. They are well described by ideal hydrodynamics, with the Equation of State (EoS) in good agreement with that predicted by lattice simulations. However for hydro to work the transport properties of QGP should be quite remarkable. These and other theoretical developments, especially based on lattice simulations, indicate that matter produced at RHIC is a strongly coupled liquid, sQGP for short. Existence of "new spectroscopy" of states, most of them colored, is expected. We also briefly discuss two other "strongly coupled systems", (i) the strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length.
The strong-weak coupling symmetry in 2D Φ4 field models
B.N.Shalaev
2005-01-01
Full Text Available It is found that the exact beta-function β(g of the continuous 2D gΦ4 model possesses two types of dual symmetries, these being the Kramers-Wannier (KW duality symmetry and the strong-weak (SW coupling symmetry f(g, or S-duality. All these transformations are explicitly constructed. The S-duality transformation f(g is shown to connect domains of weak and strong couplings, i.e. above and below g*. Basically it means that there is a tempting possibility to compute multiloop Feynman diagrams for the β-function using high-temperature lattice expansions. The regular scheme developed is found to be strongly unstable. Approximate values of the renormalized coupling constant g* found from duality symmetry equations are in an agreement with available numerical results.
Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms
Paulillo, B.; Manceau, J.-M.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.; Colombelli, R.
2016-03-01
We demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms at room temperature. The intersubband transition of semiconductor quantum wells with a parabolic energy potential is strongly coupled to the confined circuital mode of three-dimensional split-ring metal-semiconductor-metal resonators that have an extreme sub-wavelength volume (λ/10). The frequency of these lumped-element resonators is controlled by the size and shape of the external antenna, while the interaction volume remains constant. This allows the resonance frequency to be swept across the intersubband transition and the anti-crossing characteristic of the strong light-matter coupling regime to be observed. The Rabi splitting, which is twice the Rabi frequency (2ΩRabi), amounts to 20% of the bare transition at room temperature, and it increases to 28% at low-temperature.
Near-infrared exciton-polaritons in strongly coupled single-walled carbon nanotube microcavities
Graf, Arko; Tropf, Laura; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C.
2016-10-01
Exciton-polaritons form upon strong coupling between electronic excitations of a material and photonic states of a surrounding microcavity. In organic semiconductors the special nature of excited states leads to particularly strong coupling and facilitates condensation of exciton-polaritons at room temperature, which may lead to electrically pumped organic polariton lasers. However, charge carrier mobility and photo-stability in currently used materials is limited and exciton-polariton emission so far has been restricted to visible wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in the near infrared using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polymer matrix and a planar metal-clad cavity. By exploiting the exceptional oscillator strength and sharp excitonic transition of (6,5) SWCNTs, we achieve large Rabi splitting (>110 meV), efficient polariton relaxation and narrow band emission (devices operating at telecommunication wavelengths.
Majumdar, Arka; Faraon, Andrei; Vuckovic, Jelena
2009-01-01
We describe a proposal for fast electron spin initialization in a negatively charged quantum dot coupled to a microcavity without the need for a strong magnetic field. We employ two-photon excitation to access trion states that are spin forbidden by one-photon excitation. Our simulation shows a maximum initialization speed of 1.3 GHz and maximum fidelity of 99.7% with realistic system parameters.
van der Waals energy under strong atom-field coupling in doped carbon nanotubes
Bondarev, Igor; Lambin, Philippe
2004-01-01
Using a unified macroscopic QED formalism, we derive an integral equation for the van der Waals energy of a two-level atomic system near a carbon nanotube. The equation is valid for both strong and weak atom-vacuum-field coupling. By solving it numerically, we demonstrate the inapplicability of weak-coupling-based van der Waals interaction models in a close vicinity of the nanotube surface.
van der Waals energy under strong atom field coupling in doped carbon nanotubes
Bondarev, I. V.; Lambin, Ph.
2004-10-01
Using a unified macroscopic QED formalism, we derive an integral equation for the van der Waals energy of a two-level atomic system near a carbon nanotube. The equation is valid for both strong and weak atom-vacuum-field coupling. By solving it numerically, we demonstrate the inapplicability of weak-coupling-based van der Waals interaction models in a close vicinity of the nanotube surface.
Tricritical points in a compact $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory at strong coupling
De, Asit K
2016-01-01
Pure compact $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory exhibits a phase transition at gauge coupling $g \\sim {\\cal{O}}(1)$ separating a familiar weak coupling Coulomb phase, having free massless photons, from a strong coupling phase. However, the phase transition was found to be of first order, ruling out any non-trivial theory resulting from a continuum limit from the strong coupling side. In this work, a compact $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory is studied with addition of a dimension-two mass counter-term and a higher derivative (HD) term that ensures a unique vacuum and produces a covariant gauge-fixing term in the naive continuum limit. For a reasonably large coefficient of the HD term, now there exists a continuous transition from a regular ordered phase to a spatially modulated ordered phase which breaks Euclidean rotational symmetry. For weak gauge couplings, a continuum limit from the regular ordered phase results in a familiar theory consisting of free massless photons. For strong gauge couplings with $g\\ge {\\cal{O}}(1...
Classical integrability for three-point functions: cognate structure at weak and strong couplings
Kazama, Yoichi [Research Center for Mathematical Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Quantum Hadron Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Komatsu, Shota [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Nishimura, Takuya [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)
2016-10-10
In this paper, we develop a new method of computing three-point functions in the SU(2) sector of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the semi-classical regime at weak coupling, which closely parallels the strong coupling analysis. The structure threading two disparate regimes is the so-called monodromy relation, an identity connecting the three-point functions with and without the insertion of the monodromy matrix. We shall show that this relation can be put to use directly for the semi-classical regime, where the dynamics is governed by the classical Landau-Lifshitz sigma model. Specifically, it reduces the problem to a set of functional equations, which can be solved once the analyticity in the spectral parameter space is specified. To determine the analyticity, we develop a new universal logic applicable at both weak and strong couplings. As a result, compact semi-classical formulas are obtained for a general class of three-point functions at weak coupling including the ones whose semi-classical behaviors were not known before. In addition, the new analyticity argument applied to the strong coupling analysis leads to a modification of the integration contour, producing the results consistent with the recent hexagon bootstrap approach. This modification also makes the Frolov-Tseytlin limit perfectly agree with the weak coupling form.
Experimental Measurement of Self-Diffusion in a Strongly Coupled Plasma
2016-08-04
Kubo relation D ¼ Z ∞ 0 ZðtÞdt; which describes the long-time mean -square displacement of a given particle through D ¼ limt→∞hjrðtÞ − rð0Þj2i=6t [25...Experimental Measurement of Self-Diffusion in a Strongly Coupled Plasma T. S. Strickler,1 T. K. Langin,1 P. McQuillen,1 J. Daligault,2 and T. C...collisional relaxation of ion velocities in a strongly coupled , ultracold neutral plasma on short time scales compared to the inverse collision rate. The
Collective strong coupling of cold potassium atoms in a ring cavity
Culver, Robert; Megyeri, Balázs; Pahwa, Komal; Mudarikwa, Lawrence; Holynski, Michael; Courteille, Philippe W; Goldwin, Jon
2016-01-01
We present experiments on ensemble cavity quantum electrodynamics with cold potassium atoms in a high-finesse ring cavity. Potassium-39 atoms are cooled in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, and transferred to a three-dimensional trap which intersects the cavity mode. The apparatus is described in detail and the first observations of strong coupling with potassium atoms are presented. Collective strong coupling of atoms and light is demonstrated via the splitting of the cavity transmission spectrum and the avoided crossing of the normal modes.
Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A; Kaw, P K
2016-01-01
The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and $MnO_2$ dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of $\\partial\\omega/\\partial k < 0$ are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.
Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna
2017-01-01
Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\
Another mean field treatment in the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD
Ohnishi, Akira; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nakano, Takashi Z.
2011-01-01
We discuss the QCD phase diagram in the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD by using a new type of mean field coming from the next-to-leading order of the large dimensional expansion. The QCD phase diagram in the strong coupling limit recently obtained by using the monomer-dimer-polymer (MDP) algorithm has some differences in the phase boundary shape from that in the mean field results. As one of the origin to explain the difference, we consider another type of auxiliary field, which corresp...
Lu, Xu; Xie, Yi
2016-01-01
We analyse strong gravitational field time delay for photons coupled to the Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole. By making use of the method of strong deflection limit, we find that these time delays between relativistic images are significantly affected by polarization directions of such a coupling. A practical problem about determination of the polarization direction by observations is investigated. It is found that if the first and second relativistic images can be resolved, the measurement of time delay can more effectively improve detectability of the polarization direction.
Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna
2016-01-01
Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\
Strong electromagnetic waves in a magnetized relativistic electron-positron plasma
Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.; Rao, N.N. (Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1984-12-01
It is shown that in a strongly magnetized relativistic electron-positron plasma, strongly localized large amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave pulses exist. The localization is due to relativistic mass variation as well as ponderomotive force effects. Three types of pulses are found analytically: the sharply spiked pulse in a strongly magnetized cold plasma, the smooth pulse in a weak magnetized warm plasma, and the moderately spiked pulse for a weakly magnetized cold plasma. The physical mechanisms giving rise to these pulses are distinct for each case. Possible implications of our investigation to pulsar radiation are discussed.
QCD effective potential with strong magnetic fields at zero and finite temperatures
Ozaki, Sho; Arai, Takashi; Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori
2014-09-01
In this contribution, we will discuss QCD vacuum in strong magnetic fields. As a first step towards understanding the effects of magnetic fields on QCD vacuum properties, we analytically derive the Euler-Heisenberg action for QCD + QED at zero and finite temperatures. From the action, at zero temperature, we found that the chromo-magnetic field prefers to be parallel to the external magnetic field, and thus the QCD vacuum with strong magnetic fields is spatially anisotropic. This result is consistent with recent lattice data. Furthermore, the chromo-magnetic condensate increases with an increasing magnetic field, which supports the ``gluonic magnetic catalysis'' as observed in current lattice data. Next, we will discuss the effective potential with strong magnetic fields at finite temperatures. In particular, we focus on the influence of the magnetic field on the center symmetry in QCD. The pure Yang-Mills theory has the center symmetry (being spontaneously broken at high temperature), but dynamical quarks explicitly break it. We will show how the magnetic fields affect the explicit symmetry breaking, by using the effective potential for the Polyakov loop. We will also discuss the confinement-deconfinement phase transition in strong magnetic fields in terms of nonperturbative approaches such as functional renormalization group.
Strong Coupling of the Cyclotron Motion of Surface Electrons on Liquid Helium to a Microwave Cavity
Abdurakhimov, L. V.; Yamashiro, R.; Badrutdinov, A. O.; Konstantinov, D.
2016-07-01
The strong coupling regime is observed in a system of two-dimensional electrons whose cyclotron motion is coupled to an electromagnetic mode in a Fabry-Perot cavity resonator. Rabi splitting of eigenfrequencies of the coupled motion is observed both in the cavity reflection spectrum and ac current of the electrons, the latter probed by measuring their bolometric photoresponse. Despite the fact that similar observations of Rabi splitting in many-particle systems have been described as a quantum-mechanical effect, we show that the observed splitting can be explained completely by a model based on classical electrodynamics.
Gluon scattering in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory fromweak to strong coupling
Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC
2008-03-25
I describe some recent developments in the understanding of gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory in the large-N{sub c} limit. These amplitudes can be computed to high orders in the weak coupling expansion, and also now at strong coupling using the AdS/CFT correspondence. They hold the promise of being solvable to all orders in the gauge coupling, with the help of techniques based on integrability. They are intimately related to expectation values for polygonal Wilson loops composed of light-like segments.
Three-loop Standard Model effective potential at leading order in strong and top Yukawa couplings
Martin, Stephen P. [Santa Barbara, KITP
2014-01-08
I find the three-loop contribution to the effective potential for the Standard Model Higgs field, in the approximation that the strong and top Yukawa couplings are large compared to all other couplings, using dimensional regularization with modified minimal subtraction. Checks follow from gauge invariance and renormalization group invariance. I also briefly comment on the special problems posed by Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential, and on the numerical impact of the result on the relations between the Higgs vacuum expectation value, mass, and self-interaction coupling.
The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets
Kewei, Li; Jiahuang, Lin; Yang, Kang Zi; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Wong Say Juan, Jeremias
2011-07-01
The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.
The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets
Li Kewei; Lin Jiahuang; Kang Zi Yang [Raffles Institution, 1 Raffles Institution Lane, Singapore 575954 (Singapore); Liang, Samuel Yee Wei [Anglo-Chinese School Independent, 121 Dover Road, Singapore 139650 (Singapore); Juan, Jeremias Wong Say, E-mail: likewei92@gmail.com [NUS High School of Mathematics and Science, 20 Clementi Avenue 1, Singapore 129957 (Singapore)
2011-07-15
The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.
A laboratory study of asymmetric magnetic reconnection in strongly driven plasmas.
Rosenberg, M J; Li, C K; Fox, W; Igumenshchev, I; Séguin, F H; Town, R P J; Frenje, J A; Stoeckl, C; Glebov, V; Petrasso, R D
2015-02-04
Magnetic reconnection, the annihilation and rearrangement of magnetic fields in a plasma, is a universal phenomenon that frequently occurs when plasmas carrying oppositely directed field lines collide. In most natural circumstances, the collision is asymmetric (the two plasmas having different properties), but laboratory research to date has been limited to symmetric configurations. In addition, the regime of strongly driven magnetic reconnection, where the ram pressure of the plasma dominates the magnetic pressure, as in several astrophysical environments, has also received little experimental attention. Thus, we have designed the experiments to probe reconnection in asymmetric, strongly driven, laser-generated plasmas. Here we show that, in this strongly driven system, the rate of magnetic flux annihilation is dictated by the relative flow velocities of the opposing plasmas and is insensitive to initial asymmetries. In addition, out-of-plane magnetic fields that arise from asymmetries in the three-dimensional plasma geometry have minimal impact on the reconnection rate, due to the strong flows.
Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic ﬁelds
V K Gupta; Vinita Tuli; S Singh; J D Anand; Ashok Goyal
2002-09-01
The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic ﬁeld. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean ﬁeld theory is taken and extended to include strong magnetic ﬁeld. It is found that magnetized neutron stars support higher maximum mass whereas the effect of magnetic ﬁeld on radial stability for observed neutron star masses is minimal.
Impact of strong magnetic fields on collision mechanism for transport of charged particles
Bostan, Mihai
2012-01-01
One of the main applications in plasma physics concerns the energy production through thermo-nuclear fusion. The controlled fusion is achieved by magnetic confinement i.e., the plasma is confined into a toroidal domain (tokamak) under the action of huge magnetic fields. Several models exist for describing the evolution of strongly magnetized plasmas, most of them by neglecting the collisions between particles. The subject matter of this paper is to investigate the effect of large magnetic fields with respect to a collision mechanism. We consider here linear collision Boltzmann operators and derive, by averaging with respect to the fast cyclotronic motion due to strong magnetic forces, their effective collision kernels.
Impact of Strong Magnetic Fields on Collision Mechanism for Transport of Charged Particles
Bostan, Mihai; Gamba, Irene M.
2012-09-01
One of the main applications in plasma physics concerns the energy production through thermo-nuclear fusion. The controlled fusion is achieved by magnetic confinement i.e., the plasma is confined into a toroidal domain (tokamak) under the action of huge magnetic fields. Several models exist for describing the evolution of strongly magnetized plasmas, most of them by neglecting the collisions between particles. The subject matter of this paper is to investigate the effect of large magnetic fields with respect to a collision mechanism. We consider here linear collision Boltzmann operators and derive, by averaging with respect to the fast cyclotronic motion due to strong magnetic forces, their effective collision kernels.
Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao
2015-10-10
High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.
Oscillations of weakly viscous conducting liquid drops in a strong magnetic field
Priede, Jānis
2010-01-01
We analyse small-amplitude oscillations of weakly viscous and electrically conducting liquid drop in a strong uniform DC magnetic field. An asymptotic solution is obtained showing that magnetic field does not affect the shape eigenmodes, which remain the spherical harmonics as in the non-magnetic case. Strong magnetic field, however, constrains the liquid flow associated with the oscillations and, thus, it reduces the oscillations frequency by increasing the apparent inertia of the liquid. In such a field, liquid oscillates in a two-dimensional (2D) way as solid columns aligned with the field. Two types of oscillations are possible: longitudinal and transversal to the field. Such oscillations are weakly damped by strong magnetic field. The stronger the field, the weaker the damping, except for the axisymmetric transversal modes, which are magnetically overdamped because they are not kinematically compatible with 2D flow. Because magnetic damping decreases inversely with the square of the field strength, visco...
Hyperaccreting Disks around Magnetars for Gamma-Ray Bursts: Effects of Strong Magnetic Fields
Zhang, Dong
2009-01-01
(Abridged) The hyperaccreting neutron star or magnetar disks cooled via neutrino emission can be a candidate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) central engines. The strong field $\\geq10^{15}-10^{16}$ G of the magnetar can play a significant role in affecting the disk properties and even lead to the funnel accretion process. We investigate the effects of strong fields on the disks around magnetars, and discuss implications of such accreting magnetar systems for GRB and GRB-like events. We discuss quantum effects of the strong fields on the disk, and use the MHD conservation equations to describe the behavior of the disk flow coupled with a large scale field, which is generated by the star-disk interaction. In general, stronger fields give higher disk densities, pressures, temperatures and neutrino luminosity, and change the electron fraction and degeneracy state significantly. A magnetized disk is always viscously stable outside the Alfv\\'{e}n radius, but will be thermally unstable near the Alfv\\'{e}n radius where the m...
Silva, Filipe da, E-mail: tanatos@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pinto, Martin Campos, E-mail: campos@ann.jussieu.fr [CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Després, Bruno, E-mail: despres@ann.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Heuraux, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.heuraux@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, CNRS – University Lorraine, Vandoeuvre (France)
2015-08-15
This work analyzes the stability of the Yee scheme for non-stationary Maxwell's equations coupled with a linear current model with density fluctuations. We show that the usual procedure may yield unstable scheme for physical situations that correspond to strongly magnetized plasmas in X-mode (TE) polarization. We propose to use first order clustered discretization of the vectorial product that gives back a stable coupling. We validate the schemes on some test cases representative of direct numerical simulations of X-mode in a magnetic fusion plasma including turbulence.
Ultrafast photon-photon interaction in a strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity system
Englund, Dirk; Bajcsy, Michal; Faraon, Andrei; Petroff, Pierre; vuckovic, Jelena
2011-01-01
We study dynamics of the interaction between two weak light beams mediated by a strongly coupled quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity system. First, we perform all optical switching of a weak continuous-wave signal with a pulsed control beam, and then perform switching between two pulsed beams (40ps pulses) at the single photon level. Our results show that the quantum dot-nanocavity system creates strong, controllable interactions at the single photon level.
Suppression of Instability in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas with Ion Flow
贺凯芬; 谢柏松; 刘克富
2001-01-01
The instability of low-frequency longitudinal modes in strongly coupled dusty plasmas with an ion flow is investigated. The dust charging relaxation is taken into account. It is found that when the ion flow is strong enough,the suppression, even disappearance. of instability can occur. Similar to that of the real frequency of waves, the imaginary part of waves also exhibits a transition, which arises from the sensitive dependences on the system parameters and their competition.
Dust-Acoustic Waves in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas Containing Variable-Charge Impurities
XIE Bai-Song; HE Kai-Fen; M. Y. Yu
2000-01-01
A relatively self-consistent theory of dust-acoustic waves in the strongly coupled dusty plasmas containing variable charge impurities is given. Relevant physical processes such as dust elastic relaxation and dust charge relaxation are taken into account. It is shown that the negative dispersion of dust-acoustic waves due to the strong correlation of dusts is enhanced in the presence of dust-neutral collisions.