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Sample records for magnetic separator sassy

  1. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  2. High gradient magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothero, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    In a process in which magnetic material is trapped in a filter disposed in a magnetic field, and is unloaded by passing a fluid through the filter in the absence of the initial magnetic field, the magnetic field is first reduced to an intermediate value to allow unloading of the more weakly magnetic particles, the more strongly magnetic particles being retained and subsequently unloaded by further reduction of the magnetic field. Stage by stage reduction of the magnetic field during unloading allows separation of different species from the mixture. As an example the method can be applied to the separation of uranium compounds from mine ores. The uranium compounds are magnetic, while most of the other constituents of the ore are non-magnetic. The starting material is a suspension of the ore. Water is used for unloading. The filter material in this case is stainless steel balls. (author)

  3. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SASSYS LMFBR systems code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code is being developed mainly to analyze the behavior of the shut-down heat-removal system and the consequences of failures in the system, although it is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel. The code includes a detailed SAS4A multi-channel core treatment plus a general thermal-hydraulic treatment of the primary and intermediate heat-transport loops and the steam generators. The code can handle any LMFBR design, loop or pool, with an arbitrary arrangement of components. The code is fast running: usually faster than real time

  5. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    to facilitate real-time monitoring of the experiments. The set-up and experimental protocol are described in detail. Results are presented for ’active’ magnetic bead separators, where on-chip microfabricated electromagnets supply the magnetic field and field gradients necessary for magnetic bead separation....... It is shown conceptually how such a system can be applied for parallel biochemical processing in a microfluidic system. ’Passive’ magnetic separators are presented, where on-chip soft magnetic elements are magnetized by an external magnetic field and create strong magnetic fields and gradients inside...

  6. Magnetic separation for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.; Tolt, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology

  7. Magnet and device for magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Rem, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    A planar magnet for magnetic density separation, comprising an array of pole pieces succeeding in longitudinal direction of a mounting plane, each pole piece having a body extending transversely along the mounting plane with a substantially constant cross section that includes a top segment that is

  8. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A.; Tolt, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO 2 , U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS

  9. Isotope separation by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  10. Separation of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor σ, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e 2σ , and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e σ . Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/ω pe , which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if σ becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R ⊙ =7×10 10 cm is about e 23 times larger, so when σ≳23, two lines separated by c/ω pe at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, σ, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  11. SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    The SASSYS code provides detailed steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic analyses of the reactor core, inlet and outlet coolant plenums, primary and intermediate heat-removal systems, steam generators, and emergency shut-down heat removal systems in liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The main purpose of the code is to analyze the consequences of failures in the shut-down heat-removal system and to determine whether this system can perform its mission adequately even with some of its components inoperable. The code is not plant-specific. It is intended for use with any LMFBR, using either a loop or a pool design, a once-through steam generator or an evaporator-superheater combination, and either a homogeneous core or a heterogeneous core with internal-blanket assemblies

  12. Magnetic particle separation using controllable magnetic force switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zunghang; Lee, C.-P.; Lai, M.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic particle separation is very important in biomedical applications. In this study, a magnetic particle microseparator is proposed that uses micro magnets to produce open/closed magnetic flux for switching on/off the separation. When all magnets are magnetized in the same direction, the magnetic force switch for separation is on; almost all magnetic particles are trapped in the channel side walls and the separation rate can reach 95%. When the magnetization directions of adjacent magnets are opposite, the magnetic force switch for separation is off, and most magnetic particles pass through the microchannel without being trapped. For the separation of multi-sized magnetic particles, the proposed microseparator is numerically demonstrated to have high separation rate.

  13. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  14. Microfluidic high gradient magnetic cell separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David W.; Riehn, Robert; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-04-01

    Separation of blood cells by native susceptibility and by the selective attachment of magnetic beads has recently been demonstrated on microfluidic devices. We discuss the basic principles of how forces are generated via the magnetic susceptibility of an object and how microfluidics can be combined with micron-scale magnetic field gradients to greatly enhance in principle the fractionating power of magnetic fields. We discuss our efforts and those of others to build practical microfluidic devices for the magnetic separation of blood cells. We also discuss our attempts to integrate magnetic separation with other microfluidic features for developing handheld medical diagnostic tools.

  15. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  16. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K; Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  17. Magnetic separations: From steel plants to biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafer T. Yavuz; Arjun Prakash; J.T. Mayo; Vicki L. Colvin [Rice University, Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-05-15

    Magnetic separations have for decades been essential processes in diverse industries ranging from steel production to coal desulfurization. In such settings magnetic fields are used in continuous flow processes as filters to remove magnetic impurities. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) has found even broader use in wastewater treatment and food processing. Batch scale magnetic separations are also relevant in industry, particularly biotechnology where fixed magnetic separators are used to purify complex mixtures for protein isolation, cell separation, drug delivery, and biocatalysis. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts behind magnetic separations and summarize a few examples of its large scale application. HGMS systems and batch systems for magnetic separations have been developed largely in parallel by different communities. However, in this work we compare and contrast each approach so that investigators can approach both key areas. Finally, we discuss how new advances in magnetic materials, particularly on the nanoscale, as well as magnetic filter design offer new opportunities for industries that have challenging separation problems.

  18. An improved steam generator model for the SASSYS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzica, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    A new steam generator model has been developed for the SASSYS computer code, which analyzes accident conditions in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. It has been incorporated into the new SASSYS balance-of-plant model but it can also function on a stand-alone basis. The steam generator can be used in a once-through mode, or a variant of the model can be used as a separate evaporator and a superheater with recirculation loop. The new model provides for an exact steady-state solution as well as the transient calculation. There was a need for a faster and more flexible model than the old steam generator model. The new model provides for more detail with its multi-mode treatment as opposed to the previous model's one node per region approach. Numerical instability problems which were the result of cell-centered spatial differencing, fully explicit time differencing, and the moving boundary treatment of the boiling crisis point in the boiling region have been reduced. This leads to an increase in speed as larger time steps can now be taken. The new model is an improvement in many respects. 2 refs., 3 figs

  19. Microfabricated Passive Magnetic Bead separators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Smistrup, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The use and manipulation of functionalized magnetic beads for bioanalysis in lab-on-a-chip systems is receiving growing interest. We have developed microfluidic systems with integrated magnetic structures for the capture and release of magnetic beads. The systems are fabricated in silicon by deep...

  20. Magnetic separation of uranium from magnesium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegler, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The attraction or repulsion of particles by a magnetic gradient, based on the respective susceptibilities, provides the basis for physical separation of particles that are comprised predominantly of uranium from those that are predominantly magnesium fluoride (MgF 2 ). To determine the effectiveness of this approach, a bench-scale magnetic separator from the S.G. Frantz Co., Inc. was used. In the Frantz Model L-1, particles are fed through a funnel onto a vibration tray and through a magnetic field. The specific design of the Frantz magnet causes the magnetic field strength to vary along the width of the magnet, setting up a gradient. The tray in the magnetic field is split at a point about half way down its length so that the separated material does not recombine. A schematic is presented of Frantz Model L-1 CN - the same magnet configured for high gradient magnetic separation of liquid-suspended particles. Here different pole pieces create a uniform magnetic field, and stainless steel wood in the canister between the pole pieces creates the high gradient. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical

  2. Microfluidic magnetic separator using an array of soft magnetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication, characterization, and demonstration of a new passive magnetic bead separator. The device operates in an effective state when magnetized by an external magnetic field of only 50 mT, which is available from a tabletop electromagnet. We demonstrate the complete...... capture of 1.0 mu m fluorescent magnetic beads from a 7.5 mu L sample volume traveling at an average linear fluid velocity of 5 mm/s....

  3. Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. M.; Keller, K.; Fuchs, B.

    2005-07-01

    DuPont is developing an entirely new method of solid-liquid filtration involving the use of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. The new hybrid process, entitled Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation (MESLS), is designed to improve the de-watering kinetics and reduce the residual moisture content of solid particulates mechanically separated from liquid slurries. Gravitation, pressure, temperature, centrifugation, and fluid dynamics have dictated traditional solid-liquid separation for the past 50 years. The introduction of an external field (i.e. the magnetic field) offers the promise to manipulate particle behavior in an entirely new manner, which leads to increased process efficiency. Traditional solid-liquid separation typically consists of two primary steps. The first is a mechanical step in which the solid particulate is separated from the liquid using e.g. gas pressure through a filter membrane, centrifugation, etc. The second step is a thermal drying process, which is required due to imperfect mechanical separation. The thermal drying process is over 100-200 times less energy efficient than the mechanical step. Since enormous volumes of materials are processed each year, more efficient mechanical solid-liquid separations can be leveraged into dramatic reductions in overall energy consumption by reducing downstream drying requirements have a tremendous impact on energy consumption. Using DuPont's MESLS process, initial test results showed four very important effects of the magnetic field on the solid-liquid filtration process: 1) reduction of the time to reach gas breakthrough, 2) less loss of solid into the filtrate, 3) reduction of the (solids) residual moisture content, and 4) acceleration of the de-watering kinetics. These test results and their potential impact on future commercial solid-liquid filtration is discussed. New applications can be found in mining, chemical and bioprocesses.

  4. Particle acceleration at a reconnecting magnetic separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, J.; Neukirch, T.; Parnell, C. E.; Eradat Oskoui, S.

    2015-02-01

    Context. While the exact acceleration mechanism of energetic particles during solar flares is (as yet) unknown, magnetic reconnection plays a key role both in the release of stored magnetic energy of the solar corona and the magnetic restructuring during a flare. Recent work has shown that special field lines, called separators, are common sites of reconnection in 3D numerical experiments. To date, 3D separator reconnection sites have received little attention as particle accelerators. Aims: We investigate the effectiveness of separator reconnection as a particle acceleration mechanism for electrons and protons. Methods: We study the particle acceleration using a relativistic guiding-centre particle code in a time-dependent kinematic model of magnetic reconnection at a separator. Results: The effect upon particle behaviour of initial position, pitch angle, and initial kinetic energy are examined in detail, both for specific (single) particle examples and for large distributions of initial conditions. The separator reconnection model contains several free parameters, and we study the effect of changing these parameters upon particle acceleration, in particular in view of the final particle energy ranges that agree with observed energy spectra.

  5. Magnetic separation from superparamagnetic particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Ashok; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the magnetophoretic separation of magnetic microparticles from a non-dilute flow in a microfluidic channel and their subsequent field-induced aggregation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic force. This force induces dipolar interactions between the particles that aid in their separation from the flow. Existing analytical models for dilute suspensions cannot be extended to non-dilute suspensions in which interparticle magnetic interactions play an important role. We therefore conduct a parametric investigation of the mechanics of this problem in a microcapillary flow through simulations and experimental visualization. When a magnetic field is applied, the magnetic microparticles form an aggregate on the channel wall that is influenced by the competition between the holding magnetic force and the aggregate-depleting flow shear force. Microparticle collection in the aggregate increases linearly with increasing magnetic field strength and is characterized by distinct buildup and washaway phases. The collected microparticle volume fraction in an aggregate is found to depend on a single dimensional group that depends upon characteristic system parameters.

  6. Multistage Magnetic Separator of Cells and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ken; Ainsworth, Mark; Daily, Bruce; Dunn, Scott; Metz, Bill; Vellinger, John; Taylor, Brock; Meador, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The multistage electromagnetic separator for purifying cells and magnetic particles (MAGSEP) is a laboratory apparatus for separating and/or purifying particles (especially biological cells) on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility and magnetophoretic mobility. Whereas a typical prior apparatus based on similar principles offers only a single stage of separation, the MAGSEP, as its full name indicates, offers multiple stages of separation; this makes it possible to refine a sample population of particles to a higher level of purity or to categorize multiple portions of the sample on the basis of magnetic susceptibility and/or magnetophoretic mobility. The MAGSEP includes a processing unit and an electronic unit coupled to a personal computer. The processing unit includes upper and lower plates, a plate-rotation system, an electromagnet, an electromagnet-translation system, and a capture-magnet assembly. The plates are bolted together through a roller bearing that allows the plates to rotate with respect to each other. An interface between the plates acts as a seal for separating fluids. A lower cuvette can be aligned with as many as 15 upper cuvette stations for fraction collection during processing. A two-phase stepping motor drives the rotation system, causing the upper plate to rotate for the collection of each fraction of the sample material. The electromagnet generates a magnetic field across the lower cuvette, while the translation system translates the electromagnet upward along the lower cuvette. The current supplied to the electromagnet, and thus the magnetic flux density at the pole face of the electromagnet, can be set at a programmed value between 0 and 1,400 gauss (0.14 T). The rate of translation can be programmed between 5 and 2,000 m/s so as to align all sample particles in the same position in the cuvette. The capture magnet can be a permanent magnet. It is mounted on an arm connected to a stepping motor. The stepping motor rotates the arm to

  7. Dual magnetic separator for TRIμP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, G.P.A.; Dermois, O.C.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Harakeh, M.N.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Sohani, M.; Traykov, E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The TRIμP facility, under construction at KVI, requires the production and separation of short-lived and rare isotopes. Direct reactions, fragmentation and fusion-evaporation reactions in normal and inverse kinematics are foreseen to produce nuclides of interest with a variety of heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. For this purpose, we have designed, constructed and commissioned a versatile magnetic separator that allows efficient injection into an ion catcher, i.e., gas-filled stopper/cooler or thermal ionizer, from which a low energy radioactive beam will be extracted. The separator performance was tested with the production and clean separation of 21 Na ions, where a beam purity of 99.5% could be achieved. For fusion-evaporation products, some of the features of its operation as a gas-filled recoil separator were tested

  8. Separation of magnetic affinity biopolymer adsorbents in a Davis tube magnetic separator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Mucha, Pavel; Pechoč, Jiří; Stoklasa, Jaroslav; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2001), s. 851-855 ISSN 0141-5492 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Davis tube * magnetic adsorbents * magnetic separation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2001

  9. A new industrial application of magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beharrell, P.A.

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the application of magnetic separation to the removal and recovery of carbon steel grinding swarf from machining fluids used in large-scale industrial manufacturing processes such as in the automotive industry. Magnetic separation is a technology which has found widespread application in the mineral processing industry and in particular the beneficiation of kaolin clay for use in the paper industry. The technical feasibility of the application was demonstrated in the early stages of the work by the successful treatment of industrial samples using a crude laboratory-scale separator. In addition, the fluid and swarf material underwent extensive analysis using electron microscope-based optical and spectroscopic techniques in order to ascertain the presence of other undesirable components of the fluid that would require removal also. It was demonstrated by these results that the overall objective of the project was the development and testing of a laboratory-scale system which would allow the optimum operational parameters to be ascertained for the design of a commercially viable, large-scale system. A series of detailed trials on large volumes of industrial samples was carried out in conjunction with the development of the modifications that were required to existing magnetic separation theory in order to accommodate the particulars of this application. The trial system was tested to low applied magnetic strengths and high fluid flow velocities in order to optimise the economics of the application, resulting in extraction efficiencies of the order of 99.998% being achieved. During the course of the project, a new type of matrix cleaning system was developed for which a patent was applied and this was successfully tested in the trial system. Economic appraisal of the application suggests that an industrial-scale system could provide reliable, high quality recovery of grinding swarf at a cost of around one cent per cubic metre of

  10. Magnetic circuit with large blocks from NdFeB magnets for suspended magnetic separators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2010), s. 227-235 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic circuits * magnetic separation * permanent magnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.452, year: 2010 www.irsm.cas.cz/?Lang=CZE&Menu=25,0,0,0

  11. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.; Shanks, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Miscellaneous laboratory tests (most of them on cyanide residues) were undertaken to supplement on-site pilot-plant work on wet high intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Initially, the main concern was with blockage of the matrix, and consideration was given to the use of a reverse-flushing system. The laboratory tests on this system were encouraging, but they were not of sufficiently long duration to be conclusive. The velocity of the pulp through the matrix is important, because it determines the capacity of the separator and the recovery obtainable. Of almost equal importance is the magnetic load, which affects the velocity of the pulp and the recovery. Typically, a recovery of 51 per cent of the uranium was reduced to one of 40 per cent as the magnetic load was increased from 25 to 100 g/l, while the pulp velocity decreased from 62 to 36 mm/s. There was some indication that, for the same pulp velocity, lower recoveries are obtained when free-fall feeding is used. Some benefit was observed in the application of WHIMS to coarsely ground ore; from a Blyvooruitzicht rod-mill product, 25 per cent of the total uranium was recovered when only 29 per cent of the rod-mill product (the finest portion) was treated. A similar recovery was made from 43 per cent of the rod-mill product from Stilfontein; a second stage of treatment after regrinding raised the overall recovery of uranium to 76,4 per cent. Recoveries of 55 and 42 per cent of the uranium were obtained in tests on two flotation tailings from Free State Geduld. In a determination of the mass magnetic susceptibilities of the constituents in a typical concentrate obtained by WHIMS, it was found that some 20 per cent of the magnetic product had a susceptibility of less than 5,4 X 10 -6 e.m.u. but contained 38 per cent of the uranium recovered by WHIMS. A few tests were conducted on different types of matrix. A matrix of spaced horizontal rods is recommended for possible future consideration [af

  12. Recovery and separation of iron from iron ore using innovative fluidized magnetization roasting and magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, a pilot-scale fluidized magnetization roasting reactor was introduced and used to enhance magnetic properties of iron ore. Consequently, the effects of roasting temperature, reducing gas CO flow rate, and fluidizing gas N2 flow rate on the magnetization roasting performance were studied. The results indicated that the hematite was almost completely converted into magnetite by a gas mixture of 4 Nm3/h CO and 1 Nm3/h N2 at roasting temperature of 540°C for about 30 s. Under optimized conditions, a high grade concentrate containing 66.84% iron with iron recovery of 91.16% was achieved. The XRD, VSM, and optical microscopy (OM analyses revealed that most of the hematite, except some coarse grains, was selectively converted to magnetite, and that the magnetic properties were greatly enhanced. Thus, their separation from non-magnetic gangue minerals was facilitated.

  13. An improved steam generator model for the SASSYS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzica, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    A new steam generator model has been developed for the SASSYS computer code, which analyzes accident conditions in a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor. It has been incorporated into the new SASSYS balance-of-plant model, but it can also function as a stand-alone model. The model provides a full solution of the steady-state condition before the transient calculation begins for given sodium and water flow rates, inlet and outlet sodium temperatures, and inlet enthalpy and region lengths on the water side

  14. Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

  15. MSWI boiler fly ashes: magnetic separation for material recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc; Hubaux, Paul; Lucion, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, ferrous materials are usually recovered from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash by magnetic separation. To our knowledge, such a physical technique has not been applied so far to other MSWI residues. This study focuses thus on the applicability of magnetic separation on boiler fly ashes (BFA). Different types of magnet are used to extract the magnetic particles. We investigate the magnetic particle composition, as well as their leaching behaviour (EN 12457-1 leaching test). The magnetic particles present higher Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni concentration than the non-magnetic (NM) fraction. Magnetic separation does not improve the leachability of the NM fraction. To approximate industrial conditions, magnetic separation is also applied to BFA mixed with water by using a pilot. BFA magnetic separation is economically evaluated. This study globally shows that it is possible to extract some magnetic particles from MSWI boiler fly ashes. However, the magnetic particles only represent from 23 to 120 g/kg of the BFA and, though they are enriched in Fe, are composed of similar elements to the raw ashes. The industrial application of magnetic separation would only be profitable if large amounts of ashes were treated (more than 15 kt/y), and the process should be ideally completed by other recovery methods or advanced treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of Magnetic Filter for Separation of Magnetic Gel Particles

    OpenAIRE

    栗延, 俊太郎; 尾崎, 博明; 渡辺, 恒雄; クリノブ, シュンタロウ; オザキ, ヒロアキ; ワタナベ, ツネオ; Shuntaro, KURINOBU; Hiroaki, OZAKI; Tuneo, WATANABE

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a new wastewater treatment process using magnetic gel particles containing immobilized microorganisms and magnetic particles. The performance of magnetic gel particles using a magnetic filter is very important to control the process. In this study, the performance of a magnetic filter was studied for magnetic gel, particles. Agar particles containing magnetite particles were used as gel particles. The recovery and the relative retention area of magnetic gel particles on the ...

  17. Integrated acoustic and magnetic separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Jonathan; Thevoz, Patrick; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    With a growing number of cell-based biotechnological applications, there is a need for particle separation systems capable of multiparameter separations at high purity and throughput, beyond what is presently offered by traditional methods including fluorescence activated cell sorting and column......-based magnetic separation. Toward this aim, we report on the integration of microfluidic acoustic and magnetic separation in a monolithic device for multiparameter particle separation. Using our device, we demonstrate high-purity separation of a multicomponent particle mixture at a throughput of up to 10...

  18. High gradient magnetic separation applied to environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.; Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Schake, A.; de Aguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Tolt, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is an application of superconducting magnet technology to the separation of magnetic solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. The production of both high magnetic fields (>4 T) and large field gradients using superconducting magnet technology has made it possible to separate a previously unreachable but large family of paramagnetic materials. This is a powerful technique that can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material and may be the only technique available for separating material in the colloidal state. Because it is a physical separation process, no additional waste is generated. We are applying this technology to the treatment of radioactive wastes for environmental remediation. We have conducted tests examining slurries containing nonradioactive, magnetic surrogates. Results from these studies were used to verify our analytical model of the separation process. The model describes the rate process for magnetic separation and is based on a force balance on the paramagnetic species. This model was used to support bench scale experiments and prototype separator design

  19. Magnetic matrices used in high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ge

    Full Text Available HGMS is effective in separating or filtering fine and weakly magnetic particles and widely applied in mineral processing, water treatment, cell and protein purification. The magnetic matrix is a crucial device used in magnetic separator to generate high magnetic field gradient and provide surface sites for capturing magnetic particles. The material, geometry, size and arrangement of the matrix elements can significantly affect the gradient and distribution of the magnetic field, and the separating or filtrating performance. In this paper, the researches and developments of magnetic matrices used in HGMS are reviewed. Keywords: Magnetic matrix, HGMS, Review

  20. Magnetic separator having a multilayer matrix, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelland, David R.

    1980-01-01

    A magnetic separator having multiple staggered layers of porous magnetic material positioned to intercept a fluid stream carrying magnetic particles and so placed that a bypass of each layer is effected as the pores of the layer become filled with material extracted from the fluid stream.

  1. Theoretical validation for changing magnetic fields of systems of permanent magnets of drum separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovaya, S. Y.; Lozovoy, N. M.; Okunev, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    This article is devoted to the theoretical validation of the change in magnetic fields created by the permanent magnet systems of the drum separators. In the article, using the example of a magnetic separator for enrichment of highly magnetic ores, the method of analytical calculation of the magnetic fields of systems of permanent magnets based on the Biot-Savart-Laplace law, the equivalent solenoid method, and the superposition principle of fields is considered.

  2. Magnetic Separation Using HTS Bulk Magnet for Cs-Bearing Fe precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, T.; Ichiju, K.; Sasaki, S.; Ogawa, J.; Fukui, S.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Aoki, S.; Ohnishi, N.

    2017-09-01

    A peculiar magnetic separation technique has been examined in order to remove the Cs-bearing Fe precipitates formed of the waste ash from the withdrawn incinerator furnaces in Fukushima. The separation system was constructed in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets which generates the intensive magnetic field over 2 T, which was activated by the pulsed field magnetization process. The separation experiment has been operated with use of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device, which followed the high-gradient magnetic separation technique. The magnetic stainless steel filters installed in the water channels are magnetized by the applied magnetic fields, and are capable of attracting the precipitates bearing the Fe compound and thin Cs contamination. The experimental results clearly exhibited the positive feasibility of HTS bulk magnets.

  3. Social Interpretation Bias in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Psychometric Examination of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Rozenman, Michelle; Langley, Audra K; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda S; Compton, Scott; Walkup, John T; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John

    2017-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been positively linked to anxiety severity, even within anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on cognitive bias during intervention. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) scale, a self-report measure developed to assess interpretation bias in youth. Participants (N=488, age 7 to 17) met diagnostic criteria for Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and/or Separation Anxiety Disorder. An exploratory factor analysis was performed on baseline data from youth participating in a large randomized clinical trial. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors (Accusation/Blame, Social Rejection). The SASSY full scale and Social Rejection factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency, convergent validity with social anxiety, and discriminant validity as evidenced by non-significant correlations with measures of non-social anxiety. Further, the SASSY Social Rejection factor accurately distinguished children and adolescents with Social Phobia from those with other anxiety disorders, supporting its criterion validity, and revealed sensitivity to changes with treatment. Given the relevance to youth with social phobia, pre- and post-intervention data were examined for youth social phobia to test sensitivity to treatment effects; results suggested that SASSY scores reduced for treatment responders. Findings suggest the potential utility of the SASSY Social Rejection factor as a quick, reliable, and efficient way of assessing interpretation bias in anxious youth, particularly as related to social concerns, in research and clinical settings.

  4. Remediation of Hanford tank waste using magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, L.A.; Avens, L.R.; de Aguero, K.J.; Coyne Prenger, F.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Large volumes of high-level radioactive waste are stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford site. Magnetic separation, a physical separation, process, can be used to segregate actinides and certain fission products from the waste. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) tests have been performed successfully using a simulated, nonradioactive underground storage tank (UST) waste. Variations in HGMS test parameters included separator matrix material, magnetic field strength, slurry surfactant, and slurry solids loading. Cerium was added to the simulated tank waste to act as a uranium surrogate. Results show that over 77% of the uranium surrogate can be captured and concentrated from the original bulk with a simple procedure. The results of these tests and the feasibility of magnetic separation for pretreatment of UST waste are discussed

  5. Iso-geometric shape optimization of magnetic density separators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang Manh, Nguyen; Evgrafov, Anton; Gravesen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The waste recycling industry increasingly relies on magnetic density separators. These devices generate an upward magnetic force in ferro-fluids allowing to separate the immersed particles according to their mass density. Recently, a new separator design has been proposed that significantly...... reduces the required amount of permanent magnet material. The purpose of this paper is to alleviate the undesired end-effects in this design by altering the shape of the ferromagnetic covers of the individual poles. Design/methodology/approach The paper represents the shape of the ferromagnetic pole...

  6. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration...... of soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic elements....

  7. Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally...... applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate the controlled transportation of a large population of particles over several millimeters of distance as well as the spatial separation of two populations of magnetic particles with different magnetophoretic mobilities. The technique can be used for the controlled...... selective manipulation and separation of magnetically labelled species. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics....

  8. SASSYS-1 balance-of-plant component models for an integrated plant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J.-Y.

    1989-01-01

    Models of power plant heat transfer components and rotating machinery have been added to the balance-of-plant model in the SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor systems analysis code. This work is part of a continuing effort in plant network simulation based on the general mathematical models developed. The models described in this paper extend the scope of the balance-of-plant model to handle non-adiabatic conditions along flow paths. While the mass and momentum equations remain the same, the energy equation now contains a heat source term due to energy transfer across the flow boundary or to work done through a shaft. The heat source term is treated fully explicitly. In addition, the equation of state is rewritten in terms of the quality and separate parameters for each phase. The models are simple enough to run quickly, yet include sufficient detail of dominant plant component characteristics to provide accurate results. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Self-assembled magnetic filter for highly efficient immunomagnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Newton, Andita; Pittet, Mikael; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2011-01-07

    We have developed a compact and inexpensive microfluidic chip, the self-assembled magnetic filter, to efficiently remove magnetically tagged cells from suspension. The self-assembled magnetic filter consists of a microfluidic channel built directly above a self-assembled NdFeB magnet. Micrometre-sized grains of NdFeB assemble to form alternating magnetic dipoles, creating a magnetic field with a very strong magnitude B (from the material) and field gradient ▽B (from the configuration) in the microfluidic channel. The magnetic force imparted on magnetic beads is measured to be comparable to state-of-the-art microfabricated magnets, allowing for efficient separations to be performed in a compact, simple device. The efficiency of the magnetic filter is characterized by sorting non-magnetic (polystyrene) beads from magnetic beads (iron oxide). The filter enriches the population of non-magnetic beads to magnetic beads by a factor of >10(5) with a recovery rate of 90% at 1 mL h(-1). The utility of the magnetic filter is demonstrated with a microfluidic device that sorts tumor cells from leukocytes using negative immunomagnetic selection, and concentrates the tumor cells on an integrated membrane filter for optical detection.

  10. Isotope separation utilizing Zeeman compensated magnetic extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsen, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    A vapor flow of elemental uranium is directed into a region where narrow band, tuned laser radiation is repeatedly applied to provide at least two energy step selective ionization of the U 235 isotope in the vapor flow. A magnetic field is applied in the region of the ionized U 235 which creates a Lorentz force on the moving ions directing them toward one of a plurality of collection plates placed generally parallel to the vapor flow to permit collection of the U 235 particles in substantially enriched proportions as compared to the concentration in the vapor flow generally. To prevent a broadening of the absorption lines for both the U 235 and U 238 isotopes in the vapor flow from the applied magnetic field and thus prevent substantial reduction in the selectivity of the excitation and ionization, the magnetic field is preferably applied in a time varying magnitude which is phased with respect to the repetitive application of laser radiation to provide a relatively low field strength and corresponding small Zeeman splitting during selective excitation and ionization of the U 235 particles

  11. Dendrimer-coated magnetic particles for radionuclide separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüttner, Cordula; Böhmer, Volker; Casnati, Alessandro; Dozol, Jean-Francois; Reinhoudt, David; Reinoso garcia, M.M.; Rudershausen, Sandra; Teller, Joachim; Ungaro, Rocco; Verboom, Willem; Wang, Pingshan

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic particles were synthesised for radionuclide removal from nuclear wastes by magnetic separation. Dendrimers with terminal amino groups attached to the particle surface were used to bind chelating groups for lanthanides and actinides. This led to a 50–400-fold increase of the distribution

  12. Apparatus and method for continuous separation of magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2010-02-09

    A magnetic separator vessel (1) for separating magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluid includes a separation chamber having an interior and exterior wall, a top and bottom portion; a magnet (3) having first and second poles (2) positioned adjacent to the exterior wall, wherein the first pole is substantially diametrically opposed to the second pole; a inlet port (5) is directed into the top portion of the separation chamber, wherein the inlet port (5) is positioned adjacent to one of the first and second poles (2), wherein the inlet port (5) is adapted to transfer a mixture into the separation chamber; an underflow port (6) in communication with the bottom portion, wherein the underflow port (6) is adapted to receive the magnetic particles; and an overflow port (9) in communication with the separation chamber, wherein the overflow port (9) is adapted to receive the non-magnetic fluid.

  13. Study on magnetic separation system using high Tc superconducting bulk magnets for water purification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T; Kanayama, H; Tanaka, K; Fukui, S; Ogawa, J; Sato, T; Ooizumi, M; Yamaguchi, M; Yokoyama, K; Noto, K

    2009-01-01

    The application of superconducting bulk magnets to the magnetic separation techniques has been investigated for the Mn-bearing waste water drained from the university laboratories. The research has been conducted in comparison with the electromagnets, and the cryo-cooled superconducting solenoid magnet. The separation ratios of ferrite precipitates including Mn element in the waste slurry were estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with ferromagnetic iron filters in the water channel and open gradient magnetic separation without them. As the magnetic force acting on the particles is given by the product of a magnetization of particles and a gradient of magnetic field, and a superconducting bulk magnet shows a sharp gradient of the magnetic field on the surface, the performances of the bulk magnet system were almost equivalent to those of the superconducting solenoid magnet with wide bore with respect to the magnetic separation ratios. The separation ratios for Mn have reached over 80 % for HGMS and 10 % for OGMS under the flow rates less than 3 liter/min.

  14. Magnetic precipitate separation for Ni plating waste liquid using HTS bulk magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, T., E-mail: okat@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M. [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Ohmae-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Aichi Giken Co., 2-1-47 Shiobaru, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8520 (Japan); Terasawa, T. [IMRA Material R and D Co., Ltd., 2-1 Asahimachi, Kariya, Aichi 448-0032 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► The magnetic separation was operated for recycling the electroless plating waste. ► The HTS bulk magnet effectively attracted the ferromagnetic precipitates with Ni. ► The separation ratios over 90% were reported under flow rates up to 1.35 L/min. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment for recycling the nickel-bearing precipitates in the waste liquid from the electroless plating processes has been practically conducted under the high gradient magnetic separation technique with use of the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet system. A couple of facing magnetic poles containing Sm123 bulk superconductors were activated through the pulsed field magnetization process to 1.86 T at 38 K and 2.00 T at 37 K, respectively. The weakly magnetized metallic precipitates of Ni crystals and Ni–P compounds deposited from the waste solution after heating it and pH controlling. The high gradient magnetic separation technique was employed with the separation channels filled with the stainless steel balls with dimension of 1 and 3 mm in diameter, which periodically moved between and out of the facing magnetic poles. The Ni-bearing precipitates were effectively attracted to the magnetized ferromagnetic balls. We have succeeded in obtaining the separation ratios over 90% under the flow rates less than 1.35 L/min.

  15. In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin; Ottow, Kim Ekelund

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for in situ product removal from bioreactors is presented in which high-gradient magnetic separation is used. This separation process was used for the adsorptive removal of proteases secreted by Bacillus licheniformis. Small, non-porous bacitracin linked magnetic adsorbents were...... was not influenced by the in situ product removal step. Protease production also remained the same after the separation step. Furthermore, degradation of the protease, which followed first order kinetics, was reduced by using the method. Using a theoretical modeling approach, we Could show that protease yield...... in total was enhanced by using in situ magnetic separation. The process described here is a promising technique to improve overall yield in No production processes which are often limited due to weak downstream operations, Potential limitations encountered during a bioprocess can be overcome...

  16. Use of high gradient magnetic separation for actinide application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of materials such as soils or waste water that contain radioactive isotopes, heavy metals, or hazardous components is a subject of great interest. Magnetic separation is a physical separation process that segregates materials on the basis of magnetic susceptibility. Because the process relies on physical properties, separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Most traditional physical separation processes effectively treat particles larger than 70 microns. In many situations, the radioactive contaminants are found concentrated in the fine particle size fraction of less than 20 microns. For effective decontamination of the fine particle size fraction most current operations resort to chemical dissolution methods for treatment. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is able to effectively treat particles from 90 to ∼0.1 micron in diameter. The technology is currently used on the 60 ton per hour scale in the kaolin clay industry. When the field gradient is of sufficiently high intensity, paramagnetic particles can be physically captured and separated from extraneous nonmagnetic material. Because all actinide compounds are paramagnetic, magnetic separation of actinide containing mixtures is feasible. The advent of reliable superconducting magnets also makes magnetic separation of weakly paramagnetic species attractive. HGMS work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is being developed for soil remediation, waste water treatment and treatment of actinide chemical processing residues. LANL and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) have worked on a co-operative research and development agreement (CRADA) to develop HGMS for radioactive soil decontamination. The program is designed to transfer HGMS from the laboratory and other industries for the commercial treatment of radioactive contaminated materials. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  18. Low field orientation magnetic separation methods for magnetotactic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeschler, F.D.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial biomineralisation of iron often results in a biomass that is magnetic and can be separated from water systems by the application of a magnetic field. Magnetotactic bacteria form magnetic membrane bound crystals within their structure, generally of magnetite. In nature, this enables magnetotactic bacteria to orientate themselves with respect to the local geomagnetic field. The bacteria then migrate with flagellar driven motion towards their preferred environment. This property has been harnessed to produce a process in which metal loaded magnetotactic bacteria can be recovered from a waste stream. This process is known as orientation magnetic separation. Several methods exist which permit the unique magnetic properties of individual magnetotactic bacteria to be studied, such as U-turn analysis, transmission electron microscopy and single wire cell studies. In this work an extension of U-turn analysis was developed. The bacteria were rendered non-motile by the addition of specific metal ions and the resulting 'flip time' which occurs during a field reversal enabled the magnetic moment of individual bacteria to be determined. This method proved to be much faster and more accurate than previous methods. For a successful process to be developed, large scale culturing of magnetotactic bacteria is required Experiments showed that culture vessel geometry was an important factor for high-density growth. Despite intensive studies reproducible culturing at volumes exceeding one litre was not achieved. This work showed that numerous metal ions rendered magnetotactic bacteria non-motile at concentrations below 10 ppm. Sequential adaptation raised typical levels to in excess of 100 ppm for a number of ions. such as zinc and tin. However, specific ions. such as copper or nickel, remained motility inhibiting at lower concentrations. To achieve separation using orientation magnetic separation, motile, field susceptible MTB are required. Despite successful adaptation, the

  19. Bench-scale magnetic separation of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegler, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Criteria were developed for selection of candidate wastes for testing magnetic separation of uranium and/or other paramagnetic materials. A survey of Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous wastes was conducted to determine good candidates for bench-scale magnetic separation tests. Representatives of 21 DOE sites were contacted, and 11 materials were identified as potential candidates for magnetic separation. To date, seven samples have been obtained and tested for separability of uranium with a bench-scale magnetic assaying device. The samples tested have been obtained from the K-1401B and K-1401C ponds in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; from waste piles in Maywood, New Jersey; from North and South Ponds in Richland, Washington; and from magnesium fluoride drums in Fernald, Ohio. The magnetic device utilized in these tests can be used in an open-gradient mode with dry particulate or liquid-suspended materials. Uranium separation from magnesium fluoride has shown exceptionally good performance in both open- and high-gradient modes and could be an important application of the technology

  20. The Snapshot A Star SurveY (SASSY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garani, Jasmine I.; Nielsen, Eric; Marchis, Franck; Liu, Michael C.; Macintosh, Bruce; Rajan, Abhijith; De Rosa, Robert J.; Jinfei Wang, Jason; Esposito, Thomas M.; Best, William M. J.; Bowler, Brendan; Dupuy, Trent; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-01-01

    The Snapshot A Star Survey (SASSY) is an adaptive optics survey conducted using NIRC2 on the Keck II telescope to search for young, self-luminous planets and brown dwarfs (M > 5MJup) around high mass stars (M > 1.5 M⊙). We present the results of a custom data reduction pipeline developed for the coronagraphic observations of our 200 target stars. Our data analysis method includes basic near infrared data processing (flat-field correction, bad pixel removal, distortion correction) as well as performing PSF subtraction through a Reference Differential Imaging algorithm based on a library of PSFs derived from the observations using the pyKLIP routine. We present the results from the pipeline of a few stars from the survey with analysis of candidate companions. SASSY is sensitive to companions 600,000 times fainter than the host star withint the inner few arcseconds, allowing us to detect companions with masses ~8MJup at age 110 Myr. This work was supported by the Leadership Alliance's Summer Research Early Identification Program at Stanford University, the NSF REU program at the SETI Institute and NASA grant NNX14AJ80G.

  1. Separation of magnetic from non-magnetic information in the Bitter pattern method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, Witold

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of separating magnetic and non-magnetic contributions to the image contrast in the Bitter pattern method. With the help of the digital image difference procedure, it is demonstrated for the first time for the Bitter method that the separation is easy to achieve for relatively soft magnetic specimens, when an external field can be applied to simply produce the non-magnetic reference image of the specimen area under study. It is also shown that obtaining satisfactory results is principally impossible when removing the colloid from the specimen surface is used for the purpose of recording the non-magnetic image

  2. Particle size- and concentration-dependent separation of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Kerstin, E-mail: witte@micromod.de [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 23, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Str. 4, 18119 Rostock (Germany); Müller, Knut; Grüttner, Cordula; Westphal, Fritz [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Str. 4, 18119 Rostock (Germany); Johansson, Christer [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, 40014 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution are of great interest for several biomedical applications. When the size of the particles decreases, the magnetic moment of the particles decreases. This leads to a significant increase in the separation time by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, in the present study the separation processes of bionized nanoferrites (BNF) with different sizes and concentrations were investigated with the commercial Sepmag Q system. It was found that an increasing initial particle concentration leads to a reduction of the separation time for large nanoparticles due to the higher probability of building chains. Small nanoparticles showed exactly the opposite behavior with rising particle concentration up to 0.1 mg(Fe)/ml. For higher iron concentrations the separation time remains constant and the measured Z-average decreases in the supernatant at same time intervals. At half separation time a high yield with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter of particles can be obtained using higher initial particle concentrations. - Highlights: • Size dependent separation processes of multicore nanoparticles. • Concentration dependent separation processes of multicore nanoparticles. • Increasing separation time with rising concentrations for small particles. • Large particles show typical cooperative magnetophoresis behavior.

  3. Agglomeration, colloidal stability, and magnetic separation of magnetic nanoparticles: collective influences on environmental engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Swee Pin; Lim, JitKang; Ooi, Boon Seng; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) which exhibit magnetic and catalytic bifunctionalities have been widely accepted as one of the most promising nanoagents used in water purification processes. However, due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, MNPs can easily lose their colloidal stability and tend to agglomerate. Thus, it is necessary to enhance their colloidal stability in order to maintain the desired high specific surface area. Meanwhile, in order to successfully utilize MNPs for environmental engineering applications, an effective magnetic separation technology has to be developed. This step is to ensure the MNPs that have been used for pollutant removal can be fully reharvested back. Unfortunately, it was recently highlighted that there exists a conflicting role between colloidal stability and magnetic separability of the MNPs, whereby the more colloidally stable the particle is, the harder for it to be magnetically separated. In other words, attaining a win-win scenario in which the MNPs possess both good colloidal stability and fast magnetic separation rate becomes challenging. Such phenomenon has to be thoroughly understood as the colloidal stability and the magnetic separability of MNPs play a pivotal role on affecting their effective implementation in water purification processes. Accordingly, it is the aim of this paper to provide reviews on (i) the colloidal stability and (ii) the magnetic separation of MNPs, as well as to provide insights on (iii) their conflicting relationship based on recent research findings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Towards a magnetic field separation in Ion Beam Sputtering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malobabic, Sina, E-mail: s.malobabic@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Quest: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany); Jupé, Marco [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Quest: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany); Kadhkoda, Puja [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Ristau, Detlev [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Quest: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Defects embedded in coatings due to particle contamination are considered as a primary factor limiting the quality of optical coatings in Ion Beam Sputtering. An approach combining the conventional Ion Beam Sputtering process with a magnetic separator in order to remove these particles from film growth is presented. The separator provides a bent axial magnetic field that guides the material flux towards the substrate positioned at the exit of the separator. Since there is no line of sight between target and substrate, the separator prevents that the particles generated in the target area can reach the substrate. In this context, optical components were manufactured that reveal a particle density three times lower than optical components which were deposited using a conventional Ion Beam Sputtering process. - Highlights: • We use bent magnetic fields to guide and separate the sputtered deposition material. • No line of sight between substrate and target prevents thin films from particles. • The transport efficiency of binary and ternary oxides is investigated. • The defect statistics of manufactured dielectric ternary multilayers are evaluated. • The phase separation leads to a drastically reduction of particle contamination.

  5. Separation of mixed waste plastics via magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Xie, Jun; Gu, Fu; Sharmin, Nusrat; Hall, Philip; Fu, Jianzhong

    2018-06-01

    Separation becomes a bottleneck of dealing with the enormous stream of waste plastics, as most of the extant methods can only handle binary mixtures. In this paper, a novel method that based on magnetic levitation was proposed for separating multiple mixed plastics. Six types of plastics, i.e., polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), were used to simulate the mixed waste plastics. The samples were mixed and immersed into paramagnetic medium that placed into a magnetic levitation configuration with two identical NdFeB magnets with like-poles facing each other, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to verify the separation outputs. Unlike any conventional separation methods such as froth flotation and hydrocyclone, this method is not limited by particle sizes, as mixtures of different size fractions reached their respective equilibrium positions in the initial tests. The two-stage separation tests demonstrated that the plastics can be completely separated with purities reached 100%. The method has the potential to be industrialised into an economically-viable and environmentally-friendly mass production procedure, since quantitative correlations are determined, and the paramagnetic medium can be reused indefinitely. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Zero sound and quasiwave: separation in the magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglyj, E.V.; Bojchuk, A.V.; Burma, N.G.; Fil', V.D.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the behavior of the longitudinal and transverse electron sound in a weak magnetic field are presented. It is shown theoretically that the effects of the magnetic field on zero sound velocity and ballistic transfer are opposite in sign and have sufficiently different dependences on the sample width, excitation frequency and relaxation time. This permits us to separate experimentally the Fermi-liquid and ballistic contributions in the electron sound signals. For the first time the ballistic transfer of the acoustic excitation by the quasiwave has been observed in zero magnetic field

  7. The study on optimization issues for magnetic separation by magnetic chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Iwamoto, R.; Kataoka, K.; Noguchi, S.; Okada, H.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic chromatography is a very useful system for an ion and/or fine magnetic particle separation because it has strong magnetic field gradients even in a very narrow flow channel. We have not only developed the magnetic chromatography system to separate the fine particles and ions, but also the numerical analysis code based on the fluid dynamics and electromagnetism to investigate the separating characteristics and to optimize design of magnetic column. In this study, the simple experiments using a superconducting magnet with a large room-temperature-bore and a micro-scale magnetic column consisting of ferromagnetic wires were carried out to understand the ions separation. The cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) and the nickel sulfate (NiSO 4 ) were used as ions, and the magnetic field and length of magnetic column were used as a parameter in an experiment and an analysis. It can be expected that the ion mobility of a single and complex are quite different, and the ability of the separation will be improved by increasing the column length without external magnetic field.

  8. Tessellated permanent magnet circuits for flow-through, open gradient separations of weakly magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Lee R.; Williams, P. Stephen; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Emerging microfluidic-based cell assays favor label-free red blood cell (RBC) depletion. Magnetic separation of RBC is possible because of the paramagnetism of deoxygenated hemoglobin but the process is slow for open-gradient field configurations. In order to increase the throughput, periodic arrangements of the unit magnets were considered, consisting of commercially available Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets and soft steel flux return pieces. The magnet design is uniquely suitable for multiplexing by magnet tessellation, here meaning the tiling of the magnet assembly cross-sectional plane by periodic repetition of the magnet and the flow channel shapes. The periodic pattern of magnet magnetizations allows a reduction of the magnetic material per channel with minimal distortion of the field cylindrical symmetry inside the magnet apertures. A number of such magnet patterns are investigated for separator performance, size and economy with the goal of designing an open-gradient magnetic separator capable of reducing the RBC number concentration a hundred-fold in 1 mL whole blood per hour. - Highlights: • Simple geometry of commercial, off-the-shelf NdFeB magnet blocks is amenable to generate high fields and open gradients. • Periodic pattern of permanent magnet blocks (tessellation) reduces the number of blocks per separation channel and improves the efficiency of separator design. • Split-flow lateral transport thin (SPLITT) fractionation model predicts 100-fold reduction of red blood cells from 1 mL whole blood sample in 1 h, suitable for laboratory medicine applications.

  9. Tessellated permanent magnet circuits for flow-through, open gradient separations of weakly magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Lee R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44195 (United States); Williams, P. Stephen [Cambrian Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Chalmers, Jeffrey J. [William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus 151 W. Woodruff Avenue, OH 43210 (United States); Zborowski, Maciej, E-mail: zborowm@ccf.org [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44195 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Emerging microfluidic-based cell assays favor label-free red blood cell (RBC) depletion. Magnetic separation of RBC is possible because of the paramagnetism of deoxygenated hemoglobin but the process is slow for open-gradient field configurations. In order to increase the throughput, periodic arrangements of the unit magnets were considered, consisting of commercially available Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets and soft steel flux return pieces. The magnet design is uniquely suitable for multiplexing by magnet tessellation, here meaning the tiling of the magnet assembly cross-sectional plane by periodic repetition of the magnet and the flow channel shapes. The periodic pattern of magnet magnetizations allows a reduction of the magnetic material per channel with minimal distortion of the field cylindrical symmetry inside the magnet apertures. A number of such magnet patterns are investigated for separator performance, size and economy with the goal of designing an open-gradient magnetic separator capable of reducing the RBC number concentration a hundred-fold in 1 mL whole blood per hour. - Highlights: • Simple geometry of commercial, off-the-shelf NdFeB magnet blocks is amenable to generate high fields and open gradients. • Periodic pattern of permanent magnet blocks (tessellation) reduces the number of blocks per separation channel and improves the efficiency of separator design. • Split-flow lateral transport thin (SPLITT) fractionation model predicts 100-fold reduction of red blood cells from 1 mL whole blood sample in 1 h, suitable for laboratory medicine applications.

  10. Magnetofluidic concentration and separation of non-magnetic particles using two magnet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports the use of diluted ferrofluid and two arrays of permanent magnets for the size-selective concentration of non-magnetic particles. The micro magnetofluidic device consists of a straight channels sandwiched between two arrays of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets create multiple capture zones with minimum magnetic field strength along the channel. The complex interaction between magnetic forces and hydrodynamic force allows the device to operate in different regimes suitable for concentration of non-magnetic particles with small difference in size. Our experimental results show that non-magnetic particles with diameters of 3.1 μm and 4.8 μm can be discriminated and separated with this method. The results from this study could be used as a guide for the design of size-sensitive separation devices for particle and cell based on negative magnetophoresis. PMID:27478527

  11. On Poor Separation in Magnetically Driven Shock Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C.T.

    1973-01-01

    Observations made at steady-state running conditions in a magnetically driven shock tube, with parallel-plate electrodes, showed that for a given discharge voltage, sufficient separation between the shock and the current-sheet occurred only at relatively high discharge pressures. As a comparison......, poor separations were also noted in conventional diaphragm-type shock tubes running at low initial pressures. It is demonstrated that the observed poor separation can be explained by a mass leakage, instead of through the wall boundary layer, but through the current-sheet itself....

  12. Metals separation using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Pourfarzaneh, M.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation program was initially funded by DOE EM-50 to develop processes for the efficient separation of radionuclides and other hazardous metals. This process has simulated the partnership between industry and ANL for many applications related to hazardous metal problems in industry. In-tank or near-tank hazardous metals separation using magnetic particles promises simple, compact processing at very low costs and employs mature chemical separations technologies to remove and recover hazardous metals from aqueous solutions. The selective chemical extractants are attached to inexpensive magnetic carrier particles. Surfaces of small particles composed of rare earths or ferromagnetic materials are treated to retain chemical extractants (e.g., TBP, CMPO, quaternary amines, carboxylic acid). After selective partitioning of contaminants to the surface layer, magnets are used to collect the loaded particles from the tank. The particles can be regenerated by stripping the contaminants and the selective metals can be recovered and recycled from the strip solution. This process and its related equipment are simple enough to be used for recovery/recycling and waste minimization activities at many industrial sites. Both the development of the process for hazardous and radioactive waste and the transfer of the technology will be discussed

  13. Separation of the Magnetic Field into External and Internal Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Jia, X.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of a planet or a planetary moon contains contributions from a variety of sources in the environment of the body (external sources) and its interior (internal sources). This chapter describes different methods that have been developed for the separation of external and internal...

  14. Ultrasound imaging for quantitative evaluation of magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanaee, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to an investigation of the potential and technological possibilities of an inline ultrasound system as a quality control system for wet recycling of solid waste. The main targeted recycling technology is magnetic density separation (MDS), a novel technique that was

  15. Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. B. Cotten

    2000-08-01

    This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable.

  16. Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotten, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable

  17. Quantitative Magnetic Separation of Particles and Cells Using Gradient Magnetic Ratcheting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Coleman; Pao, Edward; Tseng, Peter; Aftab, Shayan; Kulkarni, Rajan; Rettig, Matthew; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-04-13

    Extraction of rare target cells from biosamples is enabling for life science research. Traditional rare cell separation techniques, such as magnetic activated cell sorting, are robust but perform coarse, qualitative separations based on surface antigen expression. A quantitative magnetic separation technology is reported using high-force magnetic ratcheting over arrays of magnetically soft micropillars with gradient spacing, and the system is used to separate and concentrate magnetic beads based on iron oxide content (IOC) and cells based on surface expression. The system consists of a microchip of permalloy micropillar arrays with increasing lateral pitch and a mechatronic device to generate a cycling magnetic field. Particles with higher IOC separate and equilibrate along the miropillar array at larger pitches. A semi-analytical model is developed that predicts behavior for particles and cells. Using the system, LNCaP cells are separated based on the bound quantity of 1 μm anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) particles as a metric for expression. The ratcheting cytometry system is able to resolve a ±13 bound particle differential, successfully distinguishing LNCaP from PC3 populations based on EpCAM expression, correlating with flow cytometry analysis. As a proof-of-concept, EpCAM-labeled cells from patient blood are isolated with 74% purity, demonstrating potential toward a quantitative magnetic separation instrument. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Magnetic precipitate separation for Ni plating waste liquid using HTS bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, T.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Terasawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic separation experiment for recycling the nickel-bearing precipitates in the waste liquid from the electroless plating processes has been practically conducted under the high gradient magnetic separation technique with use of the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet system. A couple of facing magnetic poles containing Sm123 bulk superconductors were activated through the pulsed field magnetization process to 1.86 T at 38 K and 2.00 T at 37 K, respectively. The weakly magnetized metallic precipitates of Ni crystals and Ni-P compounds deposited from the waste solution after heating it and pH controlling. The high gradient magnetic separation technique was employed with the separation channels filled with the stainless steel balls with dimension of 1 and 3 mm in diameter, which periodically moved between and out of the facing magnetic poles. The Ni-bearing precipitates were effectively attracted to the magnetized ferromagnetic balls. We have succeeded in obtaining the separation ratios over 90% under the flow rates less than 1.35 L/min.

  19. SASSYS-1 computer code verification with EBR-II test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warinner, D.K.; Dunn, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    The EBR-II natural circulation experiment, XX08 Test 8A, is simulated with the SASSYS-1 computer code and the results for the latter are compared with published data taken during the transient at selected points in the core. The SASSYS-1 results provide transient temperature and flow responses for all points of interest simultaneously during one run, once such basic parameters as pipe sizes, initial core flows, and elevations are specified. The SASSYS-1 simulation results for the EBR-II experiment XX08 Test 8A, conducted in March 1979, are within the published plant data uncertainties and, thereby, serve as a partial verification/validation of the SASSYS-1 code

  20. The electromagnetic design of a permanent magnet based separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelcu, S.

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this work was to design a permanent magnet based device that can selectively transport paramagnetic particles. Using specialised electromagnetic design software various arrangements of permanent magnets have been investigated. Each test geometry had to be constructively simple and able to produce highly non-uniform magnetic fields before being considered further in any more detail. The main parameter to indicate that the test geometry might be a suitable device has been ascribed to the ratio η between the highest (ON) and lowest (OFF) magnetic fields that were measured. A linear arrangement of permanent magnets has been considered first. This device produced a ratio η ∼ 2. Further, the cylindrical and the tubular arrangements may be considered as substantial improvements over the first geometry. The OFF magnetic fields have been substantially reduced by the method of magnetic shielding. Intensive research and modelling has been spent on addressing the problem of finding the optimal geometry for such arrangements. An experimental system has been also built, and the experimental values were compared against the theory. However, the results produced evidence that the manufacturing of any improved geometry (an estimated η ∼ 100) in this direction might be very difficult, for the tolerances involved were very strict. The disk arrangement was the latest device to be investigated. Particularly, a magnetic dipole model developed earlier for the ring arrangement suggested the way in which to arrange the magnets in the ON position. Moreover, the use of the magnetic symmetry of the device forced the OFF magnetic fields to negligible values. Detailed computer simulations of the dynamics of the particles in the applied magnetic field of the tubular and disk arrangements have been earned out. The adopted models could show realistic phenomena, e.g. particle clustering, chaining, block movement, etc. The separation efficiency proved to be nearly 100%. For the

  1. Waste water purification by magnetic separation technique using HTS bulk magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Kanayama, H.; Tanaka, K.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Terasawa, T.; Itoh, Y.; Yabuno, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of strong magnetic field generators composed of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet systems to the magnetic separation techniques for the waste water including thin emulsion bearing the cutting oil. Two types of the strong field generators were prepared by the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet systems, which emit the magnetic field density of 1 and 2 T in the open spaces between the magnetic poles activated by the pulsed field magnetization and the field cooling methods, respectively. A couple of water channels containing iron balls were settled in the strong field to trap the magnetized flocks in the waste water. The separation ratios of flocks containing 200 ppm magnetite powder were evaluated with respect to the flow rates of the waste water. The performances of bulk magnet system have kept showing values of around 100% until the flowing rate reached up to 18 l/min. This suggests that the magnetic separation by using bulk magnets is effective for the practical water purification systems.

  2. Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Gallegos, U.F.; McFarlan, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Several plutonium contaminated residues have been subjected to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. OGMS experiments on graphite and bomb reduction residues resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. Values for the bulk quantity rejected to the lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the lean fraction plutonium content was too high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. 6 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  3. Electrospun magnetically separable calcium ferrite nanofibers for photocatalytic water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Rafei, A.M.; El-Kalliny, Amer S.; Gad-Allah, Tarek A.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional random calcium ferrite, CaFe 2 O 4 , nanofibers (NFs) were successfully prepared via the electrospinning method. The effect of calcination temperature on the characteristics of the as-spun NFs was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that CaFe 2 O 4 phase crystallized as a main phase at 700 °C and as a sole phase at 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy emphasized that CaFe 2 O 4 NFs were fabricated with diameters in the range of 50–150 nm and each fiber was composed of 20–50 nm grains. Magnetic hysteresis loops revealed superparamagnetic behavior for the prepared NFs. These NFs produced active hydroxyl radicals under simulated solar light irradiation making them recommendable for photocatalysis applications in water purification. In the meantime, these NFs can be easily separated from the treated water by applying an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous random CaFe 2 O 4 NFs were successfully produced via electrospinning method. • These NFs exhibited typical superparamagnetic behavior for the ferromagnetic materials. • The low band-gap energy of these NFs (~1.6 eV) allows them to absorb a wide range of the solar spectrum. • These NFs can produce the active • OH under solar light and can be recovered easily by applying an external magnetic field. • These NFs can be used solely as magnetically separable photocatalyst or as magnetic additive for another photocatalyst.

  4. Dynamics of magnetic particles in cylindrical Halbach array: implications for magnetic cell separation and drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinec, Peter; Krafcík, Andrej; Babincová, Melánia; Rosenecker, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for therapy and diagnosis are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. In this study, we have theoretically studied motion of magnetic nano- as well as micro-particles in the field of cylindrical Halbach array of permanent magnets. Magnetic flux density was modeled as magnetostatic problem by finite element method and particle motion was described using system of ordinary differential equations--Newton law. Computations were done for nanoparticles Nanomag-D with radius 65 nm, which are often used in magnetic drug targeting, as well as microparticles DynaBeads-M280 with radius 1.4 microm, which can be used for magnetic separation. Analyzing snapshots of trajectories of hundred magnetite particles of each size in the water as well as in the air, we have found that optimally designed magnetic circuits of permanent magnets in quadrupolar Halbach array have substantially shorter capture time than simple blocks of permanent magnets commonly used in experiments, therefore, such a Halbach array may be useful as a potential source of magnetic field for magnetic separation and targeting of magnetic nanoparticles as well as microparticles for delivery of drugs, genes, and cells in various biomedical applications.

  5. [Development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyuan; Chen, Yi

    2014-05-01

    The article describes the development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument. The main application of the instrument is to capture tubercle bacillus from sputum. It is a pretreatment instrument and provides a new platform to help doctors to diagnose bacillary phthisis. Not only could it be used for tubercle bacillus capturing, but also for gene, protein and cell separating and purification. Because the controller of the instrument is 16-bit single chip microcomputer, the cost could be greatly reduced and it will be widely used in China.

  6. Particle capture efficiency in a multi-wire model for high gradient magnetic separation

    KAUST Repository

    Eisenträ ger, Almut; Vella, Dominic; Griffiths, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is an efficient way to remove magnetic and paramagnetic particles, such as heavy metals, from waste water. As the suspension flows through a magnetized filter mesh, high magnetic gradients around the wires

  7. Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Susumu, E-mail: igarashi@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko, E-mail: yoko-ak@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The method for the soil decontamination by the superconducting magnet is proposed. • Magnetic separation of clay minerals was performed by HGMS. • Soil separation ratio was evaluated by quantitative analysis using XRD. • It is expected that HGMS can be applied to the actual soil decontamination. - Abstract: The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

  8. Nickel recovery from electric arc furnace slag by magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaroglou Marianna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the pyrometallurgical treatment of the nickel-bearing laterite in the plant of G.M.M. S.A. LARCO, slag is produced after treatment in electric-arc furnace (EAF that contains 0.10 to 0.20 % Ni. Taking into account the great quantity of slag produced per year, the recovery of nickel from the EAF slag will add benefits to the entire process. The target of the current work is to investigate the possibility of nickel recovery from EAF slag by magnetic separation. To meet the target, the effect of the following parameters was studied: grain size, magnetic field intensity, thickness of slag layer, moisture content, and re-grinding of the coarser slag particles. The results show that it is possible to obtain a magnetic product with nickel grade close to that of the primary raw material or even better, with sufficient nickel recovery.

  9. Characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rocks waste by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junca, E.; Telles, V.B.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Oliveira, J.R. de; Tenorio, J.A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rock waste by magnetic separation. The magnetic separation was realized in three steps: first, using a high intensity wet magnetic separator, which used only the remaining magnetic field of equipment. In the second step, the magnetic material obtained in the first phase was subjected to a new manual magnetic separation using rare earth magnets. In a third step, magnetic material obtained with rare earth magnets was subjected to manual magnetic separation using ferrite magnets. After the magnetic separation, the material was sent to characterization which was obtained by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and size analysis. The size analysis showed that the concentrate range from 0,5 to 563,67 μm with 4 wt.% over 100 μm and content metallic iron of 93 wt%. (author)

  10. Amine-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles for DNA separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Junjian; Qi, Xiaoliang; Zuo, Gancheng; Chen, Qi; Pan, Xihao; Dong, Wei, E-mail: weidong@njust.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@EDPS with uniform size and good dispersity is prepared. • We fabricated MMSN@EDPS with distinct core-shell–shell triple-layer composition. • DNA adsorption capacity of MMSN@EDPS is considerable. - Abstract: We report a modified approach for the functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) using polymer microspheres incorporated with magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the core-shell magnetic silica nanoparticles (MSN). These particles were functionalized with amino groups via the addition of aminosilane directly to the particle sol. We then evaluate their DNA separation abilities and find the capacity of DNA binding significantly increased (210.22 μg/mg) compared with normal magnetic silica spheres (138.44 μg/mg) by using an ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV). The morphologies, magnetic properties, particle size, pore size, core-shell structure and Zeta potential are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). This work demonstrates that our MMSN own an excellent potential application in bioseparation and drug delivery.

  11. Electrospun magnetically separable calcium ferrite nanofibers for photocatalytic water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Rafei, A.M., E-mail: am.amin@nrc.sci.eg [Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, 33 EL Bohouth St. (former EL Tahrir St.), P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); El-Kalliny, Amer S.; Gad-Allah, Tarek A. [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, 33 EL Bohouth St. (former EL Tahrir St.), P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-04-15

    Three-dimensional random calcium ferrite, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, nanofibers (NFs) were successfully prepared via the electrospinning method. The effect of calcination temperature on the characteristics of the as-spun NFs was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase crystallized as a main phase at 700 °C and as a sole phase at 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy emphasized that CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NFs were fabricated with diameters in the range of 50–150 nm and each fiber was composed of 20–50 nm grains. Magnetic hysteresis loops revealed superparamagnetic behavior for the prepared NFs. These NFs produced active hydroxyl radicals under simulated solar light irradiation making them recommendable for photocatalysis applications in water purification. In the meantime, these NFs can be easily separated from the treated water by applying an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous random CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NFs were successfully produced via electrospinning method. • These NFs exhibited typical superparamagnetic behavior for the ferromagnetic materials. • The low band-gap energy of these NFs (~1.6 eV) allows them to absorb a wide range of the solar spectrum. • These NFs can produce the active {sup •} OH under solar light and can be recovered easily by applying an external magnetic field. • These NFs can be used solely as magnetically separable photocatalyst or as magnetic additive for another photocatalyst.

  12. The suspended magnetic separator with large blocks from NdFeB magnets and its long term technological tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2011), s. 89-97 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic separation * magnetic separators * magnetic circuits Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/01_11/8_Zezulka.pdf

  13. Photocatalytically active titanium dioxide nanopowders: Synthesis, photoactivity and magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkanen, J-P; Heinonen, S; Saarivirta, E Huttunen; Honkanen, M; Levänen, E

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches were used to obtain nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalyst powders. Firstly, low-temperature synthesis method and secondly liquid flame spraying. The structural properties of the produced powders were determined with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption tests. The photocatalytic properties of the powders were studied with methylene blue (MB) discoloration tests. After discolorations tests, TiO 2 was coagulated with magnetite particles using FeCl 3 ·6 H 2 O at a fixed pH value. Magnetic separation of coagulated TiO 2 and magnetite was carried out by a permanent magnet. The obtained results showed that the particle size of the powders synthesized at low-temperature was very small and the specific surface area high. The phase content of the powder was also shown to depend greatly on the acidity of the synthesis solution. Powder synthesized by liquid flame spraying was mixture of anatase and rutile phases with essentially larger particle size and lower specific surface area than those of low-temperature synthesized powders. The MB discoloration test showed that photocatalytic activity depends on the phase structure as well as the specific surface area of the synthesized TiO 2 powder. The magnetic separation of TiO 2 –magnetite coagulate from solution proved to be efficient around pH:8

  14. Effect of atomic disorder on the magnetic phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshev, A. G.; Arzhnikov, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of disorder on the magnetic phase separation between the antiferromagnetic and incommensurate helical and phases is investigated. The study is based on the quasi-two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model in the presence of atomic disorder (the Anderson–Hubbard model). A model of binary alloy disorder is considered, in which the disorder is determined by the difference in energy between the host and impurity atomic levels at a fixed impurity concentration. The problem is solved within the theory of functional integration in static approximation. Magnetic phase diagrams are obtained as functions of the temperature, the number of electrons and impurity concentration with allowance for phase separation. It is shown that for the model parameters chosen, the disorder caused by impurities whose atomic-level energy is greater than that of the host atomic levels, leads to qualitative changes in the phase diagram of the impurity-free system. In the opposite case, only quantitative changes occur. The peculiarities of the effect of disorder on the phase separation regions of the quasi-two-dimensional Hubbard model are discussed.

  15. Plasma separation process: Magnet move to Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This is the final report on the series of operations which culminated with the delivery of the Plasma Separation Process prototype magnet system (PMS) to Building K1432 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This procedure included real time monitoring of the cold mass support strut strain gauges and an in-cab rider to monitor the instrumentation and direct the driver. The primary technical consideration for these precautions was the possibility of low frequency resonant vibration of the cold mass when excited by symmetrical rough road conditions at specific speeds causing excess stress levels in the support struts and consequent strut failure. A secondary consideration was the possibility of high acceleration loads due to sudden stops, severe road conditions, of impacts. The procedure for moving and transportation to ORNL included requirements for real time continuous monitoring of the eight strut stain gauges and three external accelerometers. Because the strain gauges had not been used since the original magnet cooldown, it was planned to verify their integrity during magnet warmup. The measurements made from the strut strain gauges resulted in stress values that were physically impossible. It was concluded that further evaluation was necessary to verify the usefulness of these gauges and whether they might be faulty. This was accomplished during the removal of the magnet from the building. 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. SASSYS validation with the EBR-II shutdown heat removal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    SASSYS is a coupled neutronic and thermal hydraulic code developed for the analysis of transients in liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs). The code is especially suited for evaluating of normal reactor transients -- protected (design basis) and unprotected (anticipated transient without scram) transients. Because SASSYS is heavily used in support of the IFR concept and of innovative LMR designs, such as PRISM, a strong validation base for the code must exist. Part of the validation process for SASSYS is analysis of experiments performed on operating reactors, such as the metal fueled Experimental Breeder Reactor -- II (EBR-II). During the course of a series of historic whole-plant experiments, EBR-II illustrated key safety features of metal fueled LMRs. These experiments, the Shutdown Heat Removal Tests (SHRT), culminated in unprotected loss of flow and loss of heat sink transients from full power and flow. Analysis of these and earlier SHRT experiments constitutes a vital part of SASSYS validation, because it facilitates scrutiny of specific SASSYS models and of integrated code capability. 12 refs., 11 figs

  17. Separation of actinides by high-gradient magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, L.E.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    High-gradient magnetic filtration has been identified as a candidate solid/liquid separation technique for removing actinide particulate from waste streams. Although HGMS is not intended to reduce the activity in the waste stream to below 100 nCi/g, it does offer two significant advantages: (a) selective removal of TRU solids for subsequent secondary processing and (b) reduced operating complications during solvent extraction due to solids accumulation in the interfacial region. Removal of > 95 wt% of the plutonium and americium solids is expected regardless of the solids present and their properties. Verification tests will be performed to validate this assumption

  18. Amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for removal of oil droplets from produced water and accelerated magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Saebom, E-mail: saebomko@austin.utexas.edu [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Kim, Eun Song [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Park, Siman [University of Texas, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering (United States); Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Milner, Thomas E. [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Huh, Chun [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Bennetzen, Martin V. [Maersk Oil Corporate (Denmark); Geremia, Giuliano A. [Maersk Oil Research and Technology Centre (Qatar)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with surface coatings designed for water treatment, in particular for targeted removal of contaminants from produced water in oil fields, have drawn considerable attention due to their environmental merit. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient method of removing very stable, micron-scale oil droplets dispersed in oilfield produced water. We synthesized MNPs in the laboratory with a prescribed surface coating. The MNPs were superparamagnetic magnetite, and the hydrodynamic size of amine functionalized MNPs ranges from 21 to 255 nm with an average size of 66 nm. The initial oil content of 0.25 wt.% was reduced by as much as 99.9% in separated water. The electrostatic attraction between negatively charged oil-in-water emulsions and positively charged MNPs controls, the attachment of MNPs to the droplet surface, and the subsequent aggregation of the electrically neutral oil droplets with attached MNPs (MNPs-oils) play a critical role in accelerated and efficient magnetic separation. The total magnetic separation time was dramatically reduced to as short as 1 s after MNPs, and oil droplets were mixed, in contrast with the case of free, individual MNPs with which separation took about 36∼72 h, depending on the MNP concentrations. Model calculations of magnetic separation velocity, accounting for the MNP magnetization and viscous drag, show that the total magnetic separation time will be approximately 5 min or less, when the size of the MNPs-oils is greater than 360 nm, which can be used as an optimum operating condition.

  19. Magnetic separation of general solid particles realised by a permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisayoshi, K; Uyeda, C; Terada, K

    2016-12-08

    Most existing solids are categorised as diamagnetic or weak paramagnetic materials. The possibility of magnetic motion has not been intensively considered for these materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ensembles of heterogeneous particles (diamagnetic bismuth, diamond and graphite particles, as well as two paramagnetic olivines) can be dynamically separated into five fractions by the low field produced by neodymium (NdFeB) magnets during short-duration microgravity (μg). This result is in contrast to the generally accepted notion that ordinary solid materials are magnetically inert. The materials of the separated particles are identified by their magnetic susceptibility (χ), which is determined from the translating velocity. The potential of this approach as an analytical technique is comparable to that of chromatography separation because the extraction of new solid phases from a heterogeneous grain ensemble will lead to important discoveries about inorganic materials. The method is applicable for the separation of the precious samples such as lunar soils and/or the Hayabusa particles recovered from the asteroids, because even micron-order grains can be thoroughly separated without sample-loss.

  20. Magnetic separation of general solid particles realised by a permanent magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisayoshi, K.; Uyeda, C.; Terada, K.

    2016-12-01

    Most existing solids are categorised as diamagnetic or weak paramagnetic materials. The possibility of magnetic motion has not been intensively considered for these materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ensembles of heterogeneous particles (diamagnetic bismuth, diamond and graphite particles, as well as two paramagnetic olivines) can be dynamically separated into five fractions by the low field produced by neodymium (NdFeB) magnets during short-duration microgravity (μg). This result is in contrast to the generally accepted notion that ordinary solid materials are magnetically inert. The materials of the separated particles are identified by their magnetic susceptibility (χ), which is determined from the translating velocity. The potential of this approach as an analytical technique is comparable to that of chromatography separation because the extraction of new solid phases from a heterogeneous grain ensemble will lead to important discoveries about inorganic materials. The method is applicable for the separation of the precious samples such as lunar soils and/or the Hayabusa particles recovered from the asteroids, because even micron-order grains can be thoroughly separated without sample-loss.

  1. On-chip Magnetic Separation and Cell Encapsulation in Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Byvank, T.; Bharde, A.; Miller, B. L.; Chalmers, J. J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Chang, W.-J.; Bashir, R.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for high-throughput single cell assays is gaining importance because of the heterogeneity of many cell suspensions, even after significant initial sorting. These suspensions may display cell-to-cell variability at the gene expression level that could impact single cell functional genomics, cancer, stem-cell research and drug screening. The on-chip monitoring of individual cells in an isolated environment could prevent cross-contamination, provide high recovery yield and ability to study biological traits at a single cell level These advantages of on-chip biological experiments contrast to conventional methods, which require bulk samples that provide only averaged information on cell metabolism. We report on a device that integrates microfluidic technology with a magnetic tweezers array to combine the functionality of separation and encapsulation of objects such as immunomagnetically labeled cells or magnetic beads into pico-liter droplets on the same chip. The ability to control the separation throughput that is independent of the hydrodynamic droplet generation rate allows the encapsulation efficiency to be optimized. The device can potentially be integrated with on-chip labeling and/or bio-detection to become a powerful single-cell analysis device.

  2. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E

    2016-01-01

    The Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times. (paper)

  3. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E

    2016-03-16

    The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times.

  4. Novel uses of magnetic separation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, B.T.

    1999-08-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) has been investigated in the nuclear industry, for the application of advanced technology in present and future nuclear environments within BNFL. Previous applications of HGMS have been reviewed and future novel applications investigated. The two most promising applications were then chosen as the focus of the PhD. In the first project, HGMS has been used to selectively recover biologically precipitated iron sulphide (Fe 1-x S) particles containing heavy metal ions, from a BNFL soil remediation effluent stream. The uptake of the ions is believed to be a consequence of the bacterial metabolism and the adsorptive properties of the iron sulphide. Biologically precipitated iron sulphide is known to differ in structure to its chemically precipitated equivalent and as such has certain advantages, for example, increased adsorbent properties and magnetic properties. The HGMS system was optimised and its performance investigated as a function of the magnetic field, the flow rate and the concentration of the biological particles in solution, with time. Results have shown that an efficiency of over 95% can be obtained, proving that HGMS is a valuable method for the concentration of metal ions from contaminated soils, especially when the adsorbed heavy metals are toxic or even radioactive and difficult to handle by other means. In the second project, the removal out of solution of radioactive technetium, in the form of the pertechnate ion [TcO 4 - ] was investigated. This was achieved using ion exchange techniques, Liquid Scintillation Counting LSC and HGMS. (author)

  5. A new balance-of-plant model for the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a balance-of-plant model is developed for the SASSYS code. This model represents the balance of plant as a network of components. It interfaces with the existing SASSYS code through the water side of the steam generator. The network representation provides a discretization of the mass, momentum, and energy equations and the equation of state and allows a simultaneous solution for the changes in pressure, flow, and enthalpy throughout the waterside system. The model has been tested for several types of transients and been found to perform both accurately and efficiently

  6. SASSYS-1 modelling of RVACS/RACS heat removal in an LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code contains a model for transient analysis of heat removal by a RVACS (Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System) or a RACS (Reactor Air Cooling System) in an LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor). This air-side RVACS/RACS model is coupled with the sodium-side primary loop thermal hydraulics model in SASSYS-1 to give a complete treatment of the problem. Application of this model to an unprotected loss-of-flow event in the PRISM rector shows that in the long run the RVACS cooling is sufficient to prevent unacceptably high system temperatures in this case

  7. Application of the SASSI soil structure interaction method to CANDU 6 NPP seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciuti, R.A.; Elgohary, M.; Usmani, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The standard CANDU 6 NPP has been conservatively qualified for a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.2 g. Currently there are potential opportunities for siting the CANDU 6 at higher seismicity sites. In order to be able to extend the use of a standardized design for sites with higher seismicity than the standard plant, various design options, including the use of the SASSI Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis method, are being evaluated. This paper presents the results of a study to assess the potential benefits from utilization of the SASSI computer program and the use of more realistic damping ratios for the structures

  8. Preliminary magnet design for a superconducting separated sector cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, P.; Chabert, A.; Duval, M.; Ripouteau, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to increase the energies available at GANIL, studies on a superconducting separated six straight sector cyclotron for heavy ions with energy up to 500 MeV/A (ions with Q/A = 0.5) have been performed. With a mean injection radius of 2.5 m and an extraction radius of 5 m, the maximum magnetic field on a sector has to be 5T. Each of the six sectors consists of two superconducting main coils (wound around the poles), room temperature iron pole pieces and a large yoke. Due to the broad ranges of energy and ion species, the required field laws are very different and for the most difficult operating point, the induction difference between the injection and ejection radii is about one Tesla. As a consequence, correcting coils have to provide a high field and one unusual point is that the machine will be operated with superconducting trim coils

  9. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  10. Mercury removal from solution by superconducting magnetic separation with nanostructured magnetic adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, T., E-mail: okamoto-takayuki@ed.tmu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Tachibana, S.; Miura, O. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Takeuchi, M. [Komazawa Jin Clinic, 1-19-8 Komazawa, Setagayaku, Tokyo 154-0012 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Recently, mercury Hg concentration in human blood increases due to expanding the global mercury contamination. Excess mercury bioaccumulation poses a significant health risk. In order to decrease mercury concentration in the environment and human blood, we have developed two different kinds of nanostructured magnetic adsorbents for mercury to apply them to superconducting magnetic separation instead of conventional filtration. One is magnetic beads (MBs) which have nanosize magnetite particles in the core and a lot of SH radicals on the surface to adsorb Hg ions effectively. MBs were developed mainly to remove mercury from human blood. The maximum amount of the adsorption for MBs is 6.3 mg/g in the solution in less than a minute. Dithiothreitol can easily remove mercury adsorbed to MBs, hence MBs can be reusable. The other is nanostructured magnetic activated carbon (MAC) which is activated carbon with mesopores and nanosize magnetite. The maximum amount of the adsorption for MAC is 38.3 mg/g in the solution. By heat-treatment mercury can be easily removed from MAC. We have studied superconducting magnetic separation using each adsorbent for mercury removal from solution.

  11. Magnetic separation technique for groundwater by five HTS melt-processed bulk magnets arranged in a line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Seki, H.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Fujishiro, H.; Hayashi, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Stiehler, C.

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic separation was practically conducted by 10-pole HTS bulk magnets. The HTS bulk magnets were activated to 2.5 T by feeding pulsed fields of 6 T. The separation ratio of actual groundwater exceeded 70% at less than 4.8 l/min. The flocks without magnetite powder were obviously attracted to the magnetic poles. A magnetic separation study for groundwater purification has been practically conducted by using the multi-pole magnet system. The magnetic pole was composed of 10 open magnetic spaces by arranging five HTS melt-processed bulk magnets in a line in a vacuum sheath. The individual bulk magnets were activated by feeding intense pulsed magnetic fields up to 6 T. The magnetic field distribution was estimated with respect to various pole arrangements. The actual groundwater samples of Sanjo City were processed so as to form large precipitates by adding the coagulant and pH controlling. The maximum separation ratio of the iron-bearing precipitates has exceeded over 70% when slurry water was exposed to 10 magnetic poles of up to 2.5 T at a flowing rate of less than 4.8 l/min. An obvious attraction of flocks to the magnetic poles was observed even when the water contains no magnetite powder at the flow rate of 1.01 l/min. This implies the validity of the multi-pole magnet system with respect to the actual application to water purification.

  12. The role of SASSYS-1 in LMR [Liquid Metal Reactor] safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor systems analysis computer code is currently being used as the principal tool for analysis of reactor plant transients in LMR development projects. These include the IFR and EBR-II Projects at Argonne National Laboratory, the FFTF project at Westinghouse-Hanford, the PRISM project at General Electric, the SAFR project at Rockwell International, and the LSPB project at EPRI. The SASSYS-1 code features a multiple-channel thermal-hydraulics core representation coupled with a point kinetics neutronics model with reactivity feedback, all combined with detailed one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic models of the primary and intermediate heat transport systems, including pipes, pumps, plena, valves, heat exchangers and steam generators. In addition, SASSYS-1 contains detailed models for active and passive shutdown and emergency heat rejection systems and a generalized plant control system model. With these models, SASSYS-1 provides the capability to analyze a wide range of transients, including normal operational transients, shutdown heat removal transients, and anticipated transients without scram events. 26 refs., 16 figs

  13. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Tsujimura, M.; Yokoyama, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► The magnetic separation for Ni compounds was conducted by HTS bulk magnet. ► The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed from the Ni-phosphite precipitates. ► Ni-sulfate crystals was separated from the mixture of Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow

  14. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, T., E-mail: okat@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M. [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Aichi Giken Co., 50-1 Takeshita, Hitotugi-cho, Kariya, Aichi 448-0003 (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Ohmae-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: ► The magnetic separation for Ni compounds was conducted by HTS bulk magnet. ► The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed from the Ni-phosphite precipitates. ► Ni-sulfate crystals was separated from the mixture of Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

  15. Investigating the Response and Expansion of Plasma Plumes in a Mesosonic Plasma Using the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.; Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the International Space Station (ISS) and the ISS space vehicle, we are exploring a specialized suite of plasma sensors, manipulated by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) to probe the near-ISS mesosonic plasma ionosphere moving past the ISS. It is proposed that SASSI consists of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Thermal Ion Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TICHS), Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS), Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), the Collimated PhotoElectron Gun (CPEG), and the University of Michigan Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). There are multiple expected applications for SASSI. Here, we will discuss the study of fundamental plasma physics questions associated with how an emitted plasma plume (such as from the ISS Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU)) responds and expands in a mesosonic magnetoplasma as well as emit and collect current. The ISS PCU Xe plasma plume drifts through the ionosphere and across the Earth's magnetic field, resulting in complex dynamics. This is of practical and theoretical interest pertaining to contamination concerns (e.g. energetic ion scattering) and the ability to collect and emit current between the spacecraft and the ambient plasma ionosphere. This impacts, for example, predictions of electrodynamic tether current performance using plasma contactors as well as decisions about placing high-energy electric propulsion thrusters on ISS. We will discuss the required measurements and connection to proposed instruments for this study.

  16. The study on the magnetic filter using the rotation of permanent magnets for separation of radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.C.; Lee, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the insoluble radioactive corrosion products have the characteristic of showing strong ferrimagnetism. Along with the new development and production of permanent magnets which generate much stronger magnetic field than conventional permanent magnets, new type of magnetic filter that can separate radioactive corrosion products efficiently and eventually reduce the radiation exposure of the personnel at a nuclear power plant is suggested. This new type of separator with novel geometry consists of an inner and an outer magnet assembly, a coolant channel and a container surrounding the outer magnet assembly. The particulates are separated from the coolant by the alternating magnetic fields that are generated by shift arrangement of permanent magnets. This study describes of experimental results performed with the different flow rates, rotation velocities of magnet assemblies, particle size and various materials. The efficiency of magnetic filter tends to increase as the flow rate is lower, and particle size is bigger. The rotating velocity of magnet assembly has also some influences on the separation efficiency. This new magnetic filter shows good performance results in filtering magnetite, cobalt ferrite and nickel ferrite except hematite, which is a kind of anti-ferromagnetic material, from aqueous coolant simulation. At the above 5 μm of particle size, the separation efficiencies are over than 90%. (author)

  17. Magnetic separation techniques in sample preparation for biological analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jincan; Huang, Meiying; Wang, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke

    2014-12-01

    Sample preparation is a fundamental and essential step in almost all the analytical procedures, especially for the analysis of complex samples like biological and environmental samples. In past decades, with advantages of superparamagnetic property, good biocompatibility and high binding capacity, functionalized magnetic materials have been widely applied in various processes of sample preparation for biological analysis. In this paper, the recent advancements of magnetic separation techniques based on magnetic materials in the field of sample preparation for biological analysis were reviewed. The strategy of magnetic separation techniques was summarized. The synthesis, stabilization and bio-functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles were reviewed in detail. Characterization of magnetic materials was also summarized. Moreover, the applications of magnetic separation techniques for the enrichment of protein, nucleic acid, cell, bioactive compound and immobilization of enzyme were described. Finally, the existed problems and possible trends of magnetic separation techniques for biological analysis in the future were proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic separation as a method to assist mineralogical characterization of rocks by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Amanda Luzia da; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Fernandes, Maria Lourdes Souza

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) corresponds to one of the main techniques for characterization of structures in crystalline materials widely used in the identification of minerals in samples of geological materials such as rocks. However, the large number of mineral phases present in a rock sample can generate excess peaks in the diffractogram, and it can promote overlapping peaks and induce erroneous identification. The purpose of this study was to perform magnetic separation of minerals from rock samples in order to enable the identification of the minerals by XRD. For this magnetic separation, two samples of rock were selected: a sample of high silica content and a sample with low silica content. The magnetic separation of minerals from each sample was performed using the magnetic separator isodynamic Frantz. Posteriorly, the fractions obtained in magnetic separations were analyzed by XRD. In the sample with high silica content, it was obtained a fraction where was identified the accessory mineral epidote, which had not been identified in the total sample diffractogram. In the sample with low silica content, the magnetic separation into several mineral fractions made possible to obtain diffraction patterns with fewer peaks and peaks with higher relative intensities, which allowed its mineralogical characterization. The results showed that the mineral separation by the magnetic separator Frantz made the identification of accessory minerals by XRD and the characterization of samples which have many mineral phases possible, which proves that magnetic separation by Frantz is a method which can assist analyses by XRD. (author)

  19. Magnetic separation as a method to assist mineralogical characterization of rocks by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda Luzia da; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Fernandes, Maria Lourdes Souza, E-mail: amanda@igc.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: amanda@igc.ufmg.br, E-mail: lurdesfernandes@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horionte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) corresponds to one of the main techniques for characterization of structures in crystalline materials widely used in the identification of minerals in samples of geological materials such as rocks. However, the large number of mineral phases present in a rock sample can generate excess peaks in the diffractogram, and it can promote overlapping peaks and induce erroneous identification. The purpose of this study was to perform magnetic separation of minerals from rock samples in order to enable the identification of the minerals by XRD. For this magnetic separation, two samples of rock were selected: a sample of high silica content and a sample with low silica content. The magnetic separation of minerals from each sample was performed using the magnetic separator isodynamic Frantz. Posteriorly, the fractions obtained in magnetic separations were analyzed by XRD. In the sample with high silica content, it was obtained a fraction where was identified the accessory mineral epidote, which had not been identified in the total sample diffractogram. In the sample with low silica content, the magnetic separation into several mineral fractions made possible to obtain diffraction patterns with fewer peaks and peaks with higher relative intensities, which allowed its mineralogical characterization. The results showed that the mineral separation by the magnetic separator Frantz made the identification of accessory minerals by XRD and the characterization of samples which have many mineral phases possible, which proves that magnetic separation by Frantz is a method which can assist analyses by XRD. (author)

  20. Coupled particle–fluid transport and magnetic separation in microfluidic systems with passive magnetic functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khashan, Saud A; Furlani, Edward P

    2013-01-01

    A study is presented of coupled particle–fluid transport and field-directed particle capture in microfluidic systems with passive magnetic functionality. These systems consist of a microfluidic flow cell on a substrate that contains embedded magnetic elements. Two systems are considered that utilize soft- and hard-magnetic elements, respectively. In the former, an external field is applied to magnetize the elements, and in the latter, they are permanently magnetized. The field produced by the magnetized elements permeates into the flow cell giving rise to an attractive force on magnetic particles that flow through it. The systems are studied using a novel numerical/closed-form modelling approach that combines numerical transport analysis with closed-form field analysis. Particle–fluid transport is computed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), while the magnetic force that governs particle capture is obtained in closed form. The CFD analysis takes into account dominant particle forces and two-way momentum transfer between the particles and the fluid. The two-way particle–fluid coupling capability is an important feature of the model that distinguishes it from more commonly used and simplified one-way coupling analysis. The model is used to quantify the impact of two-way particle–fluid coupling on both the capture efficiency and the flow pattern in the systems considered. Many effects such as particle-induced flow-enhanced capture efficiency and flow circulation are studied that cannot be predicted using one-way coupling analysis. In addition, dilute particle dispersions are shown to exhibit significant localized particle–fluid coupling near the capture regions, which contradicts the commonly held view that two-way coupling can be ignored when analysing high-gradient magnetic separation involving such particle systems. Overall, the model demonstrates that two-way coupling needs to be taken into account for rigorous predictions of capture efficiency

  1. Disaggregation and separation dynamics of magnetic particles in a microfluidic flow under an alternating gradient magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Quanliang; Li, Zhenhao; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Fan; Han, Xiaotao

    2018-05-01

    How to prevent particle aggregation in the magnetic separation process is of great importance for high-purity separation, while it is a challenging issue in practice. In this work, we report a novel method to solve this problem for improving the selectivity of size-based separation by use of a gradient alternating magnetic field. The specially designed magnetic field is capable of dynamically adjusting the magnetic field direction without changing the direction of magnetic gradient force acting on the particles. Using direct numerical simulations, we show that particles within a certain center-to-center distance are inseparable under a gradient static magnetic field since they are easy aggregated and then start moving together. By contrast, it has been demonstrated that alternating repulsive and attractive interaction forces between particles can be generated to avoid the formation of aggregations when the alternating gradient magnetic field with a given alternating frequency is applied, enabling these particles to be continuously separated based on size-dependent properties. The proposed magnetic separation method and simulation results have the significance for fundamental understanding of particle dynamic behavior and improving the separation efficiency.

  2. Magnetic separation: its application in mining, waste purification, medicine, biochemistry and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, M; Hulliger, J

    2017-10-02

    The use of strong magnetic field gradients and high magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets or superconducting coils has found applications in many fields such as mining, solid state chemistry, biochemistry and medical research. Lab scale or industrial implementations involve separation of macro- and nanoparticles, cells, proteins, and macromolecules down to small molecules and ions. Most promising are those attempts where the object to be separated is attached to a strong magnetic nanoparticle. Here, all kinds of specific affinity interactions are used to attach magnetic carrier particles to mainly objects of biological interest. Other attempts use a strong paramagnetic suspension for the separation of purely diamagnetic objects, such as bio-macromolecules or heavy metals. The application of magnetic separation to superconducting inorganic phases is of particular interest in combination with ceramic combinatorial chemistry to generate a library of e.g. cuprate superconductors.

  3. Application and Prospect of Superconducting High Gradient Magnetic Separation in Disposal of Micro-fine Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changqiao; Li, Suqin; Guo, Zijie; Kong, Jiawei

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic separation technology is playing an increasingly important role in the field of environmental protection such as waste gas, waste water and solid waste treatment. As a new type of solid waste treatment technology, superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is mainly applied in the separation of micro-fine weakly magnetic particles because of the advantages of high separation efficiency, energy saving, simple equipment and easy automation. In this paper, the basic principle of superconducting HGMS was firstly introduced, then the research status of scholars at home and aboard on the disposal of micro-fine tailings were summarized. Finally, the direction of development for HGMS was put forward.

  4. Magnetite/CdTe magnetic-fluorescent composite nanosystem for magnetic separation and bio-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, Anup; Yadav, Prasad; Gholap, Haribhau; Jog, J P; Ogale, Satishchandra; Kale, Sonia; Shastry, Padma; Pasricha, Renu; Lefez, Benoit; Hannoyer, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    A new synthesis protocol is described to obtain a CdTe decorated magnetite bifunctional nanosystem via dodecylamine (DDA) as cross linker. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and fluorescence microscopy are used to characterize the constitution, size, composition and physical properties of these superparamagnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles. These CdTe decorated magnetite nanoparticles were then functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody to specifically target cells expressing this receptor. The EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein and is expressed on tumor cells from different tissue origins including human leukemic cell line Molt-4 cells. The magnetite-CdTe composite nanosystem is shown to perform excellently for specific selection, magnetic separation and fluorescent detection of EGFR positive Molt-4 cells from a mixed population. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy results show that this composite nanosystem has great potential in antibody functionalized magnetic separation and imaging of cells using cell surface receptor antibody.

  5. Coupling the System Analysis Module with SAS4A/SASSYS-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is a simulation tool used to perform deterministic analysis of anticipated events as well as design basis and beyond design basis accidents for advanced reactors, with an emphasis on sodium fast reactors. SAS4A/SASSYS-1 has been under development and in active use for nearly forty-five years, and is currently maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Office of Advanced Reactor Technology. Although SAS4A/SASSYS-1 contains a very capable primary and intermediate system modeling component, PRIMAR-4, it also has some shortcomings: outdated data management and code structure makes extension of the PRIMAR-4 module somewhat difficult. The user input format for PRIMAR-4 also limits the number of volumes and segments that can be used to describe a given system. The System Analysis Module (SAM) is a fairly new code development effort being carried out under the U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. SAM is being developed with advanced physical models, numerical methods, and software engineering practices; however, it is currently somewhat limited in the system components and phenomena that can be represented. For example, component models for electromagnetic pumps and multi-layer stratified volumes have not yet been developed. Nor is there support for a balance of plant model. Similarly, system-level phenomena such as control-rod driveline expansion and vessel elongation are not represented. This report documents fiscal year 2016 work that was carried out to couple the transient safety analysis capabilities of SAS4A/SASSYS-1 with the system modeling capabilities of SAM under the joint support of the ART and NEAMS programs. The coupling effort was successful and is demonstrated by evaluating an unprotected loss of flow transient for the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) design. There are differences between the stand-alone SAS4A/SASSYS-1 simulations and the coupled SAS/SAM simulations, but these are mainly

  6. A new balance-of-plant model for the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    A balance-of-plant model has been added to the SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor systems analysis code. Until this addition, the only waterside component which SASSYS-1 could explicitly model was the water side of a steam generator, with the remainder of the water side represented by boundary conditions on the steam generator. The balance-of-plant model is based on the model used for the sodium side of the plant. It will handle subcooled liquid water, superheated steam, and saturated two-phase fluid. With the exception of heated flow paths in heaters, the model assumes adiabatic conditions along flow paths; this assumption simplifies the solution procedure while introducing very little error for a wide range of reactor plant problems. Only adiabatic flow is discussed in this report. 3 refs., 4 figs

  7. Phase separation in La-Ca manganites: Magnetic field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, M.; Causa, M.T.; Ramos, C.A.; Laura-Ccahuana, D.

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence of magnetic phases seems to be a characteristic of the La-Ca family of in colossal magnetoresistant manganites. We have analyzed this phenomenon in terms of a free energy, F, where magnetic and electronic contributions of two coexistent phases are included. Three order parameters describe the behavior of the mixed material: the magnetization of each phase and the metallic fraction. Due to the coupling between order parameters there is a range: T**≤T≤T* where coexistence is possible. Values for the phenomenological parameters are obtained from the experiment. In this paper we analyze the effects of an applied magnetic field on the range of T where the phase coexistence takes place, based on results obtained from dc-magnetization and ESR measurements

  8. Phase separation in La-Ca manganites: Magnetic field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar, M; Causa, M T [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Ramos, C.A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)], E-mail: cramos@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Laura-Ccahuana, D [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Rimac/Lima 25 (Peru)

    2008-02-15

    The coexistence of magnetic phases seems to be a characteristic of the La-Ca family of in colossal magnetoresistant manganites. We have analyzed this phenomenon in terms of a free energy, F, where magnetic and electronic contributions of two coexistent phases are included. Three order parameters describe the behavior of the mixed material: the magnetization of each phase and the metallic fraction. Due to the coupling between order parameters there is a range: T**{<=}T{<=}T* where coexistence is possible. Values for the phenomenological parameters are obtained from the experiment. In this paper we analyze the effects of an applied magnetic field on the range of T where the phase coexistence takes place, based on results obtained from dc-magnetization and ESR measurements.

  9. G-mode magnetic force microscopy: Separating magnetic and electrostatic interactions using big data analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, An Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Zuo, Tingting [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Deptarment of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States); Zhang, Yong [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Deptarment of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)

    2016-05-09

    In this work, we develop a full information capture approach for Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM), referred to as generalized mode (G-Mode) MFM. G-Mode MFM acquires and stores the full data stream from the photodetector, captured at sampling rates approaching the intrinsic photodiode limit. The data can be subsequently compressed, denoised, and analyzed, without information loss. Here, G-Mode MFM is implemented and compared to the traditional heterodyne-based MFM on model systems, including domain structures in ferromagnetic Yttrium Iron Garnet and the electronically and magnetically inhomogeneous high entropy alloy, CoFeMnNiSn. We investigate the use of information theory to mine the G-Mode MFM data and demonstrate its usefulness for extracting information which may be hidden in traditional MFM modes, including signatures of nonlinearities and mode-coupling phenomena. Finally, we demonstrate detection and separation of magnetic and electrostatic tip-sample interactions from a single G-Mode image, by analyzing the entire frequency response of the cantilever. G-Mode MFM is immediately implementable on any atomic force microscopy platform and as such is expected to be a useful technique for probing spatiotemporal cantilever dynamics and mapping material properties, as well as their mutual interactions.

  10. Proposal for implanting a magnetic stable isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, O.F.

    1988-07-01

    The implantation of an electromagnetic isotope separator able to separate elements of mass from 20 to 250 a.m.u., with an enrichment factor from 10 to 200 times the initial concentration, depending on the elements, is proposed. The most suitable separator type for Brazilian CNEN, considering building installations and minimum conditions for the equipment facilities, the retinue chronogram, the infrastructure, and the personnel training for operation is defined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. In search of chiral magnetic effect: separating flow-driven background effects and quantifying anomaly-induced charge separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xu-Guang [Physics Department and Center for Particle Physics and Field Theory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yin, Yi [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We report our recent progress on the search of Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) by developing new measurements as well as by hydrodynamic simulations of CME and background effects, with both approaches addressing the pressing issue of separating flow-driven background contributions and possible CME signal in current heavy ion collision measurements.

  12. A user's guide to the SASSYS-1 control system modeling capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes a control system modeling capability that has been developed for the analysis of control schemes for advanced liquid metal reactors. The general class of control equations that can be represented using the modeling capability is identified, and the numerical algorithms used to solve these equations are described. The modeling capability has been implemented in the SASSYS-1 systems analysis code. A description of the card input, a sample input deck and some guidelines for running the code are given

  13. The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Safety Analysis Code System, Version 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code is developed by Argonne National Laboratory for thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic analysis of power and flow transients in liquidmetal- cooled nuclear reactors (LMRs). SAS4A was developed to analyze severe core disruption accidents with coolant boiling and fuel melting and relocation, initiated by a very low probability coincidence of an accident precursor and failure of one or more safety systems. SASSYS-1, originally developed to address loss-of-decay-heat-removal accidents, has evolved into a tool for margin assessment in design basis accident (DBA) analysis and for consequence assessment in beyond-design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. SAS4A contains detailed, mechanistic models of transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena to describe the response of the reactor core, its coolant, fuel elements, and structural members to accident conditions. The core channel models in SAS4A provide the capability to analyze the initial phase of core disruptive accidents, through coolant heat-up and boiling, fuel element failure, and fuel melting and relocation. Originally developed to analyze oxide fuel clad with stainless steel, the models in SAS4A have been extended and specialized to metallic fuel with advanced alloy cladding. SASSYS-1 provides the capability to perform a detailed thermal/hydraulic simulation of the primary and secondary sodium coolant circuits and the balance-ofplant steam/water circuit. These sodium and steam circuit models include component models for heat exchangers, pumps, valves, turbines, and condensers, and thermal/hydraulic models of pipes and plena. SASSYS-1 also contains a plant protection and control system modeling capability, which provides digital representations of reactor, pump, and valve controllers and their response to input signal changes.

  14. Development of volume reduction method of cesium contaminated soil with magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukumatsu, Kazuki; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new volume reduction technique for cesium contaminated soil by magnetic separation. Cs in soil is mainly adsorbed on clay which is the smallest particle constituent in the soil, especially on paramagnetic 2:1 type clay minerals which strongly adsorb and fix Cs. Thus selective separation of 2:1 type clay with a superconducting magnet could enable to reduce the volume of Cs contaminated soil. The 2:1 type clay particles exist in various particle sizes in the soil, which leads that magnetic force and Cs adsorption quantity depend on their particle size. Accordingly, we examined magnetic separation conditions for efficient separation of 2:1 type clay considering their particle size distribution. First, the separation rate of 2:1 type clay for each particle size was calculated by particle trajectory simulation, because magnetic separation rate largely depends on the objective size. According to the calculation, 73 and 89 % of 2:1 type clay could be separated at 2 and 7 T, respectively. Moreover we calculated dose reduction rate on the basis of the result of particle trajectory simulation. It was indicated that 17 and 51 % of dose reduction would be possible at 2 and 7 T, respectively. The difference of dose reduction rate at 2 T and 7 T was found to be separated a fine particle. It was shown that magnetic separation considering particle size distribution would contribute to the volume reduction of contaminated soil

  15. Purification of condenser water in thermal power station by superconducting magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, D.W.; Kwon, J.M.; Baik, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Han, K.S.; Ko, R.K.; Sohn, M.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic separation using cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet was applied for the purification of condenser water. Iron oxides in condenser water were effectively removed by superconducting magnetic separation. The effect of magnetic field strength and filter size was determined. Thermal power station is made up of a steam turbine and a steam condenser which need a lot of water. The water of steam condenser should be replaced, since scales consisting of iron oxide mainly are accumulated on the surface of condenser pipes as it goes. Superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system has merits to remove paramagnetic substance like iron oxides because it can generate higher magnetic field strength than electromagnet or permanent magnet. In this paper, cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet that can generate up to 6 T was used for HGMS systems. Magnetic filters were designed by the analysis of magnetic field distribution at superconducting magnets. The result of X-ray analysis showed contaminants were mostly α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) and γ-Fe 2 O 3 (maghemite). The higher magnetic field was applied up to 6 T, the more iron oxides were removed. As the wire diameter of magnetic filter decreased, the turbidity removal of the sample was enhanced.

  16. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Tsujimura, M.; Yokoyama, K.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

  17. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Amy [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Moore, Lee R. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas [Phycal Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Zborowski, Maciej, E-mail: zborowm@ccf.org [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl{sub 3} EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical.

  18. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl 3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical

  19. My Sassy Girl: a qualitative study of women's aggression in dating relationships in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiying; Petula; Ho, Sik Ying

    2007-05-01

    The Korean film My Sassy Girl was very popular among young people in urban China in 2001. After the release of the movie, the new image of the "sassy girl" emerged in different media. This study uses the media image of the sassy girl as a stimulus material in interviews and focus groups to explore how young men and women make sense of women's aggression in dating relationships. This qualitative study is mainly based on two focus groups and in-depth interviews with 20 informants (13 female and 7 male). The study sheds light on how the competing and multilayered discourses in contemporary China regarding gender, love, and sex have left some space for young adults to justify women's aggression in dating relationships. We see how young adults in Beijing situate themselves within this set of social cultural discourses and make use of them to "do" their gender through their aggressive behavior and interactions with each other. New images of men and women are thereby created.

  20. Modeling developments for the SAS4A and SASSYS computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1990-01-01

    The SAS4A and SASSYS computer codes are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory for transient analysis of liquid metal cooled reactors. The SAS4A code is designed to analyse severe loss-of-coolant flow and overpower accidents involving coolant boiling, Cladding failures, and fuel melting and relocation. Recent SAS4A modeling developments include extension of the coolant boiling model to treat sudden fission gas release upon pin failure, expansion of the DEFORM fuel behavior model to handle advanced cladding materials and metallic fuel, and addition of metallic fuel modeling capability to the PINACLE and LEVITATE fuel relocation models. The SASSYS code is intended for the analysis of operational and beyond-design-basis transients, and provides a detailed transient thermal and hydraulic simulation of the core, the primary and secondary coolant circuits, and the balance-of-plant, in addition to a detailed model of the plant control and protection systems. Recent SASSYS modeling developments have resulted in detailed representations of the balance of plant piping network and components, including steam generators, feedwater heaters and pumps, and the turbine. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Detection of carcinoembryonic antigen using functional magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles in magnetic separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H. Y., E-mail: annetsai@csmu.edu.tw [Chung Shan Medical University, Department of Applied Chemistry (China); Chang, C. Y.; Li, Y. C.; Chu, W. C.; Viswanathan, K.; Bor Fuh, C., E-mail: cbfuh@ncnu.edu.tw [National Chi Nan University, Department of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2011-06-15

    We combined a sandwich immunoassay, anti-CEA/CEA/anti-CEA, with functional magnetic ({approx}80 nm) and fluorescent ({approx}180 nm) nanoparticles in magnetic separators to demonstrate a detection method for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Determination of CEA in serum can be used in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of tumor-related diseases. The CEA concentrations in samples were deduced and determined based on the reference plot using the measured fluorescent intensity of sandwich nanoparticles from the sample. The linear range of CEA detection was from 18 ng/mL to 1.8 pg/mL. The detection limit of CEA was 1.8 pg/mL. In comparison with most other detection methods, this method had advantages of lower detection limit and wider linear range. The recovery was higher than 94%. The CEA concentrations of two serum samples were determined to be 9.0 and 55 ng/mL, which differed by 6.7% (9.6 ng/mL) and 9.1% (50 ng/mL) from the measurements of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The analysis time can be reduced to one third of ELISA. This method has good potential for other biomarker detections and biochemical applications.

  2. Superconducting magnetic separation of ground steel slag powder for recovery of resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. W.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, D. W. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. H. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Steel slag has been considered as an industrial waste. A huge amount of slag is produced as a byproduct and the steel slag usually has been dumped in a landfill site. However the steel slag contains valuable resources such as iron, copper, manganese, and magnesium. Superconducting magnetic separation has been applied on recovery of the valuable resources from the steel slag and this process also has intended to reduce the waste to be dumped. Cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet with 100 mm bore and 600 mm of height was used as the magnetic separator. The separating efficiency was evaluated in the function of magnetic field. A steel slag was ground and analyzed for the composition. Iron containing minerals were successfully concentrated from less iron containing portion. The separation efficiency was highly dependent on the particle size giving higher separating efficiency with finer particle. The magnetic field also effects on the separation ratio. Current study showed that an appropriate grinding of slag and magnetic separation lead to the recovery of metal resources from steel slag waste rather than dumping all of the volume.

  3. Feasibility of turbidity removal by high-gradient superconducting magnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hua; Li, Yiran; Xu, Fengyu; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have focused on pollutant removal by magnetic seeding and high-gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS). However, few works reported the application of HGSMS for treating non-magnetic pollutants by an industrial large-scale system. The feasibility of turbidity removal by a 600 mm bore superconducting magnetic separation system was evaluated in this study. The processing parameters were evaluated by using a 102 mm bore superconducting magnetic separation system that was equipped with the same magnetic separation chamber that was used in the 600 mm bore system. The double-canister system was used to process water pollutants. Analytical grade magnetite was used as a magnetic seed and the turbidity of the simulated raw water was approximately 110 NTU, and the effects of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and magnetic seeds on turbidity removal were evaluated. The use of more PAC and magnetic seeds had few advantages for the HGSMS at doses greater than 8 and 50 mg/l, respectively. A magnetic intensity of 5.0 T was beneficial for HGSMS, and increasing the flow rate through the steel wool matrix decreased the turbidity removal efficiency. In the breakthrough experiments, 90% of the turbidity was removed when 100 column volumes were not reached. The processing capacity of the 600 mm bore industry-scale superconducting magnetic separator for turbidity treatment was approximately 78.0 m(3)/h or 65.5 × 10(4) m(3)/a. The processing cost per ton of water for the 600 mm bore system was 0.1 $/t. Thus, the HGSMS separator could be used in the following special circumstances: (1) when adequate space is not available for traditional water treatment equipment, especially the sedimentation tank, and (2) when decentralized sewage treatment HGSMS systems are easier to transport and install.

  4. Magnetic filtration of phase separating ferrofluids: From basic concepts to microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhir, P.; Magnet, C.; Ezzaier, H.; Zubarev, A.; Bossis, G.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we briefly review magnetic separation of ferrofluids composed of large magnetic particles (60 nm of the average size) possessing an induced dipole moment. Such ferrofluids exhibit field-induced phase separation at relatively low particle concentrations (∼0.8 vol%) and magnetic fields (∼10 kA/m). Particle aggregates appearing during the phase separation are extracted from the suspending fluid by magnetic field gradients much easier than individual nanoparticles in the absence of phase separation. Nanoparticle capture by a single magnetized microbead and by multi-collector systems (packed bed of spheres and micro-pillar array) has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Under flow and magnetic fields, the particle capture efficiency Λ decreases with an increasing Mason number for all considered geometries. This decrease may become stronger for aggregated magnetic particles (Λ ∝Ma-1.7) than for individual ones (Λ ∝Ma-1) if the shear fields are strong enough to provoke aggregate rupture. These results can be useful for development of new magneto-microfluidic immunoassays based on magnetic nanoparticles offering a much better sensitivity as compared to presently used magnetic microbeads.

  5. Magnetically separable nanoferrite-anchored glutathione: Aqueous homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly active, stable and magnetically separable glutathione based organocatalyst provided good to excellent yields to symmetric biaryls in the homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation. Symmetrical biaryl motifs are present in a wide range of natural p...

  6. Magnetically Separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aqueous Heck Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd catalyst has been synthesized via anchoring of palladium over dopamine-coated magnetite via non-covalent interaction and the catalyst is utilized for expeditious Heck coupling in aqueous media.

  7. Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA–Pd: a heterogeneous catalyst for aqueous Heck reaction

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA–Pd catalyst has been synthesized via anchoring of palladium over dopamine-coated magnetite via co-ordinate interaction and the...

  8. Removal of algal blooms from freshwater by the coagulation-magnetic separation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Peng; Wei, Guanran; Dong, Wenbo; Hui, Franck

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of changing waste into useful materials for water treatment and proposed a coagulation-magnetic separation technique. This technique was rapid and highly effective for clearing up harmful algal blooms in freshwater and mitigating lake eutrophication. A magnetic coagulant was synthesized by compounding acid-modified fly ash with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Its removal effects on algal cells and dissolved organics in water were studied. After mixing, coagulation, and magnetic separation, the flocs obtained from the magnet surface were examined by SEM. Treated samples were withdrawn for the content determination of chlorophyll-a, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. More than 99 % of algal cells were removed within 5 min after the addition of magnetic coagulant at optimal loadings (200 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiencies of COD, total nitrogen, and phosphorus were 93, 91, and 94 %, respectively. The mechanism of algal removal explored preliminarily showed that the magnetic coagulant played multiple roles in mesoporous adsorption, netting and bridging, as well as high magnetic responsiveness to a magnetic field. The magnetic-coagulation separation method can rapidly and effectively remove algae from water bodies and greatly mitigate eutrophication of freshwater using a new magnetic coagulant. The method has good performance, is low cost, can turn waste into something valuable, and provides reference and directions for future pilot and production scale-ups.

  9. Separation of magnetic beads in a hybrid continuous flow microfluidic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Abhishek [Haldia Institute of Technology, Production Engineering Department, Haldia (India); Ganguly, Ranjan; Datta, Amitava [Jadavpur University, Power Engineering Department (India); Modak, Nipu, E-mail: nmechju@gmail.com [Jadavpur University, Mechanical Engineering Department (India)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic separation of biological entities in microfluidic environment is a key task for a large number of bio-analytical protocols. In magnetophoretic separation, biochemically functionalized magnetic beads are allowed to bind selectively to target analytes, which are then separated from the background stream using a suitably imposed magnetic field. Here we present a numerical study, characterizing the performance of a magnetophoretic hybrid microfluidic device having two inlets and three outlets for immunomagnetic isolation of three different species from a continuous flow. The hybrid device works on the principle of split-flow thin (SPLITT) fractionation and field flow fractionation (FFF) mechanisms. Transport of the magnetic particles in the microchannel has been predicted following an Eulerian-Lagrangian model and using an in-house numerical code. Influence of the salient geometrical parameters on the performance of the separator is studied by characterizing the particle trajectories and their capture and separation indices. Finally, optimum channel geometry is identified that yields the maximum capture efficiency and separation index. - Highlights: • Immunomagnetic separation in a hybrid microchannel design is investigated numerically. • Influence of salient geometric parameters on the device performance is analysed. • Optimum device dimension for best separation parameters are identified. • Optimized design of hybrid separator performs better than FFF or SPLITT devices.

  10. Magnetic refrigeration system with separated inlet and outlet flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auringer, Jon Jay; Boeder, Andre Michael; Chell, Jeremy Jonathan; Leonard, John Paul; Zimm, Carl Bruno

    2017-06-14

    An active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigerator apparatus can include at least one AMR bed with a first end and a second end and a first heat exchanger (HEX) with a first end and a second end. The AMR refrigerator can also include a first pipe that fluidly connects the first end of the first HEX to the first end of the AMR bed and a second pipe that fluidly connects the second end of the first HEX to the first end of the AMR bed. The first pipe can divide into two or more sub-passages at the AMR bed. The second pipe can divide into two or more sub-passages at the AMR bed. The sub-passages of the first pipe and the second pipe can interleave at the AMR bed.

  11. Magnetic resonance separation imaging using a divided inversion recovery technique (DIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, James W

    2010-04-01

    The divided inversion recovery technique is an MRI separation method based on tissue T(1) relaxation differences. When tissue T(1) relaxation times are longer than the time between inversion pulses in a segmented inversion recovery pulse sequence, longitudinal magnetization does not pass through the null point. Prior to additional inversion pulses, longitudinal magnetization may have an opposite polarity. Spatial displacement of tissues in inversion recovery balanced steady-state free-precession imaging has been shown to be due to this magnetization phase change resulting from incomplete magnetization recovery. In this paper, it is shown how this phase change can be used to provide image separation. A pulse sequence parameter, the time between inversion pulses (T180), can be adjusted to provide water-fat or fluid separation. Example water-fat and fluid separation images of the head, heart, and abdomen are presented. The water-fat separation performance was investigated by comparing image intensities in short-axis divided inversion recovery technique images of the heart. Fat, blood, and fluid signal was suppressed to the background noise level. Additionally, the separation performance was not affected by main magnetic field inhomogeneities.

  12. The relationship between the force and separation of miniature magnets used in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvell, Brian W; Gilding, Brian H

    2018-06-01

    Miniature magnets are used in dentistry, principally for the retention of prosthetic devices. The relationship between force and separation of a magnet and its keeper, or, equivalently, two such magnets, has been neither defined theoretically nor described practically in any detail suitable for these applications. The present paper addresses this lacuna. A magnet is considered as a conglomeration of magnetic poles distributed over a surface or a solid in three-dimensional space, with the interaction of poles governed by the Coulomb law. This leads to a suite of mathematical models. These models are analysed for their description of the relationship between the force and the separation of two magnets. It is shown that at a large distance of separation, an inverse power law must apply. The power is necessarily integer and at least two. All possibilities are exhausted. Complementarily, under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that at a small distance of separation, the force remains finite. The outcome is in accordance with practical experience, and at odds with the use of simple conceptual models. Consequences relevant to the usage of magnets in dentistry are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of Immuno-magnetic Beads and Their Separation & Detection to Ovary Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The organic monomer-molecule with nanometer magnetic powder by means of reforming the surface of nanometer magnetic powder have been synthesized.Magnetic beads in diameter of 2μm or so are obtained by controlling conditions.Ovary cancer cells of ascites are separated and ovary cancer cells of blood are detected by using immuno-magnetic beads linked with ovary cancer cell mono-antibodies.Results show that the specificity is 85%,sensitivity is 87%,accuracy is 84%,cells acquiring purity is 90%,cells activity is 92% and detection sensitivity is 25×10-7.

  14. Experiments with a magnetic separator for heavy recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosler, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using a triple-focusing (position and momentum), crescent-shaped separator for heavy recoil-ions different experiments were performed. The improvement consists in the enhancement of the transmission from 8% to 25% for 500 keV recoil ions from the reaction 238 U(α, 3n)sup(239m)Pu. For sup(237m)Pu the electromagnetic decay of the 1.1 μs shape isomer into the 82 ns shape isomer was searched for. The upper limit for gamma decay is 1.25 +- 1.25% for Esub(γ) = 200 keV and for electron decay 0.29 +- 0.29% in comparison to isomeric fission. The upper limit for interband transitions is 2.5% (2 delta), from which the upper limit of the partial half-life for the electromagnetic decay of the 1.1 μs isomer is calculated to 44 μs. Due to the performed interpretation the spin difference between both isomers extends at least to ΔI = 3. For sup(238m)U the back-decay into the 1. minimum by the EO-transition and the converted 2 + → 0 + transition in the first decay and the decay by alpha articles was looked for both in single measurements as in a coincidence measurement to L-X-ray quanta. The upper limits are GAMMAsub(EO) = 2.0, GAMMAsub(α)/GAMMAsub(F) = 0.4 and GAMMA(back-decay)/GAMMAsub(F) approx. equal to 100. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration

  16. Capture and separation of l-histidine through optimized zinc-decorated magnetic silica spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vanessa F; Sebastián, Víctor; Silva, Carlos J R; Botelho, Gabriela; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2017-09-01

    Zinc-decorated magnetic silica spheres were developed, optimized and tested for the capture and separation of l-histidine. The magnetic silica spheres were prepared using a simple sol-gel method and show excellent magnetic characteristics, adsorption capacity toward metal ions, and stability in aqueous solution in a wide pH range. The binding capacity of zinc-decorated magnetic silica spheres to histidine proved to be strongly influenced by the morphology, composition and concentration of metal at the surface of the magnetic silica spheres and therefore these parameters should be carefully controlled in order to maximize the performance for protein purification purposes. Optimized zinc-decorated magnetic silica spheres demonstrate a binding capacity to l-histidine of approximately 44mgg -1 at the optimum binding pH buffer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. FY2017 Updates to the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Safety Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 safety analysis software is used to perform deterministic analysis of anticipated events as well as design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents for advanced fast reactors. It plays a central role in the analysis of U.S. DOE conceptual designs, proposed test and demonstration reactors, and in domestic and international collaborations. This report summarizes the code development activities that have taken place during FY2017. Extensions to the void and cladding reactivity feedback models have been implemented, and Control System capabilities have been improved through a new virtual data acquisition system for plant state variables and an additional Block Signal for a variable lag compensator to represent reactivity feedback for novel shutdown devices. Current code development and maintenance needs are also summarized in three key areas: software quality assurance, modeling improvements, and maintenance of related tools. With ongoing support, SAS4A/SASSYS-1 can continue to fulfill its growing role in fast reactor safety analysis and help solidify DOE’s leadership role in fast reactor safety both domestically and in international collaborations.

  18. On the use of magnetic separation for purification of aqueous radioactive solutions from oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchebetkovskij, V.N.; Vyatkin, V.E.; Gurevich, D.M.; Bochkov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Using model systems, simulating oiled condensate that is formed during evaporation of water radioactive wastes, a possibility is shown to use the method of magnetic separation for waste purification from oil. Introduction of a dispersed ferromagnetic powder in the system to stabilize oil drops and to impart ''quasiferromagnetic'' properties to them, is a necessary condition for the efficient oil separation. Using as an example 137 Cs absorption, the adsorbability of ferromagnetic powders relative to radionuclides in the system investigated is assessed

  19. Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting–water leaching followed by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using reduction roasting–water leaching–magnetic separation method, the recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was optimized. ► The recovery of iron was highly depended on the water-leaching process after reduction roasting. ► The results suggest that the method can be effectively used for iron recovery, and the grade of magnetic concentrate and recovery rate can reach 59.11% and 75.12%, respectively. - Abstract: Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting–water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2 A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism.

  20. "On-chip magnetic bead microarray using hydrodynamic focusing in a passive magnetic separator"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Kjeldsen, B.; Reimers, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Implementing DNA and protein microarrays into lab-on-a-chip systems can be problematic since these are sensitive to heat and strong chemicals. Here, we describe the functionalization of a microchannel with two types of magnetic beads using hydrodynamic focusing combined with a passive magnetic...

  1. Effect of the Hartmann number on phase separation controlled by magnetic field for binary mixture system with large component ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heping, Wang; Xiaoguang, Li; Duyang, Zang; Rui, Hu; Xingguo, Geng

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration for phase separation in a magnetic field using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The left vertical wall was kept at a constant magnetic field. Simulations were conducted by the strong magnetic field to enhance phase separation and increase the size of separated phases. The focus was on the effect of magnetic intensity by defining the Hartmann number (Ha) on the phase separation properties. The numerical investigation was carried out for different governing parameters, namely Ha and the component ratio of the mixed liquid. The effective morphological evolutions of phase separation in different magnetic fields were demonstrated. The patterns showed that the slant elliptical phases were created by increasing Ha, due to the formation and increase of magnetic torque and force. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of magnetic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated phases and total system. The results indicate that the increase in Ha can increase the average size of separated phases and accelerate the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages. Specially for the larger component ratio of mixed phases, the separation degree was also significantly improved by increasing magnetic intensity. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the phase separation induced by magnetic field.

  2. Liquid-liquid phase separation and cluster formation at deposition of metals under inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, O. Yu; Gorobets, Yu I.; Rospotniuk, V. P.; Grebinaha, V. I.; Kyba, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The formation and dynamic of expansion and deformation of the liquid-liquid interface of an electrolyte at deposition of metals at the surface of the magnetized steel ball is considered in this paper. The electrochemical processes were investigated in an external magnetic field directed at an arbitrary angle to the force of gravity. These processes are accompanied by the formation of effectively paramagnetic clusters of electrochemical products - magnions. Tyndall effect was used for detection of the presence of magnions near the magnetized steel electrode in a solution. The shape of the interface separating the regions with different concentration of magnions, i.e. different magnetic susceptibilities, was described theoretically based on the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium which takes into account magnetic, hydrostatic and osmotic pressures.

  3. Magnetic deep eutectic solvents molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective recognition and separation of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanjin; Wang, Yuzhi; Dai, Qingzhou; Zhou, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile magnetic deep eutectic solvents (DES) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition and separation of Bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was prepared. The new-type DES was adopted as the functional monomer which would bring molecular imprinted technology to a new direction. The amounts of DES were optimized. The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), elemental analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results suggested that the imprinted polymers were successfully formed and possessed a charming magnetism. The maximum adsorption capability (Q_m_a_x) and dissociation constant (K_L) were analyzed by Langmuir isotherms (R"2 = 0.9983) and the value were estimated to be 175.44 mg/g and 0.035 mg/mL for the imprinted particles. And the imprinted particles showed a high imprinting factor of 4.77. In addition, the magnetic DES-MIPs presented outstanding recognition specificity and selectivity so that it can be utilized to separate template protein from the mixture of proteins and real samples. Last but not least, the combination of deep eutectic solvents and molecular imprinted technology in this paper provides a new perspective for the recognition and separation of proteins. - Highlights: • Combined green deep eutectic solvents (DES) and molecular imprinted technology in recognition and separation of proteins. • DES was adopted as a new-type functional monomer. • The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs can separate proteins rapidly by an external magnetic field. • Adsorption and selectivity properties were discussed.

  4. Magnetic deep eutectic solvents molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective recognition and separation of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanjin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Dai, Qingzhou [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Zhou, Yigang [Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2016-09-14

    A novel and facile magnetic deep eutectic solvents (DES) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition and separation of Bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was prepared. The new-type DES was adopted as the functional monomer which would bring molecular imprinted technology to a new direction. The amounts of DES were optimized. The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), elemental analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results suggested that the imprinted polymers were successfully formed and possessed a charming magnetism. The maximum adsorption capability (Q{sub max}) and dissociation constant (K{sub L}) were analyzed by Langmuir isotherms (R{sup 2} = 0.9983) and the value were estimated to be 175.44 mg/g and 0.035 mg/mL for the imprinted particles. And the imprinted particles showed a high imprinting factor of 4.77. In addition, the magnetic DES-MIPs presented outstanding recognition specificity and selectivity so that it can be utilized to separate template protein from the mixture of proteins and real samples. Last but not least, the combination of deep eutectic solvents and molecular imprinted technology in this paper provides a new perspective for the recognition and separation of proteins. - Highlights: • Combined green deep eutectic solvents (DES) and molecular imprinted technology in recognition and separation of proteins. • DES was adopted as a new-type functional monomer. • The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs can separate proteins rapidly by an external magnetic field. • Adsorption and selectivity properties were discussed.

  5. Adsorption combined with superconducting high gradient magnetic separation technique used for removal of arsenic and antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zenglu; Joshi, Tista Prasai; Liu, Ruiping; Li, Yiran; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2018-02-05

    Manganese iron oxide (MnFe 2 O 4 ), an excellent arsenic(As)/antimony(Sb) removal adsorbent, is greatly restricted for the solid-liquid separation. Through the application of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technique, we herein constructed a facility for the in situ solid-liquid separation of micro-sized MnFe 2 O 4 adsorbent in As/Sb removal process. To the relative low initial concentration 50.0μgL -1 , MnFe 2 O 4 material sorbent can still decrease As or Sb below US EPA's drinking water standard limit. The separation of MnFe 2 O 4 was mainly relied on the flow rate and the amount of steel wools in the HGMS system. At a flow rate 1Lmin -1 and 5% steel wools filling rate, the removal efficacies of As and Sb in natural water with the system were achieved to be 94.6% and 76.8%, respectively. At the meantime, nearly 100% micro-sized MnFe 2 O 4 solid in the continuous field was readily to be separated via HGMS system. In a combination with the experiment results and finite element simulation, the separation was seemed to be independent on the magnetic field intensity, and the maximum separation capacities in various conditions were well predicted using the Thomas model (R 2 =0.87-0.99). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Separation and enrichment of enantiopure from racemic compounds using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochuan; Wong, Shin Yee; Bwambok, David K; Atkinson, Manza B J; Zhang, Xi; Whitesides, George M; Myerson, Allan S

    2014-07-18

    Crystallization of a solution with high enantiomeric excess can generate a mixture of crystals of the desired enantiomer and the racemic compound. Using a mixture of S-/RS-ibuprofen crystals as a model, we demonstrated that magnetic levitation (MagLev) is a useful technique for analysis, separation and enantioenrichment of chiral/racemic products.

  7. Two-dimensional plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle: Separation due to electron inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahedo, Eduardo; Merino, Mario

    2012-01-01

    A previous axisymmetric model of the supersonic expansion of a collisionless, hot plasma in a divergent magnetic nozzle is extended here in order to include electron-inertia effects. Up to dominant order on all components of the electron velocity, electron momentum equations still reduce to three conservation laws. Electron inertia leads to outward electron separation from the magnetic streamtubes. The progressive plasma filling of the adjacent vacuum region is consistent with electron-inertia being part of finite electron Larmor radius effects, which increase downstream and eventually demagnetize the plasma. Current ambipolarity is not fulfilled and ion separation can be either outwards or inwards of magnetic streamtubes, depending on their magnetization. Electron separation penalizes slightly the plume efficiency and is larger for plasma beams injected with large pressure gradients. An alternative nonzero electron-inertia model [E. Hooper, J. Propul. Power 9, 757 (1993)] based on cold plasmas and current ambipolarity, which predicts inwards electron separation, is discussed critically. A possible competition of the gyroviscous force with electron-inertia effects is commented briefly.

  8. High intensity magnetic separation for the clean-up of a site polluted by lead metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, C; Martínez, J; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Gallego, J R

    2013-03-15

    The industrial history in the district of Linares (Spain) has had a severe impact on soil quality. Here we examined soil contaminated by lead and other heavy metals in "La Cruz" site, a brownfield affected by metallurgical residues. Initially, the presence of contaminants mainly associated with the presence of lead slag fragments mixed with the soil was evaluated. The subsequent analysis showed a quasi-uniform distribution of the pollution irrespective of the grain-size fractions. This study was accompanied by a characterization of the lead slag behavior under the presence of a magnetic field. Two main magnetic components were detected: first a ferromagnetic and/or ferrimagnetic contribution, second a paramagnetic and/or antiferromagnetic one. It was also established that the slag was composed mainly of lead spherules and iron oxides embedded in a silicate matrix. Under these conditions, the capacity of magnetic separation to remove pollutants was examined. Therefore, two high intensity magnetic separators (dry and wet devices, respectively) were used. Dry separation proved to be successful at decontaminating soil in the first stages of a soil washing plant. In contrast, wet separation was found effective as a post-process for the finer fractions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Desulphurisation of coal pyrolysis and magnetic separation. Desulfuracion de carbones mediante pirolisis y separacion magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.C.; Ayala, N.; Ibarra, J.V.; Moliner, R.; Miranda, J.L.; Vazquez, A. (CENIM, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-07-01

    The desulphurisation of coal intended for use inthermal power stations is a priority issue in the national strategy for the reduction of acid rain. This article studies the feasibility of eliminating pyritic sulphur from coal by physical methods using high intensity pyrolysis and magnetic separation. 6 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Advances in Magnetically Separable Photocatalysts: Smart, Recyclable Materials for Water Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcina Mamba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic compounds utilised at different stages of various industrial processes are lost into effluent water and eventually find their way into fresh water sources where they cause devastating effects on the ecosystem due to their stability, toxicity, and non-biodegradable nature. Semiconductor photocatalysis has been highlighted as a promising technology for the treatment of water laden with organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants. However, these semiconductor photocatalysts are applied in powdered form, which makes separation and recycling after treatment extremely difficult. This not only leads to loss of the photocatalyst but also to secondary pollution by the photocatalyst particles. The introduction of various magnetic nanoparticles such as magnetite, maghemite, ferrites, etc. into the photocatalyst matrix has recently become an area of intense research because it allows for the easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated water using an external magnetic field. Herein, we discuss the recent developments in terms of synthesis and photocatalytic properties of magnetically separable nanocomposites towards water treatment. The influence of the magnetic nanoparticles in the optical properties, charge transfer mechanism, and overall photocatalytic activity is deliberated based on selected results. We conclude the review by providing summary remarks on the successes of magnetic photocatalysts and present some of the future challenges regarding the exploitation of these materials in water treatment.

  11. Beneficiation Of Chromium Waste By Means Of Magnetic And Gravitational Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brożek M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of chromium recovery from the Cr waste mud, originating in the production of sodium dichromate. The differentiation of physical properties of particles of different contents of chromium and magnesium compounds is a premise for the use of physical separation methods. The investigations were performed on 2 waste samples, taken by random from the waste dump. The investigations of magnetic and gravity concentration for sample I and II were made, respectively. The results of screen and float and sink analyses of sample II indicate that it is possible to obtain Cr- and Mg-enriched products by means of a combined method of separation, i.e. hydraulic classification and, next, gravitational concentration on the shaking table. The concept of gravity concentration of the tested chromium waste was verified in the technical scale on multiboard shaking tables. The advantage of these fittings in relation to laboratory conditions is the possibility of separation of discussed waste without previous classification. The longer time of separation on the industrial shaking table as well as the respective amount of water directed to the process together with feed enabled an exact separation of initial material. The obtained concentrate in such conditions contains from 25 to 35% Cr2O3, depending on the chromium content in the initial waste material. It results from the fractional magnetic analysis of sample I that by means of the magnetic separation it is possible to obtain the magnetic concentrate of Cr2O3 content minimum 20% and, simultaneously, to obtain the non-magnetic product of increased MgO content. The optimum separation conditions regarding the yield and content of Cr2O3 were determined. The highest value of criterion K for the grade of the concentrate containing over 20% of Cr2O3 is obtained when the 10 mm diameter balls and the 1150 kA/m magnetic field intensity are applied. The yield of the concentrate

  12. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Kyeong

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules.

  13. High gradient magnetic separation of upconverting lanthanide nanophosphors based on their intrinsic paramagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arppe, Riikka, E-mail: riikka.arppe@utu.fi; Salovaara, Oskari; Mattsson, Leena; Lahtinen, Satu; Valta, Timo; Riuttamaeki, Terhi; Soukka, Tero [University of Turku, Department of Biotechnology (Finland)

    2013-09-15

    Photon upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) have the unique luminescent property of converting low-energy infrared light into visible emission which can be widely utilized in nanoreporter and imaging applications. For the use as reporters in these applications, the UCNPs must undergo a series of surface modification and bioconjugation reactions. Efficient purification methods are required to remove the excess reagents and biomolecules from the nanophosphor solution after each step to yield highly responsive reporters for sensitive bioanalytical assays. However, as the particle size of the UCNPs approaches the size of biomolecules, the handling of these reporters becomes cumbersome with traditional purification methods such as centrifugation. Here we introduce a novel approach for purification of bioconjugated 32-nm NaYF{sub 4}: Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}-nanophosphors from excess unbound biomolecules utilizing high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS)-system constructed from permanent super magnets which produce magnetic gradients in a magnetizable steel wool matrix amplifying the magnetic field. The non-magnetic biomolecules flowed straight through the magnetized HGMS-column while the UCNPs were eluted only after the magnetic field was removed. In the UCNPs the luminescent centers, i.e., lanthanide-ion dopants are responsible for the strong upconversion luminescence, but in addition they are also paramagnetic. In this study we have shown that the presence of these weakly paramagnetic luminescent lanthanides actually also enables the use of HGMS to capture the UCNPs without incorporating additional optically inactive magnetic core into them.

  14. Magnetic biochar combining adsorption and separation recycle for removal of chromium in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ouyang; Yitong, Han; Xi, Cao; Jiawei, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Biochar has been developed in recent years for the removal of contaminants such as Cr (VI) in water. The enhancement of the adsorption capacity of biochar and its recyclable use are still challenges. In this study, magnetic biochar derived from corncobs and peanut hulls was synthesized under different pyrolysis temperatures after pretreating the biomass with a low concentration of 0.5 M FeCl 3 solution. The morphology, specific surface area, saturation magnetization and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra were characterized for biochar. The magnetic biochar performed well in combining adsorption and separation recycle for the removal of Cr (VI) in water. The Cr (VI) adsorbance of the biochar was increased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, and the magnetic biochar derived from corncobs showed better performance for both magnetization and removal of Cr (VI) than that from peanut hulls. The Langmuir model was used for the isothermal adsorption and the maximum Cr (VI) adsorption capacity of corncob magnetic biochar pyrolyzed at 650 °C reached 61.97 mg/g. An alkaline solution (0.1 M NaOH) favored the desorption of Cr (VI) from the magnetic biochar, and the removal of Cr (VI) still remained around 77.6% after four cycles of adsorption-desorption. The results showed that corncob derived magnetic biochar is a potentially efficient and recoverable adsorbent for remediation of heavy metals in water.

  15. High gradient magnetic separation of upconverting lanthanide nanophosphors based on their intrinsic paramagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arppe, Riikka; Salovaara, Oskari; Mattsson, Leena; Lahtinen, Satu; Valta, Timo; Riuttamäki, Terhi; Soukka, Tero

    2013-01-01

    Photon upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) have the unique luminescent property of converting low-energy infrared light into visible emission which can be widely utilized in nanoreporter and imaging applications. For the use as reporters in these applications, the UCNPs must undergo a series of surface modification and bioconjugation reactions. Efficient purification methods are required to remove the excess reagents and biomolecules from the nanophosphor solution after each step to yield highly responsive reporters for sensitive bioanalytical assays. However, as the particle size of the UCNPs approaches the size of biomolecules, the handling of these reporters becomes cumbersome with traditional purification methods such as centrifugation. Here we introduce a novel approach for purification of bioconjugated 32-nm NaYF 4 : Yb 3+ , Er 3+ -nanophosphors from excess unbound biomolecules utilizing high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS)-system constructed from permanent super magnets which produce magnetic gradients in a magnetizable steel wool matrix amplifying the magnetic field. The non-magnetic biomolecules flowed straight through the magnetized HGMS-column while the UCNPs were eluted only after the magnetic field was removed. In the UCNPs the luminescent centers, i.e., lanthanide-ion dopants are responsible for the strong upconversion luminescence, but in addition they are also paramagnetic. In this study we have shown that the presence of these weakly paramagnetic luminescent lanthanides actually also enables the use of HGMS to capture the UCNPs without incorporating additional optically inactive magnetic core into them

  16. Phase separation and magnetic ordering studied by high resolution neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, E.N.; Melamud, M.; Pinto, H.; Shaked, H.; Chmaissem, O.; Jorgensen, J.D.; Short, S.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In a previous work on the (U 1-x Nd x )Co 2 Ge 2 system, two magnetic transitions were observed in the temperature dependencies of the magnetic susceptibility and in the intensity of the magnetic reflections in neutron diffraction [1]. Because of insufficient resolution, it was not clear whether this is due to clustering or phase separation. In both cases the U-rich regions are expected to order magnetically at higher temperature than the U-poor ones, resulting in two magnetic transitions. In order to resolve this question a temperature dependent TOF neutron diffraction of the x = 0.25 compound has been performed on the SEPD at Argonne's IPNS [2]. The temperature dependent diffractograms were refined by the Rietveld method. It was found that the compound separates into two phases: x = 0.4 (55 wt%) and x = 0.1 (45 wt%). The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment was obtained for each phase, with the transition temperatures: T N (x=0.4) = 130 K, and T N (x=0.1) = 165 K. (author) [1] E. Caspi et al., Phys. Rev. B, 57 (198) 449.; [2] J.D. Jorgensen et al., J. Appl. Cryst. 22 (1989) 321

  17. Magnetic separation for pre-concentration of uranium values from copper plant tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, R.S.; Sreenivas, T.; Natarajan, R.; Sridhar, U.; Rao, N.K.

    1991-01-01

    Using the paramagnetic character of uranium minerals, the preconcentration of uranium bearing ores and copper plant tailings of Singhbhum area have been investigated in a pilot plant scale wet high intensity magnetic separator (WHIMS). The variables studied include magnetic field intensity, matrix drum speed feed slurry flow rate and its pulp density. The results of these investigations have shown that 75-85% of the contained uranium values could be recovered in 45-55% weight in the magnetic fraction in the case of copper plant tailings from Rakha, Surda and Mosabani. The losses in the non magnetics were primarily due to the ultrafine liberated uraninite particles not collected by WHIMS due to machine limitations and the values occurring as fine inclusions in quartz. Improved recovery can be obtained by offering higher field gradients and preventing loss of very fine liberated uranium values. High gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) offers higher field gradients. A test sample of Mosabani copper tailings studied at the Sala Magnetic Inc in HGMS has indicated superior results in comparison to WHIMS. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Particle capture efficiency in a multi-wire model for high gradient magnetic separation

    KAUST Repository

    Eisenträger, Almut

    2014-07-21

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is an efficient way to remove magnetic and paramagnetic particles, such as heavy metals, from waste water. As the suspension flows through a magnetized filter mesh, high magnetic gradients around the wires attract and capture the particles removing them from the fluid. We model such a system by considering the motion of a paramagnetic tracer particle through a periodic array of magnetized cylinders. We show that there is a critical Mason number (ratio of viscous to magnetic forces) below which the particle is captured irrespective of its initial position in the array. Above this threshold, particle capture is only partially successful and depends on the particle\\'s entry position. We determine the relationship between the critical Mason number and the system geometry using numerical and asymptotic calculations. If a capture efficiency below 100% is sufficient, our results demonstrate how operating the HGMS system above the critical Mason number but with multiple separation cycles may increase efficiency. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-08

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  20. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Doctor, R.D.; Landsberger, S.; Nunez, L.; Ritter, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective is to reduce the volume and cost of high-level waste glass produced during US DOE remediation activities by demonstrating that magnetic separation can separate crystalline, amorphous, and colloidal constituents in vitrification feed streams known to be deleterious to the production of borosilicate glass. Magnetic separation will add neither chemicals nor generate secondary waste streams. The project includes the systematic study of magnetic interactions of waste constituents under controlled physical and chemical conditions (e.g., hydration, oxidation, temperature) to identify mechanisms that control the magnetic properties. Partitioning of radionuclides to determine their sorption mechanisms is also being studied. The identification of fundamental magnetic properties within the microscopic chemical environment in combination with hydrodynamic and electrodynamic models provides insights into the design of a system for optimal separation. Following this, experimental studies using superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) will be conducted to validate its effectiveness as a pretreatment technique.'

  1. Unconventional magnetic phase separation in γ -CoV2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L.; Jellyman, E.; Forgan, E. M.; Blackburn, E.; Laver, M.; Canévet, E.; Schefer, J.; He, Z.; Itoh, M.

    2017-08-01

    We have explored the magnetism in the nongeometrically frustrated spin-chain system γ -CoV2O6 which possesses a complex magnetic exchange network. Our neutron diffraction patterns at low temperatures (T ≤TN=6.6 K) are best described by a model in which two magnetic phases coexist in a volume ratio 65(1) : 35(1), with each phase consisting of a single spin modulation. This model fits previous studies and our observations better than the model proposed by Lenertz et al. [J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 13981 (2014), 10.1021/jp503389c], which consisted of one phase with two spin modulations. By decreasing the temperature from TN, the minority phase of our model undergoes an incommensurate-commensurate lock-in transition at T*=5.6 K. Based on these results, we propose that phase separation is an alternative approach for degeneracy-lifting in frustrated magnets.

  2. Verification and implications of the multiple pin treatment in the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a program to obtain realistic, as opposed to excessively conservative, analysis of reactor transients, a multiple pin treatment for the analysis of intra-subassembly thermal hydraulics has been included in the SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor systems analysis code. This new treatment has made possible a whole new level of verification for the code. The code can now predict the steady-state and transient responses of individual thermocouples within instrumented subassemlies in a reactor, rather than just predicting average temperatures for a subassembly. Very good agreement has been achieved between code predictions and the experimental measurements of steady-state and transient temperatures and flow rates in the Shutdown Heat Removal Tests in the EBR-II Reactor. Detailed multiple pin calculations for blanket subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor demonstrate that the actual steady-state and transient peak temperatures in these subassemblies are significantly lower than those that would be calculated by simpler models

  3. Upgrading of magnetic susceptibility of conodont sample residues before magnetic separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carls, P.; Slavík, Ladislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2005), s. 171-172 ISSN 0024-1164. [Lethaia Seminar. Oslo , 15.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114 Keywords : magnetic susceptibility * heavy liquids * conodont concentration Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2005

  4. Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-06-19

    Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two (88)Sr(+) ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d(-3.0(4)) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law.

  5. Breast cancer cells synchronous labeling and separation based on aptamer and fluorescence-magnetic silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-Yue; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Kang, Yan-Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an efficient method based on biotin-labeled aptamer and streptavidin-conjugated fluorescence-magnetic silica nanoprobes (FITC@Fe3O4@SiNPs-SA) has been established for human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells synchronous labeling and separation. Carboxyl-modified fluorescence-magnetic silica nanoparticles (FITC@Fe3O4@SiNPs-COOH) were first synthesized using the Stöber method. Streptavidin (SA) was then conjugated to the surface of FITC@Fe3O4@SiNPs-COOH. The MCF-7 cell suspension was incubated with biotin-labeled MUC-1 aptamer. After centrifugation and washing, the cells were then treated with FITC@Fe3O4@SiNPs-SA. Afterwards, the mixtures were separated by a magnet. The cell-probe conjugates were then imaged using fluorescent microscopy. The results show that the MUC-1 aptamer could recognize and bind to the targeted cells with high affinity and specificity, indicating the prepared FITC@Fe3O4@SiNPs-SA with great photostability and superparamagnetism could be applied effectively in labeling and separation for MCF-7 cell in suspension synchronously. In addition, the feasibility of MCF-7 cells detection in peripheral blood was assessed. The results indicate that the method above is also applicable for cancer cells synchronous labeling and separation in complex biological system.

  6. High-gradient magnetic separation for the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, A.D.; Ritter, J.A.; Nunez, L.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system to fractionate and remove nonglass-forming species from high-level radioactive wastes (HLW); however, to avoid clogging, OGMS may require high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) as a pretreatment to remove the most magnetic species from the HLW. In this study, the feasibility of using HGMS in the pretreatment of HLW was demonstrated. A HLW simulant of hanford's C-103 tank waste, which contained precipitate hydroxides and oxides of Fe, Al, Si, and Ca, was used. Preliminary fractionation results from a 0.3-T bench-scale HGMS unit showed that a significant amount of Fe could be removed from the HLW simulant. Between 1 and 2% of the total Fe in the sludge was removed during each stage, with over 18.5% removed in the 13 stages that were carried out. Also, in each stage, the magnetically retained fraction contained about 20% more Fe than the untreated HLW; however, it also contained a significant amount of SiO 2 in relatively large particles. This indicated that SiO 2 was acting possibly as a nucleation agent for Fe (i.e., an Fe adsorbent) and that the fractionation was based more on size than on magnetic susceptibility

  7. Adsorption mechanism of magnetically separable Fe_3O_4/graphene oxide hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Ke; Zhu, Chuanhe; Zhao, Ya; Wang, Leichao; Xie, Shan; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A recyclable Fe_3O_4/graphene oxide (GO) magnetic hybrid was successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot polylol approach and exhibited an effective adsorption of BPA in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Magnetically separable Fe_3O_4/GO hybrids were synthesized via a facile one-pot polylol approach. • The Fe_3O_4/GO hybrid could be easily recovered and met the need of magnetic separation, exhibiting excellent reproducibility and reusability. • The hybrids showed excellent adsorption ability for bisphenol A in aqueous solution. • The effect of pH value, temperature and coexisting ions on the adsorption was studied. • π–π interactions were postulated to be the primary mechanisms of adsorption of BPA on Fe_3O_4/GO hybrids. - Abstract: A reclaimable Fe_3O_4/graphene oxide (GO) magnetic hybrid was successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot polyol approach and employed as a recyclable adsorbent for Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity (q_m) of the Fe_3O_4/GO hybrid for BPA was 72.80 mg/g at 273 K. The kinetics of the adsorption process and the adsorption isotherm data were fitted using the Freundlich equation and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° showed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, the reusability of the samples was investigated, and the results indicated that the samples exhibited high stability. The magnetic characterization demonstrated that hybrids were superparamagnetic and could be recovered conveniently by magnetic separation. The strong π–π interaction was determined to be the predominant driving force behind the adsorption of BPA onto the Fe_3O_4/GO hybrid. Therefore, the Fe_3O_4/GO hybrid could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for wastewater treatment and purification processes.

  8. Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, C.B.; Rogers, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (K d ) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles

  9. High-gradient magnetic affinity separation of trypsin from porcine pancreatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a robust and scale-flexible approach to macromolecule purification employing tailor-made magnetic adsorbents and high-gradient magnetic separation technology adapted from the mineral processing industries. Detailed procedures for the synthesis of large quantities of low-cost defined......-scale studies approximate to95% of the endogenous trypsin present in a crude porcine pancreatin feedstock was recovered with a purification factor of approximate to4.1 at the expense of only a 4% loss in a-amylase activity. Efficient recovery of trypsin from the same feedstock was demonstrated at a vastly...

  10. Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.B.; Rogers, R.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nunez, L.; Ziemer, M.D.; Pleune, T.T.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (K{sub d}) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles.

  11. Treatment of heavy metals and radionuclides in groundwater and wastewater by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.R.; Tucker, P.M.; Dunn, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Removal of trace quantities of heavy metal or radionuclide contamination from solutions at high flow rate presents a considerable technical challenge. Low flow methods of treatment such as particle gravity settling require expensive large volume equipment, whereas traditional methods of filtration demand significant energy costs. Magnetic filtration can be used to provide a low cost method of solid-liquid separation at high flow rate, provided contaminants can be selectively bound to a magnetic solid particle. This paper describes recent progress with this technique including performance tests of composite materials produced to selectively remove specific contaminants such as cesium, uranium, lead, cadmium, and mercury from solution

  12. A facile method for emulsified oil-water separation by using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ting; Qi, Dongming; Zhang, Dong; Lü, Yulan; Zhao, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities have serious impacts on the environment and human health. In this study, a class of easy-to-synthesize polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was successfully synthesized via a one-step coprecipitation method. The synthesized PEI-coated Fe3O4 MNPs were characterized by using multiple technologies and applied in emulsified oil-water separation for the first time. It was found that the PEI effectively tuned the surface charge and wettability of MNPs. As a result, the PEI-coated MNPs could successfully assemble at the oil-water interface and promote the coalescence of oil droplets, thereby facilitating the subsequent magnetic separation. Results showed that the oil-water separation performance was superior and enhanced with the increase of ionic strength. Recycling experiment indicated that the PEI-coated MNPs could be reused up to six times without showing a significant decrease in separation efficiency. All of these results suggested that the PEI-coated MNP could potentially be used as a class of promising nanomaterials for emulsified oil-water separation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Combined performance of biochar sorption and magnetic separation processes for treatment of chromium-contained electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-ye; Tang, Yan-kui; Li, Kun; Mo, Ya-yuan; Li, Hao-feng; Gu, Zhan-qi

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic biochar was prepared with eucalyptus leaf residue remained after essential oil being extracted. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the capacity of the magnetic biochar to remove Cr (VI) from electroplating wastewater and to be separated by an external magnetic field. The results show that the initial solution pH plays an important role on both sorption and separation. The removal rates of Cr (VI), total Cr, Cu (II), and Ni (II) were 97.11%, 97.63%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The turbidity of the sorption-treated solution was reduced to 21.8NTU from 4075NTU after 10min magnetic separation. The study also confirms that the magnetic biochar still retains the original magnetic separation performance after the sorption process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integration of carboxyl modified magnetic particles and aqueous two-phase extraction for selective separation of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qingqing; Qu, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-07-15

    Both of the magnetic particle adsorption and aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) were simple, fast and low-cost method for protein separation. Selective proteins adsorption by carboxyl modified magnetic particles was investigated according to protein isoelectric point, solution pH and ionic strength. Aqueous two-phase system of PEG/sulphate exhibited selective separation and extraction for proteins before and after magnetic adsorption. The two combination ways, magnetic adsorption followed by ATPE and ATPE followed by magnetic adsorption, for the separation of proteins mixture of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, trypsin, cytochrome C and myloglobin were discussed and compared. The way of magnetic adsorption followed by ATPE was also applied to human serum separation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of Metallic Iron Powder from Pyrite Cinder by Carbothermic Reduction and Magnetic Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reduction and magnetic separation procedure of pyrite cinder in the presence of a borax additive was performed for the preparation of reduced powder. The effects of borax dosage, reduction temperature, reduction time and grinding fineness were investigated. The results show that when pyrite cinder briquettes with 5% borax were pre-oxidized at 1050 °C for 10 min, and reduced at 1050 °C for 80 min, with the grinding fineness (<0.44 mm passing 81%, the iron recovery was 91.71% and the iron grade of the magnetic concentrate was 92.98%. In addition, the microstructures of the products were analyzed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and mineralography, and the products were also studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD to investigate the mechanism; the results show that the borax additive was approved as a good additive to improve the separation of iron and gangue.

  16. Comparison of the SASSYS/SAS4A radial core expansion reactivity feedback model and the empirical correlation for FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The present emphasis on inherent safety for LMR designs has resulted in a need to represent the various reactivity feedback mechanisms as accurately as possible. The dominant negative reactivity feedback has been found to result from radial expansion of the core for most postulated ATWS events. For this reason, a more detailed model for calculating the reactivity feedback from radial core expansion has been recently developed for use with the SASSYS/SAS4A Code System. The purpose of this summary is to present an extension to the model so that it is more suitable for handling a core restraint design as used in FFTF, and to compare the SASSYS/SAS4A results using this model to the empirical correlation presently being used to account for radial core expansion reactivity feedback to FFTF

  17. Tailored functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI, drug delivery, magnetic separation and immobilization of biosubstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, Katerina; Markova, Zdenka; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2015-11-01

    In this critical review, we outline various covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Tuning the surface chemistry and design of magnetic nanoparticles are described in relation to their applicability in advanced medical technologies and biotechnologies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, targeted drug delivery, magnetic separations and immobilizations of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, targeting agents and other biosubstances. We review synthetic strategies for the controlled preparation of IONPs modified with frequently used functional groups including amine, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups as well as the preparation of IONPs functionalized with other species, e.g., epoxy, thiol, alkane, azide, and alkyne groups. Three main coupling strategies for linking IONPs with active agents are presented: (i) chemical modification of amine groups on the surface of IONPs, (ii) chemical modification of bioactive substances (e.g. with fluorescent dyes), and (iii) the activation of carboxyl groups mainly for enzyme immobilization. Applications for drug delivery using click chemistry linking or biodegradable bonds are compared to non-covalent methods based on polymer modified condensed magnetic nanoclusters. Among many challenges, we highlight the specific surface engineering allowing both therapeutic and diagnostic applications (theranostics) of IONPs and magnetic/metallic hybrid nanostructures possessing a huge potential in biocatalysis, green chemistry, magnetic bioseparations and bioimaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Semi-continuous in situ magnetic separation for enhanced extracellular protease productionmodeling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerff, M.; Scholz, A.; Käppler, T.

    2013-01-01

    In modern biotechnology proteases play a major role as detergent ingredients. Especially the production of extracellular protease by Bacillus species facilitates downstream processing because the protease can be directly harvested from the biosuspension. In situ magnetic separation (ISMS...... production, and was used to optimize ISMS steps to obtain the maximum overall protease yield. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 2161–2172. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  19. Design and analysis of beam separator magnets for third generation aberration compensated PEEMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.K.; Robin, D.S.; Forest, E.; Schlueter, R.; Anders, S.; Feng, J.; Padmore, H.; Wei, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    A state of the art X-ray photoemission electron microscope (PEEM2) is operational at the Advanced Light Source at a resolution of typically 50 nm for a range of chemical and magnetic surface studies. A new microscope, PEEM3, is under development with an aim of achieving a resolution of 5 nm and more than an order of magnitude increase in transmission at the nominal resolution of PEEM2. The resolution and flux improvement is realized by providing geometric and chromatic aberration compensations in the system using an electron mirror and a beam separator magnet. The nearly aberration-free design of the beam separator is critical to the performance of third generation PEEMs. In this paper, we present the optics design model, optimal operation parameters, analyses of aberration impact, as well as the mechanical alignment tolerance for PEEM3 separator prototypes. In particular, we emphasize the importance of a new semi-analytical approach to design complex charged particle optics using the truncated power series algebra. Because of its ability to compute high-order aberrations, this approach allows systematic and comprehensive analyses of any charged particle optics systems with analytical electric and magnetic fields

  20. The Influence of magnetic field on the separation of droplets from ferrofluid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, M.; Burda, P.; Šviková, M.; Huňady, R.

    2017-06-01

    The influence of parallel and perpendicular homogenous magnetic field on the ferrofluid drop formation in dripping regime is studied experimentally. Experimental images are obtained using high-speed video camera with frame rate up to 25,000 fps. The detachment of a drop from the nozzle occurs via the formation of a neck which quickly narrows down until the drop pinches off. The formation of micro-thread from the primary neck is observed before the drop separation. Details of the shape and dynamics of the liquid neck are studied with regard to magnetic field. It is shown that near the detachment point scaled profiles exhibit self-similarity which is not affected by applied magnetic field.

  1. Recover vigorous cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 by capillary magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Ge, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokui; Chen, Guanjun; Pan, Yongxin

    2010-07-01

    Cultivable magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in laboratory can provide sufficient samples for molecular microbiological and magnetic studies. However, a cold-stored MTB strain, such as Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, often loses its ability to synthesize magnetosomes and consequently fails to sense the external magnetic field. It is therefore important to quickly recover vigorous bacteria cells that highly capable of magnetosome producing. In this study, a modified capillary magnetic separation system was designed to recover a deteriorating strain of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 that long-term cold-stored in a refrigerator. The results show that all cells obtained after a 3-cycle treatment were vigorous and had the ability to produce magnetosomes. Moreover, the 3rd-cycle recovered cells were able to form more magnetosome crystals. Compared with the colony formation method, this new method is time-saving, easily operated, and more efficient for recovering vigorous MTB cells.

  2. Cesium separation from contaminated milk using magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitantes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in 1986 contaminated vast regions of prime grazing land. Subsequently, milk produced in the region has been contaminated with small amounts of the long-lived fission product cesium-137, and the Ukraine is seeking to deploy a simple separation process that will remove the Cs and preserve the nutritional value of the milk. Tiny magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitanates (CST) have been manufactured and tested to this end. The results show that partitioning efficiency is optimized with low ratios of particle mass to volume. To achieve 90% Cs decontamination in a single-stage process, <3 g of magnetic CST per l milk is sufficient with a 30-min mixing time. A two-stage process would utilize <0.4 g/l per stage. The modeling of the magnetic CST system described herein can be achieved rather simply which is important for deployment in the affected Ukraine region

  3. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  4. Controlled synthesis of Fe3O4/ZIF-8 nanoparticles for magnetically separable nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Fei; He, Mingyuan; Ge, Jianping

    2015-04-27

    Fe3O4/ZIF-8 nanoparticles were synthesized through a room-temperature reaction between 2-methylimidazolate and zinc nitrate in the presence of Fe3O4 nanocrystals. The particle size, surface charge, and magnetic loading can be conveniently controlled by the dosage of Zn(NO3)2 and Fe3O4 nanocrystals. The as-prepared particles show both good thermal stability (stable to 550 °C) and large surface area (1174 m(2) g(-1)). The nanoparticles also have a superparamagnetic response, so that they can strongly respond to an external field during magnetic separation and disperse back into the solution after withdrawal of the magnetic field. For the Knoevenagel reaction, which is catalyzed by alkaline active sites on external surface of catalyst, small Fe3O4/ZIF-8 nanoparticles show a higher catalytic activity. At the same time, the nanocatalysts can be continuously used in multiple catalytic reactions through magnetic separation, activation, and redispersion with little loss of activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption.

  6. Characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rocks waste by magnetic separation; Caracterizacao da granalha de aco recuperada do residuo de rochas ornamentais por separacao magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junca, E.; Telles, V.B.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Oliveira, J.R. de; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: eduardojunca@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rock waste by magnetic separation. The magnetic separation was realized in three steps: first, using a high intensity wet magnetic separator, which used only the remaining magnetic field of equipment. In the second step, the magnetic material obtained in the first phase was subjected to a new manual magnetic separation using rare earth magnets. In a third step, magnetic material obtained with rare earth magnets was subjected to manual magnetic separation using ferrite magnets. After the magnetic separation, the material was sent to characterization which was obtained by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and size analysis. The size analysis showed that the concentrate range from 0,5 to 563,67 {mu}m with 4 wt.% over 100 {mu}m and content metallic iron of 93 wt%. (author)

  7. Anomalous dispersion of magnetic spiky particles for enhanced oil emulsions/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Hang, Tian; Yang, Chengduan; Liu, Guishi; Lin, Di-An; Wu, Jiangming; Pan, Shuolin; Yang, Bo-Ru; Tao, Jun; Xie, Xi

    2018-01-25

    In situ effective separation of oil pollutants including oil spills and oil emulsions from water is an emerging technology yet remains challenging. Hydrophobic micro- or nano-materials with ferromagnetism have been explored for oil removal, yet the separation efficiency of an oil emulsion was compromised due to the limited dispersion of hydrophobic materials in water. A surfactant coating on microparticles prevented particle aggregation, but reduced oil absorption and emulsion cleaning ability. Recently, polystyrene microbeads covered with nanospikes have been reported to display anomalous dispersion in phobic media without surfactants. Inspired by this phenomenon, here magnetic microparticles attached with nanospikes were fabricated for enhanced separation of oil emulsions from water. In this design, the particle surfaces were functionalized to be superhydrophobic/superoleophilic for oil absorption, while the surface of the nanospikes prevented particle aggregation in water without compromising surface hydrophobicity. The magnetic spiky particles effectively absorbed oil spills on the water surface, and readily dispersed in water and offered facile cleaning of the oil emulsion. In contrast, hydrophobic microparticles without nanospikes aggregated in water limiting the particle-oil contact, while surfactant coating severely reduced particle hydrophobicity and oil absorption ability. Our work provides a unique application scope for the anomalous dispersity of microparticles and their potential opportunities in effective oil-water separation.

  8. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of a mission concept named Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) with a special focus here on low-latitude ionospheric plasma turbulence measurements relevant to equatorial spread-F. SASSI is a suite of sensors that improves Space Situational Awareness for the ISS local space environment, as well as unique ionospheric measurements and support active plasma experiments on the ISS. As such, the mission concept has both operational and basic research objectives. We will describe two compelling measurement techniques enabled by SASSI's unique mission architecture. That is, SASSI provides new abilities to 1) measure space plasma potentials in low Earth orbit over ~100 m relative to a common potential, and 2) to investigate multi-scale ionospheric plasma turbulence morphology simultaneously of both ~ 1 cm and ~ 10 m scale lengths. The first measurement technique will aid in the distinction of vertical drifts within equatorial plasma bubbles from the vertical motions of the bulk of the layer due to zonal electric fields. The second will aid in understanding ionospheric plasma turbulence cascading in scale sizes that affect over the horizon radar. During many years of ISS operation, we have conducted effective (but not perfect) human and robotic extravehicular activities within the space plasma environment surrounding the ISS structure. However, because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the space environment, there remain important sources of unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include EVA safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. SASSI is being designed to deploy and operate a suite of low-cost, medium/high-TRL plasma sensors on

  9. Effective preparation of magnetic superhydrophobic Fe3O4/PU sponge for oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng-Tian; Lin, Bo; Jiang, Li-Wang; Lin, En-Chao; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tang, Yi-Wen; He, Fu-An; Li, De-Hao

    2018-01-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles were modified by tetraethoxysilane and different amounts of trimethoxy (1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl) silane in sequence to obtain the magnetic nanoparticles with low surface energy, which could be used to construct the superhydrophobic surfaces for PU sponge, cotton fabric, and filter paper by a simple drop-coating method. Particularly, all the resultant Fe3O4/PU sponges containing different fluoroalkylsilane-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles possessed both high water repellency with contact angle in the range of 150.2-154.7° and good oil affinity, which could not only effectively remove oil from water followed by convenient magnetic recovery but also easily realize the oil-water separation as a filter only driven by gravity. The Fe3O4/PU sponges showed high absorption capability of peanut oil, pump oil, and silicone oil with the maximum absorptive capacities of 40.3, 39.3, and 46.3 g/g, respectively. Such novel sponges might be a potential candidate for oil-water separation as well as oil absorption and transportation accompanied by the advantages of simple process, remote control by magnetic field, and low energy consumption.

  10. Copper Recovery from Yulong Complex Copper Oxide Ore by Flotation and Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Xiao, Jun; Qin, Wenqing; Chen, Daixiong; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    A combined process of flotation and high-gradient magnetic separation was proposed to utilize Yulong complex copper oxide ore. The effects of particle size, activators, Na2S dosage, LA (a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ethylenediamine) dosage, activating time, collectors, COC (a combination collector of modified hydroxyl oxime acid and xanthate) dosage, and magnetic intensity on the copper recovery were investigated. The results showed that 74.08% Cu was recovered by flotation, while the average grade of the copper concentrates was 21.68%. Another 17.34% Cu was further recovered from the flotation tailing by magnetic separation at 0.8 T. The cumulative recovery of copper reached 91.42%. The modifier LA played a positive role in facilitating the sulfidation of copper oxide with Na2S, and the combined collector COC was better than other collectors for the copper flotation. This technology has been successfully applied to industrial production, and the results are consistent with the laboratory data.

  11. Adsorption mechanism of magnetically separable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene oxide hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Ke [Department of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, Guangdong 529020 (China); Zhu, Chuanhe [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Zhao, Ya; Wang, Leichao [Department of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, Guangdong 529020 (China); Xie, Shan, E-mail: wyuchemxs@126.com [Department of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, Guangdong 529020 (China); Wang, Qun, E-mail: qunwang@iastate.edu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A recyclable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene oxide (GO) magnetic hybrid was successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot polylol approach and exhibited an effective adsorption of BPA in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Magnetically separable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/GO hybrids were synthesized via a facile one-pot polylol approach. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/GO hybrid could be easily recovered and met the need of magnetic separation, exhibiting excellent reproducibility and reusability. • The hybrids showed excellent adsorption ability for bisphenol A in aqueous solution. • The effect of pH value, temperature and coexisting ions on the adsorption was studied. • π–π interactions were postulated to be the primary mechanisms of adsorption of BPA on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/GO hybrids. - Abstract: A reclaimable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene oxide (GO) magnetic hybrid was successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot polyol approach and employed as a recyclable adsorbent for Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub m}) of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/GO hybrid for BPA was 72.80 mg/g at 273 K. The kinetics of the adsorption process and the adsorption isotherm data were fitted using the Freundlich equation and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° showed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, the reusability of the samples was investigated, and the results indicated that the samples exhibited high stability. The magnetic characterization demonstrated that hybrids were superparamagnetic and could be recovered conveniently by magnetic separation. The strong π–π interaction was determined to be the predominant driving force behind the adsorption of BPA onto the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/GO hybrid. Therefore, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/GO hybrid could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for wastewater treatment and purification processes.

  12. Magnetic particle separation technique: a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rongsen; Shen Decun

    1998-01-01

    Five types of magnetic particles without or with aldehyde, amino and carboxyl functional groups, respectively were used to immobilize first or second antibody by three models, i. e. physical adsorption, chemical coupling and immuno-affinity, forming four types of magnetic particle antibodies. The second antibody immobilized on polyacrolein magnetic particles through aldehyde functional groups and the first antibodies immobilized on carboxylic polystyrene magnetic particles through carboxyl functional groups were recommended to apply to RIAs and/or IRMAs. Streptavidin immobilized on commercial magnetic particles through amino functional groups was successfully applied to separating specific PCR product for quantification of human cytomegalovirus. In the paper typical data on reliability of these magnetic particle ligands were reported and simplicity of the magnetic particle separation technique was discussed. The results showed that the technique was a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay. (author)

  13. Continuous Quadrupole Magnetic Separation of Islets during Digestion Improves Purified Porcine Islet Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Kumar Sajja, Venkata Sunil; Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott Iii, William E; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Mueller, Kate R; Hanley, Thomas R; Kennedy, David J; Todd, Paul W; Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2016-01-01

    Islet transplantation (ITx) is an emerging and promising therapy for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. The islet isolation and purification processes require exposure to extended cold ischemia, warm-enzymatic digestion, mechanical agitation, and use of damaging chemicals for density gradient separation (DG), all of which reduce viable islet yield. In this paper, we describe initial proof-of-concept studies exploring quadrupole magnetic separation (QMS) of islets as an alternative to DG to reduce exposure to these harsh conditions. Three porcine pancreata were split into two parts, the splenic lobe (SPL) and the combined connecting/duodenal lobes (CDL), for paired digestions and purifications. Islets in the SPL were preferentially labeled using magnetic microparticles (MMPs) that lodge within the islet microvasculature when infused into the pancreas and were continuously separated from the exocrine tissue by QMS during the collection phase of the digestion process. Unlabeled islets from the CDL were purified by conventional DG. Islets purified by QMS exhibited significantly improved viability (measured by oxygen consumption rate per DNA, p < 0.03) and better morphology relative to control islets. Islet purification by QMS can reduce the detrimental effects of prolonged exposure to toxic enzymes and density gradient solutions and substantially improve islet viability after isolation.

  14. Continuous Quadrupole Magnetic Separation of Islets during Digestion Improves Purified Porcine Islet Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley P. Weegman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation (ITx is an emerging and promising therapy for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. The islet isolation and purification processes require exposure to extended cold ischemia, warm-enzymatic digestion, mechanical agitation, and use of damaging chemicals for density gradient separation (DG, all of which reduce viable islet yield. In this paper, we describe initial proof-of-concept studies exploring quadrupole magnetic separation (QMS of islets as an alternative to DG to reduce exposure to these harsh conditions. Three porcine pancreata were split into two parts, the splenic lobe (SPL and the combined connecting/duodenal lobes (CDL, for paired digestions and purifications. Islets in the SPL were preferentially labeled using magnetic microparticles (MMPs that lodge within the islet microvasculature when infused into the pancreas and were continuously separated from the exocrine tissue by QMS during the collection phase of the digestion process. Unlabeled islets from the CDL were purified by conventional DG. Islets purified by QMS exhibited significantly improved viability (measured by oxygen consumption rate per DNA, p<0.03 and better morphology relative to control islets. Islet purification by QMS can reduce the detrimental effects of prolonged exposure to toxic enzymes and density gradient solutions and substantially improve islet viability after isolation.

  15. Performance of a New Magnetic Chitosan Nanoparticle to Remove Arsenic and Its Separation from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal performance of arsenic in water by a novel magnetic chitosan nanoparticle (MCNP with a diameter of about 10 nm, including adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, main influencing factors, and regeneration effects, was investigated. In addition, the effective separation way for MCNP particles and the new application mode were developed to prompt the application of MCNP. The results showed that MCNP exhibited excellent ability to remove As(V and As(III from water in a wide range of initial concentrations, MCNP removed arsenic rapidly with more than 95% of arsenic adsorbed in initial 15 min, and the whole process fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model fits the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacities of As(V and As(III were 65.5 mg/g and 60.2 mg/g, respectively. The saturated MCNP could be easily regenerated and kept more than 95% of initial adsorption capacity stable after 10 regeneration cycles. A new magnetic material separation method was established to separate MCNP effectively. The continuous-operation instrument developed based on the MCNP could operate stably and guarantee that the concentration of arsenic meets the guideline limit of arsenic in drinking water regulated by the WHO.

  16. Selective fluorescence response and magnetic separation probe for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Ya-Qin; Wang, Feng; Shao, Qun; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Despite the rapid development of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, it is still desirable to develop novel nanoparticle-based techniques which are cost-effective, timesaving, and environment-friendly, and with ease of operation and procedural simplicity, for assay of target analytes. In the work discussed in this paper, the dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was conjugated to 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA)-capped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs), and the product was characterized. HDA ligands on the surface of Fe3O4 MNPs can bind 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to form TNT anions by acid-base pairing interaction. Formation of TNT anions, and captured TNT substantially affect the emission of FITC on the surface of the Fe3O4 MNPs, resulting in quenching of the fluorescence at 519 nm. A novel FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs-based probe featuring chemosensing and magnetic separation has therefore been constructed. i.e. FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs had a highly selective fluorescence response and enabled magnetic separation of TNT from other nitroaromatic compounds by quenching of the emission of FITC and capture of TNT in aqueous solution. Very good linearity was observed for TNT concentrations in the range 0.05-1.5 μmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 37.2 nmol L(-1) and RSD of 4.7 % (n = 7). Approximately 12 % of the total amount of TNT was captured. The proposed methods are well-suited to trace detection and capture of TNT in aqueous solution.

  17. Selective separation of lambdacyhalothrin by porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hui; Li, Chunxiang; Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Dai, Jiangdong; Dai, Xiaohui; Yu, Ping; Feng, Yonghai

    2013-10-01

    Porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (PM-MIPs) were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. The reaction was carried out in an oil/water emulsion using magnetic halloysite nanotubes as the stabilizer instead of a toxic surfactant. In the oil phase, the imprinting process was conducted by radical polymerization of functional and cross-linked monomers, and porogen chloroform generated steam under the high reaction temperature, which resulted in some pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites within the as-made PM-MIPs. The characterization demonstrated that the PM-MIPs were porous and magnetic inorganic-polymer composite microparticles with magnetic sensitivity (M(s) = 0.7448 emu/g), thermal stability (below 473 K) and magnetic stability (over the pH range of 2.0-8.0). The PM-MIPs were used as a sorbent for the selective binding of lambdacyhalothrin (LC) and rapidly separated under an external magnetic field. The Freundlich isotherm model gave a good fit to the experimental data. The adsorption kinetics of the PM-MIPs was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of LC. The selective recognition experiments exhibited the outstanding selective adsorption effect of the PM-MIPs for target LC. Moreover, the PM-MIPs regeneration without significant loss in adsorption capacity was demonstrated by at least four repeated cycles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Eddy current and total power loss separation in the iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghvaei, A.H.; Shokrollahi, H.; Janghorban, K.; Abiri, H.

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the magnetic properties of iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composite materials. FTIR spectra, EDX analysis, distribution maps, X-ray diffraction pattern and density measurements show that the particles surface layer contains a thin layer of nanocrystalline/amorphous phosphate with high coverage of powders surface. In this paper, a formula for calculating the eddy current loss and total loss components by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of power losses are calculated. The results show that, the contribution of eddy current in the bulk material for single coating layer (k b = 0.18) is higher in comparison with double coating layer (k b = 0.09). Moreover, iron-phosphate-polyepoxy composites (P = 0.000004f 2 ) have lower power loss in comparison with iron-phosphate composites (P = 0.00002f 2 ).

  19. Recent development of high gradient superconducting magnetic separator for kaolin in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zian; Wang, Meifen; Ning, Fei Peng; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Guoqing; Hou, Zhi Long; Liu, Zhaong Xiu; Dai, Zhong [Institute of High Energy Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Pei Yong; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Zhaolian [Weifang Xinli Superconducting Technology Co.,Ltd., Weifang (China)

    2017-03-15

    A series of high gradient superconducting magnetic separator (HGMS) for kaolin has been developed. It is used for processing kaolin to increase the brightness or whiteness whether it is for paper or ceramic applications. The HGMS system mainly consists of a solenoid magnet with a zero boil-off helium cryostat, a double reciprocating canisters system, and a PLC (Process Logic Controller) fully automatic control system based on SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. We have successfully developed CGC-5.5/300 and CGC-5.0/500 HGMS systems in the recent years, and now three sets of them are on-site operation in different customers. This paper will present recent progress of the HGMS system, the results of some experiments on processing kaolin clay used HGMS, and the on-site operation.

  20. Recent development of high gradient superconducting magnetic separator for kaolin in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zian; Wang, Meifen; Ning, Fei Peng; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Guoqing; Hou, Zhi Long; Liu, Zhaong Xiu; Dai, Zhong; Li, Pei Yong; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Zhaolian

    2017-01-01

    A series of high gradient superconducting magnetic separator (HGMS) for kaolin has been developed. It is used for processing kaolin to increase the brightness or whiteness whether it is for paper or ceramic applications. The HGMS system mainly consists of a solenoid magnet with a zero boil-off helium cryostat, a double reciprocating canisters system, and a PLC (Process Logic Controller) fully automatic control system based on SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. We have successfully developed CGC-5.5/300 and CGC-5.0/500 HGMS systems in the recent years, and now three sets of them are on-site operation in different customers. This paper will present recent progress of the HGMS system, the results of some experiments on processing kaolin clay used HGMS, and the on-site operation

  1. Rapid detection and purification of sequence specific DNA binding proteins using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIJANA SAVIC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the rapid identification and purification of sequence specific DNA binding proteins based on magnetic separation is presented. This method was applied to confirm the binding of the human recombinant USF1 protein to its putative binding site (E-box within the human SOX3 protomer. It has been shown that biotinylated DNA attached to streptavidin magnetic particles specifically binds the USF1 protein in the presence of competitor DNA. It has also been demonstrated that the protein could be successfully eluted from the beads, in high yield and with restored DNA binding activity. The advantage of these procedures is that they could be applied for the identification and purification of any high-affinity sequence-specific DNA binding protein with only minor modifications.

  2. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Catrin F., E-mail: williamscf@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, Newport Road, Cardiff, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales (United Kingdom); Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, Newport Road, Cardiff, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom); Lloyd, David [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-29

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  3. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lloyd, David; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the "internet of things" is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  4. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian; Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  5. Steelmaking slag beneficiation by magnetic separator and impacts on sinter quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölükbaşı Ö.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic oxygen furnaces (BOF slag is the main problem at all iron and steel factories. About more than 6 million tons/year of BOF slag has been accumulated from the waste stockyards in Turkey. Dumps slags can be revaluated by a processing technology which makes it possible to obtain products that meet the requirements of sintering and blast furnace production. The slags with particle size of -10 mm were enriched by the magnetic separator resulting and increase in Fe grade from 18% to 33%. The use of BOF slag in sinter blend provided additional Mn, CaO, MgO and introduced a good solution to environmental problems.

  6. Deterministic Generation of Quantum State Transfer Between Spatially Separated Single Molecule Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Peijun; Lue Xinyou; Huang Pei; Hao Xiangying; Yang Xiaoxue

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for realizing deterministic quantum state transfer (QST) between two spatially separated single molecule magnets (SMMs) with the framework of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the present scheme, two SMMs are trapped in two spatially separated optical cavities coupled by an optical fiber. Through strictly numerically simulating, we demonstrate that our scheme is robust with respect to the SMMs' spontaneous decay and fiber loss under the conditions of dispersive SMMs-field interaction and strong coupling of cavity fiber. In addition, we also discuss the influence of photon leakage out of cavities and show that our proposal is good enough to demonstrate the generation of QST with high fidelity utilizing the current experimental technology. The present investigation provides research opportunities for realizing QST between solid-state qubits and may result in a substantial impact on the progress of solid-state-based quantum communications network. (general)

  7. Investigation on rare earth magnets recycling by organophosphoric extractant encapsulated polymeric beads for separation of dysprosium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Kain, V.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a basic requirement of the electronics and new industries including green technology. In the present work an organophosphoric extractant encapsulating polyethersulfone (PES) beads has been developed and employed for dysprosium (Dy) separation from aqueous stream. Polyethersulfonic beads encapsulating PC88A were prepared by phase inversion method. During the synthesis of the beads, preparatory parameters were also optimized to obtain best suited beads which were subsequently characterized for their encapsulation capacity and micro structural investigation. The results obtained in the present investigation suggested that PES/PVAJPC88A composite beads could be used for separation of rare earths from aqueous medium obtained from the solubilisation of magnetic scrap materials

  8. The classical centre-of-mass separation for two particles in a homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, A.S.; Patterson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate classically the problem of the centre-of-mass separation for a two-body system with net charge in a homogeneous magnetic field. Particular attention is paid to the case where one particle is much heavier than the other. Alternative momenta involving a suggested near-constant of the motion are investigated for use with a translation-invariant internal potential. These lead to a 'near separation' in terms of two coupled particles characterised by vectors which possess a simple classical interpretation, even in the presence of an interaction potential. However it is found that the coupling is not small and is not reduced when one of the particles is much heavier than the other, although the frequencies of the two motions then differ widely. (author)

  9. Separation of Selenite from Inorganic Selenium Ions using TiO{sub 2} Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongmin; Lim, H. B. [Donkook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    A simple and quick separation technique for selenite in natural water was developed using TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. For the synthesis of nanoparticles, a polymer-assisted sol-gel method using hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was developed to control particle dispersion in the synthetic procedure. In addition, titanium butoxide (TBT) precursor, instead of the typical titanium tetra isopropoxide, was used for the formation of the TiO{sub 2} shell. The synthesized nanoparticles were used to separate selenite (Se{sup 4+}) in the presence of Se{sup 6+} or selenium anions for the photocatalytic reduction to Se{sup 0} atom on the TiO{sub 2} shell, followed by magnetic separation using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The reduction efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction was 81.4% at a UV power of 6W for 3 h with a dark adsorption of 17.5% to the nanoparticles, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The developed separation method can be used for the speciation and preconcentration of selenium cations in environmental and biological analysis.

  10. Wide aperture multipole magnets of the kinematic separator COMBAS. Correcting pair of multipole magnets M3M4 (M5M6) with compensation for higher order aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukh, A.G.; Gridnev, G.F.; Teterev, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The high-resolving large aperture separator COMBAS has been created and commissioned. The magneto-optical structure of the separator is based on the strong focusing principle. The separator consists of eight wide aperture multipole magnets M1-M8. The magnets M1, M2, M7, M8 forming the 1 st order optics together with some higher order optical corrections and M3-M6 being dedicated to higher order corrections of the chromatic and spherical aberrations at the intermediate and exit foci of the separator. The multipole correctors M3-M6 contain the dipolar, sextupole and octupole components in their magnetic field distributions. It was the use of the rectangular dipoles M3-M6 as carriers of sextupole and octupole field components that let achieve high values of the separator angular and momentum acceptances. Measurements of the magnetic field distributions in the median planes of the pairs of magnets M3M6 (M4M5) have been performed. These measurements allowed one to analyze the magnets manufacturing quality. Based on the analysis, shimming of pole pieces of the pair of magnets M3M6 have been done. Pole surface correcting coils for the magnets M4M5 have been foreseen to compensate for small deviations (within a few percents) of the 2 nd and 3 rd order field components from the design values, which are probable due to manufacturing errors in all the magnets M1-M8. The measured magnetic field distributions are supposed to be used for particle trajectory simulations throughout the entire separator

  11. Integrated intra-subassembly treatment in the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, F.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses a hot channel treatment which has been added to the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code by providing for a multiple pin treatment of each of one or more subassemblies. This is an explicit calculation of intra-subassembly effects, not a hot-channel adjustment to a calculated average channel. Thus, the code can account for effects such as transient flow redistribution, both within a subassembly and among subassemblies. The code now provides a total integrated thermal hydraulic treatment including a multiple pin treatment within subassemblies, a multi-channel treatment of the whole core, and models for the primary coolant loops, the intermediate coolant loops, the steam generators, and the balance of plant. Currently the multiple-pin option is only implemented for single-phase calculations. It is not applicable after the onset of boiling or pin disruption. The new multiple pin treatment is being verified with detailed temperature data from instrumented subassemblies in EBR-II, both steady-state and transient, with special emphasis on passive safety tests such as SHRT-45. For the SHRT-45 test, excellent agreement is obtained between code predictions and experimental measurements of coolant temperatures.

  12. Integrated intra-subassembly treatment in the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, F.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses a hot channel treatment which has been added to the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code by providing for a multiple pin treatment of each of one or more subassemblies. This is an explicit calculation of intra-subassembly effects, not a hot-channel adjustment to a calculated average channel. Thus, the code can account for effects such as transient flow redistribution, both within a subassembly and among subassemblies. The code now provides a total integrated thermal hydraulic treatment including a multiple pin treatment within subassemblies, a multi-channel treatment of the whole core, and models for the primary coolant loops, the intermediate coolant loops, the steam generators, and the balance of plant. Currently the multiple-pin option is only implemented for single-phase calculations. It is not applicable after the onset of boiling or pin disruption. The new multiple pin treatment is being verified with detailed temperature data from instrumented subassemblies in EBR-II, both steady-state and transient, with special emphasis on passive safety tests such as SHRT-45. For the SHRT-45 test, excellent agreement is obtained between code predictions and experimental measurements of coolant temperatures.

  13. Development program for magnetically assisted chemical separation: Evaluation of cesium removal from Hanford tank supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Ziemer, M.; Dyrkacz, G.; Kaminski, M.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Atkins, K.J.; Bos, F.M.; Elder, G.R.; Swift, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    Magnetic particles (MAG*SEP SM ) coated with various absorbents were evaluated for the separation and recovery of low concentrations of cesium from nuclear waste solutions. The MAG*SEP SM particles were coated with (1) clinoptilolite, (2) transylvanian volcanic tuff, (3) resorcinol formaldehyde, and (4) crystalline silico-titanate, and then were contacted with a Hanford supernatant simulant. Particles coated with the crystalline silico-titanate were identified by Bradtec as having the highest capacity for cesium removal under the conditions tested (variation of pH, ionic strength, cesium concentration, and absorbent/solution ratio). The MAG*SEP SM particles coated with resorcinol formaldehyde had high distribution ratios values and could also be used to remove cesium from Hanford supernant simulant. Gamma irradiation studies were performed on the MAG*SEP SM particles with a gamma dose equivalent to 100 cycles of use. This irradiation decreased the loading capacity and distribution ratios for the particles by greater than 75%. The particles demonstrated high sensitivity to radiolytic damage due to the degradation of the polymeric regions. These results were supported by optical microscopy measurements. Overall, use of magnetic particles for cesium separation under nuclear waste conditions was found to be marginally effective

  14. Selective binding and magnetic separation of His-tagged proteins using Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiling; Li, Mengyun; Tu, Shu; Sun, Honghao

    2018-03-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with polyacrylamide (PAM) were synthesized. The magnetic core, with an average hydrodynamic size of 235.5 nm, allowed the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) rapid separation from solutions under an external magnetic field. NTA-Ni2+ was modified on the surface of Fe3O4/PAM MNPs to selectively trap his-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP). The results showed that Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ MNPs exhibited remarkable capability of selective binding and separating his-tagged GFP. The adsorption efficiency was 93.37%.

  15. Effect of microwave irradiation on selective heating behavior and magnetic separation characteristics of Panzhihua ilmenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Chang, Xiaodong; Guo, Shenghui; Srinivasakannan, C.; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave irradiation can be applied effectively and efficiently to the irradiation processes of Panzhihua ilmenite. • The mineral processing properties of microwave treated ilmenite were generally as good as or better than that of initial ilmenite. • The microwave selective heating characteristics of the different minerals and compounds, and the thermal stresses were caused by the uniform heat rate disturbed under microwave irradiation. - Abstract: The influences of microwave irradiation on the surface characteristics of Panzhihua ilmenite were systematically investigated. The crystal structures, surface morphology and surface chemical functional groups of ilmenite were characterized before and after microwave irradiation and magnetic separation for different microwave treatment times by using various methods, such as XRD, SEM, and FT-IR, respectively. XRD analysis showed that the microwave treated ilmenite has the strongest peaks of phase more than that of raw samples, indicates that the crystalline compound of ilmenite increased with the microwave irradiation time. SEM analysis showed the micro-cracking appeared at many grain boundaries of ilmenite after being pretreated by microwave treatment. The separations of ilmenite from gangue minerals were completed and the micro-fissure within ilmenite minerals were also formed, which could be attributed to the microwave selective heating characteristics of the different minerals and compounds, and the thermal stresses were caused by the uniform heat rate disturbed under microwave irradiation. The mineral processing results showed that the magnetic separation characteristics and properties of microwave treated ilmenite samples were better than that of microwave untreated ilmenite samples. It was concluded that microwave irradiation can be applied effectively and efficiently to the irradiation processes of Panzhihua ilmenite

  16. Implementation, verification, and validation of the FPIN2 metal fuel pin mechanics model in the SASSYS/SAS4A LMR transient analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofu, T.; Kramer, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The metal fuel version of the FPIN2 code which provides a validated pin mechanics model is coupled with SASSYS/SAS4A Version 3.0 for single pin calculations. In this implementation, SASSY/SAS4A provides pin temperatures, and FPIN2 performs analysis of pin deformation and predicts the time and location of cladding failure. FPIN2 results are also used for the estimates of axial expansion of fuel and associated reactivity effects. The revalidation of the integrated SAS-FPIN2 code system is performed using TREAT tests

  17. Computer programmes for high current ion trajectories in a magnetic sector-type mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Akira

    1988-01-01

    According to theoretical calculations previously proposed by the author, a new programme 'MALT' for electronic computers has been developed for numerical calculations of ion trajectories of a high current ion beam traversing a magnetic sector-type mass separator. In the programme, both effects of the fringing field and the space charge are taken into account in an analytical way, so that numerical calculations can be done straightforwardly. Furthermore, it becomes also possible to analyze and cotrol the trajectories of the high current ion beam. The programme MALT contains several subroutine programmes which are separated individually for the convenience of various calculations with respect to the high current ion beam. To demonstrate the calculations by the use of these subroutine programmes, a main programme for the calculation of the trajectories in the whole region of the separator is shown, which also makes it possible to draw the traces of the trajectories. The trajectories calculated by the proposed programme have been compared with the images of the ion beams recorded on novel dry plates developed by the author: the comparison enables us to evaluate the effective space charge and the effective space charge potential, and to analyze the behaviour of the beam of neutral particles accompanying the ion beam. (author)

  18. Magnetic separation of encapsulated islet cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Esther; Trenkler, Anja; Feilen, Peter J; Wiegand, Frederik; Fottner, Christian; Ehrhart, Friederike; Zimmermann, Heiko; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Dong Yun; Fischer, Stefan; Schreiber, Laura M; Weber, Matthias M

    2013-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising option for the restoration of normal glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Because graft volume is a crucial issue in islet transplantations for patients with diabetes, we evaluated a new method for increasing functional tissue yield in xenogeneic grafts of encapsulated islets. Islets were labeled with three different superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs; dextran-coated SPION, siloxane-coated SPION, and heparin-coated SPION). Magnetic separation was performed to separate encapsulated islets from the empty capsules, and cell viability and function were tested. Islets labeled with 1000 μg Fe/ml dextran-coated SPIONs experienced a 69.9% reduction in graft volume, with a 33.2% loss of islet-containing capsules. Islets labeled with 100 μg Fe/ml heparin-coated SPIONs showed a 46.4% reduction in graft volume, with a 4.5% loss of capsules containing islets. No purification could be achieved using siloxane-coated SPIONs due to its toxicity to the primary islets. SPION labeling of islets is useful for transplant purification during islet separation as well as in vivo imaging after transplantation. Furthermore, purification of encapsulated islets can also reduce the volume of the encapsulated islets without impairing their function by removing empty capsules. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Removal of Iron Oxide Scale from Feed-water in Thermal Power Plant by Using Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Motohiro; Shibatani, Saori; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    One of the factors of deterioration in thermal power generation efficiency is adhesion of the scale to inner wall in feed-water system. Though thermal power plants have employed All Volatile Treatment (AVT) or Oxygen Treatment (OT) to prevent scale formation, these treatments cannot prevent it completely. In order to remove iron oxide scale, we proposed magnetic separation system using solenoidal superconducting magnet. Magnetic separation efficiency is influenced by component and morphology of scale which changes their property depending on the type of water treatment and temperature. In this study, we estimated component and morphology of iron oxide scale at each equipment in the feed-water system by analyzing simulated scale generated in the pressure vessel at 320 K to 550 K. Based on the results, we considered installation sites of the magnetic separation system.

  20. The selection of a matrix for the recovery of uranium by wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proper choice of a suitable matrix for high-intensity magnetic separation is of the utmost importance, since the geometry and size of the matrix play decisive roles in the achievement of optimum separation conditions. In relatively simple filtration applications, the matrix must offer a high efficiency of collision with suspended particles, a high probability of retention of intercepted particles, and high loading capacity. Also, it must be easily cleaned. The results obtained by the use of theoretical models of magnetic separation fail to agree with the experimental results for basic parameters like the ratio of particle size to matrix size, the length of the matrix, and the magnetic properties of the matrix material. Preconceived ideas about the matrix often lead to the erroneous choice of a matrix, and hence to its unsatisfactory performance during magnetic separation. The potential value of high-intensity magnetic separation as applied to the recovery of uranium and gold from leach residues and in association with the development of a large-scale magnetic separator to be used for the same purpose led to the present investigation in which a wide spectrum of matrix shapes and sizes were tested. It was found that the optimum recovery and selectivity of separation are obtained at a ratio of particle size to matrix-element size ranging from 200 to 300. The use of these matrices also results in a low degree of mechanical entrapment, particularly of coarser particles, for which straining plays a significant role for fine matrices. It was also found that the magnetization of a matrix plays a minor role, contrary to the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the effects of matrix height, matrix loading, and scalping of the pulp by paramagnetic matrices were evaluated for various types of matrices

  1. New understanding on separation of Mn and Fe from ferruginous manganese ores by the magnetic reduction roasting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingbing; Zhang, Yuanbo; Wang, Juan; Wang, Jia; Su, Zijian; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic reduction roasting followed by magnetic separation process is reported as a simple route to realize separation of Mn and Fe from ferruginous manganese ores (Fe-Mn ores). However, the separation and recovery of Mn and Fe oxides are not very effective. This work clarified the underlying reason for the poor separation and also proposed some suggestions for the magnetic reduction process. In this work, the effect of temperature on the magnetic reduction roasting - magnetic separation of Fe-Mn ore was investigated firstly. Then the reduction behaviors of MnO2-Fe2O3 system and MnO2-Fe2O3-10 wt.%SiO2 system under 10 vol.% CO-90 vol.% CO2 at 600-1000 °C were investigated by XRD, XPS, SEM-EDS, VSM, DSC and thermodynamics analyses. Reduction and separation tests showed that higher reduction temperature was beneficial to the recovery of iron while it's not in favor of the recovery of manganese when the temperature was over 800 °C. The formation of composite oxide MnxFe3-xO4 with strong magnetism between the interface of the MnO2 and Fe2O3 particles leaded to the poor separation of iron and manganese. In addition, the formation mechanism of MnxFe3-xO4 from MnO2 and Fe2O3 as well as the interface reaction reduced under 10 vol.% CO was discussed in this study. Finally, some suggestions were recommended for the magnetic reduction roasting for utilizing the Fe-Mn ores effectively.

  2. Superconducting Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation for the Pretreatment of Radioactive or Mixed Waste Vitrification Feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez', L.; Kaminsky', M.D.; Crawford, C.; Ritter, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    An open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) process is being considered to separate deleterious elements from radioactive and mixed waste streams prior to vitrification or stabilization. By physically segregating solid wastes and slurries based on the magnetic properties of the solid constituents, this potentially low-cost process may serve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by reducing the large quantities of glass produced from defense-related high-level waste (HLW). Furthermore, the separation of deleterious elements from low-level waste (LLW) also can reduce the total quantity of waste produced in LLW immobilization activities. Many HLW 'and LLW waste' streams at both Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS) include constituents deleterious to the durability of borosilicate glass and the melter many of the constituents also possess paramagnetism. For example, Fe, Cr, Ni, and other transition metals may limit the waste loading and affect the durability of the glass by forming spine1 phases at the high operating temperature used in vitrification. Some magnetic spine1 phases observed in glass formation are magnetite (Fe,O,), chromite (FeCrO,), and others [(Fe, Ni, Mg, Zn, Mn)(Al, Fe, Ti, Cr)O,] as described elsewhere [Bates-1994, Wronkiewicz-1994] Stable spine1 phases can cause segregation between the glass and the crystalline phases. As a consequence of the difference in density, the spine1 phases tend to accumulate at the bottom of the glass melter, which decreases the conductivity and melter lifetime [Sproull-1993]. Crystallization also can affect glass durability [Jantzen-1985, Turcotte- 1979, Buechele-1990] by changing the chemical composition of the matrix glass surrounding the crystals or causing stress at the glass/crystal interface. These are some of the effects that can increase leaching [Jantzen-1985]. A SRS glass that was partially crystallized to contain 10% vol. crystals composed of spinels, nepheline, and acmite phases showed minimal changes in

  3. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  4. Digestion of Alumina from Non-Magnetic Material Obtained from Magnetic Separation of Reduced Iron-Rich Diasporic Bauxite with Sodium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by the Bayer process from non-magnetic material obtained after magnetic separation of reduced iron-rich diasporic bauxite with sodium salts was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of sodium salts can destroy the original occurrences of iron-, aluminum- and silicon-containing minerals of bauxite ore during reductive roasting. Meanwhile, the reactions of sodium salts with complex aluminum- and silicon-bearing phases generate diaoyudaoite and sodium aluminosilicate. The separation of iron via reductive roasting of bauxite ore with sodium salts followed by magnetic separation improves alumina digestion in the Bayer process. When the alumina-bearing material in bauxite ore is converted into non-magnetic material, the digestion temperature decreases significantly from 280 °C to 240 °C with a nearly 99% relative digestion ratio of alumina.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on magnetically separable MgFe2O4 under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Jingling, Liu; Ali, Zahid; Shakir, Imran; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Parveen, Riffat; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    A magnetically separable single-phase MgFe 2 O 4 photocatalyst with a spinel crystal structure was synthesized by using the solid-state reaction method. The formation of spinel structure is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The magnetic measurements showed that the photocatalyst material can be separated from water when an external magnetic field is added and redispersed into water solution after the external magnetic field is eliminated. It is one of the promising photocatalysts for waste water treatment. The photocatalytic activity of MgFe 2 O 4 was investigated by using the photo-decomposition of methylene blue dye under visible light. The photoelectrochemical property of the MgFe 2 O 4 was studied by measuring their photocurrent–potential behavior in 1 M NaOH electrolyte under AM 1.5100 mW cm −2 illumination. - Graphical abstract: Highly efficient magnetically separable MgFe 2 O 4 photocatalyst for organic based impurities decomposition as well as for the production of H 2 gas was synthesized and characterized successfully (a) MgFe 2 O 4 photocatalyst in polluted water, (b) The photocatalyst (MgFe 2 O 4 ) is being attracted toward magnetic field for separation, (c) Hysteresis loop of MgFe 2 O 4 showing magnetic behavior. Highlights: ► New photocatalyst working in the visible range have been synthesized by facile cheap route. ► MgFe 2 O 4 photocatalyst showed well defined magnetically separable behavior. ► Excellent water splitting characteristics to produce H 2 was observed under visible light irradiation

  6. Synthesis, properties, and application in peptide chemistry of a magnetically separable and reusable biocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liria, Cleber W.; Ungaro, Vitor A.; Fernandes, Raphaella M.; Costa, Natália J. S.; Marana, Sandro R.; Rossi, Liane M.; Machini, M. Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed chemical processes are selective, very productive, and generate little waste. Nevertheless, they may be optimized using enzymes bound to solid supports, which are particularly important for protease-mediated reactions since proteases undergo fast autolysis in solution. Magnetic nanoparticles are suitable supports for this purpose owing to their high specific surface area and to be easily separated from reaction media. Here we describe the immobilization of bovine α-chymotrypsin (αCT) on silica-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@silica) and the characterization of the enzyme-nanoparticle hybrid (Fe3O4@silica-αCT) in terms of protein content, properties, recovery from reaction media, application, and reuse in enzyme-catalyzed peptide synthesis. The results revealed that (i) full acid hydrolysis of the immobilized protease followed by amino acid analysis of the hydrolyzate is a reliable method to determine immobilization yield; (ii) despite showing lower amidase activity and a lower K cat/ K m value for a specific substrate than free αCT, the immobilized enzyme is chemically and thermally more stable, magnetically recoverable from reaction media, and can be consecutively reused for ten cycles to catalyze the amide bond hydrolysis and ester hydrolysis of the protected dipeptide Z-Ala-Phe-OMe. Altogether, these properties indicate the potential of Fe3O4@silica-αCT to act as an efficient, suitably stable, and reusable catalyst in amino acid, peptide, and protein chemistry as well as in proteomic studies.

  7. Isolation/separation of plasmid DNA using hemoglobin modified magnetic nanocomposites as solid-phase adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Wei; Mao, Quan-Xing; Liu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2012-10-15

    Hemoglobin (Hb) modified magnetic nanocomposites are prepared by immobilization of Hb onto the surface of amino-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) magnetic nanoparticles via covalent bonding with glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. The obtained nanocomposites are characterized with FT-IR, SEM, XRD and surface charge analysis. A direct solid-phase extraction procedure for the isolation/separation of plasmid DNA using this nanocomposite as a novel adsorbent is thus developed. Some important experimental parameters governing the sorption efficiency, i.e., the pH of sample solution and the ionic strength, are investigated. The Hb modified magnetic nanocomposites provide a sorption capacity of 27.86 mg g(-1) for DNA. By using 2.0mg of the nanocomposites as sorption medium and a suitable acidity of pH 6.1, a sorption efficiency of 93% is achieved for 25 μg mL(-1) of DNA in 1.0 mL of sample solution. Afterwards, the absorbed DNA could be readily recovered by using 1.0 mL of Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.9, 0.01 mol L(-1)), giving rise to a recovery of ca. 68.3%. The present solid-phased extraction protocol is applied for the isolation of plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli culture, resulting in comparable yield and purity of plasmid DNA with respect to those obtained by using commercial kits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A new balance-of-plant model for the SASSYS-1 LMR [liquid metal reactor] systems analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    A balance-of-plant (BOP) model has been developed for use within the SASSYS-1 liquid-metal reactor systems analysis code. This model expands the scope of SASSYS-1 so that the code can explicitly model the waterside components of a nuclear power plant; previously, only the water side of the steam generators could be modeled, with the remainder of the water side represented by boundary conditions on the steam generator. The model represents the BOP a set of flow paths and path junctions; the mass and energy equations are solved at the junctions, and the momentum equation is solved along the flow paths. The junctions are thus mass and energy cells, and the paths are momentum cells. The various waterside component models (pumps, valves, etc.) are specialized types of energy or momentum cells, as appropriate. The solution scheme implicitly couples the energy cells through the momentum cells and solves simultaneously for pressures and enthalpies within the energy cells and for flows within the momentum cells

  9. Formation of iron oxides from acid mine drainage and magnetic separation of the heavy metals adsorbed iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    There are a few thousand abandoned metal mines in South Korea. The abandoned mines cause several environmental problems including releasing acid mine drainage (AMD), which contain a very high acidity and heavy metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As. Iron oxides can be formed from the AMD by increasing the solution pH and inducing precipitation. Current study focused on the formation of iron oxide in an AMD and used the oxide for adsorption of heavy metals. The heavy metal adsorbed iron oxide was separated with a superconducting magnet. The duration of iron oxide formation affected on the type of mineral and the degree of magnetization. The removal rate of heavy metal by the adsorption process with the formed iron oxide was highly dependent on the type of iron oxide and the solution pH. A high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system successfully separated the iron oxide and harmful heavy metals.

  10. Italian guidelines for energy performance of cultural heritage and historical buildings: the case study of the Sassi of Matera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Elisabetta; Cardinale, Tiziana; Cardinale, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The Sassi of Matera are a unique example in the world of rock settlement, developed from natural caves carved into the rock and then molded into increasingly complex structures inside two large natural amphitheatres: the Sasso Caveoso and the Sasso Barisano. Thanks also to this aspects Matera is an UNESCO world heritage site and was elected European Capital of Culture in 2019. Our research focuses on the compatibility of the energy efficiency measures applied in of Sassi buildings with the recent MiBACT (Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage) guidelines on "Energy efficiency improvements in the cultural heritage" and AiCARR (Italian Association of Air Conditioning) guidelines on "Energy efficiency of historical building". One of the essential measures highlighted by Mibact guidelines is ensure the Indoor Environmental Quality improvement of the historical architecture in order to preserve their identity and cultural heritage. These paper aims to analyze energy and environmental performance of different buildings typology and monuments present in the Sassi site. The energy performance and microclimate measures conducted on different type of building by non-destructive measurements and laboratory tests in situ are useful to verify and quantify the thermal characteristics of the envelopes of the Mediterranean tradition and also to demonstrate their capacity to ensure internal comfort conditions. The calcarenite walls of vernacular building of Sassi show the excellent energy behavior of these constructions. But these material often present high moisture content which negatively influence the room microclimate in particular in presence of mural frescos and rocky churches. However these structures, once restored and in a condition of normal use, give indoor comfort within the limits of thermo-hygrometrics standards established by indices as the predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD). Another interesting consideration stated from our

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on magnetically separable MgFe2O4 under visible light irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    A magnetically separable single-phase MgFe2O4 photocatalyst with a spinel crystal structure was synthesized by using the solid-state reaction method. The formation of spinel structure is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The magnetic measurements showed that the photocatalyst material can be separated from water when an external magnetic field is added and redispersed into water solution after the external magnetic field is eliminated. It is one of the promising photocatalysts for waste water treatment. The photocatalytic activity of MgFe2O4 was investigated by using the photo-decomposition of methylene blue dye under visible light. The photoelectrochemical property of the MgFe2O4 was studied by measuring their photocurrent-potential behavior in 1 M NaOH electrolyte under AM 1.5100 mW cm-2 illumination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation of variables in anisotropic models: anisotropic Rabi and elliptic Gaudin model in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2017-08-01

    We study the problem of separation of variables for classical integrable Hamiltonian systems governed by non-skew-symmetric non-dynamical so(3)\\otimes so(3) -valued elliptic r-matrices with spectral parameters. We consider several examples of such models, and perform separation of variables for classical anisotropic one- and two-spin Gaudin-type models in an external magnetic field, and for Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke-type models without the rotating wave approximation.

  13. Enhanced magnetic separation and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped titania photocatalyst supported on strontium ferrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Azrina; Yong, Kok Soon; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Pichiah, Saravanan

    2012-01-15

    An enhanced ferromagnetic property, visible light active TiO(2) photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by supporting strontium ferrite (SrFe(12)O(19)) onto TiO(2) doped with nitrogen (N) and compared with N-doped TiO(2). The synthesized catalysts were further characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), BET surface area analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and visible light spectroscopy analysis for their respective properties. The XRD and EDS revealed the structural and inorganic composition of N-TiO(2) supported on SrFe(12)O(19). The supported N-TiO(2) exhibited a strong ferromagnetic property with tremendous stability against magnetic property losses. It also resulted in reduced band gap (2.8 eV) and better visible light absorption between 400 and 800 nm compared to N-doped TiO(2). The photocatalytic activity was investigated with a recalcitrant phenolic compound namely 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as a model pollutant under direct bright and diffuse sunlight exposure. A complete degradation of 2,4-DCP was achieved with an initial concentration of 50mg/L for both photocatalysts in 180 min and 270 min respectively under bright sunlight. Similarly the diffuse sunlight study resulted in complete degradation for supported N-TiO(2) and >85% degradation N-TiO(2), respectively. Finally the supported photocatalyst was separated under permanent magnetic field with a mass recovery ≈ 98% for further reuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Actinide separation of high-level waste using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Kaminski, M.; Aase, S.B.; Brown, N.R.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Polymeric-coated ferromagnetic particles with an absorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted by tributyl phosphate (TBP) are being evaluated for application in the separation and the recovery of low concentrations of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can be recovered from the waste solution using a magnet. The effectiveness of the extractant-absorbed particles at removing transuranics (TRU) from simulated solutions and various nitric acid solutions was measured by gamma and liquid scintillation counting of plutonium and americium. The HNO 3 concentration range was 0.01 M to 6M. The partition coefficients (K d ) for various actinides at 2M HNO 3 were determined to be between 3,000 and 30,000. These values are larger than those projected for TRU recovery by traditional liquid/liquid extraction. Results from transmission electron microscopy indicated a large dependence of K d on relative magnetite location within the polymer and the polymer surface area. Energy disperse spectroscopy demonstrated homogeneous metal complexation on the polymer surface with no metal clustering. The radiolytic stability of the particles was determined by using 60 Co gamma irradiation under various conditions. The results showed that K d more strongly depends on the nitric acid dissolution rate of the magnetite than the gamma irradiation dose. Results of actinide separation from simulated high-level waste representative of that at various DOE sites are also discussed

  15. Quantitative Investigation of Roasting-magnetic Separation for Hematite Oolitic-ores: Mechanisms and Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Tiefeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural high-quality iron can be directly applied to pyro-metallurgy process, however, the availability of these ores has become less and less due to exploitation. This research reports a systematic approach using reduction roasting and magnetic separation for oolitic iron ores from west Hubei Province. Firstly, a mineralogical study was performed and it was shown that the oolitic particles were mainly composed of hematite, with some silicon-quartz inside the oolitic particle. Then, the roasting temperature was examined and shown to have significant influence on both Fe recovery and the Fe content of the concentrate. Also the Fe content gradually increased as the temperature increased from 700 to 850 °C. The most important aspects are the quantitative investigation of change of mineral phases, and reduction area (with ratio during the reduction roasting process. The results showed that Fe2O3 decreased with temperature, and Fe3O4 (magnetite increased considerably from 600 to 800 °C. The reductive reaction was found to occur from the outside in, the original oolitic structure and embedding relationship among the minerals did not change after roasting. Finally, 5% surrounding rock was added to mimic real industrial iron beneficiation. This study could provides useful insight and practical support for the utilization of such iron ores.

  16. Antimicrobial peptide from mucus of Andrias davidianus: screening and purification by magnetic cell membrane separation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jinjin; Jiang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Andrias davidianus, the Chinese giant salamander, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many decades. However, no antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been described from A. davidianus until now. Here we describe a novel AMP (andricin 01) isolated from the mucus of A. davidianus. The peptide was recovered using an innovative magnetic cell membrane separation technique and was characterised using mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Andricin 01 is comprised of ten amino acid residues with a total molecular mass of 955.1 Da. CD spectrum analysis gave results similar to the archetypal random coil spectrum, consistent with the three-dimensional rendering calculated by current bioinformatics tools. Andricin 01 was found to be inhibitory both to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, the peptide at the minimal bacterial concentration did not show cell cytotoxicity against human hepatocytes or renal cells and did not show haemolytic activity against red blood cells, indicating that is potentially safe and effective for human use. Andricin 01 shows promise as a novel antibacterial that may provide an insight into the development of new drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on magnetically separable MgFe2O4 under visible light irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad; Jingling, Liu; Ali, Zahid; Shakir, Imran; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Parveen, Riffat; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir

    2013-01-01

    A magnetically separable single-phase MgFe2O4 photocatalyst with a spinel crystal structure was synthesized by using the solid-state reaction method. The formation of spinel structure is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared

  18. A Phos-tag-based magnetic-bead method for rapid and selective separation of phosphorylated biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunehiro, Masaya; Meki, Yuma; Matsuoka, Kanako; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

    2013-04-15

    A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-bead technology has been developed for the separation of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated low-molecular-weight biomolecules, such as nucleotides, phosphorylated amino acids, or phosphopeptides. The phosphate-binding site on the bead is an alkoxide-bridged dinuclear zinc(II) complex with 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)propan-2-olate (Phos-tag), which is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a magnetic core particle. All steps for the phosphate-affinity separation are conducted in buffers of neutral pH with 50 μL of the magnetic beads in a 1.5-mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for phosphomonoester-type compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than 12 min per sample if the buffers and the zinc(II)-bound Phos-tag magnetic beads have been prepared in advance. The phosphate-affinity magnetic beads are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their phosphate-binding ability and they are stable for three months in propan-2-ol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel magnetically separable AgCl/iron oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity driven by visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Yanrong; Tan, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The AgCl/iron oxide composites were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. •The composites exhibited improved performances in the photodegradation of pollutants. •The visible light photocatalysts could be recycled easily by a magnet. -- Abstract: In this work, AgCl/iron oxide composites were synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method and calcining process. The composition of the material and magnetic and optical properties of the composites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating specimen magnetometer (VSM) techniques, which confirms the high crystalline and magnetic behavior of the composites. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectral (DRS) studies showed that the AgCl/iron oxide composites were of much higher absorption in longer wavelength region compared to bare iron oxide. The AgCl/iron oxide composites showed better performance in the photodegradation of organic dyes Rhodamin B (RhB) under the fluorescent lamp irradiation, which is remarkably superior to the N-TiO 2 . The degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenol was also found to be good owing to its effective electron-hole separation at AgCl/iron oxide interface. The separation of AgCl/iron oxide composites from the treated water was achieved by an external magnetic field as γ-Fe 2 O 3 exhibits enough magnetic power to facilitate the separation

  20. Thermographic mapping of a complex vernacular settlement: the case study of Casalnuovo District within the Sassi of Matera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Balestra, Alessandro; Cardinale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Never as in the Sassi of Matera (Italy), the parties have a volumetric material identity and a special construction condition for which, first of all, you need to know the whole to which they give life, and then the individual components and their connections. The distribution of these building artifacts in symbiotic connection with the connective calcareous texture that hosts them, resulted in a spontaneously harmonious figurative balance that characterizes the constructive expedients employed and the distributive and morphological solutions. This is the reason why the Sassi, and the overlooking Park of Rupestrian Churches of Matera Murgia have been entered in 1993 in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Our research focuses on a largely abandoned area within the Casalnuovo District, situated in the extreme south of the city, probably the place of the future Demoethnoanthropological Museum. It is known today that the particular shape of the area is made up of settlements mainly in cave; during the time architectures above ground, in a very limited number, filled almost completely the limited building space. Here there are the most archaic types and forms of building and wine cellars within the Sassi, essentially derive from the natural cave only slightly structured by man. The exterior construction complete the elementary cave and it is called lamione. The complexity of a built space like this one determines the need for a non-traditional approach, so you have to combine last generation tools and canonical ones for survey and energy diagnosis within a dialectic between memory, tradition and innovation, in order to identify solutions for an environment friendly recover of a cultural heritage such this one. Since the evaluation of the historical buildings conservation state using destructive techniques should be avoided to prevent the integrity of the cultural heritage, the development of non-destructive and non-contact techniques is very important. For this reason, an

  1. Environmental friendly crush-magnetic separation technology for recycling metal-plated plastics from end-of-life vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-03-06

    Metal-plated plastics (MPP), which are important from the standpoint of aesthetics or even performance, are increasingly employed in a wide variety of situations in the automotive industry. Serious environmental problems will be caused if they are not treated appropriately. Therefore, recycling of MPP is an important subject not only for resource recycling but also for environmental protection. This work represents a novel attempt to deal with the MPP. A self-designed hammer crusher was used to liberate coatings from the plastic substrate. The size distribution of particles was analyzed and described by the Rosin-Rammler function model. The optimum retaining time of materials in the crusher is 3 min. By this time, the liberation rate of the materials can reach 87.3%. When the density of the suspension is 31,250 g/m(3), the performance of liberation is the best. Two-step magnetic separation was adopted to avoid excessive crushing and to guarantee the quality of products. Concerning both the separation efficiency and grade of products, the optimum rotational speed of the magnetic separator is 50-70 rpm. On the basis of the above studies about the liberating and separating behavior of the materials, a continuous recycling system (the technology of crush-magnetic separation) is developed. This recycling system provides a feasible method for recycling MPP efficiently, economically, and environmentally.

  2. A New Tool for Separating the Magnetic Mineralogy of Complex Mineral Assemblages from Low Temperature Magnetic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Lagroix

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One timeless challenge in rock magnetic studies, inclusive of paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism, is decomposing a sample's bulk magnetic behavior into its individual magnetic mineral components. We present a method permitting to decompose the magnetic behavior of a bulk sample experimentally and at low temperature avoiding any ambiguities in data interpretation due to heating-induced alteration. A single instrument is used to measure the temperature dependence of remanent magnetizations and to apply an isothermal demagnetization step at any temperature between 2 and 400 K. The experimental method is validated on synthetic mixtures of magnetite, hematite, goethite as well as on natural loess samples where the contributions of magnetite, goethite, hematite and maghemite are successfully isolated. The experimental protocol can be adapted to target other iron bearing minerals relevant to the rock or sediment under study. One limitation rests on the fact that the method is based on remanent magnetizations. Consequently, a quantitative decomposition of absolute concentration of individual components remains unachievable without assumptions. Nonetheless, semi-quantitative magnetic mineral concentrations were determined on synthetic and natural loess/paleosol samples in order to validate and test the method as a semi-quantitative tool in environmental magnetism studies.

  3. The synthesis, characterization and application of iron oxide nanocrystals in magnetic separations for arsenic and uranium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John Thomas

    Arsenic and uranium in the environment are hazardous to human health and require better methods for detection and remediation. Nanocrystalline iron oxides offer a number of advantages as sorbents for water purification and environmental remediation. First, highly uniform and crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (nMAG) were prepared using thermal decomposition of iron salts in organic solutions; for the applications of interest in this thesis, a central challenge was the adaptation of these conventional synthetic methods to the needs of low infrastructure and economically disadvantaged settings. We show here that it is possible to form highly uniform and magnetically responsive nanomaterials using starting reagents and equipment that are readily available and economical. The products of this approach, termed the 'Kitchen Synthesis', are of comparable quality and effectiveness to laboratory materials. The narrow size distributions of the iron oxides produced in the laboratory synthesis made it possible to study the size-dependence of the magnetic separation efficiency of nanocrystals; generally as the diameter of particles increased they could be removed under lower applied magnetic fields. In this work we take advantage of this size-dependence to use magnetic separation as a tool to separate broadly distributed populations of magnetic materials. Such work makes it possible to use these materials in multiplexed separation and sensing schemes. With the synthesis and magnetic separation studies of these materials completed, it was possible to optimize their applications in water purification and environmental remediation. These materials removed both uranium and arsenic from contaminated samples, and had remarkably high sorption capacities --- up to 12 wt% for arsenic and 30 wt% for uranium. The contaminated nMAG is removed from the drinking water by either retention in a sand column, filter, or by magnetic separation. The uranium adsorption process was also utilized

  4. The Integrated Survey for Excavated Architectures: the Complex of Casalnuovo District Within the World Heritage Site "sassi" (matera, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, T.; Valva, R.; Lucarelli, M.

    2015-02-01

    Never as within the complex of Sassi (Matera, South of Italy), the parties have a volumetric material identity and a special construction condition for which, first of all, you need to know the whole to which they give life, and then the individual components and their connections. In the course of time, in the Lucan city, there were stable and favorable conditions that allowed the development of an architectural language, of juxtaposition of the materials, interpenetration of space and conformation of the volumes, which generated an exceptional urban phenomenon. The distribution of these building artifacts in symbiotic connection with the connective calcareous texture that hosts them , resulted in a spontaneously harmonious figurative balance that characterizes the constructive expedients employed and the distributive and morphological solutions. This is the reason why the Sassi, and the overlooking Park of Rupestrian Churches of Matera Murgia, have been entered in 1993 in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The complexity of a built space, such as this one, determines the need for a non-traditional approach, so you have to combine last generation tools and canonical ones for survey, drawing and representation, within a dialectic between memory and design, tradition and innovation. For this reason, an appropriate cognitive apparatus has been set up for the entire technical process, making use of different non-destructive and non-contact techniques: digital photogrammetry, total station, laser scanner and thermography, in order to obtain a three-dimensional computer model, useful for the diagnosis and the preservation of the integrity of cultural heritage.

  5. Separation and correlation of structural and magnetic roughness in a Ni thin film by polarized off-specular neutron reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Basu, Saibal

    2009-02-04

    Diffuse (off-specular) neutron and x-ray reflectometry has been used extensively for the determination of interface morphology in solids and liquids. For neutrons, a novel possibility is off-specular reflectometry with polarized neutrons to determine the morphology of a magnetic interface. There have been few such attempts due to the lower brilliance of neutron sources, though magnetic interaction of neutrons with atomic magnetic moments is much easier to comprehend and easily tractable theoretically. We have obtained a simple and physically meaningful expression, under the Born approximation, for analyzing polarized diffuse (off-specular) neutron reflectivity (PDNR) data. For the first time PDNR data from a Ni film have been analyzed and separate chemical and magnetic morphologies have been quantified. Also specular polarized neutron reflectivity measurements have been carried out to measure the magnetic moment density profile of the Ni film. The fit to PDNR data results in a longer correlation length for in-plane magnetic roughness than for chemical (structural) roughness. The magnetic interface is smoother than the chemical interface.

  6. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Ritter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe 3 O 4 and FeCrO 4 , results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

  7. Magnetically Separable Fe2O3/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites with Cocoon-Like Shape: Magnetic Properties and Photocatalytic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojia; Yang, Xiaoyu; Li, Guang

    2018-01-01

    We report magnetically separable Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites as a photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation in this study. The Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were synthesized through a two-step hydrothermal method. The Fe2O3 with cocoon-like shape was obviously dispersed on the surface of g-C3N4 with porous and layered nanostructure as seen from micrographs of the particles. Furthermore, the magnetic conversion of the samples was studied via vibrating sample magnetometer technology. It was found that the saturated magnetization Ms of the Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanoparticles obviously decreased in the presence of g-C3N4, and the photocatalytic activity of the samples investigated by degrading Rhodamine B suggested that the Fe2O3/g-C3N4 photocatalyst was prior to the pure Fe2O3 and g-C3N4 samples. In addition, the magnetically separable ability of Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was efficiently exhibited by an external magnet.

  8. Separation of radioimmunoassay in magnetic phase with particles prepared at the IPEN and its comparison with conventional methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.A. de.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work two main objectives were chosen. The first was the preparation for the execution of the magnetic phase separation technique, useful for the radioimmunoassay as well as for the most modern and most efficient immunoradiometric assay. The second objective, of a theoretical-practical kind and directly linked to the first, was the realization of a study about the precision of the technique with synthesized products compared with imported products and with two liquid phase separation techniques: the second antibody and polyethyleneglycol (PEG). This analysis was performed with the help of precision profiles built according to R.P.Ekins' recommendations. (author)

  9. Magnetic properties and loss separation in FeSi/MnZnFe2O4 soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauda, M.; Füzer, J.; Kollár, P.; Strečková, M.; Bureš, R.; Kováč, J.; Baťková, M.; Baťko, I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated composites that have been prepared from FeSi powders covered with MnZnFe 2 O 4 (MnZn ferrite), which was prepared by sol–gel synthesis accompanied with the auto-combustion process. The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex permeability and core losses of prepared samples with different amount of MnZn ferrite. The microstructure and the powder morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements on bulk samples were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer, an impedance analyzer and hysteresisgraphs. The results indicate that the composites with 2.6 wt% MnZn ferrite show better soft magnetic properties than the composites with about 6 wt% MnZn ferrite. - Highlights: • Successful preparation of soft magnetic composite FeSi/MnZnFe 2 O 4 . • Study of the complex magnetic permeability. • Comparison of different compositions of prepared SMC's. • Determination of parts of magnetic losses.

  10. Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.

  11. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Separation along the Magnetic Field in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au +Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.

  12. RECOVERY OF IRON FROM LOW-GRADE HEMATITE ORE USING COAL-BASED DIRECT REDUCTION FOLLOWED BY MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alavifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, iron recovery from a low-grade hematite ore (containing less than 40% iron, which is not applicable in common methods of ironmaking, was studied. Non-coking coal was used as reducing agent. Reduction experiments were performed under various coal to hematite ratios and temperatures. Reduction degree was calculated using the gravimetric method. Reduced samples were subjected to magnetic separation followed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Total iron content, degree of metallization and recovery efficiency in magnetic part were determined by quantitative chemical analysis, which were obtained about 82%, 95% and 64% respectively under optimal conditions. CaO as an additive improved ore reducibility and separation efficiency. The microstructure of reduced samples and final products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Final product with a high degree of metallization can be used in steel making furnaces and charging of blast furnaces which can improve production efficiency and decrease coke usage.

  13. Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: an efficient adsorbent for the separation and removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Ensieh; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of magnetic nanosorbent, hydroxyapatite-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles was synthesized and used for the adsorption and removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from environmental samples. The properties of synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. After the adsorption process, the separation of γ-Fe2O3@hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from the aqueous solution was simply achieved by applying an external magnetic field. The effects of different variables on the adsorption efficiency were studied simultaneously using an experimental design. The variables of interest were amount of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, sample volume, pH, stirring rate, adsorption time, and temperature. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption efficiencies of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbents toward NO3(-) and NO2(-) ions (100 mg/L) were in the range of 93-101%. The results revealed that the magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbent could be used as a simple, efficient, and cost-effective material for the removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental water and soil samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Vlasov equation with strong magnetic field and oscillating electric field as a model for isotop resonant separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Frenod

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the qualitative behavior of solutions to the Vlasov equation with strong external magnetic field and oscillating electric field. This model is relevant to the understanding of isotop resonant separation. We show that the effective equation is a kinetic equation with a memory term. This memory term involves a pseudo-differential operator whose kernel is characterized by an integral equation involving Bessel functions. The kernel is explicitly given in some particular cases.

  15. Polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic beads for rapid and efficient separation of specific or unspecific nucleic acid sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, J.; Parker, Jeffrey; Brassard, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    The versatile application of polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic M-PVA beads is demonstrated in the separation of genomic DNA, sequence specific nucleic acid purification, and binding of bacteria for subsequent DNA extraction and detection. It is shown that nucleic acids can be obtained in high yield and purity using M-PVA beads, making sample preparation efficient, fast and highly adaptable for automation processes

  16. Training effects induced by cycling of magnetic field in ferromagnetic rich phase-separated nanocomposite manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kalipada, E-mail: kalipada.das@saha.ac.in; Das, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have carried out an experimental investigation of magneto-transport and magnetic properties of charge-ordered Pr{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (PCMO) and ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) nanoparticles along with a nanocomposite consisting of those two types of nanoparticles. From the magneto-transport measurements, clear irreversibility is observed in the field dependence of resistance due to magnetic field cycling in the case of PCMO nanoparticles. The value of resistance increases during such a field cycling. However such an irreversibility is absent in the case of LSMO nanoparticles as well as nanocomposites. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate the gradual growth of antiferromagnetic phases in all samples leading to a decrease in magnetization. These inconsistencies between magneto-transport and magnetic behaviors are attributed to the magnetic training effects. - Highlights: • The resistance value in Pr{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles is found to increase owing to the magnetic field cycling. • No anomaly in resistance was found in Pr{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}–La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} nanocomposite. • Magnetic measurements indicate the training effect in nanostructure compounds.

  17. Correlation between electrical and magnetic properties of phase-separated manganites studied with a general effective medium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacanell, J.; Quintero, M.; Parisi, F.; Ghivelder, L.; Leyva, A.G.; Levy, P.

    2007-01-01

    We have performed electrical resistivity and DC magnetization measurements as a function of temperature, on polycrystalline samples of phase-separated La 5/8- y Pr y Ca 3/8 MnO 3 (y=0.3). We have used the general effective medium theory to obtain theoretical resistivity vs. temperature curves corresponding to different fixed ferromagnetic (FM) volume fraction values, assuming that the sample is a mixture of typical metallic-like and insulating manganites. By comparing this data with our experimental resistivity curves we have obtained the relative FM volume fraction of our sample as a function of temperature. This result matches with the corresponding magnetization data in excellent agreement, showing that a mixed-phase scenario is the key element to explain both the magnetic and transport properties in the present compound

  18. Nanoparticle targeting of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for magnetic-based separations of bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hoang D.; Yang, Shirley S.; Wilson, Brian K.; McManus, Simon A.; Chen, Christopher V. H.-H.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a healthcare problem of increasing significance, and there is increasing interest in developing new tools to address bacterial infections. Bacteria-targeting nanoparticles hold promise to improve drug efficacy, compliance, and safety. In addition, nanoparticles can also be used for novel applications, such as bacterial imaging or bioseperations. We here present the use of a scalable block-copolymer-directed self-assembly process, Flash NanoPrecipitation, to form zinc(II)-bis(dipicolylamine) modified nanoparticles that bind to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with specificity. Particles have tunable surface ligand densities that change particle avidity and binding efficacy. A variety of materials can be encapsulated into the core of the particles, such as optical dyes or iron oxide colloids, to produce imageable and magnetically active bacterial targeting constructs. As a proof-of-concept, these particles are used to bind and separate bacteria from solution in a magnetic column. Magnetic manipulation and separation would translate to a platform for pathogen identification or removal. These magnetic and targeted nanoparticles enable new methods to address bacterial infections.

  19. Uranium isotope separation by magnetic field gradient and visible light acting in a liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, O.N.

    1985-01-01

    The literature shows that excited uranyl can assume the ''singlet'' and ''triplet'' states, with different magnetic properties. In an aqueous medium, without organic complexity (to hamper dismutation), the action of light reduces uranyl to U(V), which is a radical -ion that can assume the ''doublet'' and ''quartet'' states, also with different magnetic properties. Due to the different constants of velocity of uranium 235 and 238 in the reduction of excited uranyl and in the oxidation of U(V) to UO 2 2+ , there is the probability of forming an isotopic gradient, in the aqueous solution, subjected to a magnetic field gradient, with consequent appropriate extraction. 6 refs

  20. Influence of continuous magnetic field on the separation of ephedrine enantiomers by molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, António R; Korkhov, Vadim; Mijangos, Irene; Piletska, Elena V; Rodins, Juris; Turner, Anthony P F; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2008-02-28

    A set of polymers was imprinted with (-)-ephedrine using UV initiation, under the influence of a constant external magnetic field with intensities ranging from 0 to 1.55 T. Synthesised materials were characterised by X-ray crystallography, infrared spectroscopy, swelling and surface area. Recognition properties were assessed by the ability to discriminate between (+) and (-)-ephedrine and by Scatchard analyses on chromatographic mode. It was shown that polymer morphology and recognition properties are affected by the magnetic field. This resulted in considerable improvements in the chromatographic resolution of ephedrine enantiomers by materials synthesised under the influence of magnetic field. Apparently the magnetic field improved the ordering of the polymer structure and facilitated the formation of more uniform imprinting sites.

  1. Application of magnetic poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for immunomagnetic separation of bone marrow cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, T.-H.; Chang, J.-Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Lee, W.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chmwcl@ccu.edu.tw

    2009-05-15

    Surface-functionalized magnetic poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) (PS-GMA) microspheres were prepared and coupled with Sca-1 antibody for cell selection from murine bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs). Biotinylated Sca-1 antibody could be directly coupled to avidin-bound magnetic microspheres. Alternatively, oxidized goat anti-mouse antibody was covalently bound onto the amino group-containing magnetic microspheres in a site-directed manner, and the resultant conjugate was coupled with non-modified Sca-1 antibody. Using the indirect antibody-bound magnetic microspheres, the purity of isolated Sca-1{sup +} cells increased with bead-to-cell ratio. Using a bead-to-cell ratio of 10 beads/cell, a purity of 85% Sca-1{sup +} cells corresponding to a 17-fold enrichment was achieved.

  2. Electronic and magnetic phase separation in EuB6. Fluctuation spectroscopy and nonlinear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyan, Adham

    2013-01-01

    The main topics of this thesis are electrical, stationary, and time-resolved transport measurements on EuB 6 as well as the further development of measuring methods and analysis procedures of the fluctuation spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the further development of the already known measuring methods under application of a fast data-acquisition card. The second part deals with the electrical transport properties of EuB 6 and the understanding of the coupling between charge and magnetic degrees of freedom. By means of resistance and nonlinear-transport measurements as well as fluctuation spectroscopy hypotheses of other scientists were systematically verified as well as new knowledge obtained. The magnetoresistance was studied as function of the temperature in small external magnetic fields between 1 mT and 700 mT. Measurements of the third harmonic resistance as function of the temperature show maxima at T MI and T C . Electrical-resistance fluctuations were measured without external magnetic field between 5 and 100 K as well in presence of a magnetic field between 18 K and 32 K. At constant temperature measurements of the spectral power density in external magnetic fields were performed in the temperature range from 18 K to 32 K. Highly resolving measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient showed a very strong coupling of the magnetic (polaronic) degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice.

  3. High gradient magnetic separation versus expanded bed adsorption: a first principle comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Matthiesen, D.B.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2001-01-01

    A robust new adsorptive separation technique specifically designed for direct product capture from crude bioprocess feedstreams is introduced and compared with the current bench mark technique, expanded bed adsorption. The method employs product adsorption onto sub-micron sized non...

  4. Studies on density dependence of charge separation in a direct energy converter using slanted Cusp magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Yoshiro; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Nakashima, Yousuke

    2012-01-01

    In an advanced fusion, fusion-produced charged particles must be separated from each other for efficient energy conversion to electricity. The CuspDEC performs this function of separation and direct energy conversion. Analysis of working characteristics of CuspDEC on plasma density is an important subject. This paper summarizes and discusses experimental and theoretical works for high density plasma by using a small scale experimental device employing a slanted cusp magnetic field. When the incident plasma is low-density, good separation of the charged particles can be accomplished and this is explained by the theory based on a single particle motion. In high density plasma, however, this theory cannot be always applied due to space charge effects. In the experiment, as gradient of the field line increases, separation capability of the charged particles becomes higher. As plasma density becomes higher, however, separation capability becomes lower. This can be qualitatively explained by using calculations of the modified Störmer potential including space charge potential. (author)

  5. Graphene supported silver@silver chloride & ferroferric oxide hybrid, a magnetically separable photocatalyst with high performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Suting; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com; Han, Mei; Liu, Gongzong; Zhang, Na; Lu, Yue

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The composites were synthesized via a facile and effective process. • Plenty of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ag@AgCl nanoparticles are deposited on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. • The catalyst exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic performance and magnetic property. • The catalyst is stable under the visible light irradiation. - Abstract: A stable magnetic separable plasmonic photocatalyst was successfully fabricated by grafting silver@silver chloride (Ag@AgCl) and ferroferric oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The composite exhibited high activity degrading methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation: decomposition 97.4% of MB in 100 min and 97.9% of RB in 120 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to synergistic effect between Ag@AgCl and graphene: the effective charge transfer from Ag@AgCl to graphene thus promotes the separation of electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

  6. Improved Peak Capacity for Capillary Electrophoretic Separations of Enzyme Inhibitors with Activity-Based Detection Using Magnetic Bead Microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Gilman, S. Douglass

    2010-01-01

    A technique for separating and detecting enzyme inhibitors was developed using capillary electrophoresis with an enzyme microreactor. The on-column enzyme microreactor was constructed using NdFeB magnet(s) to immobilize alkaline phosphatase-coated superparamagnetic beads (2.8 μm diameter) inside a capillary before the detection window. Enzyme inhibition assays were performed by injecting a plug of inhibitor into a capillary filled with the substrate, AttoPhos. Product generated in the enzyme microreactor was detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Inhibitor zones electrophoresed through the capillary, passed through the enzyme microreactor, and were observed as negative peaks due to decreased product formation. The goal of this study was to improve peak capacities for inhibitor separations relative to previous work, which combined continuous engagement electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) and transient engagement EMMA to study enzyme inhibition. The effects of electric field strength, bead injection time and inhibitor concentrations on peak capacity and peak width were investigated. Peak capacities were increased to ≥20 under optimal conditions of electric field strength and bead injection time for inhibition assays with arsenate and theophylline. Five reversible inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase (theophylline, vanadate, arsenate, L-tryptophan and tungstate) were separated and detected to demonstrate the ability of this technique to analyze complex inhibitor mixtures. PMID:20024913

  7. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, W. A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A progress report, covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed.

  8. The effect of iron catalyzed graphitization on the textural properties of carbonized cellulose : Magnetically separable graphitic carbon bodies for catalysis and remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Jacco; Beale, Andrew M.; Soulimani, Fouad; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Van De Kleut, Dirk; Koelewijn, Jacobus M.; Geus, John W.; Jenneskens, Leonardus W.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas pyrolysis of pristine microcrystalline cellulose spheres yields nonporous amorphous carbon bodies, pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose spheres loaded with iron salts leads to the formation of magnetically separable mesoporous graphitic carbon bodies. The microcrystalline cellulose

  9. Magnetophoretic separation ICP-MS immunoassay using Cs-doped multicore magnetic nanoparticles for the determination of salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Arong; Lim, H B

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a magnetophoretic separation ICP-MS immunoassay using newly synthesized multicore magnetic nanoparticles (MMNPs) was developed for the determination of salmonella typhimurium (typhi). The uniqueness of this method was the use of MMNPs doped with Cs for both separation and detection, which enable us to achieve fast analysis, high sensitivity, and good reliability. For demonstration, heat-killed typhi in a phosphate buffer solution was determined by ICP-MS after the MMNP-typhi reaction product was separated from unreacted MMNPs in a micropipette tip filled with 25% polyethylene glycol through magnetophoretic separation. The calibration curve obtained by plotting 133 Cs intensity vs. the number of synthetic standard, showed a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.94 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 102 cells/mL without cell culturing. Excellent recoveries, between 98-100%, were obtained from four replicates and compared with a sandwich-type ICP-MS immunoassay for further confirmation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetically Separable Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for Imino Diels-Alder Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Mishra, Kanchan; Lee, Yong Rok; Joh, Young-Gull [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using Saururus chinensis (S. chinensis) leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent via ultrasonication. The size, morphology, crystallinity, elemental composition, weight loss, surface chemical state, and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated. The synthe-sized nanoparticles were used as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of a variety of 2-methyl-4-substituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives by the imino Diels-Alder reaction. After the reaction, the catalyst was recovered by an external magnetic field. The recovered catalyst was then reused in a subsequent reaction under identical conditions. The recycled iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were reused five times with-out any significant loss of catalytic activity.

  11. Magnetically Separable Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for Imino Diels-Alder Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Mishra, Kanchan; Lee, Yong Rok; Joh, Young-Gull

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using Saururus chinensis (S. chinensis) leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent via ultrasonication. The size, morphology, crystallinity, elemental composition, weight loss, surface chemical state, and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated. The synthe-sized nanoparticles were used as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of a variety of 2-methyl-4-substituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives by the imino Diels-Alder reaction. After the reaction, the catalyst was recovered by an external magnetic field. The recovered catalyst was then reused in a subsequent reaction under identical conditions. The recycled iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were reused five times with-out any significant loss of catalytic activity.

  12. CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

  13. Microcystin-LR removal from aqueous solutions using a magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 was found to be significantly improved when compared with a non-magnetic N-doped TiO2 for the aqueous removal of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity may be related to the presence of ferri...

  14. Interplay between mesoscopic phase separation and bulk magnetism in the layered Na.sub.x./sub.CoO.sub.2./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorkovská, A.; Orendáč, M.; Šebek, Josef; Šantavá, Eva; Svoboda, P.; Bradaric, I.; Savič, I.; Feher, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 13 (2005), 132412/1-132412/4 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Na x CoO 2 * mesoscopic phase separation * bulk magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  15. Crossover from Polaronic to Magnetically Phase-Separated Behavior in La1-xSrxCoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, D.; El Khatib, S.; Wang, S.; Barker, J.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Leighton, C.

    2013-03-01

    Dilute hole-doping in La1-xSrxCoO3 leads to the formation of ``spin-state polarons'' where a non-zero spin-state is stabilized on the nearest Co3+ ions surrounding a hole. Here, we discuss the development of electronic/magnetic properties of this system from non-magnetic x=0, through the regime of spin-state polarons, and into the region where longer-range spin correlations and phase separation develop. We present magnetometry, transport, heat capacity, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on single crystals. Magnetometry indicates a crossover with x from Langevin-like behavior (polaronic) to a state with a freezing temperature and finite coercivity. Fascinating correlations with this behavior are seen in transport measurements, the evolution from polaronic to clustered states being accompanied by a crossover from Mott variable range hopping to intercluster hopping. SANS data shows Lorentzian scattering from short-range ferromagnetic clusters first emerging around x = 0.03 with correlation lengths of order two unit cells. We argue that this system provides a unique opportunity to understand in detail the crossover from polaronic to truly phase-separated states.

  16. Coal-Based Reduction and Magnetic Separation Behavior of Low-Grade Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjin Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coal-based reduction and magnetic separation behavior of low-grade vanadium-titanium magnetite pellets were studied in this paper. It is found that the metallization degree increased obviously with an increase in the temperature from 1100 °C to 1400 °C. The phase composition transformation was specifically analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microscopic examination was carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the element composition and distribution were detected with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. It is observed that the amounts of metallic iron particles obviously increased and the accumulation and growing tendency were gradually facilitated with the increase in the temperature from 1100 °C to 1400 °C. It is also found that the titanium oxides were gradually reduced and separated from ferrum-titanium oxides during reduction. In addition, with increasing the temperature from 1200 °C to 1350 °C, silicate phases, especially calcium silicate phases that were transformed from calcium ferrite at 1100 °C, were observed and gradually aggregated. However, at 1400 °C some silicate phases infiltrated into metallic iron, as it appears that the carbides, especially TiC, could probably contribute to the sintering phenomenon becoming serious. The transformation behavior of valuable elements was as follows: Fe2VO4 → VO → V → VC; FeTiO3 (→ FeTi2O5 → TiO2 → TiC; FeCr2O4 → Cr → CrC; FeTiO3 (→ FeTi2O5 → Fe0.5Mg0.5Ti2O5; (Fe3O4/FeTiO3→ FeO → Mg0.77Fe0.23O. Through the magnetic separation of coal-based reduced products, it is demonstrated that the separation of Cr, V, Ti, and non-magnetic phases can be preliminarily realized.

  17. Magnetically separable polymer (Mag-MIP) for selective analysis of biotin in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuriaga-Sánchez, Rosario Josefina; Khan, Sabir; Wong, Ademar; Picasso, Gino; Pividori, Maria Isabel; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an efficient method for the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (Mag-MIP) through core-shell method for the determination of biotin in milk food samples. The functional monomer acrylic acid was selected from molecular modeling, EGDMA was used as cross-linking monomer and AIBN as radical initiator. The Mag-MIP and Mag-NIP were characterized by FTIR, magnetic hysteresis, XRD, SEM and N2-sorption measurements. The capacity of Mag-MIP for biotin adsorption, its kinetics and selectivity were studied in detail. The adsorption data was well described by Freundlich isotherm model with adsorption equilibrium constant (KF) of 1.46 mL g(-1). The selectivity experiments revealed that prepared Mag-MIP had higher selectivity toward biotin compared to other molecules with different chemical structure. The material was successfully applied for the determination of biotin in diverse milk samples using HPLC for quantification of the analyte, obtaining the mean value of 87.4% recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation for the concentration of Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrans, I.J.; Levin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) for the concentration of gold and uranium was tested on many Witwatersrand cyanidation residues, and on some ores and flotation tailings. The results varied, but many indicated recoveries of over 60 per cent of the gold and uranium. The main source of loss is the inefficiency of WHIMS for material of smaller particle size than 20μm. The recoveries in the continuous tests were lower than those in the batch tests. The continuous tests indicated an operational difficulty that could be experienced in practice, namely the tendency for wood chips and ferromagnetic particles to block the matrix of the separator. It was decided that a solution to the problem lies in the modification of the separator to allow continuous removal of the matrix for cleaning. A system has been developed for this purpose and is being demonstrated on a pilot-plant scale. Promising results were obtained in tests on a process that combines a coarse grind, gravity concentration, and WHIMS. In the gravity-concentration step, considerable recoveries, generally over 50 per cent, of high-grade pyrite were obtained, together with high recoveries of gold and moderate, but possibly important, recoveries of uranium. A simple model describing the operation of the WHIMS machine in terms of the operating parameters is described. This should reduce the amount of empirical testwork required for the optimization of operating conditions and should provide a basis for scale-up calculations. The economics of the WHIMS process is discussed [af

  19. Development of a graphical user interface allowing use of the SASSYS LMR systems analysis code as an EBR-II interactive simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, P.L.; Briggs, L.L.; Gross, K.C.; Ku, J.Y.; Staffon, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The SASSYS computer program for safety analyses of liquid-metal- cooled fast reactors has been adapted for use as the simulation engine under the graphical user interface provided by the GRAFUN and HIST programs and the Data Views software package under the X Window System on UNIX-based computer workstations to provide a high fidelity, real-time, interactive simulator of the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number II (EBR-II) plant. In addition to providing analysts with an interactive way of performing safety case studies, the simulator can be used to investigate new control room technologies and to supplement current operator training

  20. Magnetic Separation for the Direct Observation of Mineral-Associated Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, B. K.; Orphan, V.

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that microorganisms may selectively colonize mineral surfaces in diverse environments. Mineral substrates may serve as an important source of limiting nutrients or provide electron acceptors and donors for dissimilatory reactions. This work presents a new method for characterizing the microbial diversity associated with specific components in environmental samples. Minerals are concentrated from the bulk sample according to magnetic susceptibility, resulting in compositionally distinct partitions. The microbial communities associated with these partitions are subsequently characterized using molecular techniques. Initial testing of samples from active and dormant hydrothermal chimney structures from the Lau and Fiji Basins show that mineral components may be concentrated from bulk samples without concealing pre-existing patterns of selective colonization. 16S gene surveys from environmental clone libraries reveal distinct colonization patterns for thermophilic archaea and bacteria between sulfide mineral partitions. This method offers a unique tool discerning the role of mineral composition in surface-associated diversity.

  1. Levitation Performance of Two Opposed Permanent Magnet Pole-Pair Separated Conical Bearingless Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In standard motor applications, rotor suspension with traditional mechanical bearings represents the most economical solution. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without contacting bearings is either required or highly beneficial. Examples include applications requiring very high speed or extreme environment operation, or with limited access for maintenance. This paper expands upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which two motors with opposing conical air-gaps are used to achieve full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor. Force in this motor is created by deliberately leaving the motor s pole-pairs unconnected, which allows the creation of different d-axis flux in each pole pair. This flux imbalance is used to create lateral force. This approach is different than previous bearingless motor designs, which require separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper examines the predicted and achieved suspension performance of a fully levitated prototype bearingless system.

  2. Cryo magnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies: application to industrial effluents; Adaptation de la separation cryomagnetique aux technologies de l`environnement: application a l`epuration d`effluents liquides industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, V

    1993-12-20

    Cryomagnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies application to industrial liquid effluents. The performance, obtained by superconducting high filed - high gradient magnetic separation, permitted to foresee the magnetic treatment of heavy metals in rinse waters, derived from the surface finishing industry. The paramagnetic ions, precipitated in basic media as hydroxides, present a very hydrated amorphous structure, which masks their subjacent magnetic properties. Coprecipitation of a `magnetic carrier`, jointly with the heavy metals, has been studied: ferric chloride forms in basic media, an hydrated iron oxide. Its structure is of the goethite type, and it stabilizes as hematite. The magnetic susceptibility of the obtained product is still weak and its crystalline structure is not enough affirmative to utilize magnetic filtration with efficiency. Mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride forms, in a basic media, an hydrated magnetite. Initial ideal ratio between divalent iron and trivalent iron, varies between 0,5 and 1,2. This mixture, coprecipitated with the heavy metals, permits to optimize the magnetic cleaning of the fluids in a high field - high gradient filter. (author)

  3. Separation and Recovery of Iron and Rare Earth from Bayan Obo Tailings by Magnetizing Roasting and (NH4)2SO4 Activation Roasting

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhou; He Yang; Xiang-xin Xue; Shuai Yuan

    2017-01-01

    A novel approach for recovery of iron and rare earth elements (REEs) from Bayan Obo tailings of Baotou, China, was developed by combining magnetizing roasting, magnetic separation, (NH4)2SO4 activation roasting, and water leaching. Thermodynamic analysis of carbothermal reduction was conducted to determine the temperature of magnetizing roasting, and it agreed well with the experimental results. The maximum recovery of Fe reached 77.8% at 600 °C, and the grade of total Fe in the magnetic conc...

  4. Isolation of murine postnatal brain microglia for phenotypic characterization using magnetic cell separation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Ashley S; Tansey, Malú G

    2013-01-01

    To shorten the time between brain harvesting and microglia isolation, and characterization, we utilized the MACS(®) neural dissociation kit followed by OctoMACS(®) CD11b magnetic bead isolation technique to positively select for brain microglia expressing the pan-microglial marker CD11b, a key subunit of the membrane attack complex (MAC). This protocol yields a viable and highly pure (>95%) microglial population of approximately 500,000 cells per pup that is amenable for in vitro characterization within hours or days after being harvested from brain tissue. Primary microglia from C57Bl/6 mice were plated for next-day analyses of morphology and cellular markers by immunocytochemistry or for analysis of gene expression under resting or LPS-stimulated conditions. The ease of isolation enables investigators to perform molecular and cellular analyses without having to wait 1-2 weeks to isolate microglia by conventional methods involving mechanical agitation to dislodge these from astrocyte beds.

  5. Performance of an industrial wet high-intensity magnetic separator for the recovery of gold and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrans, I.J.; Liddell, K.S.; Dunne, R.C. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa). Ore-dressing Div.); Gilbert, W.A. (General Mining Union Corp. Ltd., Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1984-03-01

    After bench-scale and pilot-plant tests in which it was shown that wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) can achieve good recoveries of gold and uranium from Witwatersrand residues, a production-size machine was installed at a gold mine. The mechanical and metallurgical performance of this machine have been satisfactory, and the economics of the process are attractive. WHIMS can be combined with other unit operations like flotation for the optimization of overall gold and uranium recoveries. This concept is shown to be relevant, not only to operations for the retreatment of tailings, but to processes for the treatment of coarser material. In the latter, there is a saving in energy consumption compared with the energy required for the fine grinding of the total feed, and a material suitable for underground backfill can be produced. Improved, more cost-effective WHIMS machines currently under development are also described.

  6. Separating depressive comorbidity from panic disorder: A combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Straube, Benjamin; Yang, Yunbo; Hahn, Tim; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Konrad, Carsten; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittmann, André; Gerlach, Alexander L; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo

    2015-09-15

    Depression is frequent in panic disorder (PD); yet, little is known about its influence on the neural substrates of PD. Difficulties in fear inhibition during safety signal processing have been reported as a pathophysiological feature of PD that is attenuated by depression. We investigated the impact of comorbid depression in PD with agoraphobia (AG) on the neural correlates of fear conditioning and the potential of machine learning to predict comorbidity status on the individual patient level based on neural characteristics. Fifty-nine PD/AG patients including 26 (44%) with a comorbid depressive disorder (PD/AG+DEP) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Comorbidity status was predicted using a random undersampling tree ensemble in a leave-one-out cross-validation framework. PD/AG-DEP patients showed altered neural activation during safety signal processing, while +DEP patients exhibited generally decreased dorsolateral prefrontal and insular activation. Comorbidity status was correctly predicted in 79% of patients (sensitivity: 73%; specificity: 85%) based on brain activation during fear conditioning (corrected for potential confounders: accuracy: 73%; sensitivity: 77%; specificity: 70%). No primary depressed patients were available; only medication-free patients were included. Major depression and dysthymia were collapsed (power considerations). Neurofunctional activation during safety signal processing differed between patients with or without comorbid depression, a finding which may explain heterogeneous results across previous studies. These findings demonstrate the relevance of comorbidity when investigating neurofunctional substrates of anxiety disorders. Predicting individual comorbidity status may translate neurofunctional data into clinically relevant information which might aid in planning individualized treatment. The study was registered with the ISRCTN80046034. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A rapid method for detection of genetically modified organisms based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Burcu; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Tamer, Ugur; Çalık, Pınar

    2012-01-07

    In this study, a new method combining magnetic separation (MS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An oligonucleotide probe which is specific for 35 S DNA target was immobilized onto gold coated magnetic nanospheres to form oligonucleotide-coated nanoparticles. A self assembled monolayer was formed on gold nanorods using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the second probe of the 35 S DNA target was immobilized on the activated nanorod surfaces. Probes on the nanoparticles were hybridized with the target oligonucleotide. Optimization parameters for hybridization were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. Optimum hybridization parameters were determined as: 4 μM probe concentration, 20 min immobilization time, 30 min hybridization time, 55 °C hybridization temperature, 750 mM buffer salt concentration and pH: 7.4. Quantification of the target concentration was performed via SERS spectra of DTNB on the nanorods. The correlation between the target concentration and the SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 25-100 nM. The analyses were performed with only one hybridization step in 40 min. Real sample analysis was conducted using Bt-176 maize sample. The results showed that the developed MS-SERS assay is capable of detecting GMOs in a rapid and selective manner. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  8. The frequency-dependent elements in the code SASSI: A bridge between civil engineers and the soil-structure interaction specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    After four decades of the intensive studies of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects in the field of the NPP seismic analysis there is a certain gap between the SSI specialists and civil engineers. The results obtained using the advanced SSI codes like SASSI are often rather far from the results obtained using general codes (though match the experimental and field data). The reasons for the discrepancies are not clear because none of the parties can recall the results of the 'other party' and investigate the influence of various factors causing the difference step by step. As a result, civil engineers neither feel the SSI effects, nor control them. The author believes that the SSI specialists should do the first step forward (a) recalling 'viscous' damping in the structures versus the 'material' one and (b) convoluting all the SSI wave effects into the format of 'soil springs and dashpots', more or less clear for civil engineers. The tool for both tasks could be a special finite element with frequency-dependent stiffness developed by the author for the code SASSI. This element can represent both soil and structure in the SSI model and help to split various factors influencing seismic response. In the paper the theory and some practical issues concerning the new element are presented

  9. Separation and Recovery of Iron and Rare Earth from Bayan Obo Tailings by Magnetizing Roasting and (NH42SO4 Activation Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for recovery of iron and rare earth elements (REEs from Bayan Obo tailings of Baotou, China, was developed by combining magnetizing roasting, magnetic separation, (NH42SO4 activation roasting, and water leaching. Thermodynamic analysis of carbothermal reduction was conducted to determine the temperature of magnetizing roasting, and it agreed well with the experimental results. The maximum recovery of Fe reached 77.8% at 600 °C, and the grade of total Fe in the magnetic concentrate was 56.3 wt. %. An innovative approach, using water to leach REEs after (NH42SO4 activation roasting, was used to extract REEs from magnetic separation tailings. The main influence factors of the leaching recovery during (NH42SO4 activation roasting, were investigated with the mass ratio of (NH42SO4 to magnetic separation tailings, roasting temperature and roasting time. The leaching recoveries of La, Ce and Nd reached 83.12%, 76.64% and 77.35%, respectively, under the optimized conditions: a mass ratio of 6:1, a roasting temperature of 400 °C and a roasting time of 80 min. Furthermore, the phase composition and reaction process during the (NH42SO4 activation roasting were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy & scanning electron microscopy (EDS-SEM and thermogravimetry & differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and the leaching solution and leaching residue were also characterized.

  10. Preparation of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody-conjugated magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) particles and their application on CD4+ lymphocyte separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpha, Nuttaporn; Chaleawlert-umpon, Saowaluk; Chruewkamlow, Nuttapol; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2011-03-15

    Novel immunomagnetic particles have been prepared for separation of CD4(+) lymphocytes. The magnetic nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 5-6 nm were first synthesized by co-precipitation from ferrous and ferric iron solutions and subsequently encapsulated with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) by precipitation polymerization. Monoclonal antibody specific to CD4 molecules expressed on CD4(+) lymphocytes was conjugated to the surface of magnetic PGMA particles through covalent bonding between epoxide functional groups on the particle surface and primary amine groups of the antibodies. The generated immunomagnetic particles have successfully separated CD4(+) lymphocytes from whole blood with over 95% purity. The results indicated that these particles can be employed for cell separation and provide a strong potential to be applied in various biomedical applications including diagnosis, and monitoring of human diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic BaFe12O19 nanofiber filter for effective separation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and removal of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jeehye; Patel, Hasmukh A.; Yavuz, Cafer T.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising in applications where magnetic separation is intended, although material losses via leaching mechanisms are often inevitable. Magnetic separations with widely available permanent magnets can effectively trap particles, leading to a complete removal of used or waste particles. In this report, we first demonstrate the synthesis of the thinnest (112.7 ± 16.4 nm) and most magnetic (71.96 emu g −1 ) barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 , BHF—fridge magnet) via an organic solvent-free electrospinning procedure. When the fibers are then packed into a column, they clearly remove 12 nm magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles quantitatively. The same BHF cartridge also removes more than 99.9 % As-treated magnetite nanoparticles at capacities up to 70 times of its weight. As a result, one liter of 150 μg L −1 As-contaminated water can be purified rapidly at a material cost of less than 2 US cents

  12. Magnetically separable mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/silica catalysts with very low Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau-Atienza, A.; Serrano, E.; Linares, N. [Molecular Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Alicante, Carretera San Vicente s/n, E-03690 Alicante (Spain); Svedlindh, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Seisenbaeva, G., E-mail: Gulaim.Seisenbaeva@slu.se [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, BioCenter SLU, Box 7015, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); García-Martínez, J., E-mail: j.garcia@ua.es [Molecular Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Alicante, Carretera San Vicente s/n, E-03690 Alicante (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Two magnetically separable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} (aerogel and MSU-X) composites with very low Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content (<1 wt%) have been successfully prepared at room temperature by co-condensation of MPTES-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) with a silicon alkoxide. This procedure yields a homogeneous incorporation of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs on silica supports, leading to magnetic composites that can be easily recovered using an external magnetic field, despite their very low Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs content (ca. 1 wt%). These novel hybrid Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} materials have been tested for the oxidation reaction of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) with hydrogen peroxide showing an enhancement of the stability of the NPs in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/silica aerogel as compared to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs alone, even after five catalytic cycles, no leaching or agglomeration of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} systems. - Graphical abstract: Novel magnetically separable mesoporous silica-based composites with very low magnetite content. - Highlights: • An innovative way to prepare magnetically separable composites with <1 wt% NPs. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/silica composites are readily magnetized/demagnetized. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/silica composites can be easily recovered using an external magnetic field. • Excellent catalytic performance and recyclability despite the low Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs content.

  13. Weak cation magnetic separation technology and MALDI-TOF-MS in screening serum protein markers in primary type I osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X L; Li, C W; Liang, B C; He, K H; Li, X Y

    2015-11-30

    We investigated weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of primary type I osteoporosis. We selected 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and nine postmenopausal women as controls to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were obtained from controls and patients. Serum protein was extracted with the WCX protein chip system; protein fingerprints were examined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The preprocessed and model construction data were handled by the ProteinChip system. The diagnostic models were established using a genetic arithmetic model combined with a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM model with the highest Youden index was selected. Combinations with the highest accuracy in distinguishing different groups of data were selected as potential biomarkers. From the two groups of serum proteins, 123 cumulative MS protein peaks were selected. Significant intensity differences in the protein peaks of 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were screened. The difference in Youden index between the four groups of protein peaks showed that the highest peaks had mass-to-charge ratios of 8909.047, 8690.658, 13745.48, and 15114.52. A diagnosis model was established with these four markers as the candidates, and the model specificity and sensitivity were found to be 100%. Two groups of specimens in the SVM results on the scatterplot were distinguishable. We established a diagnosis model, and provided a new serological method for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis with high sensitivity and specificity.

  14. Sassis tuumamajandus / John Carey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carey, John

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendikandidaadi John McCaini energeetikakava kohaselt tuleks USA-sse ehitada 100 uut tuumaelektrijaama, neist esimesed 45 peaksid valmima aastaks 2030. Tuumaelektrijaamad aitaksid rahuldada USA energiavajadust ning võitleksid ka kliimasoojenemise vastu. Eksperdid on arengukava suhtes kriitilised

  15. Tandem assays of protein and glucose with functionalized core/shell particles based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Yu, Qian; Lv, Zhongpeng; Du, Xuezhong

    2013-10-11

    Tandem assays of protein and glucose in combination with mannose-functionalized Fe3 O4 @SiO2 and Ag@SiO2 tag particles have promising potential in effective magnetic separation and highly sensitive and selective SERS assays of biomaterials. It is for the first time that tandem assay of glucose is developed using SERS based on the Con A-sandwiched microstructures between the functionalized magnetic and tag particles. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. submitter Quench Protection Heater Study With the 2-m Model Magnet of Beam Separation Dipole for the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kento; Higashi, Norio; Iida, Masahisa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Ogitsu, Toru; Ohata, H; Okada, Naoki; Okada, Ryutaro; Sugano, Michinaka; Musso, Andrea; Todesco, Ezio

    2018-01-01

    The beam separation dipole magnet (D1), which is being operated in the large hadron collider (LHC), has to be replaced in accordance with upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC. The new D1 will be equipped with several circuits of heaters by which most of the stored energy is dissipated in the whole of the magnet during its quench, thereby avoiding localization of hot spots. Prior to construction of the production magnet, the 2-m mechanical short model is fabricated, and performance of this quench protection heater is evaluated through a series of the cold tests. As a result, we confirm that the maximum hot spot temperature obtained in the measurement reaches the practical limit of 300 K, and determine to design a new heater circuit. In this paper, we report the heater studies together with the prospect for future design of the quench protection heater.

  17. Phase separation, effects of magnetic field and high pressure on charge ordering in γ-Na0.5CoO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.X.; Shi, Y.G.; Nie, C.J.; Wu, D.; Yang, L.X.; Dong, C.; Yu, H.C.; Zhang, H.R.; Jin, C.Q.; Li, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal the presence of complex superstructures and remarkable phase separation in association with Na-ordering phenomenon in γ-Na 0.5 CoO 2 . Resistivity and magnetization measurements indicate that three phase transitions at the temperatures of 25, 53 and 90 K, respectively, appear commonly in γ-Na 0.5 CoO 2 samples. Under a high pressure up to 10 kbar, the low-temperature transport properties show certain changes below the charge order transition; under an applied magnetic field of 7 T, phase transitions at around 25 and 53 K, proposed fundamentally in connection with alternations of magnetic structure and charge ordering maintain almost unchanged

  18. Separate structure of two branches of sheared slab ηi mode and effects of plasma rotation shear in weak magnetic shear region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiquan Li; Kishimoto, Y.; Tuda, T.

    2000-01-01

    The separate structure of two branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q magnetic surface is analysed and the effects of plasma rotation shears are considered in the weak magnetic shear region. Results show that the separation condition depends on the non-monotonous q profile and the deviation of rational surface from the minimum-q surface. Furthermore, it is found that the diamagnetic rotation shear may suppress the perturbation of the sheared slab η i mode at one side of the minimum-q surface, the poloidal rotation shear from the sheared E-vector x B-vector flow has a similar role to the slab mode structure when it possesses a direction same as the diamagnetic shear. A plausible interrelation between the separate structures of the two branches of the sheared slab mode and the discontinuity or gap of the radially global structure of the drift wave near the minimum-q surface observed in the toroidal particle simulation (Kishimoto Y et al 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 40 A663) is discussed. It seems to support such a viewpoint: the double or/and global branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q surface may become a bridge to connect the radially global structures of the drift wave at two sides of the minimum-q surface and the discontinuity may originate from the separate structures of these slab modes for a flatter q profile. (author)

  19. Greek “red mud” residue: A study of microwave reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation for a metallic iron recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouhos, Michail, E-mail: msamouhos@metal.ntua.gr [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Laboratory of Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, 9, Iroon Polytechniou Street, 157 80 Zografou, Athens (Greece); Taxiarchou, Maria; Tsakiridis, Petros E. [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Laboratory of Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, 9, Iroon Polytechniou Street, 157 80 Zografou, Athens (Greece); Potiriadis, Konstantinos [Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Patriarxou Grigoriou and Neapoleos, P.O. Box 60092, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Microwave reduction of a red mud. •Measurement of real and imaginary permittivity of red mud–lignite mixture. •Red mud was subjected to reductive roasting and magnetic separation processes. •The optimum concentrate contains 31.6% iron with a 69.3% metallization degree. •{sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K were detected in the magnetic concentrate. -- Abstract: The present research work is focused on the development of an alternative microwave reductive roasting process of red mud using lignite (30.15 wt.% C{sub fix}), followed by wet magnetic separation, in order to produce a raw material suitable for sponge or cast iron production. The reduction degree of iron was controlled by both the reductive agent content and the microwave heating time. The reduction followed the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} → Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} → FeO → Fe sequence. The dielectric constants [real (ε′) and imaginary (ε″) permittivities] of red mud–lignite mixture were determined at 2.45 GHz, in the temperature range of 25–1100 °C. The effect of parameters such as temperature, intensity of reducing conditions, intensity of magnetic field and dispersing agent addition rate on the result of both processes was investigated. The phase's transformations in reduction process with microwave heating were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in combination with thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The microstructural and morphological characterization of the produced calcines was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the optimum conditions a magnetic concentrate with total iron concentration of 35.15 and 69.3 wt.% metallization degree was obtained.

  20. Magnetic properties and loss separation in FeSi/MnZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} soft magnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauda, M. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik Univesity, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Füzer, J., E-mail: jan.fuzer@upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik Univesity, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Kollár, P. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik Univesity, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Strečková, M.; Bureš, R. [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Kováč, J.; Baťková, M.; Baťko, I. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia)

    2016-08-01

    We investigated composites that have been prepared from FeSi powders covered with MnZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (MnZn ferrite), which was prepared by sol–gel synthesis accompanied with the auto-combustion process. The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex permeability and core losses of prepared samples with different amount of MnZn ferrite. The microstructure and the powder morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements on bulk samples were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer, an impedance analyzer and hysteresisgraphs. The results indicate that the composites with 2.6 wt% MnZn ferrite show better soft magnetic properties than the composites with about 6 wt% MnZn ferrite. - Highlights: • Successful preparation of soft magnetic composite FeSi/MnZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Study of the complex magnetic permeability. • Comparison of different compositions of prepared SMC's. • Determination of parts of magnetic losses.

  1. Experimental investigation of inhomogeneities, nanoscopic phase separation, and magnetism in arc melted Fe-Cu metals with equal atomic ratio of the constituents

    KAUST Repository

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.; Aftab, M.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Poirier, Gerald; Ismat Shah, S.

    2015-01-01

    Composition gradient and phase separation at the nanoscale have been investigated for arc-melted and solidified with equiatomic Fe-Cu. Diffraction studies revealed that Fe and Cu exhibited phase separation with no trace of any mixing. Microscopy studies revealed that immiscible Fe-Cu form dense bulk nanocomposite. The spatial distribution of Fe and Cu showed existence of two distinct regions, i.e., Fe-rich and Cu-rich regions. Fe-rich regions have Cu precipitates of various sizes and different shapes, with Fe forming meshes or channels greater than 100 nm in size. On the other hand, the matrix of Cu-rich regions formed strips with fine strands of nanosized Fe. Macromagnetic response of the system showed ferromagnetic behavior with a magnetic moment being equal to about 2.13 μB/Fe atom and a bulk like negligible value of coercivity over the temperature range of 5–300 K. Anisotropy constant has been calculated from various laws of approach to saturation, and its value is extracted to be equal to 1350 J/m3. Inhomogeneous strain within the Cu and Fe crystallites has been calculated for the (unannealed) sample solidified after arc-melting. Annealed sample also exhibited local inhomogeneity with removal of inhomogeneous strain and no appreciable change in magnetic character. However, for the annealed sample phase separated Fe exhibited homogenous strain.

  2. Experimental investigation of inhomogeneities, nanoscopic phase separation, and magnetism in arc melted Fe-Cu metals with equal atomic ratio of the constituents

    KAUST Repository

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.

    2015-12-16

    Composition gradient and phase separation at the nanoscale have been investigated for arc-melted and solidified with equiatomic Fe-Cu. Diffraction studies revealed that Fe and Cu exhibited phase separation with no trace of any mixing. Microscopy studies revealed that immiscible Fe-Cu form dense bulk nanocomposite. The spatial distribution of Fe and Cu showed existence of two distinct regions, i.e., Fe-rich and Cu-rich regions. Fe-rich regions have Cu precipitates of various sizes and different shapes, with Fe forming meshes or channels greater than 100 nm in size. On the other hand, the matrix of Cu-rich regions formed strips with fine strands of nanosized Fe. Macromagnetic response of the system showed ferromagnetic behavior with a magnetic moment being equal to about 2.13 μB/Fe atom and a bulk like negligible value of coercivity over the temperature range of 5–300 K. Anisotropy constant has been calculated from various laws of approach to saturation, and its value is extracted to be equal to 1350 J/m3. Inhomogeneous strain within the Cu and Fe crystallites has been calculated for the (unannealed) sample solidified after arc-melting. Annealed sample also exhibited local inhomogeneity with removal of inhomogeneous strain and no appreciable change in magnetic character. However, for the annealed sample phase separated Fe exhibited homogenous strain.

  3. Relation of the Dsub(st) index to the azimuth component of the interplanetary magnetic field vector during separate storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevskij, I.V.; Levitin, A.E.; Fedoseeva, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    A relation between the index Dsub(st) and azimuthal component Bsub(y) of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) vector during several magnetic storms with Dsub(st) > 100nT is discussed. It is established that the relation between Dsub(st) index and Bsub(y) and Esub(z) component of electric interplanetary field (EIF) is closed than the relation between Dsub(st) and Bsub(z) component of IMF and Esub(y) component of EIF. Correlation coefficients of Dsub(st) and Bsub(y) and Esub(z) differ but slightly from each other

  4. Resource Recovery and Reuse: Recycled Magnetically Separable Iron-based Catalysts for Phosphate Recovery and Arsenic Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally friendly processes that aid human and environmental health include recovering, recycling, and reusing limited natural resources and waste materials. In this study, we re-used Iron-rich solid waste materials from water treatment plants to synthesize magnetic iron-o...

  5. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  6. Separation of saccharides derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid by capillary electrophoresis and their structural consideration by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liping; Sato, Kae; Abo, Mitsuru; Okubo, Akira; Yamazaki, Sunao

    2003-03-01

    Saccharides including mono- and disaccharides were quantitatively derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA). These derivatives were then separated by capillary zone electrophoresis with UV detection using 50mM sodium phosphate buffer as the running electrolyte solution. In particular, the saccharide derivatives with the same molecular weight as 2-AA aldohexoses (mannose and glucose) and 2-AA aldopentoses (ribose and xylose) were well separated. The underlying reasons for separation were explored by studying their structural data using 1H and 13C NMR. It was found that the configurational difference between their hydroxyl group at C2 or C3 could cause the difference in Stokes' radii between their molecules and thus lead to different electrophoretic mobilities. The correlation between the electrophoretic behavior of these carbohydrate derivatives and their structures was studied utilizing the calculated molecular models of the 2-AA-labeled mannose, glucose, ribose, and xylose.

  7. A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Schindler, K.

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns therein is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients, i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field, and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares

  8. Reversibility of magnetic field driven transition from electronic phase separation state to single-phase state in manganites: A microscopic view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Lin, Lingfang; Yu, Yang; Lin, Hanxuan; Zhu, Yinyan; Miao, Tian; Bai, Yu; Shi, Qian; Cai, Peng; Kou, Yunfang; Lan, Fanli; Wang, Wenbin; Zhou, Xiaodong; Dong, Shuai; Yin, Lifeng; Shen, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Electronic phase separation (EPS) is a common phenomenon in strongly correlated oxides. For colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganites, the EPS is so pronounced that not only does it govern the CMR behavior, but also raises a question whether EPS exists as a ground state for systems or a metastable state. While it has been well known that a magnetic field can drive the transition of the EPS state into a single-phase state in manganites, the reversibility of this transition is not well studied. In this work we use magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to directly visualize the reversibility of the field driven transition between the EPS state and the single-phase state at different temperatures. The MFM images correspond well with the global magnetic and transport property measurements, uncovering the underlying mechanism of the field driven transition between the EPS state and the single-phase state. We argue that EPS state is a consequence of system quenching whose response to an external magnetic field is governed by a local energy landscape.

  9. Three Birds with One Fe3O4 Nanoparticle: Integration of Microwave Digestion, Solid Phase Extraction, and Magnetic Separation for Sensitive Determination of Arsenic and Antimony in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yun; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Li; Hou, Xiandeng; Yang, Lu; Zheng, Chengbin

    2015-06-16

    An environmentally friendly and fast sample treatment approach that integrates accelerated microwave digestion (MWD), solid phase extraction, and magnetic separation into a single step was developed for the determination of arsenic and antimony in fish samples by using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Compared to conventional microwave digestion, the consumption of HNO3 was reduced significantly to 12.5%, and the digestion time and temperature were substantially decreased to 6 min and 80 °C, respectively. This is largely attributed to Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles being a highly effective catalyst for rapid generation of oxidative radicals from H2O2, as well as an excellent absorber of microwave irradiation. Moreover, potential interferences from sample matrices were eliminated because the As and Sb species adsorbed on the nanoparticles were efficiently separated from the digests with a hand-held magnet prior to analysis. Limits of detection for arsenic and antimony were in the range of 0.01-0.06 μg g(-1) and 0.03-0.08 μg g(-1) by using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, respectively, and further improved to 0.002-0.005 μg g(-1) and 0.005-0.01 μg g(-1) when inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used as a detector. The precision of replicate measurements (n = 9) was better than 6% by analyzing 0.1 g test sample spiked with 1 μg g(-1) arsenic and antimony. The proposed method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (DORM-3 and DORM-4) with good recoveries (90%-106%).

  10. MAGNETIC SEPARATORS AND THEIR PLACE IN MODEM FOUNDRY. REFINEMENT OF WASTE (ALUMINIUM SCRAP WITH THE PURPOSE O F FURTHER USING IN OWN PRODUCTION ON BASIS OF PRUP “MINSK MOTOR PLANT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ovchinnikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The types of magnetic separators used in casting are given. The technology of preparation of aluminium chip scrap for further using in domestic manufacture is developed and implemented at Minsk Motor Works.

  11. The use of magnetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microspheres for separation of DNA from probiotic dairy products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Trachtová, Š.; Rittich, B.; Španová, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2012), s. 235-240 ISSN 2164-9634 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801; GA MŠk 2B06053; GA MŠk 7E12054 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 259796 - DIATOOLS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : magnetic particles * thermosensitive * poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Magnetically separable photocatalytic composite gamma-Fe(2)O(3)@TiO(2) synthesized by heterogeneous precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyrpekl, Václav; Vejpravová, J.P.; Roca, A.G.; Murafa, Nataliya; Szatmáry, Lórant; Nižňanský, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 11 (2011), s. 4844-4848 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA AV ČR KAN400100653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : nano composite * oxides * magnetic properties * transmission electron microscopy * X-ray powder diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2011

  13. Photocatalytic Pre-Oxidation of Arsenic (III) in Groundwater by a Visible-Light-Driven System with Magnetic Separating Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Liu, Y.; Peng, L.; Qin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Arsenic was a typical toxic metalloid element and its contamination in groundwater was widely recognized as a global health problem, especially in north China, where people depended on groundwater as water resource. Arsenic was existed as As(III) in underground water, and has low affinity to the surface of various minerals and more toxic and more difficultly to be removed compared with As(V), so a pre-oxidation technology by transforming As (III) to As (V) is highly desirable. Electrochemical and oxidizing agents were traditional technology, which usually causes secondary pollution. A novel methodology is presented here, using prepared magnetic visible-light-driven nanomaterials as recyclable media to investigate As(III) pre-oxidation processing. Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were first synthesized by oxidation of Ag nanowires with moderate FeCl3, and exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity to As(III) with visible-light. The ratio of chloridization was proved to act as key effect on photocatalytic oxidation efficiency. Testing with simulated groundwater condition proved that pH, ionic strength and concentration of humic acid have obvious effects on Ag@AgCl photocatalytic ability. h+ and ·O2- were confirmed to be the main active species during the visible-light driven photocatalytic oxidation process for As(III) by trapping experiments with radical scavengers. Then Fe0 was introduced to prepare Fe-Ag nanowire and chloridized into Fe-Ag@AgCl to provide magnetic characteristic. The magnetic recycling and re-chloride experiments validated this visible-light-driven material has excellent stable and high reused ability as photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

  14. Magnetically separable Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chunhua [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Xiao, Ling, E-mail: xiaoling9119@whu.edu.cn [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Chunhua [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Cao, Qihua [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • A novel magnetically-separable Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} photocatalyst was in situ prepared. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs had rough and porous chitosan surface layer embedded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs showed large surface areas and special dimodal pore structure. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs showed superparamagnetism and could be easily magnetic separated. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs exhibited good visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: A novel magnetically-separable visible-light-induced photocatalyst, Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite (Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NC), was prepared via a facile one-step precipitation–reduction process by using magnetic chitosan chelating copper ions as precursor. The structure and properties of Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, BET, VSM, XPS and UV–vis/DRS. The photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs was evaluated by decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) under visible light irradiation. The characterization results indicated that Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs exhibited relatively large specific surface areas and special dimodal pore structure because Cu{sub 2}O was wrapped in chitosan matrix embedded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The tight combination of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and semiconductor Cu{sub 2}O through chitosan made the nanocomposites show good superparamagnetism and photocatalytic activity. It was found that X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in neutral or alkaline media. The decolorization of X-3B was ascribed to the synergistic effect of photocatalysis and adsorption. Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs could be easily separated from the solution by an external magnet, and the decolorization rates of X-3B

  15. Magnetically separable core–shell ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles for visible light photodegradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Suresh D.; Kumbar, Sagar; Menon, Samvit G.; Choudhari, K.S.; Santhosh, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase pure, magnetic ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles synthesized with excellent yield. • ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO displayed higher UV photocatalytic efficiency than ZnO nanoparticles. • First report on visible light photodegradation of methyl orange by ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO. • Excellent reusability of ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles observed for azo dye removal. - Abstract: Visible light photodegradation of aqueous methyl orange using magnetically separable core–shell ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles is reported. A combination of low temperature (190 °C) microwave synthesis and hydrothermal method were used to prepare phase pure material with excellent yield (95%). The magnetic separability, surface area of 41 m"2/g and visible light absorption make ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles a good solar photocatalyst. ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO displayed greater UV photocatalytic efficiency than ZnO owing to the generation of large number of electron-hole pairs. Visible light photodegradation of MO using ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles is reported for the first time. Higher first order rate constants under both UV and visible light for core-shell nanoparticles suggested their superiority over its individual oxides. The ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO showed excellent reusability with high photocatalytic efficiencies suggesting its suitability for solar photocatalytic applications.

  16. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Application of upconversion luminescent-magnetic microbeads with weak background noise and facile separation in ochratoxin A detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Zhenyu, E-mail: liaozy08@163.com [Tianjin Product Quality Inspection Technology Research Institute, The National Center of Supervision and Inspection for Quality of Food (China); Zhang, Ying [Tianjin University, School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology (China); Su, Lin [Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Eye Institute and School of Optometry and Ophthalmology (China); Chang, Jin; Wang, Hanjie, E-mail: wanghj@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology (China)

    2017-02-15

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), the most harmful and abundant ochratoxin, is chemically stable and commonly existed in foodstuffs. In this work, upconversion luminescent-magnetic microbeads (UCLMMs) -based cytometric bead array for OTA detection with a less reagent consumption and high sensitivity has been established and optimized. In UCLMMs, upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) for optical code present a weak background noise and no spectral cross talk between the encoding signals and target labels under two excitation conditions to improve detection sensitivity. While the superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) aim for rapid analysis. The results show that the developed method has a sensitivity of 9.553 ppt below HPLC with a 50-μL sample and can be completed in <2 h with good accuracy and high reproducibility. Therefore, different colors of UCLMMs will become a promising assay platform for multiple mycotoxins after further improvement.

  18. Application of upconversion luminescent-magnetic microbeads with weak background noise and facile separation in ochratoxin A detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ying; Su, Lin; Chang, Jin; Wang, Hanjie

    2017-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), the most harmful and abundant ochratoxin, is chemically stable and commonly existed in foodstuffs. In this work, upconversion luminescent-magnetic microbeads (UCLMMs) -based cytometric bead array for OTA detection with a less reagent consumption and high sensitivity has been established and optimized. In UCLMMs, upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) for optical code present a weak background noise and no spectral cross talk between the encoding signals and target labels under two excitation conditions to improve detection sensitivity. While the superparamagnetic Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles (Fe_3O_4 NPs) aim for rapid analysis. The results show that the developed method has a sensitivity of 9.553 ppt below HPLC with a 50-μL sample and can be completed in <2 h with good accuracy and high reproducibility. Therefore, different colors of UCLMMs will become a promising assay platform for multiple mycotoxins after further improvement.

  19. Relation of flare activity to the approach and separation of sunspots in an active region and to its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, E.

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the flare activity of active regions within the scope of a large complex and the magnetic gradients of these active regions and their daily variations is investigated in the interval of the exceptionally high flare activity occurring in June 1970. New indices, characterizing the active region, were defined, e.g., the instantaneous sunspot-area density and the instantaneous sunspot-number density. These indices were determined on the basis of measurements of the surface containing all sunspots of the complex of active regions enclosed by an envelope. An attempt was made to substitute the surface in the relation for the individual indices by distance. The daily variations of these indices were again compared with the flare activity and some mutual relations were derived. (author)

  20. Energy and microclimatic performance of restored hypogeous buildings in south Italy: The ''Sassi'' district of Matera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinale, Nicola [Department of Engineering and Environmental Physics, University of Basilicata, Via Lazazzera, 75100 Matera (Italy); Rospi, Gianluca; Stazi, Alessandro [Department of Architecture, Constructions and Structures, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The site of the ''Sassi of Matera'' classified by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage in 1993, is an exceptional example of traditional bioclimatic Mediterranean architecture. Within this immense artistic heritage, we find hypogea habitations, stone buildings, and mixed habitation - half-hypogeum and half-built. In this study, we analyze the energy and microclimatic performance of hypogeous structures in three states: not-restored, immediately after restoration, and a few years after restoration (in normal use). We monitored a surface hypogeum and a deep hypogeum. We performed a dynamic parametric simulation using the software EnergyPlus to quantify the energetic balance of the hypogeous structures during one calendar year. The energetic valuation of the surface hypogea shows that these environments, once restored and in a condition of normal use, give indoor comfort within the limits of comfort thermo-hygrometrics established by the comfort indices of predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD). The huge thermal mass of the walls ensures that the microclimate indoor conditions are regular throughout the seasons, without differences in the daily thermal oscillation. Deep hypogea without an air change system cannot reach thermal-hygrometric comfort values. We determined that these structures have a null thermal balance during mid-season, while in the summer the floor loses heat, thereby cooling the environment. The opposite occurs in winter. We can conclude that these buildings were designed as bioclimatic. In fact they can be used, after restoration, with limited use of technology systems. (author)

  1. Highly stable and magnetically separable alginate/Fe3O4 composite for the removal of strontium (Sr) from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Su; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Hong, Jeongsik; Park, In-Su; Ryu, Taegong; Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Hyuncheol; Ryu, Jungho

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a highly stable alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite was synthesized, and systematically investigated for the practical application of strontium (Sr) removal in complex media, such as seawater and radioactive wastewater. To overcome the drawbacks of the use of alginate microspheres, high contents of alginic acid and Fe 3 O 4 were used to provide a more rigid structure with little swelling and facile separation, respectively. The synthesized composite was optimized for particle sizes of seawater spiked with 50 mg/L of Sr, the alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite showed 12.5 mg/g of Sr uptake, despite the highly concentrated ions in seawater. The adsorption experiment for radio-active 90 Sr revealed a removal efficiency of 67% in real seawater, demonstrating the reliability of the alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of mixed molecularly imprinted polymer magnetic nanoparticles and its application in separation of Chinese traditional medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yihui; Ma, Yajuan; Bai, Wenting; Zhu, Xiaofang; Liu, Min; Huang, Liping

    2017-08-01

    A mixed imprinted polymer which can rapidly adsorb all flavonoids from raspberry extract was prepared and recycled. The hybrid molecular surface imprinted polymers were prepared by using quercetin as the template molecule and Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres as the carrier. The molecular imprinting polymer was prepared by using the "initial template molecule, molecularly imprinted polymer, mixed template molecule, molecularly imprint ted polymers (MIPS)". The adsorption performance and durability of the hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers were investigated by using the fingerprints of the ethyl acetate fraction of raspberry as an index. The adsorption of flavonoids from raspberry extract, lindenoside, cis-lindenin, quercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids was completely adsorbed by mixed molecular-imprinted polymer, and the other components were basically adsorbed. When Mix-IMPs were repeatedly used 10 times, the fingerprints showed that the content and content of flavonoids were basically the same. The experimental results show that Mix-IMPs has good adsorption performance, can be recycled and used for rapid enrichment of flavonoids in raspberry.

  3. A long-term study on the effect of magnetite supplementation in continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy effluent - Magnetic separation and recycling of magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gahyun; Jung, Heejung; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-10-01

    Promotion of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between exoelectrogenic bacteria and electron-utilizing methanogens has recently been discussed as a new method for enhanced biomethanation. This study evaluated the effect of magnetite-promoted DIET in continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy effluent and tested the magnetic separation and recycling of magnetite to avoid continuous magnetite addition. The applied magnetite recycling method effectively supported enhanced DIET activity and biomethanation performance over a long period (>250days) without adding extra magnetite. DIET via magnetite particles as electrical conduits was likely the main mechanism for the enhanced biomethanation. Magnetite formed complex aggregate structures with microbes, and magnetite recycling also helped retain more biomass in the process. Methanosaeta was likely the major methanogen group responsible for DIET-based methanogenesis, in association with Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi populations as syntrophic partners. The recycling approach proved robust and effective, highlighting the potential of magnetite recycling for high-rate biomethanation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  5. Hierarchical heterostructures of p-type bismuth oxychloride nanosheets on n-type zinc ferrite electrospun nanofibers with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities and magnetic separation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yucong; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhou, Xuejiao; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Yichun

    2018-04-15

    P-type bismuth oxychloride (p-BiOCl) nanosheets were uniformly grown on n-type zinc ferrite (n-ZnFe 2 O 4 ) electrospun nanofibers via a solvothermal technique to form hierarchical heterostructures of p-BiOCl/n-ZnFe 2 O 4 (p-BiOCl/n-ZnFe 2 O 4 H-Hs). The density and loading amounts of the BiOCl nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets were easily controlled by adjusting the reactant concentration in the solvothermal process. The p-BiOCl/n-ZnFe 2 O 4 H-Hs exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The apparent first-order rate of the p-BiOCl/n-ZnFe 2 O 4 H-Hs and its normalized constant were about 12.6- and 8-fold higher than pure ZnFe 2 O 4 nanofibers. This suggests that both the improved charge separation efficiency from the uniform p-n heterojunctions and the enlarged active surface sites from the hierarchical structures increase the photocatalytic performances. Furthermore, the p-BiOCl/n-ZnFe 2 O 4 H-Hs could be efficiently separated from the solution with an external magnetic field via the ferromagnetic behavior of ZnFe 2 O 4 nanofibers. The magnetic p-BiOCl/n-ZnFe 2 O 4 H-Hs with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances might have potential applications in water treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@graphene oxide composite: A magnetically separable and efficient catalyst for the reduction of nitroarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guangyu [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Jiangsu Province, Changzhou 213164 (China); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu, Weifeng; Sun, Xiaoqiang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Jiangsu Province, Changzhou 213164 (China); Chen, Qun, E-mail: chenqunjpu@yahoo.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Jiangsu Province, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Haiqun, E-mail: hqchenyf@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Jiangsu Province, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO composite was prepared by a facile co-precipitation method. ► Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are well distributed on GO nanosheets. ► Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO was for the first time explored as a catalyst to reduce nitroarenes. ► Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO exhibits higher catalytic activity. ► The composite catalyst is easily recycled due to its magnetic separability. - Abstract: We reported a facile co-precipitation method to prepare a highly active Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@graphene oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO) composite catalyst, which was fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements. The results demonstrated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) with a small diameter of around 12 nm were densely and evenly deposited on the graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO composite was explored as a catalyst to reduce a series of nitroarenes for the first time, which exhibited a great activity with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 3.63 min{sup −1}, forty five times that of the commercial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. The dosages of catalyst and hydrazine hydrate are both less than those reported. Furthermore, the composite catalyst can be easily recovered due to its magnetic separability and high stability.

  7. Differences in motor evoked potentials induced in rats by transcranial magnetic stimulation under two separate anesthetics: implications for plasticity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sykes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when

  8. Differences in Motor Evoked Potentials Induced in Rats by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation under Two Separate Anesthetics: Implications for Plasticity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Matthew; Matheson, Natalie A; Brownjohn, Philip W; Tang, Alexander D; Rodger, Jennifer; Shemmell, Jonathan B H; Reynolds, John N J

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however, results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when selecting an

  9. Preparation of bio-based keratin-derived magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the facile and selective separation of bisphenol A from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Marjan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2018-02-21

    In this study, new bio-based magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (∼23 nm) were synthesized from keratin extracted from chicken feathers and methacrylate-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles for its potential application in separation and removal of bisphenol A from water. The prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, alternative gradient field magnetometry, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The sorption of bisphenol A was investigated by changing the influencing factors such as pH, immersion time, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles dosage, and the initial concentration of bisphenol A. Results illustrated that sorption was very fast and efficient (Q m  = 600 mg/g) having a removal efficiency of ∼98% in 40 min of immersion. The adsorption process showed better conformity with the Weber-Morris kinetics and the Freundlich isotherm model. The selectivity of bisphenol A by adsorbent was checked in the presence of hydroquinone, phenol, tetrabromobisphenol, and 4,4'-biphenol as interferences. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Magnetically separable CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composite photocatalysts: Preparation, characterization, photocatalytic activity and photocatalytic mechanism under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yalei; Lin, Cuiping; Bi, Huijie; Liu, Yonggang; Yan, Qishe, E-mail: Qisheyanzzu@163.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites were prepared by a facile sol-gel and hydrothermal method. • Visible-light response and high photocatalytic performance. • Excellent magnetic properties. • Different reactive species had different effects on degradation different pollutants. - Abstract: The CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites with different CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} contents were prepared by a facile sol-gel and hydrothermal method, respectively. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis DRS). Their magnetic properties, photocatalytic degradation activities on methyl orange (MO) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) solution and photocatalytic mechanism were investigated in detail. The results revealed that the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the matched band structure of two components and more effective charge transportation and separations. In addition, the quenching investigation of different scavengers demonstrated that h{sup +}, ·OH, ·O{sub 2}{sup −} reactive species played different roles in the decolorization of MO and degradation of TC.

  11. Sustainable synthesis of magnetically separable SiO2/Co@Fe2O4 nanocomposite and its catalytic applications for the benzimidazole synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jithendra Kumara, K. S.; Krishnamurthy, G.; Sunil Kumar, N.; Naik, Nagaraja; Praveen, T. M.

    2018-04-01

    The Co(II) and Fe(III) centres magnetically separable two new mesoporous nanocatalyst were synthesised via chemical synthesis method. The transmission electron microscopic studies (TEM) show that, the particles are spherical shape with mean size of 20 nm. The Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that SiO2 is coating on the surface of the cobalt ferrate nanoparticle (CoFe2O4). The SiO2 coating is efficiently preventing the aggregated collision of nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements show that diamagnetic character of the SiO2 is unaffected to the coercivity of SiO2 coated CoFe2O4 particles. In addition, these nanoparticles are used as nanocatalyst for high yielding, facile and expeditious synthesis of various functionalized 2-arylbenzimidazoles via one-pot condensation. The cascade including imine formation, cyclization, condensation, and aromatization occurs, without addition of any reducing or oxidizing agents. In all situations, the desired product was synthesised with excellent yield. The shorter reaction time, mild reaction condition, simplicity, non-toxicity, safe reaction and easy workup are the impotent merits of this protocol.

  12. Effect and mechanism of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) and Ultraviolet (UV) composite process on the inactivation of microbes in ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yue; Leng, Xiaodong; Shao, Jingchao

    2016-01-01

    The patented technology of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS)-Ultraviolet (UV) composite process was used to treat ballast water. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was selected as the reference bacteria. After treatment by the HGMS-UV process, the concentration of S. aureus on the log 10 scale was lower than 2 at different flow rates, S. aureus suffered the most serious damage, and K + leakage of the bacteria was 1.73 mg/L higher than separate 60 min UV irradiation (1.17 mg/L) and HGMS (0.12 mg/L) processes. These results demonstrated that the HGMS-UV composite process was an effective approach to treat ballast water. Further, the HGMS process had synergistic action on the subsequent UV irradiation process and accelerated cell membrane damage. Meanwhile, the results of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of bacteria and DNA band analyses indicated that the inactivation mechanisms were different for HGMS and UV irradiation. - Highlights: •The HGMS process had synergistic action on the subsequent UV irradiation process. •HGMS directly influenced the active center of a metal enzyme and did not cause damage to DNA. •UV irradiation was found to depend on the production of free radicals to affect the bacterial DNA and enzyme activity.

  13. Dispersive solid phase microextraction with magnetic graphene oxide as the sorbent for separation and preconcentration of ultra-trace amounts of gold ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Elahe; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad

    2015-08-15

    A selective, simple and rapid dispersive solid phase microextraction was developed using magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) as an efficient sorbent for the separation and preconcentration of gold ions. The MGO was synthesized by means of the simple one step chemical coprecipitation method, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gold ions retained by the sorbent were eluted using 0.5mol L(-)(1) thiourea in 0.1mol L(-1) HCl solution and determined by the flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-FAAS). The factors affecting the separation and preconcentration of gold were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.02-100.0µg L(-)(1) with a detection limit of 4ng L(-1) and an enrichment factor of 500. The relative standard deviations of 3.2% and 4.7% (n=6) were obtained at 20µg L(-1) level of gold ions for the intra and the inter day analysis, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of gold ions in water and waste water samples as well as a certified reference material (CCU-1b, copper flotation concentrate). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  15. Novel multifunctional NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids for dye removal by adsorption, photocatalysis and magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hua-Yue [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Jiang, Ru, E-mail: jiangru0576@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Fu, Yong-Qian [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Li, Rong-Rong [College of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Yao, Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Tao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was decorated on ZnO surface by a hydrothermal method. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids show high adsorption capacity and excellent photostability. • The main active species in dye decolorization by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids are ·OH and h{sup +}. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids can be easily separated by an external magnet. - Abstract: Novel multifunctional NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids were prepared by a hydrothermal method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA, VSM, BET and UV–vis DRS. The adsorption and photocatalytic performance of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids were systematically investigated using congo red as a model contaminant. With the introduction of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids can absorb the whole light from 300 nm to 700 nm. The adsorption capacity (221.73 mg g{sup −1}) of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids is higher than those of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZnO and mechanically mixed NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids. The removal of congo red solution (20 mg L{sup −1}) by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids was about 94.55% under simulated solar light irradiation for 10 min. ·OH and h{sup +} play important roles in the decolorization of congo red solution by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids under simulated solar light irradiation. The decolorization efficiency of congo red solution is 97.23% for the fifth time by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids under simulate solar light irradiation, indicating the high photostability and durability. NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −} anions which are ubiquitous components in dye-containing wastewater have negligible influence on the effectiveness of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids. Moreover, the magnetic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids can be easily separated from the reacted solution by an external magnet.

  16. Novel multifunctional NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids for dye removal by adsorption, photocatalysis and magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru; Fu, Yong-Qian; Li, Rong-Rong; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NiFe_2O_4 was decorated on ZnO surface by a hydrothermal method. • NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids show high adsorption capacity and excellent photostability. • The main active species in dye decolorization by NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids are ·OH and h"+. • NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids can be easily separated by an external magnet. - Abstract: Novel multifunctional NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids were prepared by a hydrothermal method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA, VSM, BET and UV–vis DRS. The adsorption and photocatalytic performance of NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids were systematically investigated using congo red as a model contaminant. With the introduction of NiFe_2O_4, NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids can absorb the whole light from 300 nm to 700 nm. The adsorption capacity (221.73 mg g"−"1) of NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids is higher than those of NiFe_2O_4, ZnO and mechanically mixed NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids. The removal of congo red solution (20 mg L"−"1) by NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids was about 94.55% under simulated solar light irradiation for 10 min. ·OH and h"+ play important roles in the decolorization of congo red solution by NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids under simulated solar light irradiation. The decolorization efficiency of congo red solution is 97.23% for the fifth time by NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids under simulate solar light irradiation, indicating the high photostability and durability. NO_3"− and Cl"− anions which are ubiquitous components in dye-containing wastewater have negligible influence on the effectiveness of NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids. Moreover, the magnetic NiFe_2O_4/ZnO hybrids can be easily separated from the reacted solution by an external magnet.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4/SiO2/Bi2MoO6 composite as magnetically separable photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xuemei; Tian, Yanlong; Zhang, Xiang; Dou, Shuliang; Pan, Lei; Wang, Wenjia; Li, Yao; Zhao, Jiupeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 composite was prepared by a hydrothermal method. • The composite has an enhanced visible absorption compared with pure Bi 2 MoO 6 . • The magnetic photocatalyst displayed excellent stability and reusability. • O 2 ·− and · OH play a major role during the photocatalytic process. - Abstract: In this paper, Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 microspheres were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results revealed that flower-like three dimensional (3D) Bi 2 MoO 6 microspheres were decorated with Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 magnetic nanoparticles. The UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed extended absorption within the visible light range compared with pure Bi 2 MoO 6 . We evaluated the photocatalytic activities of Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 microspheres on the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation and found that the obtained composite exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure Bi 2 MoO 6 and P25. Moreover, the Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 composite also displayed excellent stability and their photocatalytic activity decreased slightly after reusing 5 cycles. Meanwhile, the composite could be easily separated by applying an external magnetic field. The trapping experiment results suggest that superoxide radical species O 2 ·− and hydroxyl radicals · OH play a major role in Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 system under visible light irradiation. The combination of flower-like three dimensional (3D) Bi 2 MoO 6 microspheres and Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 magnetic nanospheres provides a useful strategy for designing multifunctional nanostructure materials with enhanced photocatalytic activities in the potential applications of water purification

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  5. Size-regulated group separation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles using centrifuge and their magnetic resonance contrast properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jongeun; Lee, Hyunseung; Kim, Young-Nam; Yeom, Areum; Jeong, Heejeong; Lim, Yong Taik; Hong, Kwan Soo

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) have been the subject of extensive research over recent decades. The particle size of MNPs varies widely and is known to influence their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. There are two commonly used methods for synthesizing MNPs, organometallic and aqueous solution coprecipitation. The former has the advantage of being able to control the particle size more effectively; however, the resulting particles require a hydrophilic coating in order to be rendered water soluble. The MNPs produced using the latter method are intrinsically water soluble, but they have a relatively wide particle size distribution. Size-controlled water-soluble MNPs have great potential as MRI CAs and in cell sorting and labeling applications. In the present study, we synthesized CoFe2O4 MNPs using an aqueous solution coprecipitation method. The MNPs were subsequently separated into four groups depending on size, by the use of centrifugation at different speeds. The crystal shapes and size distributions of the particles in the four groups were measured and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, the MNPs were found to have an inverse spinel structure. Four MNP groups with well-selected semi-Gaussian-like diameter distributions were obtained, with measured T2 relaxivities ( r 2) at 4.7 T and room temperature in the range of 60 to 300 mM-1s-1, depending on the particle size. This size regulation method has great promise for applications that require homogeneous-sized MNPs made by an aqueous solution coprecipitation method. Any group of the CoFe2O4 MNPs could be used as initial base cores of MRI T2 CAs, with almost unique T2 relaxivity owing to size regulation. The methodology reported here opens up many possibilities for biosensing applications and disease diagnosis.

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  7. Antifungal activity of magnetically separable Fe3O4/ZnO/AgBr nanocomposites prepared by a facile microwave-assisted method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Hoseinzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, magnetically separable Fe3O4/ZnO/AgBr nanocomposites with different weight ratios of Fe3O4 to ZnO/AgBr were prepared by a facile microwave-assisted method. The resultant samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX, and vibrating sample magnetometery (VSM. Antifungal activity of the as-prepared samples was evaluated against Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum as two phytopathogenic fungi. Among the nanocomposites, the sample with 1:8 weight ratio of Fe3O4 to ZnO/AgBr was selected as the best nanocomposite. This nanocomposite inactivates Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum at 120 and 60 min, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that the microwave irradiation time has considerable influence on the antifungal activity and the sample prepared by irradiation for 10 min showed the best activity. Moreover, the nanocomposite without any thermal treatment displayed the superior activity.

  8. Quantification of the magnetization-transfer contrast effect: can it yield additional information in differentiation of musculoskeletal lesions particularly in separation of benign from malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Traeber, F.; Schild, H.; Gieseke, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential information of the amount of magnetization-transfer effect in musculoskeletal lesions and to compare MT ratios from benign and malignant musculoskeletal lesions. Material and Method: 49 patients with malignant tumors (3 osteosarcoma, 3 malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 4 chondrosarcoma, 2 Ewing sarcomas) and benign lesions (8 chondroma, 2 fibrous dysplasia, 3 osteoid-osteoma, 6 ganglion cyst, 3 cyst, 3 osteomyelitis, 4 tendinitis, 3 rotator cuff tear, 5 scar tissue) were scanned using routine MRI protocols including T 1 - and T 2 -weighted spin echo as well as T 2 *-weighted gradient echo (FFE) sequences at 1.5 Tesla (ACS II, Philips Medical). Additionally MTC images were generated by combining the FFE sequence and the off-resonance MT technique (-1500 Hz off-resonance frequency, 1770 flip angle and 50 ms pulse duration). MT ratios were calculated as SI o -SI m /SI o . Results: The MT ratio of benign lesions was 26±15%, that of malignant lesions was 22±6%. The difference was statistically not significant. As expected muscle showed a high MT ratio of 50±8%. Scar tissue demonstrated an MT ratio of 39±16% which was significantly higher than the tumor MT ratios. Conclusion: MTC (MT ratios) failed to show significant differences between benign and malignant lesions as was expected due to basic differences in cellularity, rate of mitosis and chromatin content. MTC might however gain more importance in separating scar tissue from recurrent tumor in the future. (orig.) [de

  9. Magnetically separable reactive sorbent based on the CeO2/γ-Fe2O3 composite and its utilization for rapid degradation of the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl and certain nerve agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Kuráň, P.; Pilařová, V.; Trögl, J.; Šťastný, M.; Pelant, O.; Henych, Jiří; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Životský, O.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Skoumal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 262, FEB (2015), s. 747-755 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Magnetically separable sorbent * Destructive sorption * Cerium oxide * Parathion methyl * Toxic organophosphates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2015

  10. Ultraefficient separation and sensing of mercury and methylmercury ions in drinking water by using aminonaphthalimide-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) core/shell magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minsung; Seo, Sungmin; Lee, In Su; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2010-07-07

    A new fluorogenic based aminonaphthalimide-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) core/shell magnetic nanoparticles 1 has been prepared, and its abilities to sense and separate metal ions were evaluated by fluorophotometry. The nanoparticles 1 exhibited a high affinity and selectivity for Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) ions over competing metal ions.

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  15. Magnetic BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanofiber filter for effective separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and removal of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jeehye; Patel, Hasmukh A.; Yavuz, Cafer T., E-mail: yavuz@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of EEWS (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising in applications where magnetic separation is intended, although material losses via leaching mechanisms are often inevitable. Magnetic separations with widely available permanent magnets can effectively trap particles, leading to a complete removal of used or waste particles. In this report, we first demonstrate the synthesis of the thinnest (112.7 ± 16.4 nm) and most magnetic (71.96 emu g{sup −1}) barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, BHF—fridge magnet) via an organic solvent-free electrospinning procedure. When the fibers are then packed into a column, they clearly remove 12 nm magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles quantitatively. The same BHF cartridge also removes more than 99.9 % As-treated magnetite nanoparticles at capacities up to 70 times of its weight. As a result, one liter of 150 μg L{sup −1} As-contaminated water can be purified rapidly at a material cost of less than 2 US cents.

  16. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  17. A New Experimental Approach to Improve the Quality of Low Grade Silica; The Combination of Indirect Ultrasound Irradiation with Reverse Flotation and Magnetic Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Haghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Removal of iron impurities in silica is one of the most important issues in the glass industry. The most noted impurities are surface coating and staining on silica particles; additionally, some cases of inclusions are observed. The prepared silica sample, for this research work, mostly was in the size range of 106–425 µm. Mineralogical studies indicated the existence of goethite, hematite, limonite and pyrite as the major iron impurities. The poor liberation degree of silica particles from clays encouraged the use of ultrasound irradiation to improve the efficiency of reverse flotation. The head sample contained 96.98% SiO2, 0.143% Fe2O3, 1.52% Al2O3, and 0.088% TiO2; Fe2O3 had to be reduced to below 0.04%. The reverse flotation tests were carried out with and without indirect ultrasound irradiation. The lowest Fe2O3 grade of the flotation yield was 0.058% and this was achieved using 2000 g/t of C4 collector with 15 min conditioning at neutral pH. C4 consisted of Aero 801, Aero 825, oleic acid and sodium oleate at equal dosage. As a result, a flowsheet was developed to include indirect ultrasound irradiation with reverse flotation and two stages of dry high intensity magnetic separation. In conclusion, the best product contained 98.43% SiO2, 0.034% Fe2O3, 0.90% Al2O3 and 0.051% TiO2.

  18. Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle to low reactor power operation: investigations using the coupled anl plant dynamics code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on the development of a control strategy for the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle enabling removal of power from an autonomous load following Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) down to decay heat levels such that the S-CO 2 cycle can be used to cool the reactor until decay heat can be removed by the normal shutdown heat removal system or a passive decay heat removal system such as Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops with DRACS in-vessel heat exchangers. This capability of the new control strategy eliminates the need for use of a separate shutdown heat removal system which might also use supercritical CO 2 . It has been found that this capability can be achieved by introducing a new control mechanism involving shaft speed control for the common shaft joining the turbine and two compressors following reduction of the load demand from the electrical grid to zero. Following disconnection of the generator from the electrical grid, heat is removed from the intermediate sodium circuit through the sodium-to-CO 2 heat exchanger, the turbine solely drives the two compressors, and heat is rejected from the cycle through the CO 2 -to-water cooler. To investigate the effectiveness of shaft speed control, calculations are carried out using the coupled Plant Dynamics Code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code for a linear load reduction transient for a 1000 MWt metallic-fueled SFR with autonomous load following. No deliberate motion of control rods or adjustment of sodium pump speeds is assumed to take place. It is assumed that the S-CO 2 turbomachinery shaft speed linearly decreases from 100 to 20% nominal following reduction of grid load to zero. The reactor power is calculated to autonomously decrease down to 3% nominal providing a lengthy window in time for the switchover to the normal shutdown heat removal system or for a passive decay heat removal system to become effective. However, the calculations reveal that the

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  1. Basal electric and magnetic fields of celestial bodies come from positive-negative charge separation caused by gravitation of quasi-Casimir pressure in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure. f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The macro-f QF T is the statistic average pressure collided by net virtual neutrinos ν 0 flux (after self-offset in opposite directions) and in direct proportion to the mass. But micro-f QF T is in direct proportion to the scattering section. The electric mass (in inverse proportion to de Broglie wavelength λ) far less than nucleonic mass and the electric scattering section (in direct proportion to λ2 ) far large than that of nucleon, then the net ν 0 flux pressure exerted to electron far large than that to nucleon and the electric displacement far large than that of nucleon, it causes the gravitational polarization of positive-negative charge center separation. Because the gravity far less than the electromagnetic binding force, in atoms the gravitational polarization only produces a little separation. But the net ν 0 flux can press a part freedom electrons in plasma of ionosphere into the earth's surface, the static electric force of redundant positive ions prevents electrons from further

  2. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  6. Environmentally-friendly oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation technology for in situ recycling cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite from spent LiCoO{sub 2}/graphite lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • The idea of “waste + waste → resources.” was used on this study. • Based on thermodynamic analysis, the possible reaction between LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite was obtained. • The residues of oxygen-free roasting are cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite. • The recovery rate of Co and Li is 95.72% and 98.93% after wet magnetic separation. • It provides the rationale for environmental-friendly recycling spent LIBs in industrial-scale. - Abstract: The definite aim of the present paper is to present some novel methods that use oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation to in situ recycle of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite from mixed electrode materials. The in situ recycling means to change waste into resources by its own components, which is an idea of “waste + waste → resources.” After mechanical scraping the mixed electrode materials enrich powders of LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite. The possible reaction between LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite was obtained by thermodynamic analysis. The feasibility of the reaction at high temperature was studied with the simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis under standard atmospheric pressure. Then the oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation method was used to transfer the low added value mixed electrode materials to high added value products. The results indicated that, through the serious technologies of oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation, mixture materials consist with LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite powders are transferred to the individual products of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite. Because there is not any chemical solution added in the process, the cost of treating secondary pollution can be saved. This study provides a theoretical basis for industrial-scale recycling resources from spent LIBs.

  7. Surface molecular imprinting onto fluorescein-coated magnetic nanoparticlesvia reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: A facile three-in-one system for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Dong, Cunku; Chu, Jia; Qi, Jingyao; Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Electronic

  8. Effect of natural homointerfaces on the magnetic properties of pseudomorphic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin film: Phase separation vs split domain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congiu, Francesco; Sanna, Carla; Maritato, Luigi; Orgiani, Pasquale; Geddo Lehmann, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of naturally formed homointerfaces on the magnetic and electric transport behavior of a heavily twinned, 40 nm thick, pseudomorphic epitaxial film of La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on ferroelastic LaAlO 3 (001) substrate. As proved by high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, the lamellar twin structure of the substrate is imprinted in La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 . In spite of the pronounced thermomagnetic irreversibility in the DC low field magnetization, spin-glass-like character, possibly related to the structural complexity, was ruled out, on the base of AC susceptibility results. The magnetic characterization indicates anisotropic ferromagnetism, with a saturation magnetization M s = 3.2 μ B /Mn, slightly reduced with respect to the fully polarized value of 3.7 μ B /Mn. The low field DC magnetization vs temperature is non bulklike, with a two step increase in the field cooled M FC (T) branch and a two peak structure in the zero field cooled M ZFC (T) one. Correspondingly, two peaks are present in the resistivity vs temperature ρ(T) curve. With reference to the behavior of epitaxial manganites deposited on bicrystal substrates, results are discussed in terms of a two phase model, in which each couple of adjacent ferromagnetic twin cores, with bulklike T C = 370 K, is separated by a twin boundary with lower Curie point T C = 150 K, acting as barrier for spin polarized transport. The two phase scenario is compared with the alternative one based on a single ferromagnetic phase with the peculiar ferromagnetic domains structure inherent to twinned manganites films, reported to be split into interconnected and spatially separated regions with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization, coinciding with twin cores and twin boundaries respectively.

  9. Effect of natural homointerfaces on the magnetic properties of pseudomorphic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin film: Phase separation vs split domain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Francesco; Sanna, Carla; Maritato, Luigi; Orgiani, Pasquale; Geddo Lehmann, Alessandra

    2016-12-01

    We studied the effect of naturally formed homointerfaces on the magnetic and electric transport behavior of a heavily twinned, 40 nm thick, pseudomorphic epitaxial film of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on ferroelastic LaAlO3(001) substrate. As proved by high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, the lamellar twin structure of the substrate is imprinted in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3. In spite of the pronounced thermomagnetic irreversibility in the DC low field magnetization, spin-glass-like character, possibly related to the structural complexity, was ruled out, on the base of AC susceptibility results. The magnetic characterization indicates anisotropic ferromagnetism, with a saturation magnetization Ms = 3.2 μB/Mn, slightly reduced with respect to the fully polarized value of 3.7 μB/Mn. The low field DC magnetization vs temperature is non bulklike, with a two step increase in the field cooled MFC(T) branch and a two peak structure in the zero field cooled MZFC(T) one. Correspondingly, two peaks are present in the resistivity vs temperature ρ(T) curve. With reference to the behavior of epitaxial manganites deposited on bicrystal substrates, results are discussed in terms of a two phase model, in which each couple of adjacent ferromagnetic twin cores, with bulklike TC = 370 K, is separated by a twin boundary with lower Curie point TC = 150 K, acting as barrier for spin polarized transport. The two phase scenario is compared with the alternative one based on a single ferromagnetic phase with the peculiar ferromagnetic domains structure inherent to twinned manganites films, reported to be split into interconnected and spatially separated regions with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization, coinciding with twin cores and twin boundaries respectively.

  10. A comparative study of the magnetic properties and phase separation behavior of the rare earth cobaltates, Ln 0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (Ln=rare earth)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Asish; Sarkar, R.; Pahari, B.; Ghoshray, A.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of a few members of the Ln 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 family with different radii of the A-site cations, A >, in the range 1.19-1.40 A has been carried out. The apparent T c (where the magnetization undergoes an abrupt increase) decreases markedly with A > as well as the size-disorder arising from the mismatch in the size of the A-site cations. The value of the magnetization at low temperatures decreases markedly with decrease in A > or increase in size-disorder, suggesting that the relative proportion of the ferromagnetic (FM) species decreases relative to that of the paramagnetic (PM) species. Such a variation of the FM/PM ratio with composition and temperature is evidenced from the Moessbauer spectra of La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 as well. The variation of the FM/PM ratio with A > and size-disorder, as well as a local-probe study using 59 Co Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggest that electronic phase separation is an inherent feature of the Ln 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 type cobaltates, with the nature of the different magnetic species in the phase-separated system varying with A > and size disorder. - Graphical abstract: Variation of (a) T c and (b) FC magnetization at 1000 Oe with A > at 120 K in Ln 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 and Dy 0.34 Nd 0.16 Sr 0.40 Ca 0.10 CoO 3

  11. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  12. Separation of PCR-ready DNA from dairy products using magnetic hydrophilic microspheres and poly(ethylene glycol)-NaCl water solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rittich, B.; Španová, A.; Šálek, P.; Němcová, P.; Trachtová, Š.; Horák, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 10 (2009), s. 1667-1670 ISSN 0304-8853. [International Conference on Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /7./. Vancouver, 20.05.2008-24.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : magnetic microsphere * P(HEMA-co-GMA) * DNA isolation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2009

  13. Optics of mass separator I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown

  14. Optics of mass separator I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown.

  15. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  16. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigen-conjugated to magnetic beads in a recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Yang, David; Mandrell, Robert

    2011-06-30

    Human norovirus (NoV) outbreaks are major food safety concerns. The virus has to be concentrated from food samples in order to be detected. PEG precipitation is the most common method to recover the virus. Recently, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been recognized as receptors for human NoV, and have been utilized as an alternative method to concentrate human NoV for samples up to 40 mL in volume. However, to wash off the virus from contaminated fresh food samples, at least 250 mL of wash volume is required. Recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS) has been tried by others to concentrate human NoV from large-volume samples and failed to yield consistent results with the standard procedure of 30 min of recirculation at the default flow rate. Our work here demonstrates that proper recirculation time and flow rate are key factors for success in using the RCAMS. The bead recovery rate was increased from 28% to 47%, 67% and 90% when recirculation times were extended from 30 min to 60 min, 120 min and 180 min, respectively. The kinetics study suggests that at least 120 min recirculation is required to obtain a good recovery of NoV. In addition, different binding and elution conditions were compared for releasing NoV from inoculated lettuce. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and water results in similar efficacy for virus release, but the released virus does not bind to RCAMS effectively unless pH was adjusted to acidic. Either citrate-buffered saline (CBS) wash, or water wash followed by CBS adjustment, resulted in an enhanced recovery of virus. We also demonstrated that the standard curve generated from viral RNA extracted from serially-diluted virus samples is more accurate for quantitative analysis than standard curves generated from serially-diluted plasmid DNA or transcribed-RNA templates, both of which tend to overestimate the concentration power. The efficacy of recovery of NoV from produce using RCAMS was directly compared with that of the

  17. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  18. The Swarm End-to-End mission simulator study: A demonstration of separating the various contributions to Earth's magnetic field using synthetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Haagmans, R.; Sabaka, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Swarm, a satellite constellation to measure Earth's magnetic field with unpreceded accuracy, has been selected by ESA for launch in 2009. The mission will provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, in order to gain new insights into the Earth system...... to the science objectives of Swarm. In order to be able to use realistic parameters of the Earth's environment, the mission simulation starts at January 1, 1997 and lasts until re-entry of the lower satellites five years later. Synthetic magnetic field values were generated for all relevant contributions...

  19. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  20. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  1. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  2. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  3. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  4. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism. Annual progress report, 1 Sep 1974--31 Aug 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, W.A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A progress report covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed

  5. Coupling of electric charge and magnetic field via electronic phase separation in (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The electric-field-tunable non-volatile resistivity and ferromagnetism switching in the (La0.5Pr0.5)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 ferroelectric single-crystal substrates have been investigated. By combining the 180° ferroelectric domain switching and in situ X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements, we identify that this voltage control of order parameters stems from the domain switching-induced accumulation/depletion of charge carriers at the interface rather than induced lattice strain effect. In particular, the polarization-induced charge effect (i.e., ferroelectric field effect) is strongly dependent on the magnetic field. This, together with the charge-modulated magnetoresistance and magnetization, reveals the strong correlation between the electric charge and the magnetic field. Further, we found that this coupling is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation, the relative strength of which could be determined by recording charge-tunability of resistivity [ (Δρ/ρ)c h arg e ] under various magnetic fields. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating essential physics of perovskite manganites and delivering prototype electronic devices for non-volatile information storage.

  6. EFFICIENCY OF METAL SCRAP SEPARATION IN EDDY CURRENT SEPARATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Bedeković

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Eddy-current separation is most often method used for the recovery of non-ferrous metals (Al, Cu, Zn, Pb from solid wastes and also for separating non-ferrous metals from each other. The feed material comes to rotary drum and magnetic field by belt conveyer. The changing magnetic field induce eddy currents in conductive (metallic particles. Because interaction between this currents and the magnetic field electrodynamic forces will act on conductive particles. Therefore the trajectories of conductive particles will be different from the trajectories of the non-conductive ones. Separation is a result of the combined actions of several forces (electrodynamic, gravitational and frictional. The paper presents results of aluminium recovery from mixture of metallic particles in eddy current separator. Testing were conducted under field condition. Results shows that is possible achieve recovery of 99 % and concentrate quality of 89 % of aluminium (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Fabrication of novel magnetically separable BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres and its application in the efficient removal of dye from aqueous phase by an environment-friendly and economical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, R. [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Zhu, H.-Y., E-mail: zhuhuayue@126.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Li, J.-B. [Environmental Engineering Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Fu, F.-Q. [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Yao, J. [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Jiang, S.-T. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Zeng, G.-M., E-mail: zgming@hnu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Novel magnetically separable BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres were prepared and acted as a high-performance and recyclable material for efficient water purification. - Highlights: • Novel magnetically separable BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres have been fabricated. • BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microsphere exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity. • BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microsphere can be recovered easily from treated solution. - Abstract: Novel magnetically separable BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres assembled from nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by a facile solvothermal method at 160 °C for 12 h. Then, BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres were characterized via XRD, TEM, SEM, EDS and VSM. Congo red (CR) was selected as a pollutant model to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres. The value of coercivity (232 Oe) and the saturation magnetization (33.79 emu g{sup −1}) were obtained, which indicated that BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres can be separated and recovered easily from the treated solution. What is more, by calculation, the initial rate constants of BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres is about 1.45 times higher than that of the pure BiOBr, which resulted from superior adsorption and transfer performance to organic contaminants in aqueous systems. Four consecutive regeneration cycles demonstrated that the BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres had high photostability under simulated solar light irradiation. According to the radical trapping experiments, the h{sup +} radicals and O{sub 2}·{sup −} radicals were the two main active species that drive the photocolorization of CR pollutant by BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres under simulated solar light irradiation. This work suggests that the BiOBr/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres may be a promising photocatalyst for photodegrading organic pollutants and environmental remediation.

  8. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  9. Separation of PCR-ready DNA from dairy products using magnetic hydrophilic microspheres and poly(ethylene glycol)-NaCl water solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittich, Bohuslav [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Institute of Experimental Biology, Tvrdeho 14, CZ-611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Purkynova 464/118, CZ-612 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: rittich@sci.muni.cz; Spanova, Alena [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Institute of Experimental Biology, Tvrdeho 14, CZ-611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Purkynova 464/118, CZ-612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Salek, Petr [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Purkynova 464/118, CZ-612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Nemcova, Petra [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Institute of Experimental Biology, Tvrdeho 14, CZ-611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Trachtova, Stepanka [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Purkynova 464/118, CZ-612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Horak, Daniel [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, CZ-162 06 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-05-15

    Carboxyl group-containing magnetic nonporous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HEMA-co-GMA)) and magnetic glass microspheres were used for the isolation of bacterial DNA. P(HEMA-co-GMA) microspheres were prepared by the dispersion polymerization in toluene/2-methylpropan-1-ol mixture in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles obtained by coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts with ammonium hydroxide. Carboxyl groups were then introduced by oxidation of the microspheres with potassium permanganate. The most extensive DNA recovery was achieved at PEG 6000 concentrations of 12% or 16% and 2 M NaCl. The method proposed was used for bacterial DNA isolation from different dairy products containing Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus cells. The presence of target DNA and the quality of isolated DNA were checked by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with specific primers.

  10. Effect of natural homointerfaces on the magnetic properties of pseudomorphic La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin film: Phase separation vs split domain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congiu, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e CNISM, Università di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu, km 0.700, I 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Sanna, Carla [Sardegna Ricerche, Laboratorio Energetica Elettrica, VI Strada Ovest - Z.I.Macchiareddu, I 09010 Uta, Cagliari (Italy); Maritato, Luigi [CNR-SPIN, UOS Salerno, I 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Ingegneria Elettrica e Matematica Applicata, Università di Salerno, I 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Orgiani, Pasquale [CNR-SPIN, UOS Salerno, I 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Geddo Lehmann, Alessandra, E-mail: lehmann@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e CNISM, Università di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu, km 0.700, I 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    We studied the effect of naturally formed homointerfaces on the magnetic and electric transport behavior of a heavily twinned, 40 nm thick, pseudomorphic epitaxial film of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on ferroelastic LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrate. As proved by high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, the lamellar twin structure of the substrate is imprinted in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. In spite of the pronounced thermomagnetic irreversibility in the DC low field magnetization, spin-glass-like character, possibly related to the structural complexity, was ruled out, on the base of AC susceptibility results. The magnetic characterization indicates anisotropic ferromagnetism, with a saturation magnetization M{sub s} = 3.2 μ{sub B}/Mn, slightly reduced with respect to the fully polarized value of 3.7 μ{sub B}/Mn. The low field DC magnetization vs temperature is non bulklike, with a two step increase in the field cooled M{sub FC}(T) branch and a two peak structure in the zero field cooled M{sub ZFC}(T) one. Correspondingly, two peaks are present in the resistivity vs temperature ρ(T) curve. With reference to the behavior of epitaxial manganites deposited on bicrystal substrates, results are discussed in terms of a two phase model, in which each couple of adjacent ferromagnetic twin cores, with bulklike T{sub C} = 370 K, is separated by a twin boundary with lower Curie point T{sub C} = 150 K, acting as barrier for spin polarized transport. The two phase scenario is compared with the alternative one based on a single ferromagnetic phase with the peculiar ferromagnetic domains structure inherent to twinned manganites films, reported to be split into interconnected and spatially separated regions with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization, coinciding with twin cores and twin boundaries respectively.

  11. Effect of separated layer thickness on magnetoresistance and magnetic properties of Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnyk, T. M.; Shutylieva, O. V.; Vorobiov, S. I.; Pazukha, I. M.; Chornous, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Co(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Co(20 nm)/S and Ni(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Ni(20 nm)/S trilayer films are prepared by electron-beam sputtering to investigate the influence of dysprosium layer thickness (tDy) and thermal annealing on the crystal structure, magnetoresistance (MR) and magnetic properties of thin films. The thickness of Dy layer changed in the range from 1 nm to 20 nm. The samples annealed for 20 min at 700 K. Electron diffraction patterns reveal that the as-deposited and annealed systems Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni had fcc-Co + hcp-Dy and fcc-Ni + hcp-Dy phase state, respectively. It is also shown that at the tDy = 15 nm the transition from amorphous to crystalline structures of Dy layer is observed. An increase in the Dy layer thickness results in changes in the MR and magnetic properties of the trilayer systems. It is shown that MR is most thermally stable against annealing to 700 K at tDy = 15 nm for Co/Dy/Co as well as for Ni/Dy/Ni. For tDy = 15 nm the, value of MR for both system increases by two times compared to those of pure ferromagnetic (FM) samples. The coercivity (Bc), remanent (Mr) and saturation (Ms) magnetization of the in-plain magnetization hysteresis loops are related to the Dy layer thickness too. The coercivity depends on the FM materials type and diffusion processes at the layer boundary. Accordingly, Mr and Ms are reduced with tDy increasing before and after annealing for both trilayer systems.

  12. Superconductivity, charge orderings, magnetism, and their phase separations in the ground state of lattice models of superconductor with very short coherence length

    OpenAIRE

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism. We present the ground state results for lattice models of superconductor (SC) with extremely short coherence length, which also involve the interplay with charge (CO) and (anti-)ferromagnetic orderings. Our preliminary results at zero-temperature (derived by means of the variational approach which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the in...

  13. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  14. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  15. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with an incompleted separation strategy for identifying the natural products in crude extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Dongmei; He Jiuming [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resource Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050 (China); Sun Ruixiang [Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang Ruiping [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resource Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050 (China); Aisa, Haji Akber [Xinjiang Technological Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Abliz, Zeper [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resource Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050 (China)], E-mail: zeper@imm.ac.cn

    2009-01-26

    NMR and LC-MS combined with an incompleted separation strategy were proposed to the simultaneous structure identification of natural products in crude extracts, and a novel method termed as NMR/LC-MS parallel dynamic spectroscopy (NMR/LC-MS PDS) was developed to discover the intrinsic correlation between retention time (Rt), mass/charge (m/z) and chemical shift ({delta}) data of the same constituent from mixture spectra by the co-analysis of parallelly visualized multispectroscopic datasets from LC-MS and {sup 1}H NMR. The extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) and {sup 1}H NMR signals deriving from the same individual constituent were correlated through fraction ranges and intensity changing profiles in NMR/LC-MS PDS spectrum due to the signal amplitude co-variation resulted from the concentration variation of constituents in a series of incompletely separated fractions. NMR/LC-MS PDS was applied to identify 12 constituents in an active herbal extract including flavonol glycosides, which was separated into a series of fractions by flash column chromatography. The complementary spectral information of the same individual constituent in the crude extract was discovered simultaneously from mixture spectra. Especially, two groups of co-eluted isomers were identified successfully. The results demonstrated that NMR/LC-MS PDS combined with the incompleted separation strategy achieved the similar function of on-line LC-NMR-MS analysis in off-line mode and had the potential for simplifying and accelerating the analytical routes for structure identification of constituents in herbs or their active extracts.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with an incompleted separation strategy for identifying the natural products in crude extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Dongmei; He Jiuming; Sun Ruixiang; Zhang Ruiping; Aisa, Haji Akber; Abliz, Zeper

    2009-01-01

    NMR and LC-MS combined with an incompleted separation strategy were proposed to the simultaneous structure identification of natural products in crude extracts, and a novel method termed as NMR/LC-MS parallel dynamic spectroscopy (NMR/LC-MS PDS) was developed to discover the intrinsic correlation between retention time (Rt), mass/charge (m/z) and chemical shift (δ) data of the same constituent from mixture spectra by the co-analysis of parallelly visualized multispectroscopic datasets from LC-MS and 1 H NMR. The extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) and 1 H NMR signals deriving from the same individual constituent were correlated through fraction ranges and intensity changing profiles in NMR/LC-MS PDS spectrum due to the signal amplitude co-variation resulted from the concentration variation of constituents in a series of incompletely separated fractions. NMR/LC-MS PDS was applied to identify 12 constituents in an active herbal extract including flavonol glycosides, which was separated into a series of fractions by flash column chromatography. The complementary spectral information of the same individual constituent in the crude extract was discovered simultaneously from mixture spectra. Especially, two groups of co-eluted isomers were identified successfully. The results demonstrated that NMR/LC-MS PDS combined with the incompleted separation strategy achieved the similar function of on-line LC-NMR-MS analysis in off-line mode and had the potential for simplifying and accelerating the analytical routes for structure identification of constituents in herbs or their active extracts

  18. Investigation of a possible electronic phase separation in the magnetic semiconductors Ga1 -xMnxAs and Ga1 -xMnxP by means of fluctuation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsky, Martin; Teschabai-Oglu, Jan; Pierz, Klaus; Sievers, Sibylle; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Yuan, Ye; Böttger, Roman; Zhou, Shengqiang; Müller, Jens

    2018-02-01

    We present systematic temperature-dependent resistance noise measurements on a series of ferromagnetic Ga1 -xMnxAs epitaxial thin films covering a large parameter space in terms of the Mn content x and other variations regarding sample fabrication. We infer that the electronic noise is dominated by switching processes related to impurities in the entire temperature range. While metallic compounds with x >2 % do not exhibit any significant change in the low-frequency resistance noise around the Curie temperature TC, we find indications for an electronic phase separation in films with x insulating Ga1 -xMnxP reference sample, for which the evidence for an electronic phase separation is even stronger and a possible percolation of bound magnetic polarons is discussed. Another aspect addressed in this work is the effect of ion-irradiation-induced disorder on the electronic properties of Ga1 -xMnxAs films and, in particular, whether any electronic inhomogeneities can be observed in this case. Finally, we put our findings into the context of the ongoing debate on the electronic structure and the development of spontaneous magnetization in these materials.

  19. A magnetic nanocomposite prepared from chelator-modified magnetite (Fe_3O_4) and HKUST-1 (MOF-199) for separation and preconcentration of mercury(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    We describe a magnetic metal-organic framework for preconcentration of Hg(II). The material is obtained from magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles that were modified with 4-(5)-imidazoledithiocarboxylic acid and then reacted with trimesic acid and Cu(II) acetate to form the metal-organic framework capable of extracting Hg(II). The sorption time, amount of the magnetic nanocomposite, and pH value of the sample were selected as the main affecting factors in sorption, and central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to optimize these parameters. Following sorption of Hg(II), the sorbent is removed by a magnet, Hg(II) is eluted with a solution of thiourea and then quantified by cold vapor AAS. The type, volume and concentration of the eluent, and the elution time were selected for the optimization of the elution. The results showed the sorption process to obey the Langmuir model. The maximum monolayer capacity is as high as 254 mg g"−"1, and the Langmuir constant is 0.330 L mg"−"1. The findings can be well described by pseudo second-order kinetics. High sorption capacity means that one needs less sorbent. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection and limit of quantification for Hg(II) were 10 ng L"−"1 and 40 ng L"−"1, respectively and the relative standard deviations are <8.3 %. The nanocomposite was successfully applied to the rapid extraction of trace amounts of mercury ions from fish and canned tuna samples. (author)

  20. Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Core-Shell Structure Supported Pd Nanocatalysts for Catalytic Nitrite Reduction with Enhanced Activity, No Detection of Undesirable Product of Ammonium, and Easy Magnetic Separation Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuzhu; Yang, Weiyi; Xu, Zhengchao; Li, Qi; Shang, Jian Ku

    2016-01-27

    Superparamagnetic nanocatalysts could minimize both the external and internal mass transport limitations and neutralize OH(-) produced in the reaction more effectively to enhance the catalytic nitrite reduction efficiency with the depressed product selectivity to undesirable ammonium, while possess an easy magnetic separation capability. However, commonly used qusi-monodispersed superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanosphere is not suitable as catalyst support for nitrite reduction because it could reduce the catalytic reaction efficiency and the product selectivity to N2, and the iron leakage could bring secondary contamination to the treated water. In this study, protective shells of SiO2, polymethylacrylic acid, and carbon were introduced to synthesize Fe3O4@SiO2/Pd, Fe3O4@PMAA/Pd, and Fe3O4@C/Pd catalysts for catalytic nitrite reduction. It was found that SiO2 shell could provide the complete protection to Fe3O4 nanosphere core among these shells. Because of its good dispersion, dense structure, and complete protection to Fe3O4, the Fe3O4@SiO2/Pd catalyst demonstrated the highest catalytic nitrite reduction activity without the detection of NH4(+) produced. Due to this unique structure, the activity of Fe3O4@SiO2/Pd catalysts for nitrite reduction was found to be independent of the Pd nanoparticle size or shape, and their product selectivity was independent of the Pd nanoparticle size, shape, and content. Furthermore, their superparamagnetic nature and high saturation magnetization allowed their easy magnetic separation from treated water, and they also demonstrated a good stability during the subsequent recycling experiment.

  1. A novel magnetic ion imprinted polymer as a selective magnetic solid phase for separation of trace lead(II) ions from agricultural products, and optimization using a Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahaghin, Zohreh; Mousavi, Hassan Zavvar; Sajjadi, S Maryam

    2017-12-15

    In this work, a magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @IIP) as a novel and selective nanosorbent for selective extraction of Pb(II) ions from various agricultural products is presented. The novel lead magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was synthesized by imidazole as a new ligand and grafted onto the surface of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 NPs. A Box-Behnken (BBD) design was used for optimization of the extraction and elution steps. In the selected conditions, the limit of detection was 0.48ngmL -1 , preconcentration factor was 300, the sorption capacity of this new magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was 105mgg -1 , and the precision of the method (RSD%) for six replicate measurements was found 3.2%. Finally, the feasibility of the new magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was evaluated by extraction and determination of trace Pb 2+ ions in different agricultural products including (orange, mango, apple, kiwi, lettuce, broccoli, carrot, squash, eggplant, radish, mushroom, cucumber, and tomato). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  3. Synergetic dual recognition and separation of the fungicide carbendazim by using magnetic nanoparticles carrying a molecularly imprinted polymer and immobilized β-cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuhuai; Wu, Xuejin; Zhang, Qun; Li, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a nanomaterial for solid-phase extraction of carbendazim. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (mag-MIP-NPs) were obtained by immobilizing the MIP and a thiolated β-cyclodextrin on the surface of magnetite (Fe_3O_4) nanoparticles coated with gold nanoparticles. Both the recognition sites of the MIP and the hydrophobic cavities in the β-cyclodextrin contribute to the specific molecular recognition and extraction of carbendazim. The mag-MIP-NPs have an apparent adsorption capacity of 190 mg⋅g"-"1. Spiked vegetables were analyzed by using this material for extraction of carbendazim prior to its determination by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Recoveries range from 90.5 % to 109 %, and the detection limit is 3.0 pg⋅mL"-"1. (author)

  4. Magnetic excitations and phase separation in the underdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 superconductor measured by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicovich, L; van den Brink, J; Bisogni, V; Sala, M Moretti; Ament, L J P; Brookes, N B; De Luca, G M; Salluzzo, M; Schmitt, T; Strocov, V N; Ghiringhelli, G

    2010-02-19

    We probe the collective magnetic modes of La2CuO4 and underdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) by momentum resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu L3 edge. For the undoped antiferromagnetic sample, we show that the single magnon dispersion measured with RIXS coincides with the one determined by inelastic neutron scattering, thus demonstrating that x rays are an alternative to neutrons in this field. In the spin dynamics of LSCO, we find a branch dispersing up to approximately 400 meV coexisting with one at lower energy. The high-energy branch has never been seen before. It indicates that underdoped LSCO is in a dynamic inhomogeneous spin state.

  5. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  6. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  7. Magnetic multilayer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2016-07-05

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  8. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  9. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  10. Production of sulfate radical from peroxymonosulfate induced by a magnetically separable CuFe2O4 spinel in water: Efficiency, stability, and mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2013-03-19

    A simple, nonhazardous, efficient and low energy-consuming process is desirable to generate powerful radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for recalcitrant pollutant removal. In this work, the production of radical species from PMS induced by a magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel was studied. Iopromide, a recalcitrant model pollutant, was used to investigate the efficiency of this process. CuFe2O4 showed higher activity and 30 times lower Cu2+ leaching (1.5 μg L-1 per 100 mg L-1) than a well-crystallized CuO at the same dosage. CuFe 2O4 maintained its activity and crystallinity during repeated batch experiments. In comparison, the activity of CuO declined significantly, which was ascribed to the deterioration in its degree of crystallinity. The efficiency of the PMS/CuFe2O4 was highest at neutral pH and decreased at acidic and alkaline pHs. Sulfate radical was the primary radical species responsible for the iopromide degradation. On the basis of the stoichiometry of oxalate degradation in the PMS/CuFe 2O4, the radical production yield from PMS was determined to be near 1 mol/mol. The PMS decomposition involved an inner-sphere complexation with the oxide\\'s surface Cu(II) sites. In situ characterization of the oxide surface with ATR-FTIR and Raman during the PMS decomposition suggested that surface Cu(II)-Cu(III)-Cu(II) redox cycle was responsible for the efficient sulfate radical generation from PMS. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. The mechanism of degradation of bisphenol A using the magnetically separable CuFe_2O_4/peroxymonosulfate heterogeneous oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yin; Ai, Jia; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper ferrite (CuFe_2O_4) was fabricated and utilized in heterogeneous PMS process. • The influence of reaction parameters for the mineralization of BPA were evaluated. • Possible reaction mechanism and the stability of CuFe_2O_4 were investigated. • Surface bound radicals (mainly ·OH) may be responsible for the BPA degradation. - Abstract: The removal of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution by an oxidation process involving peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activated by CuFe_2O_4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reported herein. The effects of PMS concentration, CuFe_2O_4 dosage, initial pH, initial BPA concentration, catalyst addition mode, and anions (Cl"−, F"−, ClO_4"− and H_2PO_4"−) on BPA degradation were investigated. Results indicate that nearly complete removal of BPA (50 mg/L) within 60 min and 84.0% TOC removal in 120 min could be achieved at neutral pH by using 0.6 g/L CuFe_2O_4 MNPs and 0.3 g/L PMS. The generation of reactive radicals (mainly hydroxyl radicals) was confirmed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Possible mechanisms on the radical generation from CuFe_2O_4/PMS system are proposed based on the results of radical identification tests and XPS analysis. The lack of inhibition of the reaction by free radical scavengers such as methanol and tert-butyl alcohol suggests that these species may not be generated in the bulk solution, and methylene blue probe experiments confirm that this process does not involve free radical generation. Surface-bound, rather than free radicals generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both Fe(III) and Cu(II), are postulated to be responsible for the mineralization of bisphenol A.

  12. Preparation of combustible material from high sulphur coal by means of pyrolysis: magnetic separation; Obtencion de combustibles limpios a partir de carbones con altos contenidos en azure mediante procesos de pirolisis: separacion magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Basic studies on coal desulphurization by pyrolysis have been carried out with a series of low rank coals with high total sulphur contents and differences in the distribution of sulphur forms. The evolved sulphur compounds were studied by sulphide selective electrode H{sub 2}S and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanisms affecting the sulphur removal during pyrolysis have been studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). A sample coal of 11 Tm, representative of the Teruel basins was processed at pilot scale in a rotary kiln (coal HR). A series of pyrolysis runs simulating the experimental conditions of the rotary kiln were also carried out in laboratory scale. The magnetic behaviour of the chars from the rotary kiln and from the lab-scale pyrolysis was tested. The efficiency of the desulphurization, including pyrolysis and magnetic separation, was calculated. Chars from rotary kiln were tested by thermogravimetric analysis, air reactivity and carbon efficiency combustion in fluidized bed.

  13. The mechanism of degradation of bisphenol A using the magnetically separable CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/peroxymonosulfate heterogeneous oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yin; Ai, Jia [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Shenzhen Research Institute of Wuhan University, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhang, Hui, E-mail: eeng@whu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Shenzhen Research Institute of Wuhan University, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Copper ferrite (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was fabricated and utilized in heterogeneous PMS process. • The influence of reaction parameters for the mineralization of BPA were evaluated. • Possible reaction mechanism and the stability of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated. • Surface bound radicals (mainly ·OH) may be responsible for the BPA degradation. - Abstract: The removal of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution by an oxidation process involving peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activated by CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reported herein. The effects of PMS concentration, CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial pH, initial BPA concentration, catalyst addition mode, and anions (Cl{sup −}, F{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −}) on BPA degradation were investigated. Results indicate that nearly complete removal of BPA (50 mg/L) within 60 min and 84.0% TOC removal in 120 min could be achieved at neutral pH by using 0.6 g/L CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} MNPs and 0.3 g/L PMS. The generation of reactive radicals (mainly hydroxyl radicals) was confirmed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Possible mechanisms on the radical generation from CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PMS system are proposed based on the results of radical identification tests and XPS analysis. The lack of inhibition of the reaction by free radical scavengers such as methanol and tert-butyl alcohol suggests that these species may not be generated in the bulk solution, and methylene blue probe experiments confirm that this process does not involve free radical generation. Surface-bound, rather than free radicals generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both Fe(III) and Cu(II), are postulated to be responsible for the mineralization of bisphenol A.

  14. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  15. Magnetic collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frew, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A collector for use in a magnetic separator is formed by isostatically pressing a metal which is resistant to attack by acid about ferromagnetic bodies whereby to encase the bodies in the metal. In one arrangement, as shown, the bodies are encapsulated between inner and outer cylinders. In other arrangements the encapsulating metal is in the form of a tube or planar sheets. The bodies are of Fe or an oxide thereof and the acid-resistant metal parts may be of stainless steel, Au, Pt, Pa or an alloy. The magnetic separator is intended for use in removing particles from liquids during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel materials. (author)

  16. Isotope separation by ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  17. Superposition of DC magnetic fields by cascading multiple magnets in magnetic loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel method that can effectively collect the DC magnetic field produced by multiple separated magnets is proposed. With the proposed idea of a magnetic loop, the DC magnetic field produced by these separated magnets can be effectively superimposed together. The separated magnets can be cascaded in series or in parallel. A novel nested magnetic loop is also proposed to achieve a higher DC magnetic field in the common air region without increasing the DC magnetic field in each magnetic loop. The magnetic loop can be made by a magnetic hose, which is designed by transformation optics and can be realized by the combination of super-conductors and ferromagnetic materials.

  18. Photocatalytic removal of tetrabromobisphenol A by magnetically separable flower-like BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanocomposites under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shengwang [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Guo, Changsheng; Hou, Song; Wan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Qiang [Heilongjiang Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Harbin 150056 (China); Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xu, Jian, E-mail: xujian@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • A novel BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanocomposites was prepared for the first time. • BiOBr-BiOI-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (2:2:0.5) displays superior photocatalytic activity for TBBPA. • Good magnetic property makes it easy for the material’s recovery from solution. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was proposed. • Superoxide radical is the dominant ROS in TBBPA degradation. - Abstract: A novel flower-like three-dimensional BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized using a simple in situ co-precipitation method at room temperature. The hybrid composites were characterized by a couple of techniques including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, photoluminescence technique, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were perfectly loaded on the surface of BiOBr/BiOI microspheres. The recyclable magnetic BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was employed to degrade TBBPA under visible light irradiation. The optimal removal efficiency of the ternary BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (2:2:0.5) nanocomposite reached up to 98.5% for TBBPA in aqueous solution. The superior photocatalytic activity of BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was mainly ascribed to large surface area and appropriate energy gaps, resulting in the effective adsorption and separation of electrons-hole pairs. The photogenerated reactive species determined by free radicals trapping experiments revealed that the excellent catalytic activity was primarily driven by ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radical. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics and a detailed mechanism were also proposed. Result demonstrated that the BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} can be magnetically recycled, and maintain high photocatalytic activity after reuse over five cycles. It

  19. Method and device for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The method works with a converted Q machine. The plasma containing the isotopes to be separated is crossed by a magnetic field running in the direction of the plasma column. More energy is transfered to the chosen isotope by oscillating magnetic and/or electric fields or by sound waves by using the specific resonance frequency for the selected isotope. The isotopes thus heated to different extents can be separated according to various methods given in the patent claims. (GG) [de

  20. Measurement of the elastic electron-proton cross section and separation of the electric and magnetic form factor in the Q{sup 2} range from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan C

    2010-09-24

    The electromagnetic form factors of the proton are fundamental quantities sensitive to the distribution of charge and magnetization inside the proton. Precise knowledge of the form factors, in particular of the charge and magnetization radii provide strong tests for theory in the non-perturbative regime of QCD. However, the existing data at Q{sup 2} below 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} are not precise enough for a hard test of theoretical predictions. For a more precise determination of the form factors, within this work more than 1400 cross sections of the reaction H(e, e{sup '})p were measured at the Mainz Microtron MAMI using the 3-spectrometer-facility of the A1-collaboration. The data were taken in three periods in the years 2006 and 2007 using beam energies of 180, 315, 450, 585, 720 and 855 MeV. They cover the Q{sup 2} region from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} with counting rate uncertainties below 0.2% for most of the data points. The relative luminosity of the measurements was determined using one of the spectrometers as a luminosity monitor. The overlapping acceptances of the measurements maximize the internal redundancy of the data and allow, together with several additions to the standard experimental setup, for tight control of systematic uncertainties. To account for the radiative processes, an event generator was developed and implemented in the simulation package of the analysis software which works without peaking approximation by explicitly calculating the Bethe-Heitler and Born Feynman diagrams for each event. To separate the form factors and to determine the radii, the data were analyzed by fitting a wide selection of form factor models directly to the measured cross sections. These fits also determined the absolute normalization of the different data subsets. The validity of this method was tested with extensive simulations. The results were compared to an extraction via the standard Rosenbluth technique. The dip structure in G{sub E} that was seen in the

  1. Measurement of the elastic electron-proton cross section and separation of the electric and magnetic form factor in the Q2 range from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Jan C.

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the proton are fundamental quantities sensitive to the distribution of charge and magnetization inside the proton. Precise knowledge of the form factors, in particular of the charge and magnetization radii provide strong tests for theory in the non-perturbative regime of QCD. However, the existing data at Q 2 below 1 (GeV/c) 2 are not precise enough for a hard test of theoretical predictions. For a more precise determination of the form factors, within this work more than 1400 cross sections of the reaction H(e, e ' )p were measured at the Mainz Microtron MAMI using the 3-spectrometer-facility of the A1-collaboration. The data were taken in three periods in the years 2006 and 2007 using beam energies of 180, 315, 450, 585, 720 and 855 MeV. They cover the Q 2 region from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c) 2 with counting rate uncertainties below 0.2% for most of the data points. The relative luminosity of the measurements was determined using one of the spectrometers as a luminosity monitor. The overlapping acceptances of the measurements maximize the internal redundancy of the data and allow, together with several additions to the standard experimental setup, for tight control of systematic uncertainties. To account for the radiative processes, an event generator was developed and implemented in the simulation package of the analysis software which works without peaking approximation by explicitly calculating the Bethe-Heitler and Born Feynman diagrams for each event. To separate the form factors and to determine the radii, the data were analyzed by fitting a wide selection of form factor models directly to the measured cross sections. These fits also determined the absolute normalization of the different data subsets. The validity of this method was tested with extensive simulations. The results were compared to an extraction via the standard Rosenbluth technique. The dip structure in G E that was seen in the analysis of the previous world data

  2. Measurement of the elastic electron-proton cross section and separation of the electric and magnetic form factor in the Q{sup 2} range from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan C.

    2010-09-24

    The electromagnetic form factors of the proton are fundamental quantities sensitive to the distribution of charge and magnetization inside the proton. Precise knowledge of the form factors, in particular of the charge and magnetization radii provide strong tests for theory in the non-perturbative regime of QCD. However, the existing data at Q{sup 2} below 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} are not precise enough for a hard test of theoretical predictions. For a more precise determination of the form factors, within this work more than 1400 cross sections of the reaction H(e, e{sup '})p were measured at the Mainz Microtron MAMI using the 3-spectrometer-facility of the A1-collaboration. The data were taken in three periods in the years 2006 and 2007 using beam energies of 180, 315, 450, 585, 720 and 855 MeV. They cover the Q{sup 2} region from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} with counting rate uncertainties below 0.2% for most of the data points. The relative luminosity of the measurements was determined using one of the spectrometers as a luminosity monitor. The overlapping acceptances of the measurements maximize the internal redundancy of the data and allow, together with several additions to the standard experimental setup, for tight control of systematic uncertainties. To account for the radiative processes, an event generator was developed and implemented in the simulation package of the analysis software which works without peaking approximation by explicitly calculating the Bethe-Heitler and Born Feynman diagrams for each event. To separate the form factors and to determine the radii, the data were analyzed by fitting a wide selection of form factor models directly to the measured cross sections. These fits also determined the absolute normalization of the different data subsets. The validity of this method was tested with extensive simulations. The results were compared to an extraction via the standard Rosenbluth technique. The dip structure in G{sub E} that was seen in the

  3. Magnetic Density Separation of Polyolefin Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer recycling has significantly positive impacts on the environment, economics and society. Using recycled polymer to replace virgins reduces the growing amount of post-consumer polymer wastes, decreases the demand for fossil fuel and creates local jobs. As the most used polymer types,

  4. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, APR 2015 (2015), s. 197-200 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzyme powders * cross-linking * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  5. Separating particles from a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.M.; Watson, J.H.P.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for separating particles suspended in a liquid from the liquid, is described, in which a flow of the liquid is passed through a filter bed of ferromagnetic bodies which acts as a coarse filter to trap the larger particles in the flow. The filter bed is arranged within a truncated core between the poles of an electromagnet. To cleanse the bed and flush out the trapped particles a wash liquid is passed through the bed and the electromagnet is energised to levitate the bed to allow the wash liquid to remove the particles. The liquid flow from the coarse filter can be passed to a high gradient magnetic separator at which remaining small particles in the flow are filtered magnetically. (U.K.)

  6. Viljandi Vana kalmistu kuulsused / Kadi Sassi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sassi, Kadi

    2005-01-01

    Kunstnik F. B. Dörbeck (1799-1835), kunstnik G. Mooste (1885-1957), kunstnik V. Ormisson (1892-1941), kunstnik P. Kondas (1900-1985), kirjanik Fr. Kuhlbars (1841-1924), kirjanik A. Rennit (1860-1936), lavastaja ja näitleja H. Gleser (1893-1932), tantsija I. Urbel (1900-1983), fotograaf J. Riet (1873-1952), skulptor A. L. Weizenberg (1837-1921), professor Fr. Dryer (1879-1934)

  7. Louvre omadega sassis / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2002-01-01

    Prantsuse valitsuskomisjoni muuseumiauditi tulemustest Louvre'is (direktor Henri Loyrette). Muuseumi probleemide põhjuseks on külastajate arvu kahekordistumine peale 15 aastat kestnud ümberehitust. Juhtkond on ette võtnud muuseumi reformimise

  8. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  9. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  10. Characteristics of magnetic field induction inside a module of a magnetic separator ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ ИНДУКЦИИ ПОЛЯ В МОДУЛЕ МАГНИТНОГО СЕПАРАТОРА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandulyak Anna Aleksandrovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of magnetic separators are analyzed in the article. Magnetic separators are used to treat various construction materials. Unfortunately, the nature of the magnetic field, generated in their operating zone, is generally not taken into account by their designers. Academic publications fail to provide any detailed basic characteristics of the field induction emitted by magnetic separators in the course of their operation.Magnetic systems of any magnetic separator have a modular structure; they consist of several modules. Single and opposite magnetic elements are usually integrated into one module within a system having permanent magnets. If opposite magnetic elements are used, magnetic field intensity inside the module increases.In this study, characteristics of magnetic induction for single magnetic elements inside various modules of magnetic separators were assessed in a laboratory experiment. Similar characteristics of magnetic induction for single and twin (opposite magnetic elements were compared. In the module consisting of two opposed magnetic elements, the magnetic field becomes stronger compared to the field of a single magnetic element. Magnetic induction in the module recedes as the distance between magnetic elements increases, because of the isolation of the field generated by the opposed magnetic elements.The authors have proven the feasibility and expediency of employment of the superposition principle used to obtain the resulting characteristics. It may be employed to substitute modeling by calculations.Экспериментально получены характеристики индукции магнитного поля для одиночных элементов в различных модулях магнитных сепараторов. Сопоставлены характеристики индукции магнитного поля для одиночных и спаренных магнитных

  11. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  12. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  13. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  14. Protein purification using magnetic adsorbent particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzreb, M; Siemann-Herzberg, M.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2006-01-01

    The application of functionalised magnetic adsorbent particles in combination with magnetic separation techniques has received considerable attention in recent years. The magnetically responsive nature of such adsorbent particles permits their selective manipulation and separation in the presence...... separations are fast, gentle, scaleable, easily automated, can achieve separations that would be impossible or impractical to achieve by other techniques, and have demonstrated credibility in a wide range of disciplines, including minerals processing, wastewater treatment, molecular biology, cell sorting...

  15. Isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Gil, C.; Louvet, P.

    1986-10-01

    The principle of the process of isotopic separation by ionic cyclotron resonance is explained succinctly. The theoretical calculation of the isotopic effect is given as functions of the electric and magnetic fields in the frame of single particle approximation and of plasma collective theory. Then, the main parts of the demonstration device which is in operation at the CEA, are described here: the supraconducting magnetic field, the used diagnostics, the principle of the source and the collecting apparatus. Some experimental results are given for chromium. The application of the process to ponderal separation of metal isotopes, as chromium, nickel and molybdenum is discussed in view of production of medical, structural and irradiation isotopes

  16. Normal Conducting Separation Dipoles for the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bidon, S; Hans, O; Kalbreier, Willi; Kiselev, O; Petrov, V; Protopopov, I V; Pupkov, Yu A; Ramberger, S; de Rijk, G; Ruvinsky, E; Sukhanov, A

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two straight sections, IR3 and IR7, will be dedicated to beam cleaning. These cleaning insertions will be equipped with normal conducting magnets. MBW magnets are dipole magnets used to increase the separation of the two beams. They have a core length of 3.4 m and a gap height of 52 mm and will operate at a magnetic field ranging from 0.09 T to 1.53 T. Limitations on the dimensions and total weight of the magnet resulted in a special design with a common yoke for the two beams. The orbits of the two beams will be separated horizontally by a distance between 194 mm and 224 mm in the gap of the magnet. The magnet was designed in collaboration between CERN and BINP. The report presents the main design issues and results of the pre-series acceptance tests including mechanical, electrical and magnetic field measurements.

  17. Study of flow fractionation characteristics of magnetic chromatography utilizing high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fukui, Yoshihiro Shoji, Jun Ogawa, Tetsuo Oka, Mitsugi Yamaguchi, Takao Sato, Manabu Ooizumi, Hiroshi Imaizumi and Takeshi Ohara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present numerical simulation of separating magnetic particles with different magnetic susceptibilities by magnetic chromatography using a high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet. The transient transport is numerically simulated for two kinds of particles having different magnetic susceptibilities. The time evolutions were calculated for the particle concentration in the narrow channel of the spiral arrangement placed in the magnetic field. The field is produced by the highly magnetized high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet. The numerical results show the flow velocity difference of the particle transport corresponding to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility, as well as the possible separation of paramagnetic particles of 20 nm diameter.

  18. Study of flow fractionation characteristics of magnetic chromatography utilizing high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoshi; Shoji, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Jun; Oka, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Sato, Takao; Ooizumi, Manabu; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Ohara, Takeshi

    2009-02-01

    We present numerical simulation of separating magnetic particles with different magnetic susceptibilities by magnetic chromatography using a high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet. The transient transport is numerically simulated for two kinds of particles having different magnetic susceptibilities. The time evolutions were calculated for the particle concentration in the narrow channel of the spiral arrangement placed in the magnetic field. The field is produced by the highly magnetized high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet. The numerical results show the flow velocity difference of the particle transport corresponding to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility, as well as the possible separation of paramagnetic particles of 20 nm diameter.

  19. Electronic and magnetic phase separation in EuB{sub 6}. Fluctuation spectroscopy and nonlinear transport; Elektronische und magnetische Phasenseparation in EuB{sub 6}. Fluktuationsspektroskopie und nichtlinearer Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amyan, Adham

    2013-07-09

    The main topics of this thesis are electrical, stationary, and time-resolved transport measurements on EuB{sub 6} as well as the further development of measuring methods and analysis procedures of the fluctuation spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the further development of the already known measuring methods under application of a fast data-acquisition card. The second part deals with the electrical transport properties of EuB{sub 6} and the understanding of the coupling between charge and magnetic degrees of freedom. By means of resistance and nonlinear-transport measurements as well as fluctuation spectroscopy hypotheses of other scientists were systematically verified as well as new knowledge obtained. The magnetoresistance was studied as function of the temperature in small external magnetic fields between 1 mT and 700 mT. Measurements of the third harmonic resistance as function of the temperature show maxima at T{sub MI} and T{sub C}. Electrical-resistance fluctuations were measured without external magnetic field between 5 and 100 K as well in presence of a magnetic field between 18 K and 32 K. At constant temperature measurements of the spectral power density in external magnetic fields were performed in the temperature range from 18 K to 32 K. Highly resolving measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient showed a very strong coupling of the magnetic (polaronic) degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice.

  20. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmierer, Eric N [Los Alamos, NM; Prenger, F Coyne [Los Alamos, NM; Hill, Dallas D [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  1. Magnetically responsive calcium carbonate microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrullin, Rawil F; Bikmullin, Aidar G; Nurgaliev, Danis K

    2009-09-01

    Here we report the fabrication of magnetically responsive calcium carbonate microcrystals produced by coprecipitation of calcium carbonate in the presence of citrate-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the calcite microcrystals obtained possess superparamagnetic properties due to incorporated magnetite nanoparticles and can be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The microcrystals doped with magnetic nanoparticles were utilized as templates for the fabrication of hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules, which retain the magnetic properties of the sacrificial cores and might be spatially manipulated using a permanent magnet, thus providing the magnetic-field-facilitated delivery and separation of materials templated on magnetically responsive calcite microcrystals.

  2. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 70 papers in these workshop proceeedings. Topics covered include: superconducting accelerator magnet research and development; superconductor development; electrical measurements; magnet design and construction methods; field correction methods; power schemes and quench protection; cryogenic systems; and magnet measurements

  3. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  4. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  5. Phase separator safety valve blow-off.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2006-01-01

    The fast discharge of the CMS solenoid leads to a pressure rise in the phase separator. On August 28th, a fast discharge was triggered at a current level of 19.1 kA. The pressure in the phase separator increased up to the set pressure of the safety valve and some helium was discharged. In consequence of this and prevoious similar observations the liquid helium level in the phase separator has been reduced from 60% to 50% and later to 45% in order to reduce the helium inventory in the magnet.

  6. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  7. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  8. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  9. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  10. System and method of plasma particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.; Halpern, G.M.; Thomas, W.R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Several examples of the design are described to ionize flowing uranium or UF 6 vapour through laser beam and to conduct the thus produced flowing plasma into the region of a magnetic field gradient separating the isotopes. (GG/LH) [de

  11. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  12. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  13. Spatial interference from well-separated split condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadzki, M. E.; Griffin, P. F.; Riis, E.; Arnold, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    We use magnetic levitation and a variable-separation dual optical plug to obtain clear spatial interference between two condensates axially separated by up to 0.25 mm - the largest separation observed with this kind of interferometer. Clear planar fringes are observed using standard (i.e., nontomographic) resonant absorption imaging. The effect of a weak inverted parabola potential on fringe separation is observed and agrees well with theory.

  14. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  15. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  16. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  17. Electromagnetic Separator of a Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, Vladimir V.; Nezovibat'ko, Yuriy N.; Poklipach, Grigoriy S.; Shvets, Oleg M.; Taran, Valeriy S.; Tereshin, Vladimir I.

    2006-01-01

    Simple freestanding 90 deg. filter is used for obtaining the metallic vacuum coatings. As the source of metallic plasma adapted standard cathode vaporizer on the installation ''Bulat 6''. Plasma flow from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral (solenoid). The solenoid outlet from the side of cathode find under the floating potential. The second solenoid outlet was connected to the autonomous power supply. Solenoid was prepared with the wide interval of the coil winding and with the turning to 90 degrees. Therefore, drifting charged of particle can freely depart from the interior of solenoid outside. The glow of the turned flow of plasma is observed during the supplying to the cathode and the solenoid. Flow is separation from the coils and is extended along the axis of solenoid. In this case over the solenoid flow the current 20-90 A, the voltage of solenoid relative to vessel (earth) + 15 V. We assume, that this device ensures radial electric field relative to the basic nucleus of the plasma (diameter of the nucleus of plasma column it is commensurate with the diameter of cathode) and the current of solenoid creates the longitudinal magnetic field (estimated order 20 oersted). Magnetic field strength is sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it is very small for the ions and the charged microdroplets. The carried out experiments on the application of coatings on the dielectric substrate with the use of aluminum and titanium cathodes showed the effectiveness of the work of this separator. Coatings without the drops are obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement. The reflective properties of the metallic films (Ti,Al) on the glass samples were measured

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus is described including a magnet system which is capable of providing a steady magnetic field along an axis, and is constructed so as to define a plurality of regions along the axis in each of which the field is substantially homogeneous so that in each region an imaging operation may be separately carried out. Iron shields increase the field homogeneity. In use, each patient lies on a wheeled trolley which is provided with magnetic field gradient coils and an RF coil system, some of the coils being movable to facilitate positioning of the patient, and there are terminals for connection to a common computing and control facility. (author)

  19. The CEBAF RF separator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Arnold, G.; Fugitt, J.; Harwood, L.; Kazimi, R.; Lahti, G.; Mammosser, J.; Nelson, R.; Piller, C.; Turlington, L.

    1996-01-01

    The 4 GeV CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is arranged in a five-pass racetrack configuration, with two superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. The 1497 MHz continuous electron beam is composed of three interlaced variable-intensity 499 MHz beams that can be independently directed from any of the five passes to any of the three experimental halls. Beam extraction is made possible by a system of nine warm sub-harmonic separator cavities capable of delivering a 100 urad kick to any pass at a maximum machine energy of 6 GeV. Each separator cavity is a half-wavelength, two cell design with a high transverse shunt impedance and a small transverse dimension. The cavities are powered by 1 kW solid state amplifiers operating at 499 MHz. Cavity phase and gradient control are provided through a modified version of the same control module used for the CEBAF SRF cavity controls. The system has recently been tested while delivering beam to Hall C. In this paper we present a description of the RF separator system and recent test results with beam. (author)

  20. Calculation of the Capture Edge in the OGMS Superconducting Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, S.

    1998-01-01

    Many ferromagnetic particles, that should be deflected, are captured on the wall of an OGMS (Open Gradient Magnetic Separation) separator. This ferromagnetic material influences magnetic and hydrodynamic conditions in the separator working area. The problem how to calculate the capture edge can be defined as the search for the geometry of a nonlinear system at known boundary conditions. The boundary conditions on the capture edge are the function of the capture edge geometry. The experimental results of the separation recovery are given. The capture edge calculation has been performed by FLUX 2D and the results are presented. (author)

  1. Magnetic reconnection in nontoroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a major issue in solar and astrophysical plasmas. The mathematical result that the evolution of a magnetic field with only point nulls is always locally ideal limits the nature of reconnection in nontoroidal plasmas. Here it is shown that the exponentially increasing separation of neighboring magnetic field lines, which is generic, tends to produce rapid magnetic reconnection if the length of the field lines is greater than about 20 times the exponentiation, or Lyapunov, length

  2. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  3. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  4. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  5. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  6. Entrainment separator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Leith, D.

    1976-01-01

    Clean and dust-loaded ACS entrainment separators mounted upstream of HEPA filters were exposed to a combination of fine water mist and steam at about 70 0 C from one to four hours. In every trial, the ACS entrainment separator prevented measurable deterioration of performance in the following HEPA filter. Droplet size-efficiency evaluation of the ACS entrainment separators showed that, within the accuracy of the measurements, they meet all service requirements and are fully equal to the best separator units available for service on pressurized water reactors

  7. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  8. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  9. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  10. Analysis of magnetic nanoparticles using quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpino, Francesca; Moore, Lee R.; Zborowski, Maciej; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Williams, P. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The new technique of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation is described. It is a separation and characterization technique for particulate magnetic materials. Components of a sample are eluted from the separation channel at times dependent on the strength of their interaction with the magnetic field. A quadrupole electromagnet allows a programmed reduction of field strength during analysis of polydisperse samples

  11. Quantification of the magnetization-transfer contrast effect: can it yield additional information in differentiation of musculoskeletal lesions particularly in separation of benign from malignant lesions; Quantifizierung des Magnetization Transfer Contrast (MTC) Effektes durch Berechnung von MT-Quotienten: Ergeben sich Zusatzinformationen fuer die Differenzierung benigner und maligner Erkrankungen des Bewegungsapparates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Traeber, F.; Schild, H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, J. [Philips Medizinsysteme (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential information of the amount of magnetization-transfer effect in musculoskeletal lesions and to compare MT ratios from benign and malignant musculoskeletal lesions. Material and Method: 49 patients with malignant tumors (3 osteosarcoma, 3 malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 4 chondrosarcoma, 2 Ewing sarcomas) and benign lesions (8 chondroma, 2 fibrous dysplasia, 3 osteoid-osteoma, 6 ganglion cyst, 3 cyst, 3 osteomyelitis, 4 tendinitis, 3 rotator cuff tear, 5 scar tissue) were scanned using routine MRI protocols including T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted spin echo as well as T{sub 2}*-weighted gradient echo (FFE) sequences at 1.5 Tesla (ACS II, Philips Medical). Additionally MTC images were generated by combining the FFE sequence and the off-resonance MT technique (-1500 Hz off-resonance frequency, 1770 flip angle and 50 ms pulse duration). MT ratios were calculated as SI{sub o}-SI{sub m}/SI{sub o}. Results: The MT ratio of benign lesions was 26{+-}15%, that of malignant lesions was 22{+-}6%. The difference was statistically not significant. As expected muscle showed a high MT ratio of 50{+-}8%. Scar tissue demonstrated an MT ratio of 39{+-}16% which was significantly higher than the tumor MT ratios. Conclusion: MTC (MT ratios) failed to show significant differences between benign and malignant lesions as was expected due to basic differences in cellularity, rate of mitosis and chromatin content. MTC might however gain more importance in separating scar tissue from recurrent tumor in the future. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Durch die Quantifizierung des Magnetization Transfer Contrastes sollte untersucht werden, ob sich Zusatzinformationen in der Magnetresonanztomographie des Stuetz- und Bewegungsapparates ergeben. Insbesondere sollte ermittelt werden, ob gut- und boesartige Laesionen unterschiedliche MT-Quotienten aufweisen. Material und Methode: 49 Patienten mit boesartigen Tumoren (3 Osteosarkom, 4 Chondrosarkom, 3 Malignes

  12. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  13. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  14. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  15. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  16. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  17. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  18. Extraction of remanent magnetization from magnetization vector inversions of airborne full tensor magnetic gradiometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queitsch, M.; Schiffler, M.; Stolz, R.; Meyer, M.; Kukowski, N.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the Earth's magnetic field are one of the most used methods in geophysical exploration. The ambiguity of the method, especially during modeling and inversion of magnetic field data sets, is one of its biggest challenges. Additional directional information, e.g. gathered by gradiometer systems based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), will positively influence the inversion results and will thus lead to better subsurface magnetization models. This is especially beneficial, regarding the shape and direction of magnetized structures, especially when a significant remanent magnetization of the underlying sources is present. The possibility to separate induced and remanent contributions to the total magnetization may in future also open up advanced ways for geological interpretation of the data, e.g. a first estimation of diagenesis processes. In this study we present the results of airborne full tensor magnetic gradiometry (FTMG) surveys conducted over a dolerite intrusion in central Germany and the results of two magnetization vector inversions (MVI) of the FTMG and a conventional total field anomaly data set. A separation of the two main contributions of the acquired total magnetization will be compared with information of the rock magnetization measured on orientated rock samples. The FTMG inversion results show a much better agreement in direction and strength of both total and remanent magnetization compared to the inversion using only total field anomaly data. To enhance the separation process, the application of additional geophysical methods, i.e. frequency domain electromagnetics (FDEM), in order to gather spatial information of subsurface rock susceptibility will also be discussed. In this approach, we try to extract not only information on subsurface conductivity but also the induced magnetization. Using the total magnetization from the FTMG data and the induced magnetization from the FDEM data, the full separation of

  19. Development of a novel mixed hemimicelles dispersive micro solid phase extraction using 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide coated magnetic graphene for the separation and preconcentration of fluoxetine in different matrices before its determination by fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry and mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Elahe; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Abbasi, Amir; Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza; Behjat, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing a novel, sensitive, fast, simple and convenient method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of fluoxetine before its spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on combination of magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid phase extraction and dispersive micro solid phase extraction using 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide coated magnetic graphene as a sorbent. The magnetic graphene was synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The retained analyte was eluted using a 100 μL mixture of methanol/acetic acid (9:1) and converted into fluoxetine-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The analyte was then quantified by fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry as well as mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). The factors affecting the separation, preconcentration and determination of fluoxetine were investigated and optimized. With a 50 mL sample and under optimized conditions using the spectrophotometry technique, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.4–60.0 μg L"−"1, a detection limit of 0.21 μg L"−"1, an enrichment factor of 167, and a relative standard deviation of 2.1% and 3.8% (n = 6) at 60 μg L"−"1 level of fluoxetine for intra- and inter-day analyses, respectively. However, with thermal lens spectrometry and a sample volume of 10 mL, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.05–300 μg L"−"1, a detection limit of 0.016 μg L"−"1 and a relative standard deviation of 3.8% and 5.6% (n = 6) at 60 μg L"−"1 level of fluoxetine for intra- and inter-day analyses, respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine fluoxetine in pharmaceutical formulation, human urine and environmental water samples. - Graphical abstract: A novel, sensitive, fast, simple and convenient mixed hemimicelles dispersive micro solid

  20. Development of a novel mixed hemimicelles dispersive micro solid phase extraction using 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide coated magnetic graphene for the separation and preconcentration of fluoxetine in different matrices before its determination by fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry and mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Elahe; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, Safaieh, 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadfarnia, Shayessteh, E-mail: sdadfarnia@yazd.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, Safaieh, 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasi, Amir [Department of Physics, Yazd University, Safaieh, 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza [Laser and Optics Research School, 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behjat, Abbas [Department of Physics, Yazd University, Safaieh, 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-28

    This study aims at developing a novel, sensitive, fast, simple and convenient method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of fluoxetine before its spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on combination of magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid phase extraction and dispersive micro solid phase extraction using 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide coated magnetic graphene as a sorbent. The magnetic graphene was synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The retained analyte was eluted using a 100 μL mixture of methanol/acetic acid (9:1) and converted into fluoxetine-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The analyte was then quantified by fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry as well as mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). The factors affecting the separation, preconcentration and determination of fluoxetine were investigated and optimized. With a 50 mL sample and under opt